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Sample records for psychiatric symptom scores

  1. Ordinal convolutional neural networks for predicting RDoC positive valence psychiatric symptom severity scores.

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    Rios, Anthony; Kavuluru, Ramakanth

    2017-11-01

    The CEGS N-GRID 2016 Shared Task in Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) provided a set of 1000 neuropsychiatric notes to participants as part of a competition to predict psychiatric symptom severity scores. This paper summarizes our methods, results, and experiences based on our participation in the second track of the shared task. Classical methods of text classification usually fall into one of three problem types: binary, multi-class, and multi-label classification. In this effort, we study ordinal regression problems with text data where misclassifications are penalized differently based on how far apart the ground truth and model predictions are on the ordinal scale. Specifically, we present our entries (methods and results) in the N-GRID shared task in predicting research domain criteria (RDoC) positive valence ordinal symptom severity scores (absent, mild, moderate, and severe) from psychiatric notes. We propose a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) model designed to handle ordinal regression tasks on psychiatric notes. Broadly speaking, our model combines an ordinal loss function, a CNN, and conventional feature engineering (wide features) into a single model which is learned end-to-end. Given interpretability is an important concern with nonlinear models, we apply a recent approach called locally interpretable model-agnostic explanation (LIME) to identify important words that lead to instance specific predictions. Our best model entered into the shared task placed third among 24 teams and scored a macro mean absolute error (MMAE) based normalized score (100·(1-MMAE)) of 83.86. Since the competition, we improved our score (using basic ensembling) to 85.55, comparable with the winning shared task entry. Applying LIME to model predictions, we demonstrate the feasibility of instance specific prediction interpretation by identifying words that led to a particular decision. In this paper, we present a method that successfully uses wide features and

  2. Rabeprazole and psychiatric symptoms.

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    Polimeni, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Paola; Gallo, Adele; Gallo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Caputi, Achille P

    2007-07-01

    To report the case of a patient who developed marked anxiety associated with episodes of panic attacks after starting rabeprazole therapy. An otherwise healthy 55-year-old woman was prescribed rabeprazole 20 mg/day administered in the morning for persistent symptoms of dyspepsia. Ten days later, she presented with a 7 day history of marked anxiety associated with panic attacks, night terror (pavor nocturnus), episodic mental confusion, and attention deficit. Within 2 days of discontinuing rabeprazole, the patient recovered completely from the neuropsychiatric manifestations. Subsequent esomeprazole therapy did not cause psychiatric symptoms. Rabeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia may have played a role in this neuropsychiatric adverse reaction. Several lines of evidence have indicated that gastrin-releasing peptide, whose release is mediated by proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced secretion of gastrin, is involved in regulating aspects of behavior that might be altered in disorders such as anxiety, depression, and dementia. The fact that rabeprazole has the highest capacity of inducing gastrin increase compared with other PPIs might explain why our patient's panic symptoms disappeared after switching to esomeprazole. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, rabeprazole was the probable cause of the adverse reaction. Specific studies are needed to investigate the potential role of PPI-induced hypergastrinemia in neuropsychiatric adverse reactions.

  3. Changes in positive affect and mindfulness predict changes in cortisol response and psychiatric symptoms: a latent change score modelling approach.

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    Hou, Wai Kai; Ng, Sin Man; Wan, Jacky Ho Yin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how changes in positive affect and mindfulness predicted changes in cortisol secretion and psychological distress in adaptation to examination stress. A sample of 105 college students completed a questionnaire set and provided salivary samples before (T1), during (T2) and after (T3) an examination period. Latent change score modelling revealed that T1-T2 and T2-T3 increases in mindfulness were associated with larger T2-T3 decrease in area-under-the-curve ground of cortisol awakening response (CARg), whereas T2-T3 increases in both positive affect and mindfulness were associated with larger T2-T3 decrease in anxiety symptoms (comparative fit index = .96; Tucker-Lewis index = .93-.95; root-mean-square error of approximation = .04-.08; standardised root-mean-square residual = .08-.10). T1-T2 and T2-T3 increases in positive affect were not associated T2-T3 decrease in CARg, whereas T1-T2 increases in positive affect and mindfulness were not associated with T2-T3 decrease in anxiety symptoms. The levels of post-stress recovery from anxiety symptoms could depend on concurrent increases in positive affect and mindfulness, whereas the levels of post-stress decline in cortisol secretion could depend on increases in mindfulness both during and after stress. Directions for translating the present findings into stress management programmes in college settings are discussed.

  4. Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients with Alopecia Areata

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    Burak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by sudden hair loss. Existing evidence suggests that alopecia areata may be associated with personality traits altering the susceptibility to stress and psychiatric conditions associated with stress. The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of depressive and anxiety symptoms and the level of alexithymia in patients with alopecia areata and healthy control subjects.Materials and methods: Fifty patients with the diagnosis of alopecia areata and 30 healthy volunteers were compared in terms of scores of Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, and Toronto alexithymia scale.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between alopecia areata cases and healthy controls regarding intensity of anxiety and level of alexythimia (p=0.053 and p=0.120, respectively. The intensity of depressive symptoms exhibited by alopecia areata patients was found to be significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p=0.010 and there was no statistically significant relationship between intensity of depressive symptoms and duration of the current alopecia areata episode (p=0.873.Conclusion: It is suggested that psychiatric evaluation should also be performed in all alopecia areata cases during the clinical follow-up period. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 203-5

  5. Psychiatric (Axis I) and personality (Axis II) disorders and subjective psychiatric symptoms in chronic tinnitus.

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    Sahlsten, Hanna; Taiminen, Tero; Karukivi, Max; Sjösten, Noora; Nikkilä, Johanna; Virtanen, Juuso; Paavola, Janika; Joutsa, Juho; Niinivirta-Joutsa, Katri; Takala, Mari; Holm, Anu; Rauhala, Esa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Johansson, Reijo; Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2017-11-30

    Chronic tinnitus has been associated with several psychiatric disorders. Only few studies have investigated these disorders using validated diagnostic interviews. The aims were to diagnose psychiatric and personality disorders with structured interviews, to assess self-rated psychiatric symptoms and elucidate temporal relations between psychiatric disorders and tinnitus. Current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of axis-I (psychiatric disorders) and axis-II (personality disorders) were assessed using structured clinical interviews (SCID-I and -II). Current subjective psychiatric symptoms were evaluated via self-rating instruments: the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). 83 patients (mean age 51.7, 59% men) with chronic, disturbing tinnitus and a median Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score of 32. The rates of lifetime and current major depression were 26.5% and 2.4%. The lifetime rate of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (type C) was 8.4%. None of the patients had cluster B personality disorder or psychotic symptoms. The SCL-90 subscales did not differ from the general population, and median DES score was low, 2.4. Tinnitus patients are prone to episodes of major depression and often also have obsessive-compulsive personality features. Psychiatric disorders seem to be comorbid or predisposing conditions rather than consequences of tinnitus. Clinical trial reference: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT 01929837).

  6. Psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms in Brazilian women.

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    Barazzetti, Lidiane; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the association between minor psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 615 women aged 40 to 65 years treated in a public menopause and gynecological outpatient clinic in the South Region of Brazil. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and menopause symptoms using the Menopause Rating Scale. Score for menopause symptoms was categorized into three levels of symptoms: mild, moderate, and severe. Multivariate analyses used ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe menopause symptoms was 34.1% (95% CI 30.3-37.9), 29.6% (95% CI 25.8-33.1), and 36.3% (95% CI 32.4-40.0), respectively. The overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 66.6% (95% CI 62.8-70.3). After adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of the occurrence of menopause symptoms were approximately eight times higher in women relating minor psychiatric disorders compared with those without such disorders (OR = 7.76; 95% CI 5.27-11.44). The following factors were also associated with the menopause symptoms: women older than 50 years, living with a partner, lower educational level, smokers, larger number of pregnancies, obese, and those using psychotropic and/or postmenopause medication. The minor psychiatric disorders exhibited strong association with the presence of menopause symptoms independently of sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors, and of use of psychotropic medication.

  7. The Relationship Between Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Symptoms

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    Maryam Shirmohammadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Premenstrual syndrome is a common disorder experienced by up to 50% of women during reproductive age. The prevalence of severe form of PMS (PMDD is 3 % to 8%. Psychiatric disorders in PMS patients have resulted in significant morbidity and in some cases caused resistance to the treatment process Material and Method: 390 participants (264 with PMS/PMDD, and 126 healthy students of University of Guilan who completed the demographic questionnaire, daily symptom rating (DSR and the checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R took part in this study. This study was conducted using a cross sectional method. Results: According to repeated measure variance, the mean scores of psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, Aggression, Interpersonal sensitivity in the PMS group were significantly higher than the healthy group (p< 0/05, and increase in severity of PMS from mild to severe was accompanied by increase in mean score of these subscales. There was a significant difference in mean score of depression, anxiety, aggression and interpersonal sensitivity between the 3rd and the 13th day of the cycle. Significant effect of the DSR grouping (PMS and Healthy group and time interaction emerged in interpersonal sensitivity and aggression, significant effect on the DSR grouping (Mild, Moderate, Severer and time interaction demonstrated in interpersonal sensitivity. Conclusion: Patients with prospective confirmed PMDD seemed to suffer from psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, recognizing co-morbid psychiatric symptoms in patients with PMDD is of prime importance. All healthcare providers should be sensitive to mental status of women with PMS.

  8. Child psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial impairment: relationship and prognostic significance.

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    Pickles, A; Rowe, R; Simonoff, E; Foley, D; Rutter, M; Silberg, J

    2001-09-01

    Relatively little is known about the relationships between psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis and psychosocial impairment. To examine these contemporaneous relationships and prognostic significance in a large general population sample. Symptoms of major depression, conduct and oppositional defiant disorders were assessed by interview in two waves of the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent behavioural Development (2800 children aged 8-16 years). Many children below the DSM-III-R diagnostic threshold, especially for depression, had symptom-related impairment, whereas many children reaching the symptom threshold for conduct and oppositional defiant disorders were little impaired. Impairment score was linearly related to symptom count, with no evidence of any additional impairment at the diagnostic threshold. For depression, only symptoms predicted later symptoms and diagnosis. For conduct and oppositional defiant disorders, impairment was additionally predictive of later symptoms and diagnosis. Impairment, in addition to symptoms, is important for both nosology and prognosis.

  9. Migraine predicts physical and pain symptoms among psychiatric outpatients

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    2013-01-01

    Background No study has been performed to compare the impacts of migraine and major depressive episode (MDE) on depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among psychiatric outpatients. The aim of this study was to investigate the above issue. Methods This study enrolled consecutive psychiatric outpatients with mood and/or anxiety disorders who undertook a first visit to a medical center. Migraine was diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition. Three psychometric scales and the Short-Form 36 were administered. General linear models were used to estimate the difference in scores contributed by either migraine or MDE. Multiple linear regressions were employed to compare the variance of these scores explained by migraine or MDE. Results Among 214 enrolled participants, 35.0% had migraine. Bipolar II disorder patients (70.0%) had the highest percentage of migraine, followed by major depressive disorder (49.1%) and only anxiety disorder (24.5%). Patients with migraine had worse depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms and lower SF-36 scores than those without. The estimated differences in the scores of physical functioning, bodily pain, and somatic symptoms contributed by migraine were not lower than those contributed by MDE. The regression model demonstrated the variance explained by migraine was significantly greater than that explained by MDE in physical and pain symptoms. Conclusions Migraine was common and the impact of migraine on physical and pain symptoms was greater than MDE among psychiatric outpatients. Integration of treatment strategies for migraine into psychiatric treatment plans should be considered. PMID:23565902

  10. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in cognitive neurology.

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    Robles Bayón, A; Gude Sampedro, F

    2017-03-01

    Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms (BPS) are frequent in neurological patients, contribute to disability, and decrease quality of life. We recorded BPS prevalence and type, as well as any associations with specific diagnoses, brain regions, and treatments, in consecutive outpatients examined in a cognitive neurology clinic. A retrospective analysis of 843 consecutive patients was performed, including a review of BPS, diagnosis, sensory impairment, lesion topography (neuroimaging), and treatment. The total sample was considered, and the cognitive impairment (CI) group (n=607) was compared to the non-CI group. BPS was present in 59.9% of the patients (61.3% in the CI group, 56.4% in the non-CI group). One BPS was present in 31.1%, two in 17.4%, and three or more in 11.4%. BPS, especially depression and anxiety, are more frequent in women than in men. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms predominate in subjects aged 65 and older, and anxiety in those younger than 65. Psychotic symptoms appear more often in patients with sensory impairment. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms are more prevalent in patients with degenerative dementia; depression and anxiety in those who suffer a psychiatric disease or adverse effects of substances; emotional lability in individuals with a metabolic or hormonal disorder; hypochondria in those with a pain syndrome; and irritability in subjects with chronic hypoxia. Behavioural symptoms are more frequent in patients with anomalies in the frontal or right temporal or parietal lobes, and antipsychotics constitute the first line of treatment. Leaving standard treatments aside, associations were observed between dysthymia and opioid analgesics, betahistine and statins, and between psychotic symptoms and levodopa, piracetam, and vasodilators. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Psychiatric Symptoms

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    Soner Cakmak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rapidly progressive, degenerative slow virus infection disease of central nervous system. Based on etiologic origins, four different Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease subtypes have been identified: sporadic, genetic, iatrogenic and variant. The clinical course generally begin with apathy, irritability, behavioral changes, speech problems, memory deterioration, rapidly progresses and concludes with death over a period of 3-12 months. Symptoms are observed secondary to brain cortex, cerebellum, corticospinal tracts, spinal anterior horn cells and basal ganglia damage. Unusual (%5-10 cases can survive up to 2 years. The initial symptoms of disease can be sudden which resultsin adjustment problems leading patients to seek psychiatric help. Patients could receive different diagnosis such as psychosis, depression with psychotic features, and treatments at this stages. Early diagnosis is crucial because of management of the disease and treatment approaches. In this article diagnosis and clinical features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and related psychiatric symptoms have been briefly reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 631-643

  12. Psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and HIV status among people using opioids in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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    Desrosiers, Alethea; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Zvartau, Edwin; Schottenfeld, Richard; Chawarski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    The Russian Federation is experiencing a very high rate of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, few studies have explored characteristics of people with co-occurring opioid use disorders and HIV, including psychiatric symptom presentations and how these symptoms might relate to quality of life. The current study therefore explored a.) differences in baseline psychiatric symptoms among HIV+ and HIV- individuals with opioid use disorder seeking naltrexone treatment at two treatment centers in Saint Petersburg, Russia and b.) associations between psychiatric symptom constellations and quality of life. Participants were 328 adults enrolling in a randomized clinical trial evaluating outpatient treatments combining naltrexone with different drug counseling models. Psychiatric symptoms and quality of life were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory and The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, respectively. Approximately 60% of participants were HIV+. Those who were HIV+ scored significantly higher on BSI anxiety, depression, psychoticism, somatization, paranoid ideation, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and GSI indexes (all p<0.05) than those HIV-. A K-means cluster analysis identified three distinct psychiatric symptom profiles; the proportion of HIV+ was significantly greater and quality of life indicators were significantly lower in the cluster with the highest psychiatric symptom levels. Higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and lower quality of life indicators among HIV+ (compared to HIV-) individuals injecting drugs support the potential importance of combining interventions that target improving psychiatric symptoms with drug treatment, particularly for HIV+ patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Complex hereditary diseases with psychiatric symptoms].

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    Wetterberg, L

    1999-02-28

    Family and adoption studies indicate that genetic factors play a role in the development of many psychiatric disorders. A variable number of possible interacting genes giving a predisposition to the diseases is likely. The genetic dissection has been hampered by genetic complexity as well as by difficulties in defining the phenotypes. Genetic mapping efforts using sib pairs, twins and individual large families have revealed preliminary or tentative evidence of susceptibility loci for a number of psychiatric disorders. Illnesses described in this article include the prion disease familial fatal insomnia (FFI), alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, autism, bipolar affective disorder, dyslexia, enuresis nocturna, epilepsia, obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), schizophrenia, and the dementias, Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia. The genes and proteins related to the newly discovered transmitter in the central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO), and its genes and proteins are also reviewed. The number of mapped human genes now exceeds 30,000 of the estimated total number of 60,000 to 100,000 genes. This rapid development will facilitate gene mapping and efforts to isolate and identify the genes responsible for symptom susceptibility in many of the aetiologically unclear psychiatric diseases with complex genetic origin.

  14. (IPSS) and Visual Prostate Symptoms Score

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.O. Abiola

    2016-01-12

    VPSS) and International Prostate. Symptoms Score (IPSS) questionnaires for the assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in. Nigerian men, with special emphasis on the ease of administration and the time needed ...

  15. The relationship between prosthesis use, phantom pain and psychiatric symptoms in male traumatic limb amputees.

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    Durmus, Dilek; Safaz, Ismail; Adıgüzel, Emre; Uran, Ayça; Sarısoy, Gökhan; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify psychiatric symptoms by comparing male patients with traumatic leg amputations (LAs) with healthy controls and to determine the association between these psychiatric symptoms and phantom pain and prosthesis use characteristics. One hundred four volunteers, 51 LA patients (group 1) and 53 healthy controls (group 2) were included. Demographic data including age, height, weight, time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use, and Satisfaction with Prosthesis Questionnaire scores were recorded. Phantom pain was measured a visual analog scale (VAS). Psychiatric symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-R, Beck Depression Inventory, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Correlations were determined between time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use and satisfaction with prosthesis questionnaire scores and psychiatric scale scores. Amputee patients had higher phobic anxiety, state anxiety, trait anxiety and sleep disturbance scores (p0.05). There were significant negative correlations between time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use, duration of daily prosthesis use, and satisfaction with prosthesis questionnaire scores and psychiatric symptoms. Apart from anxiety (state, trait or phobic) and disturbed sleep, other psychiatric symptoms in amputee patients undergoing lengthy prosthetic rehabilitation may not differ from those of healthy controls. The presence and severity of phantom pain appear to be unrelated to general psychiatric symptomatology. Length of time since amputation, length of prosthesis use, daily length of prosthesis use and prosthesis satisfaction are negatively correlated with general psychiatric symptoms. These characteristics must be borne in mind in psychiatric and prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stigmatization of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric service use: a vignette-based representative population survey.

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    Sowislo, Julia F; Lange, Claudia; Euler, Sebastian; Hachtel, Henning; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G

    2017-06-01

    Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent. Methods We conducted a representative survey of the general population (N = 2207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to read a vignette depicting either the psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution to which the character had been admitted, and indicate desired social distance (an indicator for stigma). Type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied between vignettes. Findings Desired social distance was significantly lower in relation to psychiatric service use than to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and the fictitious character's being male tend to increase stigmatization. Interestingly, the character's being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital and also respondent familiarity with psychiatric services tend to decrease stigmatization. Interpretation Familiarity of the general population with psychiatric patients should be increased. Furthermore, treatment in psychiatric units located within general hospitals should be promoted, as such treatment is associated with decreased stigma.

  17. Correlation between international prostate symptom score and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the correlation between severity of symptoms using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms-benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS-BPH). Patients and Methods: We prospectively collected data from 51 consecutive men, who ...

  18. Psychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus: an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wekking, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one studies on the prevalence and type of psychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are reviewed and evaluated. Substantial differences in prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in SLE-patients (from 17%-71%) have been reported. Of the investigated methodological aspects,

  19. Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

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    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Changes in psychiatric symptoms related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 224 adults 45 years of age or older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are a prevalent feature of dementia in the population with Down syndrome and that clinical presentation is qualitatively similar to that seen in Alzheimer's…

  20. Impulse control disorders are associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

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    Jaakkola, Elina; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Siri, Chiara; Martikainen, Kirsti; Cilia, Roberto; Niemelä, Solja; Joutsa, Juho

    2014-01-01

    Impulse control disorders can have serious adverse consequences to the life of a patient with Parkinson's disease. Although impulse control disorders are common, a possible psychiatric comorbidity has not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychiatric symptoms exhibited by Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders. The study was conducted as a postal survey to patients in the registry of the Finnish Parkinson Association. A total of 290 Parkinson's disease patients were evaluated for impulse control disorders using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease. Psychiatric symptoms were systematically screened using the Symptom Checklist 90. We found that 108 of the evaluated patients had one or more impulse control disorders. Patients with impulse control disorders had markedly higher scores for symptoms of psychoticism (Bonferroni corrected p disorder (p disorders. Impulse control disorders were shown to be independently associated with these symptoms. Patients with multiple impulse control disorders had higher scores for depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms when compared with patients that exhibited only one impulse control disorder. COUNCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the previous observations that impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are linked with multiple psychiatric symptoms, including psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression. Clinicians treating these patients should acknowledge the concomitant psychiatric symptoms.

  1. Traditional and cyberbullying co-occurrence and its relationship to psychiatric symptoms.

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    Tural Hesapcioglu, Selma; Ercan, Filiz

    2017-01-01

    The effect of cyberbullying accompanied by traditional bullying on mental health has been less studied. In this study, the frequency, co-occurrence, and the relationship to psychiatric symptoms of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among bullies and victims are examined. All of the high schools in the province of Mus, Turkey were stratified according to Placement Test for High Schools admission points for 2014-2015. By choosing schools using simple random sampling, 1276 students were reached. Students were given the Brief Symptom Inventory and three separate scale assessments: peer bullying rating, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying scales. High scores in all subscale scores of bullying and victimization were significantly related to higher depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, somatization, and hostility scores. For people who were exposed to cyberbullying in addition to traditional bullying, the severity of the psychiatric symptoms was significantly higher. For all psychiatric symptoms, major predictors were gender, total victimization score, and total cybervictimization score. Moreover, the bullying total score was among the predictors of low self-esteem and hostility. Cybervictimization and cyberbullying occur less often than traditional bullying and victimization, but people who were exposed to or performed cyberbullying were also exposed to or performed traditional bullying. The addition of cyberbullying to traditional bullying is associated with more intense psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

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    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. Conclusion North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation. PMID:27757125

  3. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

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    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  4. Psychiatric symptoms of patients with primary mitochondrial DNA disorders

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    Inczedy-Farkas Gabriella

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to assess psychiatric symptoms in patients with genetically proven primary mutation of the mitochondrial DNA. Methods 19 adults with known mitochondrial mutation (MT have been assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire 20-item Disability Index (HAQ-DI, the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-SF, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the the DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II As control, 10 patients with hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy (HN, harboring the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22 mutation were examined with the same tools. Results The two groups did not differ significantly in gender, age or education. Mean HAQ-DI score was 0.82 in the MT (range: 0-1.625 and 0.71 in the HN group (range: 0-1.625. Level of disability between the two groups did not differ significantly (p = 0.6076. MT patients scored significantly higher on the BDI-SF and HDRS than HN patients (12.85 versus 4.40, p = 0.031, and 15.62 vs 7.30, p = 0.043, respectively. The Global Severity Index (GSI of SCL-90-R also showed significant difference (1.44 vs 0.46, p = 0.013 as well as the subscales except for somatization. SCID-I interview yielded a variety of mood disorders in both groups. Eight MT patient (42% had past, 6 (31% had current, 5 (26% had both past and current psychiatric diagnosis, yielding a lifetime prevalence of 9/19 (47% in the MT group. In the HN group, 3 patients had both past and current diagnosis showing a lifetime prevalence of 3/10 (30% in this group. SCID-II detected personality disorder in 8 MT cases (42%, yielding 3 avoidant, 2 obsessive-compulsive and 3 personality disorder not otherwise specified (NOS diagnosis. No personality disorder was identified in the HN group. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with

  5. Improvement of psychiatric symptoms in youth following resolution of sinusitis.

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    Mahony, Talia; Sidell, Douglas; Gans, Hayley; Brown, Kayla; Farhadian, Bahare; Gustafson, Melissa; Sherr, Janell; Thienemann, Margo; Frankovich, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports a role for inflammation in psychiatric illness, and the onset or exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms may follow non-CNS infections. Here, we provide the first detailed description of obsessive-compulsive and related psychiatric symptoms arising concurrently with sinusitis. We reviewed the charts of 150 consecutive patients evaluated in our Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndromes clinic for documented sinusitis as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Sinusitis treatments, sinonasal imaging, and neuropsychiatric symptoms before, during, and after sinusitis onset were noted. Patients were included in the final review if they had a clear diagnosis of isolated sinusitis (without concurrent illness and/or immunodeficiency), and were evaluated during an episode of sinusitis. 10/150 (6.6%) patients had isolated sinusitis at the time of their neuropsychiatric deterioration. Eight patients received antibiotics to treat sinusitis, three of whom also received sinus surgery. Neuropsychiatric symptoms improved in all eight patients concurrent with resolution of sinusitis per parent report and clinician assessment. One patient did not follow through with recommended sinus surgery or antibiotics and her psychiatric symptoms persisted. One patient was lost to follow-up. Improvement of psychiatric symptoms correlated with resolution of sinus disease in this retrospective study. Identification, treatment, and resolution of underlying infections, including sinusitis, may have the potential to change the trajectory of some neuropsychiatric illnesses. Randomized clinical trials are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What do bodily symptoms in African psychiatric patients mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the various bodily symptoms presented by African psychiatric patients and attempt to understand them. Method: The literature on bodily (somatic) symptoms is surveyed with special reference to Africans and examples are drawn from a focused group discussion in one African rural community.

  7. Neuromyelitis optica, psychiatric symptoms and primary polydipsia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Josh; Douglas, Vanja C; Cree, Bruce A C

    2010-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an aggressive demyelinating disease that typically affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. While it is increasingly recognized that cerebral lesions are common in NMO, there have been no reported cases of NMO presenting with psychiatric symptoms and polydipsia. We describe a patient with classic signs and symptoms of NMO who also demonstrated prominent psychiatric symptoms and polydipsia that were tied to his flares and resolved with treatment of his NMO. This case expands our understanding of possible presentations of NMO. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms in Childhood Wilson’s Disease: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various psychiatric symptoms/signs have been identified since the identification of Wilson’s disease (WD. Every patient with WD suffers from one or more psychiatric problems (organic dementia, psychosis, and impulsivity across the disease course. Sometimes, insidious symptoms, such as behavioral changes, failure in school performance, and disturbances in hand-eye coordination may be seen before the onset of neurologic presentation. In this report, five patients, who were diagnosed with WD and followed up in the Child Neurology Unit, were assessed by a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4-based semistructured psychiatric interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. All patients had psychiatric symptoms. One patient had a history of a manic episode and the other had a history of a psychotic disorder at the initial stage of WD. Psychiatric symptoms coexist mostly with neurologic signs in patients with WD. In this sense, pediatric neurological consultation and copper screening are lifesaving in excluding organic etiology. However, WD is a lifelong treatment-requiring disease and psychiatric evaluation of the patients is essential.

  9. A novel respiratory symptom scoring system for CF pulmonary exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, N A; Sequeiros, I M

    2012-02-01

    There is currently no simple scoring system to evaluate change in symptoms during a pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We evaluated 265 episodes in 58 adult CF patients. A simple symptom score was administered at the start and the end of each PEx. The score evaluated four symptoms: cough, sputum, breathlessness and fatigue. Each symptom was scored from one (mild symptoms) to four (severe symptoms). The total symptom score was the summation of all the four symptoms. The total symptom score was compared with CF Respiratory Questionnaire (CFRQ) and with spirometry. There was significant internal correlation between scores for each pair of symptoms. The total symptom score correlated with the functional activity score and the respiratory score domains and with the summary score for CFRQ. The total symptom score correlated with spirometry values. Symptom score improved after 2-week treatment with intravenous (IV) antibiotics in 88.3%, remained unchanged in 7.3% and worsened in 4.4% of all episodes. Changes in symptom score after IV treatment correlated with changes of all main spirometry measurements. This new symptom score is simple and sensitive to change over a short period. It correlates with established quality-of-life questionnaires and with spirometry. The changes of symptom score over a short period correlate with changes in spirometry. This score can be used as an added tool to assess the outcome of CF PExs.

  10. Defense styles explain psychiatric symptoms: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, M M; Sammallahti, P R; Aalberg, V A

    1999-11-01

    To examine the relation between psychiatric symptoms and defense mechanisms, we administered two questionnaires, the Symptom Check-list 90 (SCL-90) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) to 122 psychiatric out-patients and to a community sample of 337 subjects. Using regression analysis, we found that 51.8% of the variation in subject's Global Severity Index value could be explained by his defense style. Of the three defense styles, the immature style explained most of the variation in the symptoms. We found little overall evidence for specific connections between particular defenses and symptoms. Projection and dissociation were central in most of the symptom dimensions. We compared patients and controls with the same level of general symptom severity and found that patients used significantly more devaluation and splitting, and controls used significantly more altruism and idealization. Whether defenses predispose to certain symptomatology or are one of its aspects is discussed.

  11. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males--similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Tabita; Skårberg, Kurt; Engström, Ingemar

    2013-08-19

    Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed.

  12. Psychological Distress and Psychiatric Symptoms among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was carried out among patients attending the chest clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. ... About half of the participants suffered from somatisation, neuroticism, depression and anxiety and as regards GHQ scores, more than half (51.9%) indicated psychological distress. Likewise ...

  13. Religion/Spirituality and Adolescent Psychiatric Symptoms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Rachel Elizabeth; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Goldston, David B.; Triplett, Mary Frances; Koenig, Harold G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current article is to review the literature on religion and spirituality as it pertains to adolescent psychiatric symptoms. One hundred and fifteen articles were reviewed that examined relationships between religion/spirituality and adolescent substance use, delinquency, depression, suicidality, and anxiety. Ninety-two percent of…

  14. Automatic mining of symptom severity from psychiatric evaluation notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karystianis, George; Nevado, Alejo J; Kim, Chi-Hun; Dehghan, Azad; Keane, John A; Nenadic, Goran

    2017-12-22

    As electronic mental health records become more widely available, several approaches have been suggested to automatically extract information from free-text narrative aiming to support epidemiological research and clinical decision-making. In this paper, we explore extraction of explicit mentions of symptom severity from initial psychiatric evaluation records. We use the data provided by the 2016 CEGS N-GRID NLP shared task Track 2, which contains 541 records manually annotated for symptom severity according to the Research Domain Criteria. We designed and implemented 3 automatic methods: a knowledge-driven approach relying on local lexicalized rules based on common syntactic patterns in text suggesting positive valence symptoms; a machine learning method using a neural network; and a hybrid approach combining the first 2 methods with a neural network. The results on an unseen evaluation set of 216 psychiatric evaluation records showed a performance of 80.1% for the rule-based method, 73.3% for the machine-learning approach, and 72.0% for the hybrid one. Although more work is needed to improve the accuracy, the results are encouraging and indicate that automated text mining methods can be used to classify mental health symptom severity from free text psychiatric notes to support epidemiological and clinical research. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Internet Addiction and Psychiatric Symptoms among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Keum Seong; Hwang, Seon Young; Choi, Ja Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to identify the independent factors associated with intermittent addiction and addiction to the Internet and to examine the psychiatric symptoms in Korean adolescents when the demographic and Internet-related factors were controlled. Methods: Male and female students (N = 912) in the 7th-12th grades were…

  16. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease. Several other psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as psychosis, secondary mania and depression, have also been ... Bipolar disorder with mania, without concurrent dementia, and major depression was present in 2 patients, respectively. Screening .... refers to the Axis IV diagnosis of psychosocial and.

  17. Effect of Sleep Quality on Psychiatric Symptoms and Life Quality in Newspaper Couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nalan

    2016-06-01

    Working at unusual hours has been found to be related to sleep problems, psychiatric symptoms, and low quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sleep quality on psychiatric symptoms and the quality of life in newspaper couriers who permanently wake up at early morning hours. Thirty-five newspaper couriers who worked for a media company in Ankara and 35 healthy individuals who worked at usual hours and who were matched according to age, gender, and work duration were included in the study. All individuals were evaluated using the demographic forms, Symptom Checklist (SCL)-90-R, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). The somatization subscale of SCL-90-R and the sleep duration sub-component scores of PSQI were significantly higher and the physical role functioning domain score of SF-36 was significantly lower in newspaper couriers compared with the scores in healthy individuals. There were significantly positive correlations between the PSQI total and sub-component scores and the SCL-90-R subscale and global symptom index scores. There were significantly negative correlations between the PSQI total and sub-component scores and the SF-36 domain scores. This study demonstrates that waking up permanently at early morning hours may be related to sleep disturbances, psychiatric symptoms, and low quality of life. Measures to increase sleep quality in individuals working at unusual hours may improve their mental health and quality of life. Future studies should investigate the effects of interventions toward sleep disturbances on mental health and quality of life in different occupational groups.

  18. Athletic identity and psychiatric symptoms following retirement from varsity sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Zarina A; Haney, Colleen J; Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2017-11-01

    Despite evidence identifying adjustment difficulties among retiring athletes, research investigating factors that contribute to post-retirement complications is limited. Athletic identity may be an important determinant of adverse adaptation to sport retirement. The purpose of this study was to address the influence of athletic identity on post-retirement depression and anxiety symptoms among varsity athletes. An anonymous, online survey regarding athletic identity and psychiatric symptoms was completed by 72 self-identified varsity athletes during their final season of competition and 3 months after retiring from sport. After controlling for the effects of pre-retirement anxiety symptoms, endorsement of an athletic identity significantly predicted anxiety symptoms in the post-retirement period. A similar, but non-significant, pattern was observed for depressive symptoms. The findings of this study suggest that athletes' degree of athletic identity may be a risk factor for the emergence of psychiatric distress in the months following their retirement from sport. Identity-focused screening or intervention during athletes' sport careers could potentially mitigate some of the psychological difficulties associated with sport retirement.

  19. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use – a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F.; Gonet-Wirz, Franca; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E.; Huber, Christian G.

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N = 2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either depicted psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution the fictitious character had been admitted to. Between the vignettes, type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied. Perceived dangerousness was significantly lower as related to psychiatric service use than related to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and male gender of the fictitious character tend to increase perceived dangerousness. Furthermore, being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital or the rater being familiar with psychiatric services tends to decrease perceived dangerousness. Effective anti-stigma initiatives should integrate education about dangerousness as well as methods to increase familiarity with psychiatry. Additionally, an integration of modern psychiatry in somato-medical care institutions might decrease stigmatization. PMID:28367993

  20. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use - a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F; Gonet-Wirz, Franca; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G

    2017-04-03

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N = 2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either depicted psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution the fictitious character had been admitted to. Between the vignettes, type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied. Perceived dangerousness was significantly lower as related to psychiatric service use than related to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and male gender of the fictitious character tend to increase perceived dangerousness. Furthermore, being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital or the rater being familiar with psychiatric services tends to decrease perceived dangerousness. Effective anti-stigma initiatives should integrate education about dangerousness as well as methods to increase familiarity with psychiatry. Additionally, an integration of modern psychiatry in somato-medical care institutions might decrease stigmatization.

  1. New visual prostate symptom score versus international prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New visual prostate symptom score versus international prostate symptom score in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: A prospective comparision in Indian rural population. ... All the patients were requested to complete the IPSS and VPSS questionnaire, and they were correlated. The urodynamic study was performed ...

  2. Progress monitoring and feedback in psychiatric care reduces depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, Elizabeth A; Hooke, Geoff R; Page, Andrew C

    2010-12-01

    To date, the monitoring of patient progress using standardized assessments has been neglected in hospital-based psychiatric care. Findings in outpatient psychotherapy have demonstrated clinically significant benefits for providing feedback to the sizeable minority of patients who were otherwise unlikely to experience positive outcome (Lambert, 2007). However, a similar system for presenting feedback on patient progress has not yet been assessed for group therapy within psychiatric inpatient settings. The current study aimed to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a feedback system suitable for use in psychiatric services. In a nonrandomized trial, 1308 consecutive inpatients and day patients, whose diagnoses were primarily depressive and anxiety disorders, completed the World Health Organization's Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) routinely during a ten-day cognitive behavioral therapy group. The first cohort (n=461) received treatment as usual. The second cohort (n=439) completed monitoring measures without feedback, and for patients in the third cohort (n=408), feedback on progress was provided to both clinicians and patients midway through the treatment period. Feedback was effective in reducing depressive symptoms (F(1,649)=6.29, p.05). The current findings may be generalized to patient samples that exhibit largely depressive disorders, however rigorous follow-up is warranted. Similar to outpatient settings, feedback appears to be beneficial for improving symptom outcomes but further time may be required for wellbeing to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bilateral anterior capsulotomy and amygdalotomy for mental retardation with psychiatric symptoms and aggression: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Li, Peng; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a chronic condition that often has no readily identifiable cause or treatment. Aggression and psychiatric symptoms are prevalent in children with MR. Surgical treatment of aggression and psychiatric symptoms of MR is seldom investigated and studies are limited. We encountered a 19-year-old female who had MR with aggression and psychiatric symptoms. She was diagnosed with mild MR with aggressiveness and psychiatric symptoms. Because the patient was refractory to conservative treatment, bilateral anterior capsulotomy and amygdaloid neurosurgery were performed for her psychiatric symptoms and aggression. The benefits and side effects of the surgery were analyzed. After surgery, the patient showed significant alleviation of her psychiatric symptoms and aggression with no observed side effects. Bilateral anterior capsulotomy in combination with amygdaloid neurosurgery may resolve both psychiatric and aggressive symptoms. Future investigations of control studies with large patient cohorts are needed.

  4. Correlation of Visual Prostate Symptom Score with International Prostate Symptom Score and Uroflowmetry Parameters in Nepalese Male Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhomi, K K; Subedi, N; Panta, P P

    2017-01-01

    International prostate symptom score is a validated questionnaire used to evaluate the lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Visual prostate symptom score is a new simplified symptom score with pictograms to evaluate the same. We evaluated the correlation of visual prostate symptom score with international prostate symptom score and uroflowmetry parameters in Nepalese male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Male patients aged ≥40 years attending the Urology clinic were enrolled in the study. They were given international prostate symptom score and visual prostate symptom score questionnaires to complete providing assistance whenever needed. Demographic data, examination findings and uroflowmetry parameters were noted. Correlation and regression analysis was used to identify correlation of the two scoring systems and uroflowmetry parameters. Among the 66 patients enrolled, only 10 (15.15%) patients were able to understand English language. There was a statistically significant correlation between total visual prostate symptom score and international prostate symptom score (r= 0.822; Pcorrelations between individual scores of the two scoring systems related to force of urinary stream, frequency, nocturia and quality of life were also statistically significant. There was also a statistically significant correlation of both scores with maximum flow rate and average flow rate. There is a statistically significant correlation of visual prostate symptom score with international prostate symptom score and uroflowmetry parameters. IPSS can be replaced with simple VPSS in evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly male patients.

  5. Effect of Rivastigmine on Behavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Sang Oh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective A recent study showed that rivastigmine and memantin improved behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD in Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, according to recent guidelines presented by the Movement Disorder Society, rivastigmine is efficacious for the treatment of dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD. We investigated the efficacy of rivastigmine for BPSD in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD. Methods Twenty-three patients in whom cognitive impairment occurred at least one year after a diagnosis of PD participated in this open-label trial. Cognitive, psychiatric, and motor symptoms were assessed before and after 24 weeks of treatment with rivastigmine using unstructured clinical assessments and rating scales including the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Results Age (± standard deviation was 74.7 ± 5.9 years, average duration of PD was 3.5 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr scores were 2.2 ± 0.8, and baseline MMSE scores were 19.1 ± 4.2. Improvements in global mental symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms were significant; among them, hallucination, depression and appetite changes improved. Caregiver distress significantly decreased, including distress resulting from hallucinations, depression, apathy, and appetite changes. Conclusions Although controlled trials are required, the findings suggest that rivastigmine is useful for control of several neuropsychiatric symptoms and beneficial for caregiver distress in patients with PDD.

  6. Correlation between International Prostate Symptom Score and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... Address for correspondence: Dr. Oranusi Chidi Kingsley,Urology division, Department of Surgery, Nnamdi .... survey of LUTS symptoms among Europeans showed that the most common symptom was .... 1998;34:1-8. 9. Oelke M, Bachmann A, Descazeaud A. EAU guidelines on treatment and follow-up of ...

  7. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males - similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. Aim The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. Methods This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. Results The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. Conclusions The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed. PMID:23958408

  8. The Overlap between Psychiatric Symptoms and Challenging Behaviour: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, challenging behaviour is explained by way of psychiatric symptomatology. This poses possible pitfalls. First, the possibility exists that both psychiatric symptoms and challenging behaviour are concurrent expressions of common underlying factors. Second, psychiatric symptoms may be rated as present on the basis of challenging…

  9. Psychiatric symptoms in Norwegian children with epilepsy aged 8-13 years: effects of age and gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfstad, Kristin Å; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Van Roy, Betty; Mowinckel, Petter; Gjerstad, Leif; Lossius, Morten I

    2011-07-01

    In this population-based study we wanted to assess the prevalence and impact of psychiatric symptoms in children with epilepsy compared to controls, and investigate possible age and gender differences. Data were collected using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Parent report (SDQ-P) as part of a more extensive questionnaire. A total of 14,699 parents of children aged 8-13 years (response rate 78%) participated. Associations between SDQ scores and epilepsy, other chronic disease, age, gender, and socioeconomic factors were explored using logistic regression analysis. Children with epilepsy (CWE) (n=110) had a significantly higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms (37.8% vs. 17.0% in controls, pGender differences were found in several subscales of the SDQ; girls had more emotional problems, whereas boys had higher scores regarding peer relationship and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Male gender, low socioeconomic status (family income below poverty limit and living in a single parent home), and other chronic disease (asthma/diabetes) were independent risk factors of developing psychiatric symptoms, along with epilepsy. Having or having had epilepsy was, however, a much stronger risk factor for developing psychiatric symptoms in girls than in boys [odds ratio (OR) 4.2 vs. OR 2.3]. A minor effect of age was seen only in girls with epilepsy, with an increased risk of psychiatric symptoms in age group 10-13 years (OR 1.28 for scoring borderline/abnormal on SDQ-total difficulties). Borderline/abnormal impact scores were found in 31.8% of CWE compared with 13.0% of controls (p<0.001). Multiple risk factors contribute to the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in CWE, perhaps differently in boys and girls. Awareness of this complex interaction may help target intervention toward high risk groups and thus prevent more serious problems from arising. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  11. Correlation between International Prostate Symptom Score and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-23

    Jul 23, 2016 ... lower urinary tract symptoms-benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS-BPH). Patients and Methods: We prospectively ... Uroflowmetry in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Address for correspondence: Dr. .... to remove the enlarged gland, some may not benefit from such treatments due to persistence of ...

  12. Symptom characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity among males with muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Olivardia, Roberto; Thompson, J Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia has been described as a disorder in which individuals are pathologically preoccupied with their muscularity. This study was designed to further investigate the symptom characteristics and psychiatric conditions associated with the disorder. Weight lifting males meeting current criteria for muscle dysmorphia (n = 15), past muscle dysmorphia (n = 8), and no history of muscle dysmorphia (n = 28) responded to advertisements placed in gymnasium and nutrition stores. Structured and semistructured interviews were administered, as well as survey measures. Relative to controls, males with current muscle dysmorphia experienced more aversive symptoms related to the appearance of their bodies, including more often thinking about their muscularity, dissatisfaction with appearance, appearance checking, bodybuilding dependence, and functional impairment. Higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders were found among individuals with a history of muscle dysmorphia relative to individuals with no history of muscle dysmorphia. The findings suggest that muscle dysmorphia can be distinguished from normal weight lifting on a number of clinical dimensions. Muscle dysmorphia appears to be comorbid with other psychiatric conditions. Limitations of the current study and directions for future research are considered.

  13. Psychiatric symptoms and response quality to self-rated personality tests: Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Capel, Roland; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the fact that research has demonstrated consistent associations between self-rated measures of personality dimensions and mental disorders, little has been undertaken to investigate the relation between psychiatric symptoms and response patterns to self-rated tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychiatric symptoms and response quality using indices from our functional method. A sample of 1,784 participants from a Swiss population-based cohort completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and a symptom checklist of 90 items (SCL-90-R). Different indices of response quality were calculated based on the responses given to the NEO-FFI. Associations among the responses to indices of response quality, sociodemographic characteristics and the SCL-90-R dimensions were then established. Psychiatric symptoms were associated with several important differences in response quality, questioning subjects' ability to provide valid information using self-rated instruments. As suggested by authors, psychiatric symptoms seem associated with differences in personality scores. Nonetheless, our study shows that symptoms are also related to differences in terms of response patterns as sources of differences in personality scores. This could constitute a bias for clinical assessment. Future studies could still determine whether certain subpopulations of subjects are more unable to provide valid information to self-rated questionnaires than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Harnessing clinical psychiatric data with an electronic assessment tool (OPCRIT+: the utility of symptom dimensions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip James Brittain

    Full Text Available Progress in personalised psychiatry is dependent on researchers having access to systematic and accurately acquired symptom data across clinical diagnoses. We have developed a structured psychiatric assessment tool, OPCRIT+, that is being introduced into the electronic medical records system of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust which can help to achieve this. In this report we examine the utility of the symptom data being collected with the tool. Cross-sectional mental state data from a mixed-diagnostic cohort of 876 inpatients was subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA. Six components, explaining 46% of the variance in recorded symptoms, were extracted. The components represented dimensions of mania, depression, positive symptoms, anxiety, negative symptoms and disorganization. As indicated by component scores, different clinical diagnoses demonstrated distinct symptom profiles characterized by wide-ranging levels of severity. When comparing the predictive value of symptoms against diagnosis for a variety of clinical outcome measures (e.g. 'Overactive, aggressive behaviour', symptoms proved superior in five instances (R(2 range: 0.06-0.28 whereas diagnosis was best just once (R(2:0.25. This report demonstrates that symptom data being routinely gathered in an NHS trust, when documented on the appropriate tool, have considerable potential for onward use in a variety of clinical and research applications via representation as dimensions of psychopathology.

  15. Acculturation styles and their associations with psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ethnic minorities with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Weintraub, Marc J; Maura, Jessica; Martinez de Andino, Ana; Brown, Caitlin A; Gurak, Kayla

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether Berry's model of acculturative stress would predict psychiatric symptom severity and quality of life (QoL) in ethnic minorities with schizophrenia. Tested extensively in non-psychiatric populations, Berry's framework generally suggests that integration, or engagement with both the host and minority culture, is most adaptive. Using the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (AMAS), we tested the hypothesis that individuals with schizophrenia who employed an integrative acculturation strategy would have the highest QoL and lowest symptom severity, followed by the assimilation and enculturation groups, then the marginalized group. Psychiatric symptoms and QoL were regressed on AMAS assimilation scores, enculturation scores, and the interaction term in a sample of 128 Hispanic and Blacks with schizophrenia (M age = 41.28; 70% male). Acculturation strategy was not found to relate to psychiatric symptoms (measured from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale). However, acculturation strategy did predict QoL (measured from the Quality of Life Inventory), and results were in line with Berry's model. Marginalization may exacerbate issues surrounding social identity in schizophrenia, including low self-concept clarity and internalized stigma. Encouraging bicultural individuals with schizophrenia to interact with the host culture while also practicing traditions from their minority culture may help improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Alcohol Misuse among College Athletes: Self-Medication for Psychiatric Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, M. N.; Verhegge, R.; Linville, H. H.; Pumariega, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys a collegiate athlete population for alcohol abuse as well as self-reported depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms. Significant correlations were found between reported alcohol abuse and self-reported symptoms of depression and general psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest a possible link between psychopathology and serious…

  17. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use ? a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Julia F. Sowislo; Franca Gonet-Wirz; Stefan Borgwardt; Lang, Undine E.; Christian G. Huber

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N?=?2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either d...

  18. Association among serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels and psychiatric symptoms in men with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rui; Li, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible associations of serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) with psychiatric symptoms in men with chronic schizophrenia. This retrospective study involved 162 men with schizophrenia and 138 age-matched healthy controls, for whom data were collected on demographic characteristics, age at disease onset, disease duration, positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores, and history of atypical antipsychotic treatment. Serum levels of cortisol and DHEA-S were calculated, as well as the ratios of the two levels. Possible correlations were explored between these levels and psychiatric symptoms before and after antipsychotic treatment. Serum levels of cortisol and DHEA-S levels as well as the ratios of cortisol to DHEA-S levels were higher in patients than in controls (p cortisol and DHEA-S were significantly lower after treatment than before (p cortisol to DHEA-S levels remained similar. Serum levels of cortisol, DHEA-S and the ratios of the two levels were positively correlated with the negative symptoms score on the PANSS. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve in the spread levels of cortisol and DHEA-S. These levels may serve as biomarkers for diagnosing schizophrenia and monitoring treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bilateral thalamic infarction with psychiatric symptoms: case report

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    Betül Tekin Güveli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thalamus is a mass of gray matter, which plays a role in the transmission of sensory and motor information to the primary sensory and motor centers of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. Vascular lesions of thalamus may occur in different syndromes depending on the affected nuclei. In this report, a case with acute evolving personality and behavior changes and detected bilateral thalamic infarction will be presented. Case: A 40-year-old male patient was brought to the psychiatric ER with complaints of acute excessive sleep and behavioral changing. His neurological examination was normal except for limited cooperation and dysarthria. There was hyperintensity in bilateral paramedian thalamic regions in diffusion MRI and hypointensity in the right side in the ADC. During clinical observation the patient occasionally had visual hallucinations and attempted suicide. The psychiatrist diagnosed the patient with psychotic disorder due to his general medical condition and olanzapine 10 mg / day was prescribed. Etiological tests were normal. The patient was discharged after clinical improvement on the tenth day of hospitalization. Conclusion: Bilateral thalamic infarcts are very rare in all ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and typically result in changing of consciousness, gaze palsy and memory. The most common etiological cause of bilateral thalamic infarct is cardioembolism and the prognosis is generally good. Thalamic infarcts have a clinical spectrum varying according to the location of the lesion and may even just be present with psychiatric symptoms. In acute or subacute personality and behavior changes in a patient with no history of psychiatric disorders, thalamic lesions should be considered.

  20. Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients with Cushing's Syndrome: Prevalence, Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alicia; Resmini, Eugenia; Pascual, Juan Carlos; Crespo, Iris; Webb, Susan M

    2017-05-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) results from chronic exposure to cortisol excess, produced by the adrenal cortex. Hypercortisolism predisposes to psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, mainly to depression and anxiety disorders. Screening tools to identify psychiatric symptoms are available for clinicians in their daily practice, although a specific diagnosis should be performed by specialists. Even if psychiatric symptoms improve after remission of hypercortisolism, complete recovery may not be achieved. Given the burden of these symptoms, psychiatric or psychological monitoring and treatment should be offered through all phases of CS, with a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of this article is to review data on the prevalence, diagnosis and management of psychiatric symptoms seen in patients with CS and to propose therapeutic approaches that may be followed in clinical practice. The prevalence of different psychiatric disorders has been described in both the active phase and after CS remission. Patients may not talk spontaneously about psychiatric symptoms they present, thus clinicians should ask directly about them. We recommend the use of screening tools in clinical practice to detect and treat these symptoms promptly. Even if reference endocrinologists cannot perform a definite psychiatric diagnosis, it will be important to ask patients directly about the presence of symptoms and refer if necessary to a psychiatrist. Additionally, patient information and educational programmes could be useful to manage psychiatric symptoms and to improve quality of life in patients with CS.

  1. Effect of educational module on knowledge of primary school teachers regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Liza Thankam; Gupta, Sandhya; Sagar, Rajesh

    2013-10-01

    University-based pre-service educational programs do not adequately prepare the teachers to have sufficient knowledge and skill for identifying a wide variety of symptoms related to mental health disorders among children. To assess the effect of educational module on knowledge of primary school teachers regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders. A pre experimental study on a sample of 35 primary school teachers was done in selected schools of Delhi. Self-instructional module on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders (SIM on ESCD) was developed. Data was collected by using standardized tools including the structured questionnaire for 'Demographic and selected variables' and pre-test knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were exposed to SIM on ESCD for a period of 15 days. Knowledge regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders was assessed twice, first one being before exposure to module and the next one on 16(th) day of exposure to module. Data were analyzed using statistical package STATA 9.0 version. Primary school teachers who have been teaching in government schools had high pre-test knowledge score than that in private sector. There was significant difference in mean knowledge score of primary school teachers before (9.71) and after (15.60) the administration of SIM on ESCD. Younger teachers and those who had less years of teaching experience had more knowledge gain score than those who were older and had more teaching experience. In the absence of adequate pre-service and in-service education of primary school teachers on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders, SIM on ESCD is a highly effective and viable method for improving primary school teachers' knowledge on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders.

  2. Correlations between caregiver psychiatric symptoms and offspring psychopathology in a low-resource setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila T. Matsuzaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Associations between parental/caregiver depression and adverse child outcomes are well established and have been described through one or more mechanisms: child psychopathology following exposure to a depressed caregiver, child psychopathology exacerbating a caregiver’s depression, and caregiver and offspring depression sharing the same etiology. Data from low and middle-income countries is scarce. We examined correlations between common symptoms of mental disorders in caregivers and their offspring’s psychopathology in a Brazilian sample. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adult caregivers were screened for depression during routine home visits by community health workers as part of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy. Caregivers with suspected depression were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Children’s symptoms were evaluated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Results: The sample included 68 primary caregivers and 110 children aged 6 to 15 years. Higher caregiver scores on the SRQ-20 correlated significantly with psychiatric symptoms in offspring. Conclusion: These results substantiate our hypothesis that child psychopathology correlates with caregivers’ psychiatric symptoms. This paper adds to the growing literature on community mental health assessment and can help guide future strategies for reducing the burden of common mental disorders in caregivers and children alike in low and middle-income countries.

  3. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Gender Differences in Psychiatric Symptoms among Methamphetamine Dependent Residents in Sober Living Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L; Buscemi, Raymond; Nayak, Madhabika; Korcha, Rachael; Galloway, Gantt

    2012-06-01

    Although psychiatric symptoms among methamphetamine (MA) dependent individuals have been studied in treatment programs, they have not been examined in services designed to support sustained recovery in the community (e.g. sober living houses). In addition, some disorders more common among women, such as somatoform and bulimia, have been understudied among MA dependent individuals. This study aimed to examine psychiatric symptom differences between MA dependent men and women who we entering sober living houses (SLHs). Two hundred forty five individuals were interviewed within one week of entering SLHs. Instruments included a DSM IV based measure for MA dependence, a psychiatric screen (the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire), demographics, recent substance use and recent use of services. Of the 245 participants, 103 men and 25 women met criteria for MA dependence. Womenwith MA dependence reported more psychiatric symptoms than men. They also trended toward reporting more psychiatric symptoms than non-MA dependent women. For men, psychiatric symptoms did not vary between those with and without MA dependence. Some understudied disorders (e.g., somatoform) had large proportions of women meeting the screening criteria. Additional research is needed on understudied psychiatric disorders that are common among MA dependent women. SLH's should consider ways to address psychiatric symptoms among MA dependent individuals, especially women. Strategies could include increasing linkages with professional mental health services as well as developing peer oriented strategies for managing symptoms.

  5. Psychiatric Disorders in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals with Bladder Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória O Orge

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety in HTLV-1 infected individuals with the neurological disease and in the asymptomatic phase. No study has investigated the rates in individuals that already show bladder symptoms without severe neurological changes; that is, during the oligosymptomatic phase. The present study investigated patients in this intermediate form on the spectrum of the infection.Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Brazilian Version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Data analysis was performed in STATA statistical software (version 12.0. Depressive disorder was the most frequent comorbidity. Current depressive disorder was higher in the group of overactive bladder subjects (11.9%, and lifelong depression was more frequent in the HAM/TSP group (35%. The three groups had similar frequencies of anxiety disorders. Increased frequency and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms were observed in the overactive bladder group.The results suggest that individuals with overactive bladders need a more thorough assessment from the mental health perspective. These patients remain an understudied group regarding psychiatric comorbidities.

  6. Increased oxytocin levels among abstinent heroin addicts: Association with aggressiveness, psychiatric symptoms and perceived childhood neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, Lidia M; Gerra, Gilberto; Mercolini, Laura; Manfredini, Matteo; Somaini, Lorenzo; Pieri, Chiara M; Antonioni, Maina; Protti, Michele; Ossola, Paolo; Marchesi, Carlo

    2017-04-03

    A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect. Eighteen (18) abstinent patients, affected by heroin use disorders, and 18 control subjects, who never used drugs or abused alcohol, were included in the study and submitted to 1) collection of a blood sample for oxytocin assay, 2) Symptoms Check List 90 for psychiatric symptoms evaluation 3) Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory to measure aggressiveness 4) Child Experience of Care and Abuse-Questionnaire to retrospectively test the perception of parental neglect. Heroin exposure extent and heroin dosages were also recorded. Oxytocin serum levels were unexpectedly significantly higher among abstinent patients affected by heroin use disorders and positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and mother neglect scores. No correlation was evidenced between oxytocin and heroin exposure extent or dosages. Our findings appear to contradict the simplistic view of oxytocin as a pro-social hormone and confirm previous evidence concerning the peptide levels direct association with aggressive behavior and mood disorders. Considering a more complex mechanism, oxytocin would increase the sensitivity to social salience cues related to contextual or inter-individual factors, promoting pro-sociality in "safe" conditions and, in contrast, inducing more defensive and "anti-social" emotions and behaviors when the

  7. Capturing the ebb and flow of psychiatric symptoms with dynamical systems models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L; Mulvey, Edward P; Skeem, Jennifer L; Gardner, William; Lidz, Charles W; Schubert, Carol

    2009-05-01

    Psychiatric symptoms play a crucial role in psychology and psychiatry. However, little is known about how dimensions of symptoms--other than symptom level--relate to psychiatric outcomes. Until recently, methods for measuring dynamic aspects of symptoms have not been available to clinicians or researchers. The authors sought to test whether systematic patterns of change in psychiatric symptoms can be recovered across weekly assessments of individuals at high risk for violence. A secondary objective was to explore whether dynamic features of symptoms (specifically, oscillation speed and dysregulation) are concurrently associated with violence, an important indicator of functional impairment for these individuals. Participants (N=132) were drawn from a sample of patients evaluated at the emergency room of an urban psychiatric hospital. Patients actuarially classified as being at high risk for violence were eligible for participation in the study. Participants and collateral informants were interviewed weekly for 26 weeks following an acute psychiatric evaluation. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Measures of symptom fluctuation and regulation were derived using dynamical systems models. Involvement in violence was assessed using self, informant, and official reports. Individuals' symptom dynamics were recovered by a linear oscillator model that described how quickly symptoms oscillated and whether symptoms were amplifying or moving back toward equilibrium across time. Patterns of rapid symptom fluctuation and symptom amplification were concurrently associated with violence. Psychiatric researchers and clinicians have long been interested in adopting more dynamic approaches to understanding symptom change. This study is the first to demonstrate that systematic fluctuations in symptom patterns may be captured by dynamic models. Moreover, the concurrent association between symptom dynamics and violence suggests avenues for future

  8. Evaluating psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's Disease by a clinimetric analysis of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Morberg, Bo Mohr; Siri, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Although psychiatric comorbidity in Parkinson's Disease (PD) has often been studied, the individual psychiatric symptoms have rarely been evaluated from a clinimetric point of view in an attempt to measure how much the symptoms have been bothering or distressing the PD patients. The current study...... is therefore aimed at evaluating from a clinimetric viewpoint the severity of psychiatric symptoms affecting PD patients by using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) to show its measurement-driven construct validity (scalability). The conventional nine SCL-90-R subscales (somatization, obsessive...... are bothered with diverse somatic symptoms, but also with specific secondary psychiatric comorbidities which are clinically severe markers of impairment in the day-to-day function implying a negative cooping approach....

  9. Anxiety symptoms in crack cocaine and inhalant users admitted to a psychiatric hospital in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Thorell, Mariana Rossi; Franceschini, Paulo Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with crack or inhalant dependence is frequently observed. The objective of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms among crack cocaine and inhalant users in southern Brazil. The study investigated two groups of volunteers of equal size (n=50): one group consisted of crack cocaine users, and the other group consisted of inhalant users. Research volunteers completed the Portuguese versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Both crack and inhalant users experience significant symptoms of anxiety. Inhalant users presented significantly more anxiety symptoms than crack users according to the HAM-A questionnaire only. In contrast to the results of the HAM-A, the STAI failed to demonstrate a significant difference between the two groups of substance users. SRQ scores revealed that crack and inhalants users had significant degrees of morbidity. A significant difference regarding anxiety symptomatology, especially state anxiety, was observed among inhalant and crack users. Anxiety and overall mental psychopathology were significantly correlated in this sample. The results indicate that screening initiatives to detect anxiety and additional psychiatric comorbidities among crack and inhalant users are feasible and relevant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. General psychiatric or depressive symptoms were not predictive for mortality in a healthy elderly cohort in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Otilia Cerveira

    Full Text Available Abstract General psychiatric symptoms may interfere with the ability of individuals to take care of their health, to get involved with activities and develop social abilities, thereby increasing risk of death. Objective: To evaluate general psychiatric symptoms as predictive factors for mortality in a community elderly cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods: 345 healthy elderly, aged ³60 years, from the catchment area of Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre were followed from 1996. Data for the present study were drawn from the period 1996-2004. General psychiatric symptoms (Self-Reporting Questionnaire - SRQ, depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Asberg depressive rating scale, and Mini Mental State Examination scores at baseline were included in the study. Socio-demographic, medical conditions, and functional capacity were also analyzed. The outcome was vital status at follow-up obtained from family members, hospital records and checked against official death registers. Results: Of the 345 baseline individuals, 246 were followed-up. The global mortality rate over the study period was 36.9% (N=90. Those who deceased during the period were older (73.5±7.5, more dependent overall, and more cognitively impaired than the living elderly (univariate analyses. In the logistic regression, only age (OR=0.93; p=0.003 and functional capacity (OR=0.22; p=0.007 remained significant in the final equation. Conclusion: Psychiatric symptoms presented no association with mortality in the present sample. Older age and functional incapacity were risk factors for mortality.

  11. Maternal attachment style and psychiatric history as independent predictors of mood symptoms in the immediate postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce Nanni, Roberta; Troisi, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence that both a past history of psychiatric illness and insecure attachment put women at risk for mood disturbances in the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether maternal insecure attachment is a risk factor for mood symptoms in the immediate postpartum period independently of the confounding effect of maternal psychiatric history. A convenience sample of 120 mothers was assessed prenatally with the Maternal History of Mood Disturbances (MHMD), the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), and in the first week after delivery with the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Mothers with higher scores on the preoccupied and fearful attachment scales had more severe postpartum anxiety and depression symptoms but only fearful attachment remained a significant predictor of postpartum anxiety when the significant effect of maternal history of mood disturbances was included in the model. Our diagnostic assessment focused on mood symptoms, not disorders, and we limited psychometric assessment to the immediate postpartum period and did not collect longitudinal data to ascertain whether the relationship between maternal insecure attachment and postpartum mood disturbances changed over time. Our results show the necessity to assess prior psychiatric symptoms in studies of maternal attachment style and postpartum mood disturbances. The finding that a mother's recall of her own psychiatric history emerged as significant predictor of postpartum mood symptoms suggests that antenatal assessment based on maternal self-report can be used in those settings where structured diagnostic interviews are not feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive underperformance and symptom over-reporting in a mixed psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandachi-FitzGerald, Brechje; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Peters, Maarten J V; Merckelbach, Harald

    2011-07-01

    The current study examined the prevalence of cognitive underperformance and symptom over-reporting in a mixed sample of psychiatric patients (N = 183). We employed the Amsterdam Short-Term Memory Test (ASTM) to measure cognitive underperformance and the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) to measure the tendency to over-report symptoms. We also administered neuropsychological tests (e.g., Concept Shifting Task; Rey's Verbal Learning Test) and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) to the patients. A total of 34% of them failed the ASTM, the SIMS or both tests. ASTM and SIMS scores were significantly, albeit modestly, correlated with each other (r = -.22). As to the links between underperformance, over-reporting, neuropsychological tasks, and the SCL-90, the association between over-reporting on the SIMS and SCL-90 scores was the most robust one. The subsample that only failed on the ASTM performed significantly worse on a compound index of memory performance. Our findings indicate that underperformance and over-reporting are loosely coupled dimensions and that particularly over-reporting is intimately linked to heightened SCL-90 scores.

  13. Longitudinal Psychiatric Symptoms Progress in Prodromal Huntington Disease: a Decade of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Eric A.; Kim, Ji-In; Craufurd, David; Brashers-Krug, Thomas M.; Anderson, Karen E.; McCusker, Elizabeth; Luther, Jolene; Long, Jeffrey D.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Psychiatric symptoms are a significant aspect of Huntington disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative illness. The presentation of these symptoms is highly variable in patients, and their course does not fully correlate with motor or cognitive disease progression. We sought to better understand the development and longitudinal course of psychiatric manifestations in patients who carry the HD mutation starting from the prodromal period prior to motor diagnosis. Method Longitudinal measures for up to 10 years of psychiatric symptoms from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised were obtained from 1305 participants (1007 carrying the HD mutation) and 1235 companions enrolled in the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington’s Disease (PREDICT-HD) study. Participants with the HD mutation were stratified into three groups according to probability of motor diagnosis within five years. Using linear mixed effects regression models, differences in psychiatric symptoms at baseline and over time between HD mutation positive groups and controls were compared as well as between HD mutation participants and their companions. Results 19 of 24 psychiatric measures showed significant increases at baseline and longitudinally in HD mutation carrying individuals or their companions versus controls. The differences were greatest when comparing symptom reports from companions (versus self-report), especially in participants who were closest to motor diagnosis. Conclusions Results indicate psychiatric manifestations develop more often than previously thought in the HD prodrome. Symptoms also increase with progression of disease severity. Companions of HD mutation carriers also report greater psychiatric symptoms over time compared to affected individuals, consistent with decreasing awareness. PMID:26472629

  14. Neurovisceral phenotypes in the expression of psychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Anne Eccles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review explores the proposal that vulnerability to psychological symptoms, particularly anxiety, originates in constitutional differences in the control of bodily state, exemplified by a set of conditions that include Joint Hypermobility, Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and Vasovagal Syncope. Research is revealing how brain-body mechanisms underlie individual differences in psychophysiological reactivity that can be important s for predicting, stratifying and treating individuals with anxiety disorders and related conditions. One common constitutional difference is Joint Hypermobility, in which there is an increased range of joint movement as a result of a variant of collagen. Joint hypermobility is over-represented in people with anxiety, mood and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is also linked to stress-sensitive medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Structural differences in ‘emotional’ brain regions are reported in hypermobile individuals, and many people with joint hypermobility manifest autonomic abnormalities, typically Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Enhanced heart rate reactivity is characteristic of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, and there is a phenomenological overlap with anxiety disorders, which may be partially accounted for by exaggerated neural reactivity within ventromedial prefrontal cortex. People who experience Vasovagal Syncope, a heritable tendency to fainting induced by emotional challenges (and needle/ blood phobia, are also more vulnerable to anxiety disorders. Neuroimaging implicates brainstem differences in vulnerability to faints, yet the structural integrity of the caudate nucleus appears important for the control of fainting frequency in relation to parasympathetic tone and anxiety. Together there is clinical and neuroanatomical evidence to show that common constitutional differences affecting autonomic responsivity are linked to psychiatric symptoms

  15. Neurovisceral phenotypes in the expression of psychiatric symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Jessica A.; Owens, Andrew P.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Umeda, Satoshi; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2015-01-01

    show that common constitutional differences affecting autonomic responsivity are linked to psychiatric symptoms, notably anxiety. PMID:25713509

  16. The impact of sleep and psychiatric symptoms on alcohol consequences among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary Beth; Van Reen, Eliza; Barker, David H; Roane, Brandy M; Borsari, Brian; McGeary, John E; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A

    2017-03-01

    Independent lines of research have documented links between psychiatric symptoms and poor sleep quality, psychiatric symptoms and alcohol use, and alcohol use and poor sleep quality. The current study examined the synergistic effect of poor sleep quality and psychiatric symptoms on alcohol-related consequences in heavy-drinking young adults. Matriculating college students reporting at least one heavy drinking episode over the first nine weeks of the semester (N=385, 52% female) were categorized as experiencing 'good' (n=280) versus 'poor' sleep quality (n=105) and screening 'positive' (n=203) or 'negative' (n=182) for a psychiatric disorder. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; psychiatric diagnosis was assessed using the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire; and alcohol-related consequences were assessed using the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire. General linear models were used to examine the main effects and interaction between sleep quality and psychiatric symptoms on alcohol-related consequences. Sleep quality moderated the association between psychiatric screen and alcohol-related consequences among heavy-drinking college students, such that psychiatric symptoms were associated with more alcohol-related consequences in the context of poor sleep quality. The combination of poor sleep quality and psychiatric symptoms is associated with increased alcohol-related consequences among heavy-drinking college students. Given the significant interaction between these symptoms, healthcare providers are encouraged to screen for the presence of sleep and psychiatric disorders among heavy-drinking young adults and to provide empirically-supported treatments as appropriate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maltreatment clusters among youth in outpatient substance abuse treatment: co-occurring patterns of psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubman, Jonathan G; Oshri, Assaf; Taylor, Heather L; Morris, Staci L

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the use of a brief maltreatment assessment instrument to classify adolescents receiving alcohol or other drug (AOD) treatment services based on the extensiveness and severity of prior maltreatment. This goal is significant because maltreatment reduces the effectiveness of AOD treatment and is associated significantly with co-occurring patterns of psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews were administered to 300 adolescent treatment clients (202 males, 98 females; M = 16.22 years; SD = 1.13 years) to assess childhood maltreatment experiences, past year psychiatric symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors during the past 180 days. Cluster analysis classified adolescents into unique groups via self-reported sexual abuse, physical punishment, and parental neglect/negative home environment. Significant between-cluster differences in psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors were documented using MANOVA and chi-square analyses. More severe maltreatment profiles were associated with higher scores for psychiatric symptoms and unprotected intercourse. Significant heterogeneity and distinct types within this treatment sample of adolescents supports the adaptation of selected prevention efforts to promote HIV/STI risk reduction.

  18. Breathing meditation by medical students at Khon Kaen University: effect on psychiatric symptoms, memory, intelligence and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paholpak, Suchat; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Rangseekajee, Poonsri; Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Pajanasoontorn, Niramol; Virasiri, Surapol; Singkornard, Jintana; Rongbudsri, Somchit; Udomsri, Chonnikarn; Chonprai, Chanatiporn; Unprai, Peerada

    2012-03-01

    To examine the short-term effects on fifth-year medical students of a 4-week, breathing meditation-based, stress reduction intervention on psychiatric symptoms, memory function, intelligence, and academic achievement. Using a randomized control trial, the meditation group practiced every 8.00 to 8.20 a.m. before beginning daily learning schedule. Meditation emphasized mindful awareness of the breath during inhaling and exhaling. The control group went about their normal activities in the other room. The psychiatric symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the memory used the Wechsler Memory Scale-I (WMS-I), the intelligence used the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM), and the academic achievement used psychiatry course MCQ examination score. Analysis was done using Ancova statistic. Fifty-eight volunteer medical students during their psychiatry rotation between June 2008 and May 2009, were randomized into either in the meditation (n = 30) or the control (non-meditation) (n = 28) group. There was no significant difference between the groups in their respective SCL-90, WMS-I, APM, and psychiatry course MCQ examination score. Among normal, intelligent, mentally healthy persons, short-term breathing meditation practice will not likely change psychiatric symptoms, memory function, intellectual performance, and academic achievement.

  19. The value of international prostate symptom scoring system in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... International Prostate Symptom Scoring system has not found wide ... Microsoft Excel 8.0 with the assistance of a computer analyst. Results were .... The role of IPSS in the choice of treatment modality and monitoring response ...

  20. Prevalence Rates of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Adolescents in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoon Amini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies show that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and its comorbidity with psychiatric problems is more prevalent among children and adolescents than was previously believed. The primary aim of the current study is to investigate the point-prevalence rate of obsessive compulsive symptoms in a sample of adolescent high school student in Iran. A two-stage epidemiological study was carried out through a clustered random sampling method. All participants went through a two-stage assessment procedure, in the first screening phase, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI was administered to 909 randomly selected students (in the age range 14-18 years. Participants were considered possible sub-clinical or clinical OCD cases, if they obtained a score of MOCI≥15. In the second stage, the Symptoms Checklist -90-revised (SCL-90-R was administered to student who fulfilled the screening criteria. The prevalence of OC symptoms was found to be 11.2 percent for the total sample. The most prevalent comorbid conditions were depression and anxiety with prevalence rates of 91.2 and 78.4 percent respectively. Gender, age, birth-order, parent's education and family income had no statistically significant association with OC symptoms. Further research in this area is warranted in order to establish a set of comprehensive global assessment and measurement tools, which would allow cross-cultural studies in the field of OCD.

  1. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  2. Heterogeneity in Youth Symptom Trajectories Following Psychiatric Crisis: Predictors and Placement Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.; DeLucia, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined heterogeneity in symptom trajectories among youths following psychiatric crises as well as the psychosocial correlates and placement outcomes associated with identified trajectories. Using semiparametric mixture modeling with 156 youths approved for psychiatric hospitalization, the authors identified 5 trajectories based on…

  3. Genes, Parental Psychiatric Symptoms and Child Emotional Problems: Nurture versus Nature: There and Back Again

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P. Velders (Fleur)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractChildhood psychiatric disorders are common, show a high comorbidity and are associated with a long-term vulnerability for mental health problems, which underscores the importance of a better understanding of their etiology. Psychiatric symptoms of the parents place children at risk for

  4. Prenatal Pregnancy Complications and Psychiatric Symptoms: Children with ASD versus Clinic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the association between prenatal pregnancy complications (PPC) and childhood psychiatric symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD children who were referred to a psychiatric clinic (Controls). Parents completed a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale and developmental history questionnaire.…

  5. Mood changes after indoor tanning among college women: associations with psychiatric/addictive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Heckman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor tanning (IT has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction. The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid and positive (feeling interested mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables.

  6. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with Internet addiction: Comparison with substance use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yen, Ju‐Yu; Ko, Chih‐Hung; Yen, Cheng‐Fang; Chen, Sue‐Huei; Chung, Wei‐Lun; Chen, Cheng‐Chung

    2008-01-01

    Aims:  The aim of the present study was to compare psychiatric symptoms between adolescents with and without Internet addiction, as well as between analogs with and without substance use. Methods...

  7. Effects of sports participation on psychiatric symptoms and brain activations during sports observation in schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takahashi, H; Sassa, T; Shibuya, T; Kato, M; Koeda, M; Murai, T; Matsuura, M; Asai, K; Suhara, T; Okubo, Y

    2012-01-01

    .... However, the neurobiological basis for this remains poorly understood. We aimed to examine the effect of sports participation on weight gain, psychiatric symptoms and brain activation during sports observation in schizophrenia patients...

  8. Self-rated psychiatric symptoms and their correlates among senior high school students in Hualien City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y M; Yen, L L

    1998-09-01

    The association between mental health disorders beginning in adolescence and disorders in early adulthood is increasingly acknowledged. The mental health of adolescents has not been studied in the eastern area of Taiwan, where the mortality of teenagers is highest in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to assess psychiatric symptoms among senior high school students in Hualien City, and to identify their associated factors. A total of 1,195 students were selected, via a stratified cluster sampling method, from nine high schools in Hualien City. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess students' demographic characteristics, neurotic traits, perceived daily-life stress, social support, and psychiatric symptoms. There were 1,141 valid responses. From principal components analysis, depression-anxiety, impulsivity-paranoia, and psychoticism-obsession were found to be the most common self-rated psychiatric symptoms. About 70% of the students felt blue, 48.2% reported urges to injure someone, and 25% felt tense. Overall, about 5% to 10% of high school students had severe psychiatric symptoms. Stress from schoolwork, peer relationships, and neurotic traits were important predictors of psychiatric symptoms. The findings of this study imply that screening for psychiatric symptoms at senior high schools is essential for improving the mental health of students. The mental health care of adolescents should be school-based and in collaboration with medical professionals. Life skills must be taught at school.

  9. [German validation of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidjanov, J F; Pilatz, A; Abdufattaev, U A; Wiltink, J; Weidner, W; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F

    2015-09-01

    The Uzbek version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) was developed as a simple self-reporting questionnaire to improve diagnosis and therapy of women with acute cystitis (AC). The purpose of this work was to validate the ACSS in the German language. The ACSS consists of 18 questions in four subscales: (1) typical symptoms, (2) differential diagnosis, (3) quality of life, and (4) additional circumstances. Translation of the ACSS into German was performed according to international guidelines. For the validation process 36 German-speaking women (age: 18-90 years), with and without symptoms of AC, were included in the study. Classification of participants into two groups (patients or controls) was based on the presence or absence of typical symptoms and significant bacteriuria (≥ 10(3) CFU/ml). Statistical evaluations of reliability, validity, and predictive ability were performed. ROC curve analysis was performed to assess sensitivity and specificity of ACSS and its subscales. The Mann-Whitney's U test and t-test were used to compare the scores of the groups. Of the 36 German-speaking women (age: 40 ± 19 years), 19 were diagnosed with AC (patient group), while 17 women served as controls. Cronbach's α for the German ACSS total scale was 0.87. A threshold score of ≥ 6 points in category 1 (typical symptoms) significantly predicted AC (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 82.4%). There were no significant differences in ACSS scores in patients and controls compared to the original Uzbek version of the ACSS. The German version of the ACSS showed a high reliability and validity. Therefore, the German version of the ACSS can be reliably used in clinical practice and research for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients suffering from AC.

  10. The Effect of Traumatic Experiences and Psychiatric Symptoms on the Life Satisfaction of North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeonsun; Lim, Sun Young; Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Kim, Ji-Chul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2017-01-01

    Successful adaptation of refugees to a new society can be hindered by traumatic experiences and psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to examine the relationship between trauma, psychiatric symptoms and life satisfaction of North Korean refugees resettled in South Korea. A total of 211 North Korean refugees living in South Korea completed a series of questionnaires on the history of their previous traumatic experiences, life satisfaction in South Korea, depression, anxiety, somatization and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. North Korean refugees who had experienced more traumatic events were less satisfied with their economic status in South Korea. Severe depression, anxiety, somatization or PTSD symptoms negatively correlated with their overall satisfaction in South Korea. In the stepwise regression model including all psychiatric symptoms and the number of traumatic experiences as dependent variables, only anxiety, but not trauma, predicted lower life satisfaction in South Korea. Traumatic experiences of North Korean refugees negatively affected the life satisfaction, especially the economic satisfaction, in South Korea. Since the negative effect of trauma was mainly mediated by psychiatric symptoms, the strategy of relieving psychiatric symptoms of traumatized refugees may help the adaptation of refugees. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Psychiatric symptoms are present in most of the patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus F. Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH is characterized by gait disturbance, dementia and/or urinary incontinence associated with dilation of ventricular system with normal opening cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Wide scientifical evidence confirms association between NPH and psychiatric symptoms. We selected 35 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus from January 2010 to January 2012 in a Brazilian tertiary hospital and performed a formal psychiatric evaluation to identify psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders were present in 71% of these patients, especially anxiety, depression and psychotic syndromes. NPH patients may develop symptoms with frontal dominance, such as personality changes, anxiety, depression, psychotic syndromes, obsessive compulsive disorder, Othello syndrome; shoplifting and mania. Unusual appearances of NPH symptoms may hinder early diagnosis and consequently proper treatment.

  12. Validity of the Danish Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire in stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, S.; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Objective – To determine the content and face validity of the Danish Prostate Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire in stroke patients. Materials and methods – Content validity was judged among an expert panel in neuro-urology. The judgement was measured by the content validity index (CVI). Face...... validity was indicated in a clinical sample of 482 stroke patients in a hospital-based, cross-sectional survey. Results – I-CVI was rated >0.78 (range 0.94–1.00) for 75% of symptom and bother items corresponding to adequate content validity. The expert panel rated the entire DAN-PSS-1 questionnaire highly...... questionnaire appears to be content and face valid for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms after stroke....

  13. Executive functions and psychiatric symptoms in drug-refractory juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jordana; Thomas, Rhys H; Church, Carla; Rees, Mark I; Marson, Anthony G; Baker, Gus A

    2014-06-01

    The pattern of executive dysfunction reported in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) resembles that of patients with cluster B personality disorders. This study examined whether executive dysfunction and maladaptive behavior reported in patients with JME are related. Sixty patients with drug-refractory JME were administered tests of intellect, memory, and executive dysfunction. Anxiety, depression, personality traits, impact of epilepsy, and perceived cognitive effects of antiepileptic drugs were measured. Half of the cohort exhibited moderate to severe anxiety symptoms. The patients performed most poorly on naming ability and inhibition switching. Duration of epilepsy exacerbated poor performance on inhibition switching. Females presented with pathological scores for neurotic and introvert traits and males for introvert traits. Abnormal personality traits and psychiatric disorders were associated with worse intellectual and executive functioning. People with extreme Eysenck Personality Scale - Brief Version (EPQ-BV) scores demonstrated the greatest level of executive impairment. Furthermore, the same degree of dysfunction was not seen in any individual with unremarkable EPQ-BV scores. This study indicates that specific patterns of executive dysfunction are related to maladaptive behavior in JME. Distinct behavioral patterns may be used to identify functional and anatomical differences between people with JME and for stratification to enable gene discovery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) symptom assessment form total symptom score: Prospective international assessment of an abbreviated symptom burden scoring system among patients with MPNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Emanuel (Robyn); A.C. Dueck (Amylou); H.L. Geyer (Holly); J.J. Kiladjian; S. Slot (Stefanie); S. Zweegman (Sonja); P.A.W. te Boekhorst (Peter); S. Commandeur (Suzan); H. Schouten (Harry); F. Sackmann (Federico); A.K. Fuentes (Ana Kerguelen); D. Hernández-Maraver (Dolores); C. Pahl (Clemens); M. Griesshammer (Martin); F. Stegelmann (Frank); K. Doehner (Konstanze); T. Lehmann (Thomas); K. Bonatz (Karin); A. Reiter (Alfred); F. Boyer (Francoise); J. Etienne (Jerome); J.-C. Ianotto (Jean-Christophe); D. Ranta (Dana); L. Roy (Lydia); J.-Y. Cahn (Jean-Yves); C.N. Harrison (Claire); D. Radia (Deepti); P. Muxi (Pablo); N. Maldonado (Norman); C. Besses (Carlos); F. Cervantes (Francisco); P.L. Johansson (Peter); T. Barbui (Tiziano); G. Barosi (Giovanni); A.M. Vannucchi (Alessandro); F. Passamonti (Francesco); B. Andreasson (Bjorn); M.L. Ferarri (Maria); A. Rambaldi (Alessandro); J. Samuelsson (Jan); G. Birgegard (Gunnar); A. Tefferi (Ayalew); A.A. Mesa

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) symptoms are troublesome to patients, and alleviation of this burden represents a paramount treatment objective in the development of MPN-directed therapies. We aimed to assess the utility of an abbreviated symptom score for the most pertinent

  15. Symptoms of epilepsy and organic brain dysfunctions in patients with acute, brief depression combined with other fluctuating psychiatric symptoms: a controlled study from an acute psychiatric department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linaker Olav M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In psychiatric acute departments some patients present with brief depressive periods accompanied with fluctuating arrays of other psychiatric symptoms like psychosis, panic or mania. For the purpose of the present study we call this condition Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS. The aims of the present study were to compare clinical signs of organic brain dysfunctions and epilepsy in patients with AUDS and Major Depressive Episode (MDE. Methods Out of 1038 consecutive patients admitted to a psychiatric acute ward, 16 patients with AUDS and 16 age- and gender-matched MDE patients were included in the study. Using standardized instruments and methods we recorded clinical data, EEG and MRI. Results A history of epileptic seizures and pathologic EEG activity was more common in the AUDS group than in the MDE group (seizures, n = 6 vs. 0, p = 0.018; pathologic EEG activity, n = 8 vs. 1, p = 0.015. Five patients in the AUDS group were diagnosed as having epilepsy, whereas none of those with MDE had epilepsy (p = 0.043. There were no differences between the groups regarding pathological findings in neurological bedside examination and cerebral MRI investigation. Conclusion Compared to patients admitted with mood symptoms fulfilling DSM 4 criteria of a major depressive disorder, short-lasting atypical depressive symptoms seem to be associated with a high frequency of epileptic and pathologic EEG activity in patients admitted to psychiatric acute departments. Trial registration NCT00201474

  16. THE STRUCTURE OF COMMON PSYCHIATRIC-SYMPTOMS - HOW MANY DIMENSIONS OF NEUROSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ORMEL, J; OLDEHINKEL, AJ; GOLDBERG, DP; HODIAMONT, PPG; WILMINK, FW; BRIDGES, K

    In order to replicate and elaborate the two-dimensional model of depression and anxiety underlying the structure of common psychiatric symptoms proposed by Goldberg et al. (1987), we carried out latent trait analyses on PSE symptom data of the original Manchester study and two recent Dutch studies.

  17. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do intercultural factors play a role in exacerbating psychiatric symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yong Lock; Yap, Hwa Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old mixed-race woman suffering from recurrent major depressive episodes, with suicidal ideation and risk, involving several inpatient admissions. A comorbid diagnosis of borderline personality disorder was also recorded in one of her previous inpatient admissions. During her last inpatient admission, a multidisciplinary case discussion and review of the patient's life highlighted several possible intercultural trigger factors that could have contributed to the exacerbation of her psychiatric illness. We emphasise the need to explore intercultural predisposing and precipitating factors for a more complete psychodynamic understanding of psychiatric illnesses among the multiracial population of Singapore. This also adds to the discussion on the management of such patients with the option of formal in-depth psychotherapy in adjunct to medication. This may prevent recurrent relapses, modify suicide intent and reduce the necessity for inpatient treatment, which will be cost-effective and result in efficacious treatment.

  19. Occurrence of post traumatic stress symptoms and their relationship to professional quality of life (ProQoL) in nursing staff at a forensic psychiatric security unit: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvrud, Christian; Nonstad, Kåre; Palmstierna, Tom

    2009-04-16

    Violence is frequent towards nurses in forensic mental health hospitals. Implications of this high risk environment have not been systematically explored. This paper explores occurrence of symptoms on post traumatic stress and their relationship to professional quality of life. Self report questionnaires assessing symptoms of post traumatic stress and professional quality of life were distributed among psychiatric nurses in a high security forensic psychiatric unit with high frequency of violent behaviour. Relationships between post traumatic stress symptoms, forensic nursing experience, type of ward and compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue were explored. The prevalence of post traumatic stress symptoms was low. Low scores were found on compassion satisfaction. Length of psychiatric nursing experience and low scores on compassion satisfaction were correlated to increased post traumatic stress symptoms. Although high violence frequency, low rate of post traumatic stress symptoms and low compassion satisfaction scores was found. High staff/patient ratio and emotional distance between staff and patients are discussed as protective factors.

  20. Interactive Effect of Parent and Adolescent Psychiatric Symptoms on Substance Use among Adolescents in Community Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lourah M; Becker, Sara J; Wolff, Jennifer C; Graves, Hannah; Spirito, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Both adolescent and parent psychiatric symptoms are well-established risk factors for adolescent substance use (SU), but the ways that these symptoms interact are not well understood. This study examined the interactive effects of parent and adolescent psychiatric symptoms on adolescent frequency of alcohol and marijuana use, over and above the effects of parental SU. Seventy adolescents presenting to a community mental health center (CMHC) participated. Parent and adolescent psychiatric symptoms were measured with the brief symptom inventory (BSI) and child behavior checklist (CBCL), respectively. Hierarchical regressions revealed different patterns for adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. For alcohol, the BSI parent phobic anxiety subscale predicted increased adolescent use while the parent interpersonal sensitivity subscale predicted decreased use: the effects of these parental symptoms were strongest among adolescents with higher levels of externalizing problems on the CBCL. For marijuana, the BSI parent psychoticism subscale predicted increased adolescent use, whereas paranoid ideation predicted decreased use. Results suggest that adolescent SU treatment and assessment should attend to both adolescent and parent psychiatric symptoms.

  1. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Goekoop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. AIM: To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. METHODS: 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS. An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS was optimized using a previously published technique. RESULTS: In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  2. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G

    2014-01-01

    The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD) to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS). An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS) was optimized using a previously published technique. In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  3. Pregnancy is associated with psychiatric symptoms in a low-income countryside community of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Mv; Junior, Claudio Sd; Franco, Glaura C; Teixeira, Antônio L; Ribeiro, Angela M

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy induce an increase in morbidity and also in the mortality levels among women and children. However, the real association between pregnancy and psychiatric disorders and the peculiarities of the phenomenology of symptoms in underprivileged countryside communities remain uncertain. To verify the association between psychiatric disorder, symptoms, and pregnancy among women from a low-income countryside community and to determine the specific cutoff points for major depression diagnosis according to Beck Depression Inventory for the different trimesters of pregnancy in this population. Ninety-four pregnant women and 38 healthy women from the Conceição do Mato Dentro health service, a rural low-income community in Brazil, participated in the present study. Psychiatric examination included a structured clinical interview for psychiatric disorders according to Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and psychometric scales such as the Yale-Brown Obsessive Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The cutoff points for Beck Depression Inventory were determined through the application of receiver operating characteristic curves considering the diagnosis of major depression according to Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The pregnant women had a higher frequency of psychiatric disorders and depression and anxiety symptoms. All cutoff points of Beck Depression Inventory were equal or higher than 12 with high sensitivity and specificity. Although the modified cutoff was selected based on both high sensitivity and high specificity, they were lower than when the cutoff was applied to nonpregnant women. Pregnancy was associated with the occurrence of psychiatric disorders and depressive and anxiety symptoms. In comparison to the literature, the present results indicate that there are different cutoff points in the Beck Depression Inventory for pregnant women from different cultures and in

  4. Likelihood of obtaining Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) and SIRS-2 elevations among forensic psychiatric inpatients with screening elevations on the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Gottfried, Emily D

    2016-12-01

    The Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) was designed as a screening measure for feigned psychiatric symptoms. When M-FAST Total Scores are elevated (raw score ≥6), the test manual recommends follow-up with a more comprehensive measure of feigning, such as the widely used and researched Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) or the revised version of the test (SIRS-2). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate how often M-FAST screening elevations are associated with subsequent elevations on the SIRS or SIRS-2. The sample included archival data from 100 forensic psychiatric inpatients who obtained M-FAST Total Score elevations ≥6 during screening and were subsequently administered the SIRS (that was also rescored using SIRS-2 criteria). Among examinees who elevated the M-FAST over the recommended cutoff, 66.0% met standard SIRS feigning criteria, 42% met SIRS-2 criteria for feigning, and 81.0% obtained at least 1 SIRS/SIRS-2 elevation in the Probable Feigning range or higher. These results are consistent with the M-FAST manual guidelines, which support the use of the ≥6 M-FAST cutoff score to screen for potential feigning (but not as an independent marker of feigning). A higher M-FAST cutoff score of ≥16 was associated with subsequently meeting full SIRS criteria for feigning in 100.0% of protocols. Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms in the menopausal transition and postmenopausally: psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeanne Leventhal; Burger, Henry; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Davis, Susan R; Kotz, Krista; Van Winkle, Julie; Richardson, Gregg; Ratka, Anna; Kessel, Bruce

    2007-11-01

    This article aims to educate the nonpsychiatric as well as the psychiatric clinician on the impact of vasomotor symptoms in women with comorbid psychiatric problems and the challenges of treating vasomotor symptoms in these women. The pathophysiology, prevalence and common risk factors associated with disturbing hot flashes in the menopausal transition are reviewed. Hormonal, nonhormonal and behavioral treatment options of vasomotor symptoms for these women are discussed. Special pharmacokinetic implications for hormonal treatment of those women on anticonvulsant medications for the treatment of their mood disorders, on tamoxifen and/or with high or low sex hormone-binding globulin are examined. An in-depth discussion of mood and the menopausal transition, theoretical mechanisms for mood problems with the symptomatic menopause and the impact of stress on the symptomatic menopause are found elsewhere in this clinical review series on psychiatric illness, stress and the symptomatic menopause.

  6. Concomitant psychiatric symptoms and impaired quality of life in women with cervical cancer: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klügel S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Klügel,1 Caroline Lücke,1 Aurora Meta,1 Meike Schild-Suhren,2 Eduard Malik,2 Alexandra Philipsen,1 Helge HO Müller1,3 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Bad Zwischenahn, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Oldenburg, 3Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Our aim was to summarize the current relevant literature on concomitant psychiatric symptoms with a focus on anxiety/depression in a population with gynecologic cancer; to identify the predictors, associated factors, and prevention strategies of psychiatric disorders; to examine psychiatric disorders in a population with recurrent gynecologic cancer; and to describe the limitations of the literature and future research areas. Little is known about attending psychiatric disorders in patients with gynecologic and other malignant diseases like cervical or breast cancer. However, patients suffering from other types of gynecologic cancer (eg, genital/cervical cancer may also have an increased risk of psychiatric symptoms. In this review, we identify the potential information deficits in this field. A two-rater independent literature search was conducted using the PubMed/Google Scholar search engines to systematically evaluate the literature on the research objectives, followed by a critical reflection on the results. Of the 77 screened studies, 15 met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Patients with gynecologic malignancies, especially cervical cancer, had a very high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms including depression (33%–52%. Additionally, the risk groups facing higher rates of concomitant reduced quality of life and increased psychiatric symptoms such as depression were identified. Specifically, low socioeconomic status, sexual inactivity, absence of a partner, and physical symptoms were correlated with an increased risk. Patients

  7. Effects of group music intervention on psychiatric symptoms and depression in patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shiou-Fang; Lo, Chi-Hui Kao; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Yu, Shun-Chieh; Chang, Shu-Chuan

    2013-12-01

    To examine the effects of a group music therapy on psychiatric symptoms and depression for patient with schizophrenia in a psychiatric nursing home. Eighty patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to a music intervention group (MIG) or usual care group (UCG). Both groups received similar medical and routine care. The MIG received a 60-min group music therapy twice a week, a total of ten sessions. The UAG only received the usual care with no music therapy. Psychiatric symptoms and depression assessments were conducted using the positive and negative syndrome scale and the depression scale for schizophrenia at baseline, the posttest, and at a 3-month follow-up. Thirty-eight patients in the MIG and 42 in the UCG completed the study. After 10 sessions of group music therapy, the groups showed statistically significant differences in psychiatric symptoms (pdepression status (pmusic therapy is an economical and easily implemented method of improving depression and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Sporadic Case of Fabry Disease Involving Repeated Fever, Psychiatric Symptoms, Headache, and Ischemic Stroke in an Adult Japanese Woman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawada, Jun; Katayama, Takayuki; Kano, Kohei; Asanome, Asuka; Takahashi, Kae; Saito, Tsukasa; Chinda, Junko; Nakagawa, Naoki; Sato, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Takashi; Yahara, Osamu; Momosaki, Ken; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease can cause various neurological manifestations. We describe the case of a Japanese woman with Fabry disease who presented with ischemic stroke, aseptic meningitis, and psychiatric symptoms...

  9. Treatment received, satisfaction with health care services, and psychiatric symptoms 3 months after hospitalization for self-poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimholt Tine K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients who self-poison have high repetition and high mortality rates. Therefore, appropriate follow-up is important. The aims of the present work were to study treatment received, satisfaction with health care services, and psychiatric symptoms after hospitalization for self-poisoning. Methods A cohort of patients who self-poisoned (n = 867 over a period of 1 year received a questionnaire 3 months after discharge. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE were used. The participation rate was 28% (n = 242; mean age, 41 years; 66% females. Results Although only 14% of patients were registered without follow-up referrals at discharge, 41% reported no such measures. Overall, satisfaction with treatment was fairly good, although 29% of patients waited more than 3 weeks for their first appointment. A total of 22% reported repeated self-poisoning and 17% cutting. The mean BDI and BHS scores were 23.3 and 10.1, respectively (both moderate to severe. The GSE score was 25.2. BDI score was 25.6 among patients with suicide attempts, 24.9 for appeals, and 20.1 for substance-use-related poisonings. Conclusions Despite plans for follow-up, many patients reported that they did not receive any. The reported frequency of psychiatric symptoms and self-harm behavior indicate that a more active follow-up is needed.

  10. Identifying Specific Clinical Symptoms of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Versus Differential Psychiatric Disorders in Patients Presenting With a Late-Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Annemiek; van Liempt, Saskia; Gossink, Flora; Krudop, Welmoed A; Sikkes, Sietske; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Stek, Max L

    2016-10-01

    Early differentiation between psychiatric disorders and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is of paramount importance in patients with the late-onset frontal lobe syndrome. As bvFTD in patients will deteriorate, psychiatric disorders are treatable. To date, misdiagnosis often occurs due to an overlap of symptoms and lack of specific biomarkers. The aim of our study was to investigate whether specific symptoms could separate bvFTD from psychiatric disorders. In a naturalistic, prospective, multicenter study, 137 patients (aged 45-75 years, 72% male) with a late-onset frontal lobe syndrome were included based on their scores on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the Stereotypy Rating Inventory (SRI) from April 2011 to June 2013. In a multidisciplinary consensus meeting, diagnoses were established based on elaborate neuropsychological testing, magnetic resonance imaging, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and clinical examination by a neurologist and a psychiatrist based on the International bvFTD Criteria Consortium for bvFTD and DSM-IV-TR criteria for psychiatric disorders. Forty-four subjects (32.8%) were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, 10 (7.3%) with possible bvFTD, and 45 (32.8%) with probable bvFTD. A logistic regression analysis was performed with "psychiatry or bvFTD" as dependent variable and clinical variables (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS], SRI, FBI) and demographics as independent variables. A positive history of psychiatric illness, male gender, lower SRI scores and higher MADRS scores were predictive of psychiatric disorders, explaining 65.2% of the variance in diagnosis of psychiatry versus bvFTD (χ²₅ = 60.04, P onset frontal lobe syndrome may aid in differentiating bvFTD patients from psychiatric patients and may provide guidance in patient management.

  11. Free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman de Mamani, A; Gurak, K; Maura, J; Martinez de Andino, A; Weintraub, M J; Mejia, M

    2016-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Some research suggests that holding a free will perspective may offer mental health and physical health benefits. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study is the first to examine links between free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Study results suggest that helping people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia to recognize situations where they do have some freedom of choice over their actions and emotional reactions (free will) may assist them in improving their experiences and better managing their symptoms. Introduction Some research indicates that having a strong sense that one possesses free will may be associated with better psychological and physical health. This study is the first to examine the relationship between free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Method Thirty-two participants were interviewed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale to assess symptom severity and the Free Will Subscale of the Free Will and Determinism Scale to assess free will perceptions. Results As hypothesized, a negative association was found between free will perceptions and total symptom severity, though it appears that this was mainly accounted for by positive symptoms. A content analysis was also conducted to qualitatively examine how patients conceptualize the construct of free will and its role in coping with their own mental illness. Discussion Study results suggest that holding a free will perspective may mitigate psychiatric symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Thus, psychiatric nurses and other mental health clinicians may improve current treatments for schizophrenia by helping patients recognize situations where they do have some freedom of choice over their actions and emotional reactions (free will) to stressful life events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Quality of Life and Psychiatric Symptoms in Wilson's Disease: the Relevance of Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Mg; Mura, G; Sorbello, O; Farina, G; Demelia, L

    2012-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder caused by a gene located on chromosome 13, which involved copper transportation across cell membranes. The disease can cause a reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin resulting in accumulation of this metal in the liver, central nervous system, kidneys and other organs. The objective is to define the frequencies of psychiatric disorders in WD, the amount of impairment of Quality of Life [QoL] in patients with WD and the relevance of the psychiatric disorders in the QoL of people suffering by WD. This is a systematic review. The search of the significant articles was carried out in PubMed using specific key words. Such other neurological diseases, WD is characterized by chronic course and need of treatments, impairment of functional outcomes and high frequency of psychiatric symptoms, although a specific association between Bipolar Disorders and WD was recently found. Despite this, since today few studies are carried on WD patients' quality of life related to psychiatric symptoms. Some new reports showed a link between presence of Bipolar Disorders diagnosis, cerebral damage and low Qol. Prospective studies on large cohorts are required to establish the effective impact of psychiatric disorders comorbidity, particularly Bipolar Disorders, on quality of life in WD and to clarify the causal link between brain damage, psychiatric disorders and worsening of QoL.

  13. Early diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a young woman with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiromichi; Morita, Seiji; Miura, Naoya; Tsuji, Tomoatsu; Ohnuki, Youichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Yamamoto, Isotoshi; Takahashi, Hirohide; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2012-09-20

    A previously healthy 21-year-old woman, transported to our medical emergency center for excluding organic brain disease, had undergone medical examination 9 days before for trembling in her left hand, which was caused by stress. The patient exhibited fever and strange behaviors, e.g., wandering around, babbling, and making smoking gestures; hence, psychiatric examination was performed. The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 4-3-5, and involuntary movement was observed. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed increased cell count; hence, we suspected anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis. We conducted an abdominal CT scan, which revealed a neoplastic lesion with calcification in the right ovary. Early steroid pulse therapy was started. On hospital day 25, she tested positive for anti-NMDA receptor antibodies; hence, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and concomitant ovarian teratoma was diagnosid. She underwent right adnexectomy; subsequently, immunotherapy was performed. The patient recovered and was discharged on hospital day 105. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is not uncommon; however, this disease must be considered for young encephalitis patients exhibiting psychiatric symptoms. If patients (aged ≤ 30 years) presents with encephalitis of uncertain etiology, psychiatric symptoms, seizures, movement disorders, or psychosis, clinicians should consider anti-NMDA encephalitis as a possible diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis should be waged early to ensure timely treatment.

  14. Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a psychiatric population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a diagnostic category used to describe symptoms arising from emotionally traumatic experience(s). Research suggests that PTSD may be under- diagnosed when trauma is not the presenting problem or when not the focus of clinical intervention. There is a dearth of South ...

  15. symptoms in psychiatric in-patients at Mathari hospital, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-02-01

    Feb 1, 2008 ... Patients with obsessive-compulsive (00) symptoms often meet the life time criteria for another anxiety disorder as OCD often co—exists with panic disorder, social phobia, simple phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder as well as depression, alcohol and drug use disorders.'*-8. A number of studies based ...

  16. Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a psychiatric population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-12

    May 12, 2006 ... Introduction. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder currently defined by the coexistence of three clusters of symptoms, persisting for one month in survivors of a serious traumatic event .These clusters are: • Intrusive cluster - Intrusions can take the form of repeated, unwanted and ...

  17. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The findings confirm that patients with a new diagnosis of HIV may present with disorders of thought and/or cognition as well as gross behavioural disturbance, and that psychotic symptoms and secondary mania could be manifestations of the clinical onset of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) ...

  18. The effect of psychotherapy in improving physical and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Faramarzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Dyspepsia (FD is a common symptom of upper gastrointestinal discomfort. Few data are available on the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of dyspeptic syndromes. This study assesses whether brief core conflictual relationship theme (CCRT psychoanalytic psychotherapy improves gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.A randomized, controlled trial was planned in two educational hospitals in city of Babol. Forty-nine patients with FD were randomly assigned to receive standard medication treatment with CCRT psychotherapy (24 participants or standard medication treatment alone (25 participants. The participants completed the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (PAGI-SYM and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R questionnaires before the trial, after the treatment and at 1 and 12-month follow-ups. The mixed-effects (regression model was used to analyze the data.The results showed that CCRT psychotherapy improved all of the FD symptoms (heartburn/regurgitation, nausea/vomiting, fullness, bloating, upper abdominal pain, and lower abdominal pain and many of the psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation after the treatment and at 1-month and 12-month follow-ups.Brief CCRT psychoanalytic psychotherapy can serve as an effective intervention for promoting gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  19. The predictive value of childhood subthreshold manic symptoms for adolescent and adult psychiatric outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachristou, Efstathios; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Raven, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A.; Frangou, Sophia; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood subthreshold manic symptoms may represent a state of developmental vulnerability to Bipolar Disorder (BD) and may also be associated with other adverse psychiatric outcomes. To test this hypothesis we examined the structure and predictive value of childhood subthreshold manic

  20. Van psychiatrisch symptoom tot paraneoplastisch syndroom [From psychiatric symptoms to paraneoplastic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, S.T. de; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Haaxma, C.A.; Kappelle, A.C.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de

    2008-01-01

    Two patients, a 38-year-old man and a 32-year-old woman, were admitted to a psychiatric ward. The first patient suffered from a mood disorder, personality changes and complained of several, hitherto unexplained physical symptoms. Finally the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic cerebellar

  1. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  2. Complex Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…

  3. Pursuing bariatric surgery in an urban area: Gender and racial disparities and risk for psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Matero, Lisa Renee; Tobin, Erin T; Clark, Shannon; Eshelman, Anne; Genaw, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is effective for weight loss; however, only a small percentage of those who qualify choose to pursue it. Additionally, although psychiatric symptoms appear to be common among candidates, the risk factors for symptoms are not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of those who are pursuing bariatric surgery in an urban area, whether demographic disparities continue to exist, and identify characteristics of those who may be at higher risk for experiencing psychiatric symptoms. There were 424 bariatric candidates who completed a required psychological evaluation prior to bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates tended to be middle-aged, Caucasian females, which was unexpected when compared to the rates of obesity among these groups. Therefore, it appears that there are disparities in who chooses to seek out bariatric surgery compared to those who may qualify due to their obesity status. Cultural factors may play a role in why males and African Americans seek out bariatric surgery less frequently. Psychiatric symptoms among candidates are also common, with depression symptoms increasing with age and BMI. Perhaps the compounding effects of medical comorbidities over time are contributing to greater depressive symptoms in the older patients. Findings from this study suggest that we may need to explore ways of encouraging younger patients, males, and ethnic minorities to pursue bariatric surgery to increase weight loss success and decrease medical comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The therapeutic alliance in a naturalistic psychiatric setting: temporal relations with depressive symptom change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christian A; Beard, Courtney; Auerbach, Randy P; Menninger, Eliza; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported associations between the therapeutic alliance and depressive symptom improvement in outpatient samples. However, little is known regarding the temporal relationship between the alliance and symptom change among relatively severely depressed patients receiving treatment in naturalistic, psychiatric hospital settings. Adult patients with major depression (n = 103) receiving combined cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment at a psychiatric hospital completed repeated assessments of the therapeutic alliance and depressive symptoms, as well as a pretreatment assessment of their expectation of symptom improvement. Results indicated that the alliance and treatment outcome expectancies significantly predicted subsequent depressive symptom change. However, in a model in which prior symptom change and treatment outcome expectancies were statistically controlled, the alliance-outcome association was rendered nonsignificant. The alliance was significantly associated with prior symptom improvement. Findings highlight the importance of controlling for plausible third variable and temporal confounds to minimize biased estimates of alliance-outcome associations in future studies. Overall, results were more consistent with the alliance being a consequence, rather than a cause, of symptom change. Finally, findings contribute to a growing body of evidence supporting the role of treatment outcome expectancies in predicting symptom improvement, even within our relatively severely depressed sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics and Psychiatric Symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder among Adults Using Self-Reported DSM-5 Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Ri; Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Griffiths, Mark D; Hyun, So Yeon; Youn, Hyun Chul; Choi, Sam-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposed nine diagnostic criteria and five cut-point criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed to examine the efficacy of such criteria. Adults (n=3041, men: 1824, women: 1217) who engaged in internet gaming within last 6 months completed a self-report online survey using the suggested wordings of the criteria in DSM-5. Major characteristics, gaming behavior, and psychiatric symptoms of IGD were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, and correlation analyses. The sociodemographic variables were not statistically significant between the healthy controls and the risk group. Among the participants, 419 (13.8%) were identified and labeled as the IGD risk group. The IGD risk group scored significantly higher on all motivation subscales (p<0.001). The IGD risk group showed significantly higher scores than healthy controls in all nine psychiatric symptom dimensions, i.e., somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism (p<0.001). The IGD risk group showed differential psychopathological manifestations according to DSM-5 IGD diagnostic criteria. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the specific criteria, especially for developing screening instruments.

  6. [Establishment of "Anaphylaxis Scoring Aichi (ASCA)," a new symptom scoring system to be used in an oral food challenge (OFC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Asuka; Maeda, Toru; Haneda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Takae; Yasui, Masahiro; Kando, Naoyuki; Ito, Komei

    2013-08-01

    An original symptom score sheet named "Anaphylaxis Scoring Aichi (ASCA)" was created to quantitatively determine the severity of allergic symptoms provoked in an oral food challenge. ASCA lists and sorts subjective and objective symptoms into five organs (respiratory, skin-mucosal, gastrointestinal, psycho-neurological and cardiovascular). The organ scores were given (0 to 60 points) in accordance with the severity of each symptom. The total score was defined as the sum of the highest 5 organ scores (maximum 240 points) observed throughout the course of an OFC. This study evaluated the ASCA score in 253 cases of a positive food challenge (age 1-16 years, mean 5.3±3.2 years) conducted from April to August 2011 in our institute. The results were compared to the modified anaphylaxis grading presented in the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Oral Food Challenge Test in Food Allergy 2009. At the same time, we evaluated the indications of symptomatic treatment using ASCA score. The total score closely correlated with the anaphylaxis grading, but there was a wide range of overlap between grade 2 and grade 3. All cases with a total score≥60 points were equivalent to grade 4 or 5, and that were consisted of three or more organ symptoms. These severe cases contained respiratory or skin/mucosal symptoms, and despite the early induction of initial therapy, the symptoms became worse. ASCA is therefore considered to be a useful tool for use in an oral food challenge test.

  7. Amelioration of psychiatric symptoms through exposure to music individually adapted to brain rhythm disorders - a randomised clinical trial on the basis of fundamental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wolf; Haffelder, Günter; Schlotmann, Angelika; Schaefers, Andrea T U; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined, whether long-term exposure of psychiatric patients to music that was individually adapted to brain rhythm disorders associated with psychoticism could act to ameliorate psychiatric symptoms. A total of 50 patients with various psychiatric diagnoses were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to listen to CDs containing either music adapted to brain rhythm anomalies associated with psychoticism - measured via a specific spectral analysis - or standard classical music. Participants were instructed to listen to the CDs over the next 18 months. Psychiatric symptoms in both groups were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 18 months, using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). At 18 months, patients in the experimental group showed significantly decreased BSI scores compared to control patients. Intriguingly, this effect was not only seen for symptoms of psychoticism and paranoia but also for anxiety, phobic anxiety and somatisation. Exposure to the adapted music was effective in ameliorating psychotic, anxiety and phobic anxiety symptoms. Based on the theories of neuroplasticity and brain rhythms, it can be hypothesised that this intervention may be enhancing brain-rhythm synchronisation and plasticity in prefrontal-hippocampal circuits that are implicated in both psychosis/paranoia and anxiety/phobic anxiety.

  8. The effect of psychiatric symptoms on the internet addiction disorder in Isfahan′s University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction disorder is an interdisciplinary phenomenon and it has been studied from different viewpoints in terms of various sciences such as medicine, computer, sociology, law, ethics, and psychology. The aim of this study was to determine the association of psychiatric symptoms with Internet addiction while controlling for the effects of age, gender, marital status, and educational levels. It is hypothesized, that high levels of Internet addiction are associated with psychiatric symptoms and are specially correlated with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total number of 250 students from Isfahan′s universities were randomly selected. Subjects completed the demographic questionnaire, the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R. Data was analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. Results: There was an association between psychiatric symptoms such as somatization, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, aggression, phobias, and psychosis with exception of paranoia; and diagnosis of Internet addiction controlling for age, sex, education level, marital status, and type of universities. Conclusions: A great percentage of youths in the population suffer from the adverse effects of Internet addiction. It is necessary for psychiatrists and psychologists to be aware of the mental problems caused by Internet addiction.

  9. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with Internet use: comparison without Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleci, Meral; Inal, Sevil

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the psychiatric symptoms of adolescents with and without Internet use. A total of 2,080 students (1,105 male, 975 female) were recruited for the study. We administered the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision and Questions Related to Internet Use. Students in 10th through 12th grades were recruited from 14 senior high schools in Sivas, Turkey. Data were collected from October to May 2008. Data were analyzed after excluding the participants who provided incomplete data. It was found that Internet use in adolescents was associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms. Attention should be devoted to adolescents with Internet use for the design of preventive strategies.

  10. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile telephony and the association with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Denize Francisca da; Barros, Warley Rocha; Almeida, Maria da Conceição Chagas de; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and psychiatric symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 440 individuals were interviewed. Psychiatric complaints and diagnoses were the dependent variables and distance from the individual's residence to the base station was considered the main independent variable. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess confounding. An association was observed between psychiatric symptoms and residential proximity to the base station and different forms of mobile phone use (making calls with weak signal coverage, keeping the mobile phone close to the body, having two or more chips, and never turning off the phone while sleeping), and with the use of other electronic devices. The study concluded that exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and other electronic devices was associated with psychiatric symptoms, independently of gender, schooling, and smoking status. The adoption of precautionary measures to reduce such exposure is recommended.

  11. Psychopathology, Psychiatric Symptoms and their Demographic Correlates in Female Adolescents Flood Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitwat, Aisha; Asad, Sara; Yousaf, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the incidence of psychopathology, frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and their demographic correlates in flood affected female adolescents. Descriptive study. District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan, from July to October 2011. Female adolescent flood victims, aged 13 - 19 years, were recruited. Screening was done and Diagnostic Questionnaire for Psychiatric Disorders was administered to confirm the diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR. Demographic information was also obtained regarding nature of personal and financial damages to the participants due to flood. The mean age of 205 participants was 15.78 ±2.13 years. Post-flood diagnoses of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) had the highest frequency rates in female adolescents flood victims i.e., 4 (2%), 2 (1%) and 2 (1%), respectively. Psychiatric symptoms of GAD and PTSD were reported most by the screened-out participants; whereas participants who were still living in personal tents and received late arrival of any kind of aid, reported more psychopathology. Flood and consequent financial damages may pose a risk factor for development of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology. Results have implications for the need of improved mental health services for female adolescent flood victims.

  12. 'Mastication rage': a review of misophonia - an under-recognised symptom of psychiatric relevance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxner, George

    2016-04-01

    To explore the condition of misophonia, its definition, possible neurological correlates, its associated morbidity, its possible psychiatric relevance and potential treatment. Provision of an illustrative case vignette and a review of the limited literature. Misophonia is a symptom associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders and may be a syndrome in itself associated with significant distress and avoidance. Treatments are not well validated. Misophonia may be an under-recognised condition of psychiatric relevance. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. The Association between Intelligence Scores and Family History of Psychiatric Disorder in Schizophrenia Patients, Their Siblings and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Kim H. W.; Derks, Eske M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of family history should be broadened. The association between family history for psychiatric disorder and intelligence scores was investigated in patients with non-affective psychosis, their unaffected siblings and controls. Methods A sample of 712 schizophrenia proband families (696 patients and 766 siblings) and 427 healthy control families (517 subjects) participated in this study. Family history of psychiatric disorder was determined while excluding the data of the participating schizophrenia patient. A dichotomous division was made between families with no first- or second degree relative with psychiatric disorder and families with one or more affected relatives. Total intelligence scores were estimated by admission of the short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III. Results A significant interaction was found between family history of psychiatric disorder and clinical status (F(2,1086.87)= 4.17; p=.016). Patients with a positive family history of psychiatric disorder obtained higher intelligence scores compared to patients with no family history (mean IQ scores are 95.52 and 92.72) with an opposite effect in controls (mean IQ scores are 108.71 and 111.19). No significant difference was found between siblings of schizophrenia patients with or without a positive family history (mean IQ scores are 102.98 and 103.24). Conclusion In patients with schizophrenia, a negative family history of psychiatric disorder was associated with relatively low IQ suggesting that the etiology in these patients may involve environmental or genetic factors which are unique to the patient and are not observed in other relatives. Possible factors include severe environmental

  14. The Mediating Effect of Gaming Motivation Between Psychiatric Symptoms and Problematic Online Gaming: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Ágoston, Csilla; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid expansion of online video gaming as a leisure time activity has led to the appearance of problematic online gaming (POG). According to the literature, POG is associated with different psychiatric symptoms (eg, depression, anxiety) and with specific gaming motives (ie, escape, achievement). Based on studies of alcohol use that suggest a mediator role of drinking motives between distal influences (eg, trauma symptoms) and drinking problems, this study examined the assumption that there is an indirect link between psychiatric distress and POG via the mediation of gaming motives. Furthermore, it was also assumed that there was a moderator effect of gender and game type preference based on the important role gender plays in POG and the structural differences between different game types. Objective This study had two aims. The first aim was to test the mediating role of online gaming motives between psychiatric symptoms and problematic use of online games. The second aim was to test the moderator effect of gender and game type preference in this mediation model. Methods An online survey was conducted on a sample of online gamers (N=3186; age: mean 21.1, SD 5.9 years; male: 2859/3186, 89.74%). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ), and the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) were administered to assess general psychiatric distress, online gaming motives, and problematic online game use, respectively. Structural regression analyses within structural equation modeling were used to test the proposed mediation models and multigroup analyses were used to test gender and game type differences to determine possible moderating effects. Results The mediation models fitted the data adequately. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the BSI indicated that the level of psychiatric distress had a significant positive direct effect (standardized effect=.35, Pgaming motives: escape (standardized effect=.139

  15. The mediating effect of gaming motivation between psychiatric symptoms and problematic online gaming: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Ágoston, Csilla; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-04-07

    The rapid expansion of online video gaming as a leisure time activity has led to the appearance of problematic online gaming (POG). According to the literature, POG is associated with different psychiatric symptoms (eg, depression, anxiety) and with specific gaming motives (ie, escape, achievement). Based on studies of alcohol use that suggest a mediator role of drinking motives between distal influences (eg, trauma symptoms) and drinking problems, this study examined the assumption that there is an indirect link between psychiatric distress and POG via the mediation of gaming motives. Furthermore, it was also assumed that there was a moderator effect of gender and game type preference based on the important role gender plays in POG and the structural differences between different game types. This study had two aims. The first aim was to test the mediating role of online gaming motives between psychiatric symptoms and problematic use of online games. The second aim was to test the moderator effect of gender and game type preference in this mediation model. An online survey was conducted on a sample of online gamers (N=3186; age: mean 21.1, SD 5.9 years; male: 2859/3186, 89.74%). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ), and the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) were administered to assess general psychiatric distress, online gaming motives, and problematic online game use, respectively. Structural regression analyses within structural equation modeling were used to test the proposed mediation models and multigroup analyses were used to test gender and game type differences to determine possible moderating effects. The mediation models fitted the data adequately. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the BSI indicated that the level of psychiatric distress had a significant positive direct effect (standardized effect=.35, Pgaming motives: escape (standardized effect=.139, Pgaming (standardized effect size=.64

  16. The direction of the relationship between symptoms of insomnia and psychiatric disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Pasquale K; Roberts, Rachel M; Harris, Jodie K; Bruni, Oliviero

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the direction of the relationship between symptoms of insomnia disorder, depression, various anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in adolescents after controlling for age, gender, chronotype, and outcome variable at baseline. Data was collected in eight high schools in Adelaide, South Australia, at two time-points approximately 6 months apart. The study was completed by 318 and 255 high school students at baseline and follow-up, respectively, aged 12-18 (M=14.96, SD=1.34) in grades 7-11 at baseline. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess each relationship, the first model controlling for age, gender and chronotype, and the second controlling for outcome variable at baseline. Insomnia symptoms predicted and were predicted by symptoms of each psychiatric disorder in model 1. In model 2, insomnia symptoms predicted symptoms of depression, and vice-versa. Symptoms of insomnia also predicted symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) once SAD, but not vice-versa, in model 2. Symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia (SP) predicted symptoms of insomnia disorder in model 2, but not vice-versa. Insomnia symptoms were no longer related to symptoms of other anxiety disorders in model 2. The use of self-report measures, and potential predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating or preventative factors were not assessed. Symptoms of insomnia disorder are bidirectionally related to depressive symptoms independent from baseline symptoms, and unidirectionally related to symptoms of OCD and SP where OCD and SP are independent risk-factors of the development of insomnia symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Traumatic war stressors and psychiatric symptoms among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A; Rosenheck, R

    1994-03-01

    Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans' age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking treatment from specialized Veterans Affairs outpatient clinical teams made up the sample: 320 World War II, 199 Korean War, and 4,619 Vietnam War veterans. All hypotheses were supported significantly. The similarity of relationships between traumatic exposure and symptoms across wars testifies to the generality of these experiences. Furthermore, the results suggest the operation of significant effects due both to aging and to cohort differences in sociocultural attitudes toward the stigma of mental illness and the popularity of the wars.

  18. Psychiatric Symptoms as a Predictor of Sexual Aggression among Male College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Brown, Elissa J; Doyle, Megan E

    The goal of this investigation was to examine psychiatric symptoms as predictors of the frequency and severity of sexually aggressive behaviors that had been perpetrated by college-aged men in the past year. Over 400 undergraduate males completed an assessment of sexual aggression, athletic involvement, fraternity affiliation, alcohol and drug use, mistrust of women, depression, and social anxiety. More than 40% of the undergraduate men reported having participated in some form of sexual aggression within the past 12 months, 6% of whom reported having attempted or completed rape. Sexually aggressive behavior (both frequency and severity) was predicted by alcohol use, mistrust of women, and social anxiety. Results are the first to indicate that psychiatric symptoms might contribute to sexual aggression among college men.

  19. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi [National Institute of Mental Health, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms in Huntington's disease are modified by polymorphisms in catecholamine regulating enzyme genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, T; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Budtz-Jørgensen, E

    2016-01-01

    previously been shown in HD, and furthermore dopamine is thought to be implicated in cognition, behavioral and motor disturbances. A substantiated inverse correlation between motor onset and the elongated CAG repeat in the HTT has been established. This relation does not account for the full variability......Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, psychiatric, and cognitive manifestations. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene but the exact pathogenesis remains unknown. Dopamine imbalance has...... of the motor onset, and efforts have been put into finding genetic modifiers of motor onset, however, mostly with unsuccessful outcome. In this study, we took an alternative approach focusing on symptom complexes and searched for modifiers of cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms in a well...

  1. Determination of the psychiatric symptoms and psychological resilience levels of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadar, D; Tanriverdi, D; Pehlivan, M; Kurnaz, G; Alkan, S

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and resilience levels of the hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and their relatives. The study enrolled 51 patients and 45 relatives undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Data were collected using Personal Information Form, Brief Symptom Inventory and Resilience Scale for Adults. Psychiatric symptoms of both patients and their relatives were negatively associated with resilience levels. Patients and their relatives with a higher degree of resilience showed a lower degree of psychiatric symptoms. The study results demonstrate that haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a process that affects patients as well as their families. We suggest that patients and their family members be evaluated for psychiatric symptoms by nurses during this process and resilience level of patients be increased by helping them improve their coping and problem-solving skills for adaptation throughout the process. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Psychiatric Symptoms as a Predictor of Sexual Aggression among Male College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Esther J.; BROWN, ELISSA J.; Doyle, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine psychiatric symptoms as predictors of the frequency and severity of sexually aggressive behaviors that had been perpetrated by college-aged men in the past year. Over 400 undergraduate males completed an assessment of sexual aggression, athletic involvement, fraternity affiliation, alcohol and drug use, mistrust of women, depression, and social anxiety. More than 40% of the undergraduate men reported having participated in some form of sexual aggr...

  3. Psychiatric symptoms and pregnancy distress in subsequent pregnancy after spontaneous abortion history

    OpenAIRE

    Haghparast, Elahe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Hassanzadeh, Ramezan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Spontaneous abortion is one of the most important complications of pregnancy with short and long adverse psychological effects on women. This study assesses the implications of a spontaneous abortion history has on women?s psychiatric symptoms and pregnancy distress in subsequent pregnancy less than one years after spontaneous abortion. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on pregnant women of Babol city from September 2014 to May 2015. In this study, 100 pregnant women wit...

  4. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Hacer; Hocaoglu, Cicek; Guvendag-Guven, Emine Seda

    2016-04-25

    Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ (2)=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ (2)=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have significantly more severe depressive

  5. Somatic symptoms, perceived stress and perceived job satisfaction among nurses working in an Indian psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Sangeetha, G; Ahmed, Nurnahar; Chaturvedi, S K

    2014-12-01

    High stress perception by nurses caring for psychiatric patients can lead to somatic symptoms which impact on their job satisfaction perception. To assess and correlate the level of somatic symptoms, perceived stress and perceived job satisfaction among the subjects. The authors used a descriptive correlation design to invite 150 nurses of both genders working for more than one year with psychiatric patients. The Scale for Assessment of Somatic Symptoms (Chaturvedi et al., 1987) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for stress and job satisfaction perception were used to collect data. The nurses (128) reported mainly pain related (4.87±2.97) somatic symptoms. Somatic symptoms positively correlated (r=0.302) with stress perception and negatively correlated (r=-0.231) with perceived job satisfaction, while perceived stress and perceived job satisfaction were negatively correlated (r=-0.460, p=0.000). The results indicate a need for stress management interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comorbid internet addiction in male clients of inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers: psychiatric symptoms and mental comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Koch, Andreas; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Müller, Kai W

    2013-11-01

    Addictive Internet use has recently been proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Still, little is known about its nosological features, including comorbidity with other mental disorders and disorder-specific psychopathological symptoms. To investigate whether Internet addiction (IA) is an issue in patients in addiction treatment, 1826 clients were surveyed in 15 inpatient rehabilitation centers. Male patients meeting criteria for comorbid IA (n = 71) were compared with a matched control group of male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use (n = 58). The SCL-90-R, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder were used to assess associated psychiatric symptoms and further comorbid disorders. Comorbid IA was associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, especially depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders. They display higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, especially depression, and might be in need of additional therapeutic treatment. In rehabilitation centers, a regular screening for IA is recommended to identify patients with this (non-substance-related) addiction and supply them with additional disorder-specific treatment.

  7. Mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence in office workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Hoedeman, R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Bültmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence (SA). Methods: Mental health symptoms were measured in 1137 office workers with the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), including scales for distress, depression, anxiety and

  8. Mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence in office workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Hoedeman, Rob; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    Background: To investigate mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence (SA). Methods: Mental health symptoms were measured in 1137 office workers with the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), including scales for distress, depression,

  9. The relationship between genotype, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in adult patients with sickle cell disease in São Paulo, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Bergamini Mastandréa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL may be worsened in sickle cell patients due to the presence of psychiatric disorders. The aims of this study were to describe the psychiatric symptoms in Brazilian sickle cell patients and to evaluate the relationship of these symptoms to the genotype of the disease and the subject's HRQoL. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at the hematology outpatient clinic, Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: Adult patients with sickle cell disease completed the Medical Outcome Study - Short Form 36 and the Patients' Health Questionnaire. Clinical data were gathered from their medical files. Linear regression models were developed to study the dependency of HRQoL domains on the genotype controlling for psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS: In the study period, 110 patients were evaluated. The most frequent psychiatric symptom was depression (30%, followed by anxiety (12.7% and alcohol abuse (9.1%. Patients with the more severe genotype (SS and Sβthal0 showed lower scores for the "general health" and "role-physical" HRQoL domains, without interference from psychiatric symptoms. In the "role-physical" domain, the more severe genotype operated as a protective factor for HRQoL (β = 0.255; P = 0.007. CONCLUSION: The more severe genotypes worsened HRQoL in two domains of physical health (general health and role-physical, but they did not have any influence on mental health, thus suggesting that physicians should be more attentive to aspects of HRQoL relating to the functionality of sickle cell disease patients, so as to be aware of the limitations that these patient live with.

  10. Feigned symptoms among defendants claiming psychiatric problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Seyed Mehdi; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Ghorbani, Mazaher; Nasrabadi, Zaynab Nasri; Meysamie, Ali Pasha

    2013-01-01

    Objective In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers. Method In a prospective study 45 malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran. Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher's exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%). Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032) and a higher level of education (P=0.008) than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040). With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048) for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034), mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000) and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039) for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants. Conclusion This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be useful in detection of malingering,; however

  11. Feigned Symptoms among Defendants Claiming Psychiatric Problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Saberi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be

  12. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinha, Rajita; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-01-01

    .... The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16-75 years...

  13. PERSONALITY TRAITS, ANGER AND PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS RELATED TO QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Noemi Peres; Abumusse, Luciene Vaccaro de Morais; Coqueiro, Daniel Pereira; Citero, Vanessa de Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    The presence of psychiatric symptoms, anger, and personality characteristics are factors that affect the quality of life of newly diagnosed digestive system cancer patients. This study aims to identify which stable characteristics of the individual's personality interfere with quality of life, even when reactive emotional characteristics of falling ill are controlled. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Oncology Clinic ( Hospital das Clínicas ), Marília/SP, Brazil, in which 50 adult patients with digestive system cancer and diagnosed less than 6 months answered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF. Multiple regression was performed to verify if quality of life was related to stable characteristics of the subject's personality (anger trait, temperament and character) after controlling to the transient emotional aspects (anger state, psychiatric symptoms). The quality of life psychological health score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and reward dependence temperament and quality of life environment score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and lower in presence of harm avoidance temperament. The psychological well-being and the adaptive needs to the environment that favoring a better quality of life were reinforced mainly by the self-directedness character; which means that patients more autonomous cope better with the disease. On the other hand, the harm avoidance temperament (meaning the patient has fear of aversive situations) impaired the adaptive capacity to deal with the changes of the day-to-day imposed by the disease. Understanding these personality traits is important to the health professionals drive the patient to more successful treatment.

  14. PERSONALITY TRAITS, ANGER AND PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS RELATED TO QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Peres HONORATO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND The presence of psychiatric symptoms, anger, and personality characteristics are factors that affect the quality of life of newly diagnosed digestive system cancer patients. OBJECTIVE This study aims to identify which stable characteristics of the individual’s personality interfere with quality of life, even when reactive emotional characteristics of falling ill are controlled. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed at the Oncology Clinic ( Hospital das Clínicas , Marília/SP, Brazil, in which 50 adult patients with digestive system cancer and diagnosed less than 6 months answered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF. Multiple regression was performed to verify if quality of life was related to stable characteristics of the subject’s personality (anger trait, temperament and character after controlling to the transient emotional aspects (anger state, psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS The quality of life psychological health score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and reward dependence temperament and quality of life environment score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and lower in presence of harm avoidance temperament. CONCLUSION The psychological well-being and the adaptive needs to the environment that favoring a better quality of life were reinforced mainly by the self-directedness character; which means that patients more autonomous cope better with the disease. On the other hand, the harm avoidance temperament (meaning the patient has fear of aversive situations impaired the adaptive capacity to deal with the changes of the day-to-day imposed by the disease. Understanding these personality traits is important to the health professionals drive the patient to more successful treatment.

  15. Dopaminergic dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms in movement disorders: a {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giuda, Daniela; Cocciolillo, Fabrizio; Bruno, Isabella; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Camardese, Giovanni; Pucci, Lorella; Janiri, Luigi [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Psichiatria e Psicologia, Rome (Italy); Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Guidubaldi, Arianna [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Neurologia, Rome (Italy); Fasano, Alfonso [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Neurologia, Rome (Italy); AFaR-Associazione Fatebenefratelli per la Ricerca, Rome (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Psychiatric symptoms frequently occur in patients with movement disorders. They are not a mere reaction to chronic disability, but most likely due to a combination of psychosocial factors and biochemical dysfunction underlying the movement disorder. We assessed dopamine transporter (DAT) availability by means of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT, and motor and psychiatric features in patients with Parkinson's disease, primary dystonia and essential tremor, exploring the association between SPECT findings and symptom severity. Enrolled in the study were 21 patients with Parkinson's disease, 14 patients with primary dystonia and 15 patients with essential tremor. The severity of depression symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety levels using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale and hedonic tone impairment using the Snaith-Hamilton pleasure scale. Specific {sup 123}I-FP-CIT binding in the caudate and putamen was calculated based on ROI analysis. The control group included 17 healthy subjects. As expected, DAT availability was significantly decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease, whereas in essential tremor and dystonia patients it did not differ from that observed in the control group. In Parkinson's disease patients, an inverse correlation between severity of depression symptoms and DAT availability in the left caudate was found (r = -0.63, p = 0.002). In essential tremor patients, levels of anxiety symptoms were inversely correlated with DAT availability in the left caudate (r = -0.69, p = 0.004). In dystonia patients, the severities of both anxiety and depression symptoms were inversely associated with DAT availability in the left putamen (r = -0.71, p = 0.004, and r = -0.75, p = 0.002, respectively). There were no correlations between psychometric scores and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT uptake ratios in healthy subjects. We found association between presynaptic dopaminergic function and affective symptoms in different movement

  16. A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research.

  17. Effects of extended cannabis abstinence on clinical symptoms in cannabis dependent schizophrenia patients versus non-psychiatric controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Rachel A; Kozak, Karolina; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Remington, Gary; George, Tony P

    2017-03-08

    Rates of cannabis use among patients with schizophrenia are high, however little is understood about clinical effects of continued cannabis use and cessation after illness onset. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 28-days of cannabis abstinence on psychotic and depressive symptomatology in cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia. Males with cannabis dependence and co-morbid schizophrenia (n=19) and non-psychiatric controls (n=20) underwent 28-days of monitored cannabis abstinence. Clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and then weekly. Abstinence was encouraged using weekly therapy sessions and contingency reinforcement, confirmed by twice-weekly urine assays. Forty-two percent (8/19) of patients and 55% (11/20) of controls achieved 28-days of sustained cannabis abstinence. In patients, PANSS subscores did not change over time irrespective of abstinence status. In contrast, patient abstainers demonstrated a more pronounced reduction in depression scores compared to non-abstainers, however, the Abstinence Status x Time interaction was non-significant. Short-term (28-days) cannabis abstinence is not associated with improvement in psychotic symptoms, but may be associated with improvement in depressive symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia. Future studies employing larger samples as well as a continuous cannabis-using group may help to better characterize the causal effects of cannabis on symptom outcomes in this disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of hopelessness on the links between psychiatric symptoms and suicidality in a vulnerable population at risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas; Dunn, Graham; Shaw, Jennifer; Awenat, Yvonne; Ulph, Fiona; Pratt, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of two risk factors working together on a measure of suicide probability in a highly vulnerable group who were male prisoners identified as being at risk of self harm. The first risk factor was psychiatric symptoms, including general psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorder. The second risk factor was psychological precursors of suicidal thoughts and behaviours which were defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Sixty-five male prisoners from a high secure prison in NW England, UK, were recruited, all of whom were considered at risk of suicide by prison staff. General psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorders predicted the probability of suicide. Hopelessness amplified the strength of the positive relationship between general psychiatric symptoms and suicide probability. These amplification effects acted most strongly on suicidal ideation as opposed to negative self evaluations or hostility. In contrast, defeat, entrapment and hopelessness did not affect the relationship between personality disorders and suicide probability. Clinical assessments of highly vulnerable individuals, as exemplified by prisoners, should include measures of a range of general psychiatric symptoms, together with measures of psychological components, in particular perceptions of hopelessness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between self-reported substance use and psychiatric symptoms in low-threshold methadone maintenance treatment clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Sean P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ongoing psychiatric symptoms and substance use are common difficulties experienced by clients enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT. However, little research to date has evaluated if specific types of current substance use are related to specific types of current psychiatric symptoms. The present study investigated these relationships with a sample of clients enrolled in a low-threshold MMT program (i.e., clients are not expelled if they continue to use substances. Some clients enrolled in low-threshold programs may never achieve complete abstinence from all substances. Thus, understanding the possibly perpetuating relationships between concurrent substance use and psychiatric symptoms is important. Understanding such relationships may aid in developing possible target areas of treatment to reduce substance use and/or related harms in this population. Methods Seventy-seven individuals were interviewed regarding methadone usage and current and past substance use. Current psychiatric symptoms were assessed using a modified version of the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ. Relationships between types of substances used in the past 30 days and the types and number of psychiatric symptoms experienced in the same timeframe were examined. Results The majority of participants (87.0% reported using alcohol, illicit substances, non-prescribed prescription opioids, or non-prescribed benzodiazepines in the past 30 days and 77.9% of participants reported currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms at levels that would likely warrant diagnosis. Current non-prescribed benzodiazepine use was a predictor for increased severity (i.e., symptom count of almost all anxiety and mood disorders assessed. Conversely, number and presence of generalized anxiety symptoms and presence of social phobia symptoms predicted current non-prescribed benzodiazepine and alcohol use, respectively. Conclusions Individuals enrolled in

  20. The role of emotional intelligence in symptom reduction after psychotherapy in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; Schalken, Pierre; Meertens, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    Emotional intelligence of the patient has been claimed to potentially be an important factor in psychotherapy. Empirical studies are largely lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine if (i) pre-intervention emotional intelligence predicts outcome of psychotherapy and (ii) change in emotional intelligence during psychotherapy is associated with change in symptoms in a patient sample with heterogeneous psychiatric symptoms. Participants were 166 patients with different diagnoses who were hospitalized at the Center for Psychological Recovery. Before, after hospitalization and 6months after hospitalization they were asked to complete the BarOn-EQi for emotional intelligence and the Symptom Checklist-90. Level of emotional intelligence at the start of hospitalization largely did not predict psychological symptoms at post-intervention or at 6month follow-up. However, an increase in the level of emotional intelligence over the course of the intervention was associated with lower levels of psychological symptoms, both immediately post-intervention and at 6-month follow-up. The results suggest that while the pre-intervention level of emotional intelligence has no substantial effect on treatment outcome, an increase in emotional intelligence may have a positive effect on symptom decrease and on the preservation of treatment results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Topiramate improves psychiatric symptoms in a patient with Lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan G

    2014-12-01

    Many patients with Lewy body dementia develop visual hallucinations and other psychiatric symptoms. These patients are hypersensitive to antipsychotic drugs. Although patients tolerate atypical better than typical antipsychotics, both types can cause major extrapyramidal side effects. The anticonvulsant mood stabilizer topiramate, which does not cause parkinsonism, has been used as adjuvant therapy for both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia; these symptoms can resemble those of Lewy body dementia. This report documents a 65-year-old woman with a 3-year history of progressive dementia that over the past 2 years had become complicated by severe extrapyramidal symptoms and agitated hallucinations. Her hallucinations became daily and were disrupting to her family. She was given a clinical diagnosis of Lewy body dementia after imaging and laboratory studies ruled out other etiologies. Treatment with olanzapine relieved her psychotic symptoms but caused severe dystonias, daily myoclonic jerks, and tremors. Stopping the olanzapine and starting topiramate 25 mg daily eliminated the hallucinations and agitation without worsening her extrapyramidal side effects. However, the topiramate was stopped because the patient reportedly developed anorexia and significant weight loss. Her hallucinations returned. When topiramate was reinstated at 12.5 mg a day, her agitation resolved, although her hallucinations continued. After 6 months on this dose, her agitation was still fairly well controlled without serious side effects or worsening of her parkinsonian symptoms.

  2. Estrogen therapy and noncognitive psychiatric signs and symptoms in elderly patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyomen, Helen H; Hennen, John; Gottlieb, Gary L; Wei, Jeanne Y

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of short-term estrogen therapy in decreasing noncognitive signs and symptoms of dementia in demented elderly patients. Sixteen moderately to severely demented elderly patients with aggressive behavioral disturbances were randomly assigned to receive conjugated equine estrogens or placebo in a 4-week clinical trial. Frequency and severity of noncognitive signs and symptoms of dementia, as assessed with the Dementia Signs and Symptoms Scale, were compared between estrogen and placebo groups. Data were analyzed with intent-to-treat and regression modeling methods. Estrogen therapy was associated with a significantly greater improvement on the Dementia Signs and Symptoms Scale total score than placebo. All five Dementia Signs and Symptoms Scale subscale comparisons favored estrogen therapy. No adverse effects were observed. These preliminary data suggest that short-term estrogen therapy may safely decrease the frequency and severity of noncognitive signs and symptoms of dementia in elderly patients.

  3. The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire is reliable in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Jensen, Rigmor; Klarskov, Peter

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the test-retest reliability of Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire in a sample of stroke patients. METHODS: A prospective study design was used in which the stroke patients were invited to complete a postal self-administrated DAN-PSS-1 questionnaire twice....... The questionnaire consists of 12 questions related to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The participants were asked to state the frequency and severity of their symptoms (symptom score) and its impact on their daily life (bother score). Seventy-one stroke patients were included and 59 (83%) answered...... the questionnaire twice. The reliability test was done in two aspects: (a) detecting the frequency of each symptom and its bother factor, the scores were reduced to a two-category scale (=0, >0) and simple kappa statistics was used; (b) detecting the severity of each symptom and its bother factor, the total scale...

  4. [One-week effects of Tamsulosin on benign prostatic hyperplasia assessed with a daily symptom score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masayuki; Egawa, Shin; Ikemoto, Isao; Nakajo, Hiroshi; Hatano, Takashi; Kira, Shinichiro; Mizuo, Toshihiko; Kagami, Yutaka

    2009-04-01

    The early effects of Tamsulosin within one week of administration on lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were investigated. Patients with newly diagnosed BPH were randomized into a Tamsulosin group and a Eviprostat group. Changes in subjective symptoms daily for 7 days after the start of administration and in the 4th week (8 times in total) were evaluated using seven symptoms in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the quality of life (QOL) index entered in a self-scoring diary kept by the patients daily. In the Tamsulosin group, the IPSS total score showed significant improvements. Significant improvements were observed in the incomplete emptying and frequency scores from the day after the start of administration, in the intermittence and straining scores from day 2, in the urgency and weak stream scores from day 3 and in the nocturia score from day 5. The QOL index significantly improved on day 7. In comparison with Eviprostat, Tamsulosin showed a stronger improvement tendency in the total IPSS, voiding symptoms score and incomplete emptying score and the difference was significant. The difference between the two groups was especially marked for the intermittence and weak stream scores and Tamsulosin showed significantly better early effects. Tamsulosin also showed significantly better early effects than Eviprostat in the QOL index. In conclusion, it was clear that Tamsulosin caused significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH as a whole from a very early stage within one week after administration.

  5. Use of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) in Chinese male patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos King-Ho; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Chan, Steve Wai-Hee; Tsu, James Hok-Leung; Fan, Chi-Wai; Chu, Peggy Sau-Kwan; Cheung, Fu-Keung; Ma, Wai-Kit; Mah, Ida Soo Fan; Yip, Sidney Kam-Hung; Hou, Simon See-Ming; So, Hing-Shing; Lam, CindyLo-Kuen

    2017-12-01

    To test the psychometric properties of the International Prostate Symptom Score (Hong Kong Chinese version 2) (IPSS) in Chinese male patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) under secondary care. A prospective longitudinal study was done by interviewing subjects at baseline, at 2 week after baseline for assessing test-retest reliability and at 26 week after baseline for assessing responsiveness. All subjects were interviewed to complete a structured questionnaire including IPSS, Short Form-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The IPSS HRQOL score had weak correlations with SF-12v2 summary and DASS domain scores. For reliability analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90 for the seven symptom-related items. The intraclass correlation coefficients of the IPSS total symptom score and HRQOL score were 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. For sensitivity, statistically significant differences were detected between the subjects with BPH and those without for IPSS total symptom score (effect size = 0.68) but not the IPSS HRQOL score. The areas under ROC curves for the IPSS total symptom and HRQOL scores were 0.67 and 0.60, respectively. The IPSS was valid, reliable instrument in Chinese patients with BPH. The IPSS total symptom score, but not the HRQOL score, is sensitive in differentiating subgroups.

  6. Delayed cognitive and psychiatric symptoms following methyl iodide and manganese poisoning: Potential for misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie Ross, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes two patients who were exposed to toxic substances in the workplace, but for whom diagnosis proved difficult, particularly in case 2. Case 1 was exposed to methyl iodide and case 2 to manganese. Poisoning was characterised by delayed onset of symptoms following exposure and symptom progression after cessation of exposure. The clinical consequences of exposure to these substances include cerebellar and Parkinsonian symptoms followed by the development of cognitive impairment and the late appearance of psychiatric disturbances. Both cases were evaluated by physicians with little training in toxicology. Apart from abnormal liver function in case 1 and decreased power, coordination and proprioception in case 2, results of most routine medical investigations were normal. Both cases were referred for MRI brain scan and neuropsychological assessment. Abnormalities were noted on MRI but reported as being absent initially in case 1and of unknown significance in case 2. There was evidence of cognitive impairment in both and personality change in case 1 of sufficient severity to prevent both cases from returning to work and to impact on family life. There is no antidote to methyl iodide or manganese poisoning. Successful treatment requires early diagnosis and cessation of exposure, but neurotoxic syndromes are difficult to diagnose when a time lag exists between exposure and symptom onset and there is no biomarker of exposure. These syndromes may initially be confused with other neurodegenerative conditions, infectious processes, and psychiatric disorders. Clinician's lack of familiarity with the potential toxicity of environmental and industrial chemicals can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement, and this lack of recognition can lead to continued exposure. These cases highlight the importance of taking a detailed occupational history in patients who present with atypical neurological symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Burnout in psychiatric nursing: examining the interplay of autonomy, leadership style, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Renee; Heck, Nicholas C; Schuldberg, David

    2014-06-01

    It is important to consider ways in which nurses can be protected from experiencing the effects of burnout. This study examined the relationships between leadership style of psychiatric nurse supervisors, work role autonomy, and psychological distress in relation to psychiatric nurse burnout. Eighty-nine psychiatric nurses from Montana and New York hospitals completed an online survey that assessed their work-related experiences. Overall, results of this study indicate that the participants were experiencing high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization when compared to a normative sample of mental health workers. Results also showed that leadership style and work role autonomy are likely to be environmental factors that protect against burnout in nurses. Finally, it was shown that the relationship between depressive symptoms and the burnout component of personal accomplishment may be influenced by nurses' perceptions of the leadership style in their work environment. These findings are important because nurse supervisor leadership styles and amount of autonomy are characteristics of the work environment that may be amenable to change through training and intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kynurenic acid and psychotic symptoms and personality traits in twins with psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Magdalena E; Johansson, Viktoria; Wetterberg, Lennart; Bhat, Maria; Schwieler, Lilly; Cannon, Tyrone D; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Engberg, Göran; Landén, Mikael; Hultman, Christina M; Erhardt, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Increased cytokines and kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytokines and kynurenines in the CSF of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to study these CSF markers in relation to psychotic symptoms and personality traits. CSF levels of tryptophan (TRP), KYNA, quinolinic acid (QUIN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed in 23 twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in their not affected co-twins. Ratings of psychotic symptoms and personality traits were made using the Scales for Assessment of Negative and Positive symptoms, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV - Axis II Disorders, and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief. A total score for psychotic symptoms and personality traits was constructed for analysis. CSF KYNA was associated with the score for psychotic symptom and personality traits. TNF-α and IL-8 were associated, and the intra-pair differences scores of TNF-α and IL-8 were highly correlated. Intraclass correlations indicated genetic influences on CSF KYNA, TRP, IL-8 and TNF-α. The association between KYNA and psychotic symptoms further supports a role of KYNA in psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Social attribution processes and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica A.; Mundy, Peter C.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Durocher, Jennifer Stella

    2009-01-01

    The factors that place children with Asperger syndrome at risk for comorbid psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, remain poorly understood. We investigated the possibility that the children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties are associated with social information and attribution processing. Participants were children with either Asperger syndrome (n = 31) or typical development (n = 33).To assess social information and attribution processing, children responded to hypothetical social vignettes.They also completed self-report measures of social difficulties and psychological functioning. Their parents provided information on social competence and clinical presentation. Children with Asperger syndrome showed poor psychosocial adjustment, which was related to their social information and attribution processing patterns. Cognitive and social-cognitive abilities were associated with aspects of social information processing tendencies, but not with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Results suggest that the comorbid symptoms of children with Asperger syndrome may be associated with their social perception, understanding, and experience. PMID:16908481

  10. Correlation between overactive bladder symptom score and neuropsychological parameters in Alzheimer’s disease patients with lower urinary tract symptom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Lee, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Tae; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Moon Ho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. Materials and Methods A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. Results The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with an urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; p<0.001). When compared with neuropsychological parameters, it was found that OABSS was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.446; p<0.001). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes in OABSS scores and those in other neuropsychological parameters. Based on the individual symptom scores, urgency incontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; p<0.001). Conclusions OABSS is a useful tool in assessing AD patients with LUTS. There was a consistent positive association between OABSS severity, including urgency incontinence, and CDR scores. PMID:27802001

  11. Are there any differences in psychiatric symptoms and eating attitudes between pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum and healthy pregnant women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Kerimoğlu, Özlem Seçilmiş; Gündüz, Şule; Tazegül, Aybike

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between eating attitudes and psychiatric symptoms in women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to compare these women with healthy control subjects. The study sample included 48 women with HG, and the control group had 44 pregnant women. The patients were selected from women with HG hospitalized in the obstetric inpatient clinic. All of the participants were in the first trimester of pregnancy. The participants' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were recorded in the obstetric clinic. All of the participants completed a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and Body Image Scale (BIS). Women with HG were more likely to have had a history of HG during their previous pregnancy (Ppregnancy nausea, food craving and the initial BMI (P>0.05). Depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in women with HG (P0.05). We suggest that HG appears to be associated with depression and anxiety symptoms rather than deterioration of eating attitudes and body image. However, these results should be confirmed by prospective and clinical studies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Impact of psychotic symptoms on cognitive functioning in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients with severe mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James B; Weiss, Shira R; Segovich, Kristin T; Barbot, Baptiste

    2016-10-30

    Despite established differences in cognitive functioning of adults with mood disorder-related psychosis and those with non-affective psychotic disorders, there is limited evidence of the impact of psychotic symptoms on the cognitive functioning of children and adolescents with mood disorders. This study investigates IQ, working memory, and processing speed scores in 80 child and adolescent inpatients discharged from an intermediate care state psychiatric hospital, using a retrospective chart review. Associations between diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria (7 with Major Depression- MDD; 43 with Bipolar Disorders-BD, and 30 with Mood Disorders Not Otherwise Specified-NOS), presence of current psychotic features, and cognitive functioning (WISC-IV IQ, Coding, Symbol Search, and Digit Span) were investigated using Multivariate Analyses of Variance. No differences were found in cognitive functioning between patients with MDD and BD, or between those with severe Mood Disorders (MDD or BD) and those with NOS, when controlling for age, gender, and presence of psychotic features. However, patients with severe mood disorders and psychotic features showed lower IQs and greater working memory deficits than those without psychotic features or NOS. Results are discussed in terms of treatment planning for children and adolescents at risk for developing psychotic symptoms and severe mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effects of listening to music on auditory hallucination and psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyun-Joo; Yang, Soo

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of listening to music in inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, on their auditory hallucinations, and positive and negative symptoms. A quasi-experimental research design with 2x2 cross-over trial and convenience sample was used. Eleven patients (Group AB) listened to music followed by a wash out period and then a usual care period, and 12 patients (Group BA) had a usual care period followed by a wash out period and then listened to music. For one week those who were in the experimental period listened to individualized music using an MP3 player whenever they heard hallucinations. There was a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of auditory hallucinations after listening to the music. There was a decrease in the mean scores for positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology after listening to music, but only negative symptoms showed a statistically significant decrease. The treatment effects on scores for positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology were greater in Group BA than Group AB. These findings suggest that listening to music may be useful for managing auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia inpatients.

  14. [Parenting stress and the reliability of parental information in the diagnostics of children and adolescents with symptoms of psychiatric and behavioral disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlbauer-Müller, Viktoria; Eichler, Anna; Stemmler, Mark; Moll, Gunther H; Kratz, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Information from parents is regularly used in the diagnostic process of children and adolescents with psychiatric symptoms. But the reliability of this information is debatable, because the parents’ own stress can distort their perceptions of the child’s symptoms. For each of N = 68 children and adolescents (11–18 years) who were using mental health services for the first time, we evaluated the ratings of a parent and a professional clinician (internalizing, externalizing symptoms, total-problem score). In addition, parenting stress was scored on the Eltern-Belastungs-Inventars (EBI, Tröster, 2011), which measures both child-related stress and parent-related stress as well as total stress. Highly stressed parent ratings differed more from the clinicians’ ratings than the ratings of less stressed parents. Additionally, correlations showed that higher parenting stress resulted in larger differences between the parent’s and the clinician’s assessments. Multiple regressions proved the predictive value of child-caused parenting stress for these differences. These results apply for internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and total-problem score. Parenting stress should be evaluated systematically in order to carefully assess the value of the information from parents and to determine how it should be included in diagnostic and therapeutical decisions.

  15. Pilot evaluation of the impact of structured child-centered interventions on psychiatric symptom profile of parents with serious somatic illness: struggle for life trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Mika; Repo, Jenni; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This is a trial of cancer patients who are seriously somatically ill and of how their distress affects their spouse or children. In the pilot phase the authors examined whether there are changes in psychiatric symptom profile of seriously somatically ill and healthy parents between assessments concerning a situation before the onset of parental illness, in current situation before intervention and 4 months after the intervention. The study is a family cluster, randomized, controlled treatment trial for parents and children in families with a parent who has a serious somatic illness. Global Severity Index (GSI) and psychiatric symptom profile of parents was assessed with the Symptoms Checklist-90 for adults. At pilot evaluation phase of the Struggle for Life trial, a total of 19 families (16 patients, 15 spouses) participated in the baseline assessment conducted before intervention, and 10 families (seven patients, seven spouses) also at the 4-month follow-up after the intervention. The interventions used in this study were the short Let's Talk about Children including two meetings with parents and more intensive Family Talk Intervention consisting of six to eight meetings with parents, children, and whole family. At the 4-month follow-up the GSI score of the patients and spouses was significantly decreased compared to the baseline score. At the baseline the GSI score of the patients was at the same level as that of the psychiatric outpatient sample, whereas at the 4-month follow-up it was at the same level as in the general population. This study lends support to previous studies that recommend that treatment practice should include structured interventions with parents concerning parenting and the wellbeing of children.

  16. Occurrence of post traumatic stress symptoms and their relationship to professional quality of life (ProQoL in nursing staff at a forensic psychiatric security unit: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonstad Kåre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence is frequent towards nurses in forensic mental health hospitals. Implications of this high risk environment have not been systematically explored. This paper explores occurrence of symptoms on post traumatic stress and their relationship to professional quality of life. Methods Self report questionnaires assessing symptoms of post traumatic stress and professional quality of life were distributed among psychiatric nurses in a high security forensic psychiatric unit with high frequency of violent behaviour. Relationships between post traumatic stress symptoms, forensic nursing experience, type of ward and compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue were explored. Results The prevalence of post traumatic stress symptoms was low. Low scores were found on compassion satisfaction. Length of psychiatric nursing experience and low scores on compassion satisfaction were correlated to increased post traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusion Although high violence frequency, low rate of post traumatic stress symptoms and low compassion satisfaction scores was found. High staff/patient ratio and emotional distance between staff and patients are discussed as protective factors.

  17. Subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy for the improvement of psychiatric symptoms of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshii, Junko; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Tatsumi, Eri; Tanaka, Chito; Mori, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2013-07-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of subject-chosen and therapist-chosen activities in occupational therapy for inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Prospective comparative study. A psychiatric hospital in Japan. Fifty-nine patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been hospitalized for many years. The subjects received six-months occupational therapy, participating in either activities of their choice (subject-chosen activity group, n = 30) or activities chosen by occupational therapists based on treatment recommendations and patient consent (therapist-chosen activity group, n = 29). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were used to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial function, respectively. After six-months occupational therapy, suspiciousness and hostility scores of the positive scale and preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale significantly improved in the subject-chosen activity group compared with the therapist-chosen activity group, with 2(2) (median (interquartile range)) and 3(1.25), 2(1) and 2.5(1), and 2(1) and 3(1), respectively. There were no significant differences in psychosocial functions between the two groups. In within-group comparisons before and after occupational therapy, suspiciousness scores of the positive scale, preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale, and psychosocial function significantly improved only in the subject-chosen activity group, with 3(1) to 2(2), 3(1) to 2(1), and 40(9) to 40(16) respectively, but not in the therapist-chosen activity group. The results suggested that the subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy could improve the psychiatric symptoms, suspiciousness, and preoccupation of the inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

  18. Suicidality, self-harm and psychotic-like symptoms in a general adolescent psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Maija; Manninen, Marko; Kalska, Hely; Mustonen, Ulla; Laajasalo, Taina; Moilanen, Kari; Huttunen, Matti O; Cannon, Tyrone D; Suvisaari, Jaana; Therman, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the associations between clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR), psychotic-like symptoms and suicidality among adolescent psychiatric patients. The sample consisted of 54 CHR and 107 non-CHR psychiatric patients aged 15-18 in Helsinki, Finland, who were assessed at the beginning of their psychiatric treatment with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). Current suicidality was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (item 9), while lifetime suicidality was evaluated from all available data, including patient files. The participants were followed for 2.8-8.9 years via the national hospital discharge register, with the follow-up outcome being intentional self-harm. Data on suicides were also gathered from the Causes of Death statistics. Only 30.5% of the adolescents had no suicidal ideation at the beginning of their treatment. CHR risk state and SIPS-assessed delusions, suspiciousness, and hallucinations were associated with higher current suicidality. Of the 154 adolescents with register follow-up, there were five (3.2%) with intentional self-harm resulting in hospital treatment, all female. CHR status was not associated with self-harm. Current suicidality, familial risk of psychosis, and SIPS decreased expression of emotions were associated with self-harm during follow-up. In a Cox regression analysis model among girls, only decreased expression of emotions remained a significant predictor of intentional self-harm. Baseline suicidality measures were not associated with transitions to psychosis. CHR status was associated with higher current suicidality but did not predict follow-up intentional self-harm in treatment-seeking adolescents. Decreased expression of emotions may indicate higher risk of intentional self-harm in adolescent treatment-seeking girls. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in South Africa. A retrospective descriptive study of acute first admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säll, L; Salamon, E; Allgulander, C; Owe-Larsson, B

    2009-08-01

    The social and living conditions of mine workers in South Africa contribute to a rapid transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections. HIV-associated dementia is a serious condition during HIV disease. Several other psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as psychosis, secondary mania and depression, have also been associated with clinical HIV infection. We describe the onset of psychiatric symptoms and signs in a group of untreated, HIV infected male mine workers first admitted for psychiatric treatment at the Rand Mutual Hospital in Johannesburg. Between 1987 and 1997, 38 consecutive cases were admitted, and their files were retrieved for study in 2006. The subjects were 38 black male mine workers admitted acutely for psychiatric care due to psychiatric symptoms, and subsequently diagnosed with HIV infection. The presenting psychiatric symptoms on admission and diagnoses at discharge were compiled for all patients, not to infer causality but to establish the range of symptoms that the clinician has to deal with. The 38 patients presented with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms. The dominating symptoms were those of cognitive deficits, and different psychotic manifestations. 12 of the patients, almost one third of the individuals, were diagnosed with dementia. The patients with dementia exhibited cognitive deficits, and in addition often abnormal behaviour and psychotic symptoms, and several also had symptoms of secondary mania. 5 of the patients presented with delirium. Psychosis, without concurrent dementia, was diagnosed in 5 patients. Bipolar disorder with mania, without concurrent dementia, and major depression was present in 2 patients, respectively. Screening for substance abuse showed that 9 of the patients had ongoing cannabis abuse and 10 had alcohol abuse. Cannabis-induced psychotic disorder was present in 5 patients. The findings confirm that patients with a new diagnosis of HIV may present with

  20. Relation of Psychiatric Symptoms with Epilepsy, Asthma, and Allergy in Youth with ASD vs. Psychiatry Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rebecca J; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the association of psychopathology with the clinical correlates of epilepsy, asthma, and allergy within and between neurobehavioral syndromes. Participants were consecutively evaluated youth (6-18 years, 75 % male) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 589) and non-ASD outpatient psychiatry referrals (n = 653). Informants completed a background questionnaire (parents) and a psychiatric symptom severity rating scale (parents, teachers). Youth with ASD had higher rates of epilepsy and allergy but not asthma than psychiatry referrals, even when analyses were limited to youth with IQ ≥ 70. Somatic conditions evidenced variable associations with medical services utilization, educational interventions, family income, and maternal education. Youth with ASD with versus without epilepsy had more severe ASD social deficits (parents' ratings) and less severe ASD repetitive behaviors (teachers' ratings). Epilepsy was associated with more severe depression, mania, and schizophrenia symptoms in youth with ASD. Youth with allergy (psychiatry referrals only) had more severe anxiety and depression symptoms (parents' ratings) but less severe aggression (teachers' ratings) thus providing evidence of both context- and diagnostic-specificity. Youth with ASD versus non-ASD psychiatry referrals evidence a variable pattern of relations between somatic conditions and a range of clinical correlates, which suggests that the biologic substrates and psychosocial concomitants of neurodevelopmental disorders and their co-occurring somatic conditions may interact to produce unique clinical phenotypes.

  1. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in a 6-year-old boy initially presenting with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İncecik, Faruk; Hergüner, M Özlem; Mert, Gülen; Önenli-Mungan, Neslihan; Ceylaner, Serdar; Kör, Deniz; Altunbaşak, Şakir

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) leads to demyelination of the nervous system, adrenal insufficiency and accumulation of long-chain fatty acids. Most young patients with X-linked ALD develop seizures and progressive neurologic deficits, and die within the first two decades of life. We present the case of a 6-year-old with childhood-onset ALD, first presenting with psychiatric symptoms and progressive gait difficulties, slurred speech and cognitive impairment. Genetic testing was performed and a p.R401Q (c.1202G>A) mutation detected in the ABCD1 gene. ALD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with behavior changes and white matter disease in neuroimaging.

  2. Evolution of substance use, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and substance use disorder patients: a 12-week, pilot, case-control trial with quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eZhornitsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric symptoms are consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study examined changes in substance abuse/dependence and neurological and psychiatric symptoms in substance abusers with (DD group, n=26 and without schizophrenia (SUD group, n=24 and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group, n=23 undergoing 12-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. At endpoint, DD and SCZ patients were receiving significantly higher doses of quetiapine (mean = 554mg/d and 478mg/d, respectively, relative to SUD patients (mean = 150mg/d. We found that SUD patients showed greater improvement in weekly dollars spent on alcohol and drugs and SUD severity, compared to DD patients. At endpoint, there was no significant difference in dollars spent, but DD patients still had a higher mean SUD severity. Interestingly, DD patients had significantly higher Parkinsonism and depression than SCZ patients at baseline and endpoint. On the other hand, we found that SUD patients had significantly more akathisia at baseline, improved more than SCZ patients and this was related to cannabis abuse/dependence. Finally, SUD patients improved more in PANSS positive scores than DD and SCZ patients. Taken together, our results provide evidence for increased vulnerability to the adverse effects of alcohol and drugs in schizophrenia patients. They also suggest that substance abuse/withdrawal may mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Future studies will need to determine the role quetiapine played in these improvements.

  3. Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in relation to psychopathic traits and aggression among psychiatrically hospitalized children: ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is associated with elevated rates of psychopathic traits and aggression. However, it remains unclear if attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms exacerbate these relations, particularly in samples of children who are severely clinically distressed. The purpose of the present study was to test ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator of the relations of ODD symptoms to psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional [CU] traits, narcissism) and to aggressive subtypes (i.e., proactive, reactive aggression) in a large sample of children in an acute psychiatric inpatient facility (n = 699; ages 6-12). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child demographic variables, ADHD symptoms marginally exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and CU traits. Both ODD and ADHD symptoms had an additive, but not a multiplicative effect, in predicting narcissism. In addition, for a subset of the full sample for whom data were available (n =351), ADHD symptoms exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and both reactive and proactive aggression. These results suggest that ADHD symptoms tend to have a negative effect on the relation between ODD symptoms and markers of antisociality among children receiving acute psychiatric care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cultural differences in symptom representation for depression and somatization measured by the PHQ between Vietnamese and German psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Annegret; Hahn, Eric; Diefenbacher, Albert; Nguyen, Main Huong; Böge, Kerem; Burian, Hannah; Dettling, Michael; Burian, Ronald; Ta, Thi Minh Tam

    2017-11-01

    Despite an extensive body of research on somatic symptom presentation among people of East- and Southeast-Asian descent, results are still inconclusive. Examining and comparing symptom presentation in clinically and ethnically well-characterized populations may constitute a step towards understanding symptom presentation between patients with a different cultural background. This study aims to compare Vietnamese and German patients regarding cultural dynamics of symptom presentation upon first admission to a psychiatric outpatient service. 110 Vietnamese and 109 German patients seeking psychiatric treatment at two outpatient clinics completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). The somatic symptom subscale (PHQ-15), the depression subscale (PHQ-9) and PHQ-subscales examining anxiety and psychosocial stress levels were analyzed and compared for both groups using multivariate analysis of covariance. Regression analysis was utilized to examine the influences of sociodemographic and migration specific factors. Vietnamese and German patients showed comparable Cronbach's alpha for all subscales. Vietnamese patients endorsed significantly higher levels of somatic symptoms overall and on certain items (as pain-related items, dizziness, and fainting spells) despite similar levels of depression severity in comparison with German patients. Vietnamese patients with poor German language skills showed a significantly higher focus on somatic symptoms. Raising awareness for cultural dynamics of symptom presentation in patients with depression is indispensable. Cross-cultural symptom assessment using the PHQ seems feasible and expands our understanding of depressive and psychosomatic symptoms when assessed by clinicians. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score (PEESS v2.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Fernanda Oliveira; Barros, Cristina Palmer; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Paro, Helena Borges Martins da Silva

    2017-11-04

    To translate and culturally adapt the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score (version 2.0), a tool used to assess pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis symptoms reported by patients and/or their parents/caregivers. The Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score was translated through the following stages: initial translation, back-translation, and consensus of independent reviewers through the Delphi technique. The pre-final version of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score was applied to five 8-to-18-year-old patients and to ten parents of two-to-18-year-old patients from an outpatient pediatric gastroenterology service (pre-test). During the translation process, no translations presenting with difficult consensus in the review process or grammar inconsistencies were observed. During the pre-test, difficulties in comprehension of some unconventional terms, e.g., "náusea", were observed. Adverbs of frequency, such as "quase nunca" were also identified as being of difficult understanding by patients and parents, and the substitution by the term "raramente" was suggested. Such difficulties may be inherent to the pediatric age group. Age 8 years or above should be considered adequate for the self-reporting of symptoms. The study presents the Brazilian version of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score, which is adapted to the Brazilian culture. This version may be introduced as a clinical and research tool for the assessment of patients with esophagic disease symptoms. The Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score is a breakthrough in the evaluation of symptoms of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis, since it reinforces the importance of self-reporting by patients who experience this disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey scores for required reading versus leisure reading in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tiana Y; Clark, Robert A

    2017-09-07

    To compare Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey scores for required reading for school versus scores for leisure reading. At a single private practice, we surveyed 100 children with normal binocular vision using modified survey questions specifying either required reading or leisure reading as the near visual activity. Average total symptom scores and subscores for questions about discomfort, fatigue, impaired vision, and cognitive performance were analyzed using t tests; responses to individual questions were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests. The average score for the required reading survey was significantly higher than for the leisure reading survey (14.4 ± 9.1 vs 9.8 ± 6.9 [P = 0.005]). Significantly higher symptom scores were recorded for 7 of 15 questions and 3 of 4 subscores (discomfort, fatigue, and impaired vision) for the required reading survey, whereas scores for the leisure reading survey highly correlated (R(2) = 0.95) with each child's self-reported reading speed. Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey scores vary greatly depending on the type of near activity being surveyed and thus do not accurately isolate and reflect near visual ability. Beginning each survey with the question about self-rated reading speed could eliminate the need for additional questions if a child self-rates his or her reading speed as average or better. Because of the influence of the type of near visual activity on symptoms, survey questions should explicitly specify the near visual activity to prevent a child's interpretation of the question's intent from affecting the symptom score. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental verbal affection and verbal aggression in childhood differentially influence psychiatric symptoms and wellbeing in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcari, Ann; Rabi, Keren; Bolger, Elizabeth; Teicher, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to parental verbal aggression is common and associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and drug use. A key question that has not been addressed is whether verbal affection from the same or opposite parent can attenuate the effects of verbal aggression. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of parental verbal aggression and affection during childhood on measures of psychopathology and wellbeing in a community sample of 2,518 individuals (18-25 years). Data were analyzed for moderating influences using mixed effect models and for direct and indirect effects using structural equation models. The moderation analysis suggested that high levels of exposure to verbal affection did not mitigate the effects of verbal aggression from the same parent, and high levels of verbal affection from another parent did not generally result in a significant attenuation of the effects of verbal aggression. Structural equation models showed that verbal aggression was predominantly associated with effects on psychiatric symptoms scores, whereas verbal affection was primarily associated with effects on measures of wellbeing. These findings highlight the relatively independent effects of verbal aggression and verbal affection and suggest that the latter may be particularly important in establishing a foundation for emotional and physical wellbeing. These findings also suggest that ridicule, disdain, and humiliation cannot be easily counteracted by praise and warmth from the same or another parent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental Verbal Affection and Verbal Aggression in Childhood Differentially Influence Psychiatric Symptoms and Wellbeing in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcari, Ann; Rabi, Keren; Bolger, Elizabeth; Teicher, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to parental verbal aggression is common and associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and drug use. A key question that has not been addressed is whether verbal affection from the same or opposite parent can attenuate the effects of verbal aggression. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of parental verbal aggression and affection during childhood on measures of psychopathology and wellbeing in a community sample of 2,518 individuals (18–25 years). Data were analyzed for moderating influences using mixed effect models and for direct and indirect effects using structural equation models. The moderation analysis suggested that high levels of exposure to verbal affection did not mitigate the effects of verbal aggression from the same parent, and high levels of verbal affection from another parent did not generally result in a significant attenuation of the effects of verbal aggression. Structural equation models showed that verbal aggression was predominantly associated with effects on psychiatric symptoms scores, whereas verbal affection was primarily associated with effects on measures of wellbeing. These findings highlight the relatively independent effects of verbal aggression and verbal affection and suggest that the latter may be particularly important in establishing a foundation for emotional and physical wellbeing. These findings also suggest that ridicule, disdain, and humiliation cannot be easily counteracted by praise and warmth from the same or another parent. PMID:24268711

  9. Psychiatric nurse practitioners’ experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgalabi J. Ngako

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse.The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education.A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch’s method of open coding.The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care.The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs. 

  10. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Dinu-Stefan; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond; Hauff, Edvard; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lien, Lars

    2012-07-23

    Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the'life satisfaction' standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and quality of life, and positively

  11. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorescu Dinu-Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Methods Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI, and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. Results All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the’life satisfaction’ standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with

  12. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Methods Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. Results All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the’life satisfaction’ standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and

  13. Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with a History of Autism and Optimal Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine E.; Suh, Joyce; Troyb, Eva; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael; Barton, Marianne L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Kelley, Elizabeth; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael C.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Since autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often comorbid with psychiatric disorders, children who no longer meet criteria for ASD (optimal outcome; OO) may still be at risk for psychiatric disorders. A parent interview for DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (K-SADS-PL) for 33 OO, 42 high-functioning autism (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) youth,…

  14. Antenatal and postnatal maternal mood symptoms and psychiatric disorders in pre-school children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluísio J D; Barros, Fernando C

    2014-08-01

    Maternal mood symptoms have been associated with psychiatric disorders in children. This study aimed to assess critical periods when maternal symptoms would be more deleterious. Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Mood symptoms during pregnancy were self-reported by mothers at perinatal interview; and at 3-months postpartum, mothers answered the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the Development and Well-Being Assessment instrument. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by logistic regression. Prevalence of mood symptoms in pregnancy was 24.6% (23.2-26.0%) and at three months postpartum 22.5% (21.1-23.9%). Prevalence of mental disorders in children was 13.3% (12.2-14.4%). After adjustment for confounders children of mothers with mood symptoms during pregnancy were 82% more likely of presenting psychiatric disorders than children of mothers that did not (1.82; 1.48-2.25); and the chance of having mental disorders among children whose mothers had positive SRQ-20 at three months postpartum was 87% greater than the observed among children whose mothers had it negative (1.87; 1.50-2.33). Because maternal anxiety/depression may interfere with interpretation of the child behavior, child׳s mental health being obtained by interviewing the mother is a limitation of this study. Lack of information on other risk factors may have lead to residual confounding on the effect of maternal mood symptoms at three months postpartum. Children of mothers presenting mood symptoms during pregnancy and in the first months postpartum are more likely to present psychiatric disorders at 6 years of age. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SAFA: A new measure to evaluate psychiatric symptoms detected in a sample of children and adolescents affected by eating disorders. Correlations with risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilo Franzoni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Emilo Franzoni1, Morena Monti1, Alessandro Pellicciari1, Carlo Muratore1, Alberto Verrotti3, et al1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Clinical Pediatrics; 2Protection and Enhancement Department, University of Bologna, Italy; 3Clinic of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an influence over the SAFA profile, like parental separation and family components’ number. Compared to the range of statistical normality (based on Italian population, patients with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder showed higher and pathologic values in specific subscales. When analyzing sex, males showed more pathologic values in most anxiety-related, obsessiveness–compulsiveness-related and insecurity subscales. A correlation among age, BMI and specific subscales (low self esteem, psychological aspects emerged in participants with anorexia nervosa. In order to plan more appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children or adolescents suffering from ED, the SAFA test can be an important instrument to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, we propose to include this useful, simple self-administered test as a new screening tool for ED diagnosis. Keywords: psychiatric comorbidity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, SAFA test

  16. Low levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and psychiatric symptomatology among third-generation Holocaust survivors whose fathers were war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the intergenerational transmission of Holocaust trauma to the third generation (TGH). However, due to the rareness of this population, there are no studies that have examined TGH individuals whose fathers were also victims of war-related trauma and captivity. This prospective study aimed to assess the role of parents' Holocaust background, fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and adult offspring's anxiety sensitivity (AS) in adult offspring's PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. A sample of 123 Israeli father-child dyads (42 TGH and 71 non-TGH), that included 80 former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) dyads and a comparison group of 44 veteran dyads, completed AS, PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology self-report measures. Fathers were assessed 17 years following the Yom Kippur War (T1: 2008) while offspring took part in T2 (2013-2014). Surprisingly, results show that TGH participants reported lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology than non-TGH participants, regardless of their fathers' captivity status. Interestingly, a moderated mediation analysis indicated that offspring's AS mediated the association between Holocaust background and participants' PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology, only among ex-POWs' offspring. This study provides evidence for relatively lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology among TGH individuals whose fathers were war veterans. Ex-POWs' adult offspring who are grandchildren of Holocaust survivors reported lower levels of AS that was related to lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Face-to-Face Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Effects on Gastrointestinal and Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Edebol-Carlman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a gastrointestinal disorder linked to disturbances in the gut-brain axis. Visceral hypersensitivity and pain are hallmarks of IBS and linked to the physiological and psychological burden and to the nonadaptive coping with stress. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT for IBS has proven effective in reducing gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in IBS by means of coping with stress. The present pilot study evaluated for the first time whether CBT for IBS affected visceral sensitivity and pain. Individual CBT was performed for 12 weeks in 18 subjects with IBS and evaluated in terms of visceral sensitivity and pain during rectal distensions using the barostat method and self-rated visceral sensitivity and gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms. Visceral discomfort, urge, and pain induced by the barostat were not affected by CBT but were stable across the study. However, the level of self-rated visceral sensitivity and gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms decreased after the intervention. Central working mechanisms and increased ability to cope with IBS-symptoms are suggested to play a key role in the alleviation of IBS symptoms produced by CBT.

  18. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...... assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, 1 year and 5 years after discharge, using the crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale (CR-PTSD) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Symptom Checklist- 90...

  19. Psychiatric symptoms in offspring of within vs. across racial/ethnic marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, G P; Miyamoto, R H; Foster, J E; Johnson, R C; Andrade, N N; Yates, A; Edman, J L

    1997-01-01

    A large number of adolescents of interracial ancestry (parents comprising various combinations of African-American, American Indian/Alaska Native, European-American, Chinese, Filipino, Hispanic, Japanese, Korean, Puerto Rican, Samoan, and Tongan ancestry) were contrasted with a monoracial European-American sample in the degree to which they reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, conduct disorder/aggression, and substance abuse. The adolescents of interracial ancestry were subdivided into three groups in terms of parental ancestry: both parents of interracial ancestry, one parent of interracial and the other of monoracial ancestry, and both parents of monoracial but different ancestries. The interracial ancestry groups did not differ significantly from one another or from the European American sample in terms of symptom scores.

  20. Apgar Scores Are Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizenko, Natalie; Eberle, Maria Loren; Fortier, Marie-Eve; Côté-Corriveau, Gabriel; Jolicoeur, Claude; Joober, Ridha

    2016-05-01

    Adverse events during pregnancy and delivery have been linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have investigated Apgar scores, which assess the physical condition of newborns, in relation to the risk of developing ADHD. We propose to go one step further and examine if Apgar scores are associated with ADHD symptom severity in children already diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD symptoms severity, while off medication, was compared in 2 groups of children with ADHD: those with low (≤6, n = 52) and those with higher (≥7, n = 400) Apgar scores sequentially recruited from the ADHD clinic. Children with low Apgar at 1 minute after birth had more severe symptoms as assessed by the externalizing scale of the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Conners' Global Index for Parents, and the DSM-IV hyperactivity symptoms count (P = 0.02, Apgar scores are associated with a significant increase in ADHD symptom severity. These findings underline the importance of appropriate pregnancy and perinatal care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Evaluation of social disablement, psychiatric symptoms and autonomy in long-stay psychiatric patients Avaliação do comportamento social, sintomas psiquiátricos e autonomia em pacientes psiquiátricos de longa permanência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Abelha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on prevalence of social disablement, psychiatric symptoms and independent living skills in long-stay psychiatric patients are scarce in Brazil. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out on a population of 881 long-stay psychiatric patients. METHOD: Data were collected from all the patients living in the Municipal Mental Health Institute from Rio de Janeiro city, using 3 instruments: Social Behaviour Schedule (SBS-BR, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, and Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS-BR. RESULTS: 75% of total patients presented poor independent living skills, and high rates of social disablement, specially in the items: poor self care (50,9%, little spontaneous communication (46,2% and underactivity (37,5%. 15.1% of schizophrenic patients showed severe symptoms of hallucinations, delusions and conceptual disorganization.11.5% did not present psychiatric symptoms in the last month, and 16% showed no social disablement CONCLUSION: 50% of patients are older than 65 years and have been living in the institution for more than 38 years. They present high rates of problem behaviours and poor autonomy. Our data should suggest the adoption of treatment programs or interventions for those patients. Also, there is a group without psychiatric symptoms, good autonomy degree and no social disablement that could live in therapeutic residences in the community.INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil ainda são escassos os dados sobre limitações no comportamento social, sintomas psiquiátricos e habilidades de vida independente. Nesse sentido foi realizado um estudo seccional em uma população de 881 pacientes psiquiátricos de longa permanência. METODOLOGIA: Foram coletados dados de todos os pacientes residentes no Instituto Municipal Juliano Moreira, utilizando três instrumentos: Avaliação das Limitações no Comportamento Social (SBS-BR, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS e o Inventário de Habilidades de Vida Independente para

  2. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    Full Text Available Despite the many number of studies examining workaholism, large-scale studies have been lacking. The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16-75 years. Participants were administered the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Obsession-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Bergen Work Addiction Scale, along with additional questions examining demographic and work-related variables. Correlations between workaholism and all psychiatric disorder symptoms were positive and significant. Workaholism comprised the dependent variable in a three-step linear multiple hierarchical regression analysis. Basic demographics (age, gender, relationship status, and education explained 1.2% of the variance in workaholism, whereas work demographics (work status, position, sector, and annual income explained an additional 5.4% of the variance. Age (inversely and managerial positions (positively were of most importance. The psychiatric symptoms (ADHD, OCD, anxiety, and depression explained 17.0% of the variance. ADHD and anxiety contributed considerably. The prevalence rate of workaholism status was 7.8% of the present sample. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis, all psychiatric symptoms were positively associated with being a workaholic. The independent variables explained between 6.1% and 14.4% in total of the variance in workaholism cases. Although most effect sizes were relatively small, the study's findings expand our understanding of possible psychiatric predictors of workaholism, and particularly shed new insight into the reality of adult ADHD in work life. The study's implications, strengths, and shortcomings are also discussed.

  3. Anosognosia and Its Relation to Psychiatric Symptoms in Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bora; Shim, Yong S; Hong, Yun Jeong; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Hee Kyung; Park, Sun Ah; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Yoon, Soo Jin; Yang, Dong-Won

    2017-05-01

    We investigated differences in the prevalence of anosognosia and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) characteristics according to disease severity in patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD). We recruited 616 patients with EOAD. We subdivided participants into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of anosognosia and then again by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. We compared the differences in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores according to anosognosia and disease severity. The percentage of patients with anosognosia in each CDR group steadily increased as the CDR rating increased (CDR 0.5 8.6% vs CDR 1 13.6% vs CDR 2 26.2%). The NPI total score was significantly higher in patients with anosognosia in the CDR 0.5 and 1 groups; by contrast, it had no association in the CDR 2 group. Frontal lobe functions were associated with anosognosia only in the CDR 0.5 and 1 groups. After stratification by CDR, in the CDR 0.5 group, the prevalence of agitation ( P = .040) and appetite ( P = .013) was significantly higher in patients with anosognosia. In the CDR 1 group, patients with anosognosia had a significantly higher prevalence of delusions ( P = .032), hallucinations ( P = .048), and sleep disturbances ( P = .047). In the CDR 2 group, we found no statistical difference in the frequency of symptoms between patients with and without anosognosia. These results confirm that the prevalence of anosognosia as well as the individual NPS and cognitive functions associated with it differ according to EOAD severity.

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Haloperidol and Benzodiazepines Used for Postictal Psychiatric Symptoms on Seizure Recurrence: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Hanife Kara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Patients with epilepsy may experience a number of psychiatric and cognitive symptoms or behavioral manifestations during the period of a seizure and the postictal period. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effects medications commonly used in emergency departments for postictal psychiatric symptoms on seizure recurrence. Methods: Data of 32 epileptic patients, who presented to İzmir Katip Çelebi University Atatürk Research and Training Hospital Emergency Department with postictal psychiatric symptoms between January 2013 and December 2014, were retrospectively collected. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the emergency department charts and neurology and psychiatry consultation records. Data regarding administered drugs were obtained from the hospital data processing system. The chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used as statistical methods. Bonferroni correction was performed for post-hoc analysis. Results: There were no differences in the seizure recurrence rate between benzodiazepine, haloperidol and without medication groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that benzodiazepines and haloperidol do not affect the development of recurrent seizures when administered for postictal symptoms.

  5. Interventions following a high violence risk assessment score: a naturalistic study on a Finnish psychiatric admission ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunomäki, Jenni; Jokela, Markus; Kontio, Raija; Laiho, Tero; Sailas, Eila; Lindberg, Nina

    2017-01-11

    Patient aggression and violence against staff members and other patients are common concerns in psychiatric units. Many structured clinical risk assessment tools have recently been developed. Despite their superiority to unaided clinical judgments, staff has shown ambivalent views towards them. A constant worry of staff is that the results of risk assessments would not be used. The aims of the present study were to investigate what were the interventions applied by the staff of a psychiatric admission ward after a high risk patient had been identified, how frequently these interventions were used and how effective they were. The data were collected in a naturalistic setting during a 6-month period in a Finnish psychiatric admission ward with a total of 331 patients with a mean age of 42.9 years (SD 17.39) suffering mostly from mood, schizophrenia-related and substance use disorders. The total number of treatment days was 2399. The staff assessed the patients daily with the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA), which is a structured violence risk assessment considering the upcoming 24 h. The interventions in order to reduce the risk of violence following a high DASA total score (≥4) were collected from the patients' medical files. Inductive content analysis was used. There were a total of 64 patients with 217 observations of high DASA total score. In 91.2% of cases, at least one intervention aiming to reduce the violence risk was used. Pro re nata (PRN)-medication, seclusion and focused discussions with a nurse were the most frequently used interventions. Non-coercive and non-pharmacological interventions like daily activities associated significantly with the decrease of perceived risk of violence. In most cases, a high score in violence risk assessment led to interventions aiming to reduce the risk. Unfortunately, the most frequently used methods were psychopharmacological or coercive. It is hoped that the findings will encourage the staff to use

  6. The relations between violence exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, secondary traumatization, vicarious post traumatic growth and illness attribution among psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gad; Shalev, Tal Ben-Itzchak

    2015-06-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD), secondary traumatization (ST) and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VG) among Israeli psychiatric nurses (PN) who were compared to community nurses (CN). Furthermore, we examined the contribution of PN perceptions of the etiology of their patients' mental illness to their PTSD, ST and VG. Results show that PN reported higher levels of both PTSD and ST symptoms, but lower levels of VG, as compare to CN. While ST symptoms were positively related to VG among CN, PTSD and ST symptoms were negatively associated among PN. Finally, exposure to patients' violence, PTSD or ST symptoms, and illness attribution dimensions of 'powerful others', predicted nurses' VG. PN are an at-risk population for work-related stress residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy with the diabetic neuropathy symptom and diabetic neuropathy examination scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.W.; Lefrandt, J.D.; Links, T.P.; Smit, J.A.; Stewart, R.E.; van der Hoeven, J.H.; Hoogenberg, K.

    OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the discriminative power of the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) and Diabetic Neuropathy Examination (DNE) scores for diagnosing diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP), as well as their relation with cardiovascular autonomic function testing (cAFT) and electro-diagnostic studies

  8. Clinical Insight Into Latent Variables of Psychiatric Questionnaires for Mood Symptom Self-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanas, Athanasios; Saunders, Kate; Bilderbeck, Amy; Palmius, Niclas; Goodwin, Guy; De Vos, Maarten

    2017-05-25

    We recently described a new questionnaire to monitor mood called mood zoom (MZ). MZ comprises 6 items assessing mood symptoms on a 7-point Likert scale; we had previously used standard principal component analysis (PCA) to tentatively understand its properties, but the presence of multiple nonzero loadings obstructed the interpretation of its latent variables. The aim of this study was to rigorously investigate the internal properties and latent variables of MZ using an algorithmic approach which may lead to more interpretable results than PCA. Additionally, we explored three other widely used psychiatric questionnaires to investigate latent variable structure similarities with MZ: (1) Altman self-rating mania scale (ASRM), assessing mania; (2) quick inventory of depressive symptomatology (QIDS) self-report, assessing depression; and (3) generalized anxiety disorder (7-item) (GAD-7), assessing anxiety. We elicited responses from 131 participants: 48 bipolar disorder (BD), 32 borderline personality disorder (BPD), and 51 healthy controls (HC), collected longitudinally (median [interquartile range, IQR]: 363 [276] days). Participants were requested to complete ASRM, QIDS, and GAD-7 weekly (all 3 questionnaires were completed on the Web) and MZ daily (using a custom-based smartphone app). We applied sparse PCA (SPCA) to determine the latent variables for the four questionnaires, where a small subset of the original items contributes toward each latent variable. We found that MZ had great consistency across the three cohorts studied. Three main principal components were derived using SPCA, which can be tentatively interpreted as (1) anxiety and sadness, (2) positive affect, and (3) irritability. The MZ principal component comprising anxiety and sadness explains most of the variance in BD and BPD, whereas the positive affect of MZ explains most of the variance in HC. The latent variables in ASRM were identical for the patient groups but different for HC; nevertheless

  9. Using zebrafish to uncover the genetic and neural basis of aggression, a frequent comorbid symptom of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren J; Norton, William H J

    2015-01-01

    Aggression is an important adaptive behavior that can be used to monopolize resources such as mates or food, acquire and defend territory and establish dominant hierarchies in social groups. It is also a symptom of several psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. The frequent comorbidity of aggression and psychiatric diseases suggests that common genes and neural circuits may link these disorders. Research using animal models has the potential to uncover these genes and neural circuits despite the difficulty of fully modeling human behavioral disorders. In this review we propose that zebrafish may be a suitable model organism for aggression research with the potential to shed light upon the aggressive symptoms of human diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Longitudinal study of psychiatric symptoms, disability, mortality, and emigration among Bosnian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, R F; Sarajlic, N; Chernoff, M; Lavelle, J; Vukovic, I S; Massagli, M P

    2001-08-01

    Evidence is emerging that psychiatric disorders are common in populations affected by mass violence. Previously, we found associations among depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and disability in a Bosnian refugee cohort. To investigate whether previously observed associations continue over time and are associated with mortality emigration to another region. Three-year follow-up study conducted in 1999 among 534 adult Bosnian refugees originally living in a refugee camp in Croatia. At follow-up, 376 (70.4%) remained living in the region, 39 (7.3%) were deceased, 114 (21.3%) had emigrated, and 5 (1%) were lost to follow-up. Those still living in the region and the families of the deceased were reinterviewed (77.7% of the original participants). Depression and PTSD diagnoses, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria and measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, respectively; disability, measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 20; and cause of death, determined by family interviews with review of death certificates, if available. In 1999, 45% of the original respondents who met the DSM-IV criteria for depression, PTSD, or both continued to have these disorders and 16% of respondents who were asymptomatic in 1996 developed 1 or both disorders. Forty-six percent of those who initially met disability criteria remained disabled. Log-linear analysis revealed that disability and psychiatric disorder were related at both times. Male sex, isolation from family, and older age were associated with increased mortality after adjusting for demographic characteristics, trauma history, and health status (for male sex, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-5.92; living alone, OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.07-5.38; and each 10-year increase in age, OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.34-2.71). Depression was associated with higher mortality in unadjusted analysis

  11. Psychiatric symptoms in patients with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 induced haemolytic-uraemic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kleimann

    Full Text Available In May 2011 an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (STEC O104:H4 in Northern Germany led to a high number of in-patients, suffering from post-enteritis haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS and often severe affection of the central nervous system. To our knowledge so far only neurological manifestations have been described systematically in literature.To examine psychiatric symptoms over time and search for specific symptom clusters in affected patients.31 in-patients suffering from E. coli O104:H4 associated HUS, were examined and followed up a week during the acute hospital stay. Psychopathology was assessed by clinical interview based on the AMDP Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Clinical Global Impressions Scale.At baseline mental disorder due to known physiological condition (ICD-10 F06.8 was present in 58% of the examined patients. Patients suffered from various manifestations of cognitive impairment (n = 27 and hallucinations (n = 4. Disturbances of affect (n = 28 included severe panic attacks (n = 9. Psychiatric disorder was significantly associated with higher age (p<0.0001, higher levels of C-reactive protein (p<0.05, and positive family history of heart disease (p<0.05. Even within the acute hospital stay with a median follow up of 7 days, symptoms improved markedly over time (p <0.0001.Aside from severe neurological symptoms the pathology in E.coli O104:H4 associated HUS frequently includes particular psychiatric disturbances. Long term follow up has to clarify whether or not these symptoms subside.

  12. Neural Reactivity to Emotional Stimuli Prospectively Predicts the Impact of a Natural Disaster on Psychiatric Symptoms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Hajcak, Greg; Danzig, Allison P; Black, Sarah R; Bromet, Evelyn J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Kotov, Roman; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-09-01

    Natural disasters expose entire communities to stress and trauma, leading to increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. Yet, the majority of exposed individuals are resilient, highlighting the importance of identifying underlying factors that contribute to outcomes. The current study was part of a larger prospective study of children in Long Island, New York (n = 260). At age 9, children viewed unpleasant and pleasant images while the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component that reflects sustained attention toward salient information, was measured. Following the event-related potential assessment, Hurricane Sandy, the second costliest hurricane in United States history, hit the region. Eight weeks after the hurricane, mothers reported on exposure to hurricane-related stress and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Symptoms were reassessed 8 months after the hurricane. The LPP predicted both internalizing and externalizing symptoms after accounting for prehurricane symptomatology and interacted with stress to predict externalizing symptoms. Among children exposed to higher levels of hurricane-related stress, enhanced neural reactivity to unpleasant images predicted greater externalizing symptoms 8 weeks after the disaster, while greater neural reactivity to pleasant images predicted lower externalizing symptoms. Moreover, interactions between the LPP and stress continued to predict externalizing symptoms 8 months after the hurricane. Results indicate that heightened neural reactivity and attention toward unpleasant information, as measured by the LPP, predispose children to psychiatric symptoms when exposed to higher levels of stress related to natural disasters, while greater reactivity to and processing of pleasant information may be a protective factor. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social networks, social support and psychiatric symptoms: social determinants and associations within a multicultural community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Natasha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about how social networks and social support are distributed within diverse communities and how different types of each are associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to address such shortcomings by: (1) describing the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of social networks and social support in a multicultural population and (2) examining how each is associated with multiple mental health outcomes. Data is drawn from the South East London Community Health Study; a cross-sectional study of 1,698 adults conducted between 2008 and 2010. The findings demonstrate variation in social networks and social support by socio-demographic factors. Ethnic minority groups reported larger family networks but less perceived instrumental support. Older individuals and migrant groups reported lower levels of particular network and support types. Individuals from lower socioeconomic groups tended to report less social networks and support across the indicators measured. Perceived emotional and instrumental support, family and friend network size emerged as protective factors for common mental disorder, personality dysfunction and psychotic experiences. In contrast, both social networks and social support appear less relevant for hazardous alcohol use. The findings both confirm established knowledge that social networks and social support exert differential effects on mental health and furthermore suggest that the particular type of social support may be important. In contrast, different types of social network appear to impact upon poor mental health in a more uniform way. Future psychosocial strategies promoting mental health should consider which social groups are vulnerable to reduced social networks and poor social support and which diagnostic groups may benefit most.

  14. A new simple score (ABS) for assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Yamashita, T; Hishikawa, N; Ohta, Y; Deguchi, K; Sato, K; Matsuzono, K; Nakano, Y; Ikeda, Y; Wakutani, Y; Takao, Y

    2015-03-15

    In addition to cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are another important aspect of most dementia patients. This study was designed for a new simple assessment of BPSD. We first employed a clinical survey for the local community with sending an inquiry letter to all members (n=129) of dementia caregiver society, and then attempted to create a new BPSD score for dementia with 10 BPSD items. This new simple BPSD score was compared to a standard-detailed BPSD score neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) for a possible correlation (n=792) and a time to complete (n=136). Inter-rater reliability was examined comparing scores between main and second caregivers (n=70) for AD. Based on the clinical survey for local caregivers, a new BPSD score for dementia (ABS, Abe's BPSD score) was newly created, in which each BPSD item was allotted by an already-weighted score (maximum 1-9) based on the frequency and severity, and was finalized with taking temporal occurrences into account. ABS was filled by the main caregiver with a full score of 44, was well correlated with NPI (r=0.716, **pABS in secondary than the main caregivers. ABS provides a new simple and quick test for BPSD assessment, with a good correlation to NPI but a shorter time, and with a high inter-rater reliability. Thus ABS is useful for evaluating BPSD for mild to moderate dementia patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Transient Impact of Rituximab in H1N1 Vaccination-associated Narcolepsy With Severe Psychiatric Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkanen, Tomi; Alén, Reija; Partinen, Markku

    2016-09-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 is an organic sleep disorder caused by the destruction of hypocretin producing neurons in hypothalamus. In addition to daytime sleepiness, the spectrum and severity of symptoms are very variable. Psychiatric comorbidity and phenomena resembling psychotic symptoms are also common. Current treatment options for narcolepsy are symptomatic but there are few case reports of positive effect of immunotherapy. We report a very severely affected young boy treated with rituximab (RXB). A 12-year-old boy developed narcolepsy after Pandemrix H1N1 vaccination in 2010. He started to express severe psychiatric symptoms shortly after the onset. Cataplexy and sleepiness were devastatingly disabling. Conventional treatments did not have any effect on symptoms so we decided to try RXB, chimeric human monoclonal antibody against CD20 expressed in B lymphocytes. After the first treatment his condition ameliorated dramatically. Unfortunately, the effect lasted only for 2 months. Following attempts did not show any effect. Effect of RXB on narcolepsy has not been reported before. Remarkable but short-lasting effect of RXB in narcolepsy is intriguing as it could imply that there is still ongoing B cell-mediated autoimmune response possible contributing to symptoms in narcolepsy.

  16. Vancouver Symptom Score for Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome: Reliability and Validity of the Dutch Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hoen, Lisette A; Korfage, Ida J; Verhallen, Jacintha T C M; van Ledden-Klok, Marjan J; van den Hoek, Joop; Blok, Bertil F M; Scheepe, Jeroen R

    2016-08-01

    We sought to establish the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the Vancouver Symptom Score for Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome for children with dysfunctional voiding and their parents. For this cross-sectional multicenter study the Vancouver Symptom Score for Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome was translated and cross-culturally adapted to Dutch following a standardized process. Patients 16 years or younger with dysfunctional voiding and their parents were recruited at pediatric, pediatric urology and pelvic floor physical therapy outpatient clinics. The reference group consisted of children 6 to 16 years old without dysfunctional voiding and their parents. All groups completed questionnaires. The evaluated measurement properties included discriminative ability, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, interrater agreement, criterion validity using the Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire and construct validity. A cutoff value for diagnosis of dysfunctional voiding was determined. A total of 50 patients and 60 references and their parents were included in the study. The Vancouver Symptom Score for Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome showed good discriminative ability. A moderate internal consistency was found (Cronbach alpha 0.37-0.55). Test-retest reliability was moderate to good, and interrater agreement demonstrated good correlation between children and parents (ICC 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.89). A weak correlation with the Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire was found in patients and construct validity was confirmed. Cutoff scores for dysfunctional voiding were 11 and 9 for patients and parents, respectively. The Dutch Vancouver Symptom Score for Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome displayed moderate to good reliability and validity properties for the patient and parent versions. Use of this instrument in clinical practice will support the assessment of dysfunctional voiding and facilitate international reporting of research results. Copyright

  17. The genealogy of the clinical syndrome of mania: signs and symptoms described in psychiatric texts from 1880 to 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S

    2017-10-11

    In 1800, mania was conceptualized as an agitated psychotic state. By 1900, it closely resembled its modern form. This paper reviews the descriptions of mania in Western psychiatry from 1880 to 1900, when Kraepelin was training and developing his concept of manic-depressive illness. Psychiatric textbooks published 1900-1960 described 22 characteristic manic symptoms/signs the presence of which were recorded in 25 psychiatric textbooks and three other key documents published 1880-1900. Descriptions of mania in these nineteenth century textbooks closely resembled those in the twentieth century, recording a mean (s.d.) of 15.9 (2.3) and 17.0 (2.3) of the characteristic symptoms, respectively (p = 0.12). The frequency with which individual symptoms were reported was substantially correlated in these two periods (r = +0.64). Mendel's 1881 monograph, Kraepelin's first description of mania in 1883 and the entry for mania in Tuke's Dictionary of Psychological Medicine (1892) described a mean (s.d.) of 19 (1.7) of these characteristic symptoms. These descriptions of mania often contained phenomenologically rich descriptions of euphoria, hyperactivity, grandiosity, flight of ideas, and poor judgment. They also emphasized several features not in DSM criteria including changes in character, moral standards and physical appearance, and increased sense of humor and sexual drive. Fifteen authors described key symptoms/signs of mania most reporting elevated mood, motoric hyperactivity and accelerated mental processes. By 1880, the syndrome of mania had been largely stabilized in its modern form. In the formation of his concept of manic-depressive illness, Kraepelin utilized the syndrome of mania as described in the psychiatric community in which he was trained.

  18. [Rate and characteristics of dementia patients who visit psychiatric emergency hospitals for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiro; Kazui, Hiroaki; Sawa, Yutaka; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral changes, known as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), are often observed in patients with dementia. BPSD impairs a patient's quality of life, increases the burden on the caregivers, and can be a predictor of the need for institutionalization. BPSD can aggravate on holidays or at night, when general psychiatric clinics are closed. When psychiatric symptoms aggravate on holidays or at night in patients with psychiatric disorders other than dementia, such as schizophrenia and manic psychosis, the patients visit psychiatric emergency hospitals. However, it has not been assessed whether patients with dementia visit psychiatric emergency hospitals for the treatment of BPSD on holidays or at night, although dementia patients are increasing and account for 10.5% of psychiatric outpatients in Japan. To determine the percentage of dementia patients with BPSD in all psychiatric patients who visit psychiatric emergency hospitals, and the characteristics of patients with BPSD in Japan. We developed two questionnaires. One was for psychiatric emergency hospitals and assessed the numbers of all patients, patients over 65 years old, and patients over 65 years and with BPSD or BPSD-like symptoms, who visited the psychiatric emergency hospitals on holidays or at night. The other questionnaire was for each patient over 65 years and with BPSD, and assessed the patients' characteristics, including their diagnosis, sex, what kinds of BPSD or BPSD-like symptoms brought them to the hospital, and whether they had visited a psychiatric clinic or hospital during the preceding 12 months. The questionnaires were sent to 360 hospitals that belong to the Japan Psychiatric Hospitals Association and treat patients with acute psychotic symptoms or dementia. This prospective survey was conducted from October 1 to November 30, 2009. One hundred and forty-three hospitals returned the questionnaires (response rate: 39.7%). In the survey

  19. The effect of memantine on sleep architecture and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ichiro; Shinno, Hideto; Ando, Nobuo; Mori, Takahiro; Nakamura, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are commonly present in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disturbed sleep quality is also observed in AD patients. However, the effects of memantine on sleep architecture have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of memantine on polysomnography (PSG) variables and BPSD. In total, 12 patients with AD (mean age: 79.0±4.1 years old) were enrolled in this study. The following tests were performed: the Neuropsychiatric Inventory for the assessment of BPSD, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive function, and PSG for evaluation of sleep architecture. After baseline examinations, patients were treated with memantine according to a standard prescription protocol. After being treated with 20 mg/day of memantine for 4 weeks, examinations were carried out again. All subjects completed the trial. The mean MMSE and NPI scores were 22.6±3.4 and 13.8±12.9, respectively. Treatment with memantine significantly decreased the NPI score (5.8±4.3, p<0.01). There were significant decreases in the scores of subscales for anxiety (p=0.04) and irritability/lability (p=0.04). PSG demonstrated a longer total sleep time (TST) (p<0.01), increases in sleep efficiency (p<0.01) and time spent in stage II (% TST, p=0.02), and decreases in nocturnal awakening (p<0.01), the periodic limb movement index (p<0.01), and time spent in stage I (% TST, p=0.02). Memantine was effective for reducing fragmented sleep and improving BPSD, and was well tolerated.

  20. Difference of achalasia subtypes based on clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and stasis scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, A; Midani, D; Caroline, D; Saadi, M; Parkman, H; Schey, R

    Three subtypes of achalasia have been defined through high-resolution esophageal manometry: subtype i shows no pressurization with swallows, subtype ii has increased isobaric panesophageal pressure, and subtype iii has distal esophageal spastic non-isobaric contractions. Studies describing the subtypes based on radiographic findings, clinical symptoms, and stasis scores are limited. To determine the differences in clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and stasis scores for the 3 achalasia subtypes. Patients undergoing high-resolution esophageal manometry received a questionnaire about current symptoms and previous treatments. The questions included the presence of symptoms and their severity. Barium swallow tests were performed before the high-resolution esophageal manometry study to evaluate the maximum esophageal diameter. Stasis scores were calculated using the transit patterns on high-resolution esophageal manometry. One hundred and eight patients with high-resolution esophageal manometry diagnosis of achalasia (n=8, subtype i; n=84, subtype ii; n=16, subtype iii) within the time frame of 1/2012-6/2015 were included in the study. Sex distribution was similar between the subtypes. Patient age was younger for subtype i (38±16 years), compared with subtypes ii (55±17 years) and iii (63±17 years) (P=.03). Esophageal symptoms did not differ between subtypes regarding the severity of nausea, chest pain, coughing, and heartburn, except for increased vomiting severity in subtype i (2.8±1.4 vs. 1.4±1.4 vs. 1.2±1.2, P<.01). A significant radiographic difference in esophageal dilation was seen between subtypes ii and iii (35.1±14.4 vs. 24.0±7.2mm, P=.023). Stasis scores did not significantly differ between the subtypes. Achalasia subtypes had similar clinical symptoms, except for increased vomiting severity in subtype i. The maximum esophageal diameter in subtype ii was significantly greater than in subtype iii. Esophageal stasis scores were similar. Thus

  1. Relationship between Burnout Syndrome Symptoms and Self-Actualization Scores in Critical-Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Burnout Maslach and Pines (1978) conducted a survey to determine characteristics of burnout and ways of coping with it in mental health settings. They...AD-A158 128 UNCLASSIFIED REEATIONSHIP BETWEEN BURNOUT SVNDROHE SVHPTOHS AND SEEF-ACTUALIZATION SCO. . (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH MRIGHT-PATTERSON...RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BURNOUT SYNDROME SYMPTOMS AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION SCORES IN CRITICAL-CARE NURSES Pamela L. Smith, B.A., B.S.N. A Thesis Presented to

  2. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and gene......Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...... assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, 1 year and 5 years after discharge, using the crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale (CR-PTSD) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Symptom Checklist- 90...

  3. Does varenicline worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder? A review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerimele, Joseph M; Durango, Alejandra

    2012-08-01

    To review published cases and prospective studies describing the use of varenicline in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. PubMed, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Database were searched in July 2011 using the key words schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, psychosis, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, aggression, hostility, suicidal ideation AND varenicline to identify reports published between January 2006 and July 2011 in English. Five case reports, 1 case series, 1 retrospective study, 10 prospective studies (17 publications), and 1 meeting abstract describing the use of varenicline in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were identified. Review articles and articles describing findings other than the use of varenicline in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were excluded. Thirteen reports were included in the final analysis. Information on each study's patient population, age, diagnosis, medication treatment, tobacco use history, adverse effects, and outcome was collected from the published reports. Of the 260 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who received varenicline in these published reports, 13 patients (5%) experienced the onset or worsening of any psychiatric symptom, although 3 of the 13 patients experienced a very brief negative effect after 1 dose. No patients experienced suicidal ideation or suicidal behaviors. Published reports suggest that, in most stable, closely monitored patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, varenicline treatment is not associated with worsening of psychiatric symptoms. Current, prospective studies are assessing effectiveness and further assessing safety in this population. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Phobic anxiety symptom scores and incidence of type 2 diabetes in US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Qi, Lu; Hu, Frank B; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okereke, Olivia I; Kubzansky, Laura D; Willett, Walter C

    2014-02-01

    Emotional stress may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the relation between phobic anxiety symptoms and risk of T2D is uncertain. To evaluate prospectively the association between phobic anxiety symptoms and incident T2D in three cohorts of US men and women. We followed 30,791 men in the Health Professional's Follow-Up Study (HPFS) (1988-2008), 68,904 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1988-2008), and 79,960 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) (1993-2011). Phobic anxiety symptom scores, as measured by the Crown-Crisp index (CCI), calculated from 8 questions, were administered at baseline and updated in 2004 for NHS, in 2005 for NHS II, and in 2000 for HPFS. Incident T2D was confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis to evaluate associations with incident T2D. During 3,099,651 person-years of follow-up, we documented 12,831 incident T2D cases. In multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, the hazard ratios (HRs) of T2D across categories of increasing levels of CCI (scores=2 to phobic anxiety symptoms are associated with an increased risk of T2D in women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Network analysis of depression and anxiety symptom relationships in a psychiatric sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beard, C.; Millner, A.J.; Forgeard, M.J.C.; Fried, E.I.; Hsu, K.J.; Treadway, M.T.; Leonard, C.V.; Kertz, S.J.; Björgvinsson, T.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have studied psychological disorders extensively from a common cause perspective, in which symptoms are treated as independent indicators of an underlying disease. In contrast, the causal systems perspective seeks to understand the importance of individual symptoms and symptom-to-symptom

  6. Psychiatric and neurological symptoms in patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C): Findings from the International NPC Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Olivier; Gama, Clarissa S; Mengel, Eugen; Pineda, Mercè; Vanier, Marie T; Watson, Louise; Watissée, Marie; Schwierin, Barbara; Patterson, Marc C

    2017-10-09

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare inherited neurovisceral disease that should be recognised by psychiatrists as a possible underlying cause of psychiatric abnormalities. This study describes NP-C patients who had psychiatric manifestations at enrolment in the international NPC Registry, a unique multicentre, prospective, observational disease registry. Treating physicians' data entries describing psychiatric manifestations in NPC patients were coded and grouped by expert psychiatrists. Out of 386 NP-C patients included in the registry as of October 2015, psychiatric abnormalities were reported to be present in 34% (94/280) of those with available data. Forty-four patients were confirmed to have identifiable psychiatric manifestations, with text describing these psychiatric manifestations. In these 44 patients, the median (range) age at onset of psychiatric manifestations was 17.9 years (2.5-67.9; n = 15), while the median (range) age at NP-C diagnosis was 23.7 years (0.2-69.8; n = 34). Almost all patients (43/44; 98%) had an occurrence of ≥1 neurological manifestation at enrolment. These data show that substantial delays in diagnosis of NP-C are long among patients with psychiatric symptoms and, moreover, patients presenting with psychiatric features and at least one of cognitive impairment, neurological manifestations, and/or visceral symptoms should be screened for NP-C.

  7. Differences in body mass index z-scores and weight status in a Dutch pediatric psychiatric population with and without use of second-generation antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogd, Sjoerd; Overbeek, Wieske A; Heerdink, Eibert R; Correll, Christoph U; de Graeff, Elisabeth R; Staal, Wouter G

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain and metabolic adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have become a major concern, particularly in youth. However, the specific contribution of SGAs versus other medications or the underlying illness is unclear. In a chart review study of psychiatric outpatients aged ≤ 18 years treated with SGAs and psychiatric controls without lifetime SGA, use body mass index (BMI) z-scores between patients and controls were compared in the entire sample, patients without co-medications, diagnostic subgroups, and age subgroups. In patients with follow-up data, weight z-score change was calculated. Altogether, 592 Caucasian patients aged 4-18 (mean: 10.0) years with a psychiatric diagnosis were included. BMI z-scores in 96 youth treated with SGAs for 9.0 ± 6.1 months were significantly higher than in 496 patients without lifetime SGA use (0.81 ± 1.1 vs. 0.05 ± 1.2; pweight z-score increased significantly from -0.17 ± 1.5 to 0.25 ± 1.4 (pweight and weight status in young pediatric Caucasian samples with and without use of SGAs independent of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (American Psychiatric Association 2000 ) diagnosis and nonantipsychotic medications. Weight status and metabolic effects of SGAs require careful attention, especially in youth.

  8. Comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the Practice of Otorhinolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloisa Sobreira; Pinto, José Antonio; Zavanela, Adma Roberta; Cavallini, André Freitas; Freitas, Gabriel Santos; Garcia, Fabiola Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a prevalence of ∼12% of the urban population in Brazil. Koufman proposed the term to designate Laryngeal Pharyngeal Reflux (LPR) symptoms, signs or tissue damage resulting from aggression of the gastrointestinal contents in the upper aerodigestive tract. Belafsky et al proposed a score that points to inflammatory laryngeal signs through videolaryngoscopic findings, the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Moreover, in 2002, they published the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). Objective  The objective of this study is to provide a comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the practice of Otorhinolaryngology. Methods  Our study involved a total of 135 patients who visited the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo between April 2014 and May 2015 with suspected LPR. We excluded nine patients and the study group was 126 patients. All patients were ranked by their RSI and RFS scores. Results  The study group consisted of 126 patients (88 women and 38 men). Their main complaints were cough (40.4%), globus (21.4%), dysphonia (19.8%), throat clearing (15.8%), postnasal drip (3.17%), snoring (1.5%), dysphagia (1.5%), cacosmia (0.7%), and regurgitation (1.5%). The RSI ranges from 13 to 42 with a mean of 20.7 (SD = 6.67). The RFS ranged from 3 to 19 with a mean of 9.53 (SD = 2.64). Conclusion  The RSI and RFS can easily be included in ENT routines as objective parameters, with low cost and high practicality. Based on the clinical index, the specialist can evaluate the need for further tests. PMID:27413402

  9. Comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the Practice of Otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloisa Sobreira; Pinto, José Antonio; Zavanela, Adma Roberta; Cavallini, André Freitas; Freitas, Gabriel Santos; Garcia, Fabiola Esteves

    2016-07-01

    The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a prevalence of ∼12% of the urban population in Brazil. Koufman proposed the term to designate Laryngeal Pharyngeal Reflux (LPR) symptoms, signs or tissue damage resulting from aggression of the gastrointestinal contents in the upper aerodigestive tract. Belafsky et al proposed a score that points to inflammatory laryngeal signs through videolaryngoscopic findings, the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Moreover, in 2002, they published the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The objective of this study is to provide a comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the practice of Otorhinolaryngology. Our study involved a total of 135 patients who visited the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo between April 2014 and May 2015 with suspected LPR. We excluded nine patients and the study group was 126 patients. All patients were ranked by their RSI and RFS scores. The study group consisted of 126 patients (88 women and 38 men). Their main complaints were cough (40.4%), globus (21.4%), dysphonia (19.8%), throat clearing (15.8%), postnasal drip (3.17%), snoring (1.5%), dysphagia (1.5%), cacosmia (0.7%), and regurgitation (1.5%). The RSI ranges from 13 to 42 with a mean of 20.7 (SD = 6.67). The RFS ranged from 3 to 19 with a mean of 9.53 (SD = 2.64). The RSI and RFS can easily be included in ENT routines as objective parameters, with low cost and high practicality. Based on the clinical index, the specialist can evaluate the need for further tests.

  10. Symptoms of Autism in Males with Fragile X Syndrome: A Comparison to Nonsyndromic ASD Using Current ADI-R Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Thurman, Angela John; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of autism are frequent in males with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but it is not clear whether symptom profiles differ from those of nonsyndromic ASD. Using individual item scores from the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, we examined which current symptoms of autism differed in boys with FXS relative to same-aged boys diagnosed with…

  11. The conceptualization and development of a patient-reported neurogenic bladder symptom score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welk B

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Blayne Welk,1 Sarah A Morrow,2 Wendy Madarasz,3 Patrick Potter,4 Keith Sequeira41Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 3St Joseph's Health Care, London Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Western University, London, ON, CanadaBackground: There is no single patient-reported instrument that was developed specifically to assess symptoms and bladder-related consequences for neurogenic bladder dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to identify and consolidate items for a novel measurement tool for this population.Methods: Item generation was based on a literature review of existing instruments, open-ended semistructured interviews with patients, and expert opinion. Judgment-based item reduction was performed by a multidisciplinary expert group. The proposed questionnaire was sent to external experts for review.Results: Eight neurogenic quality of life measures and 29 urinary symptom-specific instruments were identified. From these, 266 relevant items were extracted and used in the creation of the new neurogenic symptom score. Qualitative interviews with 16 adult patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction as a result of spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or spina bifida were completed. Dominant themes included urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, urgency, and bladder spasms. Using the literature review and interview data, 25 proposed items were reviewed by 12 external experts, and the questions evaluated based on importance on a scale of 1 (not important to 5 (very important. Retained question domains had high mean importance ratings of 3.1 to 4.3 and good agreement with answer hierarchy.Conclusion: The proposed neurogenic bladder symptom score is a novel patient-reported outcome measure. Further work is underway to perform a data-based item reduction and to assess the validity and reliability of this instrument

  12. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with a greater depressive symptom score in a general elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Sloten, T T; Schram, Miranda T; Adriaanse, M C

    2014-01-01

    ), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, soluble thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial selectin], LGI [C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, serum amyloid A, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and sICAM-1] and OxS (oxidized low density lipoprotein and MPO). Depressive symptoms......, in a population-based cohort study, the association between ED, LGI and OxS on the one hand and depressive symptoms on the other. METHOD: We used data from the Hoorn Study and determined biomarkers of ED [flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), von Willebrand factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1...... status, one standard deviation increase in the ED Z score was associated with a 1.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-3.1] higher CES-D score. Additional adjustments did not materially change this result. LGI and OxS were not associated with the CES-D score. CONCLUSIONS: ED, as quantified by an array...

  13. Symptoms, Quality of Life and level of functioning of traumatized refugees at Psychiatric Trauma Clinic in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhman, Cæcilie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lundstrøm, Stine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize physical and mental health in trauma exposed refugees by describing a population of patients with regard to background, mental health history and current health problems; and to identify pre- and post-migratory predictors of mental health. METHOD: All patients receiving...... treatment at the Psychiatric Trauma Clinic for Refugees in Copenhagen from April 2008 to February 2010 completed self-rating inventories on symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety as well as level of functioning and quality of life before treatment. Then, associations of pre and post migratory factors...... of treatment effect should clarify all co-morbidities so that comparable populations can be included in treatment evaluation studies....

  14. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...

  15. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...

  16. Screening for Psychiatric Symptoms: PAS-ADD Checklist Norms for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. L.; Hatton, C.; Dixon, L.; Douglas, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities Checklist (PAS-ADD Checklist) is a screening instrument designed to help carers recognize likely mental health problems in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). To date there are no published PAS-ADD Checklist data on a large nonpsychiatric population of adults…

  17. Efficacy of Group Art Therapy on Depressive Symptoms in Adult Heterogeneous Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Ainlay Anand, Susan; Avent, Lindsay Cherryl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential benefit of weekly group art therapy in groups of adult psychiatric outpatients at a university medical center. Eighteen patients participated in 4 successive 8-week groups of 6 to 8 patients each that met weekly and were led by 2 therapists (a board-certified art therapist and a psychiatry resident). The…

  18. The association between depressive symptoms and non-psychiatric hospitalisation in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prina, A.M.; Deeg, D.; Brayne, C.; Beekman, A.; Huisman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is known that people who suffer from depression are more likely to have other physical illnesses, but the extent of the association between depression and non-psychiatric hospitalisation episodes has never been researched in great depth. We therefore aimed to investigate whether

  19. The responsiveness of the International Prostate Symptom Score, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edmond P H; Chin, Weng Yee; Lam, Cindy L K; Wan, Eric Y F

    2015-08-01

    To examine the responsiveness of a combined symptom severity and health-related quality of life measure, condition-specific health-related quality of life measure and mental health measure in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. To establish the responsiveness of measures that accurately capture the change in health status of patients is crucial before any longitudinal studies can be appropriately planned and evaluated. Prospective longitudinal observational study. 402 patients were surveyed at baseline and 1-year using the International Prostate Symptom Score, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21. The internal and external responsiveness were assessed. Surveys were conducted from March 2013-July 2014. In participants with improvements, the internal responsiveness for detecting positive changes was satisfactory in males and females for all scales, expect for the Depression subscale. The health-related quality of life question of the International Prostate Symptom Score was more externally responsive than the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7. The International Prostate Symptom Score and Anxiety and Stress subscales were more responsive in males than in females. The symptom questions of the International Prostate Symptom Score and Anxiety and Stress subscales were not externally responsive in females. The health-related quality of life question of the International Prostate Symptom Score outperformed the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 in both males and females, in terms of external responsiveness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Body mass index and depressive symptoms: instrumental-variables regression with genetic risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, M; Elovainio, M; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Batty, G D; Hintsanen, M; Seppälä, I; Kähönen, M; Viikari, J S; Raitakari, O T; Lehtimäki, T; Kivimäki, M

    2012-11-01

    The causal role of obesity in the development of depression remains uncertain. We applied instrumental-variables regression (Mendelian randomization) to examine the association of adolescent and adult body mass index (BMI) with adult depressive symptoms. Participants were from the Young Finns prospective cohort study (n = 1731 persons, 2844 person-observations), with repeated measurements of BMI and depressive symptoms (modified Beck's Depression Inventory). Genetic risk score of 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously identified as robust genetic markers of body weight was used as a proxy for variation in BMI. In standard linear regression analysis, higher adult depressive symptoms were predicted by higher adolescent BMI (B = 0.33, CI = 0.06-0.60, P = 0.017) and adult BMI (B = 0.47, CI = 0.32-0.63, P regression (P = 0.04). These findings provide additional evidence to support a causal role for high BMI in increasing symptoms of depression. However, the present analysis also demonstrates potential limitations of applying Mendelian randomization when using complex phenotypes. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. Utility of Voiding Dysfunction Symptom Score in Diagnosis and Treatment of Enuresis Nocturna

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    Yılören Tanıdır

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the voiding dysfunction symptom score (VDSS in evaluation of children with nocturnal enuresis. Materials and Methods: Four hundred children with nocturnal enuresis were included in the study. They were evaluated with VDSS, physical examination, urinalysis and 2-day voiding diary. All children with nocturnal enuresis symptoms were treated with desmopressin and/or urotherapy. However, children with overactive bladder symptoms were also treated with anticholinergics. Treatment success and change in VDSS were compared and assessed between different treatment methods. Results: Two hundred forty-five children (61.25% were male and 155 (38.75% were female. The mean age was 7.6±3.0 years (range: 5-18. The mean VDSS was 9.2±6.3. 35% of children with nocturnal enuresis had concomitant daytime symptoms. 126 children (31.5% had a VDSS of nine or above and majority of these children were treated with anticholinergic therapy. VDSS questionnaire could not help determine treatment success in children with non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. However, children treated with urotherapy and desmopressine showed significant difference in VDSSs according to their treatment response. Conclusion: VDSS has shown to decrease after treatment in children with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. The treatment strategies should be checked and modified if VDSS does not decrease after proper therapy as this would increase the success of treatment.

  2. Could symptoms and risk factors diagnose COPD? Development of a Diagnosis Score for COPD

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    Salameh P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pascale Salameh,1 Georges Khayat,2 Mirna Waked31Faculties of Pharmacy and of Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, 2Faculty of Medicine, Hôtel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut and Saint Joseph University, Beirut, 3Faculty of Medicine, Saint George Hospital, Beirut and Balamand University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD without spirometry is still a challenge. Our objective in this study was to develop a scale for diagnosis of COPD.Methods: Data were taken from a cross-sectional epidemiological study. After reducing chronic respiratory symptoms, a logistic regression was used to select risk factors for and symptoms of COPD. The rounded coefficients generated a Diagnosis Score for COPD (DS-COPD, which was dichotomized and differentiated between COPD and other individuals with respiratory symptoms.Results: We constructed a tool for COPD diagnosis with good properties, comprising 12 items. The area under the curve was 0.849; the positive predictive value was 76% if the DS-COPD was >20 and the negative predictive value was 97% if the DS-COPD was <10. A DS-COPD of 10–19 represented a zone mostly suggestive of no COPD (77%. The score was also inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity.Conclusion: In this study, a tool for diagnosis of COPD was constructed with good properties for use in the epidemiological setting, mainly in cases of low or high scoring. It would be of particular interest in the primary care setting, where spirometry may not be available. Prospective studies and application in clinical settings would be necessary to validate this scale further.Keywords: diagnosis, scale, development, spirometry

  3. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  4. Psychiatric Symptoms, Parental Attachment, and Reasons for Use as Correlates of Heavy Substance Use Among Treatment-Seeking Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattamorta, Karina A; Varela, Alberto; McCabe, Brian E; Mena, Maite P; Santisteban, Daniel A

    2017-02-23

    In early adolescence, Hispanics self-report higher drug use rates compared to White and African American peers. Among adolescent users, heavy users have more negative behavioral and health consequences. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine whether psychiatric symptoms, parental attachment, and reasons for use predict heavy alcohol and illicit drug use (more than 10 times in the past three months) among Hispanic adolescents. This study examines baseline data from a study evaluating a family based substance abuse treatment program for Hispanic adolescents. Participants were 14-17 years old (N = 156, 44% female). Adolescent reports on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales measured psychiatric symptoms of major depressive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and anxiety. The Personal Experiences Inventory measured type and amount of drug use, as well as perceived social and psychological benefits of drug use. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment measured trust, communication, and alienation between adolescents and their mothers. Logistic regression identified correlates of heavy alcohol use and heavy illicit drug use among Hispanic adolescents. Higher social benefits were associated with increased likelihood of heavy alcohol use. Conduct disorder, higher levels of maternal attachment, lower levels of acculturation, and higher levels of psychological benefits of use were associated with an increased likelihood of heavy illicit drug use. These findings support the assumption that substance use treatment among Hispanic adolescents must be capable of addressing co-occurring psychiatric disorders, familial relationships, and the individual reasons/motivators to use.

  5. Common psychiatric symptoms among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. An observational cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Teachers are at great risk of physical and mental stress due to material or psychological difficulties associated with their work. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of common psychiatric symptoms measured on the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 scale that would suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric disorders among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil, in 2012. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. METHOD: We assessed 110 municipal teachers in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. They were selected randomly from a list of employees of the Municipal Education Department of Palmas. All of them answered the SRQ-20 questionnaire after giving their consent. RESULTS: Between the years 2008 and 2011, 24 cases of absence from work due to mental disorders were found. We excluded one case and 109 teachers answered the SRQ-20questionnaire. Out of the 109 teachers assessed, 54 had ≥ 7 points on the SRQ-20 scale. This finding suggests that 49.5% of the teachers had symptoms that were sufficient to consider a diagnosis of mental disorder, with the need for treatment. CONCLUSION: Our study found that the prevalence of mental disorders among teachers is as high as seen in the literature. Our results suggest that recognition of mental disorders is low and that the current statistics fail to reach the occupational health sector.

  6. New possibility of traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as treatment for behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung FC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fan-Chin Kung,1 Ryouhei Ishii,2 Hsing-Cheng Liu,3 Masatoshi Takeda21Yuli Hospital, DOH, Hualien, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of General Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Yokukansan, one of the Kampo prescriptions, is composed of seven herbaceous plants and was developed in China in the 16th century as a cure for restlessness and agitation in children. Yokukansan has also become a popular drug combination in Japan, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD. Recent studies have shown that yokukansan might also be quite effective against BPSD occurring in association with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Researchers have intensively investigated yokukansan, focusing on the pharmacological mechanisms against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. This traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine holds potential promise for improving BPSD in elderly patients suffering from dementia.Keywords: yokukansan, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, Kampo, glutamate

  7. Do gaming motives mediate between psychiatric symptoms and problematic gaming? An empirical survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Ballabio, M.; Griffiths, MD; Urbán, R; Quartiroli, A; Demetrovics, Z; Király, O

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that motives play an important role in several potentially addictive activities including online gaming. The aims of the present study were to (i) examine the mediation effect of different online gaming motives between psychiatric distress and problematic online gaming, and (ii) validate Italian versions of the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire, and the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire. Data collection took place online and targeted Italian-speakin...

  8. Association of psychiatric history and type D personality with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and health status prior to ICD implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S; van Hout, Moniek; Scholten, Marcoen; van der Palen, Job

    2013-09-01

    Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). We examined associations between previous anxiety and depressive disorder, type D personality, anxiety or depressive symptoms, and health status in ICD patients prior to ICD implantation. Patients (N = 278; 83 % men; mean age = 62.2 years ±11) receiving a first ICD from September 2007 through April 2010 at the Medisch Spectrum Twente, The Netherlands completed validated questionnaires before implantation assessing type D personality (14-item Type D Scale), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and health status (36-item Short Form Health Survey). History of anxiety or depressive disorder was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview structural interview. Previous anxiety or depressive disorder was prevalent in 8 and 19 % of patients, respectively. Type D personality was present in 21 %, depressive symptoms in 15 %, and anxiety in 24 %. In adjusted analyses, type D personality was a dominant correlate of previous depressive disorder (odds ratio (OR) 6.2, p anxiety disorder (OR 3.9, p = 0.004). Type D personality (OR 4.0, p anxiety symptoms at baseline. Type D personality (OR 5.9. p depressive symptoms at baseline. Heart failure and type D personality were related to poorer health status. In ICD patients, prior to ICD implantation, a previous anxiety or depressive disorder, type D personality, and anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with poorer health status. Type D personality was also independently associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms.

  9. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history

  10. Examining the Potential for Gender Bias in the Prediction of Symptom Validity Test Failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Graham, John R.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the…

  11. Positive and negative subclinical symptoms and MCCB performance in non-psychiatric controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Korponay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable data support the phenomenological and temporal continuity between subclinical psychosis and psychotic disorders. In recent years, neurocognitive deficits have increasingly been recognized as a core feature of psychotic illness but there are few data seeking to elucidate the relationship between subclinical psychosis and neurocogntive deficits in non-clinical samples. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between subclinical positive and negative symptoms, as measured by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE and performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB in a large (n = 303 and demographically diverse non-clinical sample. We found that compared to participants with low levels of subclinical positive symptoms, participants with high levels of subclinical positive symptoms performed significantly better in the domains of working memory (p < .001, verbal learning (p = .007 and visual learning (p = .014. Although comparison of participants with high and low levels of subclinical negative symptoms revealed no differences in MCCB performance, we found that individuals with high levels of subclinical negative symptoms performed significantly better on a measure of estimated IQ (WRAT-3 Reading subtest; p = .02 than those with low levels of subclinical negative symptoms. These results are at odds with prior reports that have generally shown a negative relationship between neurocognitive functioning and severity of subclinical psychotic symptoms, and suggest some potential discontinuities between clinically significant psychotic symptoms and sub-syndromal manifestations of psychosis.

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Their Interactions With Emotions and Personality Traits Over Time: Interaction Networks in a Psychiatric Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semino, Laura N; Marksteiner, Josef; Brauchle, Gernot; Danay, Erik

    2017-04-13

    Associations between depression, personality traits, and emotions are complex and reciprocal. The aim of this study is to explore these interactions in dynamical networks and in a linear way over time depending on the severity of depression. Participants included 110 patients with depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria) who were recruited between October 2015 and February 2016 during their inpatient stay in a general psychiatric hospital in Hall in Tyrol, Austria. The patients filled out the Beck Depression Inventory-II, a German emotional competence questionnaire (Emotionale Kompetenz Fragebogen), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the German versions of the Big Five Inventory-short form and State-Trait-Anxiety-Depression Inventory regarding symptoms, emotions, and personality during their inpatient stay and at a 3-month follow-up by mail. Network and regression analyses were performed to explore interactions both in a linear and a dynamical way at baseline and 3 months later. Regression analyses showed that emotions and personality traits gain importance for the prediction of depressive symptoms with decreasing symptomatology at follow-up (personality: baseline, adjusted R2 = 0.24, P emotions, and personality traits is significantly denser and more interconnected (network comparison test: P = .03) at follow-up than at baseline, meaning that with decreased symptoms interconnections get stronger. During depression, personality traits and emotions are walled off and not strongly interconnected with depressive symptoms in networks. With decreasing depressive symptomatology, interfusing of these areas begins and interconnections become stronger. This finding has practical implications for interventions in an acute depressive state and with decreased symptoms. The network approach offers a new perspective on interactions and is a way to make the complexity of these interactions more tangible.

  13. Impact of Deployment-Related Sexual Stressors on Psychiatric Symptoms After Accounting for Predeployment Stressors: Findings From a U.S. National Guard Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Ethan B; Murdoch, Maureen; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul; Polusny, Melissa A

    2015-08-01

    This study used a longitudinal research design to examine the impact of predeployment stressors and deployment-related sexual stressors on self-reported psychiatric symptoms of U.S. National Guard soldiers returning from deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan. Prior to deployment, participants completed measures of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, along with an inventory of predeployment stressor experiences. At 3-months postdeployment, participants (468 men, 60 women) again completed self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms, along with an inventory of sexual stressors experienced during deployment. We compared a cross-sectional model of sexual stressors' impact on psychiatric symptoms, in which only postdeployment reports were considered, to a longitudinal model in which we adjusted for participants' predeployment stressors and psychiatric symptoms. No participants reported sexual assault during deployment, though sexual harassment was common. The cross-sectional model suggested that deployment-related sexual stressors were significantly associated with postdeployment depression (R(2) = .11) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (R(2) = .10). Once predeployment factors were taken into consideration, however, sexual stressors were no longer significant. The results did not support the notion of lasting negative impact for low-level sexual stressors (e.g., sexual harassment) during deployment after predeployment stressors are accounted for. Future studies of sexual stressors should consider longitudinal designs. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. Youth With Psychogenic Non-Syncopal Collapse Have More Somatic and Psychiatric Symptoms and Lower Perceptions of Peer Relationships Than Youth With Syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Geoffrey L

    2017-11-20

    Little is known about somatic and psychiatric symptoms and perceived peer relationships of patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse. This study aimed to compare somatic and psychiatric symptoms and other elements potentially related to functional neurological symptom disorders between youth with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse and those with neurally mediated syncope. Before testing, patients completed a structured interview and questionnaire addressing current symptoms, previous psychiatric diagnoses, referrals, diagnostic testing, prescribed medications, and patient self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and perceived peer relationships. Compared with patients with syncope (n = 60), patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse (n = 60) had higher ratings for lightheadedness and vertigo, more abdominal pain, more chronic headaches, more fatigue, more sleep disturbances, more prescriptions for antidepressant medicines, more encephalograms performed, more referrals to psychiatry, and more psychiatric diagnoses including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, previous nonfainting conversion disorders, and eating disorders (all p peer relationships (37 ± 12.3 versus 47.6 ± 7.9, p Peer relationships remained significantly lower (p = 0.001) when analyzed with anxiety and depression. Patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse have more symptom complaints and perceptions of poorer peer social interactions than patients with syncope. These results broaden our understanding of the biopsychosocial profile that increases an individual's vulnerability to psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse specifically and to functional neurological symptom disorders in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychiatric Symptoms and Alcohol Use in Community Violence by Persons With a Psychotic Disorder or Depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Suzanne; Mulvey, Edward P; Loughran, Thomas A; Hanusa, Barbara H

    2012-01-01

    .... This study used data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study to examine the relationship of symptom levels and alcohol use to violence in repeated observations within two diagnostic groups...

  16. A preoperative hernia symptom score predicts inguinal hernia anatomy and outcomes after TEP repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert D; Berney, Christophe R

    2015-02-01

    The Carolinas comfort scale (CCS) is an ideal tool for assessing patients’ quality-of-life post hernia repair, but its use has been barely investigated preoperatively. The aim was to quantify preoperative symptoms and assess their relevance in predicting postoperative clinical outcomes following totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. The CCS was modified for preoperative use (modified or MCCS) by omitting mesh sensation questioning. Data collection was prospective over a 16 months period. (M)CCS questionnaires were completed preoperatively and at 2 then 6 weeks post repair. Intraoperative findings were also recorded. One hundred and four consecutive patients consented for TEP repair were included using a fibrin glue mesh fixation technique. All three questionnaires were completed by 88 patients (84.6 %). Preoperative MCCS scores did not differ with age, obesity, the presence of bilateral or recurrent inguinal herniae or hernia type. Higher MCCS grouping [OR 4.3 (95 % CI 1.5–12.6)] and the presence of bilateral herniae [OR 8.5 (1.2–61.8)] were predictors of persisting discomfort at 6 weeks, with lower scores on MCCS [OR 16.4 (3.9–67.6), obesity (OR 9.9 91.6–63.2)] and recurrent hernia repair [OR 11.4 (1.4–91.0)] predicting increased discomfort at 2 weeks versus preoperatively. MCCS scores were inversely correlated with the size of a direct defect (r −0.42, p = 0.011) but did not differ with the intraoperative finding of an incidental femoral and/or obturator hernia. Female sex was strongly associated with recognition of a synchronous incidental hernia (5 vs 57 %, p = 0.001). Pre- and post-operative scoring of hernia specific symptoms should be considered as part of routine surgical practice, to counsel patients on their expectations of pain and discomfort post repair and to select those who might be more appropriate for a watchful waiting approach. Females with inguinal hernia warrant complete assessment of their groin hernial orifices

  17. Korean version of the Cough Symptom Score: clinical utility and validity for chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Woo; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kang, Min-Gyu; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, So-Hee; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeong, Jae-Won; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Lee, Byung-Jae

    2017-09-01

    The Cough Symptom Score (CSS) is a simple, useful tool for measuring cough severity. However, there is no standard Korean version of the CSS. We developed a Korean version of the CSS and evaluated its clinical utility and validity for assessing chronic cough severity. The CSS was adapted for Korean use following a forward-backward translation procedure. Patients with chronic cough enrolled from five university hospitals were graded using the CSS and a 100-mm linear visual analog scale (VAS) of cough severity at each visit. Patients completed the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) upon presentation and completed the LCQ and Global Rating of Change at follow-up visits after 2 to 4 weeks. The concurrent validity, repeatability, and responsiveness of the Korean version of the CSS were determined. Correlation coefficients between the CSS and LCQ, and between the CSS and VAS, were -0.66 and 0.52, respectively. There was a weak correlation between the scores for night and day symptoms (r = 0.24, p = 0.0006). The repeatability of the CSS in patients with no change in cough (n = 23) was high (intra-class correlation coefficient, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.88). Patients who reported an improvement in cough (n = 30) at follow-up visits had a significant improvement in the CSS (median, -2; 95% CI, -3 to -1; p = 0.0003). The Korean version of the CSS correlated well with other tools for accessing cough severity in chronic cough patients. Therefore, it could be a reliable method for measuring chronic cough severity.

  18. Correlation between international prostate symptom score and uroflowmetry in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oranusi, C K; Nwofor, A E; Mbonu, O

    2017-04-01

    To determine the correlation between severity of symptoms using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms-benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS-BPH). We prospectively collected data from 51 consecutive men, who presented with LUTS-BPH at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, from January 2012 through December, 2014. Symptom severity was assessed using the self-administered IPSS questionnaire. We also performed uroflowmetry using the Urodyn 1000 (Dantec, serial no. 5534). The mean age of the patients was 67.2 ± 9.7 years (range 40-89 years). The most common presenting IPSS-LUTS was nocturia (100%) followed by urinary frequency (98%), straining (92.0%), weak stream (84.3%), urgency (41.2%), incomplete voiding (39.2%), and intermittency (35.3%) Most of the patients had moderate symptoms (58.8%) on IPSS with a mean value of 13.5 ± 3.0. The mean Qmax was 15.6 ± 18.7 mL/s and the mean voided volume was 193.0 ± 79.2 mL. About one-third of the patients (39.2%) had an unobstructed flow pattern based on Qmax. Correlation analysis showed a weak correlation between IPSS and voiding time (r = 0.220, P > 0.05), flow time (r = 0.128, P > 0.05), and time to maximum flow (r = 0.246, P > 0.05). These correlations were not significant (P > 0.05). IPSS showed a negative correlation with maximum flow rate (r = 0.368; P 0.05), and voided volume (r = -0.164, P > 0.05). This negative correlation was significant for maximum flow rate. Correlation between IPSS and Qmax was negative but statistically significant. This implies that an inverse relationship exists between IPSS and Qmax, and remains the only important parameter in uroflowmetry. There was no statistically significant correlation between IPSS and the other variables of uroflowmetry.

  19. Disability and Psychiatric Symptoms in Men Referred for Treatment with Work-Related Problems to Primary Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S Kathleen; Mushquash, Christopher J; Haggarty, John M

    2017-03-24

    The relationship between male sex and employment as barriers to accessing mental health care is unclear. The aim of this research was to examine (1) whether the clinical features of men referred to a shared mental health care (SMHC) service through primary care differed when symptoms were affecting them in the work domain; and (2) empirically re-evaluate the effectiveness of a SMHC model for work-related disability using a pre-post chart review of N = 3960 referrals to SMHC. ANOVA and logistic regression were performed to examine symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2) at entry and discharge. Men were RR (relative risk) = 1.8 (95% C.I.: 1.60-2.05) times more likely to be referred to SMHC with work problems than women. Having greater disability and more severe somatic symptoms increased the likelihood of a work-related referral. There were no significant differences after treatment. Problems in the work domain may play an important role in men's treatment seeking and clinicians' recognition of a mental health care need. This study is relevant because men are underrepresented in mental health (MH) treatment and primary care is the main gateway to accessing MH care. Asking men about functioning in the work domain may increase access to helpful psychiatric services.

  20. Quality of life and psychiatric work impairment in compulsive buying: increased symptom severity as a function of acquisition behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alishia D

    2012-08-01

    The aims of the current study were to determine if compulsive acquisition behaviors are meaningfully related to quality of life and psychiatric work impairment and to determine if compulsive buyers who engage in 2 forms of acquisition (buying and excessive acquisition of free items) are more impaired than individuals who only engage in 1 form of acquisition. In a community-recruited sample, analysis of covariance conducted between groups identified as noncompulsive buyers (NCB) (n = 30), compulsive buyers who did not acquire free items (CBB) (n = 30), and compulsive buyers who also acquired free items (CBF) (n = 35) revealed that both acquisition groups reported higher levels of depression and stress and lower quality of psychological well-being than the NCB group, despite a comparable number of individuals self-reporting a current mental health disorder in each group. The CBF group reported higher levels of anxiety and general distress as well as greater work inefficiency days compared with the NCB and CBB groups. Furthermore, regression analyses supported the unique contribution of acquisition of free items to the prediction of psychiatric work impairment. Taken together, the findings highlight the serious impact of compulsive buying on work functioning, general quality of life, and psychological well-being and provide avenues for future research to investigate the role of acquisition of free items in symptom severity. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Symptoms, Quality of Life and level of functioning of traumatized refugees at Psychiatric Trauma Clinic in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Christine Cæcilie Böck; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lundstrøm, Stine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To characterize physical and mental health in trauma exposed refugees by describing a population of patients with regard to background,  mental health history and current health problems; and to identify pre- and post-migratory predictors of mental health. Method: All patients receiving...... treatment at the Psychiatric Trauma Clinic for Refugees in Copenhagen from April 2008 to February 2010 completed self-rating inventories on symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety as well as level of functioning and quality of life before treatment. Then, associations of pre and post-migratory factors...... of treatment effect should clarify all co-morbidities so that comparable populations can be included in treatment evaluation studies....

  3. Prevalence of attenuated psychotic symptoms and their relationship with DSM-IV diagnoses in a general psychiatric outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) is being proposed for inclusion in Section III of DSM-5 for those impaired by subthreshold psychotic symptoms that are not better accounted for by another diagnosis and not meeting criteria for a psychotic disorder. The rationale is to identify patients who are at high risk for transition to a psychotic disorder in the near future. However, the potential impact of using this new diagnosis in routine clinical practice settings has not been carefully examined. As part of the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, a treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatient sample (n = 1,257) recruited from June 1997 to June 2002 completed a self-report measure of psychiatric symptoms and afterward were administered structured clinical interviews. For the current post hoc study, we investigated the prevalence rate of endorsing attenuated psychotic experiences to identify patients who could potentially meet criteria for APS. After the exclusion of those with lifetime DSM-IV psychotic disorders, psychotic experiences remained highly prevalent in the sample (28% reported at least 1 psychotic experience during the past 2 weeks), and rates were similar across all major DSM-IV diagnostic categories. Only 1 patient (0.08%) reported psychotic experiences but did not meet criteria for another current DSM disorder; however, this individual endorsed other nonpsychotic symptoms of greater severity. Psychotic experience endorsement was positively correlated with nearly all other nonpsychotic symptom domains, and multivariate analysis showed that general clinical severity predicted endorsement of psychotic experiences (P values < .001). We could not identify any patients who clearly met criteria for APS alone in our sample. Psychotic experiences appear to be common in outpatients and represent nonspecific indicators of psychopathology. Diagnosing APS in the community could result in high rates of false-positives or high

  4. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  5. Psychiatric symptoms and leptin in obese patients who were bariatric surgery candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchien TC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Te-Chang Changchien,1 Chi-Ming Tai,2 Chih-Kun Huang,3 Chia-Chang Chien,1 Yung-Chieh Yen1,4 1Department of Psychiatry, E-Da Hospital, 2Department of Internal Medicine, E-Da Hospital, 3Bariatric and Metabolic International Surgery Center, E-Da Hospital, 4School of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Objective: There is a significant relationship between obesity and common mental symptoms (depression and anxiety symptoms. But the association between depression (or anxiety symptoms and serum leptin is still unclear and controversial, despite the growing body of evidence supporting the existence of “leptin resistance” in obese persons. So we investigated whether common mental symptoms, obesity, and the interactive effect of these two factors have a relationship with leptin in obese patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery.Methods: In all, 139 participants (mean age: 31.4 years, standard deviation: 9.3 years, 73.4% female were enrolled at an obesity treatment center in southern Taiwan. Serum leptin levels and body mass index (BMI were measured. The Chinese Health Questionnaire and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire were administered. Results: The mean BMI of our participants was 39.4 kg/m2 (±6.8, and the mean leptin level was 24.5 ng/mL (±9.4. In the multivariate regression models, Chinese Health Questionnaire-by-BMI and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire-by-BMI interaction terms remained significant predictors of leptin level (β=0.16, P<0.0001; β=0.04, P<0.0001, respectively, after adjustment for age, sex, and history of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, despite the inverse correlation between Chinese Health Questionnaire (or Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire and leptin. In addition, female patients had significantly higher leptin levels than male patients.Conclusion: The present findings confirmed that the relationship between common mental symptoms and leptin is modulated by obesity in severely obese

  6. Programming for Stimulation-Induced Transient Nonmotor Psychiatric Symptoms after Bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Qiu, Yiqing; Simfukwe, Keith; Wang, Jiali; Chen, Jianchun

    2017-01-01

    Background Stimulation-induced transient nonmotor psychiatric symptoms (STPSs) are side effects following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We designed algorithms which (1) determine the electrode contacts that induce STPSs and (2) provide a programming protocol to eliminate STPS and maintain the optimal motor functions. Our objective is to test the effectiveness of these algorithms. Materials and Methods 454 PD patients who underwent programming sessions after STN-DBS implantations were retrospectively analyzed. Only STPS patients were enrolled. In these patients, the contacts inducing STPS were found and the programming protocol algorithms used. Results Eleven patients were diagnosed with STPS. Of these patients, two had four episodes of crying, and two had four episodes of mirthful laughter. In one patient, two episodes of abnormal sense of spatial orientation were observed. Hallucination episodes were observed twice in one patient, while five patients recorded eight episodes of hypomania. There were no statistical differences between the UPDRS-III under the final stimulation parameter (without STPS) and previous optimum UPDRS-III under the STPSs (p = 1.000). Conclusion The flow diagram used for determining electrode contacts that induce STPS and the programming protocol employed in the treatment of these symptoms are effective. PMID:28894620

  7. Evaluation of effectiveness and safety of a herbal compound in primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo Palmieri,1,2 Paola Contaldi,1 Giuseppe Fogliame1 1ANARDI Medical and Scientific Association, Scafati, Italy; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Niguarda Cà Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy Background and purpose: Sleep disturbances and related daytime activities impairment are common diseases nowadays. General practitioners are often the first health care professional asked to alleviate sleep disturbances and primary insomnia symptoms. Beyond a wide class of hypnotic drugs, botanicals can represent an alternative treatment for those kinds of symptoms. The scope of the present study is to evaluate safety and effectiveness of a herbal compound composed of valerian, hop, and jujube (Vagonotte® on primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes.Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty subjects with sleep disturbances symptoms were randomized in two branches of 60 persons each, receiving the herbal compound or placebo at dosage of two pills per day 30 minutes before their scheduled bedtime. All subjects were screened for precise items related to sleep quality and daytime activity at the beginning, after 10 days, and after 20 days of consecutive dietary supplement (or placebo consumption. The participants remained blind to group assignment until all of them completed the trial.Results: Sleep onset, numbers of nocturnal awakenings, and overall nocturnal slept time were assessed. A statistically significant difference between the two groups emerged. The group receiving the herbal compound showed a lower time of sleep onset compared to placebo group, the same result was obtained for total slept time and night awakenings frequency (p<0.001. Daily symptom improvement in subjects receiving the herbal compound showed significant reduction in tension and irritability, difficulty in concentration, and fatigue intensity, if compared to placebo scores (p<0.001. None of the 60 subjects in the verum group

  8. Coexisting Psychiatric Problems and Stressful Life Events in Adults with Symptoms of ADHD--A Large Swedish Population-Based Study of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit…

  9. The Effect of Participating in Suicide Research: Does Participating in a Research Protocol on Suicide and Psychiatric Symptoms Increase Suicide Ideation and Attempts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip; Poindexter, Erin; Cukrowicz, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    The effect of engaging in an intensive research protocol that inquired extensively about psychiatric and suicide symptoms and exposed participants to a number of images, including suicide-related content was explored. Individuals experiencing a major depressive episode were called at 1 and 3 months after the initial protocol. Participants were…

  10. Self-reported symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: rate of endorsement and association with neuropsychological performance in an adult psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brooke C; Thoering, Teresa; Cludius, Barbara; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    The lack of specificity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms represents a diagnostic challenge, especially when assessing psychiatric patients reporting a wide range of complaints. Rate of endorsement of ADHD symptoms, and their association with neuropsychological performance, was examined in a psychiatric sample of 71 adults, who had been referred for a neuropsychological evaluation. Patients completed two self-report measures of ADHD symptoms, the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ADHD-SR) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale-Short Form, as well as measures of attention, executive functioning, visuoconstructional ability, and verbal learning and memory. On the ADHD-SR, 74.6% of the sample met the cutoff for inattention or hyperactivity, while 81.7% met the cutoff for impulsivity. Neuropsychological performance was weakly associated with self-reported symptoms. Our results suggest that psychiatric patients commonly report symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Assessment utilizing multiple sources is necessary to confirm whether self-reported symptoms are indicative of ADHD or reflect other causes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Primary progressive multiple sclerosis presenting with severe predominant cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms: A challenging case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Alberto Andrea; Cecchetti, Giordano; Caso, Francesca; Santangelo, Roberto; Baldoli, Cristina; Natali Sora, Maria Grazia; Comi, Giancarlo; Magnani, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Vittorio

    2017-10-01

    Severe cognitive dysfunction is a frequent feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), normally associated with later stages of the disease in adult population. Nevertheless, progressive cognitive and neuropsychiatric disturbances might rarely be the presenting and predominant symptom. In order to better characterize this peculiar phenotype of MS, we report on the case of a 38-year-old man who referred to our hospital with the suspect of hereditary leukodystrophy after 5 years of behavioral and mood abnormalities, global cognitive dysfunction, clumsiness, and very mild pyramidal and cerebellar signs. Brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis prompted the diagnosis of MS.

  12. Motivational and Behavioral Activation as an Adjunct to Psychiatric Rehabilitation for Mild to Moderate Negative Symptoms in Individuals with Schizophrenia: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Hong Choi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Few psychosocial approaches address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which shares common features with depression and anxiety. Behavioral activation (BA is effective for addressing depression and anxiety in adults with various mental disorders. Motivational Interviewing (MI has been successfully applied to address ambivalence or lack of motivation towards treatment. Motivational and behavioral activation (mBA has been developed by incorporating the core principles from BA and MI with recent findings on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of mBA in a non-randomized controlled pilot study that included individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms receiving psychiatric rehabilitation. A total of 73 individuals with schizophrenia were recruited. Forty-seven of the participants who met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned to either an mBA + usual psychiatric rehabilitation group (mBA or a usual psychiatric rehabilitation only group (treatment as usual, TAU. Administering mBA to individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms was feasible in a community mental health setting. Relative to TAU, mBA was associated with large effects in reducing negative symptoms measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS. However, after considering PANSS cognitive deficits and marital status as covariates due to significant differences in their baseline levels, the treatment effects on the BNSS were partially observed. In addition, participants in the mBA group showed improved verbal learning and memory compared with those in the TAU group. In individuals with schizophrenia receiving the usual forms of psychiatric rehabilitation in a community mental health setting, mBA appears to offer a promising adjunctive approach for addressing mild to moderate

  13. Food-based diet quality score in relation to depressive symptoms in young and middle-aged Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroka; Murakami, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Only a few studies have focused on the association between overall diet, rather than intakes of individual nutrients or foods, and depressive symptoms in Japanese. This cross-sectional study examined associations between a diet quality score and depressive symptoms in 3963 young (age 18 years) and 3833 middle-aged (mean age 47·9 (sd 4·2) years) Japanese women. Dietary information was collected using a diet history questionnaire. A previously developed diet quality score was computed mainly based on the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22·0 % for young women and 16·8 % for middle-aged women, assessed as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score ≥23 and ≥19, respectively. As expected, the diet quality score was associated positively with intakes of 'grain dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'milk' and 'fruits' and inversely with intakes of energy from 'snacks, confection and beverages' and Na from seasonings. After adjustment for potential confounders, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest v. lowest quintiles of the diet quality score was 0·65 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·84) in young women (P for trend=0·0005). In middle-aged women, the corresponding value was 0·59 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·78) (P for trenddiet quality and CES-D scores were treated as continuous variables also showed inverse associations. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that a higher diet quality score was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in young and middle-aged Japanese women. Prospective studies are needed to confirm a public health relevance of this finding.

  14. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Cheol Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although major depressive disorder (MDD has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation, functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version. Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  16. The Role of Parenting Styles in the Relation Between Functions of Aggression and Internalizing Symptoms in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Casey A; Rathert, Jamie L; Fite, Paula J; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric inpatient hospitalization is a costly intervention for youth. With rates of hospitalization rising, efforts to refine prevention and intervention are necessary. Aggression often precedes severe internalizing behaviors, and proactive and reactive functions of aggression are differentially associated with internalizing symptomatology. Thus, further understanding of the links between functions of aggression and internalizing symptomatology could aid in the improvement of interventions for hospitalized youth. The current study examined parenting styles, gender, and age as potential moderators of the relations between proactive and reactive aggression and internalizing symptoms. Participants included 392 children, 6-12 years of age admitted consecutively to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Reactive aggression was uniquely associated with anxiety symptoms. However, proactive aggression was associated with internalizing problems only when specific parenting styles and demographic factors were present. Although both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression were associated with internalizing symptoms, differential associations were evident. Implications of findings are discussed.

  17. Somatic symptom overlap in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores following myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Pilote, Louise; Dozois, David J. A.; Beck, Aaron T.; Dobson, Keith S.; Fuss, Samantha; de Jonge, Peter; Grace, Sherry L.; Stewart, Donne E.; Ormel, Johan; Abbey, Susan E.

    Background Depression measures that include somatic symptoms may inflate severity estimates among medically ill patients, including those with cardiovascular disease. Aims To evaluate whether people receiving in-patient treatment following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) had higher somatic symptom

  18. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Cook

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12. Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4 were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  19. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin L; Progovac, Ana M; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, "how do you feel today?" We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  20. The accuracy of Internet search engines to predict diagnoses from symptoms can be assessed with a validated scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Bennett S

    2014-02-01

    To validate a scoring system that evaluates the ability of Internet search engines to correctly predict diagnoses when symptoms are used as search terms. We developed a five point scoring system to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Internet search engines. We identified twenty diagnoses common to a primary care setting to validate the scoring system. One investigator entered the symptoms for each diagnosis into three Internet search engines (Google, Bing, and Ask) and saved the first five webpages from each search. Other investigators reviewed the webpages and assigned a diagnostic accuracy score. They rescored a random sample of webpages two weeks later. To validate the five point scoring system, we calculated convergent validity and test-retest reliability using Kendall's W and Spearman's rho, respectively. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to look for differences in accuracy scores for the three Internet search engines. A total of 600 webpages were reviewed. Kendall's W for the raters was 0.71 (pInternet search engine. We found a significant difference in scores based on the webpage's order on the Internet search engine webpage (p=0.007). Pairwise comparisons revealed higher scores in the first webpages vs. the fourth (corr p=0.009) and fifth (corr p=0.017). However, this significance was lost when creating composite scores. The five point scoring system to assess diagnostic accuracy of Internet search engines is a valid and reliable instrument. The scoring system may be used in future Internet research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic risk score predicting risk of rheumatoid arthritis phenotypes and age of symptom onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori B Chibnik

    Full Text Available Cumulative genetic profiles can help identify individuals at high-risk for developing RA. We examined the impact of 39 validated genetic risk alleles on the risk of RA phenotypes characterized by serologic and erosive status.We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms at 31 validated RA risk loci and 8 Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles among 542 Caucasian RA cases and 551 Caucasian controls from Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II. We created a weighted genetic risk score (GRS and evaluated it as 7 ordinal groups using logistic regression (adjusting for age and smoking to assess the relationship between GRS group and odds of developing seronegative (RF- and CCP-, seropositive (RF+ or CCP+, erosive, and seropositive, erosive RA phenotypes. In separate case only analyses, we assessed the relationships between GRS and age of symptom onset. In 542 RA cases, 317 (58% were seropositive, 163 (30% had erosions and 105 (19% were seropositive with erosions. Comparing the highest GRS risk group to the median group, we found an OR of 1.2 (95% CI = 0.8-2.1 for seronegative RA, 3.0 (95% CI = 1.9-4.7 for seropositive RA, 3.2 (95% CI = 1.8-5.6 for erosive RA, and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.6-16.3 for seropositive, erosive RA. No significant relationship was seen between GRS and age of onset.Results suggest that seronegative and seropositive/erosive RA have different genetic architecture and support the importance of considering RA phenotypes in RA genetic studies.

  2. The association between parental history of diagnosed mood/anxiety disorders and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental history of mood or anxiety disorders is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. Gaps remain however in our knowledge of whether maternal or paternal disorders are more strongly associated with offspring disorders, and whether the association exists in non-clinical samples. This study uses a large population-based sample to test if maternal or paternal history of mood and/or anxiety disorders increases the risk of mood and/or anxiety disorders, or symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study, a prospective cohort investigation of 1293 grade 7 students. Data on mental health outcomes were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 20.4 (0.7 years on average. Parental data were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires. This current analysis pertains to 564 participants with maternal and/or paternal data. The association between maternal and paternal history and each of diagnosed anxiety disorder, diagnosed mood disorder, and symptoms of specific anxiety disorders in offspring was studied in multivariate logistic regression. Results A higher proportion of mothers than fathers had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder (23% versus 12%. Similarly, 14% of female offspring had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder, compared to 6% of male offspring. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for maternal history was 2.2 (1.1, 4.5 for diagnosed mood disorders, 4.0 (2.1, 7.8 for diagnosed anxiety disorders, and 2.2 (1.2, 4.0 for social phobia symptoms. Paternal history was not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in offspring. Conclusion Maternal, but not paternal mood/anxiety disorders were associated with diagnosed psychiatric disorders, as well as symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Efforts to detect mood and anxiety

  3. Predictive validity of a five-item symptom checklist to screen psychiatric morbidity and suicide ideation in general population and psychiatric settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Wu

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The BSRS-5R was validated as an efficient checklist to screen for psychiatric morbidity and suicide ideation in the general public. The result is valuable in translating into general medical and community settings for early detection of suicide ideation.

  4. Hierarchy levels, sum score, and worsening of disability are related to depressive symptoms in elderly men from three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Carolien L.; van den Bos, Geertrudis A. M.; Tijhuis, Marja; Aijanseppa, Sinikka; Nissinen, Aulikki; Giampaoli, Simona; Kromhout, Daan

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to investigate the predictive value of hierarchy levels and sum score of disability and change in disability on depressive symptoms. Method: Longitudinal data of 723 men age 70 and older from the Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands Elderly Study were collected in 1990

  5. [Does routine outcome monitoring have a promising future? An investigation into the use of shared decision-making combined with ROM for patients with a combination of physical and psychiatric symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M; Andrea, H; Kessels, E; Duivenvoorden, H J; Biemans, H; Metz, M

    2014-01-01

    Although routine outcome monitoring (ROM) has been developed and widely used in the course of patient centered outcome research in the Netherlands, so far the technique has hardly ever been used to improve the treatment of individual patients. To describe how a rom technique based on the principles of shared decision-making (SDM) was developed and evaluated at the Center for Body, Mind and Health at GGz Breburg, a specialised mental health institution in the Netherlands. We have developed a conceptual model for SDM that involves patient participation and the use of evidence-based decision-aids with cut-off scores. According to the conceptual model for SDM that we developed, the patient and the health professional involved took 'shared' decisions in three phases; the decisions related to triage, the drawing-up of a treatment plan and a follow-up treatment course. At the end of the 6 month intake-phase 7 of the 67 patients who were deemed eligible for ROM/SDM were dropped from the study because they were incapable of performing ROM assessments. Due to diagnostic advice and referral at the end of the intake-phase, 25 patients did not require further treatment. Of the remaining 35 patients, 33 delivered at least one follow-up ROM assessment during the subsequent treatment phases. In these patients somatic and psychiatric symptoms were found to be significantly reduced. ROM combined with sdm can be used successfully with patients who have a combination of physical and psychiatric symptoms and the technique can be applied by the professional in charge. Very few patients dropped out of the follow-up measurements and somatic as well as depressive or psychiatric symptoms diminished significantly. These findings indicate that a Randomised Clinical Trial is warranted in order to test the effectiveness of sdm combined with ROM as a decision-making instrument.

  6. [Prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in outpatient adolescents and young adults with other psychiatric disorders refractory to previous treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Raquel; Barrau, Víctor; Casas, Miguel; Caballero-Correa, María; Martínez-Jiménez, Pedro; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with other primary psychiatric disorders, who had not responded to previous treatments. A total of 795 outpatients aged 15 to 24 years were included. The presence of ADHD was studied using DSM-IV criteria and the frequency of symptoms using the 18 item DuPaul ADHD Rating Scale. ADHD (DSM-IV criteria) was present in 48 patients (6%), none of whom had previously received the diagnosis. A total of 260 patients (32.7%) met the criteria for moderate ADHD and between them, severity of primary psychiatric disorder was higher according to the CGI-S (P=.007). Risk factors for moderate ADHD symptoms were the presence of substance use disorders (SUD) (odds ratio=1.543, P=.01) and borderline personality disorders (odds ratio =2.173, p=.0001). Unrecognized ADHD was present in 6% of patients; moreover 32.7% of the sample also presented moderate symptoms of the disorder. Screening for ADHD in young patients with refractory response to primary disorder treatment, mainly those with substance use disorders, conduct and personality disorders is highly advisable, due to the high frequency of ADHD comorbidity in these psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes: Impact on Weight, Quality of Life, and Psychiatric Symptoms in Veterans With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jillian M; Erickson, Zachary D; Meyer, Hilary B; Baker, Matthew R; Gelberg, Hollie A; Arnold, Irina Y; Kwan, Crystal; Chamberlin, Valery; Rosen, Jennifer A; Shah, Chandresh; Hellemann, Gerhard; Lewis, Melissa M; Nguyen, Charles; Sachinvala, Neena; Amrami, Binyamin; Pierre, Joseph M; Ames, Donna

    2017-09-01

    Veterans with mental illness tend to have shorter life spans and suboptimal physical health because of a variety of factors. These factors include poor nutrition, being overweight, and smoking cigarettes. Nonphysical contributors that may affect quality of life are the stigma associated with mental illness, social difficulties, and spiritual crises. Current mental health treatment focuses primarily on the delivery of medication and evidence-based psychotherapies, which may not affect all the above areas of a Veteran's life as they focus primarily on improving psychological symptoms. Clinicians may find greater success using integrative, comprehensive, multifaceted programs to treat these problems spanning the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual domains. These pilot studies test an adjunctive, holistic, behavioral approach to treat mental illness. This pilot work explores the hypotheses that engagement in a greater number of therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) leads to improvement in quality of life, reduction of psychiatric symptoms, and weight loss. Institutional Review Boards for human subjects at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Greater Los Angeles and Long Beach Healthcare Systems approved pilot study activities at their sites. Pilot Study 1 was a prospective survey study of Veterans with mental illness, who gained weight on an atypical antipsychotic medication regimen, participating in a weight management study. At each session of the 1-year study, researchers asked a convenience sample of 55 Veterans in the treatment arm whether they engaged in each of the eight TLCs: exercise, nutrition/diet, stress management and relaxation, time in nature, relationships, service to others, religious or spiritual involvement, and recreation. Pilot Study 2 applied the TLC behavioral intervention and examined 19 Veterans with mental illness, who attended four classes about TLCs, received individual counseling over 9 weeks, and maintained journals to track TLC practice

  9. McGill Brisbane Symptom Score for patients with resectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Mohammed H; Doi, Suhail A R; Moser, A James; Dumitra, Sinziana; abou Khalil, Jad; Simoneau, Eve; Chaudhury, Prosanto; Onitilo, Adedayo A; Metrakos, Peter; Barkun, Jeffrey S

    2014-09-14

    To evaluate the ability of the McGill Brisbane Symptom Score (MBSS) to predict survival in resectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma (PHA) patients. All PHA patients (n = 83) undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy at the McGill University Health Center, Quebec between 1/2001-1/2010 were evaluated. Data related to patient and cancer characteristics, MBSS variables, and treatment were collected; univariable and multivariable survival analyses were performed. We obtained complete follow-up until February 2011 in all patients through the database of the provincial health insurance plan of Quebec. The unique health insurance numbers of these patients were used to retrieve information from this database which captures all billable clinical encounters, and ensures 100% actual survival data. Median survival was 23 mo overall: 45 mo for patients with low MBSS, 17 mo for high MBSS (P = 0.005). At twelve months survival was 83.3% (95%CI: 66.6-92.1) vs 58.1% (95%CI: 42.1-71.2) in those with low vs high MBSS, and 24 mo survival was 63.8% (95%CI: 45.9-77.1) and 34.0% (95%CI: 20.2-48.2) respectively. In the multivariate Cox model (stratified by chemotherapy), after addition of clinically meaningful covariates, MBSS was the variable with the strongest association with survival (HR = 2.63; P = 0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy interacted with MBSS category such that only high MBSS patients accrued a benefit. In univariate analysis we found a lower mortality in high MBSS but not low MBSS patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. This interaction variable, on Cox model, resulted in an adjusted mortality HR for the high MBSS (compared to low MBSS) of 4.14 (95%CI: 1.48-11.64) without chemotherapy and 2.11 (95%CI: 1.06-4.17) with chemotherapy. The MBSS is a simple prognostic tool for resectable PHA. Preoperative categorization of patients according to the MBSS allows effective stratification of patients to guide therapy.

  10. An Alternative Approach to Scoring the MTA-SNAP-IV to Guide Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Treatment Titration towards Symptom Remission: A Preliminary Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel J; McLennan, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Multimodal Treatment Study for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV (MTA-SNAP-IV) is a common rating scale to measure attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during medication treatment. Relying on the traditional scoring approach for this instrument to identify symptom remission, however, may leave a child with significant residual symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine an alternative scoring approach for this instrument to identify the extent of residual symptoms for children completing ADHD medication treatment. Parent and teacher ratings on the ADHD symptom component of the MTA-SNAP-IV were extracted from medical records of 80 children completing medication treatment at a specialty clinic in Canada. Data were scored in two ways. 1) Traditional scoring based on assigning a value ranging from 0 to 3 for response options: "Not at all," "Just a little," "Pretty much," or "Very much," for each symptom and then determining a mean across items, and 2) alternative scoring based on assigning values of 0, 0, 0.5, and 1 across the same response options and summing the total across items. Symptom remission based on the former is defined as a mean value ≤ 1, and for the latter it is defined as a summed value equal to 0. Children were significantly less likely to be classified as symptom remitted under the alternative scoring method based on parent, teacher, and combined parent-teacher ratings. Using the alternative scoring approach, residual symptoms were identified for 25%, 39%, and 70% of children classified as symptom remitted (under traditional scoring rules) by parents, teachers, and parents/teachers combined, respectively. Potential "residual" ADHD symptoms were identified in many children attaining symptom remission using the traditional scoring approach; however, further scrutiny of this alternative scoring approach is required. Although it may improve the ability to detect residual

  11. Background rates of acute mountain sickness-like symptoms at low altitude in adolescents using Lake Louise score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimore, Jon; Foley, Jo-ai; Valentine, Peter

    2012-03-01

    To record the incidence of symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of acute mountain sickness (AMS), using the Lake Louise questionnaire, in adolescents hiking at low altitude. The study was carried out on a cohort of 123 adolescents during a 3-day trip on Dartmoor, UK, at an altitude of less than 500 m. The incidence of symptoms experienced was measured using the Lake Louise questionnaire, which was completed twice daily by each participant. An episode consistent with AMS, but in the low altitude setting, was defined as a score of 3 or more on the Lake Louise questionnaire in the presence of a headache. There were 59 boys and 64 girls in the study with an average age of 16.7 years. The response rate was 100%. A total of 59 episodes of scores consistent with AMS was recorded during the 3-day period. Forty-two of these episodes were reported by girls (71%). AMS scores between 3 and 8 were recorded, and the daily incidence rates of scores consistent with AMS but at low altitude were between 7.3% and 11.3%. This study shows that adolescents at low altitude reported a background incidence of symptoms that at high altitude would lead to a diagnosis of AMS. Copyright © 2012 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of psychiatric history and type D personality with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and health status prior to ICD implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).......Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)....

  13. The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: a large-scale cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Schou Andreassen, C; Billieux, J; Griffiths, MD; Kuss, DJ; Demetrovics, Z; Mazzoni, E.; Pallesen, S

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research into ‘addictive technological behaviors’ has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)...

  14. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are associated with psychiatric comorbidities, behavioral and clinical problems: a population-based study of Brazilian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Pedro G; do Rosario, Maria C; Cesar, Raony C; Manfro, Gisele G; Moriyama, Tais S; Bloch, Michael H; Shavitt, Roseli G; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is underdiagnosed, and many affected children are untreated. The present study seeks to evaluate the presence and the clinical impact of OCD and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large sample of school-age children. In Phase I, we performed an initial screening using the Family History Screen (FHS). In Phase II, we identified an "at-risk" sample, as well as a randomly selected group of children. A total of 2,512 children (6-12 years old) were assessed using the FHS, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Data analyses included descriptive and multivariate analytical techniques. 2,512 children (mean age: 8.86 ± 1.84 years; 55.0% male) were categorized into one of the three diagnostic groups: OCD (n = 77), OCS (n = 488), and unaffected controls (n = 1,947). There were no significant socio-demographic differences (age, gender, socioeconomic status) across groups. The OCS group resembled the OCD on overall impairment, including school problems and delinquent behaviors. However, the OCD group did have significantly higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, and major depressive disorder, than OCS or unaffected controls. Moreover, the OCD group also scored higher than the SDQ, as well as on each of CBCL items rated by the parent. Our findings suggest that there is a psychopathological continuum between OCS and OCD in school-aged children. The presence of OCS is associated with functional impairment, which needs further investigation in longitudinal studies.

  15. [Prevalence and Phenomenology of Psychotic-Like Symptoms in Borderline Personality Disorders - Associations with Suicide Attempts and Use of Psychiatric Inpatient Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Katrin; Schätzle, Anja; Kowohl, Pauline; Leske, Lisa; Huber, Christian G; Schäfer, Ingo

    2018-01-19

    Psychotic-like symptoms are found in a subgroup of borderline patients (BPD). Reported prevalence is heterogeneous (up to 50% affected). Investigations in Germany have not been conducted so far. Furthermore, the precise phenomenology of the psychotic symptoms and the effects on suicidal behavior and the use of inpatient psychiatric treatment are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence rates and phenomenology of psychotic-like symptoms. Associations between the latter and suicidality as well as the use of inpatient psychiatric treatment were examined. Further influencing factors were taking into account. Psychotic-like symptoms were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview-I in 95 BPD patients. To investigate the associations between psychotic-like symptoms and suicidality as well as the use of inpatient psychiatric treatment, correlation and regression analyzes were calculated, considering severity of PTSD, BPD and depression. 36% of the patients reported alterations of perception and 21% delusions, both multiform and long lasting. The number of suicide attempts was associated with delusions, alterations of perception and severity of PTSD, BPS, and depression. Only delusions and severity of PTSD explained together 25.8% of the variance for the prediction of the number of suicide attempts. Age of initial hospitalization showed fewer and number of hospitalizations no associations at all. Psychotic-like symptoms should not be trivialized, which may happen by using terms such as pseudo-hallucinations or transient paranoid ideas, and may be particularly associated with suicidal tendencies complicating the clinical course. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. A workshop report on the development of the Cow's Milk-related Symptom Score awareness tool for young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Dupont, Christophe; Eigenmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    the evolution of symptoms during therapeutic interventions, but does not diagnose cow's milk protein allergy and does not replace a food challenge. Its usefulness needs to be evaluated by a prospective randomised study. ConclusionThe CoMiSS provides primary healthcare clinicians with a simple, fast and easy......Clinicians with expertise in managing children with gastrointestinal problems and, or, atopic diseases attended a workshop in Brussels in September 2014 to review the literature and determine whether a clinical score derived from symptoms associated with the ingestion of cow's milk proteins could...

  17. Stimulation-Induced Transient Nonmotor Psychiatric Symptoms following Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Association with Clinical Outcomes and Neuroanatomical Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulseoud, Osama A; Kasasbeh, Aimen; Min, Hoon-Ki; Fields, Julie A; Tye, Susannah J; Goerss, Stephan; Knight, Emily J; Sampson, Shirlene M; Klassen, Bryan T; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Stoppel, Cynthia; Lee, Kendall H; Frye, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and neurobiological underpinnings of transient nonmotor (TNM) psychiatric symptoms during the optimization of stimulation parameters in the course of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) remain under intense investigation. Forty-nine patients with refractory Parkinson's disease underwent bilateral STN-DBS implants and were enrolled in a 24-week prospective, naturalistic follow-up study. Patients who exhibited TNM psychiatric manifestations during DBS parameter optimization were evaluated for potential associations with clinical outcome measures. Twenty-nine TNM+ episodes were reported by 15 patients. No differences between TNM+ and TNM- groups were found in motor outcome. However, unlike the TNM- group, TNM+ patients did not report improvement in subsyndromal depression or quality of life. TNM+ episodes were more likely to emerge during bilateral monopolar stimulation of the medial STN. The occurrence of TNM psychiatric symptoms during optimization of stimulation parameters was associated with the persistence of subsyndromal depression and with lower quality of life ratings at 6 months. The neurobiological underpinnings of TNM symptoms are investigated yet remain difficult to explain. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The current state of research on ayahuasca: A systematic review of human studies assessing psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Balthazar, Fermanda M; Bouso, José C; Hallak, Jaime Ec

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of ayahuasca (AYA) - a β-carboline- and dimethyltryptamine-rich hallucinogenic botanical preparation traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian tribes for ritual and therapeutic purposes - has spread from South America to Europe and the USA, raising concerns about its possible toxicity and hopes of its therapeutic potential. Thus, it is important to analyze the acute, subacute, and long-term effects of AYA to assess its safety and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of human studies assessing AYA effects on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging. Papers published until 16 December 2015 were included from PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. The review included 28 full-text articles. Acute AYA administration was well tolerated, increased introspection and positive mood, altered visual perceptions, activated frontal and paralimbic regions and decreased default mode network activity. It also improved planning and inhibitory control and impaired working memory, and showed antidepressive and antiaddictive potentials. Long-term AYA use was associated with increased cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex and cortical thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, which was inversely correlated to age of onset, intensity of prior AYA use, and spirituality. Subacute and long-term AYA use was not associated with increased psychopathology or cognitive deficits, being associated with enhanced mood and cognition, increased spirituality, and reduced impulsivity. Acute, subacute, and long-term AYA use seems to have low toxicity. Preliminary studies about potential therapeutic effects of AYA need replication due to their methodological limitations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Ton J E M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; van der Lee, Jacqueline; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Ribbe, Miel W

    2011-06-01

    To test the effectiveness of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program (integrative reactivation and rehabilitation [IRR]) to reduce multiple neuropsychiatry symptoms (MNPS) of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden (CB). Randomized controlled trial. Psychiatric-skilled nursing home (IRR) and usual care (UC), consisting of different types of nursing home care at home or in an institution. N = 168 (81 IRR and 87 UC). Patients had to meet classification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition for dementia, amnestic disorders, or other cognitive disorders. Further inclusion criteria: Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) ≥3; Mini-Mental State Examination ≥18 and ≤27; and Barthel Index (BI) ≥5 and ≤19. IRR consisted of a person-oriented integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce MNPS of the patient and CB. UC consisted of different types of nursing home care at home or in an institution, mostly emotion oriented. Primary outcome variable was MNPS (number and sum-severity of NPI). Furthermore, burden and competence of caregiver were also measured. T1 (inclusion), T2 (end of treatment), T3 (after 6 months of follow-up). Cohen's d (Cd) was calculated for mean differences (intention to treat). For confounding, repeated measurement modeling (random regression modeling [RRM]) was applied. In the short term from the perspective of the caregiver, IRR showed up to 34% surplus effects on MNPS of the patients; NPI symptoms: 1.31 lower (Cd, -0.53); and NPI sum- severity: 11.16 lower (Cd, -0.53). In follow-up, the effects were sustained. However, from the perspective of the nursing team, these effects were insignificant, although the trend was in the same direction and correlated significantly with the caregiver results over time (at T3: r = 0.48). In addition, IRR showed surplus effects (up to 36%) on burden and competence of caregiver: NPI emotional distress: 3.78 (Cd, -0.44); CB: 17.69 (Cd, -0

  20. Sintomas psiquiátricos entre pacientes com demência atendidos em um serviço ambulatorial Psychiatric symptoms amongst outpatients with dementia in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSVALDO P. ALMEIDA

    1999-12-01

    of dementia (ICD-10 assessed at a Memory Clinic in São Paulo-Brazil between February 1997 and May 1998. The mental and cognitive state of patients were assessed with an extended version of the SRQ-20 and the MMSE respectively. Thirty-four (45.3% out of a total of 75 subjects scored 8 or more on the SRQ-20, indicating the presence of significant psychiatric morbidity. Depressive symptoms were reported by 69.3% of patients. Persecutory ideas and auditory hallucinations were observed in 20.0% and 16.0% of the sample respectively. Eight subjects (10.7% described suicidal ideation 3/4 they all displayed depressive symptoms. Patients with scores on the SRQ-20 3 8 or who described suicidal ideation were significantly younger than their counterparts. Auditory hallucinations were more frequent amongst subjects with lower MMSE scores. There were no sex differences in the distribution of the psychiatric symptoms under investigation. The assessment of patients with dementia should always include a detailed psychiatric examination, as the detection and treatment of such symptoms may contribute to decrease the stress of patients and the burden on carers.

  1. Association of Psychiatric History and Type D Personality with Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Health Status Prior to ICD Implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H.; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Hout, Moniek; Scholten, Marcoen; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). PURPOSE: We examined associations between previous anxiety and depressive

  2. Boundary curves of individual items in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores approximate an exponential pattern in a general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Previously, we proposed a model for ordinal scale scoring in which individual thresholds for each item constitute a distribution by each item. This lead us to hypothesize that the boundary curves of each depressive symptom score in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores follow a common mathematical model, which is expressed as the product of the frequency of the total depressive symptom scores and the probability of the cumulative distribution function of each item threshold. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the boundary curves of the distribution of total depressive symptom scores in a general population. Methods Data collected from 21,040 subjects who had completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D questionnaire as part of a national Japanese survey were analyzed. The CES-D consists of 20 items (16 negative items and four positive items. The boundary curves of adjacent item scores in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores for the 16 negative items were analyzed using log-normal scales and curve fitting. Results The boundary curves of adjacent item scores for a given symptom approximated a common linear pattern on a log normal scale. Curve fitting showed that an exponential fit had a markedly higher coefficient of determination than either linear or quadratic fits. With negative affect items, the gap between the total score curve and boundary curve continuously increased with increasing total depressive symptom scores on a log-normal scale, whereas the boundary curves of positive affect items, which are not considered manifest variables of the latent trait, did not exhibit such increases in this gap. Discussion The results of the present study support the hypothesis that the boundary curves of each depressive symptom score in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores commonly follow the predicted mathematical model, which was verified to approximate an

  3. Examining the effects of a novel training program and use of psychiatric service dogs for military-related PTSD and associated symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, Megan L; Hunter, Richard H; Kertz, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    This study explored an intensive 3-week training program and use of psychiatric service dogs for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated symptoms. The sample included 2 separate cohorts of military veterans (n = 7 and n = 5) with prior diagnoses of PTSD. Participants completed self-report measures assessing PTSD, depression, perception of social support, anger, and overall quality of life 1 month prior to the training (baseline), at arrival to the training site, and 6-month follow-up. Results indicated that, for this sample, there was a statistically significant decrease in PTSD and depression symptoms from pre- to posttreatment, as well as 6-month follow-up. For most participants decreases were both clinically significant and reliable changes. Further, participants reported significant reductions in anger and improvement in perceived social support and quality of life. Limitations of the study include a lack of control group, a limitation of most naturalistic studies, as well as small sample size. Despite this, the findings indicate that utilizing psychiatric service dogs, coupled with an intensive trauma resilience training program for veterans with ongoing symptoms, is feasible as a complementary treatment for PTSD that could yield beneficial results in terms of symptom amelioration and improvement to overall quality of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and premenstrual dysphoric symptoms in patients with experience of adverse mood during treatment with combined oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segebladh, Birgitta; Borgström, Anna; Odlind, Viveca; Bixo, Marie; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2009-01-01

    Negative mood symptoms remain one of the major reasons for discontinuation of combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs). The primary aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in women with different experience of COCs. Thirty women currently on COCs with no report of adverse mood symptoms, 28 women currently on COCs and experiencing mood-related side effects, 33 women who had discontinued COC use due to adverse mood effects and 27 women who had discontinued COC use for reasons other than adverse mood symptoms were included. Ongoing psychiatric disorders were evaluated by a structured psychiatric interview and prevalence rates of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were assessed by daily prospective ratings on the Cyclicity Diagnoser scale. Women with ongoing or past experience of COC-induced adverse mood, more often suffered from mood disorders than women with no reports of adverse mood while on COC. The prevalence of prospectively defined PMS or PMDD did not differ between prior users with positive or negative experience. Women who had discontinued COC use due to adverse mood symptoms more often had had a legal abortion in the past. Women with ongoing or past self-reported adverse mood effects from COCs had a significantly increased prevalence of mood disorders.

  5. Stimulation-Induced Transient Non-Motor Psychiatric Symptoms Following Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Association with Clinical Outcomes and Neuroanatomical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulseoud, Osama A.; Kasasbeh, Aimen; Min, Hoon-Ki; Fields, Julie A.; Tye, Susannah J.; Goerss, Stephan; Knight, Emily J.; Sampson, Shirlene M.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Stoppel, Cynthia; Lee, Kendall H.; Frye, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical and neurobiological underpinnings of transient non-motor (TNM) psychiatric symptoms during the optimization of stimulation parameters in the course of STN-DBS remain under intense investigation. Methods Forty-nine patients with refractory PD underwent bilateral STN-DBS implants and were enrolled in a 24-week prospective, naturalistic follow-up study. Patients who exhibited transient non-motor (TNM) psychiatric manifestations during DBS parameter optimization were evaluated for potential associations with clinical outcome measures. Results Twenty nine TNM(+) episodes were reported by 15 patients. No differences between TNM(+) and TNM(−) groups were found in motor outcome. However, unlike the TNM(−) group, TNM(+) patients did not report improvement in subsyndromal depression or quality of life. TNM(+) episodes were more likely to emerge during bilateral monopolar stimulation of the medial STN. Conclusions The occurrence of TNM psychiatric symptoms during optimization of stimulation parameters was associated with the persistence of subsyndromal depression and with lower quality of life ratings at 6 months. The neurobiological underpinnings of TNM are investigated yet remain difficult to explain. PMID:27093641

  6. Community level evaluation of adenoid hypertrophy on the basis of symptom scoring and its X-ray correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Dixit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the major causes of pediatric morbidity today at the community level is infection involving the ear, nose, and throat. Maximum of these patients respond well initially on general regular medications, but then recurrent complaints are not very uncommon. One of the major causes for such recurrence is hypertrophy of adenoids, the evaluation of which requires a battery of sophisticated investigative tools and expertise which are lacking at the community level. The aim of the study is to evaluate various symptoms related to adenoid hypertrophy and its correlation to the size of the adenoid seen in the lateral view nasopharyngeal X-ray. The aim of the study was to assess various symptoms related to adenoid hypertrophy and its correlation with the size of adenoid radiologically. Methods: A total of fifty cases of pediatric age with strong clinical suspicion of adenoid hypertrophy were included in the study. Through ENT examination was done. X-ray lateral view nasopharynx was obtained. Results: Adenoid hypertrophy was graded according to symptoms score and lateral cephalometric/radiographs. Snoring was the most frequent symptom which had a linear relation with the size of the adenoid. Conclusion: There was good agreement between symptom and the X-ray findings.

  7. Recurrent abdominal pain in children: psychiatric diagnoses and parental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, J; Zeman, J; Walker, L S

    1990-07-01

    Approximately 12% of children report recurrent episodes of abdominal pain. In only about 10% of these cases, however, can an organic etiology be identified, and therefore it often is assumed that these children have emotional problems. To test this hypothesis, children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) with no identifiable organic cause were compared to children with an organic diagnosis for their abdominal pain, children with psychiatric disorders, and healthy controls. Both groups of children with abdominal pain had significantly more psychiatric disorders (predominantly anxiety and depression) than did the healthy group. Both RAP and psychiatric children had significantly higher Child Behavior Checklist internalizing scores; psychiatric children were rated as significantly more maladjusted on the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Mothers of RAP children were significantly more anxious than mothers of organic pain and healthy children. Psychiatric children were significantly more likely than the other three groups to underreport their psychiatric symptoms relative to their mothers.

  8. The association between childhood physical and sexual abuse and functioning and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Abby E; Polusny, Melissa A; Murdoch, Maureen

    2011-02-01

    We examined associations between abusive childhood experiences and functioning and psychiatric symptoms in an active duty sample of U.S. Army soldiers. Cross-sectional survey of 204 soldiers stationed at a southern U.S. Army facility. Forty-six percent of individuals reported childhood physical abuse alone, whereas 25% reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse. Soldiers' work, role, and social functioning; physical functioning; depression severity; and severity of alcohol misuse did not differ significantly with childhood abuse status (p > 0.22 for all). However, individuals who reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse reported severer posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms than did soldiers who reported no childhood abuse or childhood physical abuse only (p = 0.007). Although abusive childhood experiences were common, soldiers with such experiences reported functioning as well as those soldiers without such experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were significantly elevated only in those who reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse.

  9. Accuracy of specific symptoms in the diagnosis of major depressive disorder in psychiatric out-patients: data from the MIDAS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A J; McGlinchey, J B; Young, D; Chelminski, I; Zimmerman, M

    2009-07-01

    There is uncertainty about the diagnostic significance of specific symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). There is also interest in using one or two specific symptoms in the development of brief scales. Our aim was to elucidate the best possible specific symptoms that would assist in ruling in or ruling out a major depressive episode in a psychiatric out-patient setting. A total of 1523 psychiatric out-patients were evaluated in the Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project. The accuracy and added value of specific symptoms from a comprehensive item bank were compared against the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). The prevalence of depression in our sample was 54.4%. In this high prevalence setting the optimum specific symptoms for ruling in MDD were psychomotor retardation, diminished interest/pleasure and indecisiveness. The optimum specific symptoms for ruling out MDD were the absence of depressed mood, the absence of diminished drive and the absence of loss of energy. However, some discriminatory items were relatively uncommon. Correcting for frequency, the most clinically valuable rule-in items were depressed mood, diminished interest/pleasure and diminished drive. The most clinically valuable rule-out items were depressed mood, diminished interest/pleasure and poor concentration. The study supports the use of the questions endorsed by the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) with the additional consideration of the item diminished drive as a rule-in test and poor concentration as a rule-out test. The accuracy of these questions may be different in primary care studies where prevalence differs and when they are combined into multi-question tests or algorithmic models.

  10. Foliar symptoms recovery: developing scoring technique for assessment of soybean resistance to CPMMV (Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zubaidah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a commodity that has an important role as the source of protein, but its production is affected by various factors including disease. CpMMV (Cowpea mild mottle virus is one of the most damaging viruses that cause soybean disease. CpMMVs belong to the group of Carlavirus that are transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci. The use of CpMMV resistant plants as biological control can prevent viral diseases. Indonesia has many soybean germplasm from many regions and introduction from other countries that need to be evaluated for CpMMV. The assessment technique for soybean resistance to CpMMV is not available yet, but it is still based on other virus diseases. The specific assessment of plant resistance is important because some diseases can cause certain symptoms, depends on the resistance and the kinds of plants that are infected. This paper presents the assessment technique for soybean resistance to CpMMV infection, which can be used for various purposes and studies. One of the benefits is to find out soybean resistance to CpMMV or other objectives. This resistance assessment is not only based on leaves symptoms, but also based on the phenomenon of foliar symptoms recovery. Keywords: CpMMV, foliar symptoms recovery, scoring technique, soybean resistance.

  11. A 30-month prospective follow-up study of psychological symptoms, psychiatric diagnoses, and their effects on quality of life in children witnessing a single incident of death at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sook-Hyung; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Choi, Nam-Hee; Ryu, Jeong; McDermott, Brett; Cobham, Vanessa; Park, Subin; Kim, Jae-Won; Hong, Soon-Beom; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2012-05-01

    We explored the course of trauma-related psychological symptoms and psychiatric diagnoses in 167 children who, as fourth graders, witnessed death at school and assessed the long-term effects of their symptoms on quality of life and their parents' rearing stress. 167 children were evaluated using diverse self-rating symptom scales at 2 days (T1: May 19, 2007), 2 months (T2: July 16, 2007), 6 months (T3: November 12-17, 2007), and 30 months (T4: November 16-21, 2009) after the accident. All children were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version IV (DISC-IV) at T1. High-risk children were assessed with the DISC-IV at T3 and T4. Children's quality of life and parental stress were assessed in all children and parents using the Parenting Stress Index and the Child Health and Illness Profile at T4. The mean scores and prevalence of severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety symptoms decreased significantly over time (P depressive symptoms did not. Although the prevalence of DISC-IV-based diverse anxiety disorders decreased significantly over time, 45% of high-risk subjects evaluated with the DISC-IV met criteria for an anxiety or depressive disorder at T4. Linear and logistic regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted more severe parental stress (β = 0.51; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88), less satisfaction (β = -0.25; OR = 2.66), and lower achievement (β = -0.41; OR = 1.50) at 30 months. PTSD symptoms were not associated with parental stress or quality of life at T4. This study provides new evidence regarding the long-term course of trauma-related symptoms and diagnostic changes in children exposed to a single trauma. Children's depressive symptoms predicted lower children's quality of life and higher parental rearing stress after 2 years. Careful assessment and management of depressive symptoms can potentially reduce parental stress and improve quality of life of children. © Copyright 2012 Physicians

  12. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses a particular form of child psychological maltreatment, exposing a child to alienating behaviors in the context of a high degree of conflict between the parents. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors that occurred in an Italian sample of children and the reported associated psychosocial symptoms. Seven hundred and thirty-nine adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors and measures of current symptomatology. About 75% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; 15% of the sample endorsed the item, "tried to turn me against the other parent." The results revealed strong and statistically significant associations between reported exposure to parental alienating behaviors and reports of current symptomatology. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Self-management of psychiatric symptoms using over-the-counter (OTC) psychopharmacology: the S-DTM therapeutic model--Self-diagnosis, self-treatment, self-monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacological self-management is becoming more widespread in modernizing societies, as part of a general expansion of health care. This may exert a vital corrective balance to the professionalization of health by ensuring that the individual perspective of patients is not neglected. There are many 'good ideas' for new treatments being published which have a plausible scientific rationale for effectiveness and a low likelihood of harm, yet are essentially ignored by mainstream medical research. The most likely avenue for progress is probably the spread of self-management, together with increased sharing of experience via the internet. There is considerable scope for self-management of psychiatric symptoms with psychoactive medication purchased 'over-the-counter' (OTC) and without prescription. A surprisingly wide range of effective psychoactive agents are available with the potential to self-treat many of the common psychiatric problems. These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St. John's Wort (Hypericum), and physical treatments such as early morning bright light therapy. But self-management currently lacks an explicit therapeutic model. A three stage process of S-DTM - self-diagnosis, self-treatment and self-monitoring is proposed and described in relation to psychiatric symptoms. Self-diagnosis describes the skill of introspection to develop awareness of inner bodily states and emotions. A specific sensation is identified and isolated as the 'focal symptom' for subsequent treatment and monitoring. Self-treatment involves choosing a drug (or other therapy) which is intended to alleviate the focal symptom. Self-monitoring entails a continued awareness of the focal system and of general well-being in order to evaluate effect of therapy. Self-monitoring could involve repeated cycles of dose-adjustment, and on-off ('challenge-dechallenge-rechallenge') therapeutic trials. An example of S

  14. Perceived mental health related stigma, gender, and depressive symptom severity in a psychiatric facility in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Raguram, R; Rao, Deepa

    2014-06-01

    Few studies exist on the topic of gender associated with depression and mental health-related stigma coming out of non-Western countries such as India. We aimed to add to the literature by assessing these relationships among adults seeking psychiatric services in India. Participants were 60 individuals seeking care at a psychiatric clinic in Bangalore, India. The majority of participants were female with a mean age of 36 years (SD=9.75). Contrary to our prediction, there were no significant differences between men (M=28.96; SD=9.85) and women (M=33.03; SD=12.08) on depression severity, t(58)=1.42, p=.16. Yet, women (M=10.09, SD=8.23) reported significantly more perceived stigma than men (M=5.79, SD=5.86), t(58)=2.30, p=.02. While men and women seeking psychiatric services at the psychiatric clinic in India report similar levels of depression severity, women reported more perceived mental illness stigma. Having experienced regular forms of discrimination associated with female status in India, it may be the case that women are more attuned to other forms of stigma, such as mental health stigma investigated in the present study. Given the detrimental impact of stigma on treatment adherence and engagement in care, additional research is needed support this work, including research on interventions to reduce stigma and improve engagement in care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations and Costs of Parental Symptoms of Psychiatric Distress in a Multi-Diagnosis Group of Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, S.; Paul, L.; Loney, P.; Ye, C.; Wong, M.; Browne, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Families supporting children with complex needs are significantly more distressed and economically disadvantaged than families of children without disability and delay. What is not known is the associations and costs of parental psychiatric distress within a multi-diagnosis group of special needs children. Methods: In this…

  16. Score reliability and construct validity of the Flinn Performance Screening Tool for adults with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Sharon R; Pease, William S; Freimer, Miriam L

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the psychometric properties of the Flinn Performance Screening Tool (FPST) for people referred with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). An occupational therapist collected data from 46 participants who completed the Functional Status Scale (FSS) and FPST after the participants' nerve conduction velocity study to test convergent and contrasted-group validity. Seventy-four percent of the participants had abnormal nerve conduction studies. Cronbach's α coefficients for subscale and total scores of the FPST ranged from .96 to .98. Intrarater reliability for six shared items of the FSS and the FPST was supported by high agreement (71%) and a fair κ statistic (.36). Strong to moderate positive relationships were found between the FSS and FPST scores. Functional status differed significantly among severe, mild, and negative CTS severity groups. The FPST shows adequate psychometric properties as a client-centered screening tool for occupational performance of people referred for symptoms of CTS. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. Lifestyle factors affecting gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a cross-sectional study of healthy 19864 adults using FSSG scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamichi Nobutake

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a very common disorder worldwide, comprised of reflux esophagitis (RE and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD. As more than half of GERD patients are classified into the NERD group, precise evaluation of bothersome epigastric symptoms is essential. Nevertheless, compared with many reports targeting endoscopic reflux esophagitis, large-scale studies focusing on GERD symptoms have been very scarce. Methods To elucidate lifestyle factors affecting GERD symptoms, 19,864 healthy adults in Japan were analyzed. Sub-analyses of 371 proton pump inhibitor (PPI users and 539 histamine H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA users were also performed. Using the FSSG (Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD score as a response variable, 25 lifestyle-related factors were univariately evaluated by Student's t-test or Pearson's correlation coefficient, and were further analyzed with multiple linear regression modelling. Results Average FSSG scores were 4.8 ± 5.2 for total subjects, 9.0 ± 7.3 for PPI users, and 8.2 ± 6.6 for H2RA users. Among the total population, positively correlated factors and standardized coefficients (β for FSSG scores are inadequate sleep (β = 0.158, digestive drug users (β = 0.0972 for PPI, β = 0.0903 for H2RA, and β = 0.104 for others, increased body weight in adulthood (β = 0.081, dinner just before bedtime (β = 0.061, the habit of midnight snack (β = 0.055, lower body mass index (β = 0.054, NSAID users (β = 0.051, female gender (β = 0.048, lack of breakfast (β = 0.045, lack of physical exercise (β = 0.035, younger age (β = 0.033, antihyperglycemic agents non-users (β = 0.026, the habit of quick eating (β = 0.025, alcohol drinking (β = 0.025, history of gastrectomy (β = 0.024, history of cardiovascular disease (β = 0.020, and smoking (β = 0.018. Positively correlated factors for PPI users are female gender (β = 0.198, inadequate sleep (β = 0.150, lack of breakfast

  18. Associations between Symptom Validity Test failure and scores on the MMPI-2-RF validity and substantive scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Roger O; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between Symptom Validity Test (SVT) failure and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008), in the Forensic Disability Claimant samples described in the MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual (Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008 a, 2008b). SVTs used included the Word Memory Test (Green, 2003), the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (Allen, Conder, Green, & Cox, 1997), the Medical Symptom Validity Test (Green, 2004), and the Test of Memory Malingering (Tombaugh, 1996). SVT failure was associated with significant elevations throughout the MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales and substantive scales. Pairwise contrasts between groups failing 0 and 3 SVTs revealed predominantly large effect sizes for the overreporting validity scales (d = 0.78-1.11), and many of the substantive scales, including the Cognitive Complaints (COG) scale. Results of this study demonstrate an association between SVT performance and elevated scores on the MMPI-2-RF. These results suggest that exaggeration of cognitive symptoms as demonstrated by SVT failure is also associated with overreported emotional, somatic, and neurocognitive complaints on the MMPI-2-RF.

  19. An examination of the effects of mountaintop removal coal mining on respiratory symptoms and COPD using propensity scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Luo, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on public health consequences of mountaintop removal (MTR) coal mining has been limited by the observational nature of the data. The current study used propensity scores, a method designed to overcome this limitation, to draw more confident causal inferences about mining effects on respiratory health using non-experimental data. These data come from a health survey of 682 adults residing in two rural areas of Virginia, USA characterized by the presence or absence of MTR mining. Persons with a history of occupational exposure as coal miners were excluded. Nine covariates including age, sex, current and former smoking, overweight, obesity, high school education, college education, and exposure to coal as a home-heating source were selected to estimate propensity scores. Propensity scores were tested for balance and then used as weights to create quasi-experimental exposed and unexposed groups. Results indicated that persons in the mountaintop mining group had significantly (p < 0.0001) elevated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The results suggest that impaired respiratory health results from exposure to MTR environments and not from other risks.

  20. Correlates in the Endorsement of Psychotic Symptoms and Services Use: Findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Armando; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Barrio, Concepción

    2016-08-01

    Endorsement of psychotic symptoms serves as an indicator of significant health issues and interpersonal distress. Seeking services is the ultimate recourse for many individuals, yet few studies have assessed the help-seeking process in a nationally representative sample. This study, guided by Lewis-Fernández et al.'s (J Nerv Ment Dis 197(5):337-347, 2009) analyses, examined the association of lifetime endorsement of psychotic symptoms with demographic, clinical and support system variables and types of services received. Based on nationally weighted epidemiological data, 11.6 % of adults reported one or more psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms were associated with poor physical and mental health, specifically depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Respondents were more likely to receive services from both informal and mental health providers and were more likely to be hospitalized than those not endorsing psychotic symptoms. Study findings inform community efforts to develop comprehensive services for individuals experiencing psychotic symptoms.

  1. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  2. Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Julie; Hartman, Catharina A; Smit, Johannes H; Zitman, Frans G; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Cuijpers, Pim; van der Does, A J Willem; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-03-01

    Past episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders and subthreshold symptoms have both been reported to predict the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorders. It is unclear to what extent the two factors interact or predict these disorders independently. To examine the extent to which history, subthreshold symptoms and their combination predict the occurrence of depressive (major depressive disorder, dysthymia) or anxiety disorders (social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalised anxiety disorder) over a 2-year period. This was a prospective cohort study with 1167 participants: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Anxiety and depressive disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, subthreshold symptoms were determined with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Occurrence of depressive disorder was best predicted by a combination of a history of depression and subthreshold symptoms, followed by either one alone. Occurrence of anxiety disorder was best predicted by both a combination of a history of anxiety disorder and subthreshold symptoms and a combination of a history of depression and subthreshold symptoms, followed by any subthreshold symptoms or a history of any disorder alone. A history and subthreshold symptoms independently predicted the subsequent occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder. Together these two characteristics provide reasonable discriminative value. Whereas anxiety predicted the occurrence of an anxiety disorder only, depression predicted the occurrence of both depressive and anxiety disorders.

  3. The effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the treatment of depression and depressive symptoms in other psychiatric and medical illnesses: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Clayton; Devicari Cheda, Julio Nelson; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Veras, Andre Barciela; Cardoso, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    International interest on the benefits of using the steroid hormone Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on various aspects of human health, including the regulation of mood, is increasing. This study aimed to review the scientific literature on the use of DHEA in the treatment of depression and depressive symptoms in other psychiatric and medical illnesses. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Virtual Health Library (VHL) databases were independently searched by two researchers using the following terms: depression, treatment, DHEA, and mood. Clinical studies were considered eligible when subjects were treated with DHEA and psychological assessments of depression were conducted. No time limits or language for this research were imposed. One 183 references were identified, and 22 references were selected to compose this review. Significant improvements related to the use of DHEA in patients with depression were observed, in addition to improvements in depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa, HIV and adrenal insufficiency. No significant improvements were observed regarding depressive symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia; the results observed in patients with autoimmune diseases and healthy individuals remain contradictory. Although the selected studies demonstrated good methodological applications, most studies consisted of small samples, and only 3 studies were conducted in a young population. Therefore, we concluded that the studies published to date indicate promising results regarding the use of DHEA in the treatment of depression and depressive symptoms, especially in depression that is mild or resistant to conventional therapy.

  4. Acceptance and commitment therapy for psychosis and trauma: Improvement in psychiatric symptoms, emotion regulation, and treatment compliance following a brief group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidel, Alicia; Lecomte, Tania; Kealy, David; Daigneault, Isabelle

    2017-10-04

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has shown effectiveness for individuals with psychosis and individuals with a history of childhood trauma, but has not been investigated with people with psychosis who also have a history of childhood trauma. This study aims at determining the efficacy of a mindfulness-based ACT with this clientele in diminishing psychiatric symptoms, trauma-related symptoms, as well as in improving treatment adherence. Fifty participants meeting our inclusion criteria were recruited and randomized to take part in either 10 sessions of ACT group, or Treatment as Usual (TAU). Using RCT it was found that symptom severity, for both overall symptoms (BPRS) and anxiety (GAD), decreased over the course of the treatment, and participants' ability to regulate their emotional reactions (i.e., accept them) increased. The study also found that treatment engagement increased with regards to help-seeking for those in the ACT group, compared with the TAU controls. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy offered in a group appears a promising treatment for those with psychosis and history of trauma. To understand the benefits of ACT with those who suffer from psychosis and a history of trauma. To further the understanding of the effectiveness of ACT. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Plasma profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in cocaine users under outpatient treatment: influence of cocaine symptom severity and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araos, Pedro; Pedraz, María; Serrano, Antonia; Lucena, Miguel; Barrios, Vicente; García-Marchena, Nuria; Campos-Cloute, Rafael; Ruiz, Juan J; Romero, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Baixeras, Elena; de la Torre, Rafael; Montesinos, Jorge; Guerri, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Martínez-Riera, Roser; Torrens, Marta; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Mason, Barbara J; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    The treatment for cocaine use constitutes a clinical challenge because of the lack of appropriate therapies and the high rate of relapse. Recent evidence indicates that the immune system might be involved in the pathogenesis of cocaine addiction and its co-morbid psychiatric disorders. This work examined the plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profile in abstinent cocaine users (n = 82) who sought outpatient cocaine treatment and age/sex/body mass-matched controls (n = 65). Participants were assessed with the diagnostic interview Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Diseases according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) were decreased in cocaine users, although all cytokines were identified as predictors of a lifetime pathological use of cocaine. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/fractalkine and CXCL12/SDF-1 positively correlated with the cocaine symptom severity when using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine abuse/dependence. These cytokines allowed the categorization of the outpatients into subgroups according to severity, identifying a subgroup of severe cocaine users (9-11 criteria) with increased prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders [mood (54%), anxiety (32%), psychotic (30%) and personality (60%) disorders]. IL-1β was observed to be increased in users with such psychiatric disorders relative to those users with no diagnosis. In addition to these clinical data, studies in mice demonstrated that plasma IL-1β, CX3CL1 and CXCL12 were also affected after acute and chronic cocaine administration, providing a preclinical model for further research. In conclusion, cocaine exposure modifies the circulating levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Plasma

  6. Exploratory factor analysis of a 16D Health-Related Quality of Life instrument with adolescents seeking help for early psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granö, Niklas; Kieseppä, Tuula; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Roine, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a widely studied phenomenon in health care. This study aimed to identify which factors can be extracted from a generic 16-dimension (16D) HRQoL instrument in a sample of adolescents seeking help for early psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected at the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH), Finland, by an early intervention team. In total, 394 help-seeking adolescents (mean age 15.3 years, SD 2.14 years, 183 boys and 211 girls) completed a 16D HRQoL questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (generalized least squares method, promax rotation) identified four factors in the 16D instrument. The first factor of "psychophysiological health" included the dimensions of vitality, breathing, distress, sleeping, physical appearance, mental functioning and depression. The second factor, "physical and social health", consisted of the items discomfort and symptoms, friends and elimination. The items hearing, eating and speech were loaded on factor three, "health in somatosensory functioning". Moreover, the single item of school and hobbies was loaded on factor four, "health in functioning ability". However, the items of vision and mobility were not loaded on any factor. Since the 16D instrument was originally designed for 11-15-year-old adolescents, analysis was repeated using a subsample of this age group (n = 245). The results here suggest that the 16D instrument consists of four factors and forms its own latent variable structure in this specific sample of adolescents seeking help for early psychiatric symptoms. However, items such as vision, mobility and school and hobbies should be interpreted with caution as a part of the factor structure of a 16D instrument among this population.

  7. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  8. Integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden: randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Lee, J. van der; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program (integrative reactivation and rehabilitation [IRR]) to reduce multiple neuropsychiatry symptoms (MNPS) of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden (CB). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

  9. The McGill Brisbane Symptom Score in relation to survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Suhail A R; Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Engel, Jessica M; Jamal, Mohammad H; Stankowski, Rachel V; Barkun, Jeffrey; Onitilo, Adedayo A

    2016-07-01

    The McGill Brisbane Symptom Score (MBSS) is a clinical score for pancreatic cancer patients upon initial presentation that takes into account four variables (weight loss, abdominal pain, jaundice, and history of smoking) to stratify them into two MBSS intensity categories. Several studies have suggested that these categories are strongly associated with eventual survival in patients with resectable (rPCa) and unresectable (uPCa) pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to validate the MBSS in a cohort of patients with pancreatic cancer from a single institution. Survival time by resection status and MBSS intensity category were analyzed among 633 patients from our institution between 2001 and 2010. Hazard ratios for death using Cox proportional hazards models, with age as the timescale, adjustment for sex and year of diagnosis, and stratified by adjuvant chemotherapy status were estimated. Median survival time was the longest in patients with low-intensity MBSS and rPCa (817 days), whereas the shortest survival time was found among patients with uPCa regardless of MBSS status (144-147 days). After consideration of age and chemotherapy status, high-intensity MBSS was associated with poorer survival for both rPCa (HR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.07-2.52) and uPCa (HR 1.35; 95 % CI 1.06-1.72). Preoperative MBSS intensity is a useful prognostic indicator of survival in resectable as well as unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  10. Relationship between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar A. Memon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate correlation between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at a university Hospital. Sixty-seven adult male patients>50 years of age were enrolled in the study after signing an informed consent. Qmax and voided volume recorded at uroflowmetry graph and at the same time VPSS were assessed. The education level was assessed in various defined groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was computed for VPSS and Qmax. Results: Mean age was 66.1±10.1 years (median 68. The mean voided volume on uroflowmetry was 268±160mL (median 208 and the mean Qmax was 9.6±4.96mLs/sec (median 9.0. The mean VPSS score was 11.4±2.72 (11.0. In the univariate linear regression analysis there was strong negative (Pearson's correlation between VPSS and Qmax (r=848, p<0.001. In the multiple linear regression analyses there was a significant correlation between VPSS and Qmax (β-http://www.blogapaixonadosporviagens.com.br/p/caribe.html after adjusting the effect of age, voided volume (V.V and level of education. Multiple linear regression analysis done for independent variables and results showed that there was no significant correlation between the VPSS and independent factors including age (p=0.27, LOE (p=0.941 and V.V (p=0.082. Conclusion: There is a significant negative correlation between VPSS and Qmax. The VPSS can be used in lieu of IPSS score. Men even with limited educational background can complete VPSS without assistance.

  11. Shame, Dissociation, and Complex PTSD Symptoms in Traumatized Psychiatric and Control Groups: Direct and Indirect Associations With Relationship Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Corry, Mary; Black, Rebecca; Matheson, Laura; Coles, Holly; Curran, David; Seager, Lenaire; Middleton, Warwick; Dyer, Kevin F W

    2017-04-01

    Elevated shame and dissociation are common in dissociative identity disorder (DID) and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are part of the constellation of symptoms defined as complex PTSD. Previous work examined the relationship between shame, dissociation, and complex PTSD and whether they are associated with intimate relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. This study investigated these variables in traumatized clinical samples and a nonclinical community group. Participants were drawn from the DID (n = 20), conflict-related chronic PTSD (n = 65), and nonclinical (n = 125) populations and completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest. A model examining the direct impact of shame and dissociation on relationship functioning, and their indirect effect via complex PTSD symptoms, was tested through path analysis. The DID sample reported significantly higher dissociation, shame, complex PTSD symptom severity, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships than the other two samples. Support was found for the proposed model, with shame directly affecting relationship anxiety and fear of relationships, and pathological dissociation directly affecting relationship anxiety and relationship depression. The indirect effect of shame and dissociation via complex PTSD symptom severity was evident on all relationship variables. Shame and pathological dissociation are important for not only the effect they have on the development of other complex PTSD symptoms, but also their direct and indirect effects on distress associated with relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  13. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    Ayahuasca is believed to be harmless for those (including adolescents) drinking it within a religious setting. Nevertheless controlled studies on the mental/ psychiatric status of ritual hallucinogenic ayahuasca concoction consumers are still lacking. In this study, 40 adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 40 controls matched on sex, age, and educational background for psychiatric symptomatology. Screening scales for depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption patterns (abuse), attentional problems, and body dysmorphic disorders were used. It was found that, compared to controls, considerable lower frequencies of positive scoring for anxiety, body dismorphism, and attentional problems were detected among ayahuasca-using adolescents despite overall similar psychopathological profiles displayed by both study groups. Low frequencies of psychiatric symptoms detected among adolescents consuming ayahuasca within a religious context may reflect a protective effect due to their religious affiliation. However further studies on the possible interference of other variables in the outcome are necessary.

  14. Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Julie; Hartman, Catharina A.; Smit, Johannes H.; Zitman, Frans G.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Cuijpers, Pim; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda

    BACKGROUND: Past episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders and subthreshold symptoms have both been reported to predict the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorders. It is unclear to what extent the two factors interact or predict these disorders independently. AIMS: To examine the extent to

  15. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    in women with a history of CSA participating in both analytic and systemic specialized incest group psychotherapy. Improvement was maintained for both groups at 5-year-follow-up. The trajectories of PTSD symptoms and GSI for the two groups differed significantly, however. Implications of the difference...

  16. Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, J.; Hartman, C.A.; Smit, J.H.; Zitman, F.G.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Cuijpers, P.; van der Does, A.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Past episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders and subthreshold symptoms have both been reported to predict the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorders. It is unclear to what extent the two factors interact or predict these disorders independently. Aims: To examine the extent to

  17. Screen time on school days and risks for psychiatric symptoms and self-harm in mainland Chinese adolescents: A multicenter cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate associations of television and of video game or non-educational computer use (VG/CU exposure volumes in a typical school day with psychiatric symptoms and suicidal ideation/self-injurious behavior (self-harm, in mainland Chinese adolescents.Methods Secondary school pupils (N = 13,659; mean age: 15.18 ± 1.89 from 10 urban areas sampled from different regions of mainland China were recruited. The subjects were divided into the follow four screen exposure volume groups for television and VG/CU respectively based on a self-administered questionnaire: 0 h/d, >0 to ≤1 h/d, >1 to ≤2 h/d, and >2 h/d. Demographic and psychiatric symptoms were recorded for each respondent. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for several types of psychological problems and self-harm were calculated.Results For television, >2 hours per school day was associated with greater risk of depression in both boys (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.02–1.73 and girls (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.19– 2.21, of anxiety in boys (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.05–1.95, of general emotional, behavioral, and social problems (GEBSPs in girls (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.01–2.39, and of oppositional defiant problems (ODPs in girls (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09–2.50, compared with the reference group. Conversely, television exposure of >0 to ≤1 hour per school day was associated with lower self-harm risk in boys (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.67–0.99 compared with the no television exposure group. For VG/CU, higher risks of anxiety (OR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06–1.86 and of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs (OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02–2.38 were associated with excessive VG/CU time (>2 h per school day in boys compared with the no VG/CU exposure group. Higher risks of self-harm and all other psychiatric problems (including anxiety and ADHPs in girls were associated with any school-day VG/CU exposure, compared to no VG/CU exposure, in both genders.Conclusion For mainland Chinese

  18. Age of Sexual Initiation, Psychiatric Symptoms, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Ecstasy and LSD Users in Porto Alegre, Brazil: A Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechansky, Flavio; Remy, Lysa; Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P; Rocha, Thiago Botter Maio; Von Diemen, Lisia; Bumaguin, Daniela Benzano; Inciardi, James

    2011-03-01

    Ecstasy and LSD use is widespread in large Brazilian cities, but there is limited information on their use among young, middle-class, club goers in Brazil. We conducted standardized face-to-face interviews with 200 male and female ecstasy and/or LSD users, focusing on drug use and sexual history, current risk behaviors, and psychiatric symptomatology. Participants with early sexual debut (before 14) were more likely to report lifetime use of marijuana and powder and crack cocaine than those with later sexual initiation. Early sexual debut was associated with past year sexual risk behaviors, including having sex while high (Prevalence Ratio (PR)=1.3), having two or more sex partners (PR=1.3), as well as history of sexual abuse (PR=13.6). Depression and anxiety scores were similar by age of sexual initiation. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. A prospective case control study of psychiatric disorders in adults with epilepsy and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turky, Amna; Felce, David; Jones, Glyn; Kerr, Mike

    2011-07-01

    No study to date has prospectively investigated the impact of epilepsy on psychiatric disorders among adults with an intellectual disability (ID). This study aimed to determine prospectively the influence of epilepsy on the development of psychiatric disorders in adults with ID. Psychiatric symptoms were measured prospectively over a 1-year period among 45 adults with ID and active epilepsy and 45 adults with ID without epilepsy, matched on level of ID. The 1-year incidence rate (IR) of commonly occurring Axis 1 psychiatric disorders was compared with and without controlling for possible confounding factors. Total psychiatric symptom scores over the period were compared between the two groups using repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Adults with epilepsy and ID had a more than seven times increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and unspecified disorders of presumed organic origin, including dementia, over a 1-year period compared to those with ID only. Comparison of the psychiatric scores showed the epilepsy group to have significantly higher unspecified disorder and depression symptom scores. The findings point to an increased risk of depression and unspecified disorders, including dementia, among adults with ID and epilepsy. Further exploration of the nature and treatment of these unspecified disorders may help the care of people with epilepsy and ID. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou Andreassen, Cecilie; Billieux, Joël; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, research into "addictive technological behaviors" has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games. Correlations between symptoms of addictive technology use and mental disorder symptoms were all positive and significant, including the weak interrelationship between the two addictive technological behaviors. Age appeared to be inversely related to the addictive use of these technologies. Being male was significantly associated with addictive use of video games, whereas being female was significantly associated with addictive use of social media. Being single was positively related to both addictive social networking and video gaming. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that demographic factors explained between 11 and 12% of the variance in addictive technology use. The mental health variables explained between 7 and 15% of the variance. The study significantly adds to our understanding of mental health symptoms and their role in addictive use of modern technology, and suggests that the concept of Internet use disorder (i.e., "Internet addiction") as a unified construct is not warranted. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity.

  2. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and gene......Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch....

  3. Remission of Cognitive Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease: Recovery from a Nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment or Psychiatric Symptoms Remission?

    OpenAIRE

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Cintra, Marco Túlio Gualberto; Miranda, Débora Marques; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Moares, Edgar Nunes; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment is a clinical condition more frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease than in general population. The nonamnestic presentations, usually characterized by executive dysfunction, are most prevalent. We present a case report of a Parkinson's disease patient diagnosed with nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment that showed complete remission of cognitive symptoms after one year. We discuss the possible causes for the remission, focusing on the treatment of medical co...

  4. [Correlation studies between MRI and the symptom scores of patients with LDH before and after manipulative therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Wei, Jie; Li, Xi-de; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Liang; Yan, Xiao-bin

    2010-01-01

    To study the correlation between the MRI and some symptom scores of the patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH), such as VAS (visual analogue scale), JOA (Japanese orthopedic association scale),and SLR (straight leg raising test) before and after manipulative therapy. From June to December in 2007, 70 patients with LDH were selected in the study. Among the patients, 40 patients were male and 30 patients were female, ranging in age from 21 to 56 years (averaged 39 years). MRI was used to measure the size and position of the protruded nucleus pulposus (size of disc protrution, the angle between nerve root canal and disc protrution). Correlation study was conducted between the MRI and VAS, JOA, and SLR before and after therapy. The correlation between the changes of MRI and that of the quantified clinical indexes of LDH patients was also analyzed. There were significant differences before and after therapy in some quantified indexes for the clinical manifestation of the patients, such as VAS, JOA,and SLR. There were no significant changes in the shape and size of protrude nucleus pulposus after 20 days' therapy by CT or MR recheck. Correlation study between the quantified indexes of clinical manifestation (JOA) and MRI before and after the treatment showed that there was no significant correlation. The study proves again that the shape and size of protrude nucleus pulposus has no paralleled relation with the patient's clinical manifestation,which is demonstrated by the recheck of MRI after a successful spinal manipulative treatment in the study.

  5. Caregiver Expressed Emotion and Psychiatric Symptoms in African-Americans with Schizophrenia: An Attempt to Understand the Paradoxical Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurak, Kayla; Weisman de Mamani, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) is a family environmental construct that assesses how much criticism, hostility, and/or emotional over-involvement a family member expresses about a patient (Hooley, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2007, 3, 329). Having high levels of EE within the family environment has generally been associated with poorer patient outcomes for schizophrenia and a range of other disorders. Paradoxically, for African-American patients, high-EE may be associated with a better symptom course (Rosenfarb, Bellack, & Aziz, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2006, 115, 112). However, this finding is in need of additional support and, if confirmed, clarification. In line with previous research, using a sample of 30 patients with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers, we hypothesized that having a caregiver classified as low-EE would be associated with greater patient symptom severity. We also aimed to better understand why this pattern may exist by examining the content of interviews taken from the Five-Minute Speech Sample. Results supported study hypotheses. In line with Rosenfarb et al. (2006), having a low-EE caregiver was associated with greater symptom severity in African-American patients. A content analysis uncovered some interesting patterns that may help elucidate this finding. Results of this study suggest that attempts to lower high-EE in African Americans may, in fact, be counterproductive. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  6. Programming for Stimulation-Induced Transient Nonmotor Psychiatric Symptoms after Bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stimulation-induced transient nonmotor psychiatric symptoms (STPSs are side effects following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. We designed algorithms which (1 determine the electrode contacts that induce STPSs and (2 provide a programming protocol to eliminate STPS and maintain the optimal motor functions. Our objective is to test the effectiveness of these algorithms. Materials and Methods. 454 PD patients who underwent programming sessions after STN-DBS implantations were retrospectively analyzed. Only STPS patients were enrolled. In these patients, the contacts inducing STPS were found and the programming protocol algorithms used. Results. Eleven patients were diagnosed with STPS. Of these patients, two had four episodes of crying, and two had four episodes of mirthful laughter. In one patient, two episodes of abnormal sense of spatial orientation were observed. Hallucination episodes were observed twice in one patient, while five patients recorded eight episodes of hypomania. There were no statistical differences between the UPDRS-III under the final stimulation parameter (without STPS and previous optimum UPDRS-III under the STPSs (p=1.000. Conclusion. The flow diagram used for determining electrode contacts that induce STPS and the programming protocol employed in the treatment of these symptoms are effective.

  7. Three Scoring Approaches to the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory for Measuring Clinical Change in Service Members Receiving Intensive Treatment for Combat-Related mTBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael; Bleiberg, Joseph; Williams, Kathy; Caban, Jesus; Kelly, James; Grammer, Geoffrey; DeGraba, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To examine the use of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory to measure clinical changes over time in a population of US service members undergoing treatment of mild traumatic brain injury and comorbid psychological health conditions. A 4-week, 8-hour per day, intensive, outpatient, interdisciplinary, comprehensive treatment program at the National Intrepid Center of Excellence in Bethesda, Maryland. Three hundred fourteen active-duty service members being treated for combat-related comorbid mild traumatic brain injury and psychological health conditions. Repeated-measures, retrospective analysis of a single-group using a pretest-posttest treatment design. Three Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory scoring methods: (1) a total summated score, (2) the 3-factor method, and (3) the 4-factor method (with and without orphan items). All 3 scoring methods yielded statistically significant within-subject changes between admission and discharge. The evaluation of effect sizes indicated that the 3 different Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory scoring methods were comparable. Findings indicate that the different scoring methods all have potential for assessing clinical changes in symptoms for groups of patients undergoing treatment, with no clear advantage with any one method.

  8. Predicting Streptococcal Pharyngitis in Adults in Primary Care: A Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Symptoms and Signs and Validation of the Centor Score

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aalbers, Jolien

    2011-06-01

    Abstract Background Stratifying patients with a sore throat into the probability of having an underlying bacterial or viral cause may be helpful in targeting antibiotic treatment. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and validate a clinical prediction rule (CPR), the Centor score, for predicting group A β-haemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis in adults (> 14 years of age) presenting with sore throat symptoms. Methods A systematic literature search was performed up to July 2010. Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and\\/or validated the Centor score were included. For the analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and the Centor score, studies were combined using a bivariate random effects model, while for the calibration analysis of the Centor score, a random effects model was used. Results A total of 21 studies incorporating 4,839 patients were included in the meta-analysis on diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms. The results were heterogeneous and suggest that individual signs and symptoms generate only small shifts in post-test probability (range positive likelihood ratio (+LR) 1.45-2.33, -LR 0.54-0.72). As a decision rule for considering antibiotic prescribing (score ≥ 3), the Centor score has reasonable specificity (0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and a post-test probability of 12% to 40% based on a prior prevalence of 5% to 20%. Pooled calibration shows no significant difference between the numbers of patients predicted and observed to have GABHS pharyngitis across strata of Centor score (0-1 risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.06; 2-3 RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.17; 4 RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.37). Conclusions Individual signs and symptoms are not powerful enough to discriminate GABHS pharyngitis from other types of sore throat. The Centor score is a well calibrated CPR for estimating the probability of GABHS pharyngitis. The Centor score can enhance appropriate

  9. Psychiatric outcomes after pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Ritchie, Lesley J; Koltek, Mark; Hosain, Shahid; Cordingley, Dean; Chu, Stephanie; Selci, Erin; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the prevalence of emotional symptoms among children and adolescents with a sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and (2) to examine the prevalence, clinical features, risk factors, and management of postinjury psychiatric outcomes among those in this clinical population. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with SRC referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and October 2014. Clinical assessments carried out by a single neurosurgeon included clinical history, physical examination, and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scoring. Postinjury psychiatric outcomes were defined as a subjective worsening of symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder or new and isolated suicidal ideation or diagnosis of a novel psychiatric disorder (NPD). An NPD was defined as a newly diagnosed psychiatric disorder that occurred in a patient with or without a lifetime preinjury psychiatric disorder after a concussion. Clinical resources, therapeutic interventions, and clinical and return-to-play outcomes are summarized. One hundred seventy-four patients (mean age 14.2 years, 61.5% male) were included in the study. At least 1 emotional symptom was reported in 49.4% of the patients, and the median emotional PCSS subscore was 4 (interquartile range 1-8) among those who reported at least 1 emotional symptom. Overall, 20 (11.5%) of the patients met the study criteria for a postinjury psychiatric outcome, including 14 patients with an NPD, 2 patients with isolated suicidal ideation, and 4 patients with worsening symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder. Female sex, a higher initial PCSS score, a higher emotional PCSS subscore, presence of a preinjury psychiatric history, and presence of a family history of psychiatric illness were significantly associated with postinjury psychiatric outcomes

  10. EMDR as Add-On Treatment for Psychiatric and Traumatic Symptoms in Patients with Substance Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletto, Sara; Oliva, Francesco; Barnato, Micaela; Antonelli, Teresa; Cardia, Antonina; Mazzaferro, Paolo; Raho, Carolina; Ostacoli, Luca; Fernandez, Isabel; Pagani, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Background: Substance use disorders (SUD) are patterns of substance use leading to severe impairment on social, working and economic levels. In vivo and clinical findings have enhanced the role of the brain's stress-related system in maintaining SUD behaviors. Several studies have also revealed a high prevalence of post-traumatic symptoms among SUD patients, suggesting that a trauma-informed treatment approach could lead to better treatment outcomes. However, only few studies have evaluated the use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in SUD without consistent results. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a combined trauma-focused (TF) and addiction-focused (AF) EMDR intervention in treating post-traumatic and stress-related symptoms of patients with SUD. Methods: Forty patients with different SUD were enrolled in the study. Twenty patients underwent treatment as usual (TAU), the other 20 patients were treated with TAU plus 24 weekly sessions of EMDR. All patients were assessed before and after intervention for several psychological dimensions using specific tools (i.e., BDI-II, DES, IES-R, STAI, and SCL-90-GSI). A repeated measure MANOVA was performed to evaluate both between groups (TAU + EMDR vs. TAU) and within group (pre- vs. post-intervention) effects and interactions. A secondary outcome was the dichotomous variable yielded by the urine drug testing immunoassay (yes/no). Results: The RM-MANOVA revealed both a significant pre–post main effect (p EMDR group than TAU group. No differences were found between TAU and TAU + EMDR groups in terms of urine drug immunoassay results before and after the interventions. Conclusions: The TAU + EMDR group showed a significant improvement of post-traumatic and dissociative symptoms, accompanied by a reduction in anxiety and overall psychopathology levels, whereas TAU group showed a significant reduction only in post-traumatic symptoms. Although our results can only be

  11. EMDR as Add-On Treatment for Psychiatric and Traumatic Symptoms in Patients with Substance Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carletto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance use disorders (SUD are patterns of substance use leading to severe impairment on social, working and economic levels. In vivo and clinical findings have enhanced the role of the brain's stress-related system in maintaining SUD behaviors. Several studies have also revealed a high prevalence of post-traumatic symptoms among SUD patients, suggesting that a trauma-informed treatment approach could lead to better treatment outcomes. However, only few studies have evaluated the use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR in SUD without consistent results. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a combined trauma-focused (TF and addiction-focused (AF EMDR intervention in treating post-traumatic and stress-related symptoms of patients with SUD.Methods: Forty patients with different SUD were enrolled in the study. Twenty patients underwent treatment as usual (TAU, the other 20 patients were treated with TAU plus 24 weekly sessions of EMDR. All patients were assessed before and after intervention for several psychological dimensions using specific tools (i.e., BDI-II, DES, IES-R, STAI, and SCL-90-GSI. A repeated measure MANOVA was performed to evaluate both between groups (TAU + EMDR vs. TAU and within group (pre- vs. post-intervention effects and interactions. A secondary outcome was the dichotomous variable yielded by the urine drug testing immunoassay (yes/no.Results: The RM-MANOVA revealed both a significant pre–post main effect (p < 0.001, and a significant group-by-time main effect (p < 0.001. Significant improvements on IES-R, DES, and SCL-90-GSI scales were shown in both groups according to time effects (p < 0.05. However, significant greater effects were found for TAU + EMDR group than TAU group. No differences were found between TAU and TAU + EMDR groups in terms of urine drug immunoassay results before and after the interventions.Conclusions: The TAU + EMDR group showed a

  12. BSRS-5 (5-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale) scores affect every aspect of quality of life measured by WHOQOL-BREF in healthy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I-Cheng; Yen Jean, Mei-Chu; Lei, Sio-Meng; Cheng, Hsiang-Huo; Wang, Jung-Der

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate and quantify the possible effect of psychological symptoms on healthy workers' quality of life (QOL). The workers were recruited from a factory in south Taiwan. We assessed their psychological symptoms with a 5-item brief symptom rating scale (BSRS-5) and measured the QOL using the Taiwanese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to explore the association between the two tools after control of confounding by other predictors. A total of 1,080 workers, who attended a physical examination, completed questionnaires and informed consent forms. Scores on the BSRS-5 significantly predicted scores in each domain and items of the WHOQOL-BREF. The magnitude of psychological domain score seemed to be affected the most; every 1 point increase in BSRS-5 was associated with a 0.39 raw score (equivalent to 2.44 percentile) decrease in QOL. The sleep facet of WHOQOL appeared to have the highest association, followed by items of negative feelings, energy, and concentration. The BSRS-5 score is predictive for scores of all four domains and 26 items of the Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF for regular factory workers.

  13. The effects of the Make a Wish intervention on psychiatric symptoms and health-related quality of life of children with cancer: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Mifano, Keren; Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna

    2016-05-01

    Children with life-threatening medical conditions frequently undergo invasive medical procedures that may elicit anxiety and distress. However, there are few empirically validated interventions that reduce mental health symptoms and increase the resilience of children during the acute stages of illness. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Make a Wish intervention for children with life-threatening cancer. The design was a wait-list-controlled trial with two parallel groups. Sixty-six children aged 5-12 with an initial diagnosis of life-threatening cancer were identified and randomly assigned to the Make a Wish intervention (n = 32) or a wait-list control group (n = 34). Children completed measures of psychiatric and health-related symptoms, positive and negative affect, hope, and optimism pre-intervention and post-intervention. After baseline data collection, children were interviewed and made an authentic wish that they wanted to come true. These wishes were made possible 5-6 months after baseline data collection, to fuel anticipation and excitement over the wish-fulfillment event. The post-intervention assessment point was 5 weeks after wish fulfillment (approximately 7 months after baseline data collection). Children in the intervention group exhibited a significant reduction in general distress (d = 0.54), depression (d = 0.70), and anxiety symptoms (d = 0.41), improved health-related quality of life (d = 0.59), hope (d = 0.71), and positive affect (d = 0.80) compared to decrease in positive affect and no significant changes in the other measures in the control group. These findings emphasize the role of hope and positive emotions in fostering the well-being of children who suffer from serious illnesses.

  14. Changes in symptom severity, schemas and modes in heterogeneous psychiatric patient groups following short-term schema cognitive-behavioural group therapy: a naturalistic pre-treatment and post-treatment design in an outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vreeswijk, M F; Spinhoven, P; Eurelings-Bontekoe, E H M; Broersen, J

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy has proven to be an effective treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. However, little is known of its merits in other psychiatric (personality) disorders. This study investigated whether schema therapy in a group setting (group schema cognitive-behavioural therapy [SCBT-g]) was associated with changes in symptom and schema and mode severity. Furthermore, the aim was to search for baseline predictors and possible mediators of treatment outcome. Sixty-three heterogeneous psychiatric outpatients who attended the SCBT-g were included as participants. In this naturalistic pre-treatment and post-treatment design, data were available on the Symptom Checklist 90, the Schema Questionnaire and the Young-Atkinson Mode Inventory. All outcome measurements showed changes with moderate to high effect sizes, with 53.2% of the patients showing a significant reduction in severity of psychiatric symptoms and schemas and modes. Higher pre-treatment levels of the schema domain Other Directedness predicted greater symptom reduction. Pre-treatment to mid-treatment changes in schema severity predicted subsequent symptom improvement, but change in symptoms and schemas proved to be strongly correlated. In this naturalistic study, SCBT-g was associated with reduced symptom and schema and mode severity in more than half of the psychiatric outpatients. Furthermore, the results suggest that changes in schemas and symptomatology mutually reinforce each other. Over 50% of ambulatory patients show clinical improvement after treatment in a short-term schema therapy group. Other Directedness seems to be a predictor of schema group therapy success. More randomized controlled trial studies and prediction and mediation studies on (short-term) schema group therapy are sorely needed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Allergic Reaction to Food Symptoms of an Allergic Reaction to Food Learn about the mild and severe ... the food to which you are allergic. An allergic reaction to food can affect the skin, the gastrointestinal ...

  16. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of mould allergy. III. Diagnosis of Cladosporium allergy by means of symptom score, bronchial provocation test, skin prick test, RAST, CRIE and histamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, H J; Dreborg, S; Weeke, B

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three adult asthmatic patients suspected of mould allergy were investigated by in vivo and in vitro tests in order to establish a specific diagnosis of asthma caused by the mould species Cladosporium. The patients were evaluated by daily symptom scores in the peak Cladosporium season, bronchial provocation test (BPT), skin prick test (SPT), RAST, histamine release from basophil granulocytes (HIST), and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), and the results were scored as negative (score 0), equivocal (score 1) or positive (score 2). Based on daily symptom scores and the result of BPT the patients were classified as being manifest allergic (asthma) to Cladosporium (positive allergy), inconclusive or negative. Positive allergy was defined as asthma symptoms oscillating with the spore concentration and a BPT score 2 (positive at allergen concentration less than 10,000 BU). Negative allergy was defined as no asthma symptoms and a negative BPT (score 0) and inconclusive in the case of symptoms and BPT sum of score 1-3. According to the classification a final diagnosis (positive or negative) could be established in 85% of the patients. "False positive" tests were found: for BPT in 27%, SPT 18%, RAST 0%, HIST 18%, and CRIE 0%. The corresponding figures for "false negative" were: BPT 0%, SPT 0%, RAST 27%, HIST 18%, and CRIE 23%. The relative risk of being allergic in spite of a negative test result was 0% for BPT and SPT, and 25-30% with RAST, HIST, and CRIE. In the case of positive test the risk was 90-100%. Excluding BPT, SPT was found to be the optimal single test to predict/rule out clinical allergy. A stepwise combination of positive SPT and positive RAST was found exclusively in patients clinically evaluated as positive, and does not call for an additional BPT. Using a potent allergenic extract a negative SPT excluded clinically important allergy. The primary conclusion of the study, however, is that the final diagnosis of Cladosporium asthma could not be

  17. Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric State Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-09-06

    Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients' psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric states are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric state sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric state is predicted through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller's mental health status and to predict an emergency psychiatric state. The proposed psychiatric state prediction algorithm reported 83.03 percent prediction accuracy in an empirical performance study.

  18. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A C C O; Braga, A A; Soares-Filho, G; Pereira, V; Nardi, A E; Silva, A C

    2014-04-01

    This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words "anxiety", "depression", "implantable cardioverter", "cognitive behavioral therapy" and "psychotherapy" was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011), and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  19. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C.O. Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words “anxiety”, “depression”, “implantable cardioverter”, “cognitive behavioral therapy” and “psychotherapy” was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011, and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  20. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...

  1. Mindfulness-Based Crisis Interventions for patients with psychotic symptoms on acute psychiatric wards (amBITION study): Protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Pamela; Peters, Emmanuelle; Chadwick, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Inpatient psychiatric care is a scarce and expensive resource in the National Health Service (NHS), with chronic bed shortages being partly driven by high re-admission rates. People often need to go into hospital when they have a mental health crisis due to overwhelming distressing psychotic symptoms, such as hearing voices (hallucinations) or experiencing unusual beliefs (delusions). Brief talking therapies may be helpful for people during an acute inpatient admission as an adjunct to medication in reducing re-admission rates, and despite promising findings from trials in the USA, there have not yet been any clinical trials on this kind of intervention within NHS settings. The amBITION study is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a manualised brief talking therapy (Mindfulness-Based Crisis Intervention; MBCI). Inpatients on acute psychiatric wards are eligible for the study if they report at least one positive psychotic symptom, and are willing and able to engage in a talking therapy. In addition to treatment as usual (TAU), participants will be randomly allocated to receive either MBCI or a control intervention (Social Activity Therapy; SAT) which will be based on doing activities on the ward with the therapist. The primary objective of the study is to find out whether it is possible to carry out this kind of trial successfully within UK inpatient settings and to find out whether patients and staff find it an acceptable intervention. The secondary objective is to collect pilot data on primary and secondary outcome measures, including re-admission rates at 6 month follow-up. This will provide information on the appropriateness of re-admission as the primary outcome measure for future efficacy trials, as well as data on the acceptability and utility of the clinical self-report measures. The results of the feasibility trial will indicate whether a subsequent efficacy pilot trial is warranted, and if so, will provide vital information for the planning

  2. Patients with more severe symptoms of neuropathic ocular pain report more frequent and severe chronic overlapping pain conditions and psychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Ashley M; Levitt, Roy C; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; McClellan, Allison L; Galor, Anat

    2017-02-01

    To study chronic pain and mental health profiles in patients with dry eye (DE) symptoms, comparing those with high and low levels of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP) complaints. Cross-sectional study of 181 patients with DE symptoms (dry eye questionnaire score ≥6) seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. An evaluation was performed consisting of questionnaires regarding DE symptoms, NOP complaints (burning, sensitivity to wind, light and cold/hot temperatures) and pain elsewhere in the body (non-ocular). This was followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination. The patients' comorbidities, medications, mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder) and quality-of-life indices were also obtained. Patients were classified using cluster analysis into either the 'high NOP' or 'low NOP' group. Subsequent analyses were performed to examine differences in ocular and non-ocular parameters between these two groups. Despite similar ocular surface findings, patients in the high NOP group had very different systemic (non-ocular) profiles with higher overall pain intensity ratings, higher frequency of comorbid chronic centralised pain conditions, lower quality-of-life indices and more abnormal mental health scores than those in the low NOP group. Consistent with a chronic overlapping pain condition, patients with DE disease with more severe NOP symptoms report more frequent and severe non-ocular functional comorbid pain disorders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Healthy Eating Index scores associated with symptoms of depression in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exebio Joel C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low diet quality and depression symptoms are independently associated with poor glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D; however, the relationship between them is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the association between diet quality and symptoms of depression among Cuban-Americans with and without T2D living in South Florida. Methods Subjects (n = 356 were recruited from randomly selected mailing list. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-05 score. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Both linear and logistic regression analyses were run to determine whether or not these two variables were related. Symptoms of depression was the dependent variable and independent variables included HEI-05, gender, age, marital status, BMI, education level, A1C, employment status, depression medication, duration of diabetes, and diabetes status. Analysis of covariance was used to test for interactions among variables. Results An interaction between diabetes status, gender and HEI-05 was found (P = 0.011. Among males with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, those with T2D had a higher mean BDI score than those without T2D (11.6 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.028. Among males and females with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, females without T2D had a higher mean BDI score compared to males without T2D (11.0 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.012 Conclusions Differences in symptoms of depression according to diabetes status and gender are found in Cuban-Americans with low diet quality.

  4. Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Co-morbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n    "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n    "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n    "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n    "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.

  5. Genetic Heterogeneity in Depressive Symptoms Following the Death of a Spouse: Polygenic Score Analysis of the U.S. Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Benjamin W; Liu, Hexuan; Okbay, Aysu; Belsky, Daniel W

    2017-10-01

    Experience of stressful life events is associated with risk of depression. Yet many exposed individuals do not become depressed. A controversial hypothesis is that genetic factors influence vulnerability to depression following stress. This hypothesis is often tested with a "diathesis-stress" model, in which genes confer excess vulnerability. The authors tested an alternative formulation of this model: genes may buffer against depressogenic effects of life stress. The hypothesized genetic buffer was measured using a polygenic score derived from a published genome-wide association study of subjective well-being. The authors tested whether married older adults who had higher polygenic scores were less vulnerable to depressive symptoms following the death of their spouse compared with age-matched peers who had also lost their spouse and who had lower polygenic scores. Data were analyzed from 8,588 non-Hispanic white adults in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a population-representative longitudinal study of older adults in the United States. HRS adults with higher well-being polygenic scores experienced fewer depressive symptoms during follow-up. Those who survived the death of their spouses (N=1,647) experienced a sharp increase in depressive symptoms following the death and returned toward baseline over the following 2 years. Having a higher well-being polygenic score buffered against increased depressive symptoms following a spouse's death. The effects were small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain, although polygenic score analyses may provide clues to behavioral pathways that can serve as therapeutic targets. Future studies of gene-environment interplay in depression may benefit from focus on genetics discovered for putative protective factors.

  6. Symptom diagnostics based on clinical records: a tool for scientific research in child psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Marianne; Punt, Marja; de Groot, Erik; Hielkema, Tjitske; Struik, Marianne; Minderaa, Ruud B; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2009-05-01

    Child psychiatric diagnoses are generally based on a clinical examination and not on standardized questionnaires. The present study assessed whether symptom diagnostics based on clinical records facilitates the use of non-standardized clinical material for research. Six hundred and eighty-five children, referred to a third level child psychiatric centre in the Netherlands, were, after extensive multidisciplinary examination, classified according to the multi-axial classification scheme for psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence (MAC-ICD-9). By two raters 44 behavioural symptoms were scored based on the clinical records of these children. Interrater agreement on symptoms in 50 records was performed. Principal components analysis on symptom scores of all children was performed; factor scores were related with MAC-ICD-9 classifications. Interrater reliability for behavioural symptoms was excellent (kappa = 0.88). Many children with psychiatric problems suffer from a large number of behavioural symptoms. Factor scores of the symptoms revealed recognizable and well interpretable entities and indicated overlap in symptomatology and comorbidity. A symptom-based diagnostic approach based on extensive clinical patient files may provide a special dimension to improve the reliability of psychiatric classification.

  7. Effects of Zinc and Ferritin Levels on Parent and Teacher Reported Symptom Scores in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Ozgur; Oner, Pinar; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Odabas, Elif; Keser, Nilufer; Karadag, Hasan; Kizilgun, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that both low iron and zinc levels might be associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, the association of zinc and iron levels with ADHD symptoms has not been investigated at the same time in a single sample. Method: 118 subjects with ADHD (age = 7-14 years, mean = 9.8,…

  8. Influence of Deep Breathing on Heart Rate Variability in Parkinson’s Disease: Co-relation with Severity of Disease and Non-Motor Symptom Scale Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Gayatri J; Chakor, Rahul T

    2014-01-01

    Context: Dysautonomia and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are frequent, disabling and reduce quality of life of patient. Aims and Objective: There is a paucity of studies on autonomic dysfunction in PD in Indian population. The study aimed to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD patients and co-relate the findings with severity of PD and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score. Materials and Methods: We evaluated autonomic function in 30 diagnosed patients of PD (age 55-70 years) and 30 healthy age-matched controls by 3 min deep breathing test (DBT). NMSS was used to identify non-motor symptoms and Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Scale to grade severity of PD. The DBT findings were co-related with severity of PD (HY staging) and NMSS score. Results: DBT was found to be abnormal in 40% while it was on borderline in 33.3% of PD patients. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between patients and control group for the DBT. NMS were reported across all the stages of PD but with variable frequency and severity for individual symptom. A negative co-relation was found between results of deep breathing test and clinical severity of disease and NMSS score. Conclusion: Abnormalities of autonomic function and NMS were integral and present across all the stages of PD patients. Early recognition and treatment of these may decrease morbidity and improve quality of life of PD patients. PMID:25177554

  9. Influence of Deep Breathing on Heart Rate Variability in Parkinson's Disease: Co-relation with Severity of Disease and Non-Motor Symptom Scale Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidikar, Mukta Pritam; Jagtap, Gayatri J; Chakor, Rahul T

    2014-07-01

    Dysautonomia and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequent, disabling and reduce quality of life of patient. There is a paucity of studies on autonomic dysfunction in PD in Indian population. The study aimed to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD patients and co-relate the findings with severity of PD and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score. We evaluated autonomic function in 30 diagnosed patients of PD (age 55-70 years) and 30 healthy age-matched controls by 3 min deep breathing test (DBT). NMSS was used to identify non-motor symptoms and Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Scale to grade severity of PD. The DBT findings were co-related with severity of PD (HY staging) and NMSS score. DBT was found to be abnormal in 40% while it was on borderline in 33.3% of PD patients. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between patients and control group for the DBT. NMS were reported across all the stages of PD but with variable frequency and severity for individual symptom. A negative co-relation was found between results of deep breathing test and clinical severity of disease and NMSS score. Abnormalities of autonomic function and NMS were integral and present across all the stages of PD patients. Early recognition and treatment of these may decrease morbidity and improve quality of life of PD patients.

  10. [Ability to detect psychiatric disorders by the family physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Elustondo, Sofía; Reneses, Blanca; Navalón, Aida; Martín, Olga; Ramos, Isabel; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To determine the ability of family physicians to detect psychiatric disorders, comparing the presence of psychiatric disorders detected using validated tests and referrals by family physicians. Cross-sectional, two-phase study. Primary healthcare centres in an urban area of Madrid. Patients between 18 and 65years attending primary healthcare centres for non-administrative purposes. To detect psychiatric disorders in the waiting room, an interview was performed using GHQ-28 and MULTICAGE CAD-4 in the screening phase (considered positive: score of 6 or higher on the GHQ-28 or a score 2 or higher on MULTICAGE CAD-4). Patients with a positive score and 20% with negative were recruited for the second phase (case identification) using MINI interview. During family physician consultation, the patient gave his doctor a card with an identification number to record the presence of psychiatric illness in his/her opinion and whether there was treatment with psychotropic drugs. A total of 628 subjects participated. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders corrected by two phase methodology was 31.7% (95%CI: 27.9 to 35.5). Of the 185 patients with a psychiatric disorder detected, 44.2% (95%CI: 36.7 to 51.7) were identified as patients with psychiatric disorders by their family physician. Disorders best detected were: hypomania, dysthymic disorder, depressive episode with melancholic symptoms, and panic disorder. A significant percentage of patients with possible psychiatric disorders detected with validated test have not been identified by their family physician. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  12. Preclusion of ischemic stroke patients from intravenous tissue plasminogen activator treatment for mild symptoms should not be based on low National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Matthias; Tütüncü, Serdar; Fiebach, Jochen B; Scheitz, Jan F; Audebert, Heinrich J; Nolte, Christian H

    2013-05-01

    Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) improves neurologic outcome after stroke, but is not recommended for patients with minor neurologic deficits commonly classified by a lower cutoff on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Because not all stroke signs are captured on the NIHSS, the use of a strict cutoff may exclude functionally impaired stroke patients from IV tPA treatment. We described functional impairment, safety, and clinical outcome in patients derived from our hospital thrombolysis database who had stroke that was considered disabling despite a neurologic deficit that was considered mild. We used 2 cutoffs: NIHSS score ≤ 4 and ≤ 3. Functional impairment was assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Between 2008 and 2011, a total of 670 acute ischemic stroke patients received IV tPA in our institution. 107 (16%) of these patients presented with a NIHSS score ≤ 4; 65 (10%) patients presented with a NIHSS score ≤ 3. All of these patients were considered functionally impaired (mRS score ≥ 2). The most frequent symptoms were language impairment (two-thirds), distal (hand) paresis (one-third), and gait disorder in both groups. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient with a NIHSS score of 4 (1%). Despite IV tPA therapy, 26% had a nonfavorable outcome (mRS score 0-1) after 3 months, and 52% had persisting symptoms in both groups. Language impairment, distal (hand) paresis, and gait disorder are common disabling deficits in patients with low NIHSS scores. Judgment of whether a stroke is disabling should not be based on the NIHSS score but on the assessment of the individual neurologic deficits and their impact on functional impairment. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the home-care setting: A nation-wide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayakawa, Makoto; Ogawa, Asao; Konno, Michiko; Kurata, Akiko; Hamano, Jun; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Aoyama, Maho; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-12-01

    The psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill cancer patients are highly problematic and have been associated with greater burden among caregivers. Until now, the extent of these problems in the home care setting was unclear. This retrospective study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan (J-HOPE3). The bereaved family members rated the symptoms of delirium and suicidal ideation of patients with cancer, and the sleeplessness and depressed mood of family caregivers utilizing home care services in the one month before the patients' deaths. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with caregivers' sleeplessness or depressed mood. Of the 532 subjects analyzed, between 17% and 65% of patients experienced various symptoms of delirium, and 27% suicidal ideation. Among family caregivers, 60% experienced sleeplessness and 35% experienced depressed mood at least once during the week. Caregivers' psychological symptoms were associated with their own poor health status, being the spouse of the patient, and the patients' psychological or psychiatric symptoms. To manage patients' symptoms, 11% of caregivers had consulted psychiatrists or psychologists while another 11% wanted to do so. Psychological problems assessed were common among patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the one month of home care prior to the patient's death. An effective complementary care system, run by home-visit physicians, nurses, and experts in mental disorders, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparative Study of United States Service Members With and Without a History of Inpatient Psychiatric Hospitalization on Post Deployment Trauma, Depression, and Hazardous Alcohol Use Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    regression analyses were conducted to test study hypotheses. Results: Previously psychiatrically hospitalized service members demonstrated...predicting positive Two-Item Conjoint Screen (TICS) from history of inpatient psychiatric hospitalization (N = 492...positive Two-Item Conjoint Screen (TICS) in inpatient cases (Group 1; N = 246) . 63 Table 6. Summary of logistic regression model predicting positive Two

  15. Association studies of genetic scores of serum vitamin B12 and folate levels with symptoms of depression and anxiety in two danish population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllehave, L T; Skaaby, T; Simonsen, K S

    2017-01-01

    . The aim was to examine the association of genetic scores of vitamin B12 and folate-associated alleles with depression and anxiety. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 4126 participants from two Danish population-based studies. Serum vitamin B12 and folate were measured. Weighed allele scores were...... calculated as the sum of weights (genetic effect sizes) for 12 and two variants increasing circulating levels of vitamin B12 and folate, respectively. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by the Symptom Check List (SCL)-90-R, and self-reported doctor-diagnosed depression and anxiety. RESULTS......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Observational studies have suggested low serum levels of vitamin B12 or folate to be risk factors of depression and anxiety. However, these results may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization studies are not subject to these limitations...

  16. Evaluation of the visual prostate symptom score in a male population with great language diversity and limited education: a study from Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyns, Chris F; Steenkamp, Bonifatius A; Chiswo, Jameson; Stellmacher, Golda A; Förtsch, Hage E A; Van der Merwe, André

    2014-03-26

    A visual prostate symptom score (VPSS) using pictograms was developed to assess the force of the urinary stream, urinary frequency, nocturia and quality of life (QoL). To compare the VPSS with the international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and maximum (Qmax) and average (Qave) urinary flow rates in men from diverse language groups with limited schooling. Men with lower urinary tract symptoms admitted to the urology ward at Windhoek Central Hospital, Namibia, were evaluated. Patients who were unable to complete the questionnaires alone were assisted by a doctor or nurse. Local ethics committee approval was obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and Spearman's rank correlation test. One hundred men (mean age 56.3 years, range 20.1 - 95.4) were evaluated over a period of one year. All the men understood one or more of 15 languages, and 30 were illiterate; 32 had 9 years. The VPSS took significantly less time to complete than the IPSS. There were statistically significant correlations between the total VPSS and IPSS scores, between the four VPSS questions and the corresponding IPSS questions, and between Qmax and Qave and the VPSS total and VPSS questions on the force of the urinary stream and QoL. The VPSS pictograms depicting the force of the urinary stream and QoL correlated significantly with Qmax and Qave, indicating that they can be used as single-item questions to rapidly assess bladder outflow obstruction in men with limited education.

  17. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  18. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  19. Prevalence and influence of psychiatric comorbidity on rehabilitation outcome for older hospital inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Cathy; Lum, Carmel; Chong, Sinn Yuin; Borg, Cynthia; Haines, Terry P

    2011-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the psychiatric comorbidity of a group of older subacute inpatients and then determine whether their psychiatric comorbidity affected measures of rehabilitation outcomes. Eighty-eight older subacute inpatients were recruited for this prospective study. Psychiatric comorbidity was defined according to a participants' performance on four inventory scales: the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Health of the Nation Outcome Scale 65+. Rehabilitation outcome referred to the participants' length of stay and their performance at discharge on the EuroQol-5D health-related quality of life questionnaire and Barthel index. 68% of the participants scored in the clinical range on at least one of the four scales assessing psychiatric comorbidity at admission, with 51% in the clinical range for GDS and 32% for the GAI. The decrease in scores by the time of discharge was significant for all four scales. Linear regression analyses pointed to a trend for depressive symptoms at admission to be an influential but nonsignificant predictor of rehabilitation outcome. An interesting association was found between the length of the previous acute admission and the GDS score on admission to the subacute unit. A high prevalence of psychological symptoms was identified upon admission, with a significant decrease by the time of discharge. These factors did not significantly predict the selected measures of rehabilitation outcome. Opportunities for future longitudinal research on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric comorbidities on patient outcomes are considered.

  20. The association between the self-perception period of overactive bladder symptoms and overactive bladder symptom scores in a non-treated population and related sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Ham, B K; Shim, S R; Lee, W J; Kim, H J; Kwon, S-S; Bae, J H

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the association between the self-perception period of OAB symptoms (SP-OAB) and the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), along with related sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. This was a cross-sectional study comprised of 192 men aged 40 years and older who participated in a prostate examination survey between February and May 2009 and proved to have OAB. Survey questionnaires included items on the OABSS and the SP-OAB assessed by the OABSS. Various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were also included. The average SP-OAB period was 24.72 ± 45.75 months and became significantly longer as the severity of OAB increased in correlation analysis (coefficient = 0.501, p sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affect OABSS. The self-perception period should be considered in the treatment and prevention of OAB symptoms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Psychotic symptoms in refugees diagnosed with PTSD: a series of case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Ekstrøm, Morten; Jensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    were selected as they fulfilled the following criteria for inclusion: 1) had a refugee background, 2) fulfilled the PTSD (F43.1) diagnosis upon treatment start and 3) revealed psychotic symptoms during treatment. All six were outpatients at the Psychiatric Trauma Clinic for Refugees at Psychiatric...... into the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among refugees with depression and PTSD, including the qualitative dimensions of the symptoms in order to optimize diagnosis and treatment among this group of psychiatric patients....... Centre Gentofte in Copenhagen during 2009. RESULTS: Our cases were all characterized by having severe symptoms of depression and PTSD. Before treatment start they had a score on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire between 2.9 and 3.8 (cut-off: 2.5), and a score on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 between 2...

  2. [Religious/spiritual well-being in mentally ill persons II: the development of a short scale and comparison scores for clinical psychiatric groups and healthy controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB) was successfully applied in several clinical as well as non-clinical studies. However, the original version of the scale often showed to be as too comprehensive especially for clinical surroundings. There for the aim of this study is to develop a short version of the scale comprising 12 items. Based on a sample representative of the Austrian general population (N = 1,500), a first MI-RSWB short version is developed by means of factor- and reliability analysis. Furthermore the new short version of the scale is initially validated through several indicators of mental illness. The MI-RSWB short version shows convincing psychometric properties. The total scale as well as the sub scales exhibit at least a sufficient internal consistency. A significant negative association with several indicators of psychiatric illness is also confirmed for the short version of the scale. The MI-RWSB 12 scale is especially recommended for further research focusing on the clinical relevance of religiosity and spirituality.

  3. A Symptom-Triggered Benzodiazepine Protocol Utilizing SAS and CIWA-Ar Scoring for the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in the Critically Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Soumitra; Grgurich, Philip; Tulolo, Amanda; Smith-Freedman, Andrew; Lei, Yuxiu; Gray, Anthony; Dargin, James

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data on the efficacy of symptom-triggered therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in the intensive care unit (ICU). To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a symptom-triggered benzodiazepine protocol utilizing Riker Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS) scoring for the treatment of AWS in the ICU. We performed a before-and-after study in a medical ICU. A protocol incorporating SAS scoring and symptom-triggered benzodiazepine dosing was implemented in place of a protocol that utilized the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scale and fixed benzodiazepine dosing. We enrolled 167 patients (135 in the preintervention and 32 in the postintervention group). The median duration of AWS was shorter in the postintervention (5, interquartile range [IQR] = 4-8 days) than in the preintervention group (8, IQR = 5-12 days; P benzodiazepine exposure (74 ± 159 vs 450 ± 701 mg lorazepam; P benzodiazepine protocol utilizing SAS in critically ill patients is associated with a reduction in the duration of AWS treatment, benzodiazepine exposure, need for mechanical ventilation, and ICU and hospital LOS compared with a CIWA-Ar-based protocol using fixed benzodiazepine dosing.

  4. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  5. Disentangling the Correlates of Drug Use in a Clinic and Community Sample: A Regression Analysis of the Associations between Drug Use, Years-of-School, Impulsivity, IQ, Working Memory, and Psychiatric Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gene M; Dunn, Brian J; Mignone, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Years-of-school is negatively correlated with illicit drug use. However, educational attainment is positively correlated with IQ and negatively correlated with impulsivity, two traits that are also correlated with drug use. Thus, the negative correlation between education and drug use may reflect the correlates of schooling, not schooling itself. To help disentangle these relations we obtained measures of working memory, simple memory, IQ, disposition (impulsivity and psychiatric status), years-of-school and frequency of illicit and licit drug use in methadone clinic and community drug users. We found strong zero-order correlations between all measures, including IQ, impulsivity, years-of-school, psychiatric symptoms, and drug use. However, multiple regression analyses revealed a different picture. The significant predictors of illicit drug use were gender, involvement in a methadone clinic, and years-of-school. That is, psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, cognition, and IQ no longer predicted illicit drug use in the multiple regression analyses. Moreover, high risk subjects (low IQ and/or high impulsivity) who spent 14 or more years in school used stimulants and opiates less than did low risk subjects who had spent regression method proved the best approach for dealing with this problem. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that years-of-school predicts lower levels of illicit drug use after controlling for IQ and impulsivity. This paper also highlights the advantages of Double-Hurdle regression methods for analyzing the correlates of drug use in community samples.

  6. A new prognostic scale for the early prediction of ischemic stroke recovery mainly based on traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and NIHSS score: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ke-Gang; Fu, Cai-Hong; Li, Huan-Qin; Xin, Xi-Yan; Gao, Ying

    2015-11-16

    Ischemic stroke (IS) is a common disease, often resulting in death or disability. Previous studies on prognosis of stroke mainly focused on the baseline condition or modern expensive tests. However, the change of clinical symptoms during acute stage is considerably neglected. In our study, we aim to develop a new prognostic scale to predict the 90-day outcome of IS patients. In this retrospective cohort study, a secondary data analysis was performed on 489 patients extracted from 1046 patients of 4 hospitals. A new prognostic scale was constructed to predict the recovery of IS mainly based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) symptoms & signs and the changes during the first 3 days of patients in the 3 TCM hospitals. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cutoff point for prediction. In the end, the scale was used to test the outcome of IS patients in Xuanwu hospital. The new prognostic scale was composed of 8 items including age degree (OR = 3.32; 95 % CI: 1.72-6.42), history of diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR = 2.20; 95 % CI: 1.19-4.08), NIHSS score (OR = 3.08; 95 % CI: 2.16-4.40), anxiety (OR = 3.17; 95 % CI: 1.90-5.29) and irritability (OR = 4.61; 95 % CI: 1.36-15.63) on the 1st day of illness onset, change in NIHSS score (OR = 2.49; 95 % CI: 1.31-4.73), and circumrotating (OR = 7.80; 95 % CI: 1.98-30.64) and tinnitus (OR = 13.25; 95 % CI: 1.55-113.34) during the first 3 days of stroke onset. The total score of the scale was 16.5 and the cutoff point was 9.5, which means patients would have poor outcome at 90 days of stroke onset if the score was higher than 9.5. The new scale was validated on the data of Xuanwu hospital, and the value of its sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy were 69.6 %, 83.3 % and 75.0 % respectively. The 8-item scale, mainly based on TCM symptoms, NIHSS score and their changes during the first 3 days, can predict the 90-day outcome for IS

  7. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

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    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  8. Relation of cumulative low-level lead exposure to depressive and phobic anxiety symptom scores in middle-age and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Korrick, Susan A; Weuve, Jennifer; Okereke, Olivia; Kubzansky, Laura D; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2012-06-01

    Different lines of evidence suggest that low-level lead exposure could be a modifiable risk factor for adverse psychological symptoms, but little work has explored this relation. We assessed whether bone lead--a biomarker of cumulative lead exposure--is associated with depression and anxiety symptoms among middle-age and elderly women. Participants were 617 Nurses' Health Study participants with K-shell X-ray fluorescence bone lead measures and who had completed at last one Mental Health Index 5-item scale (MHI-5) and the phobic anxiety scale of the Crown-Crisp Index (CCI) assessment at mean ± SD age of 59 ± 9 years (range, 41-83 years). With exposure expressed as tertiles of bone lead, we analyzed MHI-5 scores as a continuous variable using linear regression and estimated the odds ratio (OR) of a CCI score ≥ 4 using generalized estimating equations. There were no significant associations between lead and either outcome in the full sample, but associations were found among premenopausal women and women who consistently took hormone replacement therapy (HRT) between menopause and bone lead measurement (n = 142). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of tibia lead, those in the highest scored 7.78 points worse [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.73, -3.83] on the MHI-5 (p-trend = 0.0001). The corresponding OR for CCI ≥ 4 was 2.79 (95% CI: 1.02, 7.59; p-trend = 0.05). No consistent associations were found with patella lead. These results provide support for an association of low-level cumulative lead exposure with increased depressive and phobic anxiety symptoms among older women who are premenopausal or who consistently take postmenopausal HRT.

  9. Night-eating syndrome and the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms from the Korea Nurses' Health Study: analysis of propensity score matching and ordinal regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, O-S; Kim, M S; Lee, J E; Jung, H

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of night-eating syndrome (NES) and depression is increasing worldwide. Although nurses, in particular, are exposed to work in an environment of irregular eating, shift work, and stressful settings, limited research exist. In fact, the prevalence of NES among Korean nurses has never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NES as well as the association between NES and severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among South Korean female nurses. The Korea Nurses' Health Study, following the protocols of the Nurses' Health Study led by the Harvard University, collected data on Korean female nurses. Survey responses from 3617 participants were included, and 404 responses were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using propensity score matching. Descriptive, Spearman's and Cramer's correlations, propensity score matching, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression were conducted as statistical analysis. The prevalence of both NES and self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses were higher compared with nurses in prior studies. Nurses with NES were 1.65 times more likely to have greater severity of depressive symptoms than those without NES (95% confidence interval [1.19-2.10], odds ratio = 1.65) after adjusting for covariates including sociodemographic characteristics, health behavioural factors, and shift work. This study suggests significant association between NES and the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses after adjusting for covariates. Policy makers and hospital managers need to develop strategies to reduce depression and NES among nurses for enhancement of nurses' mental and physical health as well as for improvement of care quality. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. People reporting experiences of mediumship have higher dissociation symptom scores than non-mediums, but below thresholds for pathological dissociation [version 3; referees: 2 approved, 1 not approved

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    Helané Wahbeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissociative states exist on a continuum from nonpathological forms, such as highway hypnosis and day-dreaming, to pathological states of derealization and depersonalization. Claims of communication with deceased individuals, known as mediumship, were once regarded as a pathological form of dissociation, but current definitions recognize the continuum and include distress and functional disability as symptoms of pathology. This study examined the relationship between dissociative symptoms and mediumship in a large convenience sample. Methods: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional survey data were conducted. The survey included demographics, the Dissociation Experience Scale Taxon (DES-T, score range 0-100, as well as questions about instances of mediumship experiences. Summary statistics and linear and logistic regressions explored the relationship between dissociative symptoms and mediumship endorsement. Results: 3,023 participants were included and were mostly middle-aged (51 years ± 16; range 17-96, female (70%, Caucasian (85%, college educated (88%, had an annual income over $50,000 (55%, and were raised Christian (71% but were presently described as Spiritual but not Religious (60%. Mediumship experiences were endorsed by 42% of participants, the experiences usually began in childhood (81%, and 53% had family members who reported similar experiences. The mean DES-T score across all participants was 14.4 ± 17.3, with a mean of 18.2 ± 19.3 for those claiming mediumship experiences and 11.8 ± 15.2 for those who did not (t = -10.3, p < 0.0005. The DES-T threshold score for pathological dissociation is 30. Conclusions: On average, individuals claiming mediumship experiences had higher dissociation scores than non-claimants, but neither group exceeded the DES-T threshold for pathology. Future studies exploring dissociative differences between these groups may benefit from using more comprehensive measures of dissociative symptoms

  11. Predictors of violent behavior among acute psychiatric patients: clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Mario; Menchetti, Marco; Tonti, Cristina; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Lundgren, Eva; Esposito, William; Berardi, Domenico

    2008-06-01

    Violence risk prediction is a priority issue for clinicians working with mentally disordered offenders. The aim of the present study was to determine violence risk factors in acute psychiatric inpatients. The study was conducted in a locked, short-term psychiatric inpatient unit and involved 374 patients consecutively admitted in a 1-year period. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained through a review of the medical records and patient interviews. Psychiatric symptoms at admission were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Psychiatric diagnosis was formulated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Past aggressive behavior was evaluated by interviewing patients, caregivers or other collateral informants. Aggressive behaviors in the ward were assessed using the Overt Aggression Scale. Patients who perpetrated verbal and against-object aggression or physical aggression in the month before admission were compared to non-aggressive patients, moreover, aggressive behavior during hospitalization and persistence of physical violence after admission were evaluated. Violent behavior in the month before admission was associated with male sex, substance abuse and positive symptoms. The most significant risk factor for physical violence was a past history of physically aggressive behavior. The persistent physical assaultiveness before and during hospitalization was related to higher BPRS total scores and to more severe thought disturbances. Higher levels of hostility-suspiciousness BPRS scores predicted a change for the worse in violent behavior, from verbal to physical. A comprehensive evaluation of the history of past aggressive behavior and psychopathological variables has important implications for the prediction of violence in psychiatric settings.

  12. Psychiatric patient and anaesthesia

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    Joginder Pal Attri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with psychiatric illnesses are prescribed long-term drug treatment, and the anaesthesiologist must be aware of potential interactions with anaesthetic agents. Psychotropic drugs often given in combination with each other or with other non-psychiatric drugs generally exert profound effects on the central and peripheral neurotransmitter and ionic mechanisms. Hence, prior intake of these drugs is an important consideration in the management of the patient about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. This article highlights the effects of anaesthetics on patients taking antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and lithium carbonate. The risk that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of surgery, the patient′s physical state, anaesthesia, the direct and indirect effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms and risk of psychiatric recurrence and relapse.

  13. Sports chiropractic management of concussions using the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 symptom scoring, serial examinations, and graded return to play protocol: a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Eric R; Pierce, Kevin M; Gonzalez, Jannet K; Campbell, Nathan J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this case series is to report how the symptom section of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) was used to manage athletes with concussions in a high school training room setting and to address the need for SCAT2 baseline measurements. During a 4-month period, 3 doctors of chiropractic with certification from the American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians managed 15 high school athletes with concussions in a multidisciplinary setting. Fourteen athletes were male American football players, and one was a female volleyball player. Of the 15 athletes, 3 athletes had baseline SCAT2 documentation. Athletes were evaluated and returned to play with a graded return to play protocol using the SCAT2 symptoms and serial physical examinations. Once participants were asymptomatic, they began a graded return to play process. A total of 47 SCAT2 tests were performed on the 15 athletes, averaging 3.13 SCAT2 evaluations per patient. Of the 15 athletes evaluated, 6 were managed and cleared for return to play; 2 of the athletes sustained concussions in the last week of the season, thus ending their season; and 3 athletes were cleared by medical doctors. None of the athletes under care reported an adverse event. The utilization of the SCAT2 with serial physical examinations provided objective measures for athlete's injuries, allowing the practitioners to evaluate concussions. More efforts are needed to collect baseline SCAT2 to compare these scores with subsequent SCAT2 scores following athletic injuries.

  14. Fibromyalgia symptoms and cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogal, Shari S; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Wasan, Ajay D; Szigethy, Eva; Lotrich, Francis; DiMartini, Andrea F

    2015-05-01

    An association between fibromyalgia and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been previously described. However, the relationship between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibromyalgia symptoms has not been assessed, though they share several risk factors. We aimed to assess the factors associated with fibromyalgia symptoms across etiologies of liver disease. Patients with cirrhosis due to HCV, NASH, or alcohol were recruited from an outpatient hepatology clinic and administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the modified 2010 American College of Rheumatology Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia. Serum inflammatory markers were measured with standard luminex assays. Of 193 participants, 53 (27 %) met criteria for fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with etiology of liver disease (HCV: 35 %, NASH: 30 %, alcohol-related liver disease: 12 %, p fibromyalgia symptoms. If abdominal pain was included in the model, etiology became nonsignificant, indicating that it may be central sensitization due to abdominal pain in patients with chronic liver disease that explains fibromyalgia symptoms rather than the etiology of liver disease or inflammation. Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with HCV and NASH cirrhosis and with psychiatric symptoms. Future work should focus on the underlying pathophysiology and management of widespread pain in patients with cirrhosis.

  15. Fibromyalgia Symptoms and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Wasan, Ajay D.; Szigethy, Eva; Lotrich, Francis; DiMartini, Andrea F.

    2015-01-01

    Background An association between fibromyalgia and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been previously described. However, the relationship between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibromyalgia symptoms has not been assessed, though they share several risk factors. Aim We aimed to assess the factors associated with fibromyalgia symptoms across etiologies of liver disease. Methods Patients with cirrhosis due to HCV, NASH, or alcohol were recruited from an outpatient hepatology clinic and administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the modified 2010 American College of Rheumatology Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia. Serum inflammatory markers were measured with standard luminex assays. Results Of 193 participants, 53 (27 %) met criteria for fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with etiology of liver disease (HCV: 35 %, NASH: 30 %, alcohol-related liver disease: 12 %, p fibromyalgia symptoms. If abdominal pain was included in the model, etiology became nonsignificant, indicating that it may be central sensitization due to abdominal pain in patients with chronic liver disease that explains fibromyalgia symptoms rather than the etiology of liver disease or inflammation. Conclusions Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with HCV and NASH cirrhosis and with psychiatric symptoms. Future work should focus on the underlying pathophysiology and management of widespread pain in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:25433921

  16. Do persons with severe mental illness who consume the psychiatric rehabilitation basket of services in Israel have better outcomes than those who do not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, David; Werbeloff, Nomi; Gelkopf, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Since the implementation of the legislation of the Rehabilitation of the Mentally Disabled in the Community Law a decade ago, an increasing number of people have been receiving the psychiatric rehabilitation 'basket of service', yet the impact of these services has barely been studied. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether people with severe mental illness in Israel who consume psychiatric rehabilitation services report better outcomes than people with severe mental illness who are eligible and have applied for psychiatric rehabilitation services but have not yet utilized them. 1,191 persons with severe mental illness (595 psychiatric rehabilitation service users and 596 nonusers) completed face-to-face interviews. Differences in quality of life, general satisfaction and psychiatric symptoms between psychiatric rehabilitation service users and non-users were examined using Analysis of Covariance controlling for the potential confounding effects of age and marital status. Adjusted comparisons of quality of life, general satisfaction and psychiatric symptoms revealed that psychiatric rehabilitation service users had better outcomes than non-users: they reported better quality of life and greater satisfaction alongside fewer psychiatric symptoms. The most striking difference between the groups was found in the domain of employment and income, with non-psychiatric rehabilitation service users scoring 0.9 effect sizes below psychiatric rehabilitation service users. The current study, based on a relatively large sample, provides support for the effectiveness of the psychiatric rehabilitation 'basket of services'. Future studies including clinicians ratings of more objective aspects of functioning may provide a broader picture of the association between psychiatric rehabilitation service utilization and outcome.

  17. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, A.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van der Ende, J.; de Nijs, P. F. A.; Van Gool, A. R.; Dekker, L. P.; Verheij, C.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were…

  18. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  19. [Rheumatic fibromyalgia: psychiatric features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarró Alvarez, S

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatic fibromyalgia, also known as fibrositis or myofascial pain, is a common syndrome whose diagnoses, founded mainly on physical examination, usually delays due to symptom unspecificity, amount of complementary tests requested and intercourse with psychiatric disorders. Psychyatrists and psychologists get often involved in fibromyalgia treatment. Its proper knowledge prevents not only physicians and patients' psychological discourage but also development of depression and mental health expenses, as well as allows designing a treatment plan according to the main symptoms which may offer improvement chances to fibromyalgia patients. This article intends to offer an up-to-date and complete information about this entity, focused on psychiatric aspects, to better identify and manage such a puzzling disease.

  20. A Novel Murine Candidiasis Model with Severe Colonization in the Stomach Induced by N-acetylglucosamine-treatment and Its Scoring System Based on Local Characteristic Stomach Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishijima, Sanae A; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel murine candidiasis model of the gastrointestinal tract using N-acetylglucosamine ( GlcNAc ) as a tool to aggravate symptoms. Forty-eight hours after intragastrically inoculating Candida albicans cells to immunosuppressed and GlcNAc-treated mice, vigorously accumulating patchy whitish plaques were observed on their inner stomach surface. Candida cells colonizing the plaques consisted of both yeast and mycelia, and were directly stained with Calcofluor White M2R. Aggravation of the candidiasis symptoms was dependent on GlcNAc concentration in drinking water, wherein administration of 50 mM GlcNAc not only severely worsened stomach symptoms, but also significantly increased Candida cell number in the stomach and small intestine. The aggravation effect of GlcNAc was enhanced by addition of sedative chemical chlorpromazine chloride after inoculation. In order to semi-quantitatively assess colonization by Candida in the stomach, we devised a new symptom scoring system that represents the extent of the patchy whitish plaques on the mucosal epithelium of the stomach. Histochemical analysis of Candida-infected tissues revealed not only a large amount of thick Candida mycelia invading mucosal epithelial stomach tissues but also infiltrating inflammatory cells. These results suggest that this murine gastrointestinal candidiasis model could serve as a useful tool for evaluating the protective activity of antifungal agents, probiotics, or functional foods against gastrointestinal candidiasis. Furthermore, from another point of view, this novel murine model could also be used to analyze the pathological mechanisms behind the translocation of C. albicans across intestinal barriers, which results in systemic Candida dissemination and infection.

  1. Relationship between aggression, interpersonal style, and therapeutic alliance during short-term psychiatric hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Amy; Daffern, Michael; Foley, Fiona

    2012-02-01

    Aggression during psychiatric hospitalization is frequent, problematic, and a major challenge for nurses and mental health services more generally. The strength of the therapeutic alliance between nursing staff and patients has been posited as an important protective factor that can limit the likelihood of aggression. This study examined the relationship between interpersonal style, perceived coercion, and psychiatric symptoms on the therapeutic alliance between patients and staff, and how each, in turn, is related to aggression. Participants in this study were 79 patients admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Each participant was interviewed to determine perceived coercion, symptoms of psychiatric illness, interpersonal style, and therapeutic alliance. Incidents of aggression were recorded at discharge through a review of incident forms, file review, and interviews with unit nursing staff. The results showed that a hostile-dominant interpersonal style and symptoms of paranoia predicted poor therapeutic alliance, contributing 14% of the variance in therapeutic alliance scores. A dominant interpersonal style predicted aggression towards staff. Therapeutic alliance, perceived coercion, and symptoms of psychiatric illness did not predict aggression. Implications for engagement in treatment and the prevention of aggression are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Burden Assessment, Psychiatric Morbidity, and Their Correlates in Caregivers of Patients with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S; Srivastava, S; Gautam, P; Saha, R; Kaur, J

    2015-12-01

    Intellectual disability in a child places great stress on a family and caregiver and this leads to significant socio-occupational dysfunction and impaired quality of life for caregivers. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic characteristics, burden, and psychiatric morbidity of the caregivers of persons with intellectual disability, as well as to determine the variables that correlated with burden and psychiatric morbidity. An observational study was carried out in an outpatient psychiatric unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India from October 2014 to April 2015. A total of 100 caregivers of intellectually impaired individuals were assessed for burden and psychiatric morbidity. In all, 39% of the caregivers had a high burden score, 46% perceived mild-to-moderate burden severity, and 15% perceived no to mild burden. Mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were present in 23% and 16% had severe-to-extremely severe depressive symptoms. Mild-to-moderate anxiety symptoms were evident in 19% of caregivers and a further 19% had severe-to-extremely severe anxiety symptoms. Routine assessment of burden and psychiatric morbidity in the caregiver will help to reduce their burden and thus help them care for their children more appropriately and efficiently.

  3. Clinical predictors of cognitive impairment and psychiatric complications in Parkinson’s disease

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    Lidiane S. Campos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To estimate the clinical and demographics aspects that may contribute to cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Method All patients answered a structured standardized clinical questionnaire. Two movement disorders specialists performed the following scale: Unified Parkinson’s disease rating score (UPDRS, the modified Hoehn and Yahr staging, Schwab and England Scale, SCOPA cognition (SCOPA-COG, SCOPA-Psychiatric complications (SCOPA-PC and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS. We built a generalized linear model to assess predictors for the SCOPA-COG and SCOPA-PC scores. Results Almost 37% of our patients were demented as per SCOPA-COG scores. Level of education and the UPDRS-Subscale III were predictors of cognitive impairment. Higher scores in domain 3 of NMSS and male gender were associated with psychiatric complications as assessed per the SCOPA-PC. Conclusion Level of education and disease severity are predictors of dementia in PD. Psychiatric complications are more commonly observed in men.

  4. Psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia: cross sectional epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R.; Graham, P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the prevalence and predictors of psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia. DESIGN--Cross sectional questionnaire survey of an epidemiological sample with individual assessments of a representative subgroup. The questionnaire survey was repeated on school age subjects four years later. SUBJECTS--428 hemiplegic children age 2 1/2-16 years, of whom 149 (aged 6-10 years) were individually assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Psychiatric symptom scores and the occurrence of psychiatric disorder. RESULTS--Psychiatric disorders affected 61% (95% confidence interval 53% to 69%) of subjects as judged by individual assessments and 54% (49% to 59%) and 42% (37% to 47%) as judged from parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Few affected children had been in contact with child mental health services. The strongest consistent predictor of psychiatric problems was intelligence quotient (IQ), which was highly correlated with an index of neurological severity; age, sex, and laterality of lesion had little or no predictive power. CONCLUSION--Though most hemiplegic children have considerable emotional or behavioural difficulties, these psychological complications commonly go unrecognised or untreated. Comprehensive health provision for children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders such as hemiplegia should be psychologically as well as physically oriented. PMID:8616413

  5. Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST and association of PSST scores with health-related quality of life

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    Rachel de A. Câmara

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop and validate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST, a questionnaire used for the screening of premenstrual syndrome (PMS and of the most severe form of PMS, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD. The PSST also rates the impact of premenstrual symptoms on daily activities. Methods: A consecutive sample of 801 women aged ≥ 18 years completed the study protocol. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and content validity of the Brazilian PSST were determined. The independent association of a positive screen for PMS or PMDD and quality of life determined by the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version (WHOQOL-Bref was also assessed. Results: Of 801 participants, 132 (16.5% had a positive screening for PMDD. The Brazilian PSST had adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.91 and test-retest reliability. The PSST also had adequate convergent/discriminant validity, without redundancy. Content validity ratio and content validity index were 0.61 and 0.94 respectively. Finally, a positive screen for PMS/PMDD was associated with worse WHOQOL-Bref scores. Conclusions: These findings suggest that PSST is a reliable and valid instrument to screen for PMS/PMDD in Brazilian women.

  6. What is the significance of onconeural antibodies for psychiatric symptomatology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Sverre Georg; Schou, Morten; Kondziella, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with intracellular onconeural antibodies may present with neuro-psychiatric syndromes. We aimed to evaluate the evidence for an association between well-characterized onconeural antibodies and psychiatric symptoms in patients with and without paraneoplastic central nervous sy...

  7. Psychiatric Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-01-01

    into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can...... then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691...

  8. Premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-24

    Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in

  9. A comparison of symptoms and drug use between patients with methamphetamine associated psychoses and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in two acute psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhus, Sigrid; Mordal, Jon; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-03-30

    Psychosis induced by the use of amphetamine or methamphetamine leads to dramatic symptoms and frequent readmissions and poses diagnostic challenges. Earlier studies have often relied on history taking and/or urine samples to reveal drug use. The aim of this study was to compare the psychotic symptoms of two groups: (1) acutely admitted patients who tested positive for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with drug-induced or methamphetamine-induced psychoses and (2) acutely admitted patients who tested negative for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Blood and urine samples were used. In addition, we investigated whether the severity of symptoms, in those who tested positive, was related to the blood concentration of methamphetamine. Of 285 patients who volunteered blood and/or urine samples within 48h of admission, 37 (13%) had recently taken methamphetamine. Positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups were compared by PANSS using the positive subscale. The results showed no differences in positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups. The severity of positive psychotic symptoms in patients with three different levels of urine/blood methamphetamine concentrations, were compared. We found no clinically or statistically significant relationship between blood methamphetamine levels and severity of psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissociative disorders in the psychiatric emergency ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Koyuncu, Ahmet; Ozturk, Erdinc; Yargic, L Ilhan; Kundakci, Turgut; Yazici, Ahmet; Kuskonmaz, Ekrem; Aksüt, Didem

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among emergency psychiatric admissions. Forty-three of the 97 consecutive outpatients admitted to the psychiatric emergency unit of a university hospital were screened using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Seventeen (39.5% of the 43 evaluated) patients with a DES score above 25.0 were then interviewed with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Clinical Interview for Dissociative Disorders. Fifteen emergency unit patients (34.9% of the 43 evaluated participants) were diagnosed as having a dissociative disorder. Six (14.0%) patients had dissociative identity disorder, 6 (14.0%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and 3 (7.0%) had dissociative amnesia. The average DES score of dissociative patients was 43.7. A majority of them had comorbid major depression, somatization disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Most of the patients with dissociative disorder reported auditory hallucinations, symptoms associated with psychogenic amnesia, flashback experiences, and childhood abuse and/or neglect. Dissociative disorders constitute one of the diagnostic groups with high relevance in emergency psychiatry.

  11. A-MUPS score to differentiate patients with somatic symptom disorder from those with medical disease for complaints of non-acute pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shingo Suzuki, Yoshiyuki Ohira, Kazutaka Noda, Masatomi Ikusaka Department of General Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan Purpose: To develop a clinical score to discriminate patients with somatic symptom disorder (SSD from those with medical disease (MD for complaints of non-acute pain.Methods: We retrospectively examined the clinical records of consecutive patients with pain for a duration of ≥1 month in our department from April 2003 to March 2015. We divided the subjects according to the diagnoses of definite SSD (as diagnosed and tracked by psychiatrists in our hospital, probable SSD (without evaluation by psychiatrists in our hospital, matched MD (randomly matched two patients by age, sex, and pain location for each definite SSD patient, unmatched MD, other mental disease, or functional somatic syndrome (FSS. We investigated eight clinical factors for definite SSD and matched MD, and developed a diagnostic score to ­identify SSD. We subsequently validated the model with cases of probable SSD and unmatched MD.Results: The number of patients with definite SSD, probable SSD, matched MD, unmatched MD, other mental disease, and FSS was 104 (3.5%, 214 (7.3%, 197 (6.7%, 742 (25%, 708 (24%, and 978 (33%, respectively. In a conditional logistic regression analysis, the following five factors were included as independent predictors of SSD: Analgesics ineffective, Mental disorder history, Unclear provocative/palliative factors, Persistence without cessation, and Stress feelings/episodes (A-MUPS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of the model was 0.900 (95% CI: 0.864–0.937, p<0.001, and the McFadden’s pseudo-R-squared was 0.709. For internal validation, the AUC between probable SSD and unmatched MD was 0.930 (95% CI: 0.910–0.950, p<0.001. The prevalence and the likelihood ratio of SSD increased as the score increased.Conclusion: The A-MUPS score was useful for discriminating patients with SSD from

  12. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  13. Positive and negative symptom scores are correlated with activation in different brain regions during facial emotion perception in schizophrenia patients: a voxel-based sLORETA source activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Won; Kim, Han-Sung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating of all mental illnesses, and has dimensional characteristics that include both positive and negative symptoms. One problem reported in schizophrenia patients is that they tend to show deficits in face emotion processing, on which negative symptoms are thought to have stronger influence. In this study, four event-related potential (ERP) components (P100, N170, N250, and P300) and their source activities were analyzed using EEG data acquired from 23 schizophrenia patients while they were presented with facial emotion picture stimuli. Correlations between positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores and source activations during facial emotion processing were calculated to identify the brain areas affected by symptom scores. Our analysis demonstrates that PANSS positive scores are negatively correlated with major areas of the left temporal lobule for early ERP components (P100, N170) and with the right middle frontal lobule for a later component (N250), which indicates that positive symptoms affect both early face processing and facial emotion processing. On the other hand, PANSS negative scores are negatively correlated with several clustered regions, including the left fusiform gyrus (at P100), most of which are not overlapped with regions showing correlations with PANSS positive scores. Our results suggest that positive and negative symptoms affect independent brain regions during facial emotion processing, which may help to explain the heterogeneous characteristics of schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship of functional pruritus with anger and associated psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Kıvanç Altunay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Functional itch disorder is assessed among somatization disorders. Suppressed anger may play a role in the development of somatization and, thus, functional itch disorder. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship of severity of itching with anger, expression of anger and psychiatric disorders in patients with functional itch disorder. Materials and Methods: Forty patients who were diagnosed with functional itch disorder were enrolled into the study. Functional itch disorder was diagnosed according to the suggested diagnostic criteria from the French psychodermatology group. Pruritus severity was evaluated using the five-point Likert scale. The State-Trait Anger Expression Index was used to assess state anger, trait anger and anger expression and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I Plus 5.0.0 was used for determining psychiatric status. Results: A total of 40 patients (30 (75% females, 10 (25% males with a mean age 46.55±13.20 years were enrolled in the study. According to the results of the M.I.N.I., psychiatric comorbidities at the time of itching were existent in 29 (72.5% patients, whereas 13 (27.5% patients did not have any other psychiatric symptom. Pruritus duration was correlated with anger trait and anger-in subscale scores in all patients. (r=0.349, p=0.027, r=0.417, p=0.007, respectively. Trait anger and anger-out subscale scores were statistically higher in patients with psychiatric disorders (p<0.05. Anger control scores were also lower in this group. Pruritus duration was correlated with trait-anger and anger-in subscale scores in patients with psychiatric disorder. Conclusions: Functional pruritus (FP as a somatoform psychodermatologic disorder seems to be related with anger levels and anger management styles; and psychiatric disorders are frequently accompanied by functional pruritus

  15. [Cross-cultural validated adaptation of dysfunctional voiding symptom score (DVSS) to Japanese language and cognitive linguistics in questionnaire for pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Masaaki; Usui, Tomoko; Johnin, Kazuyoshi; Yoshimura, Koji; Farhat, Walid; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Validated questionnaire for evaluation of pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is of a great need. We performed cross-cultural validated adaptation of Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score (DVSS) to Japanese language, and assessed whether children understand and respond to questionnaire correctly, using cognitive linguistic approach. We translated DVSS into two Japanese versions according to a standard validation methodology: translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert review, and pre-testing. One version was written in adult language for parents, and the other was written in child language for children. Pre-testing was done with 5 to 15-year-old patients visiting us, having normal intelligence. A specialist in cognitive linguistics observed the response by children and parents to DVSS as an interviewer. When a child could not understand a question without adding or paraphrasing the question by the parents, it was defined as 'misidentification'. We performed pretesting with 2 trial versions of DVSS before having the final version. The pre-testing for the first trial version was done for 32 patients (male to female ratio was 19 : 13). The pre-testing for the second trial version was done for 11 patients (male to female ratio was 8 : 3). In DVSS in child language, misidentification was consistently observed for representation of time or frequency. We completed the formal validated translation by amending the problems raised in the pre-testing. The cross-cultural validated adaptation of DVSS to child and adult Japanese was completed. Since temporal perception is not fully developed in children, caution should be taken for using the terms related with time or frequency in the questionnaires for children.

  16. Pancreatic cancer and predictors of survival: comparing the CA 19-9/bilirubin ratio with the McGill Brisbane Symptom Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitra, Sinziana; Jamal, Mohammad H; Aboukhalil, Jad; Doi, Suhail A; Chaudhury, Prosanto; Hassanain, Mazen; Metrakos, Peter P; Barkun, Jeffrey S

    2013-12-01

    Few tools predict survival from pancreatic cancer (PAC). The McGill Brisbane Symptom Score (MBSS) based on symptoms at presentation (weight loss, pain, jaundice and smoking) was recently validated. The present study compares the ability of four strategies to predict 9-month survival: MBSS, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) alone, CA19-9-to-bilirubin ratio and a combination of MBSS and the CA19-9-to-bilirubin ratio. A retrospective review of 133 patients diagnosed with PAC between 2005 and 2011 was performed. Survival was determined from the Quebec civil registry. Blood CA 19-9 and bilirubin values were collected (n = 52) at the time of diagnosis. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine a cutoff for optimal test characteristics of CA 19-9 and CA19-9-to-total bilirubin ratio in predicting survival at 9 months. Predictive characteristics were then calculated for the four strategies. Of the four strategies, the one with the greatest negative predictive value was the MBSS: negative predictive value (NPV) was 90.2% (76.9-97.3%) and the positive likelihood ratio (LR) was the greatest. The ability of CA 19-9 levels alone, at baseline, to predict survival was low. For the CA19-9-to-bilirubin ratio, the test characteristics improved but remained non-significant. The best performing strategy according to likelihood ratios was the combined MBSS and CA19-9 to the bilirubin ratio. CA19-9 levels and the CA19-9-to-bilirubin ratio are poor predictors of survival for PAC, whereas the MBSS is a far better predictor, confirming its clinical value. By adding the CA19-9-to-bilirubin ratio to the MBSS the predictive characteristics improved. © 2013 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  17. Transsexual patients' psychiatric comorbidity and positive effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health: results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Todarello, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of psychiatric diseases/symptoms in transsexual patients and to compare psychiatric distress related to the hormonal intervention in a one year follow-up assessment. We investigated 118 patients before starting the hormonal therapy and after about 12 months. We used the SCID-I to determine major mental disorders and functional impairment. We used the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) for evaluating self-reported anxiety and depression. We used the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R) for assessing self-reported global psychological symptoms. Seventeen patients (14%) had a DSM-IV-TR axis I psychiatric comorbidity. At enrollment the mean SAS score was above the normal range. The mean SDS and SCL-90-R scores were on the normal range except for SCL-90-R anxiety subscale. When treated, patients reported lower SAS, SDS and SCL-90-R scores, with statistically significant differences. Psychiatric distress and functional impairment were present in a significantly higher percentage of patients before starting the hormonal treatment than after 12 months (50% vs. 17% for anxiety; 42% vs. 23% for depression; 24% vs. 11% for psychological symptoms; 23% vs. 10% for functional impairment). The results revealed that the majority of transsexual patients have no psychiatric comorbidity, suggesting that transsexualism is not necessarily associated with severe comorbid psychiatric findings. The condition, however, seemed to be associated with subthreshold anxiety/depression, psychological symptoms and functional impairment. Moreover, treated patients reported less psychiatric distress. Therefore, hormonal treatment seemed to have a positive effect on transsexual patients' mental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  19. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease versus anti-LGI1 limbic encephalitis in a patient with progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, involuntary facio-brachio-crural movement, and an abnormal electroencephalogram: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Li Sun, Jie Cao, Chang Liu, Yudan LvDepartment of Neurology, The First Hospital of JiLin University, ChangChun, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is often challenging in elderly individuals, not only because of its variable clinical features but also because of nonspecific changes on the electroencephalogram (EEG in the early stages of the disease. Here we report on a patient who presented with progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, involuntary facio-brachio-crural movement, and an abnormal EEG. We provide a detailed analysis and differential diagnosis between anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1 limbic encephalitis versus CJD, in the hope of providing a new understanding of CJD. A 65-year-old Chinese man presented with slowly progressive cognitive decline with psychiatric symptoms. On admission, he presented with facial grimacing and brief left upper limb dystonic posturing lasting 1–2 seconds, with hyponatremia that was difficult to rectify. Neurological examination showed increased muscle tension in the left limb but without pathological reflexes. His early EEG showed focal periodic wave complexes. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a suspected “lace sign” in the occipital cortex. His cerebrospinal fluid was negative for LGI1 antibodies and positive for 14-3-3 brain protein. Therefore, we made a presumptive diagnosis of CJD. At the following visit, a second EEG showed paroxysmal sharp wave complexes, but the patient had a poor prognosis. Atypical facio-brachio-crural movement and nonspecific EEG changes may occasionally be found in patients with CJD or anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Clinicians should not be dissuaded from a diagnosis of CJD where the EEG does not show paroxysmal sharp wave complexes in the early stages but abnormal facio-brachio-crural movement is present.Keywords: abnormal facio-brachio-crural movement, hyponatremia, Creutzfeldt

  20. Is diltiazem effective in treating the symptoms of (tardive) dyskinesia in chronic psychiatric inpatients? A negative, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Verwey, H.A.; Roels, P.R.; Van Bavel, L.P.; Doorschot, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers, antiarrhythmic drugs, such as verapamil and diltiazem, may decrease the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. The efficacy and safety of administering 60 mg diltiazem hydrochloride, four times daily for a period of 3 weeks, was studied in a random, double-blind, crossover trial

  1. Predictors of psychiatric readmissions to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identification of early symptoms of relapse, application of immediate and appropriate measures, and adequate record-keeping by health institutions are ... hospitalization, resulting from the policy of de-institutionalization in. Nigeria has led to ..... adolescent psychiatric care Aust N Z ] Psychiatry 2005; 39: 600-606. 3. vaett C.

  2. Personality disorder features as predictors of symptoms five years post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Personality disorders are associated with dysfunction in a variety of areas. Recent longitudinal research has shown that personality disorders are also predictive of problems later in life, as well as of poor response to treatment of depression and anxiety. This study assessed whether personality disorder features were associated with psychiatric symptoms in a cohort of women treated for substance abuse in Sweden. Patients were diagnosed with personality disorders using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) personality questionnaire and SCID-II interview, and were then administered a self-report questionnaire designed to measure symptoms of psychiatric illness, the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90), during and five years after treatment. Concurrently, features of all personality disorders, except histrionic, were associated with SCL-90 score. At five-year follow-up, most personality disorders remained associated with SCL-90 score, with the exception of paranoid and schizoid personality disorder. After controlling for baseline score on the SCL-90, conduct disorder, borderline personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder remained significantly associated with symptoms at follow-up. After controlling for abstinence and baseline score, only borderline personality disorder features remained associated with SCL-90 score at follow-up. Patients with personality disorders should be monitored after treatment for psychiatric symptoms.

  3. Psychiatric comorbidities in women with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Anskis, Alicia M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2012-03-01

    Although the physical consequences of Celiac Disease are well studied, less is known about co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. This study examines psychiatric risk and comorbidities of women with Celiac Disease, who may be at increased risk for psychiatric symptoms (e.g. depression, and disordered eating behaviours). Women (N = 177) with Celiac Disease responded to an extensive web-mediated survey assessing dietary compliance, illness symptoms, psychiatric functioning, and disordered eating. Despite high reported dietary compliance, patients reported marked illness symptoms and impaired quality of life. A substantial minority endorsed symptoms that met criteria for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: 37% (n = 65) met the threshold suggesting depression, and 22% (n = 39) for disordered eating. Participants whose symptoms exceeded these clinical thresholds reported greater perceived stress and reduced overall mental health, relative to women below the clinical cutoffs. Despite largely adhering to a gluten-free diet, a substantial subset of women with Celiac Disease report clinically relevant symptoms of depression and disordered eating; such symptoms are associated with increased psychosocial distress in other domains. These results suggest potential to improve the patient well-being through attention to psychosocial care, in addition to existing dietary recommendations for individuals with Celiac Disease.

  4. Puerperal Psychiatric Disorders: A 6 - Year Retrospective Review at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: About 1.7% of new cases seen during the period had a post partum psychiatric disorder. Depression (50%) was the commonest type of post-partum psychiatric illness, followed by mania (21.3%), bipolar affective disorder (12.5%) and schizophrenia (10.3%). Most had onset of psychiatric symptoms less than 4 ...

  5. Psychiatric disorders in a cohort of individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki-Tal, L; Avrahamy, H; Pollak, Y; Gross-Tsur, V; Genstil, L; Hirsch, H J; Benarroch, F

    2017-07-01

    Psychiatric manifestations in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are common and often are the most debilitating problem in these individuals. We present an epidemiological nation-wide survey of psychiatric diagnoses in the PWS population, based on full-range psychiatric interviews. We studied the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses (as opposed to a symptom-based approach) in the Israel national cohort of adolescents and adults with PWS. There was a total of 53 (32 males) ages 12 years and older. All individuals and their caretakers were interviewed using standardized psychiatric questionnaires. Demographic and clinical variables, Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score, IQ, severity of hyperphagia and quality of life (QOL) were also assessed and correlations with NPD (number of psychiatric diagnoses) calculated. An overwhelming majority (89%) of the study participants had at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The most common were disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (68%), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (45%) and skin picking (35%). Individuals with DBD were at increased risk for OCD and skin picking. Psychotic disorders were found in 11%. NPD had a significant negative influence on QOL. There was no correlation between NPD and BMI, IQ, hyperphagia severity, hormonal profile or genetic subtypes. Psychiatric diagnoses are very frequent in PWS and strongly influence QOL. Furthermore, characterizing the profile of psychiatric comorbidity in PWS is crucial for planning effective interventions. Precise behavioral phenotyping in PWS in combination with a well-defined genetic etiology may aid biological research linking biological correlates to behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychiatric conditions associated with bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, Kirsti

    2008-01-01

    Bullying is a complex phenomenon moderated not only by the personal characteristics and behavioral traits of the individual but also by family rearing practices, as well as by situational factors such as the frequency and type of bullying. The phenomenon is also affected by group processes among the individuals present during the event. Bullying is a distressing experience that is often continuous over years and predicts both concurrent and future psychiatric symptoms and disorders, even in adulthood. At young ages, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and depression, as well as anxiety, are prevalent concurrently with bullying among the children involved. Later in young adulthood, male victims are at risk for anxiety, male bullies for personality disorders, and male bully-victims for both personality disorders and anxiety, and the risk is especially increased if the child is disturbed when involved in bullying at school age. Rarely does any single behavior predict future problems as clearly as bullying does, and additional assessment of psychiatric problems is always warranted, if the child is involved in bullying as a bully, victim or bully-victim. Based on our current knowledge, school-based interventions regulating the behavior of the child, increasing pro-social skills and promoting peer relationships are recommended for those without concurrent psychiatric disturbance, but those displaying psychiatric symptoms and disorders should be referred for psychiatric consultation and intervention.

  7. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A CHILDREN'S HOME1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P. K.; Agarwal, A. K; Gupta, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Sixty-two inmates of a children's home were examined by using a symptom check list and Hindi adaptation of Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale—Form LM (1960). A high proportion (69.4%) of the inmates had one or other psychiatric problem. Mild mental retardation (I. Q. 50—70) was most common (40.3%), 11.3% were diagnosed as having unsocialized disturbance of conduct. Four most common psychiatric symptoms were stealing, quarrelsome behaviour, destructive behaviour and bed wetting. No significant correlation was found between psychiatric illnesses and present age, duration of stay and age at entry into the home. PMID:22058478

  8. Personality disorder features as predictors of symptoms 5 years post-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Personality disorders are associated with dysfunction in a variety of areas. Recent longitudinal research has shown that personality disorders are also predictive of problems later in life, as well as of poor response to treatment of depression and anxiety. This study assessed whether personality...... a self-report questionnaire designed to measure symptoms of psychiatric illness, the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90), during and five years after treatment. Concurrently, features of all personality disorders, except histrionic, were associated with SCL-90 score. At five-year follow-up, most personality...... at follow-up. After controlling for abstinence and baseline score, only borderline personality disorder features remained associated with SCL-90 score at follow-up. Patients with personality disorders should be monitored after treatment for psychiatric symptoms....

  9. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer G; Gitlin, Michael J; Altshuler, Lori L

    2013-07-01

    Owing to the prevalence of medication side effects and treatment resistance, prescribers often consider off-label uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for the treatment of persistent symptoms. The authors review the available literature on the FDA-approved and non-FDA-approved uses of lamotrigine in adults with psychiatric disorders. We used PubMed, MEDLINE, and a hand search of relevant literature to find studies published between 1990 and 2012 and available in English language. The following keywords were searched: lamotrigine, psychiatric, mood disorders, depression, personality disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, side effects, and rash. Data were selected from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When RCTs were not available, open-label trials (6), retrospective case reviews (10), and case series (4) were summarized. We extracted results of monotherapy and augmentation trials of lamotrigine on primary and secondary outcome measures. Lamotrigine is generally well tolerated, with the best evidence for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, particularly in prevention of depressive episodes. In acute bipolar depression, meta-analyses suggested a modest benefit, especially for more severely depressed subjects, with switch rates similar to placebo. In unipolar depression, double-blind RCTs noted benefit on subsets of symptoms and improved response in more severely depressed subjects. Data are limited but promising in borderline personality disorder. Use of lamotrigine in schizophrenia and anxiety disorders has little supportive evidence. Lamotrigine is recommended in bipolar maintenance when depression is prominent. It also has a role in treating acute bipolar depression and unipolar depression, though the latter warrants more research. Data are too limited in other psychiatric disorders to recommend its use at this time. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Study of psychiatric disorders among fertile and infertile women and some predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Noorbala

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence and predisposing factors of psychiatric disorders among infertile in comparison to fertile women. Materials and Methods:  By a descriptive- analytic study in Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center, 300 women entered the research.   Symptom Checklist -90 -Revised (SCL-90-R test and structured researcher questionnaires were applied for all patients. Demographic characteristics and predisposing psychological and personality factors were recorded and psychological symptoms were scaled. For data analysis, SPSS-11-5 software system, chi-square and T-test were used.  P-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Results showed that 44% of infertile and 28.7% of fertile women had psychiatric disorders. Using SCL-90-R test, the highest mean scores among infertile women were found for paranoid ideation, depression and interpersonal sensitivity scales and the lowest scores were related to psychoticism and phobic anxiety scales. Interpersonal sensitivity, depression, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideas and psychoticism scales were significantly different between infertile and fertile women (p<0.05. Housewives were at a statistically significant higher risk for psychiatric disorders as compared to working women (p<0.001. Conclusion: The significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders among infertile women mandates a more serious attention from gynecologists, psychiatrists and psychologists regarding to diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  11. “Always Look on the Bright Side of Life!” – Higher Hypomania Scores Are Associated with Higher Mental Toughness, Increased Physical Activity, and Lower Symptoms of Depression and Lower Sleep Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jahangard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, we explored the associations between hypomania, symptoms of depression, sleep complaints, physical activity and mental toughness. The latter construct has gained interest for its association with a broad variety of favorable behavior in both clinical and non-clinical samples.Subjects and Methods: The non-clinical sample consisted of 206 young adults (M = 21.3 years; age range: 18–24 years; 57.3% males. They completed questionnaires covering hypomania, mental toughness, symptoms of depression, physical activity, and sleep quality.Results: Higher hypomania scores were associated with higher mental toughness, increased physical activity, lower symptoms of depression and lower sleep complaints. No gender differences were observed. Higher hypomania scores were predicted by higher scores of mental toughness subscales of control and challenge, and physical activity.Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that among a non-clinical sample of young adults, self-rated hypomania scores were associated with higher scores on mental toughness and physical activity, along with lower depression and sleep complaints. The pattern of results further suggests that hypomania traits are associated with a broad range of favorable psychological, behavioral and sleep-related traits, at least among a non-clinical sample of young adults.

  12. Clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity of epicrania fugax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rammohan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epicrania fugax (EF is a rare newly described primary headache characterized by paroxysms of unilateral pain radiating across one hemicranium. Aim: We aimed to describe 10 new cases of EF and assess the psychiatric comorbidity. Materials and Methods: Cases of EF were identified from patients attending the neurology outpatient department of a tertiary level referral and teaching hospital by the first author during a period extending from January 1, 2015 to April 31, 2017. Case ascertainment was done as per ICHD 3 beta criteria from among patients presenting with complaints of headache after detailed history and clinical examination. Clinical and demographic features were noted and patients were subjected to Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview to screen for psychiatric comorbidity followed by Becks Anxiety/Depression Inventory. Results: A total of 10 subjects were obtained during the study period, 4 males, and 6 females. Mean age of subjects was 45.3 years (standard deviation-10. Seventy percent had anteroposterior, and 30% had posteroanterior radiation of pain. The most common character of pain was stabbing (50% followed by electrical (40% and pressing (10%. None of the subjects had autonomic symptoms or focal symptoms in the scalp while 30% subjects had hyperesthesia in the affected area of the scalp.Six subjects (60% patients had episodic course while 40% had chronic course. Sixty percent had comorbid anxiety while one (10% had comorbid depression. A significant relation was obtained between duration of disease and occurrence of anxiety as well as Becks Anxiety Inventory scores while there was no correlation with attack duration. There was also a nonsignificant correlation between visual analog score and occurrence of anxiety symptoms. Conclusions: Our study conclusively proves the existence of EF as a rare, distinct primary headache syndrome in our study population. It has a significant psychiatric comorbidity consisting of 60% of

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric comorbidity following the 2010 flood in Pakistan: exposure characteristics, cognitive distortions, and emotional suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Jalal, Sabeena; Khan, Najib Ullah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric comorbidity among the 2010 flood victims in Pakistan and its relationship with disaster exposure characteristics, cognitive distortions, and emotional suppression. One hundred and thirty-one (F = 89, M = 42) flood victims were assessed using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Cognitive Distortion Scales, and the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale. The results showed that all victims met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD and scored above the cut-off for psychiatric caseness. Partial least squares modelling showed that disaster exposure characteristics were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric comorbidity. Disaster exposure characteristics were also significantly associated with cognitive distortions which in turn were also significantly associated with PTSD and psychiatric comorbidity. Cognitive distortions were also correlated with emotional suppression which, however, was not associated with PTSD or psychiatric comorbidity. To conclude, the flood victims reported PTSD and psychiatric comorbid symptoms which were related to their subjective exposure to the flood. Such exposure led to the development of dysfunctional thinking patterns which in turn influenced distress symptoms.

  14. Identification of clinically significant psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity by examining quality of life in subjects with occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzo Heberto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Juniper Asthma Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S is a questionnaire that allows measurement of disease specific quality of life. We wanted to examine correlations between the (AQLQ(S general and different subscale scores and both psychiatric morbidity and levels of psychological distress in individuals with occupational asthma (OA and to determine if results in the emotional function subscale allow identification of individuals with clinically significant psychological distress or current psychiatric disorders. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of individuals with OA who were assessed during a re-evaluation for permanent disability, after they were no longer exposed to the sensitizing agent. Patients underwent a general sociodemographic and medical history evaluation, a brief psychiatric interview (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, PRIME-MD and completed a battery of questionnaires including the AQLQ(S, the St-Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, and the Psychiatric Symptom Index (PSI. Results There was good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.936 for the AQLQ(S total score and construct validity for the AQLQ(S (Spearman rho = -0.693 for the SGRQ symptom score and rho = -0.650 for the asthma severity score. There were medium to large correlations between the total score of the AQLQ(S and the SGRQ symptom score (r = -.693, and PSI total (r = -.619 and subscale scores (including depression, r = -.419; anxiety, r = -.664; anger, r = -.367; cognitive disturbances, r = -.419. A cut-off of 5.1 on the AQLQ(S emotional function subscale (where 0 = high impairment and 7 = no impairment had the best discriminative value to distinguish individuals with or without clinically significant psychiatric distress according to the PSI, and a cut-off of 4.7 best distinguished individuals with or without a current psychiatric disorder according to the PRIME-MD. Conclusions Impaired quality of life is

  15. Modafinil improves antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism but not excessive daytime sleepiness, psychiatric symptoms or cognition in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, James B; Liu, Lianqi; Caligiuri, Michael P; Kash, Taylor P; May, Todd A; Murphy, Jody Delapena; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    To examine the efficacy and safety of modafinil on parkinsonism and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), as well as on negative symptoms and cognitive abilities in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV criteria) in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 8-week study. Twenty-four male patients, who were aged 20-63 years and on stable dose of second generation antipsychotic medications and with a negative symptom score of ≥ 20 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), were randomized into either the modafinil (n=12) or placebo (n=12) group. The modafinil group received flexible does of modafinil 50-200mg/day. Primary measurements were the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) for extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the PANSS and a neuropsychological (NP) test battery. Data were collected on Days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 for rating scales, and on Days 0, 28 and 56 for NP tests. Mixed model analyses showed a significant group-x-time interaction for total SAS scores (Pmodafinil group but remaining the same in the placebo group. There were no significant group-x-time interactions for scores of ESS (total), PANSS (total, positive and negative), and NP tests (composite and domains) (all P's>0.5). No significant adverse events were observed. The data suggest that modafinil was a safe adjunctive treatment which improved parkinsonian symptoms and signs in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Further studies in larger samples and with longer study time are needed to test/confirm the beneficial effects of modafinil on motor function. © 2013.

  16. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. METHOD: A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were......, learning disorder and conduct disorder (POCD and tic severity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning...... assessed around 18 years of age regarding psychosocial functioning and lifetime psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Compared with controls, individuals with Tourette syndrome had substantially lower CGAS scores (P = 10(-8)) and higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression...

  17. Autism spectrum disorder scale scores in pediatric mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S; Guyer, Amanda E; Goldwin, Michelle; Towbin, Kenneth A; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-06-01

    To compare scores on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom scales in healthy youths and youths with mood or anxiety disorders. A total of 352 youths were recruited (107 healthy participants, 88 with an anxiety disorder, 32 with major depressive disorder, 62 with bipolar disorder, and 63 with a mood disorder characterized by severe nonepisodic irritability). Participants received structured psychiatric interviews and parent ratings on at least one of three ASD symptom scales: Children's Communication Checklist, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Social Responsiveness Scale. Relative to healthy youths, youths with mood or anxiety disorders exhibited higher scores on each ASD symptom scale. ASD symptom scale scores also showed an association with impairment severity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Among patients with mood disorders but not those with anxiety disorders, consistent, statistically significant associations between diagnosis and ASD symptom scale scores remained even after controlling for potential confounders. Patients with mood disorders exhibit higher scores on ASD symptom scales than healthy youths or youths with anxiety disorders. These data should alert clinicians to the importance of assessing ASD symptoms to identify social reciprocity and communication deficits as possible treatment targets in pediatric mood and anxiety disorders.

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in Pre-School Children with Autism: Implications for Diagnostic Classification and Symptom Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soke, Gnakub Norbert; Philofsky, Amy; Diguiseppi, Carolyn; Lezotte, Dennis; Rogers, Sally; Hepburn, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively examined mean changes in Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Total and Domains scores and stability of the ADI-R diagnostic classification in 28 children with autism initially assessed at age 2-4 years and reassessed 2 years later. Mean Total, Social Interaction, and Communication scores decreased significantly from Time 1…

  19. Effect of Song Writing versus Recreational Music on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and Abuse Attribution in Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to develop a song-writing technique to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in abused children from 9 to 17 years old, all patients of an inpatient psychiatric child/adolescent unit who had been physically and/or sexually abused. Finds no significant change in overall scores due to treatment condition. (SR)

  20. Influence of photoperiod duration and phloem disruption through scoring on growth, disease symptoms and bacterial titer in citrus graft-inoculated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants inoculated with the huanglongbing (HLB)-associated bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) are typically monitored for 8-10 months to identify differences in susceptibility between genotypes. A previous report indicated that continuous light accelerated development of HLB symptoms...

  1. The Utility of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Differential Diagnosis of Cognitive Disorders in Iranian Psychiatric Patients and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Hashemi, MA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Wisconsin Test Card Sorting Test (WCST is a neuropsychological test that has been suggested as a more specific test for frontal lobes dysfunctions. This study was designed to determine whether WCST is able to differentiate between Iranian psychiatric patients with cognitive disorders and normal subjects, and whether WCST scores are related to severity of symptoms in depressive and schizophrenic patients.Method: Participants were four groups: schizophrenics with positive symptoms (n=25; schizophrenics with negative symptoms (n=25; major depressives (n=25; and normal subjects (n=25. All subjects were tested individually using WCST. To analyze the data, various descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and multiple regression analysis were used.Results: Regarding the number of categories (P<0.001 and the rate of perseverative errors (P<0.01, according to the results, the normal subjects performed significantly better than patient groups on WCST, although the differences between patient groups were not significant. Our results also showed that greater positive or depressive symptoms were not associated with poorer scores on WCST performance. Only the level of severity of negative symptoms predicted scores on perseverative errors.Conclusion: It is concluded that WCST can differentiate Iranian psychiatric patients with cognitive disorders from normal subjects, but it is not able to clearly differentiate schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms from those with positive symptoms and depressives. Only severity of negative symptoms affects WCST performance

  2. Parricide: Psychiatric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunjić Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Parricide is defined as a murder of parents by their children; the patricide is murder of father, while matricide is murder of mother. This entity is classified as homicide, but it differs in the fact that victims are parents and the killers are their children. Mostly, it is associated with psychiatric morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of parricide committers and to analyze circumstances of parricide and psychiatric morbidity in order to achieve better recognition and prevention of risks. METHOD This retrospective study included all homicide autopsy records (1991-2005 performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Belgrade. For further analyses, all parricide records were selected out. The study analyzed all available parameters, which concerned parricide committers, victims and the act itself. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS Between 1991 and 2005, there were 948 cases of homicide; of these, 3.5% were parricides. The committers of parricide were on average 31.2±11.9 years old, 87.8% were males, 60.6% with psychiatric symptoms most commonly with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, personality disorder etc. Victims were on average 63.7±11.9 years old, 54.5% males, and 21.2% had a diagnosed mental illness. CONCLUSION Parricide is a rare kind of homicide accounting for 3% of all homicides. Committers are mostly unemployed males in early adulthood who have mental disorder. The phenomenon of parricide deserves a detailed analysis of the committer (individual bio-psycho-social profile and the environ- mental factors (family, closely related circumstances to enable a precise prediction of the act and prevention of the fatal outcome, which logically imposes the need of further studies.

  3. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with Atypical Odontalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Anna; Tu, Trang T H; Shinohara, Yukiko; Mikuzuki, Lou; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Sugawara, Shiori; Suga, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Watanabe, Motoko; Umezaki, Yojiro; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Motomura, Haruhiko; Takenoshita, Miho; Maeda, Hidefumi; Toyofuku, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Atypical Odontalgia (AO) is a condition characterized by tooth pain with no apparent cause. Although psychiatric comorbidity seems to be very common, it has rarely been studied. To clarify the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on the clinical features in patients with AO, we retrospectively evaluated their examination records. Clinical features and psychiatric diagnoses of 383 patients with AO were investigated by reviewing patients' medical records and referral letters. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We also analyzed visual analogue scale (VAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), and the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ) scores. Of the 383 patients with AO, 177 (46.2%) had comorbid psychiatric disorders. The most common were depressive disorders (15.4%) and anxiety disorders (10.1%). Serious psychotic disorders such as bipolar disorder (3.0%) and schizophrenia (1.8%) were rare. Dental trigger of AO was reported in 217 (56.7%) patients. There were no significant correlations between psychiatric comorbidities and most of the demographic features. Higher VAS and SDS scores, higher frequency of sleep disturbance, and higher ratings of "Fearful" and "Punishing-cruel" descriptors of the SF-MPQ were found in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. About half of AO patients had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Dental procedures are not necessarily causative factors of AO. In AO patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, pain might have a larger emotional component than a sensory one. VAS, SDS, and SF-MPQ scores might aid in the noticing of underlying comorbid psychiatric disorders in AO patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Eating-related Psychopathology and Food Addiction in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Özgür; Föcker, Manuel; Kliewer, Josephine; Esber, Simon; Peters, Triinu; de Zwaan, Martina; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2017-05-01

    Our aims were to investigate the relationship between food addiction and mental disorders including eating disorders (ED), eating-related psychopathology and body mass index-standard deviation score in a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Food addiction was assessed with the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). Eating-related psychopathology was measured with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The sample consisted of n = 242 adolescent psychiatric inpatients, of which n = 37 (15.3%) met criteria for an ED. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between YFAS symptom count, TFEQ scales and ED controlling for age and gender. Food addiction frequency was 16.5%, and the mean YFAS symptom count was 2.39 (SD: 1.60). In patients with food addiction, TFEQ scale scores were significantly higher than patients without food addiction. Frequency of ED was 42.9% in patients with and 9.9% in patients without food addiction. The TFEQ subscales disinhibition and hunger as well as diagnosis of ED were associated with YFAS symptom count. Food addiction in adolescent psychiatric inpatients occurs with rates higher than those seen in community samples of children, adolescents and adults. Food addiction might be associated with eating styles related to susceptibility to hunger and feelings of loss of control. The implications of high-YFAS scores in restricting-type anorexia nervosa warrant further investigations to explore which and how the respective items are interpreted in this ED subgroup. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Dissociative Experiences in Psychiatric Inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Firoozabadi; Nooshin Reza Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are conditions that involve disruptions of memory, awareness, identity, or perception. Data collected in diverse geographic locations underline the consistency in clinical symptoms of dissociative disorders. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, prevalence of dissociative experiences has been screened in hospitalized patients in psychiatric wards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. One hundred and sixty patients in two hospitals entered the study. Our...

  6. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    that are historically rooted in logical positivism and behaviorism. These theoretical approaches marked decisively the so-called "operational revolution in psychiatry" leading to the creation of DSM-III. This paper attempts to examine the theoretical assumptions that underlie the use of a fully structured psychiatric...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...... faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully...

  7. Gender differences in somatic symptoms, quality of life, and functional impairment in depressive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sreevani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Investigate gender related differences in somatic symptoms, severity of depression, quality of life (QOL, and functional impairment, and correlate somatic symptoms with QOL and functional impairment. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 100 consecutive outpatients seeking treatment for depressive disorder at district hospital psychiatric outpatient clinic, Kolar, Karnataka, India. This study utilised the Beck Depression Inventory II, Physical Distress Scale, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and World Health Organization QOL BREF instrument. Results: Mean constipation scores and back pain scores were higher in women compared to men. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female patients with regard to depression scores, total somatic symptom scores, QOL, and functional impairment scores. Somatic symptoms scores are positively correlated with depression scores and functional impairment scores, and negatively correlated with QOL scores. Conclusion: Women had higher constipation and back pain scores compared to men. If the symptoms of same disease differ between men and women, this has important implications for the history collection, diagnosis, and treatment process.

  8. Teaching safe sex practices to psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladyk, K

    1990-03-01

    An occupational therapist presented her 45-minute program called AIDS Education and Safe Sex 5 times to female mental patients in the locked ward of Cedarcrest Regional Hospital in Newington, Connecticut, to inform them about safe-sex practices and AIDS. She first administered a pretest then spoke briefly about AIDS and safe-sex practices. The lecture emphasized various important points such as no cure for AIDS exist, casual contact (e.g., kiss on the cheek, handshake) cannot transmit HIV, and effectiveness of using latex condoms. The occupational therapist spent much of her time addressing myths about AIDS and what safe-sex practices are. The patients discussed sexual abuse and dishonest partners. She administered a posttest which was the same as the pretest. Some sessions attracted more people than did other sessions. Test scores increased for every patient and for every session. They ranged from a 5% (68-73%) increase for the 3rd session to a 24% (67-91%) increase for the last session. She was not able to determine, however, whether the increased knowledge would translate into positive behavioral changes. Patients' psychiatric symptoms may have interfered with learning resulting in less than ideal improvements in knowledge. These symptoms were hypomanic behavior, restlessness, and distractibility. Perhaps other sessions with experiential techniques (e.g., putting condoms on dummies) would increase their understanding. This program helps fill the information gap not provided by the mass media which avoid mentioning safe-sex practices.

  9. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease (PD is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control, sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.

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