WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychiatric societies establish

  1. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...

  2. A narrative history of the International Society for Psychiatric Surgery: 1970-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsman, Nir; Meyerson, Björn A; Lozano, Andres M

    2012-01-01

    In order to reconcile the present resurgence of psychiatric neurosurgery with the not-too-distant historic transgressions in the field, one needs to examine the era of transition from crude art to regulated science. In large part, this transition took place in the 1970s with the continued development and widespread acceptance of stereotactic techniques in functional neurosurgery and several hard-fought ideological and academic victories by proponents of the much-maligned field. Established in 1970, the International Society for Psychiatric Surgery (ISPS) sought to gather like-minded surgeons, psychiatrists and other neuroscientists to counter the rising pressure from special interest groups, as well as some in the public and medical realm, who attempted to abolish all forms of surgical management of psychiatric disease. We reviewed the archives of the ISPS, including letters from its founding members and active participants, conference proceedings and minutes from organizational meetings, from throughout its existence from 1970 to 1983. The archives provide a unique insight into the organization and objectives of the society that kept psychiatric surgery alive in the face of persistent and staunch opposition. We also outline the lessons that current and future functional neurosurgeons can learn from the ISPS, whose key figures, structure and communication, in the non-electronic era, were instrumental for the survival of psychiatric surgery during that critical period. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Establishing psychiatric registrars' competence in psychotherapy: a portfolio based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, T; Ramlall, S

    2008-11-01

    During most of the latter part of the last century, South Africa has followed international trends in the training of psychiatrists. Training programmes have become increasingly focused on the neurobiological aspects of psychiatric disorders with less attention being paid to psychotherapy. This is consistent with developments in psychiatric research. In the clinical arena this manifests as a focus on pharmacological and medically based interventions and a resulting relative inattention to non-pharmacological interventions, most especially psychotherapy. In an effort to address this imbalance there has been an international initiative, over the past two decades, to establish an acceptable level of competence in psychotherapy in the training of psychiatrists. A South African programme is needed that can take account of international trends and adapt them for the local context. In order to produce a programme for establishing competence in psychotherapy for psychiatric registrars at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, the authors examine directives for the development of psychotherapy skills from international regulatory bodies for graduate medical training and their application. Defining and setting preliminary standards for competence is emphasized. A programme based on five core psychotherapy components using a portfolio based model to facilitate learning and assessment of competence in psychotherapy, is proposed.

  4. [Psychiatric establishments--an institutional defense system--II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, W

    1985-09-01

    As already described in Part I, the rigid structures of treatment in psychiatric hospitals were largely abandoned in the course of a sociopsychiatric experiment. This released initially both in the patients and in the psychiatric ward personnel (physicians and nurses) of the new hospital organization trends towards a common and highly pathological groups process aiming at reshaping or recreating the entire institution. This could be partly interpreted as a replay of a schizophrenic family conflict and induced subconsciously motivated tensions with the parent institution. In order to escape the ensuing tangle which became eventually intolerable for the medical personnel, structures were then introduced which could be interpreted as a compromise between protective bureaucratisation on the one hand and institutional psychotherapy on the other. This compromise resulted from a conflict within the medical personnel team. The trend towards protective bureaucracy experienced by many individuals of the medical personnel was so pronounced as a result of the counter reactions-transference that the structures of the new hospital organization would have largely fallen in line of those of the parent institution if the group of psychotherapists had not been as strong as it proved to be. This led us to believe that psychiatric hospitals in their capacity as institutions are almost exclusively in the service of defence mechanisms against psychotic entanglement or involvement tendencies and that they are thus more or less petrified products of institutionalised defence that, however, no longer obviously display the repulsed elements or the functions of repulsion and defence.

  5. [Brief report about the establishment and activity in the first years of the Cracow Gynecological Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Wojciech Piotr

    2003-09-01

    The Cracow Gynaecological Society is the oldest functioning society in Poland. It was established in 1889. The paper introduces the circumstances related to the foundation of the society including a number of new yet unknown facts.

  6. Establishment of the Asia Oncology Nursing Society (AONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Onishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, whenever an informal group of Asian oncology nurses gathered, they talked about their mutual desire to create an organization closer to their homes that would be similar to the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS. They saw this as a means for more of their colleagues to learn about the latest in cancer nursing and to have a time and place to network among themselves. This message continued to gain strength whenever these nurses met at other international meetings such as the International Conference on Cancer Nursing (ICCN, the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC and the Oncology Nursing Society in US. A definite and planned step toward forming an Asian organization as the first meeting was taken on June 24 2011 when several Asian nurses were attending a MASCC meeting in Greece. The second meeting was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in conjunction with the 17 th ICCN meeting on September 10 2012, where the participants of the meeting included 21 oncology nurses from Asian countries. Finally, the first official meeting of the board directors from nine countries was held on November 21 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. Now, and in the future, sharing and collaborating in the practice, education and research for oncology nursing in Asia is needed.

  7. Establishment of the Asia Oncology Nursing Society (AONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Onishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, whenever an informal group of Asian oncology nurses gathered, they talked about their mutual desire to create an organization closer to their homes that would be similar to the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS. They saw this as a means for more of their colleagues to learn about the latest in cancer nursing and to have a time and place to network among themselves. This message continued to gain strength whenever these nurses met at other international meetings such as the International Conference on Cancer Nursing (ICCN, the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC and the Oncology Nursing Society in US. A definite and planned step toward forming an Asian organization as the first meeting was taken on June 24 2011 when several Asian nurses were attending a MASCC meeting in Greece. The second meeting was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in conjunction with the 17 th ICCN meeting on September 10 2012, where the participants of the meeting included 21 oncology nurses from Asian countries. Finally, the first official meeting of the board directors from nine countries was held on November 21 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. Now, and in the future, sharing and collaborating in the practice, education and research for oncology nursing in Asia is needed.

  8. Religion in Military Society: Reconciling Establishment and Free Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    pastoral care and counseling to a staff of 400 and a student population of 24,000 while advising Expeditionary Center leaders on matters of religious... pastoral care , counseling, worship, rites, and sacraments to joint base personnel and their families. He is a credentialed pastoral counselor with over...established from the bottom up. For example, a Christian community will tend toward Christian standards; a Jewish commu- nity, Jewish standards; a

  9. [Delusions and society in Japan and China from a transcultural-psychiatric viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, H; Pei, Z Z; Kizaki, Y; Zheng-Ji, C

    1987-11-01

    The relationship between contents of schizophrenic delusions and sociocultural background in the modern society of Japan and China were studied from transcultural psychiatric aspects. The data of this study were derived from the public mental hospitals in Tokyo and Shanghai in a similar size; of 186 cases (88 cases of male, 98 cases of female) of the first admission in Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital during 1981-1983, 112 cases with delusions (53 cases of male, 59 cases of female) were selected, and of 200 cases (112 cases of male, 88 cases of female) of the first admission in Shanghai Psychiatric Hospital in 1983, 129 cases with delusions (70 cases of male, 59 cases of female) were chosen. The incidence of delusions of physical persecution and grandeur was relatively high in patients of both hospitals in Tokyo and Shanghai, while the incidence of delusions with hypochondria and guilt was low in both hospitals. Only the incidence of delusion of poisoning was significantly higher in Shanghai than in Tokyo (mean 2 = 12.97, p less than 0.001). After the World War II, the patriarchally oriented family system was abolished in Japan which caused shifting the system from a large family to a nuclear family. In China where the property (land) and daily life were closely connected the close human relationship among generations had important values in relation to the labor power within the frame of a large family. It is believed that occurrence of the delusion of poisoning might be a reflection of the disturbed human relationship within the family member in dining which should be helpful for making further understanding and reliance. It's occurrence conflict and struggle in the community of the outside of the family. At present there is a marked difference between Chinese and Japanese in their structure of consciousness. The former places high value and meaningfulness on the participation to the group and seeks protection and safety of individuals. The latter reveals a

  10. Establishment and activity of medical societies in Lower Styria - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivec, Gregor; Borko, Elko; Turk, Zmago

    2014-01-01

    In the 1860s, the medical societies in Habsburg Monarchy, undertook a part of the medical postgraduate training. Doctors and wound surgeons from Ljubljana established medical association in October 1861 («Ärztlicher Leseverein in Laibach»). At a meeting in October 1862 they decided to include all the doctors and wound surgeons from the Carniola region. Following the organization was renamed Medical Association in Carniola («Verein der Ärzte in Krain»). A similar provincial association was founded by the Styrian doctors in Graz as early as in May 1862 («Verein der Ärzte in Steiermark»). Similar medical associations were also established in the Lower Styria in the 1870s. The most important medical association was established in Maribor in 1876. Another medical association was established in Celje in 1877 and one in the Ptuj-Ljutomer region in 1877. As the associations were mostly communicating in German, this might have been the reason for the establishment of the Slovene medical society in Celje in 1906. The Slovenian national consciousness began to strengthen across the territory of today's Slovenia. Already after the First World War in 1918, they managed to achieve the establishment of the Slovene Medical Society. Due to the events during the Second World War, a uniform Slovene medical association was established in 1947.

  11. Development of teaching materials and their application to establish a sustainable society in "manufacturing education" : Enabling students to assess and apply technology for society

    OpenAIRE

    嶋本, 雅宏; 川田, 和男; 長松, 正康; 濱賀, 哲洋

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the establishment of a sustainable society is included in the junior high school Course of Study that was promulgated in 2008. Since the earthquake in eastern Japan, we must examine the limited resources and energy to support the establishment of a sustainable society. In this situation, children responsible for the future must assess and apply technology for society. However, teaching materials about "measurement and control of the program" became compulsory in the new Course of ...

  12. [Suicide prevention activities of psychiatry-related professional societies: the promotion of suicide prevention in psychiatric care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kotaro; Kawanishi, Chiaki

    2014-01-01

    Suicide prevention is promoted nationally in Japan. In the General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy determined in 2007, the areas in which, psychiatry contributed were shown to be important, for example, psychiatric care, suicide, aftercare program for suicide attempters, mental health promotion, and actual elucidation of the cause of suicide. At a part of these national measures, guidelines on suicide attempters' care are devised by the Japanese Society for Emergency Medicine and the Japanese Association for Emergency Psychiatry, and a training workshop on caring for suicide attempters was held by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The Japanese society for Emergency Medicine devised an educational program of care for patients with mental health problems in emergency care in cooperation with the Japanese Association for Emergency Psychiatry and Japanese Society of General Hospital Psychiatry. On the other hand, suicide prevention and staff care at hospitals are important problems, and the Japan Council for Quality Health Care devised a program and conducted a training workshop. Also, the Japanese Association for Suicide Prevention conducted workshops for both the educational program of cognitive-behavioral therapy and facilitator training program for gatekeeper. The Japanese Society of Mood Disorders conducted a training workshop involving clinical high-risk case discussion. Also, the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology devised clinical guidelines for suicide prevention and distributed them to all society members. In this society, on-site discussion of the guidelines and the holding of workshops are expected in the future. It is hoped that these guidelines will be utilized and training workshops will be held in the future.

  13. Evaluation and proposal of novel resectability criteria for pancreatic cancer established by the Japan Pancreas Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Takami, Hideki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Iwata, Naoki; Kanda, Mitsuro; Tanaka, Chie; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Goro; Koike, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2017-10-01

    The guidelines for the classification of the resectability of pancreatic cancer established by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network can be difficult to utilize in clinical practice. We evaluated novel criteria proposed by the Japan Pancreas Society. We analyzed 382 patients with pancreatic cancer between 2001 and 2015 for survival differences among subgroups classified according to the Japan Pancreas Society classification. Overall survival and disease-free survival were expressed as median values and compared with data based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network classification, and differences in initial patterns of recurrence were analyzed. Overall survival times according to the Japan Pancreas Society criteria were 34.2, 29.7, 17.3, 14.3, and 15.8 months for the groups defined as resectable, resectable with portal vein invasion, borderline resectable with portal vein invasion, borderline resectable with arterial invasion, and unresectable by locally advanced disease respectively. The overall survival of the resectable group was better than those of the borderline resectable with portal vein invasion or borderline resectable with arterial invasion groups (P Cancer Network criteria were 30.5, 20.5, 15.8, and 13.8 months for the resectable, portal invasion, common hepatic artery and superior mesenteric artery invasion groups, respectively. Each survival curve was clearly separate. The borderline resectable with arterial invasion and unresectable by locally advanced groups exhibited high local recurrence rates (42.0% and 44.8%, respectively). The Japan Pancreas Society criteria, which are simpler, predicted survival differences between the resectable group and the other subgroups. Our data suggest that cancer patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (borderline resectable with portal vein invasion and borderline resectable with arterial invasion) can be managed as a single subset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Establishing the key unanswered research questions within gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Colin J; Ngu, Wee Sing; Regula, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rapidly evolving research field. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) plays a key role in shaping opinion and endoscopy activity throughout Europe and further afield. Establishing key unanswered questions within...... the field of endoscopy and prioritizing those that are important enables researchers and funders to appropriately allocate resources. Methods: Over 2 years, the ESGE Research Committee gathered information on research priorities and refined them through a modified Delphi approach. Consultations were held...... with the ESGE Governing Board and Quality Improvement Committee to identify important unanswered questions. Research workshops were held at the 21st United European Gastroenterology Week. Research questions were refined by the ESGE Research Committee and Governing Board, compiled into an online survey...

  15. Environmental dilemma game to establish a sustainable society dealing with an emergent value system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2005-01-01

    To induce whether we can obtain a sustainable society by shifting our paradigm from the materialistic to the eco-conscientious, we established a multi-agent simulation model. The model primarily featured a dilemma structure encouraged by a conflict between each agent's private desire to earn more and the need for environmental conservation. Another important feature is that the model has two evolutionary layers. The subordinate layer is a learning system comprised of a finite state machine (FSM) and a genetic algorithm (GA) primarily, which is carried with each individual agent to determine his/her next behavior and how much he/she must earn to maximize an individual fitness function. The supra layer is the so-called value system, the gene pool of which is shared within the society. The value system stipulates an agent's fitness function, which in turn affects the agent's behavior. The value system of each agent was set up to be entirely ego-oriented at the beginning of the simulation episode. A numerical experiment based on the model reveals a scene in which, under a certain condition related to assumptions of the value system, a group of agents undergoes a paradigm shift from the ego-oriented materialism to the eco-conscious sustainable society. The key condition is a latent existence of several values that ultimately lead to sustainability, even though they do not work at all at the beginning of the episode. In terms of the evolutionary game theory, this implies that changing game structure on the way of a simulation episode by transforming the fitness function seems to be much powerful measures for the emergent collective cooperation among the agents than ordinal options to support cooperation. In addition, we made a detailed analysis on how assumed agents have obtained a sustainable value system. Each agent has an individual decision-making process based on the input with a learning mechanism. We focus here on two types of learning system, the finite state

  16. Possibility of Low Carbon Society Formation by Using Aqua Science & Technologies (Establishment of an Ecologically Sustainable Society)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Nakamichi

    2010-11-01

    Basic resolution of environmental problems needs a change of paradigm. In order to form a closed system and sustainable society, Japanese culture and civilization of EDO period (esthetics of self-control) must be considered. Quality technology of Japan is leading the world in environmental resolution. Many Japanese forget the traditional spirit (the original fail is in education). The combination of esthetics and technology is a characteristics of Japanese Goods. The origin of Japanese religion (ethos) is Japanese language and situation of Japan. The global aspects of closed earth system was showed. Practical examples of closed system, Biomass Applications, PVC recycling, poly-diamond synthesis are shown.

  17. Establishing the experimenting society : The historical origin of social experimentation according to the randomized controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2001-01-01

    This article tl aces the historical origin of social experimentation. It highlights the central role of psychology in establishing the randomized controlled design and its quasi-experimental derivatives. The author investigates the differences in the 19th- and 20th-century meaning of the expression

  18. Establishment of a strategy of circular economy increasing the well-being of society: comparison of two national policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalioujny Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a new paradigm of sustainable development, establishing new ways of societal progress and success based on the concepts other than only economic growth and material wealth. Sustainable development suggests that the wellbeing of the society depends, among other, on clean and healthy environment, and on the mutual interaction of human beings realized in new models of economics and behaviour. This article describes a new model of economics based on the interaction of environmental protection and economic efficiency, the model of circular economy (CE. The paper compares two different macro-economical approaches integrating the CE model into national economy strategies. The existing CE instruments and mechanisms are explored demonstrating the results of such policy application at meso- and micro- levels.

  19. History of the Nordic psychiatric cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knorring, Lars

    2012-03-01

    The Nordic countries include Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden as well the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Svalbard and Åland. The countries share much common history as well as common traits in their respective societies. As early as 1906, a Scandinavian Psychiatric Association was suggested. The first Nordic Psychiatric Congress was held in Copenhagen 1913. After the First World War, at the 6th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Stockholm 1935, a Nordic Psychiatric Association was founded and it was decided that a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry should be founded. After the Second World War, at the 8th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Copenhagen 1946, the Nordic Psychiatric Association was terminated. At this time, the most important task of the Association, to found a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, had been achieved. After 1946, there has been a close cooperation between the Nordic countries but no common Nordic Psychiatric Association. Today, the Nordic Psychiatric Cooperation is active and ongoing. The 30th Nordic Psychiatric Congress is scheduled to be held in Tromsö, in 2012. The Nordic Journal of Psychiatry is publishing its 64 th volume. The Journal is indexed in the important international databases and the impact factor is increasing. The Joint Committee of the Nordic psychiatric associations has established itself as the owner of the Journal and the organizer of the congresses. There are also a series of Nordic cooperations in a series of different fields, such as the Scandinavian Societies of Biological Psychiatry, the Scandinavian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (SCNP), the bi-annual Nordic Psychoanalytical Congresses, the Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, the Nordic Association of Psychiatric Epidemiology, NAPE, and so on.

  20. The South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP and SASOP State Employed Special Interest Group (SESIG position statements on psychiatric care in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Janse van Rensburg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Executive summary. National mental health policy: SASOP extends its support for the process of formalising a national mental health policy as well as for the principles and content of the current draft policy. Psychiatry and mental health: psychiatrists should play a central role, along with the other mental health disciplines, in the strategic and operational planning of mental health services at local, provincial and national level. Infrastructure and human resources: it is essential that the state takes up its responsibility to provide adequate structures, systems and funds for the specified services and facilities on national, provincial and facility level, as a matter of urgency. Standard treatment guidelines (STGs and essential drug lists (EDLs: close collaboration and co-ordination should occur between the processes of establishing SASOP and national treatment guidelines, as well as the related decisions on EDLs for different levels. HIV/AIDS in children: national HIV programmes have to promote awareness of the neurocognitive problems and psychiatric morbidity associated with HIV in children. HIV/AIDS in adults: the need for routine screening of all HIV-positive individuals for mental health and cognitive impairments should also be emphasised as many adult patients have a mental illness, either before or as a consequence of HIV infection, constituting a ‘special needs’ group. Substance abuse and addiction: the adequate diagnosis and management of related substance abuse and addiction problems should fall within the domain of the health sector and, in particular, that of mental health and psychiatry. Community psychiatry and referral levels: the rendering of ambulatory specialist psychiatric services on a community-centred basis should be regarded as a key strategy to make these services more accessible to users closer to where they live. Recovery and re-integration: a recovery framework such that personal recovery outcomes, among

  1. My early experiences in establishing neonatal screening and the reason for regional meetings of the international society for neonatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    When I started the neonatal screening in Japan, I could not obtain the necessary information for establishing the national screening system in my own country. Thus, around 1970, I visited H. Bickel, R. Guthrie and several other experts in the field of the neonatal screening in USA and Europe. Through their help, I could learn: (i) the philosophy of the world of screening, (ii) the way to improve the basic techniques in this field and (iii) the way to improve the level of screening. On the other hand, I realised that in some countries, people received imprecise information from non-authoritative sources. I also realised that it was difficult for people in developing countries to meet experts of other countries. Therefore, when I was appointed the first president of International Society of Neonatal Screening (ISNS), I proposed to have the regional meetings held in many areas. In this report, I explained how we were asked to establish the national screening system in Japan through the support of experts around the world. I hope that people will understand the reason why I proposed that regional meetings of the ISNS be held in various locations.

  2. Building Civil Society in Authoritarian China: Importance of Leadership Connections for Establishing Effective Nongovernmental Organizations in a Non-Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tai, John W

    2015-01-01

    How is modern civil society created? There are few contemporary studies on this important question and when it is addressed, scholars tend to emphasize the institutional environment that facilitates a modern civil society...

  3. Wellness and multiple sclerosis: The National MS Society establishes a Wellness Research Working Group and research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Mowry, Ellen M; Ehde, Dawn M; LaRocca, Nicholas G; Smith, Kathy E; Costello, Kathleen; Shinto, Lynne; Ng, Alexander V; Sullivan, Amy B; Giesser, Barbara; McCully, Kevin K; Fernhall, Bo; Bishop, Malachy; Plow, Matthew; Casaccia, Patrizia; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D

    2017-01-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have identified "wellness" and associated behaviors as a high priority based on "social media listening" undertaken by the National MS Society (i.e. the Society). The Society recently convened a group that consisted of researchers with experience in MS and wellness-related research, Society staff members, and an individual with MS for developing recommendations regarding a wellness research agenda. The members of the group engaged in focal reviews and discussions involving the state of science within three approaches for promoting wellness in MS, namely diet, exercise, and emotional wellness. That process informed a group-mediated activity for developing and prioritizing research goals for wellness in MS. This served as a background for articulating the mission and objectives of the Society's Wellness Research Working Group. The primary mission of the Wellness Research Working Group is the provision of scientific evidence supporting the application of lifestyle, behavioral, and psychosocial approaches for promoting optimal health of mind, body, and spirit (i.e. wellness) in people with MS as well as managing the disease and its consequences.

  4. Stavropigiyskiy Institute and the Society of St. Basil the Great: the history of the establishment, activities, relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Svitlyk

    2017-06-01

    New materials concerning cultural cooperation problems of mentioned societies have been introduced into the scientific circulation in this publication. First of all, it is related to the signed agreement between Stavropigiyskiy Institute and the Society of St. Basil the Great, which is dedicated to sales process of church and secular literature. Epistolary communication between superiors of the societies has also been analyzed. Private letters is an important source for researchers. They have great scientific value. They are especially valuable for studying the heritage of famous historical figures, as in such letters different thoughts, which sometimes were not embodied in the scientific works, were often described. A description of correspondence between scientists, its subjects, importance for the implementation of private co-operation and cultural development has been offered by the author of the essay. The archives are the subject of the special scientific value. The authors of the studied letters discussed extremely important issues, such as magyarization of the intelligentsia of Transcarpathia, the influence of polonization on public life in Galicia and, as the consequence, the rapid spread of russophile sentiments there. In the analyzed letters a lot of information has been found, which proves the existence of close contacts on both sides of the Carpathians. The correspondence between people of Transcarpathia and Galicia to certain extent revived culture and education in the Region. Based on the processed material, conclusions of the study about the role of Stavropigiysky Institute in Lviv and the Society of St. Basil in Uzhgorod on the cultural development of Ukrainian lands in general have been made, and also about the importance of their mutual cooperation for inter-regional unity of Ukrainian lands. This fact is especially important in modern situation in Ukraine.

  5. Establishment of a human conjunctival epithelial cell line lacking the functional TACSTD2 gene (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Kitazawa, Koji; Shinomiya, Katsuhiko

    2012-12-01

    To report the establishment of a human conjunctival epithelial cell line lacking the functional tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2) gene to be used as an in vitro model of gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD), a rare disease in which the corneal epithelial barrier function is significantly compromized by the loss of function mutation of the TACSTD2 gene. A small piece of conjunctival tissue was obtained from a GDLD patient. The conjunctival epithelial cells were enzymatically separated and dissociated from the tissue and immortalized by the lentiviral introduction of the SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genes. Population doubling, protein expression, and transepithelial resistance (TER) analyses were performed to assess the appropriateness of the established cell line as an in vitro model for GDLD. The life span of the established cell line was found to be significantly elongated compared to nontransfected conjunctival epithelial cells. The SV40 large T antigen and hTERT genes were stably expressed in the established cell line. The protein expression level of the tight junction-related proteins was significantly low compared to the immortalized normal conjunctival epithelial cell line. TER of the established cell line was found to be significantly low compared to the immortalized normal conjunctival epithelial cell line. Our conjunctival epithelial cell line was successfully immortalized and well mimicked several features of GDLD corneas. This cell line may be useful for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of GDLD and for the development of novel treatments for GDLD.

  6. Neural correlates of working memory deficits in schizophrenic patients. Ways to establish neurocognitive endophenotypes of psychiatric disorders; Neuronale Korrelate gestoerter Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen bei schizophrenen Patienten. Ansaetze zur Etablierung neurokognitiver Endophaenotypen psychiatrischer Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, O. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Homburg (Saar) (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften, Leipzig (Germany); Gruber, E.; Falkai, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Homburg (Saar) (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    This article briefly reviews some methodological limitations of functional neuroimaging studies in psychiatric patients. We argue that the investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders requires a combination of functional neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects with corresponding behavioral experiments in patients. In order to exemplify this methodological approach we review recent findings regarding the functional neuroanatomy of distinct components of human working memory and provide evidence for selective dysfunctions of cortical networks that underlie specific working memory deficits in schizophrenia. This identification of subgroups of schizophrenic patients according to neurocognitive parameters may facilitate the establishment of behavioral and neurophysiological endophenotypes and the development of a neurobiological classification of psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [German] Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit einigen methodischen Problemen funktionell-bildgebender Studien mit psychiatrischen Patienten, aufgrund derer die Untersuchung der neuronalen Korrelate kognitiver Defizite bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen einer Kombination funktionell-bildgebender Studien bei gesunden Normalprobanden mit Verhaltensuntersuchungen bei Patienten bedarf. Dieser methodische Ansatz wird am Beispiel von Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen erlaeutert, wobei zunaechst neuere Erkenntnisse zur funktionellen Neuroanatomie verschiedener Komponenten des menschlichen Arbeitsgedaechtnisses referiert werden. Anschliessend werden bei schizophrenen Patienten erhobene Befunde vorgestellt, die auf spezifische Stoerungen der funktionellen Integritaet neuronaler Netzwerke mit Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen hinweisen. Die damit verbundene Identifikation von Subgruppen schizophrener Patienten koennte zur Etablierung verhaltensneurophysiologisch definierter Endophaenotypen psychiatrischer Stoerungsbilder fuehren und die Entwicklung einer neurowissenschaftlich

  7. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  8. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  9. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service......, and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics...

  10. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    , and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics......A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  11. Psychiatric Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-01-01

    into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can...... then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691...

  12. Using a set of strategic indicator systems as a decision-making support implement for establishing a recycling-oriented society. A Taiwanese case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Cheng; Lu, Li-Teh; Lin, Shiann-Shan

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND, SCOPE AND AIMS: To realize the vision of sustainable development (SD) originating from the 'only one earth' philosophy, and to integrate the conceptions of ecology and sustainability into the planning and decision-making criteria of urban growth management, the establishment of a recycling-oriented society (ROS) is essential. However, before the above intention can be achieved, it is indispensable to develop a system of strategic indicators for supporting a radical reformation of the urban development plan. Therefore, this study, based on the conception of the new urban development pattern ROS, attempted to carefully choose a sample city in Taiwan for launching a preliminary case study, and furthermore designed and proposed a concise and strategy-oriented assessment indicator system termed ROSAIS. ROSAIS, on the one hand, can act as a compass for understanding resource using efficiency and recycling status during city development and, on the other hand, can serve as an implement supporting decision-making for ROS construction. According to the definition and spirit of ROS, the structure of ROSAIS should clearly represent the relationship between resources and environment in human activities. The eco-efficiency indicator system (EEIS) and environmental symbiosis indicator system (ESIS) can be considered two key subindicator systems, and are the necessary components of ROSAIS. EEIS chooses the dominant production sectors in urban economic activities to calculate their eco-efficiency (EE). Separately, for obtaining a consensus regarding the framework of ESIS, the questionnaire approaches and expert consultation, together with the research experience and foundation of current relevant studies and indicator systems, are applied when crucial resource and environmental issues and respective indicators are selected. The calculation results of EEIS in this case study indicated that among the three dominant production activities (agricultural, fishery, and animal

  13. Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2013-05-01

    Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy.

  14. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  15. OCCUPATIONAL ROLE AFTER PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH.R GHASSEMI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.

  16. Cryptozoology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  17. Psychiatric conditions in an evolutionary context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega Jr, Horacio

    2004-01-01

    Psychiatric conditions and the institutions and practices that modern society has evolved to handle them originated during the nineteenth century in Anglo European societies. They are products of a historically contingent and culture specific formulation of a class of social problems of behavior that came to the fore in relation to intellectual and political economic changes of those societies. However, such problems have a long ancestry. They are intrinsic to human species and the social and cultural systems that its members have evolved since their emergence. This article reviews intellectual quandaries raised by evolutionary study of psychiatric conditions, those of crossing the human/animal divide and crossing historically contingent cultures; and of framing history of psychiatry in terms of social and cultural evolution. The biological architecture underlying psychiatric conditions and the breakthroughs that indigenous psychiatry of different types of societies underwent in formulating signs and symptoms are discussed. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A Report on Ten Asia Pacific Countries on Current Status and Future Directions of the Genetic Counseling Profession: The Establishment of the Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurino, Mercy Y; Leppig, Kathleen A; Abad, Peter James; Cham, Breana; Chu, Yoyo Wing Yiu; Kejriwal, Saahil; Lee, Juliana M H; Sternen, Darci L; Thompson, Jennifer K; Burgess, Matthew J; Chien, Shu; Elackatt, Niby; Lim, Jiin Ying; Sura, Thanyachai; Faradz, Sultana; Padilla, Carmencita; Paz, Eva Cutiongco de-la; Nauphar, Donny; Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Zayts, Olya; Vu, Dung Chi; Thong, Meow-Keong

    2017-07-11

    The Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia (PSGCA) was recently established as a special interest group of the Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics. Fostering partnerships across the globe, the PSGCA's vision is to be the lead organization that advances and mainstreams the genetic counseling profession in Asia and ensures individuals have access to genetic counseling services. Its mission is to promote quality genetic counseling services in the region by enhancing practice and curricular standards, research and continuing education. The PSGCA was formally launched during the Genetic Counseling Pre-Conference Workshop held at the 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Human Genetics in Hanoi, Viet Nam, September 16, 2015. The pre-conference workshop provided an opportunity for medical geneticists and genetic counselors from across 10 Asia Pacific countries to learn about the varied genetic counseling practices and strategies for genetic counseling training. This paper provides an overview of the current status and challenges in these countries, and proposed course of unified actions for the future of the genetic counseling profession.

  19. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  20. Psychiatric genetics in South Africa: cutting a rough diamond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychiatric disorders place a considerable healthcare burden on South African society. Incorporating genetic technologies into future treatment plans offers a potential mechanism to reduce this burden. This review focuses on psychiatric genetic research that has been performed in South African populations with regards to ...

  1. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  2. The importance of the patients deemed not guilty by reason of insanity for the psychiatric reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzenis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    developing community psychiatry services and closure/transformation of the big psychiatric hospitals (asylums). It is impossible to close hospitals where "NGRIs" are kept. The decision to move them into the community is not a medical-psychiatric but a legal one. In this respect it is imperative to establish a Forensic Psychiatric Unit for these patients. In our country as the "Psychargos" external evaluation highlighted, there are great gaps in the provision of Forensic psychiatric services.3 It must be emphasised that these gaps affect negatively psychiatric reform and social reintegration not only for the forensic psychiatric patients but for the whole of mentally ill individuals. Given that forensic Psychiatric services are developed in Athens and Thessaloniki and that training in Forensic Psychiatry has moved forward, it is imperative that the state should build upon the existing knowledge and experience and create specialist forensic units aiming to treat and rehabilitate this special and important group of patients.4 Only when the patients found "not guilty by reasons of insanity" have their own (safe for the society and them) therapeutic and rehabilitative services the aim of de-institutionalisation will be visible and realistic to implement.

  3. The 10th anniversary of the publication of genes and environment: memoir of establishing the Japanese environmental mutagen society and a proposal for a new collaborative study on mutagenic hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) was established in 1972 by 147 members, 11 of whom are still on the active list as of May 1, 2016. As one of them, I introduce some historic topics here. These include 1) establishment of JEMS, 2) the issue of 2-(2-furyl)-3-(3-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (AF-2), 3) the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS) and its achievements, and 4) the Collaborative Study Group of the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT) and its achievements. In addition to these historic matters, some of which are still ongoing, a new collaborative study is proposed on adaptive response or hormesis by mutagens. There is a close relationship between mutagens and carcinogens, the dose-response relationship of which has been thought to follow the linear no-threshold model (LNT). LNT was fabricated on the basis of Drosophila sperm experiments using high dose radiation delivered in a short period. The fallacious 60 years-old LNT is applied to cancer induction by radiation without solid data and then to cancer induction by carcinogens also without solid data. Therefore, even the smallest amount of carcinogens is postulated to be carcinogenic without thresholds now. Radiation hormesis is observed in a large variety of living organisms; radiation is beneficial at low doses, but hazardous at high doses. There is a threshold at the boundary between benefit and hazard. Hormesis denies LNT. Not a few papers report existence of chemical hormesis. If mutagens and carcinogens show hormesis, the linear dose-response relationship in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is denied and thresholds can be introduced.

  4. Service dogs, psychiatric hospitalization, and the ADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures.

  5. Establishing a successful coronary CT angiography program in the emergency department: official writing of the Fellow and Resident Leaders of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (FiRST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroules, Christopher D; Blaha, Michael J; El-Haddad, Mohamed A; Ferencik, Maros; Cury, Ricardo C

    2013-01-01

    Coronary CT angiography is an effective, evidence-based strategy for evaluating acute chest pain in the emergency department for patients at low-to-intermediate risk of acute coronary syndrome. Recent multicenter trials have reported that coronary CT angiography is safe, reduces time to diagnosis, facilitates discharge, and may lower overall cost compared with routine care. Herein, we provide a 10-step approach for establishing a successful coronary CT angiography program in the emergency department. The importance of strategic planning and multidisciplinary collaboration is emphasized. Patient selection and preparation guidelines for coronary CT angiography are reviewed with straightforward protocols that can be adapted and modified to clinical sites, depending on available cardiac imaging capabilities. Technical parameters and patient-specific modifications are also highlighted to maximize the likelihood of diagnostic quality examinations. Practical suggestions for quality control, process monitoring, and standardized reporting are reviewed. Finally, the role of a "triple rule-out" protocol is featured in the context of acute chest pain evaluation in the emergency department. Copyright © 2013 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perpetuating stigma? Differences between advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication in two professional journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Juliet L H

    2010-02-01

    Continuing debates regarding advertising and the pharmaceutical industry, and others detailing the continued stigmatization of mental health problems. To establish whether there are any differences in advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication aimed at health professionals. Quantitative (t-tests, Chi-squared) and qualitative analysis of all unique advertisements for medication that appeared in two professional journals (the British Medical Journal and the British Journal of Psychiatry) between October 2005 and September 2006 was undertaken. Close attention was paid to both images and text used in the advertisements. Significant differences were found between advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication in both quantitative and qualitative analysis: advertisements for psychiatric medication contain less text and are less likely to include specific information about the actual drug than non-psychiatric medication advertisements; images used in advertisements for psychiatric medication are more negative than those used for non-psychiatric medication, and are less likely to portray people in everyday situations. A distinction between mental health problems and other forms of ill health is clearly being maintained in medication advertisements; this has potentially stigmatizing consequences, both for professional and public perceptions. There are also troubling implications in light of the debates surrounding Direct to Consumer Advertising.

  7. Psychiatric disorders among the elderly on non-psychiatric wards in an African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Walugembe, James; Wallace, Daphne

    2007-08-01

    The elderly are vulnerable to illness and particularly to psychiatric illness. Many mentally ill elderly patients end up on non-psychiatric wards owing to somatization of their illnesses. Even for these patients, a psychiatric diagnosis may not be made. The literature on the elderly in Uganda is very scanty. This study aims to establish the prevalence and factors associated with psychiatric disorders among elderly patients admitted to non-psychiatric wards. We carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 127 consenting elderly patients. They were administered a standardized questionnaire comprising the Self Reporting Questionnaire 25, the Mini-mental State Examination and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV. Study variables included socio-demographic characteristics, physical illnesses, psychiatric disorders and the treatment given. The rate of psychiatric morbidity was 48%. The sex ratio was 1:1; however, women had a higher rate of psychiatric illness than men, 54.6% and 41.3% respectively. Being widowed or separated and having cancer were associated with SRQ>5, p=0.02 and p=0.04 respectively. Depressive disorders were the most common at 25.2% and were more common in women. Increasing age was associated with dementia (pUganda. Particular attention should be given to the psychological health of elderly people admitted to general hospitals.

  8. Psychiatric services in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmebarek, Zoubir

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes the current provision of psychiatric services in Algeria - in particular, in-patient and out-patient facilities, child psychiatry and human resources. Education, training, associations and research in the field of mental health are also briefly presented. The challenges that must dealt with to improve psychiatric care and to comply with international standards are listed, by way of conclusion.

  9. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  10. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  11. Primary Psychiatric Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Mercan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of these dermatological diseases is entirely psychiatric origin. These patients show overconcern to their skin or self inflicted dermatoses unconsciously instead of facing with their real problems. In this group, delusions, dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder can be seen. They use denial as defence mechanism to their real psychiatric problems and prefer to apply dermatology instead of psychiatry. Dermatologist should be very careful before asking psychiatric consultation. Denial mechanism help patients to overcome agressive impulses like suicide or prevent further psychiatric damage like psychosis. Dermatologist should see these patients with short and frequent intervals with a good empathic approach. This will help to progress a powerful patient doctor relationship which will lead to a psychiatric evaluation.

  12. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...

  13. [Involuntary commitment of the psychiatric patient: legal regulations and critical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez Bernáldez, M; Casado Blanco, M

    2017-06-19

    Traditionally, medical care received by psychiatric patients involved their separation from the society through their isolation in closed institutions, thereby setting a stigmatising trend on the sick, and by extension on mental illness, a practice that somehow has remained until now. The profound changes in the field of psychiatry have been important and are reflected in the therapeutic field, as well as in the legislative one, and have contributed to establish changes concerning the social opinion about psychiatric patients. The purpose of this article is to review, from the critical perspective, the current legislative framework concerning the situation of involuntary psychiatric commitment as a therapeutic measure in the psychiatric patient, as well as the legal medical practice which indicates the lack of legal skills and ethical and professional conduct arising in the field of primary care. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Research has established that psychiatric disorders are common among children and adolescents within the juvenile justice system. However, the bulk of these researches had been from the developed countries, with very limited data from sub-Sahara Africa. In a region like sub-Sahara Africa with acute ...

  16. The Tranquebarian Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niklas Thode

    2015-01-01

    of this development was the establishment of the Tranquebarian Society, the third learned society east of the Cape of Good Hope. The article examines the unique assemblage of scientific networks, people, instruments, institutions, and ideas of local and global origin that converged in Tranquebar, and it investigates...... the fusion of local problems and radical ideas of enlightenment, education, and improvement that united government, mission, and merchants in Tranquebar in the quest for ‘useful knowledge’....

  17. FOUNDING SOCIETIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry Petroski

    2008-01-01

      [...] with the development of the railroads, the telegraph, and other marvels of the Industrial Revolution, a civil engineering society did not provide a sufficiently broad umbrella under which mining...

  18. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide - Table of Contents Facts For Families Guide - View by Topic Chinese Facts for Families Guide ... Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate for any child or adolescent ...

  19. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopat...

  20. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  1. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative psychiatric morbidity among three groups of health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative psychiatric morbidity among three groups of health professionals in a Nigerian tertiary health institution. ... Background Because health professionals have different job schedules and commitments, they may be differentially ... Conclusion The author therefore advocates establishment of a comprehensive stress

  3. Development of the Psychiatric Nurse Job Stressor Scale (PNJSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Hironori; Abe, Hiroshi; Funakoshi, Yayoi; Omori, Hisamitsu; Matsuo, Hisae; Ishida, Yasushi; Katoh, Takahiko

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a tool, the Psychiatric Nurse Job Stressor Scale (PNJSS), for measuring the stress of psychiatric nurses, and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PNJSS. A total of 302 psychiatric nurses completed all the questions in an early version of the PNJSS, which was composed of 63 items and is based on past literature of psychiatric nurses' stress. A total of 22 items from four factors, 'Psychiatric Nursing Ability', 'Attitude of Patients', 'Attitude Toward Nursing' and 'Communication', were extracted in exploratory factor analysis. With regard to scale reliability, the item-scale correlation coefficient was r = 0.265-0.570 (P job stressor' scale was r = 0.172-0.420 (P job reaction' scale was r = 0.201-0.453 (P job stressors. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. An interprofessional psychiatric advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Lisa W; Cooley, Janet

    2013-08-12

    To create an interprofessional psychiatry advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) and assess the initial outcomes. An elective psychiatry APPE was developed in a setting of interdisciplinary practice. Preceptor responsibilities were shared between a psychiatric pharmacist and an attending psychiatrist or psychiatric nurse practitioner. Students were also given the opportunity to shadow and work with other health care professionals such as nurses, social workers, therapists, family nurse practitioners, and utilization review staff members. Midpoint and final evaluations demonstrated student advancement throughout the experience as well as the development of communication skills with patients and an increased ability to work collaboratively with other health care providers. Students rated this practice experience highly and their comments reflected achievement of the established learning objectives. An interdisciplinary elective practice experience in psychiatry at a local teaching hospital was effective in teaching psychiatric care and interprofessional interaction. This teaching model can be adapted for use in other practice settings or specialty areas.

  5. AGU Establishes Development Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, James A., Jr.; Killeen, Timothy L.; Spilhaus, Fred

    2005-03-01

    The 21st century has already brought rapid change. Your scientific society, AGU, and society-at-large face new challenges. These challenges range from opening up access to scientific publications to the potential impact of international terrorism on attendance at scientific meetings around the world. Such challenges and their implications for AGU's mission require strengthening the Union's financial resources. The establishment of a Development Board is the first step on this path.

  6. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  7. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  8. Psychiatric patient and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Pal Attri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with psychiatric illnesses are prescribed long-term drug treatment, and the anaesthesiologist must be aware of potential interactions with anaesthetic agents. Psychotropic drugs often given in combination with each other or with other non-psychiatric drugs generally exert profound effects on the central and peripheral neurotransmitter and ionic mechanisms. Hence, prior intake of these drugs is an important consideration in the management of the patient about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. This article highlights the effects of anaesthetics on patients taking antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and lithium carbonate. The risk that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of surgery, the patient′s physical state, anaesthesia, the direct and indirect effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms and risk of psychiatric recurrence and relapse.

  9. Child psychiatric nursing. Moving into the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, L M

    1994-03-01

    Changes in health care policy must be made to pave the way for the appropriate treatment and prevention of child and adolescent mental health problems. Nurses can provide the leadership needed to make the changes. Organizations such as the Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nurses and the Society for Education and Research in Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing are already making important contributions. Challenges in the arenas of treatment, education, and research are before us in child psychiatric nursing. We are facing these demands, however, and are moving forward into the twenty-first century.

  10. 3. Neurological & Psychiatric Society of Zambia's Evidence-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ”. No evidence provided. Not evidence-based and impractical for a resource .... European Federation of. Neurological Sciences. Task Force[18]. Non-acute headache. EEG is not routinely indicated in the diagnostic evaluation of headache.

  11. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  12. Psychiatric impairment and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-03

    Dec 3, 2002 ... Impairment and disability assessment on psychiatric grounds has always been subjective, controversial ... informed medical advisors doing their disability assessments. Many of these advisors have expressed ..... that will empower the affected employee and that is non- stigma- tising. In order to do so it is ...

  13. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated wh...

  14. Psychiatric genetics:AJP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pippa

    their caregivers in South Africa. The heritability of the majority of the psychiatric disorders is ... linkage analyses in a cohort of Bantu-speaking black South. Africans.17-22 Areas of implied linkage to schizophrenia ... one of the studies of a Bantu-speaking schizophrenia cohort. Table I. Glossary of genetic terminology. Allele.

  15. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda,Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski,Andrea Parolin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  16. Animal cruelty and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, Roman; Felthous, Alan R; Holzer, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Animal cruelty in childhood, although generally viewed as abnormal or deviant, for years was not considered symptomatic of any particular psychiatric disorder. Although animal cruelty is currently used as a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorder, research establishing the diagnostic significance of this behavior is essentially nonexistent. In the current study, investigators tested the hypothesis that a history of substantial animal cruelty is associated with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and looked for associations with other disorders commonly diagnosed in a population of criminal defendants. Forty-eight subjects, criminal defendants who had histories of substantial animal cruelty, were matched with defendants without this history. Data were systematically obtained from the files by using four specifically designed data retrieval outlines. A history of animal cruelty during childhood was significantly associated with APD, antisocial personality traits, and polysubstance abuse. Mental retardation, psychotic disorders, and alcohol abuse showed no such association.

  17. Advanced information society(7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  18. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an understanding of the cadastral evolution in Denmark with a focus on establishing the cadastre as an outcome of the enclosure movement in the late 1700s. The purpose of the cadastre was collection of tax based on the yielding capacity of the soil. The Danish cadastre, this way...... ends up describing the recent process of developing a fully digitised cadastre serving as basic infrastructure underpinning an efficient land market and effective land-use management....

  19. EDITORIAL Mental Health and Society's Perceptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four of the six leading causes of years lived with disability are due to neuropsychiatric disorders (depression, ... stigma and discrimination, both inside and outside psychiatric institutions.1. In 2007, the South African ... in most societies, mental illness is associated with stigma, labelling, discrimination, and exclusion of the ...

  20. Psychiatric specialty training in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Kontaxakis, V; Ploumpidis, D

    2017-01-01

    specialty, the European Board of Psychiatry. In the US, the supervising bodies are the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, in the United Kingdom the Royal College of Psychiatrists, in Canada the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, etc. In our country, the debate on the need to reform the institutional framework for Psychiatric training has been underway since the mid-90s, with initiatives especially by the Hellenic Psychiatric Association, aiming to raise awareness and concern among psychiatrists while responding to requests from competent central bodies of the state, as well as establishing Panhellenic training programs for psychiatric trainees and continuing education programs. But what is the situation of the educational map in the country today, what would be the objectives, and how might we proceed? These questions we will try to answer in an effort initiated by Hellenic Psychiatric Association (HPA) and the journal "Psychiatriki" with the publication of thematic articles starting by presenting in the next issue of "Psychiatriki"a comparative study of the training in the specialty of psychiatry at two distinct periods of time (2000 and 2014). These time-frames are of great importance, since the first is a period that in retrospect can be considered as wealthier yet missing robust priorities, while the second, at the peak of the economic crisis, constitutes a difficult environment with limited resources. Already in the year 2000, psychiatric residency training in our country had major difficulties due to its outdated framework and its fragmentation. All areas in which training is assessed (clinical experience, theoretical training and training in psychotherapy exhibited inadequacies and limited convergence with European golden standards, in the absence of a plan and the implementation of a national education curriculum. Certain university clinics constituted an important exception, though

  1. The concept of endophenotypes in psychiatric diseases meeting the expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, I; Gallinat, J

    2008-09-01

    Although the prominent role of genetics in psychiatric diseases has been established in various family, twin and adoption studies over the last decades, the identification of concrete contributing genes has been demanding. The reasons for this are manifold, including inconsistencies in psychiatric classification systems, complexity and heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders, epistatic effects and intervening environmental factors. In recent years interest has focused increasingly on the concept of endophenotypes. Genetic analyses have concentrated on discrete phenotypes supposedly linked to a particular psychiatric disorder by common neurobiological pathways, instead of studying the complex disease itself. Several endophenotypes have been established for psychiatric diseases including electrophysiological abnormalities and alterations in structural and functional brain imaging. Although results seem to be getting more consistent and reliable, several concerns have also emerged with the experience gained on the topic. This review will give an overview of the prospects and limitations related to endophenotypes in psychiatric diseases. We will also summarize essential prerequisites for successful endophenotypes in the future as well as applications for psychiatric diseases which have been envisioned.

  2. [Rheumatic fibromyalgia: psychiatric features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarró Alvarez, S

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatic fibromyalgia, also known as fibrositis or myofascial pain, is a common syndrome whose diagnoses, founded mainly on physical examination, usually delays due to symptom unspecificity, amount of complementary tests requested and intercourse with psychiatric disorders. Psychyatrists and psychologists get often involved in fibromyalgia treatment. Its proper knowledge prevents not only physicians and patients' psychological discourage but also development of depression and mental health expenses, as well as allows designing a treatment plan according to the main symptoms which may offer improvement chances to fibromyalgia patients. This article intends to offer an up-to-date and complete information about this entity, focused on psychiatric aspects, to better identify and manage such a puzzling disease.

  3. Main clinical features in patients at their first psychiatric admission to Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards. The PERSEO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Federico

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available on subjects presenting to acute wards for the first time with psychotic symptoms. The aims of this paper are (i to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients at their first psychiatric admission (FPA, including socio-demographic features, risk factors, life habits, modalities of onset, psychiatric diagnoses and treatments before admission; (ii to assess the aggressive behavior and the clinical management of FPA patients in Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura = psychiatric service for diagnosis and management. Method Cross-sectional observational multi-center study involving 62 Italian SPDCs (PERSEO – Psychiatric EmeRgency Study and EpidemiOlogy. Results 253 FPA aged Conclusion Subjects presenting at their first psychiatric ward admission have often not undergone previous adequate psychiatric assessment and diagnostic procedures. The first hospital admission allows diagnosis and psychopharmacological treatment to be established. In our population, aggressive behaviors were rather frequent, although most commonly verbal. Psychiatric symptoms, as evaluated by psychiatrists and patients, improved significantly from admission to discharge both for FPA and non-FPA patients.

  4. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  5. Managing the classification of psychiatric diagnoses: a systematics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Joseph John

    2012-09-01

    For almost a century, the American Psychiatric Association has improved psychiatric practice via its diagnostic manual series. However, the increasing number of diagnoses has created predicaments for clinicians and society. This report suggests explanations for this "inflation" and, using systematics, proposes the following five linked strategies for improving our diagnostic schema. First, criteria based on purposes underlying diagnosis should form the basis for including and excluding psychiatric diagnoses. Second, the major categories (or classes) should be reduced from 17 to one half to one third that number. Third, many psychiatric diagnoses should be removed from their current status as independent diagnoses (or subclasses) and relegated to a more specific taxonomic stratum (e.g., infraclass). Fourth, promising information for new or modified taxons would compose a fourth stratum (or parvclass). Fifth, comorbidity would become a more useful concept if defined as major, intermediate, and minor comorbidity, occurring at class, subclass, and infraclass levels.

  6. [Forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tina Gram; Valbak, Lone; Perto, Gurli; Reinert, Kjeld

    2006-06-05

    In Denmark the number of forensic psychiatric patients is increasing. The objective of this study was to explore whether the increased number of forensic psychiatric patients has been reflected in the use of psychiatric inpatient facilities. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate differences in the treatment of various diagnostic groups of forensic patients and of forensic and non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Information about admissions and outpatient contact was extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register for all Danish patients sentenced to psychiatric treatment in the period 1994-2003. Furthermore, a group of first-admission forensic patients suffering from schizophrenia was compared to a control group of first-admission non-forensic patients with schizophrenia, matched for sex, age and time of admission. The number of forensic psychiatric patients increased markedly in the period 1994-2003; at the same time, the use of inpatient facilities for this group of patients did not increase to a similar degree but actually decreased. Forensic patients in the group F20-F29 spent more time in hospital than did forensic patients with affective disorders and personality disorders. Forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia had significantly longer periods of hospitalization than did non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Forensic psychiatric patients' use of psychiatric inpatient facilities during the last 10 years did not increase to the extent expected relative to the increasing number of forensic psychiatric patients. This raises the question of whether these patients are receiving necessary and sufficient treatment.

  7. Prevalence of smoking in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Marie-France; Canceil, Olivier; Baylé, Franck; Millet, Bruno; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Moatti, Cécile; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Attar-Lévy, Dominique

    2002-04-01

    Compelling evidence that tobacco-smoking is a form of drug addiction exists. The aim of this study is to determine the following: (1) prevalence of tobacco-smoking and of nicotine dependence in French psychiatric patients; (2) rates and patterns of tobacco smoking and of nicotine dependence according to diagnosis; (3) relationship between current smoking status and antipsychotic medications; and (4) relationship between cigarette smoking and neurological side effects induced by neuroleptics. A population of 711 psychiatric in- and outpatients was assessed using: (1) a detailed smoking self-questionnaire for smoking history and nicotine dependence; and (2) a questionnaire for staff covering treatments and DSMIII-R diagnoses. Data were analyzed using chi2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests (one factor) for quantitative comparisons between groups of patients, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test with age covariate was performed for age-dependent variables. Prevalence of smoking in the population of psychiatric patients was significantly higher than in the French general population. Diagnoses among current smokers were mainly substance-related disorder and schizophrenia. The authors established correlations between prevalence of smoking and age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, alcohol use, coffee consumption and other psychoactive substance use or abuse. The authors did not find relationship between smoking prevalence and institutionalization. Neuroleptic neurological side effects were significantly fewer among smokers compared to nonsmokers. However, the rate of smokers was significantly higher in psychiatric patients receiving neuroleptic drugs. Nicotine abuse in psychiatric patients, and especially in schizophrenic patients, could support the hypothesis that smoking is consistent with self-medication.

  8. [Psychiatric complications of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpegui, Manuel; Jurado, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The psychiatric consequences of induced abortion continue to be the object of controversy. The reactions of women when they became aware of conception are very variable. Pregnancy, whether initially intended or unintended, may provoke stress; and miscarriage may bring about feelings of loss and grief reaction. Therefore, induced abortion, with its emotional implications (of relief, shame and guilt) not surprisingly is a stressful adverse life event. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: There is agreement among researchers on the need to compare the mental health outcomes (or the psychiatric complications) with appropriate groups, including women with unintended pregnancies ending in live births and women with miscarriages. There is also agreement on the need to control for the potential confounding effects of multiple variables: demographic, contextual, personal development, previous or current traumatic experiences, and mental health prior to the obstetric event. Any psychiatric outcome is multi-factorial in origin and the impact of life events depend on how they are perceived, the psychological defence mechanisms (unconscious to a great extent) and the coping style. The fact of voluntarily aborting has an undeniable ethical dimension in which facts and values are interwoven. No research study has found that induced abortion is associated with a better mental health outcome, although the results of some studies are interpreted as or Some general population studies point out significant associations with alcohol or illegal drug dependence, mood disorders (including depression) and some anxiety disorders. Some of these associations have been confirmed, and nuanced, by longitudinal prospective studies which support causal relationships. With the available data, it is advisable to devote efforts to the mental health care of women who have had an induced abortion. Reasons of the woman's mental health by no means can be invoked, on empirical bases, for inducing an abortion.

  9. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer G; Gitlin, Michael J; Altshuler, Lori L

    2013-07-01

    Owing to the prevalence of medication side effects and treatment resistance, prescribers often consider off-label uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for the treatment of persistent symptoms. The authors review the available literature on the FDA-approved and non-FDA-approved uses of lamotrigine in adults with psychiatric disorders. We used PubMed, MEDLINE, and a hand search of relevant literature to find studies published between 1990 and 2012 and available in English language. The following keywords were searched: lamotrigine, psychiatric, mood disorders, depression, personality disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, side effects, and rash. Data were selected from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When RCTs were not available, open-label trials (6), retrospective case reviews (10), and case series (4) were summarized. We extracted results of monotherapy and augmentation trials of lamotrigine on primary and secondary outcome measures. Lamotrigine is generally well tolerated, with the best evidence for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, particularly in prevention of depressive episodes. In acute bipolar depression, meta-analyses suggested a modest benefit, especially for more severely depressed subjects, with switch rates similar to placebo. In unipolar depression, double-blind RCTs noted benefit on subsets of symptoms and improved response in more severely depressed subjects. Data are limited but promising in borderline personality disorder. Use of lamotrigine in schizophrenia and anxiety disorders has little supportive evidence. Lamotrigine is recommended in bipolar maintenance when depression is prominent. It also has a role in treating acute bipolar depression and unipolar depression, though the latter warrants more research. Data are too limited in other psychiatric disorders to recommend its use at this time. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Parricide: Psychiatric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunjić Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Parricide is defined as a murder of parents by their children; the patricide is murder of father, while matricide is murder of mother. This entity is classified as homicide, but it differs in the fact that victims are parents and the killers are their children. Mostly, it is associated with psychiatric morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of parricide committers and to analyze circumstances of parricide and psychiatric morbidity in order to achieve better recognition and prevention of risks. METHOD This retrospective study included all homicide autopsy records (1991-2005 performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Belgrade. For further analyses, all parricide records were selected out. The study analyzed all available parameters, which concerned parricide committers, victims and the act itself. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS Between 1991 and 2005, there were 948 cases of homicide; of these, 3.5% were parricides. The committers of parricide were on average 31.2±11.9 years old, 87.8% were males, 60.6% with psychiatric symptoms most commonly with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, personality disorder etc. Victims were on average 63.7±11.9 years old, 54.5% males, and 21.2% had a diagnosed mental illness. CONCLUSION Parricide is a rare kind of homicide accounting for 3% of all homicides. Committers are mostly unemployed males in early adulthood who have mental disorder. The phenomenon of parricide deserves a detailed analysis of the committer (individual bio-psycho-social profile and the environ- mental factors (family, closely related circumstances to enable a precise prediction of the act and prevention of the fatal outcome, which logically imposes the need of further studies.

  11. Psychiatric aspects of dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, J S; Ford, C V; Rimoin, D L

    1976-02-01

    Sixteen adult dwarfs - 11 with achondroplasia and 5 with hypopituitarism - were studied by means of psychiatric interviews and psychological tests. There were no significant differences between the two groups; in general, the subjects had achieved a satisfactory life adjustment despite the stress of having bodies uniquely different from those of the general population. They had secure identities as "little people" and successfully used coping mechanisms such as a sense of humor and a pleasant interpersonal style. Male dwarfs tended to experience more emotional distress than female dwarfs.

  12. Psychiatric impairment and disability assessment — proposals to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impairment and disability assessment on psychiatric grounds has always been subjective, controversial and at best, a difficult task. The South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP) needs to be congratulated, firstly on being instrumental in the publication of the first 'Guidelines to the Management of Disability Claims on ...

  13. Autoimmune Aspects of Neurodegenerative and Psychiatric Diseases : A Template for innovative Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Peter; Klein, Hans C.; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases (NPDs) are today's most important group of diseases, surpassing both atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cancer in morbidity incidence. Although NPDs have a dramatic impact on our society because of their high incidence, mortality, and severe

  14. Psychiatric symptomatology after delirium: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Clare; Sarode, Deep P; Russ, Tom C; Shenkin, Susan D; Carson, Alan; Maclullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-09-01

    Delirium is an acute and usually transient severe neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with significant long-term physical morbidity. However, its chronic psychiatric sequelae remain poorly characterized. To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, namely anxiety, depressive, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after delirium, a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases was performed independently by two authors in March 2016. Bibliographies were hand-searched, and a forward- and backward-citation search using Web of Science was performed for all included studies. Of 6411 titles, we included eight prospective cohort studies, including 370 patients with delirium and 1073 without delirium. Studies were heterogeneous and mostly included older people from a range of clinical groups. Consideration of confounders was variable. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was almost three times higher in patients with delirium than in patients without delirium (22.2% vs 8.0%, risk ratio = 2.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.36-5.73). There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of anxiety symptoms between patients with and without delirium. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms after delirium was inconclusive: only one study investigated this and no association between PTSD symptoms after delirium was reported. There is limited published evidence of the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms after non-ICU delirium and the strongest evidence is for depressive symptoms. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and PTSD symptoms. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  15. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electronic search was done up to April 2008. Structural and functional cerebellar abnormalities have been reported in many psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported smaller total cerebellar and vermal volumes in schizophrenia, mood disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using cognitive paradigms have shown alterations in cerebellar activity in schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In dementia, the cerebellum is affected in later stages of the disease. Contrasting with early theories, cerebellum appears to play a major role in different brain functions other than balance and motor control, including emotional regulation and cognition. Future studies are clearly needed to further elucidate the role of cerebellum in both normal and pathological behavior, mood regulation, and cognitive functioning.

  16. Nurses' attitudes toward ethical issues in psychiatric inpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Nurhan

    2014-05-01

    focus on case studies and criteria for evaluation of service, and competency and responsibility needs to be established in psychiatric nursing education and practice.

  17. Understanding interpersonal function in psychiatric illness through multiplayer economic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Casas, Brooks; Chiu, Pearl H

    2012-07-15

    Interpersonal factors play significant roles in the onset, maintenance, and remission of psychiatric conditions. In the current major diagnostic classification systems for psychiatric disorders, some conditions are defined by the presence of impairments in social interaction or maintaining interpersonal relationships; these include autism, social phobia, and the personality disorders. Other psychopathologies confer significant difficulties in the social domain, including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychotic disorders. Still other mental health conditions, including substance abuse and eating disorders, seem to be exacerbated or triggered in part by the influence of social peers. For each of these and other psychiatric conditions, the extent and quality of social support is a strong determinant of outcome such that high social support predicts symptom improvement and remission. Despite the central role of interpersonal factors in psychiatric illness, the neurobiology of social impairments remains largely unexplored, in part due to difficulties eliciting and quantifying interpersonal processes in a parametric manner. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging, combined with multiplayer exchange games drawn from behavioral economics, and computational/quantitative approaches more generally, provide a fitting paradigm within which to study interpersonal function and dysfunction in psychiatric conditions. In this review, we outline the importance of interpersonal factors in psychiatric illness and discuss ways in which neuroeconomics provides a tractable framework within which to examine the neurobiology of social dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treating the disconfirmed psychiatric client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, J

    1983-01-01

    Frequent disconfirmation behaviors have been documented in psychiatric clients. Individuals who demonstrate maladaptive patterns of disconfirmation can learn to understand and modify this dysfunctional sequence. Through one to one interactions and group discussions, psychiatric nurses can help clients learn more positive communication behaviors. This accomplishment will positively affect the client's interpersonal responsiveness and self-esteem.

  19. Psychiatric comorbidity : fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes

    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus

  20. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  1. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    that are historically rooted in logical positivism and behaviorism. These theoretical approaches marked decisively the so-called "operational revolution in psychiatry" leading to the creation of DSM-III. This paper attempts to examine the theoretical assumptions that underlie the use of a fully structured psychiatric...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...... faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully...

  3. Nuclear Research and Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2000-07-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN took the initiative to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. Within this context, four projects were defined, respectively on sustainability and nuclear development; transgenerational ethics related to the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; legal aspects and liability; emergency communication and risk perception. Two reflection groups were established, on expert culture and ethical choices respectively, in order to deepen insight while creating exchange of disciplinary approaches of the committed SCK-CEN researchers and social scientists. Within the context of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, collaborations with various universities were initiated, teams consisting of young doctorate and post-doctorate researchers and university promotors with experience in interaction processes of technology with society were established and steering committees with actors and external experts were set up for each project. The objectives and main achievements in the four projects are summarised.

  4. Torture: psychiatric sequelae and phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Zegers, O; Hartmann, L; Lira, E; Weinstein, E

    1992-05-01

    Torture has been defined by the United Nations (declaration of December 9, 1975) as "every act by which a public functionary (or another person at his instigation) intentionally inflicts on another person serious pain or suffering, ...physical or mental, with the object of obtaining information or of punishing him...or of intimidating that person or others." In Chile, from the 1973 military coup d'Etat up to the 1988 plebiscite, torture was practiced in a systematic way, as a method of interrogation and as a means of intimidation of detainees and, indirectly, of the population at large. In the beginning, torture was applied in military station units and in police stations, in the facilities of sport fields and prisoners' camps; but above all, in clandestine detention centers and prisons belonging to the secret police (Amnesty International 1977, 1983; CODEPU 1984, 1985, 1986; Lira and Weinstein 1987; Muñoz 1986; Rodríguez de Ruiz-Tagle 1978). In spite of the bloodshed of the 1973 coup d'Etat, the phenomenon of torture came as a total surprise for the detainees, who had very often voluntarily surrendered themselves to the new authorities, and who, given the civil traditions of the country, expected treatment in accordance with a society subject to the law. The military government regularly denied having undertaken the practice of torture. According to Lira and Weinstein (20), this denial of such an extreme experience or horror made it even more difficult to overcome the trauma and fostered the development of chronic psychiatric pathology.

  5. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. What is the Knowledge Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to establish conceptual delimitations, more concordant to the theoretical acquisitions with regard to the knowledge society. The author considers it opportune to situate in the center of the definition of the concept of knowledge society the problem of prevalence in the typology of resources. Thus, the knowledge society appears as a form of organization in which scientific knowledge predominates, be that informatics as well. The concordances of essence are discovered through the discerning of the functional relationship knowledge society – global society. In the spectrum of meanings specific to this highway of post-postmodernist configuration of the world, the priorities of the project of the second modernity – the paradigmatic matrix of globalization – are approached. In fact, the study argues in favor of refocusing globalization on the humane, on its distinctive values which substantiate and lend sense to the evolutions of the world. Postreferentiality is the rational expression of humanity coming back to itself.

  7. [Is "mental health" part of the common good? The sociopolitical framework of psychiatric ethics and the responsibility of health-care elites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlken, Eike

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatric work can only be that ethical as the framework of a health-care system allows. Thus, the responsibility of the health-care elites to establish a sociopolitical framework that suits psychiatric ethics is discussed on the basis of a theory of the common good and of a philosophical and normative elite theory. "Mental health" is demonstrated to be part of a basic sphere of the common good which cannot be denied to any member of a society. The final section discusses which specific duties can be derived for health-care elites on the ground of the aforementioned conception of "mental health" as a part of the common good. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  9. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  10. [Qualitative methods in psychiatric research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.

  11. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: rate of referral for neurorehabilitation and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, D

    2012-04-01

    Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients continue to present with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) which may be associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. We audited our patients with HAND referred for psychiatric assessment against the National Service Framework guidelines that they should receive neurorehabilitation. We found that despite these patients posing a risk to themselves and others due to poor insight and medication adherence, high rates of psychiatric co-morbidity and severely challenging behaviour, few were referred for neurorehabilitation. We recommend that clear referral pathways for psychiatric intervention and neurorehabilitation are established in HIV treatment centres.

  12. Rabeprazole and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Paola; Gallo, Adele; Gallo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Caputi, Achille P

    2007-07-01

    To report the case of a patient who developed marked anxiety associated with episodes of panic attacks after starting rabeprazole therapy. An otherwise healthy 55-year-old woman was prescribed rabeprazole 20 mg/day administered in the morning for persistent symptoms of dyspepsia. Ten days later, she presented with a 7 day history of marked anxiety associated with panic attacks, night terror (pavor nocturnus), episodic mental confusion, and attention deficit. Within 2 days of discontinuing rabeprazole, the patient recovered completely from the neuropsychiatric manifestations. Subsequent esomeprazole therapy did not cause psychiatric symptoms. Rabeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia may have played a role in this neuropsychiatric adverse reaction. Several lines of evidence have indicated that gastrin-releasing peptide, whose release is mediated by proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced secretion of gastrin, is involved in regulating aspects of behavior that might be altered in disorders such as anxiety, depression, and dementia. The fact that rabeprazole has the highest capacity of inducing gastrin increase compared with other PPIs might explain why our patient's panic symptoms disappeared after switching to esomeprazole. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, rabeprazole was the probable cause of the adverse reaction. Specific studies are needed to investigate the potential role of PPI-induced hypergastrinemia in neuropsychiatric adverse reactions.

  13. Lesion procedures in psychiatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaun R; Aronson, Joshua P; Sheth, Sameer A; Eskandar, Emad N

    2013-01-01

    Lesion procedures for psychiatric indications have a history that spans more than a century. This review provides a brief history of psychiatric surgery and addresses the most recent literature on lesion surgery for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Relevant data described in publications from the early 1900 s through the modern era regarding lesion procedures for psychiatric indications, both historical and current use, are reported. The early procedures of Burkhardt, Moniz, and Freeman are reviewed, followed by descriptions of the more refined techniques of Leksell, Knight, Foltz, White, and Kelly. The application of lesion procedures to obsessive-compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and addiction are discussed. Lesioning procedures have informed modern deep brain stimulation targets. Recent lesioning studies demonstrate the efficacy and durability of these procedures in severely disabled patients. Judicious application of these techniques should continue for appropriately selected patients with severe, refractory psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  15. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  16. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  17. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  18. Psychiatric characteristics of homicide defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Christine A; Mulvey, Edward P; Yang, Suzanne; Nemoianu, Andrei; Shugarman, Ryan; Soliman, Layla

    2013-09-01

    The authors examined the rate of mental disorders in an unselected sample of homicide defendants in a U.S. jurisdiction, seeking to identify psychiatric factors associated with offense characteristics and court outcomes. Defendants charged with homicide in a U.S. urban county between 2001 and 2005 received a psychiatric evaluation after arrest. Demographic, historical, and psychiatric variables as well as offense characteristics and legal outcomes were described. Bivariate analyses examined differences by age group and by race, and logistic models examined predictors of multiple victims, firearm use, guilty plea, and guilty verdict. Fifty-eight percent of the sample had at least one axis I or II diagnosis, most often a substance use disorder (47%). Axis I or II diagnoses were more common (78%) among defendants over age 40. Although 37% of the sample had prior psychiatric treatment, only 8% of the defendants with diagnosed axis I disorders had outpatient treatment during the 3 months preceding the homicide; African Americans were less likely than non-African Americans to be in treatment. African American males were more likely to use a firearm and to have a male victim. In exploratory analyses, psychiatric factors did not predict multiple victims, firearm use in the crime, or a guilty verdict. Rates of axis I disorders were lower than reported in previous studies. Few homicide defendants were in psychiatric treatment at the time of the crime, suggesting limited opportunities for prevention by mental health providers.

  19. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  20. Rules of Thumb: Hints for the psychiatric nursing student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karshmer, J F

    1982-03-01

    The eight "rules of thumb" offered here are representative of numerous more that have been helpful stimulators for psychiatric nursing students. The suggest to the students a consistent approach based upon a rationale and do not encourage rote memorization of techniques. Students are encouraged to critically analyze the reasons and conceptual underpinnings for each encounter they have with patients. The "rules of thumb" encourage this self-exploration and attention to "What is it I'm really asking, or feeling, or thinking?" Only with this sort of continuous evaluation and reassessment can even the most novice of students begin to establish a therapeutic treatment approach with psychiatric patients.

  1. Psychiatric brain banking: three perspectives on current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Benes, Francine M; Haroutunian, Vahram; Ellis, Justin K; Kleinman, Joel E; Hyde, Thomas M

    2011-01-15

    Postmortem human brain tissue is critical for advancing neurobiological studies of psychiatric illness, particularly for identifying brain-specific transcripts and isoforms. State-of-the-art methods and recommendations for maintaining psychiatric brain banks are discussed in three disparate collections, the National Institute of Mental Health Brain Tissue Collection, the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center, and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine Alzheimer's Disease and Schizophrenia Brain Bank. While the National Institute of Mental Health Brain Tissue Collection obtains donations from medical examiners and focuses on clinical diagnosis, toxicology, and building life span control cohorts, the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center is designed as a repository to collect large-volume, high-quality brain tissue from community-based donors across a nationwide network, placing emphasis on the accessibility of tissue and related data to research groups worldwide. The Mount Sinai School of Medicine Alzheimer's Disease and Schizophrenia Brain Bank has shown that prospective recruitment is a successful approach to tissue donation, placing particular emphasis on clinical diagnosis through antemortem contact with donors, as well as stereological tissue sampling methods for neuroanatomical studies and frozen tissue sampling approaches that enable multiple assessments (e.g., RNA, DNA, protein, enzyme activity, binding) of the same tissue block. Promising scientific approaches for elucidating the molecular and cellular pathways in brain that may contribute to schizophrenia are briefly discussed. Despite different perspectives from three established brain collections, there is consensus that varied networking strategies, rigorous tissue and clinical characterization, sample and data accessibility, and overall adaptability are integral to the success of psychiatric brain banking. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Caring conversations - psychiatric patients' narratives about suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Lennart; Lindström, Unni A

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to increase and deepen the understanding of how psychiatric patients in conversations with nurses narrate their experience of suffering. Data were obtained in the years 2001-2002 by audio recording of 20 individual caring conversations between eight patients and three psychiatric nurses at a psychiatric outpatient unit in Sweden. Before the data were gathered the study was approved by a local research ethics committee. The methodology is inspired by the hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur. The data is given a naïve reading which is followed by two structural analyses which explain the text. Finally, the structural analyses and the pre-understanding are confronted in a critical reflection. In the patients' narratives, suffering was at first concealed under a façade that helps the patient to cope with suffering and with shame. As they moved along to a turning point, something happened that made them able to risk everything, i.e. their very selves, but also gave them the possibility of regaining vital parts of themselves that where lost when the façade was constructed. As they took the suffering upon themselves, they grew to be fully visible as human beings and healing was possible as a re-establishment of the interpersonal bridge. This not only meant that the sufferer became open for relationships with others or an abstract other, but also that an opening in the relationship with themselves occurred. If psychiatric patients are allowed to narrate freely they develop different plot structures, which can either hide or reveal suffering. Patients who could establish an answer to the why-question of suffering could also interpret their suffering in a way that enabled growth and reconciliation. In order to do so, they had to abandon the shelter of the façade and confront suffering and shame. This turning point opened them up to life-sustaining relationships with themselves as well as with abstract and concrete others.

  3. Is it possible to strengthen psychiatric nursing staff's clinical supervision?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonge, Henrik; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To test the effects of a meta-supervision intervention in terms of participation, effectiveness and benefits of clinical supervision of psychiatric nursing staff. BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision is regarded as a central component in developing mental health nursing practices, but the evidence...... supporting positive outcomes of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing is not convincing. DESIGN: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. All permanently employed nursing staff members at three general psychiatric wards at a Danish university hospital (n = 83) were allocated to either...... on individuals or wards already actively engaged in clinical supervision, which suggested that individuals and wards without well-established supervision practices may require more comprehensive interventions targeting individual and organizational barriers to clinical supervision....

  4. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric diseases: what are the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Christian; Fontaine, Denys

    2015-05-01

    Despite the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as an efficient treatment modality for psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS), and treatment refractory major depression (TRD), few patients are operated or included in clinical trials, often for fear of the potential risks of an approach deemed too dangerous. To assess the surgical risks, we conducted an analysis of publications on DBS for psychiatric disorders. A PubMed search was conducted on reports on DBS for OCD, GTS, and TRD. Forty-nine articles were included. Only reports on complications related to DBS were selected and analyzed. Two hundred seventy-two patients with a mean follow-up of 22 months were included in our analysis. Surgical mortality was nil. The overall mortality was 1.1 %: two suicides were unrelated to DBS and one death was reported to be unlikely due to DBS. The majority of complications were transient and related to stimulation. Long-term morbidity occurred in 16.5 % of cases. Three patients had permanent neurological complications due to intracerebral hemorrhage (2.2 %). Complications reported in DBS for psychiatric diseases appear to be similar to those reported for DBS in movement disorders. But class I evidence is lacking. Our analysis was based mainly on small non-randomized studies. A significant number of patients (approximately 150 patients) who were treated with DBS for psychiatric diseases had to be excluded from our analysis as no data on complications was available. The exact prevalence of complications of DBS in psychiatric diseases could not be established. DBS for psychiatric diseases is promising, but remains an experimental technique in need of further evaluation. A close surveillance of patients undergoing DBS for psychiatric diseases is mandatory.

  5. Psychiatric conditions associated with bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, Kirsti

    2008-01-01

    Bullying is a complex phenomenon moderated not only by the personal characteristics and behavioral traits of the individual but also by family rearing practices, as well as by situational factors such as the frequency and type of bullying. The phenomenon is also affected by group processes among the individuals present during the event. Bullying is a distressing experience that is often continuous over years and predicts both concurrent and future psychiatric symptoms and disorders, even in adulthood. At young ages, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and depression, as well as anxiety, are prevalent concurrently with bullying among the children involved. Later in young adulthood, male victims are at risk for anxiety, male bullies for personality disorders, and male bully-victims for both personality disorders and anxiety, and the risk is especially increased if the child is disturbed when involved in bullying at school age. Rarely does any single behavior predict future problems as clearly as bullying does, and additional assessment of psychiatric problems is always warranted, if the child is involved in bullying as a bully, victim or bully-victim. Based on our current knowledge, school-based interventions regulating the behavior of the child, increasing pro-social skills and promoting peer relationships are recommended for those without concurrent psychiatric disturbance, but those displaying psychiatric symptoms and disorders should be referred for psychiatric consultation and intervention.

  6. [Patients assaulted in psychiatric institutions: Literature review and clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladois-Do Pilar Rei, A; Chraïbi, S

    2017-12-06

    The psychiatric ward is a place where all forms of violence are treated. Occasionally, this violence involves acts of aggression between patients in emergency psychiatric units or hospital wards. Such events can lead to the development or worsening of posttraumatic stress disorder. To establish the context, we first examined the epidemiology data concerning posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatric patients who were frequently exposed to assaults. Secondly, we examined the issue of sexual and physical assaults between patients receiving treatment in a psychiatric ward. In this context, we studied possible occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder associated with exposure to assaults of this kind. In certain cases, potentially traumatic exposure to violence was unknown to the medical staff or not taken into consideration. This would induce a risk of later development of posttraumatic stress disorder that would not be treated during the stay in psychiatry. To date, few scientific studies have focused on the proportion of patients assaulted by other patients during treatment in a psychiatric ward and the subsequent development of peritraumatic reactions and/or posttraumatic stress disorder associated with these assaults. We know that an insufficient number of public and private health institutions report the existence of such facts to the competent authorities. Also, a minority of clinicians and caregivers are trained in screening and management of trauma victims. Yet, these issues are particularly relevant in the scope of public health and health promotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitvast, J E; Widdershoven, G A M; Abma, T A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and additional interviews with eight of them. Photo groups were organized within three settings of psychiatric services: ambulatory as well as clinical, all situated in the Netherlands. Data were analysed according to hermeneutic and semiotic principles. Two cases are presented. Findings show that voice and face are concepts that help to identify elements of moral learning in the rehabilitation process of persons with a psychiatric disability. During the process patients become more aware of their responsibilities towards themselves and others.

  8. Transposable elements and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Guia; Gaudi, Simona; Fallon, James H; Sobell, Janet; Potkin, Steven G; Pato, Carlos; Macciardi, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Transposable Elements (TEs) or transposons are low-complexity elements (e.g., LINEs, SINEs, SVAs, and HERVs) that make up to two-thirds of the human genome. There is mounting evidence that TEs play an essential role in genomic architecture and regulation related to both normal function and disease states. Recently, the identification of active TEs in several different human brain regions suggests that TEs play a role in normal brain development and adult physiology and quite possibly in psychiatric disorders. TEs have been implicated in hemophilia, neurofibromatosis, and cancer. With the advent of next-generation whole-genome sequencing approaches, our understanding of the relationship between TEs and psychiatric disorders will greatly improve. We will review the biology of TEs and early evidence for TE involvement in psychiatric disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin

    2006-01-01

    characteristics. RESULTS: Affective disorders were found to be associated with an almost twofold higher risk of suicide among psychiatric inpatients than other types of disorders (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-2.6). Patients with dementia had a significantly lower risk ratio of 0.2 (95% CI: 0......OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...

  10. [Social psychiatric service as a cornerstone of psychiatric community care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, P; Tiggemann, H G

    1991-12-01

    Psychiatric care has gradually been shifting in Germany from its original inpatient basis to outpatient and complementary treatment. This shift of emphasis resulted in a transfer of psychiatry-political responsibility to communal bodies and hence also to communal public health services. Sociopsychiatric service ranks high in communal psychiatric care setups, since it promotes cooperation and helps to coordinate efforts in individual cases in respect of focal points on which such care is centered. For the future, an expert commission has suggested that the various institutions actively engaged in community psychiatric care should team up in each region. This applies in particular to mobile services visiting the patients in their homes, and to the offices providing contracts to sociopsychiatric services of public health offices. Despite positive outlooks there are also quite a few negative aspects of present-day practice. One of them is poor definition of tasks and functions of communal sociopsychiatric services, whereas another one are the unsatisfactory quantitative and qualitative means at their disposal. It is also too often overlooked that psychiatric patients and disabled persons are entitled to compensation insurance payments to promote their rehabilitation, as provided for by individual legislation in the various German laender. To tap these sources sufficiently well, sociopsychiatric services must be better equipped in every respect. The professional competence of social workers and physicians, as well as of the relevant staff, must be safeguarded by continuing education and specialist training measures.

  11. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.

  12. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    , adverse effects have been observed both during treatment and after cessation, although the data from article to article are not consistent enough to establish dose relationships. By and large, inhaled corticosteroids are considered safe and free of severe neuropsychiatric effects. Although both antipsychotic medications and benzodiazepines have been used to treat corticosteroid-induced mania and psychosis, no unified management strategy has emerged. Large-scale standardized investigations are needed to clarify the psychiatric effect of corticosteroids on children in all these conditions. Meanwhile, there is general agreement that patients as well as caregivers should be warned of the potential for behavioral adverse effects when patients receive these drugs. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Finnish Society of Soil Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina

    2017-04-01

    In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.

  14. Paraphilias in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Patrick J; Odlaug, Brian L; Thomarios, Nick; Davis, Andrew A; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Meyer, Craig S; Grant, Jon E

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the prevalence of paraphilias in an adult inpatient psychiatric population. One hundred twelve consecutive, voluntarily admitted, adult male psychiatric inpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Sexual Disorders Module, Male Version, to assess the rates of DSM-IV paraphilias. Fifteen patients (13.4%) reported symptoms consistent with at least one lifetime DSM-IV paraphilia. The most common paraphilias were voyeurism (n = 9 [8.0%]), exhibitionism (n = 6 [5.4%]), and sexual masochism (n = 3 [2.7%]). Patients who screened positive for a paraphilia had significantly more psychiatric hospitalizations (P = .006) and, on a trend level, were more likely to have attempted suicide. In addition, patients with paraphilias were significantly more likely to report having been sexually abused than patients without a paraphilia (P = paraphilia. Paraphilias appear to be more common in adult male psychiatric inpatients than previously estimated. The study also demonstrated that these disorders were not screened for by the treating physician and thus may go untreated. Further, larger-scale studies are necessary in order to further examine the rates of these disorders in the general population.

  15. Genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, D W; Faraone, S V; Tsuang, M T

    2001-04-01

    Like other medical conditions, some psychiatric disorders are inherited, whereas others are not. Human genetics research is moving at a rapid pace. Genes for over 450 genetic disorders have been cloned and many disease-causing mutations have also been identified. The explosion of this new knowledge has created many new exciting opportunities in the diagnosis of these heritable disorders. The rapid pace of gene discovery will aid the identification of susceptibility genes for psychiatric disorders. Indeed, we can look forward to answers to many clinical and research questions. These are some of the gifts that the expanding field of human genetics research will continue to bring to medical science. However, as genetic tests for the detection of psychiatric disorders become available, many ethical, legal, and social implications will need to be considered. In this article, we review the principles of genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders, as well as the social and ethical dilemmas that genetic testing may bring. Although medical and scientific advances may bring many gifts, we should approach this new knowledge with caution, as one of the gifts may be a Pandora's box.

  16. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitvast, J.E.; Widdershoven, G.G.A.M.; Abma, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and

  17. Therapeutic abortion on psychiatric grounds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-23

    Apr 23, 1983 ... those with psychiatric disorder; severe reactive depression was found in 27,5% and 50% were considered to have personality disorders sufficient to be identified as pathological. Such assessments were based on a record of longstanding neurotic or habitually maladaptive behaviour characterized by ...

  18. Predictors of psychiatric readmissions to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identification of early symptoms of relapse, application of immediate and appropriate measures, and adequate record-keeping by health institutions are ... hospitalization, resulting from the policy of de-institutionalization in. Nigeria has led to ..... adolescent psychiatric care Aust N Z ] Psychiatry 2005; 39: 600-606. 3. vaett C.

  19. Dyspepsia in chronic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E.J.; Meijs, V.M.M.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Leufkens, H.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on dyspeptic complaints among patients hospitalized in the long-stay ward of a general psychiatric hospital. Methods: A representative sample of the patients was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results: Eighty percent of the patients reported one or more

  20. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care through psycho-education and crisis focused monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Barbara; Salize, Hans Joachim; Dressing, Harald; Rüsch, Nicolas; Schönenberger, Thekla; Bühlmann, Monika; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Korinth, Lena; Rössler, Wulf

    2012-09-05

    ). 200 patients each will be assigned to the intervention group or to the control group. Detailed follow-up assessments of service use, psychopathology and patient perceptions are scheduled 12 and 24 months after discharge. Innovative interventions have to be established to prevent patients with mental disorders from undergoing the experience of compulsory admission and, with regard to society as a whole, to reduce the costs of health care (and detention). The current study will allow for a prospective analysis of the effectiveness of an intervention programme, providing insight into processes and factors that determine involuntary placement.

  1. Suicide Risk, Aggression and Violence in Major Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mousavi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression, violence and Suicide are important problems of mental health in our society. They almost always cause disability, death, or other social problems. Appropriate measures can be taken if the distribution of behaviors and suicide risk are well studied in various psychiatric disorders. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. We studied 801 psychiatric patients who were admitted in a psychiatric emergency unit in Isfahan, Iran, for aggression, violence and risk of suicide. Information was obtained from a 30-item questionnaire, filled by the same physician. Results: About one-third of patients had aggression and/or violence on admission or during hours before it. It was most prevalent in men of 12-26 years old and in bipolar mood disorder patients. "High suicide risk" was markedly found in patients with major depressive disorder. Differences of these phenomena were statistically Conclusion: Our findings show a higher rate of aggression and violence in emergency psychiatric patients than in studies done in other countries. It may be due to higher prevalence of bipolar patients in the study field. The finding of "High suicidal risk" in major depression patients warrent systematic preventive programs. Keywords: Suicide risk, Aggression, Violence

  2. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  3. The Management of Risk by Burial Societies in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It considers members\\' perceptions of the risks faced by the burial societies themselves. It explores the ways in which burial societies develop community and establish trust. It investigates the procedures that have been developed by burial societies, on the basis of the trust so established, for the management of their risks.

  4. The arsonists portrait- as seen by forensic psychiatric examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulescu Simona Delia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim of our study is to determine the mental state of the arsonists that have undergone forensic psychiatric evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS We have examined the mental health records between years 2014-2015. Only subjects who committed fire setting crimes and were referred to the Legal Medicine Institute from Timișoara for a psychiatric evaluation were selected for the study. We analysed the following data: socio-demographic parameters, psychiatric diagnosis, motivation for the perpetrated crime, alcohol and drug addiction, the applied safety measure, the administrated neuroleptic and complementary treatment and the social support network. RESULTS The portrait of the arsonist is mainly male, young, single, poorly educated, unskilled and unemployed, living mostly in rural areas and with alcohol or drugs additction at the time of comitting the fire setting. Regarding the mental state of the patient, the most common diagnoses among the subjects were: psychoses, toxic substance delusional disorder, mixed personality disorder and intellectual disabilities. In most cases, arsonists lost discerment at the time of comitting the criminal act and they were not held accountable for it. CONCLUSIONS Our study established the most common psychiatric disturbances of arsonists as seen by forensic psychiatric examination. Different reasons for setting up fire have also been discussed. Patients were both delusional and irritated. We attempted to sketch a "portrait" of the arsonist and suggestions were included in order to ensure further "profiling" information gathering. REFERENCES 1. Rasanen P, Hakko H, Vaisanen E. The mental state of arsonists as determined by forensic psychiatric examinations. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1995;23:547-553. 2. Tyler N, Gannon TA. Explanations of firesetting in mentally disordered offenders: A review of the literature. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes. 2012;75:150-166. 3. Inciardi JA. The adult

  5. Scoliosis Research Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoliosis Research Society Close Menu Member Login Become a Member Home Find a Specialist | Calendar Contact | Donate ... a Member Find a Specialist Calendar Contact Donate Scoliosis Research Society Dedicated to the optimal care of ...

  6. Predictors of Diagnosis of Child Psychiatric Disorder in Adult-Infant Social-Communicative Interaction at 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwick, H.; Doolin, O.; Allely, C. S.; McConnachie, A.; Johnson, P.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    To establish which social interactive behaviours predict later psychiatric diagnosis, we examined 180 videos of a parent-infant interaction when children were aged one year, from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Sixty of the videos involved infants who were later diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder at…

  7. Reclaiming Society Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.

  8. Consultation-liaison psychiatric approach for school-refusal students in Hiratsuka City, Kanagawa Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, J; Yamazaki, K; Mizoguchi, K; Watanabe, R

    1991-07-01

    In current school health care programs, it is necessary to check not only the physical condition but also for mental disorders caused by changes of sociocultural, economic or environmental conditions and, in fact, the relative importance of the latter is increasing every year. Taking these changes into consideration, the Kanagawa Prefectural Joint Teacher-Visiting School Doctor Mental Health Committee started various activities aimed at raising the psychiatric ability of school doctors in 1983. In parallel with the activities of the Kanagawa Prefectural committee, the Hiratsuka Medical Society established the Hiratsuka City Joint Teacher-Visiting School Doctor Mental Health Committee in May 1985. In April 1988, as an extention of the activities of the Hiratsuka Committee, a counseling class for non-attending junior high school students was set up. The purpose of this class was, to provide an opportunity for school, families and medical organization to exchange information and to collaborate to provide more effective treatment and education to cope with recent advanced and prolonged cases of school refusal. In addition to Hiratsuka City, Fukuoka is engaged in practical activities under the direction of a joint committee led by the local Medical Society.

  9. The Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Nath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses various definitions and concepts of the so-called information society. The term information society has been proposed to refer to the post-industrial society in which information plays a pivotal role. The definitions that have been proposed over the years highlight five underlying characterisations of an information society: technological, economic, sociological, spatial, and cultural. This article discusses those characteristics. While the emergence of an information society may be just a figment of one’s imagination, the concept could be a good organising principle to describe and analyse the changes of the past 50 years and of the future in the 21st century.

  10. Issues for cross-cultural psychiatric research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, L

    1985-03-01

    South Africa's heterogenous society offers many opportunities for cross-cultural psychiatric research, but researchers in the country are subject to a number of restraints. Apart from legally enforced segregation, there are strict censorship laws and restricted access to certain types of information. The issues surrounding categorization of cultures and factors affecting publishing research from South Africa have important implications for the type of work that is done. It is a central argument of this article that the issues affecting research in South Africa are relevant to other countries as well, and parallels between the local and international context are drawn. The South African experience suggests that analysis of the research enterprise itself is a useful part of the business of cross-cultural psychiatric research.

  11. Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N

    1996-07-01

    The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.

  12. [Psychiatric emergencies in drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Bouchez, Jacques; Rahioui, Hassan; Reynaud, Michel

    2003-06-01

    The practitioner is very frequently confronted by emergencies in drug-addicted patients also having psychiatric symptomatology. In this article the authors will address emergencies related to alcohol (notably intoxication, pre-DTs and the encephalopathies); emergencies related to cannabis (notably intoxication, psychotic states and panic attacks); and emergencies related to other psycho-active substances (overdoses, drug-withdrawal, psychiatric complications related to cocaine or amphetamines). In the domain of drug addiction, as in psychiatry, the practitioner must give as much importance to the organisation of the long-term healthcare plan for the drug addict, ulterior to the management of the immediate emergency. For example, whereas 90% of subjects presenting to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication have a pathological consumption of alcohol (abuse or dependance), management of the alcoholism is proposed in only 2% of them.

  13. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  14. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, L R

    1988-03-01

    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  15. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  16. Treatment Adherence in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite developments in treatment options there is no significant increase in treatment adherence ratios. Inadherence in psychiatric disorders is higher than the other diseases. Loss of insight, drugs' side effects, sociodemographic features, personality traits are major factors affecting the treatment adherence. Determining and overcoming these factors for each disorder will help to improve adherence and reduce the treatment costs and hospitalization. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 85-93

  17. Psychiatric thoughts in ancient India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  18. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  19. Dissociative Experiences in Psychiatric Inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Firoozabadi; Nooshin Reza Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are conditions that involve disruptions of memory, awareness, identity, or perception. Data collected in diverse geographic locations underline the consistency in clinical symptoms of dissociative disorders. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, prevalence of dissociative experiences has been screened in hospitalized patients in psychiatric wards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. One hundred and sixty patients in two hospitals entered the study. Our...

  20. Psychiatric aspects of bariatric surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Chieh; Huang, Chih-Kuan; Tai, Chi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Bariatric surgery has been consistently shown to be effective in long-term marked weight loss and in bringing significant improvement to medical comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome. Empirical data suggest a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among bariatric surgery candidates. In this review, we focus on the studies published recently with a high impact on our understanding of the role of psychiatry in bariatric surgery. Recent findings This article reviews the specific psychopathologies before surgery, changes in psychopathologies after surgery, suicide risk related to bariatric surgery, factors associated with weight loss, and recommendations for presurgical and postsurgical assessment and management. Research indicates a decrease in certain psychiatric symptoms after weight loss with bariatric surgery. However, the risk of suicide and unsuccessful weight loss in some bariatric surgery patients make monitoring following surgery as important as careful assessment and management before surgery. Specific considerations for youth and older populations and future potential research foci are discussed. Summary Recent publications suggest new directions for psychiatric evaluation and interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Future research on outcomes of specific populations, effectiveness of psychopharmacotherapy, and underlying pathophysiology are warranted for the advancement of treating bariatric surgery patients. PMID:25036421

  1. Psychiatric trainees in Finland 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, Hanna; Holi, Matti; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Korkeila, Jyrki; Eronen, Markku

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Finnish psychiatric trainees' views on their education. This was a survey study of nationwide data on Finnish psychiatric trainees in 2001. The quality of training was considered at least moderate by 84% of the respondents. Training on epidemiology, on taking history and status, and on psychopharmacology was considered the best. Quality was rated bad for training in leadership and administration, and educating the community. Research was done by 20%, and a personal clinical supervisor was appointed to 52% of the respondents. Offensive treatment had been experienced by 49% of the trainees in this study. Generally, studies of training also reflect strengths and weaknesses of the profession. Based on our results, it seems especially that training in leadership and in educating the community need to be improved; both of these are quintessential skills to survive in the struggle for economic and human resources. Furthermore, treatment of the trainees could still be better; attention should be paid to supervision of all trainees. Moreover, research must become more attractive. Psychiatry can be developed by the development of psychiatric training.

  2. Psychiatric nursing liaison in a combat zone: an autoethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, D

    2013-12-01

    Military mental health nurses are tasked with providing psychiatric liaison to British forces deployed to combat zones. This forms part of a wider effort to maintain the combat effectiveness of the fighting force. During a recent deployment, I maintained a reflexive journal of my experience of liaising with the British Chain of Command. I then used line by line coding via the NVIVO 9 software package to formulate the core themes that became a framework for this autoethnography. My personality and social anxieties shaped how I performed the psychiatric liaison role. I was able to develop a template for liaison that accounted for both 'me' and my need to feel authentic or credible as a nurse, yet still enabled me to communicate effectively with the Chain of Command. One template for psychiatric nursing liaison with British combat forces is to focus upon key stakeholders within the Chain of Command, specifically, the Officer Commanding, the Sergeant Major, the Trauma Risk Management co-ordinator (usually the Sergeant Major) and the embedded medical asset. Further research is needed to establish how other nurses approach psychiatric nursing liaison. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pregnant Adolescents Admitted to an Inpatient Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit: An Eight-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Teresa M; Markley, Laura A; Nelson, Dana; Crane, Stephen S; Fitzgibbon, James J

    2015-12-01

    To assess patient outcomes and describe demographic data of pregnant adolescents admitted to an inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit, as well as to determine if it is safe to continue to admit pregnant adolescents to such a unit. A descriptive retrospective chart review conducted at a free-standing pediatric hospital in northeast Ohio of all pregnant adolescents aged 13 to 17 years admitted to the inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit from July 2005 to April 2013. Data collection included details on demographic, pregnancy status, and psychiatric diagnoses. Eighteen pregnant adolescents were admitted to the psychiatric unit during the time frame. Sixteen of those were in the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnancy was found to be a contributing factor to the adolescent's suicidal ideation and admission in 11 of the cases. Admission to an inpatient psychiatric facility did not lead to adverse effects in pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents did not have negative pregnancy outcomes related to admission to an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results of this study suggest that it is safe to continue to admit uncomplicated pregnant adolescents in their first trimester to an inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit for an acute stay. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  5. Psychiatric treatment and research unit for adolescent intensive care: the first adolescent forensic psychiatric service in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahila, K; Kilkku, N; Kaltiala-Heino, R

    2004-04-01

    Finland does not have a history of providing forensic adolescent psychiatric units although the need for this kind of service has been established. According to legislation patients who are minors have to be treated separately from adults, however, this has not been possible in practice. Also, adolescent psychiatric wards have not always been able to admit the most severely ill patients, those with impulsive and aggressive behaviours, because of lack of staff resources, problems associated with protecting other vulnerable patients and a shortage of secure environments. A previous report demonstrated the significant increase in adolescent's involuntary treatment within adult psychiatric wards. Data from this report were acknowledged as an important starting point in the planning process for the psychiatric treatment and research unit for adolescent intensive care. This paper describes the background, development process, plan of action, tailor-made education programme and supporting evidence for the first Finnish adolescent forensic service opened in April 2003 in the Department of Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital. The tool used for planning the unit's activities and staff education programme was the Balanced Score Card approach, the structure and development of which is also outlined within the paper.

  6. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  7. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consecutive asymptomatic seropositive HIV patients and an equal number of age, sex, education, economic and marital status matched HIV seronegative control. All subjects were assessed with the general health questionnaire (GHQ, mini mental status examination, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS and sensation seeking scale (SSS and the scores were analyzed statistically. Results: Asymptomatic HIV positive patients had significantly higher GHQ caseness and depression but not anxiety on HADS as compared to HIV seronegative controls. On SSS asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects showed significant higher scores in thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility as compared to controls. HIV seropositive patients had significantly higher incidence of total psychiatric morbidity. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is higher in asymptomatic HIV patients when compared to HIV seronegative controls. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. High sensation seeking and substance abuse found in HIV seropositive patients may play a vital role in engaging in high-risk behavior resulting in this dreaded illness.

  8. Education Societies in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Educational Review, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Describes origins, membership criteria, activities, and publications of the Scottish branches of six educational societies: British Association of Early Childhood Education, British Psychological Society, National Association for Gifted Children, National Council for Special Education, United Kingdom Reading Association, and Education Otherwise.…

  9. Fieldwork in Transforming Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Ed; Michailova, Snejina

    The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China.......The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China....

  10. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  11. Glaciers and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagné, Karine; Rasmussen, Mattias Borg; Orlove, Ben

    2014-01-01

    toward technological methodologies. Yet, as elements of the landscape, glaciers are strongly integrated to various societies around the world in ways that exceed their role as provider of fundamental sources of water. The relation between glaciers and societies is therefore marked by processes...

  12. World Society and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate discourses on globalisation and world society and to disclose the commonalities and differences of both scientific debates. In particular, it draws attention to theoretical concepts of globalisation and world society. This is considered fruitful for comprehending the complex mechanisms of…

  13. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  14. Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H

    1989-07-01

    Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed.

  15. [Gender aspects of psychiatric publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Marion; Unger, Annemarie; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Wancata, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Are authors of German language psychiatric journals more often male or female? Are there gender differences regarding scientific topics? Analysis of publications of two German-language journals (Neuropsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Praxis) for the period 2008-2009. We could not find any gender differences concerning the number of first authors, but the number of male co-authors was nearly double as high as of female co-authors. Qualitative research methods were used more often by female researchers, but there were no significant differences regarding scientific topics. Overall, we found fewer gender differences than expected concerning authorship.

  16. Islam dan Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Sukardi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to address the concept of civil society from varied perspectives. From a historical point of view, civil society demands not only the absent domination of state but also liberates individuals from the hegemony of state. The article shows that in Indonesia and Malaysian discourse, masyarakat madani is often used to represent the term of civil society. Using this conception, major values of civil society also share with basic ideas within the Medina Treaty in the history of Islam. These ideas include egalitarianism, human rights protection, participation, law and justice enforcement and pluralism. In this frame, the question on whether or not Islam is compatible with the concept of civil society is clearly answered. Muslims could benefit such a concept to build their awareness of being progressive and adaptive to social changes.

  17. A former Romanian scientific society: The Society of Physical sciences (1890-1910)

    OpenAIRE

    IAVORENCIUC GEORGE ANDREI

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Physical sciences (phisycs, chemistry and mineralogy) has been an important Romanian scientific society since its establishment, in 1890 until the middle of the twentieth century. This paper seeks to provide an analysis of its activity in the first two decades of existence, a less studied period, namely how its enterprises contributed to the dissemination and spread of the latest scientific ideas within Romania’s culture. The society was founded at the initiative of some of the...

  18. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. METHODS: Data were...... obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...... % for schizophrenia, 35 % for schizotypal disorder, 28 % for other psychoses, 32 % for bipolar disorder, 25 % for depression, 25 % for anxiety, 11 % for OCD, 17% for PTSD, and 46 % for personality disorders. Alcohol use disorder was the most dominating SUD in every psychiatric category (25 % of all included patients...

  19. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprakash Chaudhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost half of the people suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI may later be diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. The literature (PubMed, IndMed of past 30 years on psychiatric disturbances associated with TBI is reviewed. The authors highlight the close link between head injury and psychiatry and provide an overview of the epidemiology, risk-factors, and mechanisms of psychiatric sequelae including, cognitive deficits, substance abuse, psychoses, mood disorders, suicide, anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, post-concussion syndrome, and personality changes following head injury. The various psychiatric sequelae are briefly discussed.

  20. Approaches to psychiatric nosology: A viewpoint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avasthi, Ajit; Sarkar, Siddharth; Grover, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric nosology is required for communication among clinicians and researchers, understanding etiology, testing treatment efficacy, knowing the prevalence of the problems and disorders, health...

  1. Legal duties of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beahrs, J O

    1990-01-01

    Psychiatric practice involves an implied contract in which each party fulfills a specialized role and incurs corresponding duties and obligations to be discharged as best able. Patients incur duties at three levels. First are specific duties that arise from patients' specialized role in their own health care: (1) to provide accurate and complete information, and (2) to cooperate with treatment within the bounds of informed consent. Second are general duties that apply to all citizens, but are especially relevant within the mental health context: (1) to respect the physical integrity of self, others, and property, and (2) to obey the law. The controversial "duty to protect" is at a third level, a transcendent duty that is specific to the context at hand, but in principle can apply to more than one party. Advantages of enforcing patients' duties include better care by treating professionals, optimum level of functioning of patients, and improved systems-wide morale and safety. Breach of patients' duty has many potential consequences in the forensic sphere: termination of care, malpractice defense, criminal prosecution, and tort liability. Complicating factors include the degree and effect of patients' psychiatric impairment, patients' legal status, and the role played by psychotherapeutic transference.

  2. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  3. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  4. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  5. Face processing in psychiatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, J; Hay, D C; Young, A W

    1992-02-01

    Functional models of face processing have indicated that dissociations exist between the various processes involved, e.g. between familiar face recognition and matching of unfamiliar faces, and between familiar face recognition and facial expression analysis. These models have been successfully applied to the understanding of the different types of impairment that can exist in neuropsychological patients. In the present study, aspects of face processing in psychiatric patients were investigated in relation to Bruce & Young's (1986) model. Based on this functional model different predictions can be made. We contrast here the impaired expression analysis hypothesis, which is that psychiatric patients would show a deficit in facial expression recognition, but not in facial identity recognition or unfamiliar face matching, with the generalized deficit hypothesis, that patients would be impaired on all tasks. These hypotheses were examined using three forced-choice tasks (facial recognition, facial expression recognition, and unfamiliar face matching) which were presented to schizophrenic and depressed patients, and to non-patient controls. Results showed that schizophrenic patients performed at a significantly lower level than non-patient controls on all three tasks, supporting the generalized deficit hypothesis.

  6. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Catherine J; Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-10-09

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of disorders such as depression and addiction, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress or prior drug exposure are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Such exposure to environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental and adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression and addiction can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations (e.g., chronic stress, drug administration). Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models reveals new insight into disease mechanisms in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  8. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  9. Stigmatization of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric service use: a vignette-based representative population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F; Lange, Claudia; Euler, Sebastian; Hachtel, Henning; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G

    2017-06-01

    Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent. Methods We conducted a representative survey of the general population (N = 2207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to read a vignette depicting either the psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution to which the character had been admitted, and indicate desired social distance (an indicator for stigma). Type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied between vignettes. Findings Desired social distance was significantly lower in relation to psychiatric service use than to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and the fictitious character's being male tend to increase stigmatization. Interestingly, the character's being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital and also respondent familiarity with psychiatric services tend to decrease stigmatization. Interpretation Familiarity of the general population with psychiatric patients should be increased. Furthermore, treatment in psychiatric units located within general hospitals should be promoted, as such treatment is associated with decreased stigma.

  10. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  11. Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing in China: Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuying; Li, Xin-Min; Xu, Dongmei; Wang, Wenqiang

    2017-10-01

    The mental health service model and policy have undergone dramatic changes and are moving toward the establishment of integrated service network-based community mental health services in China. But there are still some issues, such as shortage of resources, a relatively low rate of psychiatric treatment, lack of the knowledge about mental health in the general population, and stigma associated with mental disorders. This paper summarizes the history of psychiatric and mental health nursing in China and analyzes the characteristics of the current situation. There are healthcare challenges for psychiatric and mental health nurses with the mental health services reform by government, and in this paper we discuss future trends and provide suggestions for development of the psychiatric nursing profession, and mental health services reform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychiatric diagnoses during institutionalization: an investigation of 1334 psychiatric patients hospitalized in an Italian asylum during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarelli, Roberto; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of nosology and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The present study was designed to investigate diagnoses and sociodemographic characteristics of patients during the course of the last century in a sample of Italian psychiatric inpatients. The study also throws light on changes in the practice of explaining and classifying mental disorders. This was a chart analysis of clinical records of 1334 patients hospitalized at "Santa Maria della Pietà" in Rome from 1920 to 1980. We chose every tenth year and the month of May because, on average, there was a reasonable number of admissions compared with the peak of admissions in August and an almost lack of admissions in January. There were relevant differences in diagnostic nomenclature and course of illnesses from 1920 to 1980 in Italy. Schizophrenia was first diagnosed in 1930 and 1940 and then rapidly declined; melancholia was first diagnosed in 1930 but rapidly decreased, whereas dysthymia appeared later in 1960. Dysthymia, manic, and depressive disorders rapidly appeared since 1980. In the "other disorders" group category, there were three peaks in frequency--one in 1930, another in 1940, and the most frequent in 1980. The consistency in diagnosis and the organization of psychiatric services in the last century were quite poor. Improving psychiatric services and quality of care remain a relevant challenge for physicians.

  13. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  14. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  15. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Social Media Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Social Media Bar Right Menu Annual Meeting Donate to our Foundation Contact Us American Geriatrics Society 40 Fulton St., 18th Floor New York, NY ...

  16. The global knowledge society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge societies rest on a foundation of educational and research excellence. The Internet, advances in communications technology, and the rapidly expanding global fiber optic network are necessary, but not sufficient...

  17. American Rhinologic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6th Bulgarian-Italian Rhinology Friendship Meeting Sofia Hotel Balkan, Sofia, Bulgaria, December 1-3, 2017 9.17. ... you there! Terms of Use | Site Map © 2011 American Rhinologic Society All Rights Reserved

  18. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...... of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version...

  19. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Good News About Echo Marketing and Promotional Opportunities Social Media Mobile Resources About ▼ About ASE Board of Directors Committees and Councils Industry Roundtable Partners Contact Us American Society of Echocardiography 2100 Gateway Centre Boulevard, Ste. 310 ...

  20. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SAMBA Link Digital Newsletter Educational Bibliography Research IARS/Anesthesia & Analgesia SCOR About SCOR Sponsor SAMBA Meetings Affinity Sponsor Program We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, ...

  1. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have you met? d Our Healthcare Voice National Multiple Sclerosis Society International Progressive MS Alliance live from Paris ... Persist for Years October 25, 2017 View All Multiple Sclerosis News & Press View All Clinical Trial Alerts Every ...

  2. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration...

  3. Changing Anthropology, Changing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University. PMID:20027281

  4. American Society of Hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share ... youtube linkedin Research In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Sickle Cell Priorities Lymphoma Roadmap Moonshot Initiative ...

  5. Psychiatric factors do not affect recurrence risk of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; MacGibbon, Kimber; Tabsh, Khalil; Fejzo, Marlena S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether psychiatric symptoms affect recurrence risk of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). The study sample included 108 women with HG treated with i.v. fluids in their first pregnancy. Women were divided into two groups based on recurrence of HG in their second pregnancy. Participants submitted medical records and completed a survey regarding pregnancy characteristics and psychiatric symptoms. The χ(2) -test and Student's t-test were performed to compare the two groups. Eighty-four women (71%) had a recurrence of HG requiring i.v. fluid for dehydration, and were compared with 34 women (29%) who did not have a recurrence. There were no significant differences in obstetric history, although there was a trend toward greater time between first and second pregnancy in the recurrence group (P = 0.08). There were no differences in pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses including anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, panic or eating disorders. Following the first HG pregnancy, participants in both groups were well matched for all post-traumatic stress symptoms. This study is the first to analyze the relationship of psychiatric factors to risk of recurrence of HG. No factors were identified that increase the risk of recurrence including stress symptoms following a HG pregnancy. Psychological sequelae associated with HG are probably a result of the physical symptoms of prolonged severe nausea and vomiting, medication and/or hospitalization, and likely play no role in disease etiology. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Unnatural causes of death and suicide among former adolescent psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Kim, Chang Yoon; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-02-01

    Compared with the general population, adolescent psychiatric patients are subject to premature death from all causes, but suicide-specific mortality rates in this population have not been carefully investigated. Therefore, we examined the high mortality due to unnatural causes, particularly suicide, using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) relative to sex, diagnosis, and type of psychiatric service. A total of 3,029 patients aged 10-19 years presented to the outpatient clinic of a general hospital in Seoul, Korea, or were admitted to that hospital for psychiatric disorders from January 1995 to December 2006. Unnatural causes mortality risk and suicide mortality risk in these patients were compared with those in sex- and age-matched subjects from the general Korean population. The SMR for unnatural causes was 4.6, and for suicide it was 7.8. Female subjects, the young, and inpatients had the highest risks for unnatural causes of death or suicide. Among the different diagnostic groups, patients with psychotic disorders, affective disorders, and personality disorders had significantly increased SMRs for unnatural causes, and those with psychotic disorders, affective disorders, and disruptive behavioral disorders had significantly increased SMRs for suicide. The risks of unnatural death and suicide are high in adolescent psychiatric inpatients in Korea, but not as high in adolescent outpatients. Effective preventative measures are required to reduce suicide mortality in adolescent psychiatric patients, particularly female patients admitted for general psychiatric care. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Caution When Diagnosing Your Mouse With Schizophrenia: The Use and Misuse of Model Animals for Understanding Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Albert H C; Josselyn, Sheena A

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biomedical research, but their applicability to psychiatric disorders is less clear. There are several reasons for this, including 1) emergent features of psychiatric illness that are not captured by the sum of individual symptoms, 2) a lack of equivalency between model animal behavior and human psychiatric symptoms, and 3) the possibility that model organisms do not have (and may not be capable of having) the same illnesses as humans. Here, we discuss the effective use, and inherent limitations, of model animals for psychiatric research. As disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a genetic risk factor across a spectrum of psychiatric disorders, we focus on the results of studies using mice with various mutations of DISC1. The data from a broad range of studies show remarkable consistency with the effects of DISC1 mutation on developmental/anatomical endophenotypes. However, when one expands the phenotype to include behavioral correlates of human psychiatric diseases, much of this consistency ends. Despite these challenges, model animals remain valuable for understanding the basic brain processes that underlie psychiatric diseases. We argue that model animals have great potential to help us understand the core neurobiological dysfunction underlying psychiatric disorders and that marrying genetics and brain circuits with behavior is a good way forward. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Society for Scandinavian Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grand, Karina Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]......The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]...

  9. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-23

    Dec 23, 2011 ... Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem and is associated with many complications. However little is known about the psychiatric sequelae of TBI in Nigeria. This study described the pattern and determinants of psychiatric sequelae among subjects with TBI. Materials and Methods: ...

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychiatric patients are considered high risked group for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This has been found to be as a result of poor judgment and irrationality associated with some of the disorders. However, there is dearth of literature on the prevalence of HIV infection among psychiatric ...

  11. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information obtained included the sociodemographic characteristics, type of injury, durations of unconsciousness (LOC) and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA), psychiatric and psychoactive substance use history. Psychiatric diagnosis was based on the criteria of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases ...

  12. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... recommendations for nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice, with the aim of reducing the readmission of ... impairment of memory, concentration, motivation, self- esteem, relationships with others and ..... at increasing nursing students' and psychiatric nurses' insight about psychiatric ...

  13. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of psychiatric patients with regard to marijuana use in Potchefstroom, North West Province, as well as to formulate recommendations for nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice, with the aim of reducing the readmission of psychiatric ...

  14. Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern......Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern...

  15. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AMONG CHILDREN AND YOUNG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-06-06

    Jun 6, 2003 ... Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders among children and young persons appearing in .... by a computer using the Statistical Package for Social. Sciences (SPSS) Version 8.0 and a ..... for further psychiatric assessment and treatment as necessary. The Juvenile court ...

  16. Sleep in Children With Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal; Ivanenko, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pediatric psychiatric disorders and constitute key elements in diagnostic symptomatology of various primary psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety disorder. Although sleep is not included in key defining criteria of some impairing illnesses such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, these disorders present with a very high prevalence of sleep disturbances. The interaction between sleep and psychopathology is very complex with significant interrelationship in development, severity, and prognosis of psychiatric disorders and comorbid sleep disturbances. The research ranging from small intervention case series to large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the role of specific sleep complaints in specific psychiatric diagnoses. However, the research using objective instruments such as polysomnography and actigraphy remains limited in youth with psychiatric disorders. The intervention studies using pharmaceutical treatment specifically focusing on sleep disturbances in psychiatric disorders are also sparse in the pediatric literature. Early identification of sleep disturbances and behavioral management using cognitive behavior therapy-based tools appear to be the most effective approach for treatment. The use of psychotropic medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of primary psychiatric disorder often alleviate the psychological barriers for sleep but may lead to emergence of other sleep issues such as restless leg syndrome. The safety and efficacy data of hypnotics for primary sleep disorders are limited in pediatrics and should be avoided or used with extreme caution in children with comorbid sleep and psychiatric problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived sleep quality of psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, G. J. (Gerrit); Tiemens, B. G. (Bea); Lendemeijer, H. H. G. M. (Bert); Hutschemaekers, G. J. M. (Giel)

    This paper aims at acquiring knowledge about the quality of sleep of adult and elderly psychiatric patients who receive clinical or outpatient nursing care, and identifying key factors in perceiving a sleep problem. To do so, a sample of 1699 psychiatric patients were asked whether they perceived a

  18. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  19. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Koelen, J.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a

  20. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Koelen, J.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in

  1. determining treatment levels of comorbid psychiatric conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    ABSTRACT. Background: Psychiatric co-morbidities occur more frequently in patients with epilepsy but are usually under- treated. Treatment of these disorders is key to reducing mortality via suicide and other causes. This study determined the levels of treatment of psychiatric co- morbidities at clinics in Lusaka, Zambia.

  2. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... of reducing the readmission of psychiatric patients following marijuana-induced psychosis. A qualitative ... The findings of this study include perceptions of psychiatric patients on the use of marijuana, the negative effects of marijuana .... to the nursing body of knowledge that cannot be obtained by any other ...

  3. Psychiatric disorders in women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V

    2013-01-01

    Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...

  4. Inappropriate involuntary admissions to psychiatric hospitals | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inappropriate involuntary admissions to psychiatric hospitals. P L van der Merwe, A Allan, M M Allan. Abstract. Background. In order to preserve scarce resources, treabnent in tertiary psychiatric hospitals should be restricted to those whose treatment needs make admission to such hospitals essential. However, anecdotal ...

  5. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2014-01-01

    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each

  6. Stigma experienced by persons under psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struch, Naomi; Levav, Itzhak; Shereshevsky, Yechiel; Baidani-Auerbach, Alona; Lachman, Max; Daniel, Noga; Zehavi, Tali

    2008-01-01

    Mental health-related stigma causes suffering and interferes with care and social inclusion. This study explored stigma as experienced by mental health service users. Particular attention is given to their use of coping mechanisms. Interviews were held with 167 adults undergoing outpatient psychiatric treatment; two-thirds of them had previously been hospitalized. Examples of frequency of stigma-related situations included the following: Over half of service users expect people to refuse to have a person with a mental disorder as a co-worker or neighbor, or to engage in other types of social contact. A sizeable group acknowledged that they feared or had experienced rejection. A third of respondents reported they feared or had experienced inappropriate treatment by their doctor. Service users utilize several coping mechanisms to deal with stigma, among them: education, withdrawal, secrecy, and positive distinctiveness. Although we studied a convenience sample of service users, our findings provide sufficient basis to suggest different types of intervention, i.e., to address stigma in the course of treatment in the specialist settings, to promote the establishment of mutual support groups, and to raise family physicians' awareness with regard to the stigma that may be present when caring for persons with mental disorders.

  7. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  8. Acupuncture therapy for psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture has traditionally been used for problems including anxiety, insomnia, stress, and depression in China and other East Asian countries. A range of different neurobiological responses to acupuncture have been investigated including modulation of serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic systems; effects on GABA and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and inflammatory responses. Interpretation of the findings is challenging because the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders has yet to be fully elucidated. Limitations also arise from the use of animal models and the selection of appropriate control treatments. Further complexity is added by acupuncture treatment being nonstandardized with acupuncture points often selected on the basis on traditional practice and theory. Potentially promising findings require further investigation and substantiation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Data mining in psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Diego; Cornejo, Eduardo; Xanthopoulos, Petros; Guarracino, Mario R; Pardalos, Panos M

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical sciences and computational methods have found new applications in fields like medicine over the last few decades. Modern data acquisition and data analysis protocols have been of great assistance to medical researchers and clinical scientists. Especially in psychiatry, technology and science have made new computational methods available to assist the development of predictive modeling and to identify diseases more accurately. Data mining (or knowledge discovery) aims to extract information from large datasets and solve challenging tasks, like patient assessment, early mental disease diagnosis, and drug efficacy assessment. Accurate and fast data analysis methods are very important, especially when dealing with severe psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia. In this paper, we focus on computational methods related to data analysis and more specifically to data mining. Then, we discuss some related research in the field of psychiatry.

  10. Psychiatric features in perpetrators of homicide-unsuccessfulsuicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unsuccessful-suicide (HUS), those cases in which the perpetrator is referred for forensic psychiatric observation present an opportunity to explore psychiatric features pertaining to the event. Objective. To identify possible contributing psychiatric features ...

  11. Choking risk among psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamine T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Takahiko Nagamine1Division of Psychiatric Internal Medicine, Seiwakai-Kitsunan Hospital, Suzenji, JapanChoking is a life-threatening and not infrequent occurrence in psychiatric hospitals. There is, however, little information available about the risk factors or methods to prevent choking. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the 8 patients who had a cardiopulmonary arrest due to choking and received resuscitation at our hospital during the 6-year period from April 2005 to March 2011. The study involved 6 males and females, all of whom were patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotics orally. They were aged from 56 to 79 (mean ± SD: 69.0 ± 7.5 years, with the duration of illness from 28 to 54 years (39.9 ± 7.9 years. In 6 of the 8 cases, choking was diagnosed immediately on the basis of the situation at the time of cardiopulmonary arrest. In the remaining 2 cases, cardiopulmonary arrest was initially unexplained, and choking was only diagnosed subsequently. Choking was caused by bread in all cases. Tracheal intubation was carried out in all cases and resulted in successful resuscitation, causing no subsequent change in functions compared with the prechoking condition. All 8 patients had been receiving multiple antipsychotics before the event (mean number of drugs used 2.5 ± 0.7, with a total dose level ranging from 600 to 1800 mg/day chlorpromazine equivalents (mean 1113 ± 341 mg/day. Seven of the 8 patients had mild to moderate involuntary movements, and 5 patients were diagnosed with antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. During the 5-year period before the choking event, 7 of the 8 patients had at least 1 treatment interruption, and some patients had up to 4 interruptions.

  12. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with Atypical Odontalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Anna; Tu, Trang T H; Shinohara, Yukiko; Mikuzuki, Lou; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Sugawara, Shiori; Suga, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Watanabe, Motoko; Umezaki, Yojiro; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Motomura, Haruhiko; Takenoshita, Miho; Maeda, Hidefumi; Toyofuku, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Atypical Odontalgia (AO) is a condition characterized by tooth pain with no apparent cause. Although psychiatric comorbidity seems to be very common, it has rarely been studied. To clarify the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on the clinical features in patients with AO, we retrospectively evaluated their examination records. Clinical features and psychiatric diagnoses of 383 patients with AO were investigated by reviewing patients' medical records and referral letters. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We also analyzed visual analogue scale (VAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), and the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ) scores. Of the 383 patients with AO, 177 (46.2%) had comorbid psychiatric disorders. The most common were depressive disorders (15.4%) and anxiety disorders (10.1%). Serious psychotic disorders such as bipolar disorder (3.0%) and schizophrenia (1.8%) were rare. Dental trigger of AO was reported in 217 (56.7%) patients. There were no significant correlations between psychiatric comorbidities and most of the demographic features. Higher VAS and SDS scores, higher frequency of sleep disturbance, and higher ratings of "Fearful" and "Punishing-cruel" descriptors of the SF-MPQ were found in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. About half of AO patients had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Dental procedures are not necessarily causative factors of AO. In AO patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, pain might have a larger emotional component than a sensory one. VAS, SDS, and SF-MPQ scores might aid in the noticing of underlying comorbid psychiatric disorders in AO patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Abusive experiences and psychiatric morbidity in women primary care attenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Petruckevitch, Ann; Chung, Wai-Shan; Richardson, Jo; Moorey, Stirling; Feder, Gene

    2003-10-01

    Abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood increase risks of psychiatric morbidity in women and independently increase risks of further abuse over the lifetime. It is unclear which experiences are most damaging. To measure lifetime prevalence of abusive experiences and psychiatric morbidity, and to analyse associations in women primary care attenders. A cross-sectional, self-report survey of 1207 women attending 13 surgeries in the London borough of Hackney, UK. Independent associations between demographic measures, abusive experiences and psychiatric outcome were established using logistic regression. Childhood sexual abuse had few associations with adult mental health measures, in contrast to physical abuse. Sexual assault in adulthood was associated with substance misuse; rape with anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder but not substance misuse. Domestic violence showed strongest associations with most mental health measures, increased for experiences in the past year. Abuse in childhood and adulthood have differential effects on mental health; effects are increased by recency and severity. Women should be routinely questioned about ongoing and recent experiences as well as childhood.

  14. Tattoos as a window to the psyche: How talking about skin art can inform psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenkamp, Hannah; Nicholls, Andrew; Pierre, Joseph M

    2017-09-22

    Tattooing the skin as a means of personal expression is a ritualized practice that has been around for centuries across many different cultures. Accordingly, the symbolic meaning of tattoos has evolved over time and is highly individualized, from both the internal perspective of the wearer and the external perspective of an observer. Within modern Western societies through the 1970s, tattoos represented a cultural taboo, typically associated with those outside of the mainstream such as soldiers, incarcerated criminals, gang members, and others belonging to marginalized and counter-cultural groups. This paper aims to review the more recent epidemiology of tattoos in Western culture in order to establish that tattooing has become a mainstream phenomenon. We then review psychological and psychiatric aspects of tattoos, with a goal of revising outmoded stigmas about tattooing and helping clinicians working with tattooed patients to facilitate an exploration of the personal meaning of skin art and self-identity. We suggest that as a kind of augmentation of the physical exam, looking at and talking to patients about their tattoos can provide a valuable window into the psyche, informing clinical practice.

  15. Advanced information society(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  16. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  17. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...

  18. Science and Society Colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Randi, J

    1991-01-01

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  19. Cysticercosis in chronic psychiatric inpatients from a Venezuelan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Néstor W; Rossi, Nineth E; Galeazzi, Tatiana N; Sánchez, Nora M; Colmenares, Francisco I; Medina, Oscar D; Uzcategui, Néstor L; Alfonzo, Nacarid; Arango, Celso; Urdaneta, Haideé

    2005-09-01

    Cysticercosis due to Taenia solium infection is endemic in developing countries of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. This study was designed to establish the prevalence of cysticercosis in 158 inpatients of a psychiatric institution in the state of Tachira (Venezuela) and in 127 healthy control subjects. Positive blood tests for cysticercosis by Western blotting were recorded in 18.35% of the patients and in 1.57% of the controls. Individuals with mental retardation were found to carry an increased risk of cysticercosis (RR: 2.92; 1.22 7.0; P health care system.

  20. Competence to consent to voluntary psychiatric hospitalization: a test of a standard proposed by APA. American Psychiatric Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, B C; Appelbaum, P S; Grisso, T

    1998-09-01

    In the wake of the U.S. Supreme Court's 1990 decision in Zinermon v. Burch, renewed attention has been given to capacities patients must have to be considered competent to consent to voluntary hospitalization. An American Psychiatric Association (APA) task force suggested that strong policy interests support the establishment of a low threshold for competence in this situation. The study examined whether, as previous research suggested, patients would have difficulty meeting even this lenient standard. One hundred voluntarily hospitalized psychiatric patients were read two brief paragraphs, one explaining the purposes of psychiatric hospitalization and and the other explaining policies for discharge. The paragraphs' readability measured about eighth-grade level. After each paragraph, participants were read two sets of questions, one testing recall of the presented information and the other testing recognition of the information in a true-false format. The scores of patients grouped by selected demographic and clinical variables were compared. The vast majority of patients were able to comprehend the information that the APA task force suggested was relevant to their decision. However, a subgroup of patients who were initially admitted involuntarily had significantly poorer performance and may constitute a group who need special educational efforts focused on the consequences of voluntary admission.

  1. Connectomics in psychiatric research: advances and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Miao Cao,* Zhijiang Wang,* Yong He State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Psychiatric disorders disturb higher cognitive functions and severely compromise human health. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders are very complex, and understanding these mechanisms remains a great challenge. Currently, many psychiatric disorders are hypothesized to reflect “faulty wiring” or aberrant connectivity in the brains. Imaging connectomics is arising as a promising methodological framework for describing the structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain. Recently, alterations of brain networks in the connectome have been reported in various psychiatric disorders, and these alterations may provide biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis for the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Here, we summarize the current achievements in both the structural and functional connectomes in several major psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism based on multi-modal neuroimaging data. We highlight the current progress in the identification of these alterations and the hypotheses concerning the aberrant brain networks in individuals with psychiatric disorders and discuss the research questions that might contribute to a further mechanistic understanding of these disorders from a connectomic perspective.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, connectome, graph theory, functional connectivity, structural connectivity

  2. Psychiatric phenotypes in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Ian; Alosco, Michael L; McKee, Ann C

    2017-09-06

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving cognitive, motor, and psychiatrically-relevant symptoms resulting from repetitive head impacts. Psychiatric phenotypes of CTE, including depression and suicidality, present particular challenges for CTE research, given that the diagnosis requires postmortem neuropathological examination. The pathognomonic lesion of CTE is the perivascular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) protein at the depths of cortical sulci. These lesions are found in the earliest disease stages, and with advancing pathological severity, ptau deposition occurs in widespread brain regions in a four-stage scheme of severity. We review the psychiatric phenotypes of individuals neuropathologically diagnosed with CTE, and suggest that earlier CTE stages hold particular interest for psychiatric CTE research. In the early CTE stages, there is ptau pathology in frontal cortex and axonal loss in the frontal white matter, followed by progressive ptau neurofibrillary degeneration in the amygdala and hippocampus. Neuropathological changes in the frontal and medial temporal lobes may underlie psychiatric phenotypes. Additional insight into the association between CTE pathology and psychiatric sequelae may come from advancements in in vivo methods of CTE detection. Further epidemiological, clinical, and postmortem studies are needed to validate the nature of psychiatric sequelae in CTE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. [Promoting "successful aging" in community psychiatric care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Hidehito; Nemoto, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kei; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, patients with schizophrenia have been progressively aging in a way similar to that of the general population. In Japan, community mental health care has become more active in the context of the policy of promoting the discharge of patients from psychiatric hospitals. Patients with chronic schizophrenia who have been discharged are already approaching old age. "Successful aging" may be a key concept in their community-based psychiatric care. Successful aging does not emphasize a loss of youth, but focuses on gains and growth achieved with aging. In the Sasagawa Project, 78 patients with schizophrenia were gradually transferred from a psychiatric hospital to a community dwelling. Eight years have passed since the project began. Elder patients (>60 years old) showed stable psychiatric symptoms and were rarely readmitted to the psychiatric ward. They were, however, more often readmitted to hospital due to physical disease (for example, lifestyle-related disease or fracture) than were middle -aged patients (aging, but they are not sufficiently prepared for old age. In the mental health care of aging psychiatric patients, it is necessary to not only control psychiatric symptoms, but also promote and improve their quality of life by maintaining their ability to continue living in the community (for example, by supporting their preparations for old age).

  4. The checkered history of American psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-12-01

    American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  5. Sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy: Associations with psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Alfstad, Kristin Å; van Roy, Betty; Henning, Oliver; Lossius, Morten I

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems are common in pediatric epilepsy and may influence seizure control, daytime functioning, and overall quality of life. Knowledge of factors contributing to sleep problems is likely to improve treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychiatric comorbidity and parent-reported and self-reported sleep problems in a sample of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Participants were children and adolescents (N=94), aged 10-19years, with generalized or focal epilepsy who had been referred to a tertiary epilepsy treatment center in Norway. Participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment and 24h of EEG registration. Information on sleep problems was obtained from parents using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and from self-reporting using the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were established using the semistructured psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). Both the total and subdomain CSHQ and SSR scores were high in comparison with scores from population-based samples. Having one or more psychiatric disorder(s) was significantly associated with elevated scores on both the CSHQ and the SSR. With the exception of parent-reported parasomnias, associations between sleep problems and psychiatric disorders remained significant after adjusting for relevant epilepsy variables. Psychiatric comorbidity explained about one-third of the variance of the reported sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of Life and Psychiatric Symptoms in Wilson's Disease: the Relevance of Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Mg; Mura, G; Sorbello, O; Farina, G; Demelia, L

    2012-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder caused by a gene located on chromosome 13, which involved copper transportation across cell membranes. The disease can cause a reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin resulting in accumulation of this metal in the liver, central nervous system, kidneys and other organs. The objective is to define the frequencies of psychiatric disorders in WD, the amount of impairment of Quality of Life [QoL] in patients with WD and the relevance of the psychiatric disorders in the QoL of people suffering by WD. This is a systematic review. The search of the significant articles was carried out in PubMed using specific key words. Such other neurological diseases, WD is characterized by chronic course and need of treatments, impairment of functional outcomes and high frequency of psychiatric symptoms, although a specific association between Bipolar Disorders and WD was recently found. Despite this, since today few studies are carried on WD patients' quality of life related to psychiatric symptoms. Some new reports showed a link between presence of Bipolar Disorders diagnosis, cerebral damage and low Qol. Prospective studies on large cohorts are required to establish the effective impact of psychiatric disorders comorbidity, particularly Bipolar Disorders, on quality of life in WD and to clarify the causal link between brain damage, psychiatric disorders and worsening of QoL.

  7. Big Society, Big Deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  8. Literacy in Traditional Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, Jack, Ed.

    This series of essays derives from an interest in communications, in media and their effect upon human intercourse. Primarily, this concern with the technology of the intellect centers upon the effect of literacy on human culture, especially in 'traditional' or pre-industrial societies. In most of the essays, the effects of literacy are considered…

  9. Education for Jobless Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of societies with low employment rates will present a challenge to education. Education must move away from the discourse of skills and towards the discourse of meaning and motivation. The paper considers three kinds of non-waged optional labor that may form the basis of the future economy: prosumption, volunteering, and self-design.…

  10. Rationality in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational

  11. SOCIETY: LESSONS FORZUNIVERSITIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the interaction model of knowledge utilization is engaged to ... and organizational diversity,” (4) “social accountability and reflexivity,” and (5) ... The system of reference for knowledge production under Mode 2 is the network of ... based society characterized by increased demand for transfer and utilization of.

  12. The Civil Society Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K.; Lester M. Salamon

    2015-01-01

    Salamon and Anheier bring the civil society sector - the plethora of private, nonprofit, and nongovernmental organizations that have emerged in recent decades - into better focus conceptually as well as empirically. They draw on the results of a major inquiry into the scope, structure, financing and role of the "nonprofit sector" in a broad cross-section of countries around the world.

  13. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STS The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Facebook Twitter LinkedIn YouTube Instagram Flickr About STS Governance and Leadership ... All Events » Tweets by @STS_CTsurgery Facebook Twitter LinkedIn YouTube Instagram Flickr Footer menu Home Contact Us ...

  14. Connecting Science with Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    awareness of the important questions of our society reflected in scientific research and of the answers produced by these research activities. The CRIS2010 conference, entitled “Bringing Science to Society”, therefore seeks to highlight the role of Current Research Information Systems for communicating...

  15. MARX EMBRYOLOGY OF SOCIETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUTERS, A

    This article presents a new interpretation of Marx's dialectical method. Marx conceived dialectics as a method for constructing a model of society. The way this model is developed is analogous to the way organisms develop according to the German embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer, and, indeed, Marx's

  16. Psychiatric disorder in male veterans and nonveterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquist, G S; Hough, R L; Golding, J M; Escobar, J I

    1990-05-01

    Prevalences of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-III psychiatric disorders for male veterans and nonveterans from four war eras were estimated using data from over 7500 male community respondents interviewed by the Epidemiologic Catchment Area program at five geographic areas across the country. Veterans serving after Vietnam (Post-Vietnam era) had greater lifetime and 6-month prevalences of psychiatric disorder than their nonveteran counterparts, whereas the reverse tended to be the case for the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II war eras. Comparisons across war eras revealed a trend for more psychiatric disorder, especially substance abuse, in younger veterans and nonveterans than in older respondents.

  17. Workroles of staff nurses in psychiatric settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E G; Shealy, A H; Kowalski, C; LaMont, J; Range, B A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to operationalize Peplau's workroles of the psychiatric staff nurse. Thirty registered nurses audiotaped one-to-one interactions with 62 adult, child, and adolescent psychiatric patients. Content analysis was used to identify role behaviors and to identify roles that were different from those outlined by Peplau. The counselor role was the most frequently occurring primary workrole. Overlap was found between behaviors indicative of autocratic leader versus surrogate and those of resource person versus teacher. The findings supported Peplau's contention that the counselor role is central to the practice of psychiatric nursing.

  18. Cyberbullying: implications for the psychiatric nurse practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lindsey M; Hubbard, Grace B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform and educate psychiatric nurse practitioners about the pervasiveness of the rapidly increasing problem of cyberbullying. As more children and adolescents obtain access to the Internet, mobile devices, and social networking sites, the exposure to bullying in the virtual format increases. Cyberbullying is a growing public health concern and can affect mental health and school performance. Cyberbullying often results in a range of psychiatric symptoms and has been linked to suicide attempts and completions. The psychiatric nurse practitioner is uniquely prepared to provide a range of interventions for patients, families, and communities who have experienced cyberbullying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Substance use among Danish psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tina; Jespersen, Hans Søe Riis; Vinberg, Maj

    2017-01-01

    equivalents. Compared to the general population, the psychiatric patients had higher odds of being current smokers and having used illicit drugs within the past month. Women with psychiatric disorders were twice as likely to binge drink on a monthly basis. No significant difference was found in the patients......, 412 psychiatric patients participated in the study, and 33% had an AUDIT-score ≥8, indicating problematic alcohol use according to the AUDIT guidelines. The mean weekly alcohol intake was 9.7 ± 28.3 standard drinks, and 47% were current smokers with a mean daily use of 19.9 ± 13.8 cigarette...

  20. Indian - American contributions to psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangi, Anand K

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian - American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years.

  1. Technological Advances in Psychiatric Nursing: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and treating mental illness has improved in many ways as a result of the fast pace of technological advances. The technologies that have the greatest potential impact are those that (1) increase the knowledge of how the brain functions and changes based on interventions, (2) have the potential to personalize interventions based on understanding genetic factors of drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics, and (3) use information technology to provide treatment in the absence of an adequate mental health workforce. Technologies are explored for psychiatric nurses to consider. Psychiatric nurses are encouraged to consider the experiences of psychiatric patients, including poor health, stigmatization, and suffering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A CHILDREN'S HOME1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P. K.; Agarwal, A. K; Gupta, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Sixty-two inmates of a children's home were examined by using a symptom check list and Hindi adaptation of Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale—Form LM (1960). A high proportion (69.4%) of the inmates had one or other psychiatric problem. Mild mental retardation (I. Q. 50—70) was most common (40.3%), 11.3% were diagnosed as having unsocialized disturbance of conduct. Four most common psychiatric symptoms were stealing, quarrelsome behaviour, destructive behaviour and bed wetting. No significant correlation was found between psychiatric illnesses and present age, duration of stay and age at entry into the home. PMID:22058478

  3. Psychiatric aspects of chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhishek; Lolak, Sermsak

    2009-06-01

    Chronic lung diseases continue to be common and cause significant morbidity and mortality. There is a complex interplay between psychiatric issues and pulmonary diseases. This review aims to summarize the recent literature and advances involving psychiatric aspects of lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, restrictive lung disease, and cystic fibrosis. The authors include the latest findings in epidemiology, impact, etiology, screening, and management of psychiatric and pulmonary comorbidity. The relationship between mental health and lung disease, as it is between mental health and other physical illnesses, is multifactorial. Further studies continue to clarify issues and treatment guidelines for this comorbidity.

  4. What Makes the UAE a Knowledge Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Mohammad Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts with the idea that knowledge has become one of the most important factors to determine human development and explore the different requirements that need to be met by the government and the citizens of the UAE to succeed in building a knowledge society (KS). An explanation and examination of the five pillars of establishing a KS…

  5. Handbook for the Society for General Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Music Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents the organizational framework of the Society for General Music. Contains basic explanations of purpose, goals, and establishment; bylaws concerning personnel, the General Music Council, an editor, the Executive Committee, and the composition and function of the Council; membership; officers; publications; editorial board; and nomination,…

  6. Conceptualizing Education Policy in Democratic Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura B.

    2009-01-01

    Although theorists and policy makers agree that schooling should be democratic, what this exactly means often varies. This article establishes a conceptual model for analyzing education policy in democratic societies, based on the key concepts of equality, diversity, participation, choice, and cohesion. The model facilitates the design,…

  7. Consumption in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  8. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  9. [Current issues in psychiatric ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, József

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes some ethical problems in psychiatry that have been emerging in recent years. It deals with the ongoing intensive debates about the DSM-5 before its publication, and with some of the criticisms of the DSM-5 itself. Then it goes on to analyze the use of placebo. This is followed by the ethical problems of the treatment of ADHD with stimulant drugs, among which one is the question of authenticity, namely whether the pre-treatment or the post-treatment personality is the real, authentic self of the patient. This question has been raised not only in the case of the ADHD, but also in relation with the antidepressant treatment of depression earlier, and in relation with deep brain stimulation and dopamine replacement therapy now, all of which causes changes in the treated patient's personality and motivations. Finally the article describes some ethical problems of informed consent in the case of antidepressant medication, together with the necessity to involve psychiatric nurses and rating scales in the assessment of the patient's decision making capacity.

  10. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  11. The relative importance of child, family, school and neighbourhood correlates of childhood psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tamsin; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2004-06-01

    Many studies have described associations between childhood psychiatric disorder and characteristics of the child, and their family, school and neighbourhood, but few studies have studied them simultaneously. Also, most investigators have failed to allow for the extent to which different exposures are correlated, or for clustering at different levels of observation. Our objective was to establish which correlates were independently associated with psychiatric disorder. Data on DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, as well as child and family characteristics, were obtained on 8772 English 5- to 15-year-olds included in a large British prevalence survey of mental health. These data were supplemented by independent measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage. We entered child and family variables with the measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage into a logistic regression analysis to establish which variables were independently associated with child psychiatric disorder. No variables were associated with all types of disorder. Poor general health and life events were related to emotional disorders, while conduct disorders were most closely associated with family variables, and ADHD was only related to child characteristics. Disadvantaged schools, deprived neighbourhoods, low socioeconomic status, parental unemployment, cohabiting, large family size, and poverty were not independently associated with disorder. Individually assessed child and family factors may be more influential than aggregate measures of school and neighbourhood factors. Different disorders have distinctive correlates. Many of the best known "risk factors" are not independently related to childhood psychiatric disorder, and are, therefore, acting distally in the causal pathway or irrelevant.

  12. Material civilization: things and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dant, Tim

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  13. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  14. The CERN & Society programme launches its newsletter

    CERN Multimedia

    Matteo Castoldi

    2016-01-01

    The newsletter will be issued quarterly. Sign up to remain informed about the latest initiatives of the CERN & Society programme!    The CERN & Society programme encompasses projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and creativity that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. The programme is funded primarily by the CERN & Society Foundation, a charitable foundation established by CERN and supported by individuals, trusts, organisations and commercial companies. The projects are inspired or enabled by CERN but lie outside of the Laboratory’s specific research mandate. We especially want to help young talent from around the world to flourish in the future. The programme is now launching its newsletter, which will be issued quarterly. Everybody who wants to be informed about CERN & Society’s activities, stay up-to-date with its latest in...

  15. [Mandatory treatment of forensic psychiatric patients in the Netherlands: costs and benefits in perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagtegaal, M H; Goethals, K; Meynen, G

    So far, it is not known what costs and benefits are connected with the tbs-measure, a measure that involves a mandatory treatment programme for forensic psychiatric patients. AIM: To explore the costs and benefits that the tbs-measure has on society, on other important stakeholders such as victims and/or next-of-kin and the forensic psychiatric patients themselves. METHOD: We studied the relevant literature. RESULTS: The average costs of the tbs-treatment programme are 1.5 million euros. Additional costs result from recidivism among patients after tbs-treatment. Of these, 21.2% commit another serious offence after 9 years; this recidivism rate is much lower than rates for former offenders who have not received tbs-treatment (63.8%). Other costs arise through the impact that crimes have on stake-holders. Among the benefits of the tbs-programme are a reduction in psychopathological symptoms and in risk factors and lower recommitment rates (including judicial, non-judicial, voluntary and mandatory recommitment rates). Yet another benefit is the resultant increase of protective factors. CONCLUSION: Forensic psychiatric patients form a unique group within the mental health system in the Netherlands; these patients have multiple complex psychiatric problems and display serious criminal behavior. This group cannot easily be treated elsewhere in the existing judicial or mental health care system because these systems differ in (judicial) frameworks and have different treatment goals, and the forensic psychiatric patients have different psychiatric disorders and display more serious criminal behaviour than patients in the alternative systems. The daily costs of treatment in the tbs-system are higher that in other systems - but they are not exorbitant, given the complexity of the group. The tbs-measure therefore contributes to the safety of society.

  16. Service Dogs, Psychiatric Hospitalization, and the ADA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    A service dog is defined as “any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability...

  17. Barriers in the treatment of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses are very common in prevalence. But not everyone who has a mental illness gets a psychiatric consultation. The causes are many. First, many time people don’t recognise and accept mental illnesses in them as a result of lack of insight and awareness. Secondly, even if they know they have a mental illness, they don’t feel comfortable in disclosing it. Third, after knowing that they have some problems which require help from a doctor, they don’t know whom to consult, where to consult, and how to consult. Fourth, in spite of all possible awareness, there may not be psychiatric facilities nearby. Thus, it becomes utmost necessary to discuss those factors which stop people with psychiatric illnesses to get adequate help so that remedial steps could be taken.

  18. Psychiatric nosology and taxonomy in ancient India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldipur, C V

    1989-08-01

    This article considers the nosology and taxonomy of psychiatric disorders in Sushruta Samhita, an ancient Indian treatise on medicine. Some implications of this treatise for modern psychiatry are discussed.

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. l'Internet Society

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1997-01-01

    Conference of Vinton "Vint" Gray Cerf in the Intercontinental Hostel. Vinton Gray Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is an American computer scientist who is commonly referred to as one of the "founding fathers of the Internet" for his key technical and managerial role, together with Bob Kahn, in the creation of the Internet and the TCP/IP protocols which it uses. He was also a co-founder (in 1992) of the Internet Society (ISOC) which is intended to both promote the views of ordinary users of the Internet, and also serve as an umbrella body for the technical groups developing the Internet (such as the Internet Engineering Task Force). He served as the first president of the Internet Society from 1992-1995.

  1. Discrimination in Modern Society

    OpenAIRE

    Schekach, E. V.; Щекач, Е. В.

    2013-01-01

    Issues of discrimination in modern society are examined in the article. Types of discrimination, ways of demonstration, methods of combating discrimination and inequality are described. Particular attention is paid to the legal basis and the real life stories, which serve as a material base for judgments how to prevent discrimination. Possible ways are suggested to eliminate such a negative phenomenon of society like discrimination. Статья посвящена вопросам дискриминации в современном общ...

  2. Psychiatric severity and HIV-risk sexual behaviors among persons with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M; Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between mental illness and human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-risk sexual behavior among persons with substance use disorders is not well-established because of differences in assessing psychiatric factors (types, symptoms, severity), substance use (diagnosis, survey responses, past substance use), and HIV-risk sexual behaviors (individual measures, combination of sex/drug use risk behaviors) across studies. This study utilized a more global and dimensional aspect of psychiatric issues (problem severity) to examine the relationship with HIV-risk sexual behaviors and substance use among persons with substance use disorders. Participants included 224 men and 46 women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD = 9.5). The most common substances were heroin/opiates, with 41.4% reporting use of these substances (n = 110), while 27.8% reported using cocaine (n = 74) and 12.8% reported using alcohol (n = 34). Of all participants, 39 (14.4%) were identified as having high psychiatric severity (defined using the psychiatric severity score from the Addiction Severity Index), which was used as an indication of probable comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. Among these participants likely to have comorbid disorders, hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine HIV-risk sexual behaviors (number of partners and unprotected sexual behaviors in the past 30 days) in relation to psychiatric severity, substance use, and gender. Gender (women) and psychiatric severity (higher) were significantly related to greater HIV-risk sexual behaviors. After entering gender and substance use into the regression model, psychiatric severity accounted for another 21.9% of the variance in number of partners and 14.1% of the variance in unprotected sexual behaviors. Overall, the models accounted for 55.5% and 15.6% of the variance, respectively. A significant interaction was found for number of partners (but not frequency of unprotected behavior), such that those higher

  3. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is necessary to combat this increasing trend which is compromising the health and well-being of the young generation and seriously impinging on resources and economic costs.

  4. Cooking and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Teplá, Hedvika

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Cooking and Society" focuses on cooking, a process of food preparation. The thesis analyzes cooking as a leisure activity, type of housework and it also discusses the relation between cooking and cultural identity. It focuses on the importance of national and ethnic cuisine and deals with the differences in cooking influenced by religion and social stratification. The thesis also deals with the acquisition of cooing skills and transgeneral transfer of cooking skills. It d...

  5. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  6. Society and Social Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Society is the source of immense power. Over the past few centuries humanity has record­ed phenomenal growth in its collective capacity for accomplishment, as reflected in the 12-fold growth in global per capita income since 1800. The remarkable achievements in living standards, longevity, science, technology, industry, education, democracy, human rights, peace and global governance are the result of the exponential development of the capacity of society to harness human energies and convert them into social power for productive purposes. Today, humanity possesses the power and capabilities needed to fully meet the multi-dimensional challenges confronting global society. The source of this energy is people. Human energy is transformed into social power by the increasing reach, frequency and complexity of human relationships. Society is a complex living network of organized relationships between people. Its power issues from channelizing our collective energies in productive ways by means of organizing principles such as coordination, systems, specialization of function, hierarchy of authority, and integration. This immense social power remains largely underutilized. Social science needs to evolve a comprehensive, trans-disciplinary understanding of the roots of social power and the process by which it is generated, distributed and applied. This knowledge is the essential foundation for formulating effective social policies capable of eradicating forever persistent poverty, unemployment and social inequality. This article is based on a series of lectures delivered by the author in the WAAS-WUC course on “Toward a Trans-disciplinary Science of Society” at Dubrovnik on September 1-3, 2014. It traces the development of social power in different fields to show that human and social capital are inexhaustible in potential. The more we harness them, the more they grow. Unleashing, directing, channeling and converting human potential into social

  7. Leadership in Small Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Younger

    2010-01-01

    Multi-agent simulation was used to study several styles of leadership in small societies. Populations of 50 and100 agents inhabited a bounded landscape containing a fixed number of food sources. Agents moved about the landscape in search of food, mated, produced offspring, and died either of hunger or at a predetermined maximum age. Leadership models focused on the collection and redistribution of food. The simulations suggest that individual households were more effective at meeting their ne...

  8. The new totalitarian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout history. For instance, the Inquisition, which, contrary to what happened at scholastic universities, severely berated rational thinking in practice. Catholicism helped carry out genocide against the Jews, and Orthodoxy is in a certain manner tied in with Stalinism. The new totalitarian society is anchored in American Protestantism. On the whole, Christian rationalism is a sphere of science, techniques and technologies efficiently employed to promote the West to the status of a society of plenty and the conception of human rights, which turn into their opposite and irrational behavior of the worst kind. An example of such inhumanity is the attack against Yugoslavia/Serbia in 1999.

  9. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  10. Ethics in Psychiatric Research: Issues and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Shobhit; Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric research has increased remarkably over recent decades to help in understanding the current trends and better therapeutic options for illness. On the other hand, there is also a trend toward higher rates of retraction of published papers in the recent years. Ethics is required to maintain and increase the overall quality and morality of research. Psychiatric research faces several unique ethical challenges. Ethical guidelines are very important tool of research which safeguards par...

  11. Insomnia comorbid to severe psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    Soehner, Adriane M.; Kaplan, Katherine A; Harvey, Allison G.

    2013-01-01

    In psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that sleep disturbances exert a detrimental influence on the course of these disorders and contribute to impaired function. Even when psychiatric disorders are successfully treated or stabilized, insomnia and other sleep disturbances often fail to remit. The present review focuses on sleep in two severe mental illnesses, namely bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This article discusses the role of sleep disturbances and al...

  12. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease (PD is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control, sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.

  13. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Koelen Jurrijn; Peen Jaap; Dekker Jack; Smit Filip; Schoevers Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Method...

  14. Low blood pressure in psychiatric inpatients.

    OpenAIRE

    Masterton, G; Main, C J; Lever, A F; Lever, R S

    1981-01-01

    Blood pressure recordings in 116 female psychiatric inpatients were analysed. Sixty-nine women had schizophrenia, the remainder a variety of psychiatric conditions. All had been in hospital continuously for more than one year, the average for 19 years continuously. An average of seven recordings of blood pressure per patient had been made during that time. The latest of these compared well with measurements made independently using a sphygmomanometer free from observer bias. On admission to h...

  15. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  16. Training in Psychiatric Genomics during Residency: A New Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Joel G.; Goebert, Deborah; Matsu, Courtenay; Mrazek, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors ascertained the amount of training in psychiatric genomics that is provided in North American psychiatric residency programs. Methods: A sample of 217 chief residents in psychiatric residency programs in the United States and Canada were identified by e-mail and surveyed to assess their training in psychiatric genetics and…

  17. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. [Filicide; psychiatric disorders in parents who murder their children--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dil, L M; Doreleijers, Th A H; Schoevers, R A

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands between 1992 and 2001 there were 70 reported cases of child murder by parents, the total number of victims being 86. The crime of filicide is rare but has enormous impact on society. It is not known whether there is a relation between filicide and psychiatric disorders. To gain insight into the proportion and type of psychiatric disorders in perpetrators of filicide. method Literature search by means of PubMed, Embase Psychiatry and PsychInfo on the basis of the search terms filicide, neonaticide, infanticide, gender, psychiatric disorder. results Perpetrators of filicide were found to have many types of psychiatric disorders. The most frequent types of diagnostic categories were affective disorders with or without psychotic features. The second most frequent type was schizophrenia. There was a considerable overlap between these disorders, personality disorders and symptoms of drug-dependence. Often perpetrators were also found to have lower-than-average intelligence. A psychiatric disorder in one or both parents constitutes a major risk factor for child murder by parents. The identification of other risk factors and their possible interrelatedness is important for our understanding of these criminal acts, for the detection of warning signs and for the development of preventive strategies.

  19. Attitudes towards patient gender among psychiatric hospital staff: results of a case study with focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Silvia; Kilian, Reinhold; Becker, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    There is an increasing awareness of gender-related issues in psychiatry. However, empirical findings on attitudes of psychiatric staff towards patient gender are limited. Gender-related issues are particularly relevant in the debate about mixed versus segregated sex wards, yet while the appropriateness of mixed-sex wards is questioned in Great Britain this is not the case in Germany. To investigate attitudes of psychiatric staff towards both patient gender and mixed versus segregated sex wards, we conducted a case study using focus groups with members of professional teams. We evaluated the transition process from two single-sex wards to two mixed-sex wards in a 330-bed psychiatric hospital in a rural area in south Germany. Staff described female patients as more externally oriented, motivating of others, demanding, and even sexually aggressive. Male patients, on the other hand, were described as more quiet, modest, or lazy. Furthermore, participants described the mixing process as a positive development whereas they did not see a need for gender-separated wards in order to protect vulnerable female patients. Some gender descriptions by professionals are "reversed" in comparison with gender stereotypes supposed to be present in wider society. The perception of crossed gender norms may affect staff attitudes towards the vulnerability of female patients in psychiatric settings and the provision of single-sex wards in in-patient psychiatric care. Practical implications are discussed against the background of a high rate of female patients with sexual abuse histories.

  20. The Effect of Traumatic Experiences and Psychiatric Symptoms on the Life Satisfaction of North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeonsun; Lim, Sun Young; Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Kim, Ji-Chul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2017-01-01

    Successful adaptation of refugees to a new society can be hindered by traumatic experiences and psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to examine the relationship between trauma, psychiatric symptoms and life satisfaction of North Korean refugees resettled in South Korea. A total of 211 North Korean refugees living in South Korea completed a series of questionnaires on the history of their previous traumatic experiences, life satisfaction in South Korea, depression, anxiety, somatization and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. North Korean refugees who had experienced more traumatic events were less satisfied with their economic status in South Korea. Severe depression, anxiety, somatization or PTSD symptoms negatively correlated with their overall satisfaction in South Korea. In the stepwise regression model including all psychiatric symptoms and the number of traumatic experiences as dependent variables, only anxiety, but not trauma, predicted lower life satisfaction in South Korea. Traumatic experiences of North Korean refugees negatively affected the life satisfaction, especially the economic satisfaction, in South Korea. Since the negative effect of trauma was mainly mediated by psychiatric symptoms, the strategy of relieving psychiatric symptoms of traumatized refugees may help the adaptation of refugees. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Psychiatric patients' internet use corresponds to the internet use of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefflich, Friederike; Kalckreuth, Sophie; Mergl, Roland; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2015-03-30

    The use of Internet has grown in the past number of years, including the increased application of various therapy programs for psychiatric patients which can be accessed online. Few studies investigating psychiatric patients' Internet use exist. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the number of psychiatric patients that use the Internet in comparison to the general population. Since patients with mental health disorders frequently suffer from a variety of disadvantages in society, it was evaluated whether psychiatric patients were disadvantaged particularly concerning the use and access of the Internet. Three hundred and thirty-seven patients participated in the study and completed a 29-item questionnaire. A response rate of 66% was achieved. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Out of the participants, 79.5% were Internet users. This number corresponds to the Internet use of the general population. Young patients in particular were found to use online information, using mostly search engines to seek medical information. The results show that psychiatric patients do not rank below the general population concerning the frequency of Internet use, which is especially important for accessing health related information online or participating in online programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Guideline-adherent inpatient psychiatric psychotherapeutic treatment of borderline personality disorder : Normative definition of personnel requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohus, M; Schmahl, C; Herpertz, S C; Lieb, K; Berger, M; Roepke, S; Heinz, A; Gallinat, J; Lyssenko, L

    2016-07-01

    Borderline personality disorders (BPD) are severe mental diseases which place high pressure on the psychiatric healthcare system. Nowadays, well-tested, disorder-specific treatment concepts are available also for inpatient treatment in Germany. These show very good and long-term improvements in the psychopathology as well as posttreatment social participation; however, prerequisites for the implementation of these evidence-based inpatient psychotherapy programs are well-trained treatment teams and appropriate financing of resource expenditure. The aim was to formulate a definition of normative needs for treatment duration and intensity for a guideline-conform, empirically proven and effective inpatient treatment of borderline personality disorder as well as the derived personnel requirements in comparison to the currently available resources within the framework of the Psychiatry Personnel Act (Psych-PV). The resource requirements were established based on evaluated hospital ward models, the recommendations of the S2 guidelines and the criteria of specialist societies and compared with the personnel stipulations according to the Psych-PV. The results for a normatively established treatment program showed a pronounced deficit in the financing of the evaluated resource requirements, even when the stipulations laid down in the Psych-PV were implemented to 100 %. Disorder-specific inpatient treatment programs for borderline personality disorder have been scientifically proven to be highly effective; however, resource analyses show that the personnel requirements necessary for effective implementation of these programs are much higher than those allocated by the funding according to the Pysch-PV. The current underfunding leads to inadequate treatment outcomes with high readmission rates and as a result high direct and indirect costs of illness.

  3. Policies on assisted suicide in Dutch psychiatric facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkate, I; van der Wal, G

    1998-01-01

    Recent jurisprudence in the Netherlands challenges psychiatric hospitals to formulate policies on how to approach requests for assisted suicide. This study examined whether such policies exist in Dutch psychiatric hospitals and general hospitals with psychiatric wards. The directors of patient care in 38 of the country's 52 psychiatric hospitals and 42 of the 59 general hospitals with psychiatric wards responded to a mail survey. Five psychiatric hospitals and six general hospitals had written policies. Almost half of the psychiatric hospitals had a verbal policy only. The majority of the hospitals with policies had a tolerant or permissive policy toward assisted suicide.

  4. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prototype diagnosis of psychiatric syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESTEN, DREW

    2012-01-01

    resolve the thorny issue of the relation between psychiatric diagnosis and functional impairment. PMID:22294998

  6. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, W.G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY, (United States). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons; Laruelle, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Inst.

    2002-11-01

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  7. [Establishment of an Animal Based Therapy at a University Hospital for Psychiatry: Results of a Preliminary Study and Future Prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfiel, Cajetan; Bodatsch, Mitja; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Kuhn, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Dogs have been integrated in human society over centuries. This process has selected unique social and communicative skills. Dogs are thus able to represent social substitutes for human counterparts in cases of social withdrawal. Furthermore, dogs act as "social catalysts" in promoting interhuman encounters. Thus, the integration of dogs in psychotherapeutic concepts addressing social and interpersonal deficits may be of special interest. Methods: The present investigation reports the results of a pilot study to establish animal-assisted therapy (dogs) at a psychiatric department. The animal-assisted intervention straddled the following areas: (1) contact making, communication and orientation to needs, (2) recreation and play, (3) outward orientation, (4) release and farewell. The sample comprised 22 subjects. Results: The results demonstrated in particular that the animal-assisted intervention significantly promoted unspecific aspects of positive affectivity and wellbeing. Evaluation of the overall acceptance of the dog on the psychiatric ward revealed very positive feedback. Conclusions: We conclude that animal-assisted therapies represent a significant enchrichment of the therapeutic context, that may be used to enhance the patients' openness and adherence to conventional therapies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Science, Society and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  9. Popular Music and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    or the Russkii Rok-Klub v Amerike (Russian Rock Club of America).   This special edition of Popular Music and Society aims to present research on contemporary popular music (broadly defined) in the former Soviet republics and their diasporas.  A central issue will be how the musical landscape has changed since...... the collapse of the Soviet Union: What present trends can be observed?  How has the Soviet context influenced the popular music of today?  How is music performed and consumed?  How has the interrelationship between cultural industry and performers developed?  How are nationalist sensibilities affecting popular...

  10. Disciplining Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles of the current era is the divide between optimists and pessimists on the question of human rights. The prominence of human rights on the international political agenda sustains the optimist’s hopes for the future, while pessimists point to continued and widespread reports of civil, political, economic, social and cultural violations. This article looks at the tensions and apparent contradictions between these two approaches. Following a discussion on the construction of global human rights discourse(s, the article concludes that the pretensions of law act to mask the socioeconomic normative framework that acts to discipline global society.

  11. Disciplining Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles of the current era is the divide between optimists and pessimists on the question of human rights. The prominence of human rights on the international political agenda sustains the optimist’s hopes for the future, while pessimists point to continued and widespread reports of civil, political, economic, social and cultural violations. This article looks at the tensions and apparent contradictions between these two approaches. Following a discussion on the construction of global human rights discourse(s, the article concludes that the pretensions of law act to mask the socioeconomic normative framework that acts to discipline global society.

  12. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  13. [Systems approach to adolescence. Refresher course of the Swiss Psychiatric Society, Zurich, May 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivaz, E

    1984-01-01

    The author summarizes contributions of General Systems Theory to the understanding of adolescence. GST, a metatheory that does not replace intermediary theories which are directly comparable to experience, has firstly attempted to describe hierarchical organizations. More recently, new models have focused on processes. One of these models, the evolutive paradigm, has specified essential conditions of interaction between environment and evolutive systems, called constancy and adjustment. It is applied here to data of a crisis within a non-clinical family with adolescents.

  14. Blood Establishment Registration Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides information for active, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by FEI, Applicant Name, Establishment Name, Other Names,...

  15. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jean Rankin,1 Lynsay Matthews,2 Stephen Cobley,3 Ahreum Han,3 Ross Sanders,3 Huw D Wiltshire,4 Julien S Baker5 1Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, 2MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 4Cardiff School of Sport/Ysgol Chwaraeon Caerdydd, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; 5School of Science and Sport, Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, Scotland Abstract: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW or obese (OB, and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings

  16. Psychiatric Service Use and Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, S.; Tyrer, F. C.; McGrother, C.; Ganghadaran, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: UK policies aim to facilitate access to general psychiatric services for adults with intellectual disability (ID). If this is to be achieved, it is important to have a clear idea of the characteristics and proportion of people with ID who currently access specialist psychiatric services and the nature and extent of psychiatric…

  17. Impact of social-psychiatric services and psychiatric clinics on involuntary admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Barbara; Haussleiter, Ida Sybille; Kalthoff, Jörg; Schramm, Anja; Hoffmann, Knut; Jendreyschak, Jasmin; Schaub, Markus; Armgart, Carina; Juckel, Georg; Illes, Franciska

    2014-11-01

    Germany provides a wide range of highly developed mental health care to its citizens. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing the voluntariness of admissions to psychiatric hospitals. Especially the impact of demographic factors of the region, characteristics of the psychiatric hospitals and characteristics of the psychosocial services was analyzed. A retrospective analysis of hospital admission registers from 13 German adult psychiatric hospitals in 2009 was conducted. Public data on the regional psychiatric accommodation and demographic situation were added. Hospitals were dichotomously divided according to their index of involuntary admissions. Group comparisons were performed between the clinics with low and high involuntary admission indices. Analysis was conducted with clinical, psychiatric provision and demographic data related to inpatients in the Landschaftsverbands Westfalen-Lippe (LWL)-PsychiatryNetwork. Especially the range of services provided by the social-psychiatric services in the region such as number of supervised patients and home visits had an influence on the proportion of involuntary admissions to a psychiatric hospital. Some demographic characteristics of the region such as discretionary income showed further influence. Contrary to our expectations, the characteristics of the individual hospital seem to have no influence on the admission rate. Social-psychiatric services show a preventive impact on involuntary acute psychiatry interventions. Sociodemographic factors and patient variables play a role with regard to the number of involuntary hospitalizations, whereas characteristics of hospitals seemed to play no role. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Genetic Counselling for Psychiatric Disorders: Accounts of Psychiatric Health Professionals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sian; Arribas-Ayllon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Genetic counselling is not routinely offered for psychiatric disorders in the United Kingdom through NHS regional clinical genetics departments. However, recent genomic advances, confirming a genetic contribution to mental illness, are anticipated to increase demand for psychiatric genetic counselling. This is the first study of its kind to employ qualitative methods of research to explore accounts of psychiatric health professionals regarding the prospects for genetic counselling services within clinical psychiatry in the UK. Data were collected from 32 questionnaire participants, and 9 subsequent interviewees. Data analysis revealed that although participants had not encountered patients explicitly demanding psychiatric genetic counselling, psychiatric health professionals believe that such a service would be useful and desirable. Genomic advances may have significant implications for genetic counselling in clinical psychiatry even if these discoveries do not lead to genetic testing. Psychiatric health professionals describe clinical genetics as a skilled profession capable of combining complex risk communication with much needed psychosocial support. However, participants noted barriers to the implementation of psychiatric genetic counselling services including, but not limited to, the complexities of uncertainty in psychiatric diagnoses, patient engagement and ethical concerns regarding limited capacity.

  19. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  20. Supplier-induced demand for psychiatric admissions in Northern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    suggests that psychiatric bed availability may partially explain the variation in admission rates. Development of PHSAs, rather than relying on the use of established general medical HSAs, improves the relevance and accuracy of small area analysis in understanding mental health services utilization. PMID:21906290

  1. Mitochondria and the central nervous system: searching for a pathophysiological basis of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio L. Streck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated to participate in the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no consensus as to its role. The aim of this paper is to review recent studies and to outline the current understanding of the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Methodology: We reviewed articles that evaluated mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, and the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of these disorders. Results: Evidence suggests that alterations in mitochondrial morphology, brain energy metabolism, and mitochondrial enzyme activity may be involved in the pathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric disorders, given their key role in energy metabolism in the cell. Conclusions: Understanding the interactions between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of psychiatric disorders may help establish more effective therapeutic strategies for these disorders and thus lead to better outcomes for affected subjects.

  2. The role of estrogen therapy in postpartum psychiatric disorders: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this review is to assess and summarize the existing literature data about the efficacy of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in preventing and treating postpartum psychiatric disorders. An extensive and unrestrictive computerized search (from 1970 to June 2005) on MEDLINE/PubMed, TOXNET, EMBASE, and Cochrane Databases was conducted with the following search terms: estradiol, estrogen-treatment, hormonal treatment, therapy, postpartum depression, postnatal depression, puerperal depression, postpartum blues, postpartum psychosis, lactation, and breastfeeding. In assessing available literature information about the role of ERT in preventing and treating puerperal psychiatric diseases, all reviewed studies were found to suffer from severe methodological limitations. Well-designed and strictly focused multicenter trials are warranted in order to firmly establish the effectiveness of ERT in puerperal psychiatric disorders.

  3. Risk of Schizophrenia Increases After All Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibing, Cecilie Frejstrup; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Earlier smaller studies have shown associations between child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and schizophrenia. Particularly, attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and autism have been linked with schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We......, therefore, conducted the first large-scale study on the association between a broad spectrum of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods: Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all persons born during 1990......-2000 and the cohort was followed until December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed using survival analyses and adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex. Results: A total of 25138 individuals with child and adolescent psychiatric disorders were identified, out of which 1232 individuals were subsequently diagnosed...

  4. History of Japanese Society of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Founded in 1981, the Japanese Society of Toxicology (JSOT) has grown into an organization of nearly 3,000 members working together to advance the nation's scientific knowledge and understanding of toxicology through the implementation of planning that ensures a systematic and efficient expenditure of energies and resources, and is closely aligned with a strategy for accomplishing the Society's long-range plans. To promote public education in toxicology, the Society organizes public lectures during each year's annual meeting. Other activities include hosting scientific conferences, promoting continuing education, and facilitating international collaboration. Internally, the JSOT operates five standing committees: General Affairs, Educational, Editorial, Finance, and Science and Publicity to handle its necessary relationships. To bestow official recognition, the Society established its Toxicologist Certification Program in 1997, and has certified 536 members as Diplomat Toxicologists (DJSOT) as of May 1, 2016. Furthermore, on the same date, 43 JSOT members were certified as Emeritus Diplomats of the JSOT (EDJSOT). The Society has launched two official journals, the "Journal of Toxicological Sciences (JTS)" in 1981 and "Fundamental Toxicological Sciences (Fundam. Toxicol. Sci.)" in 2014. As for participation in the international organizations, the JSOT (then known as the Toxicological Research Group) joined the International Union of Toxicology as a charter member in 1980, and became a founding member of the Asian Society of Toxicology at its inauguration in 1994. Into the future, the JSOT will continue working diligently to advance knowledge and understanding of toxicology and secure its place among the interdisciplinary fields of science, humane studies, and ethics.

  5. History of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Williams, William G

    2015-10-01

    The Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society is a group of over 100 pediatric heart surgeons representing 72 institutions that specialize in the treatment of patients with congenital heart defects. The Society began in 1972 and incorporated as a not-for-profit charitable organization in 2004. It has become the face and voice of congenital heart surgery in North America. In 1985, the Society established a data center for multicenter clinical research studies to encourage congenital heart professionals to participate in improving outcomes for our patients. The goals of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society are to stimulate the study of congenital cardiac physiology, pathology, and management options which are instantiated in data collection, multi-institutional studies, and scientific meetings. Honest and open discussion of problems with possible solutions to the challenges facing congenital heart professionals have been the strength of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society. It is imperative for the growth of an organization to know from where it came in order to know to where it is going. The purpose of this article is to review the history of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. [Relationship of psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latas, Milan; Starcević, Vladan; Trajković, Goran

    2006-01-01

    Besides numerous studies that examined various aspects of comorbidity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and numerous studies that examined efficacy of different treatment modalities in these patients, there was no study that examined relationship of overall psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The objective of the study was to establish the effect of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment efficiency of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The sample of the study consisted of 119 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder and agoraphobia. The therapy of patients was based on the use of individual integrative model of treatment, which incorporated psycho-pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines and antidepressants) and cognitive-behavior therapy. Symptom severity was estimated by Panic and Agoraphobia Scale before and after the completion of treatment. Patients with comorbidity and patients without any comorbidity were compared by MANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures. The results of the study showed that 91% of patients met diagnostic criteria of comorbid psychiatric disorder and these patients had more severe clinical picture than patients without any comorbid disorder before the treatment. The results also showed that, after the completion of treatment, there was a significant reduction of all analyzed symptoms, that the effects of treatment were significantly better in patients with psychiatric comorbidity and that comorbid psychiatric disorders had no negative effect on the main goals of the treatment. Based on these results, it may be concluded that: in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and comorbid psychiatric disorders, the pharmacotherapy must be based on simultaneous use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines, while standard cognitive-behavior therapy of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia must be modified in case of the existing comorbid psychiatric disorders.

  7. Relationship of psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latas Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Besides numerous studies that examined various aspects of comorbidity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and numerous studies that examined efficacy of different treatment modalities in these patients, there was no study that examined relationship of overall psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Objective. The objective of the study was to establish the effect of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment efficiency of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Method. The sample of the study consisted of 119 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder and agoraphobia. The therapy of patients was based on the use of individual integrative model of treatment, which incorporated psycho-pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines and antidepressants and cognitive- behavior therapy. Symptom severity was estimated by Panic and Agoraphobia Scale before and after the completion of treatment. Patients with comorbidity and patients without any comorbidity were compared by MANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures. Results. The results of the study showed that 91% of patients met diagnostic criteria of comorbid psychiatric disorder and these patients had more severe clinical picture than patients without any comorbid disorder before the treatment. The results also showed that, after the completion of treatment, there was a significant reduction of all analyzed symptoms, that the effects of treatment were significantly better in patients with psychiatric comorbidity and that comorbid psychiatric disorders had no negative effect on the main goals of the treatment. Conclusion. Based on these results, it may be concluded that: in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and comorbid psychiatric disorders, the pharmacotherapy must be based on simultaneous use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines, while standard cognitive-behavior therapy of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia must

  8. Communicating Science to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  9. Consensus of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases and Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology on the management and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Arruda

    2014-05-01

    There are no treatment guidelines for Kaposi's sarcoma established in Brazil, and thus the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology and the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases developed the treatment consensus presented here.

  10. Psychiatric Disability in Law Enforcement Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn

    2017-03-01

    Law enforcement officers all across the world are exposed to violence, confrontation, and traumatic incidents. They regularly witness death and suffering and are at risk of personal injury. Psychiatric sequelae include an increased risk for trauma-related symptoms, depression, alcohol-use disorders, and stress-related medical conditions. Law enforcement officers have been applying for early disability retirement pensions at an increased rate for stress-related psychiatric and medical conditions. As a result, law enforcement agencies are prematurely losing valuable resources, officers with training and experience. Departments have become proactive in trying to address mental health issues to prevent psychiatric disability by implementing employee wellness plans and stress reduction interventions. Programs have been developed to mitigate the effects of stress on law enforcement personnel. Many law enforcement agencies have developed strategies to encourage early confidential referral for psychiatric treatment. They utilize peer support groups and employee assistance programs and develop alliances with mental health professionals. When these approaches fail, a fitness for duty process can be used to identify impairment in work functioning due to psychiatric factors with the prospect of later returning the officer to full duty. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Psychiatric care in the German prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.

  12. Psychiatric comorbidities in women with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Anskis, Alicia M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2012-03-01

    Although the physical consequences of Celiac Disease are well studied, less is known about co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. This study examines psychiatric risk and comorbidities of women with Celiac Disease, who may be at increased risk for psychiatric symptoms (e.g. depression, and disordered eating behaviours). Women (N = 177) with Celiac Disease responded to an extensive web-mediated survey assessing dietary compliance, illness symptoms, psychiatric functioning, and disordered eating. Despite high reported dietary compliance, patients reported marked illness symptoms and impaired quality of life. A substantial minority endorsed symptoms that met criteria for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: 37% (n = 65) met the threshold suggesting depression, and 22% (n = 39) for disordered eating. Participants whose symptoms exceeded these clinical thresholds reported greater perceived stress and reduced overall mental health, relative to women below the clinical cutoffs. Despite largely adhering to a gluten-free diet, a substantial subset of women with Celiac Disease report clinically relevant symptoms of depression and disordered eating; such symptoms are associated with increased psychosocial distress in other domains. These results suggest potential to improve the patient well-being through attention to psychosocial care, in addition to existing dietary recommendations for individuals with Celiac Disease.

  13. Impulse control disorders in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Levine, Laura; Kim, Daniel; Potenza, Marc N

    2005-11-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients. They used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, a semistructured clinical interview assessing pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania, pyromania, intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, to screen 204 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients. One hundred twelve of the inpatients were women (54.9%), and the mean age of the 204 inpatients was 40.5 years (SD=13.2, range=18-83). Patients whose screen was positive for an impulse control disorder were evaluated with structured clinical interviews. Sixty-three patients (30.9%) were diagnosed with at least one current impulse control disorder. The most common impulse control disorders were compulsive buying (N=19 [9.3%]), kleptomania (N=16 [7.8%]), and pathological gambling (N=14 [6.9%]). Patients with and without co-occurring impulse control disorders did not differ significantly from each other on demographic measures or number or type of psychiatric diagnoses other than impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders appear common among psychiatric inpatients. Additional, larger studies are needed to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in the general population and specific psychiatric groups.

  14. [Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromundt, Vivien

    2014-11-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are prevalent among psychiatric patients. This is most probable due to a close relationship between functional disturbances of the internal clock, sleep regulation and mental health. Mechanisms on molecular level of the circadian clock and neurotransmitter signalling are involved in the development of both disorders. Moreover, circadian disorders and psychiatric diseases favour each other by accessory symptoms such as stress or social isolation. Actimetry to objectively quantify the rest-activity cycle and salivary melatonin profiles as marker for the circadian phase help to diagnose circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric patients. Chronotherapeutics such as bright light therapy, dark therapy, melatonin administration, and wake therapy are used to synchronise and consolidate circadian rhythms and help in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders, but are still neglected in medicine. More molecular to behavioural research is needed for the understanding of the development of circadian disorders and their relationship to psychiatric illnesses. This will help to boost the awareness and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatry.

  15. Making Sense for Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, J. J.; Grus, M. M.; Nouwens, J. C. A. J.

    2017-09-01

    The Netherlands is a densely populated country. Cities in the metropolitan area (Randstad) will be growing at a fast pace in the coming decades1. Cities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam are being overrun by tourists. Climate change effects are noticed in cities (heavy rains for instance). Call for circular economy rises. Traffic increases. People are more self-reliant. Public space is shared by many functions. These challenges call for smart answers, more specific and directly than ever before. Sensor data is a cornerstone of these answers. In this paper we'll discuss the approaches of Dutch initiatives using sensor data as the new language to live a happy life in our cities. Those initiatives have been bundled in a knowledge platform called "Making sense for society" 1 https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2016/37/pbl-cbs-prognose-groei-steden-zet-door (in dutch)

  16. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  17. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  18. Libraries in Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the phenomenon of openness in relation to library development. The term openness is presented and related to library development from historical and theoretical perspectives. The paper elaborates on the differences over time on to how openness has been...... understood in a library setting. Historically, openness in form of the open shelves played a crucial role in developing the modern public library. The paper examines this openness-centred library policy as adopted by Danish public libraries in the beginning of the 20th century by applying the theories...... by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...

  19. Advanced information society (1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Gosei

    In considering the relationship of informationization and industrial structure, this paper analize some factors such as information revolution, informationization of industries and industrialization of information as background of informationization of Japanese society. Next, some information indicators such as, information coefficient of household which is a share of information related expenditure, information coefficient of industry which is a share of information related cost to total cost of production, and information transmission census developed by Ministry of Post and Telecommunication are introduced. Then new information indicator by Economic Planning Agency, that is, electronic info-communication indicator is showed. In this study, the information activities are defined to produce message or to supply services on process, stores or sale of message using electronic information equipment. International comparisons of information labor force are also presented.

  20. Reintegrating ghettos into society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenborg, Mette

    2018-01-01

    international regeneration programmes in order to close the socio-economic gap between housing areas and residents. Based on the recent architectural evaluation of social housing renewals for the Danish National Building Foundation (Bech-Danielsen & Mechlenborg 2017) and with a Lefebvrean perspective......In 2010, the Danish government launched a ghetto strategy with 32 initiatives in order to “dissolve parallel communities” in Danish housing areas and to (re)integrate them into Danish society (Statsministeret, 2010). Despite its negative offspring in the Muhammed riots (Freiesleben 2016, Houlind...... 2016), the strategy arguably presented a strategy for revalorization of space and, thereby, a new strategic approach combining social and physical initiatives in order to permanently transform deprived housing areas in a Danish contexts. With the ghetto strategy, Denmark is aligned with similar...

  1. Science, Technology and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgstock, Martin; Burch, David; Forge, John; Laurent, John; Lowe, Ian

    1998-03-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the human, social and economic aspects of science and technology. It examines a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, using examples and experiences from around the world. The authors present complex issues, including the responsibilities of scientists, ethical dilemmas and controversies, the Industrial Revolution, economic issues, public policy, and science and technology in developing countries. The book ends with a thoughtful and provocative look toward the future. It features extensive guides to further reading, as well as a useful section on information searching skills. This book will provoke, engage, inform and stimulate thoughtful discussion about culture, society and science. Broad and interdisciplinary, it will be of considerable value to both students and teachers.

  2. Afghanistan, state and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kværnø, Ole

    of both governmental and nongovernmental institutions from more than 20 states. Its theme was to discuss the problems that Afghanistan faces in the wake of the U.S.-led attack on al Qaeda training camps and the Taliban government; examine the challenges confronting the NATO International Security......In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...... Assistance Force as it coordinates nation-building activities in Afghanistan; and suggest ways to address these issues. This volume compiles 11 of the papers presented at the conference; themes include the importance of historical precedents, coordination among relevant parties, and the development of an all...

  3. Psychiatric screening of admissions to an accident and emergency ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G; Reinstein, D Z; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1991-04-01

    One hundred medical and surgical patients admitted to an accident and emergency ward were screened for psychiatric disorder. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 37 patients, 32 of whom were correctly identified by the GHQ. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with being single, lower social class, unemployment, homelessness and living in Bloomsbury Health District or north-east London. It was also associated with not being registered with a GP. The 14 overdose patients were no more likely to receive a psychiatric diagnosis than other patients, yet constituted most of the psychiatric referrals. Few patients were asked by medical staff about emotional worries or problems. A desire to be asked such questions and a past psychiatric history were associated with a psychiatric diagnosis. Routine screening of psychiatric morbidity in both medical and surgical patients and appropriate psychiatric referral of identified patients is recommended. A system of facilitating GP registration is necessary, as much of the morbidity identified could be contained within primary care.

  4. [Psychiatric interventions for the unemployed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, V; Scherbaum, N; Wiltfang, J; Kis, B; Meiler, B; Lieb, B; Mikoteit, T; Ehren, G; Hebebrand, J

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment is related to a higher risk for psychological distress and mental disorders, which cause individual suffering and socioeconomic costs for society in general. This selective review surveys the relationship between unemployment and psychological well-being and mental disorders. The most important programs for the improvement of the mental health of the unemployed are summarized: 1. Interventions for the unemployed with the aim of improving coping strategies reduce the risk of developing depressive symptoms. 2. The SUPPORT liaison outpatient unit collaborates closely with the unemployment agency and offers a low-threshold screening for mental disorders for unemployed subjects as well as counseling for those in need of treatment. 3. A group training based on cognitive behavioral therapy improves the psychological well-being of unemployed participants. 4. Supported employment is an effective means of placing severely mentally ill patients in a work-place accompanied by an extensive professional support.

  5. Social Psychiatric Aspects of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psota, Georg

    2015-12-01

    The future of a dementia-appropriate care rests on early diagnosis and treatment (also in terms of a timely information, counselling and assistance), developing mobile medical healthcare, integrating and coordinating all dementia care partners and stakeholders, appropriate assessments of the stages of care allowance, providing new forms of housing, addressing the migration issue, and reducing unnecessary administrative bureaucracy - as well as, last but not least, the fight against prejudice. People affected by dementia suffer not only from symptoms of their illness but also from society's reaction towards this illness. Stigmatisation of dementia prevents an early diagnosis and treatment which could improve the course of the illness and create a "better everyday life", a more of inclusion for the affected people and their environment. But Albert Einstein already knew: "It's harder to crack prejudice than an atom." Nevertheless, it is paramount to work towards it - for dementia can affect each and every one of us. Dementia matters, for all of us.

  6. [International overview of psychiatric reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desviat, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    There has been an increased incidence of mental health problems around the world while psychiatry is experiencing a crisis that concerns its own identity and the definition of the scope of its work. After more than half a century of deinstitutionalized community policies, neoliberal globalization is leading to changes that undermine public attention on mental health, particularly of the disorders that require greater social attention. There have been changes in the responsibility of the state and changes in the type of demand and in the way of understanding disease and its treatment. At the time, compared to the medicalization of society that mediates the expression of needs in health, user movements are beginning to emerge demanding autonomy, full citizenship, empowerment, recovery and advocacy.

  7. Recovery-Oriented Psychiatric Nursing in South Korea: A Hybrid Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Suyon; Kim, Sunah

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the attributes and verify the definition of the recovery-oriented psychiatric nursing concept using the hybrid model suggested by Schwartz-Barcott and Kim ( 2000 ). In the theoretical analysis phase, a literature search was conducted and data were collected using the Pubmed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar databases. This study considered of 7 empirical studies, 21 guidelines, 12 instruments, 2 related theories, 3 practical models, and 2 intervention programs. In the fieldwork phase, this study performed in-depth interviews with nine psychiatric nurses. After comprehensively analyzing the attributes of recovery-oriented psychiatric nursing through a literature review and the fieldwork phase, this study rearranged the final attributes and definition of recovery-oriented psychiatric nursing in the final analytic phase as follows: "Placing consumers in the center of nursing as human beings"; "Expecting with hope"; "Encouraging them to lead a satisfactory life"; "Guiding them to live along with their peers, family and the community"; "Becoming a companion"; "Growing together"; and "Establishing a nursing organizational culture and system." The results of this study will be used as the basic data for developing educational contents and practice guidelines for the quick resolution and activation of recovery-oriented psychiatric nursing.

  8. Clock Genes and Altered Sleep–Wake Rhythms: Their Role in the Development of Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaëlle Charrier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause–effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep–wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders. First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep–wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders.

  9. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for and to society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human consciousness instinctively tries to make sense of reality. Different human interpretations of reality lead to a world consisting of multiple realities. Conflict occurs when differing realities (worldviews encounter one another. Worldviews are socially created and determine human behaviour and, as such, most often find expression in religion. The discussion of conflict and the role of religion in civil society take place within the discourse of the sociology of religion. Religion is socially determined. Peter Berger’s insight into the sociology of religion therefore plays an important role in establishing the relationship between religion and civil society as one that takes on different forms. Thus, a clear definition of both civil society and religion was needed to understand the nature of these relationships. The role of religion in civil society with regard to the presence of conflict in society was further investigated in this article. The conditions under which conflict in society occurs were discussed, as were the conditions for tolerance in society, for religion ultimately becomes the provider of moral discernment when conflict occurs in civil society.

  10. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for and to society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human consciousness instinctively tries to make sense of reality. Different human interpretations of reality lead to a world consisting of multiple realities. Conflict occurs when differing realities (worldviews encounter one another. Worldviews are socially created and determine human behaviour and, as such, most often find expression in religion. The discussion of conflict and the role of religion in civil society take place within the discourse of the sociology of religion. Religion is socially determined. Peter Berger’s insight into the sociology of religion therefore plays an important role in establishing the relationship between religion and civil society as one that takes on different forms. Thus, a clear definition of both civil society and religion was needed to understand the nature of these relationships. The role of religion in civil society with regard to the presence of conflict in society was further investigated in this article. The conditions under which conflict in society occurs were discussed, as were the conditions for tolerance in society, for religion ultimately becomes the provider of moral discernment when conflict occurs in civil society.

  11. Modeling and Treatment Applicable in the Establishment of the Necessary Variables for Testing the Mathematical Model Regarding the Contribution of the Amortization Method to The Estimation of the Cash Flows from the Use of Fixed Assets – Case Study Applied to the Groups of Societies within the European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela - Daniela MANEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to tackle with the problem of modeling the variables necessary for testing the suggested mathematical model – the net cash flows from using the tangible fixed assets for the year of analysis, the discount rate of the future cash flows, respectively the annual and cumulative amortization. In our attempt to prove that, starting from a given set of rules regarding amortization and complying with the considerations of the American implicit interest depreciation method, we can obtain a model through which the net cash flow from exploitation of an asset/group of assets can be expressed according to measure of the annual amortization, we considered it necessary to gradually present the successive steps of modeling the above mentioned aggregates in the practice of the societies within the European area. Likewise, there have been mentioned the limitations encountered in our research process in the set of annual financial situations of the groups of societies within the European area connected to the measurement of the above mentioned variables.

  12. Negative rumor: contagion of a psychiatric department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novac, Andrei; McEwan, Stephanie; Bota, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a sizable body of literature on the effects of rumors and gossip has emerged. Addressing rumors in the workplace is an important subject, as rumors have a direct impact on the quality of the work environment and also on the productivity and creativity of the employees. To date, little has been written on the effect of rumors and gossip in psychiatric hospitals. This article presents case vignettes of rumors spread in psychiatric hospitals and the impact on team cohesion and morale among the staff implicated in these, too often, neglected occurrences. Dynamic aspects with particular focus on rumors in psychiatric units and suggestions for remedy and treatment are presented.

  13. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tunel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  14. Psychiatric history in living kidney donor candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Ishigooka, Jun

    2012-04-01

    To critically discuss recent studies of living kidney donor candidates with a past or current psychiatric history and to offer guidance for the psychosocial evaluation of such donors. A global consensus has been developed that active, significant mental illness and substance abuse are absolute contraindications to organ donation due to diminished ability to make a well informed, rational decision about donation or to maintain health status after donation. However, to date, there has been little information published on the suitability for donation and the long-term psychosocial and medical outcomes after donation in donors with mental health issues, especially relatively milder psychiatric disorders, or past significant psychiatric history. To resolve the ethical dilemma of whether living donor candidates with mental health issues should be allowed to donate as is their right or be considered a vulnerable group in need of protection, we need more information. Information should include careful evaluation, possible intervention and follow-up to optimize donation.

  15. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    Ayahuasca is believed to be harmless for those (including adolescents) drinking it within a religious setting. Nevertheless controlled studies on the mental/ psychiatric status of ritual hallucinogenic ayahuasca concoction consumers are still lacking. In this study, 40 adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 40 controls matched on sex, age, and educational background for psychiatric symptomatology. Screening scales for depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption patterns (abuse), attentional problems, and body dysmorphic disorders were used. It was found that, compared to controls, considerable lower frequencies of positive scoring for anxiety, body dismorphism, and attentional problems were detected among ayahuasca-using adolescents despite overall similar psychopathological profiles displayed by both study groups. Low frequencies of psychiatric symptoms detected among adolescents consuming ayahuasca within a religious context may reflect a protective effect due to their religious affiliation. However further studies on the possible interference of other variables in the outcome are necessary.

  16. Indian – American contributions to psychiatric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangi, Anand K.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian – American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years. PMID:21836715

  17. Ethical Challenges in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffic, H Steven; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Silver, Stuart; Koh, Steve

    2015-09-01

    As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. These principles build on prior Psychological Theories of leadership, such as those of Freud, Kernberg, and Kohut. Supplementing these theories are the actual real life models of psychiatrist leadership as depicted in the memoirs of various psychiatrists. Appreciating these principles, theories, and models may help emerging leaders to better recognize the importance of ethical challenges. A conclusion is that psychiatrists should have the potential to assume more successful leadership positions once again. In such positions, making the skills and well-being of all in the organization seems now to be the foremost ethical priority.

  18. Ancient Hindu Society and Eliot's Ideal Christian Society

    OpenAIRE

    Bhela, Anita

    2012-01-01

    In her article "Ancient Hindu Society and Eliot's Ideal Christian Society" Anita Bhela examines the influence of Hindu thought and Hindu philosophy on T.S. Eliot's critical writings. In The Idea of a Christian Society Eliot gives a hypothetical account of an ideal society that would contribute towards the well-being of all its members, while in Notes towards the Definition of Culture he enumerates the essential conditions needed for the growth and survival of culture. Bhela argues that religi...

  19. Examining Psychiatric Disorder as a Risk Factor for Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study of 1,165,039 Swedish Men: Different Analytical Strategies Reveal Different Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Elise; Batty, G. David; Mulheran, Paul A.; Gale, Catharine R.; Osborn, David P.; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Background Associations between psychiatric disorders and cancer incidence are inconsistent, with studies reporting cancer rates in psychiatric patients that are higher, similar, or lower than the general population. Exploration of these associations is complicated by difficulties in establishing the timing of onset of psychiatric disorders and cancer, and the associated possibility of reverse causality. Some studies have dealt with this problem by excluding patients with cancers pre-dating their psychiatric illness; others have not considered the issue. Methods We examined associations between psychiatric hospitalization and cancer incidence in a cohort of 1,165,039 Swedish men, and explored the impact of different analytical strategies on these associations using real and simulated data. Results Relative to men without psychiatric hospitalization, we observed consistent increases in smoking-related cancers in those with psychiatric hospitalizations, regardless of analytical approach (for example, hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.73 (1.52, 1.96)). However, associations with nonsmoking-related cancers were highly dependent on analytical strategy. In analyses based on the full cohort, we observed no association or a modest increase in cancer incidence in those with psychiatric hospitalizations (1.14 (1.07, 1.22)). In contrast, analyses excluding men whose cancer predated their psychiatric hospitalizations, resulted in a reduction in future cancer incidence in psychiatric patients (0.72; 0.67, 0.78). Results from simulated data suggest that even modest exclusions of this type can lead to strong artefactual associations. Conclusions Psychiatric disorder-cancer incidence associations are complex and influenced by analytical strategy. A greater understanding of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorder and cancer incidence is required. PMID:22488410

  20. Admission of people with dementia to psychiatric hospitals in Japan: factors that can shorten their hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takako; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Osaki, Tohmi; Kajita, Hiroyuki; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Kawamata, Toshio

    2017-11-01

    People exhibiting serious behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are usually voluntarily or involuntarily committed to psychiatric hospitals for treatment. In Japan, the average hospital stay for individuals with dementia is about 2 years. Ideally, individuals should be discharged once their symptoms have subsided. However, we see cases in Japan where individuals remain institutionalized long after behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are no longer apparent. This study will attempt to identify factors contributing to shorter stays in psychiatric hospitals for dementia patients. Questionnaires consisting of 17 items were mailed to 121 psychiatric hospitals with dementia treatment wards in western Japan. Out of 121 hospitals that received the questionnaires, 45 hospitals returned them. The total number of new patient admissions at all 45 hospitals during the month of August 2014 was 1428, including 384 dementia patients (26.9%). The average length of stay in the dementia wards in August 2014 was 482.7 days. Our findings revealed that the rate of discharge after 2 months was 35.4% for the dementia wards. In addition, we found that the average stay in hospitals charging or planning to charge the rehabilitation fee to dementia patients was significantly shorter than in hospitals not charging the rehabilitation fee. In Japan, dementia patients account for over 25% of new admissions to psychiatric hospitals with dementia wards. The average length of stay in a psychiatric hospital dementia ward is more than 1 year. A discharge after fewer than 2 months is exceedingly rare for those in a dementia ward compared with dementia patients in other wards. If institutions focus on rehabilitation, it may be possible to shorten the stay of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. Periodontal Health among Non-Hospitalized Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Mangaluru City-India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Sangeeta Umesh; Singh, Rashmi; Kota, Keshava Pai

    2016-08-01

    A substantial section of society constituting the mentally ill and psychiatric patients deserve special attention. Evidence has suggested that psychological factors have contributed to an increase in the susceptibility to periodontal disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the gingival and periodontal health of chronically non-hospitalized psychiatric patients in Mangaluru city, India. Forty one psychiatric patients having chronic psychiatric illness and on neuroleptic medications for a minimum of 2 years were included in the study. The control group consisted of 41 healthy dental patients who were selected to match the study group by age and gender, and for both groups 20 teeth excluding the third molars should be present. Demographic characteristics, dental examination including gingival index and periodontal health according to the community periodontal index were recorded for each patient in both the groups. In the psychiatric patient group (Group A) 47.1% subjects were suffering from schizophrenia and 17.6% subjects were having mood disorder. Gingivitis varied from mild to severe among the patients of both the groups. Bleeding on probing (CPI 1) was recorded in 23.5% in Group A and 14.6% in Group B. Dental calculus (CPI 2) in 38.2% in Group A and 58.5% in Group B of the subjects, 20.6% with at least one 4mm to 5mm pocket (CPI 3), and 17.6% with at least one 6mm pocket (CPI 4). The present study underlines a considerable need for prevention and treatment of periodontal disease among chronic psychiatric patients in Mangaluru city. Every effort should be made to increase the awareness of this cohort regarding the importance of oral hygiene practices and on the early diagnosis of periodontal problems.

  2. Social and ethical implications of psychiatric classification for low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K Burns

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, and the ongoing revision of the International Classification of Diseases, currently 10th edition, it is timely to consider the wider societal implications of evolving psychiatric classification, especially within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs.  The author reviewed developments in psychiatric classification, especially the move from categorical to dimensional approaches based on biobehavioural phenotypes. While research supports this move, there are several important associated ethical challenges. Dimensional classification runs the risk of ‘medicalising’ a range of normality; the broadening of some definitions and the introduction of new disorders means more people are likely to attract psychiatric diagnoses. Many LMICs do not have the political, social, legal and economic systems to protect individuals in society from the excesses of medicalisation, thus potentially rendering more citizens vulnerable to forms of stigma, exploitation and abuse, conducted in the name of medicine and psychiatry. Excessive medicalisation within such contexts is also likely to worsen existing disparities in healthcare and widen the treatment gap, as inappropriate diagnosis and treatment of mildly ill or essentially normal people has an impact on health budgets and resources, leading to relative neglect of those with genuine, severe psychiatric disorders.  In an era of evolving psychiatric classification, those concerned for, and involved in, global mental health should be critically self-reflective of all aspects of the modern psychiatric paradigm, especially changes in classification systems, and should alert the global profession to the sociopolitical, economic and cultural implications of changing nosology for LMIC regions of the world.

  3. Negative Rumor: Contagion of a Psychiatric Department

    OpenAIRE

    Novac, Andrei; McEwan, Stephanie; Bota, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a sizable body of literature on the effects of rumors and gossip has emerged. Addressing rumors in the workplace is an important subject, as rumors have a direct impact on the quality of the work environment and also on the productivity and creativity of the employees. To date, little has been written on the effect of rumors and gossip in psychiatric hospitals. This article presents case vignettes of rumors spread in psychiatric hospitals and the impact on team cohe...

  4. Onconeural Antibodies in Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Sverre Georg; Schou, Morten; Stoecker, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological disorders associated with onconeural antibodies often appear with neuropsychiatric symptoms. To study the prevalence of onconeural antibodies in patients admitted to acute psychiatric inpatient care, the serum of 585 such patients was tested for antibodies targeting MOG......, GLRA1B, DPPX, GRM1, GRM5, DNER, Yo, ZIC4, GAD67, amphiphysin, CV2, Hu, Ri, Ma2, and recoverin. Only one sample was positive (antirecoverin IgG). The present findings suggest that serum onconeural antibody positivity is rare among patients acutely admitted for inpatient psychiatric care. The clinical...

  5. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. METHODS: We conducted...... reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient...

  6. The geriatric population and psychiatric medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sannidhya; Sareen, Himanshu; Trivedi, J K

    2010-01-01

    With improvement in medical services in the last few years, there has been a constant rise in the geriatric population throughout the world, more so in the developing countries. The elderly are highly prone to develop psychiatric disorders, probably because of age related changes in the brain, concomitant physical disorders, as well as increased stress in later life. Psychiatric disorders in this population may have a different presentation than in other groups and some of psychopathologies might be mistaken for normal age related changes by an unwary clinician. Therefore the need of the day is to train psychiatrists and physicians to better recognize and manage mental disorders in this age group.

  7. Psychobiotics: An emerging probiotic in psychiatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Kali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbial flora plays critical role in maintenance of health. Probiotic organisms have been recognized as an essential therapeutic component in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis. Current research suggests their health benefits extends beyond intestinal disorders. The neuroactive molecules produced by the gut microbiota has been found to modulate neural signals which affect neurological and psychiatric parameters like sleep, appetite, mood and cognition. Use of these novel probiotics opens up the possibility of restructuring of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders.

  8. Dissociative identity disorder in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, A; Ghisalbert, D; Dimatou, S; Jin, C; Sethi, M

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to replicate reports of a high rate of dissociative identity disorder in psychiatric inpatients. Subjects were 100 randomly selected women, 16-50 years old, who had recently been admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Diagnoses were made by two interviewers through use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. One percent (N = 1) of the interviewed subjects had dissociative identity disorder. Contrary to previous studies, the authors found a low rate of dissociative identity disorder, perhaps because of the different methodology used.

  9. Psychiatric (Axis I) and personality (Axis II) disorders and subjective psychiatric symptoms in chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlsten, Hanna; Taiminen, Tero; Karukivi, Max; Sjösten, Noora; Nikkilä, Johanna; Virtanen, Juuso; Paavola, Janika; Joutsa, Juho; Niinivirta-Joutsa, Katri; Takala, Mari; Holm, Anu; Rauhala, Esa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Johansson, Reijo; Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2017-11-30

    Chronic tinnitus has been associated with several psychiatric disorders. Only few studies have investigated these disorders using validated diagnostic interviews. The aims were to diagnose psychiatric and personality disorders with structured interviews, to assess self-rated psychiatric symptoms and elucidate temporal relations between psychiatric disorders and tinnitus. Current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of axis-I (psychiatric disorders) and axis-II (personality disorders) were assessed using structured clinical interviews (SCID-I and -II). Current subjective psychiatric symptoms were evaluated via self-rating instruments: the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). 83 patients (mean age 51.7, 59% men) with chronic, disturbing tinnitus and a median Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score of 32. The rates of lifetime and current major depression were 26.5% and 2.4%. The lifetime rate of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (type C) was 8.4%. None of the patients had cluster B personality disorder or psychotic symptoms. The SCL-90 subscales did not differ from the general population, and median DES score was low, 2.4. Tinnitus patients are prone to episodes of major depression and often also have obsessive-compulsive personality features. Psychiatric disorders seem to be comorbid or predisposing conditions rather than consequences of tinnitus. Clinical trial reference: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT 01929837).

  10. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  11. Higher Education and Civil Society: Compatibility Re-Examined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Mahmuda

    2012-01-01

    Last couple of decades, some developed countries emphasized to develop civil society in developing countries. The main goals were to promote democratic norms and values among citizens who will not be thinking about democratic society otherwise. To establish democratic norms and values, many view that higher education is necessary. The relationship…

  12. Chemical Research Society of India – Tenth Anniversary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    The Chemical Research Society of India (CRSI) established in 1999 completes its tenth year during the Tenth National Symposium (NSC-10; February 2008) in Bangalore at the. Indian Institute of Science. The Society has been providing a forum for chemists to dis- cuss and share their research contributions with ...

  13. Changing roles of academic societies due to globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Shigeru; Aoki, Shigeki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Because of the globalization of environment around the academic society, the expected roles have changed significantly. In this short communication, we present the current situation in our international activities of the Japan Radiological Society, particularly in the academic activities and clinical practice. Establishing and reinforcing international network is one process of their promotion.

  14. Characteristics of unrecognised bipolar disorder in patients treated for major depressive disorder in China: general versus psychiatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F Z; Xiang, Y T; Lu, Z; Wang, G; Hu, C; Kilbourne, A M; Ungvari, G S; Fang, Y R; Si, T M; Yang, H C; Lai, K Yc; Hu, J; Chen, Z Y; Huang, Y; Sun, J; Wang, X P; Li, H C; Zhang, J B; Zhang, X Y; Chiu, H F K

    2013-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder. Such misdiagnosis partly depends on the type of treatment setting. This study compared general hospital psychiatric units with psychiatric hospitals in China with respect to basic demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with unrecognised bipolar disorder who are treated for major depressive disorder. Patients treated for major depressive disorder were consecutively examined in 13 health centres (6 general hospital psychiatric units and 7 psychiatric hospitals) in China. Their socio-demographic and clinical features were recorded using a standardised protocol and data collection procedure. The DSM-IV diagnoses were established using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Of the 1487 patients included in the study, 309 (20.8%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. There was no significant difference between general hospital psychiatric units and psychiatric hospitals in the ratio of all types of unrecognised bipolar disorders (χ2 = 0.008, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.9) and bipolar II disorders (χ2 = 3.1, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.08). The proportions of unrecognised bipolar I disorders (χ2 = 4.1, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.04) differed significantly between the 2 types of study site. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with bipolar I disorders with more seasonal depressive episodes were more likely to receive treatment in general hospital psychiatric units (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-9.8). Patients with bipolar I disorders receiving treatment in general hospital psychiatric units had different clinical characteristics compared to their counterparts treated in psychiatric hospitals in China.

  15. [Prevention -- a topic in social-psychiatric research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christiane K; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2005-10-01

    Currently, substantial effort is made to establish prevention as one of the main parts of the German health care system. In this context we investigated the current role of prevention in social-psychiatric research. We analysed original papers published in the journal Psychiatrische Praxis in the years 2003-2004 by computer-aided full text analysis. 16.5 % of the studies mentioned prevention, in one fourth of these, prevention was the main topic. Subject of these papers were suicide prevention in psychiatric patients, relapse prevention in mentally ill offenders, and prevention of acute confusional state after hip surgery. Most of the work was dedicated to tertiary prevention, followed by secondary prevention. Two papers mentioned primary preventive aspects and only one report was dedicated to primary prevention as a main topic. Although early diagnosis and intervention as well as rehabilitation of mental disorders are main topics of social psychiatry, only few reports relate explicitly to prevention. The role of social psychiatry in primary prevention has to be defined.

  16. Valuing psychiatric patients' stories: belief in and use of the supernatural in the Jamaican psychiatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl C A B; Carpenter, Karen A; Peltzer, Karl; Weaver, Steve

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine illness presentation and understand how psychiatric patients make meaning of the causes of their mental illnesses. Six Jamaican psychiatric patients were interviewed using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview Schedule. Of the 6, 3 representative case studies were chosen. The hermeneutic phenomenological approach and the common sense model were used in the formulation of patients' explanatory models. Results indicate that psychiatric patients actively conceptualized the causes and resultant treatment of their mental illnesses. Patients' satisfaction and compliance with treatment were dependent on the extent to which practitioners' conceptualization matched their own, as well as practitioners' acknowledgement of patients' concerns about causation, prognosis, and treatment.

  17. The Impact of Psychiatric Patient Boarding in Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Nicks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of emergency department (ED boarding. This study examines the impact of resource utilization, throughput, and financial impact for psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement. Methods. The authors retrospectively studied all psychiatric and non-psychiatric adult admissions in an Academic Medical Center ED (>68,000 adult visits from January 2007-2008. The main outcomes were ED length of stay (LOS and associated reimbursement. Results. 1,438 patients were consulted to psychiatry with 505 (35.1% requiring inpatient psychiatric care management. The mean psychiatric patient age was 42.5 years (SD 13.1 years, with 2.7 times more women than men. ED LOS was significantly longer for psychiatric admissions (1089 min, CI (1039–1140 versus 340 min, CI (304–375; <0.001 when compared to non-psychiatric admissions. The financial impact of psychiatric boarding accounted for a direct loss of ($1,198 compared to non-psychiatric admissions. Factoring the loss of bed turnover for waiting patients and opportunity cost due to loss of those patients, psychiatric patient boarding cost the department $2,264 per patient. Conclusions. Psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement remain in the ED 3.2 times longer than non-psychiatric patients, preventing 2.2 bed turnovers (additional patients per psychiatric patient, and decreasing financial revenue.

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation and neuroplasticity genes: implications for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Harleen; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Bose, Anushree; Venugopal, Deepthi; Rajasekaran, Ashwini; Subbanna, Manjula; Kalmady, Sunil V; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Debnath, Monojit; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2016-02-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive and well-tolerated brain stimulation technique with promising efficacy as an add-on treatment for schizophrenia and for several other psychiatric disorders. tDCS modulates neuroplasticity; psychiatric disorders are established to be associated with neuroplasticity abnormalities. This review presents the summary of research on potential genetic basis of neuroplasticity-modulation mechanism underlying tDCS and its implications for treating various psychiatric disorders. A systematic review highlighting the genes involved in neuroplasticity and their role in psychiatric disorders was carried out. The focus was on the established genetic findings of tDCS response relationship with BDNF and COMT gene polymorphisms. Synthesis of these preliminary observations suggests the potential influence of neuroplastic genes on tDCS treatment response. These include several animal models, pharmacological studies, mentally ill and healthy human subject trials. Taking into account the rapidly unfolding understanding of tDCS and the role of synaptic plasticity disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders, in-depth evaluation of the mechanism of action pertinent to neuroplasticity modulation with tDCS needs further systematic research. Genes such as NRG1, DISC1, as well as those linked with the glutamatergic receptor in the context of their direct role in the modulation of neuronal signalling related to neuroplasticity aberrations, are leading candidates for future research in this area. Such research studies might potentially unravel observations that might have potential translational implications in psychiatry.

  19. The Society for Translational Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shugeng; Zhang, Zhongheng; Aragón, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy. Recommendati......The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy...

  20. Indicators of Information Society Measurement :

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Elwy

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The indicator of information society describe the infrastructure of information and communication technology ; as well as it’s use and it’s production in different estate of society. The importance economic and social of tic is crescent in modern society. and the presentation of tendency inform above the situation of information society . in this article we want to describe the indicator of tic in Algeria according to librarian’s vision in Mentouri university

  1. Civil Society in Fragile Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van; Verkoren, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Policies to promote peace in conflict-torn societies increasingly include “civil society (CS) building” as an aim; however, in such settings, it is often difficult – if not impossible – to distinguish between state and society, or between “civil” and “uncivil”. Local legitimacy (representativeness

  2. Contraception and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diczfalusy, E

    2002-12-01

    When an idea meets the exigencies of an epoch, it becomes stronger than any form of political power and it becomes the common property of humankind. Such an idea was the development of contraceptives. In retrospect, the invention of contraceptives was as fundamental for the evolution of humankind as the invention of the wheel; today more than 550 million couples are using contraceptive methods. The large-scale use of contraceptives triggered the most powerful social revolutions of a century in reproductive health and gender equity, and substantially contributed to an unparalleled demographic change, characterized by a rapid aging of populations. One of the important reasons for population aging is a significant decline in fertility rates, resulting in gradually changing population structures with fewer and fewer children and more and more elderly persons. The causes underlying these demographic changes are complex and manifold; they reflect major societal changes of historical dimensions. Many of our institutions cater increasingly for a population structure that no longer exists. There is therefore an increasing need for institutional reforms in social security, health care, housing and education. In addition, several surveys conducted in the developed world have indicated an erosion of confidence in our basic institutions, e.g. courts and justice, the Church and Parliament. Whereas modem sociologists are concerned about an increase in crime, decrease in trust and depleted social capital, one can also observe an accelerated perception of our global destiny and a re-awakening of the moral impulse with a strong demand for increased transparency in public affairs. Also, various global communities have assumed a growing importance. It can be predicted that international professional communities, such as the European Society of Contraception, will play an increasingly important future role in influencing policies in general and health policies in particular. because of

  3. Establishing a mangrove nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Sinohin, Veronica; Baconguis, Santiago

    2000-01-01

    Mangroves play an important role in creating habitats for a diverse community of organisms ranging from bacteria and fungi to fishes and mammals. They grow in intertidal flats, estuaries and offshore islands. In the Philippines, mangrove forests have dramatically decreased in area since the start of the century, and therefore there is a need to reforest. However, first mangrove nurseries must be established since they serve as sources of planting materials for different mangrove species. Furt...

  4. Asperger Syndrome: Associated Psychiatric and Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the association of medical and psychiatric conditions with Asperger syndrome, based mainly on publications from the last two decades. It examines comorbidity of Asperger syndrome with mood disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, violence and aggression,…

  5. [Burden of psychiatric diseases in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente P, Benjamín; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia B, Sandra; Rioseco S, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%. Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treatment gap in mental health has serious public health implications.

  6. Chronic psychiatric status and satisfaction with life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch; Luteijn, F.

    The present study represents the first to administer the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) as part of a. semi-structured interview to a large sample of psychiatric patients with severe mental illness. psychometric appraisal of the SWLS demonstrated that figures on its internal structure were quite

  7. Out and Down: Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. A putative causal relationship is contaminated by assorted influences, including childhood disadvantage, the early onset of most disorders, and the criminalization of substance use. Using the National Comorbidity…

  8. Psychiatric Assessment and Rehabilitation of Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.

  9. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 2 February 2012. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC. P. O. Ajiboye, FWACP, Senior Lecturer/ Consultant Psychiatrist, Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Ilorin/. University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, ...

  10. EDITORIAL PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS AMONG JUVENILES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-06-01

    Jun 1, 2003 ... PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS AMONG JUVENILES AND ADOLESCENTS IN KENYA. Twenty years ago, FGN, ..... and adolescence may show a good deal of shift from conduct disorders to mixed ...... risk factor for both perinatal and young infant death, khat chewing during pregnancy may be one of the factors ...

  11. Sexual Attitude Reassessment for Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…

  12. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.; Jansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatient aggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this "Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale" (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff

  13. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  14. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... medication effects and psychological reactions to the illness. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a good example of a disabling neurological disorder and it is now apparent that the underlying neurodegenerative disorder is a major cause of psychiatric disturbances even though the psychological reactions to the ...

  15. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schwarzbold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Schwarzbold1, Alexandre Diaz1, Evandro Tostes Martins2, Armanda Rufino1, Lúcia Nazareth Amante1,3, Maria Emília Thais1, João Quevedo4, Alexandre Hohl1, Marcelo Neves Linhares1,5,6, Roger Walz1,61Núcleo de Pesquisas em Neurologia Clínica e Experimental (NUPNEC, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 2Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 3Departamento de Enfermagem, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 4Laboratório de Neurociências, UNESC, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 5Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 6Centro de Cirurgia de Epilepsia de Santa Catarina (CEPESC, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, BrazilAbstract: Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, neuropsychiatry, diagnostic, epidemiology, pathophysiology

  16. The professional paradigm of qualified psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, U A

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of this research was to determine the professional paradigm of the qualified psychiatric nurse and the factors influencing the formation of this paradigm. The research was both explorative and descriptive, and both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The research approach was deductive and based on the theory of paradigm of Törnebohm. The test persons comprised three groups: Swedish-speaking Finns, Swedes and Finns. In each group there were eight students in the final stages of their psychiatric nursing training. A total of 40 questionnaires were distributed to each group. The research revealed four different characteristic types of qualified psychiatric nurses: caring science oriented, partly caring science oriented, general humanist and finally the personality- and experience-oriented. The results also indicate that there is a discrepancy between will and ability within caring. This can partly be interpreted as an expression of the discrepancy between philosophical and ideological impressions and real acts but it may partly indicate a lack of information. Many informants had difficulty naming a theoretical frame of reference for their work and stating aspects of psychiatric caring that would be important to know but on which no information so far exists. Many informants expressed the need for more research and development but did not indicate the subjects.

  17. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Psychiatric services. 415.184 Section 415.184 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.184...

  18. Physician assisted death in psychiatric practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, J.H.; van der Maas, P.J.; van der Wal, G.; Hengeveld, M.W.; Tholen, A.J.; Schudel, W.J.; van der Heide, A.

    1997-01-01

    Background: In 1994 the Dutch Supreme Court ruled that in exceptional instances, physician-assisted suicide might be justifiable for patients with unbearable mental suffering but no physical illness. We studied physician- assisted suicide and euthanasia in psychiatric practice in the Netherlands.

  19. SPECIFIC PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AMONG DIABETICS AT A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... Background: In Nigeria, with a rising incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM), there are ... Objective: To assess the prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders and ..... Suleiman T.G., Ohaeri J.U., Lawal R.A., Haruna A.T. and Orija.

  20. Psychiatric and Societal Impacts of Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grieger, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    ... is one consequence of terrorism. Even emotional and behavioral changes that do not reach the level of a diagnosable disorder may contribute significantly to the overall health burden resulting from terrorist attacks. Psychiatric disorders will occur in a relatively small percentage of the exposed population. The course of illness for those in whom suc...

  1. Substance use and violence among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2015-03-01

    Nursing staff on psychiatric wards often attribute patient violence and aggression to substance use. This study examined incidents of alcohol and illicit drug use among acute psychiatric inpatients and associations between substance use and violence or other forms of aggression. A sample of 522 adult psychiatric inpatients was recruited from 84 acute psychiatric wards in England. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Only a small proportion of the sample was reported to have used or been under the influence of alcohol (5%) or drugs (3%). There was no physical violence during a shift when a patient had used alcohol or drugs. Substance using patients were also no more likely than others to behave violently at any point during the study period. However, incidents of substance use were sometimes followed by verbal aggression. Beliefs that substance using patients are likely to be violent were not supported by this study, and could impact negatively on therapeutic relationships between nurses and this patient group. Future studies are needed to examine how staff intervene and interact with intoxicated patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Psychiatric epidemiology and disaster exposure in Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reifels, L.; Mills, K.; Dückers, M.L.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To examine the lifetime prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. Methods. We utilised data from a nationally representative population survey (N = 8841) which were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic

  3. [SEXUALITY IN PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION: REALITY VERSUS POLICY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Anat; Weil, Gabriel; Rubinstein, Ludmila

    2016-12-01

    Psychiatric hospitalization might be a necessity for certain groups of patients with mental illness, involving acute symptoms and substantial disability which do not allow independent living in the community. In such situations, it is crucial to enable inpatients to enjoy the best possible quality of life, including the right for sexual autonomy as a basic human right. Satisfying sexual life is part of meaningful life and plays an important role in personal and social recovery. On the other hand, sexual relations in psychiatric wards raise many dilemmas, including the need to protect inpatients from sexual abuse and victimization, particularly when mental illness involves judgment deficits and decreased ability to express autonomous will. In spite of its' importance, this subject receives little attention in policy guidelines and clinical practice and is largely ignored. The article reviews literature examining various aspects of sexual behavior in psychiatric facilities, revealing ethical dilemmas, risks and the role of policy guidelines to address this subject. We present viewpoints of practitioners, consumers and family members concerning sexual behavior in psychiatric hospitalization. We conclude with implications that emerge from accumulated knowledge with regard to policy making and proposed frameworks for change.

  4. [Dementia - a relevant subject in psychiatric research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancata, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    Demographic change calls for increased efforts in dementia research. A systematic analysis of a German-speaking psychiatric journal was performed. 18.2 % of all papers published in were related to dementia and cognition. Dementia is a main issue; only papers regarding schizophrenia were more common. Health service research is largely lacking. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.E.; Jansen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatienaggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff members

  6. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  7. 76 FR 40229 - Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... transfer to a mental hospital are threatened with immediate deprivation of liberty interests they are... use of the phrase `qualified health services staff' in Sec. 549.44 of the proposed regulation. The APA.... Bureau policy on pharmacy services is predicated on the requirement that the use of psychiatric...

  8. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  9. Lipids in psychiatric disorders and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Miriam; Levant, Beth; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Müller, Christian P

    2017-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders like mood disorders, schizophrenia, or drug addiction affect a sizeable proportion of the human population and severely compromise quality of life. Therefore, measures to prevent the manifestation, and treatments to ameliorate the symptoms, of these disorders are in high demand. Brain lipids determine the localization and function of proteins in the cell membrane of neurons. Lipids may also act as neurotransmitters or other signalling molecules. The lipid composition of the brain can be influenced by nutrition, environmental factors, and by behavioural activity. Thus, lipids represent a target for preventive medicine of psychiatric disorders. Here we review how brain lipids contribute to normal behaviour and to major psychiatric disorders with the focus on phospholipids/fatty acids, sphingolipids, and endocannabinoids. Accumulating evidence suggests a crucial role for membrane forming and signalling lipids in the brain in the etiopathologies of depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Lipids also represent potential preventive interventions for these psychiatric disorders by either targeted dietary supplementation or pharmacological manipulation of lipid regulating enzymes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Sociodemographic Characteristic, Oath Taking and Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is common knowledge that Nigeria is a source and route of transit for victims of human trafficking. Yet studies on psychiatric morbidity among the victims in the country are rare. In addition, previous studies were among post destination victims. The present study is aimed at determining the prevalence of ...

  11. Psychiatric consultations and the management of associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP) was conceptualised as far back as the late 1800s when. Benjamin Rush promoted interest in the integration of medicine: 'the psychosomatic unity of the body and soul'.[1] Others have described CLP as the practical application of all psychiatric knowledge, ideas and techniques to.

  12. Psychiatric classification, stigma, and mental health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afr J Psychiatry 2013;16:227-229. African Journal of Psychiatry • July 2013. 227. Work on DSM-5 and ICD-11, and the simultaneous development of alternative approaches to psychiatric classification such as the Research Domain Criteria of the. National Institute of Mental Health1, has led to renewed interest of colleagues ...

  13. Psychiatric Genomics: An Update and an Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M; Andreassen, Ole A; Børglum, Anders D; Breen, Gerome; Cichon, Sven; Edenberg, Howard J; Faraone, Stephen V; Gelernter, Joel; Mathews, Carol A; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Smoller, Jordan W; O'Donovan, Michael C

    2018-01-01

    The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) is the largest consortium in the history of psychiatry. This global effort is dedicated to rapid progress and open science, and in the past decade it has delivered an increasing flow of new knowledge about the fundamental basis of common psychiatric disorders. The PGC has recently commenced a program of research designed to deliver "actionable" findings-genomic results that 1) reveal fundamental biology, 2) inform clinical practice, and 3) deliver new therapeutic targets. The central idea of the PGC is to convert the family history risk factor into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691 twin pairs was the largest in the field for nearly four decades. (Am J Psychiatry 1946; 103:309-322 )].

  14. What is the significance of onconeural antibodies for psychiatric symptomatology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Sverre Georg; Schou, Morten; Kondziella, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with intracellular onconeural antibodies may present with neuro-psychiatric syndromes. We aimed to evaluate the evidence for an association between well-characterized onconeural antibodies and psychiatric symptoms in patients with and without paraneoplastic central nervous sy...

  15. [Significance of cross-cultural experience for young psychiatrists--learning from "The Joint Workshop for Psychiatric Residents of Korea and Japan"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    kato, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Korea and Japan are geographically very close, and a variety of cultural exchanges have taken place in recorded history. However, Korea and Japan have been enriched by the influence of Western cultures along with modernization, and mutual exchanges between the two countries have thus decreased in numerous fields including mental health and psychiatry. Prof. Masahisa Nishizono and Prof. Byun-Kun Min, who are leaders in the field of psychiatry in both Japan and Korea, have established "The Joint Workshop for Psychiatric Residents of Korea and Japan", which has been held alternately in Fukuoka or Seoul every summer since 2000. This Joint Workshop provides young psychiatrists with real experiences and many opportunities to learn about transcultural psychiatry regarding both countries. The participants are able to obtain a better mutual understanding of psychiatric epidemiology, recent developments in biological psychiatry while also learning about different concepts regarding the stigma of mental disorders. All participants could also increase their knowledge about the traditional culture and social changes related to the field of psychiatry in both countries. The workshop has helped to build friendship and mutual cooperation between both nations. Contemporary societies are continually becoming more and more diversified and complicated. For young psychiatrists who have to treat patients with modern difficulties and various complicated problems, such cross-cultural experiences may be useful for establishing potentially new and effective treatments for such patients. Psychiatrists and mental health experts have tried to reduce of stigma and discrimination against people with mental disorders, but even today such stigma and discrimination continues to strongly exist. The author thinks that such cross-cultural experiences by the psychiatrists themselves may help to reduce such notions. The author would like to explore the role of cross-cultural experiences in the field of

  16. Psychiatric predisposition to autonomic and abnormal perception side-effects of ziconotide: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Paolo; Ciaramella, Antonella

    2011-01-01

      Ziconotide is a reversible blocker of the N-type neuronal voltage-sensitive calcium channels with analgesic effects. The main adverse effects of ziconotide are ataxia, dizziness, gait disorder, confusion, hallucinations, and gastrointestinal symptoms.   Eighteen chronic pain patients with intrathecal ziconotide treatment were investigated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for psychiatric disorders according to the DSM IV.   Ten patients showed good pain relief (ΔVAS ≥ 50%) after one year of treatment. Patients without psychiatric comorbidity exhibited better outcomes, without autonomic side-effects. Eight patients with panic disorder (always comorbid with other psychiatric disorders) showed the greatest number of side-effects during treatment with ziconotide.   Emotional and cognitive symptoms of panic disorder are associated with autonomic symptoms resulting from parasympathetic activation. Dysfunction of both cholinergic and N-type calcium channel activity was found.   A psychiatric disorder with cholinergic-noradrenergic system impairment could increase some side-effects of treatment with N-type calcium channel blockers. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Traditional and cyberbullying co-occurrence and its relationship to psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural Hesapcioglu, Selma; Ercan, Filiz

    2017-01-01

    The effect of cyberbullying accompanied by traditional bullying on mental health has been less studied. In this study, the frequency, co-occurrence, and the relationship to psychiatric symptoms of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among bullies and victims are examined. All of the high schools in the province of Mus, Turkey were stratified according to Placement Test for High Schools admission points for 2014-2015. By choosing schools using simple random sampling, 1276 students were reached. Students were given the Brief Symptom Inventory and three separate scale assessments: peer bullying rating, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying scales. High scores in all subscale scores of bullying and victimization were significantly related to higher depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, somatization, and hostility scores. For people who were exposed to cyberbullying in addition to traditional bullying, the severity of the psychiatric symptoms was significantly higher. For all psychiatric symptoms, major predictors were gender, total victimization score, and total cybervictimization score. Moreover, the bullying total score was among the predictors of low self-esteem and hostility. Cybervictimization and cyberbullying occur less often than traditional bullying and victimization, but people who were exposed to or performed cyberbullying were also exposed to or performed traditional bullying. The addition of cyberbullying to traditional bullying is associated with more intense psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Lifetime prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and demographic correlates of "hikikomori" in a community population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Asuka; Miyake, Yuko; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Tachimori, Hisateru; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2010-03-30

    The epidemiology of "hikikomori" (acute social withdrawal) in a community population is not clear, although it has been noted for the past decade in Japan. The objective of this study is to clarify the prevalence of "hikikomori" and to examine the relation between "hikikomori" and psychiatric disorders. A face-to-face household survey was conducted of community residents (n=4134). We defined "hikikomori" as a psychopathological phenomenon in which people become completely withdrawn from society for 6 months or longer. We asked all respondents whether they had any children currently experiencing "hikikomori". For respondents aged 20-49 years old (n=1660), we asked whether they had ever experienced "hikikomori". A total of 1.2% had experienced "hikikomori" in their lifetime. Among them, 54.5% had also experienced a psychiatric (mood, anxiety, impulse control, or substance-related) disorder in their lifetime. Respondents who experienced "hikikomori" had a 6.1 times higher risk of mood disorder. Among respondents, 0.5% currently had at least one child who had experienced "hikikomori". The study suggests that "hikikomori" is common in the community population in Japan. While psychiatric disorders were often comorbid with "hikikomori", half of the cases seem to be "primary hikikomori" without a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Paperless or vanishing society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner Luke, Joy

    2002-06-01

    In the 1940s color photography became available and within a few years, extremely popular. As people switched from black and white photographs made with the old metallic silver process to the new color films, pictures taken to record their lives and families began a slow disappearing act. The various color processes, coupled with the substrates they were printed on, affected their longevity, but many color photographs taken from the late 1950s through the 1970s, and even into the 1980s, faded not only when exposed to the light, but also when stored in the dark. Henry Wilhelm's excellent book 'The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs' documents this history in detail. Today we are making another transition in the storage of pictures and information. There are questions about the longevity of different types of digital storage, and also of the images printed by various types of inkjet printers, or by laser printers using colored toners. Very expensive and very beautiful works of art produced on Iris printers are appearing in art exhibitions. Some of these are referred to as Giclee prints and are offered on excellent papers. Artists are told the prints will last a lifetime; and if by change they don't it is only necessary to make another print. Henry Wilhelm has begun to test and rate these images for lightfastness; however, his test method was developed for examining longevity in colored photographs. It is of interest to find out how these prints will hold up in the tests required for fine art materials. Thus far companies producing digital inks and printers have not invested the time and money necessary to develop an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method for evaluating the lightfastness of digital prints. However, it is possible to use ASTM D 5383, Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists, to pinpoint colors that will fade in a short time, even though the test is not as

  20. Screening for psychiatric morbidity in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, G; Hindley, N; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and twenty A&E Department daytime attenders were screened for psychiatric disorder in a two stage procedure. Thirty-three patients were identified as General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 'cases' of whom 28 agreed to a psychiatric interview using the Clinical Interview Schedule. Twenty-eight GHQ 'non-cases' were also interviewed. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 24 patients, 21 of whom were GHQ cases. Patients were more likely to suffer from psychiatric morbidity if the presenting...

  1. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding marijuana use

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda Scrooby; Emmerentia du Plessis; Leepile A. Sehularo

    2012-01-01

    There is limited understanding on marijuana use by psychiatric patients, specifically with regard as to why they continue to smoke marijuana despite the negative consequences, such as readmittance to psychiatric hospitals following marijuana-induced psychosis. It is, therefore, important to understand why psychiatric patients continue to use marijuana, despite experiencing its negative effects. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of psychiatric patients with ...

  2. Use of animal-assisted therapy with psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Jeanette; King, Camille

    2010-11-01

    The use of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) as an adjunct treatment approach in psychiatric settings has received much attention in the literature. This article explores the use of AAT with psychiatric patients. The authors performed a literature review and found that AAT can have a significant effect on the improvement of psychiatric patients' socialization and provides a variety of psychological benefits. Nurses can benefit from learning about the potential benefits of AAT for psychiatric patients.

  3. Psychiatric hospitalisation and suicide among the very old in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Vach, Werner

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very old people have higher suicide rates than the younger elderly population. Psychiatric disorders are known to have a strong association with suicide among elderly people. AIMS: To analyse the analyse the suicide risk associated with psychiatric hospitalisation among the very old......: The association between suicide and psychiatric hospitalisation is much weaker for the very old than for the old. Psychiatric disorders among very old people may be interacting with other disorders, may be underdiagnosed or treated in other healthcare settings....

  4. CERN & Society launches donation portal

    CERN Multimedia

    Cian O'Luanaigh

    2014-01-01

    The CERN & Society programme brings together projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and arts, that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. Today, CERN & Society is launching its "giving" website – a portal to allow donors to contribute to various projects and forge new relationships with CERN.   "The CERN & Society initiative in its embryonic form began almost three years ago, with the feeling that the laboratory could play a bigger role for the benefit of society," says Matteo Castoldi, Head of the CERN Development Office, who, with his team, is seeking supporters and ambassadors for the CERN & Society initiative. "The concept is not completely new – in some sense it is embedded in CERN’s DNA, as the laboratory helps society by creating knowledge and new technologies – but we would like to d...

  5. Psychiatric comorbidity in gender dysphoric adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2011-11-01

    This study examined psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with a gender identity disorder (GID). We focused on its relation to gender, type of GID diagnosis and eligibility for medical interventions (puberty suppression and cross-sex hormones). To ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) was administered to parents of 105 gender dysphoric adolescents. 67.6% had no concurrent psychiatric disorder. Anxiety disorders occurred in 21%, mood disorders in 12.4% and disruptive disorders in 11.4% of the adolescents. Compared with natal females (n = 52), natal males (n = 53) suffered more often from two or more comorbid diagnoses (22.6% vs. 7.7%, p = .03), mood disorders (20.8% vs. 3.8%, p = .008) and social anxiety disorder (15.1% vs. 3.8%, p = .049). Adolescents with GID considered to be 'delayed eligible' for medical treatment were older [15.6 years (SD = 1.6) vs. 14.1 years (SD = 2.2), p = .001], their intelligence was lower [91.6 (SD = 12.4) vs. 99.1 (SD = 12.8), p = .011] and a lower percentage was living with both parents (23% vs. 64%, p 1.0 for all psychiatric diagnoses except specific phobia. Despite the suffering resulting from the incongruence between experienced and assigned gender at the start of puberty, the majority of gender dysphoric adolescents do not have co-occurring psychiatric problems. Delayed eligibility for medical interventions is associated with psychiatric comorbidity although other factors are of importance as well. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Self-Esteem Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.

  7. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Koelen, Jurrijn; Smit, Filip; Schoevers, Robert

    2008-01-17

    Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18-65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the inhabitants of more urbanized areas

  8. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koelen Jurrijn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Methods The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65. The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement. Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Results Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders. The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Conclusion Psychiatric disorders are more

  9. Clinically useful predictors for premature mortality among psychiatric patients visiting a psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Buus, Niels; Wernlund, Andreas Glahn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine changes in the distribution of causes of death and mortality rates among psychiatric patients visiting a psychiatric emergency room (PER), to determine clinically useful predictors for avoiding premature mortality among these patients and to discuss...... by substance use disorder is preventable, and PERs are ideal points of early intervention. Systematic screening for substance use disorder at the PER and/or crisis intervention teams may be effective intervention strategies....

  10. [Anniversaries of the Serbian Medical Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Z

    1997-01-01

    The Serbian Medical Society was founded in Belgrade 125 years ago. At that time, Serbia was liberated from the Ottoman domination, and was one of some thirty existing independent states gaining international recognition in 1878. A group of physicians met in Belgrade on April 22, 1872, wishing to establish a medical association. Vladan Djordjevitsh, the most prominent among them, asked Dr. Valenta to explain the purpose of the meeting. Dr. Valenta explained the advantages of a medical association and proposed that they vote for the establishment of such an association in Serbia. There were barely a hundred physicians in Serbia at the time. They were of different nationalities: Serbs (44), Germans (16), Czechs (9), Poles (6), Croats (4), Greeks (3), Slovenes (3) and Hungarian (1). Members of the Serbian Medical Society used to stress "the great love of Belgrade and Serbian doctors for this country and its people". The physicians of the Serbian Medical Society have shared the fate of their people over the past 125 years. This is best illustrated by the fact that Serbia lost 1,247,000 people in World War I and that every third doctor in Serbia lost his life serving his people during the war. On the occasion of the 125 anniversary of foundation of the Serbian Medical Society the celebration of the first jubilee we described. It was a great celebration for the whole country in the presence of the King and Patriarch of the Serbian Church and most physicians from the country. This was a hard time for the country-people lived in poverity and infectious diseases dominated in pathology. The Serbian Medical Society initiated actions for preventing epidemies of infectious diseases and for improvement of health of the people through vaccination and better hygienic conditions. All the same time efforts were made by educated country health personel (midwives and medical assistants) in founding a medical school in Belgrade.

  11. Puerperal Psychiatric Disorders: A 6 - Year Retrospective Review at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: About 1.7% of new cases seen during the period had a post partum psychiatric disorder. Depression (50%) was the commonest type of post-partum psychiatric illness, followed by mania (21.3%), bipolar affective disorder (12.5%) and schizophrenia (10.3%). Most had onset of psychiatric symptoms less than 4 ...

  12. Psychiatric Nursing Care for Adult Survivors of Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thóra van der Hafsteinsdóttir; Cokky van der Venne; Yvonne van der Zalm; Nienke Kool; Willem Nugteren; prof Berno van Meijel

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to

  13. College Student Utilization of a Comprehensive Psychiatric Emergency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon L.; Kader, Mahrin; Haggerty, Melinda Z.; Bakhai, Yogesh D.; Warren, Calvert G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to identify college students at risk for experiencing a mental health crisis that warranted a psychiatric evaluation at a hospital and/or a psychiatric hospitalization. A retrospective chart review of college students evaluated at a comprehensive psychiatric emergency program during a 1-year period was conducted. Demographic…

  14. Language, subjectivity and participation in psychiatric institutions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    psychiatric facilities in Denmark: an outpatient psychiatric long-term treatment clinic and a closed psychiatric ward. The applied methods are participant observation, interviews with patients and professionals and analysis of documents. Employing discursive and narrative approaches, the aim of the project...

  15. The Effect of Clinical Psychiatric Training on Medical Students' Belief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background to the study: Medical student's attitude towards people with mental illness (PWMI) is very important for the future care of psychiatric patients. It has been postulated that psychiatric education could lead to a reduction in negative attitude towards PWMI. Objective: To assess the effect of clinical psychiatric training ...

  16. Psychiatric, Psychological and “Witchcraft” Defences to Murder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Expert psychiatric testimony may be relevant in certain instances of homicide especially murder. However, the exposure of most psychiatric trainees may be inadequate in relation to the range of psychological defences available to an offender accused of homicide. Aim: To describe the psychiatric and ...

  17. Different Places, Different Ideas: Reimagining Practice in American Psychiatric Nursing After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie M

    2018-01-01

    In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing. This article explores the work of two nurse leaders, Hildegard Peplau and Dorothy Mereness, as they developed their respective graduate psychiatric nursing programs and sought to create new knowledge for psychiatric nursing that would facilitate the development of advanced nursing practice. Both nurses had strong ideas about what they felt this practice should look like and developed distinct and particular approaches to their respective programs. This reflected a common belief that it was only through nurse-led education that psychiatric nursing could shape its own practice and control its own future. At the same time, there are similarities in the thinking of Peplau and Mereness that demonstrate the link between the specific social context of mental health immediately after World War II and the development of modern psychiatric nursing. Psychiatric nurses were able to gain significant control of their own education and practice after the war, but this was not without a struggle and some limitations, which continue to impact on the profession today.

  18. EDUCABILITY CONDITIONS FOR A NEW SOCIETY: BASIC REFLECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizia Helena Nagel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in the establishment and consolidation of a Marxist-based educational project in contemporary society characterized by consumption triggered by the development of the so-called flexible economy are provided. Behavior differences of the social being under the aegis of new labor conditions are the minimum conditions for the establishment of any discussion on education.

  19. Violence in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pedro de Andrade Dores

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins

  20. NAHDLATUL ULAMA (NU SEBAGAI CIVIL SOCIETY DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esty Ekawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil Society is non-government organization or an autonomous group which is faced with state and has a function for check and balance for the government policy. Civil society also has a function to social control. Lary Diamond said that civil society establish on cultural organization such as religion or ethnic or organization which keep the truth and believe. Nahdhatul Ulama is a religion organization in Indonesia which has function to social control for the government. Beside that, the activities of NU in education, democracy development and other social activities made NU still exist in social and political society in Indonesia.

  1. Philosophical Reflection Smart-Society as a New Model of the Information Society and its Impact on the Education of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Voronkova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents philosophical and educational reflection of smart-society as a new model of the information society and presents its impact on human (intellectual capital. It reveals timeliness of this topic, which is innovative and hardly developed. It analyses international experience in establishment and growth of smart-society and dimensions of axiological field of smart-society, which is based on axiological matrix of information and knowledge, which are considered and being civilized dimensions of modern society. The main idea is to prove the evolution of the information society to smart-society and the possibility of establishment of smart-society in Ukraine. The analysis of smart-society formation was made and its characteristics were defined, which claims priority role in the world information space formation and contribute to the competitiveness of Ukraine in the international information space.

  2. Ought we to sentence people to psychiatric treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tännsjö, Torbjörn

    1997-01-01

    In principle, there seem to be three main ways in which society can react when people commit crimes under influence of mental illness. (1) The standard model. We excuse them. If they are dangerous they are detained in the interest of safety of the rest of the citizens. (2) The Swedish model. We hold them responsible for their criminal offence, we convict them, but we do not sentence them to jail. Instead, we sentence them to psychiatric treatment. (3) My model. We sentence them to jail, but offer them (voluntary) psychiatric treatment. The advantages of my model are obvious. We get a clear delineation of roles. We allow the psychiatrist to be just a doctor, not a warden. We liberate psychiatry of the objective of deciding whether people who were mentally ill when they committed criminal offences 'could have acted otherwise' -- a hopeless task. We allow that psychiatrists live up to their professional ethical code (The Hawaii Declaration). We treat psychically ill persons as 'normal', we allow them to repent their crimes, which renders easier their recovery. However, two objections to my model come to mind. First of all, is it not unfair to sentence people to jail who could not help doing what they did? And, secondly, the question of fairness set to one side, is it not inhumane to sentence mentally ill persons to jail? Is it not inhumane to the mentally ill persons themselves, and does it not mean that they will be a burden to other prisoners? In my paper I show that, if our system of criminal punishment takes a civilised form, neither of these objections carries any weight.

  3. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric diseases: a pooled analysis of published studies employing disease-specific standardized outcome scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangunoori, Raj; Tomycz, Nestor D; Quigley, Matthew; Oh, Michael Y; Whiting, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged in recent years as a novel therapy in the treatment of refractory psychiatric disease, including major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's syndrome (TS). Standardized outcome scales were crucial in establishing that DBS was an effective therapy for movement disorders. In order to better characterize the evidence supporting DBS for various psychiatric diseases, we performed a pooled analysis of those studies which incorporated specific standardized rating scales. A Medline search was conducted to identify all studies reporting DBS for MDD, OCD, and TS. The search yielded a total of 49 articles, of which 24 were included: 4 related to MDD (n = 48), 10 to OCD (n = 64), and 10 to TS (n = 46). A meta-analysis of DBS for MDD, OCD, and TS in studies employing disease-specific standardized outcome scales showed that the outcome scales all improved in a statistically significant fashion for these psychiatric diseases. Our pooled analysis suggests that DBS for TS has the highest efficacy amongst the psychiatric diseases currently being treated with DBS, followed by OCD and MDD. DBS for psychiatric diseases remains investigational; however, even when studies failing to incorporate standardized outcome scales are excluded, there is statistically significant evidence that DBS can improve symptoms in MDD, OCD, and TS. Standardized disease-specific outcome scales facilitate pooled analysis and should be a required metric in future studies of DBS for psychiatric disease.

  4. The effect of psychiatric rehabilitation on the activity and participation level of clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, T.F. van; Felling, A.J.A.; Persoon, J.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation

  5. Alcohol Use and Abuse in a University Psychiatric Health Service: Prevalence and Patterns of Comorbidity with Other Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen E.; Tisdall, Gordon W.

    1994-01-01

    Examined use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs in university psychiatric health service and patterns of comorbidity with other psychiatric problems. Psychiatric service students (n=110) tended to drink less than did undergraduate comparison group and to report similar frequencies of adverse consequences. Alcohol disorders were significantly…

  6. The Effect of Psychiatric Rehabilitation on the Activity and Participation Level of Clients with Long-Term Psychiatric Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, Tom van; Felling, Albert; Persoon, Jean

    2003-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation

  7. Psychiatric Emergency Services for the U.S. Elderly: 2008 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Patrick G.; Currier, Glenn; Shah, Manish N.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Friedman, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    In 2011 the oldest baby boomers will turn age 65. Although healthcare researchers have started to examine the future preparedness of the healthcare system for the elderly, psychiatric emergency services (PES) have been widely overlooked. Research is needed to address PES need and demand by older patients, assess the consequences of this need/demand, and establish recommendations to guide PES planning and practice. The authors examined journal articles, review papers, textbooks, and electronic...

  8. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  9. DOES CIVIL SOCIETY CREATE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether civil society itself can enhance or stimulate the creation of social entrepreneurs, by studying the traits of the civil society and the various definitions attributed to it. The main question that the paper wants to answer to is Does civil society create social entrepreneurs and the main approach used in this research paper is the theoretical one. By studying existing articles and books on the topic, the paper tries to emphasize the various dimensions that civil society can embrace, as pictured by various authors, as well as how these dimensions can relate to social entrepreneurs and the emergence of social businesses. The paper is not meant to be a breakthrough in the field, but rather to launch a question that is related to very important topics these days, social entrepreneurship, social innovation, social businesses and their connection to a very much debated topic-civil society. The paper is work-in progress and wants to stimulate research regarding the search of the sources of social entrepreneurship, in order to analyze them and better establish them as incubators for the future. It wants to be of use to whoever is researching the concepts illustrated above, as well as for those who want to get in touch with the new buzz words of the academic and entrepreneurial fields. The hereby paper stands, as previously stated, in a theoretical framework and the findings represent a mere analysis of the cause-effect relationship between the characteristics of civil society and those of social entrepreneurs. However, we are of the opinion that it can be a very good starting point for the ones interested in the domain, to analyze more sources of social entrepreneurship or further refine the answer to the question addressed in this article.

  10. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7......% for any somatoform disorder. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex and unemployment were predictors of a psychiatric disorder, whereas living with children below 18 years and being a skilled worker carried a reduced risk of a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of psychiatric...

  11. Science communication at scientific societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braha, Jeanne

    2017-10-01

    Scientific societies can play a key role in bridging the research and practice of scientists' engagement of public audiences. Societies are beginning to support translation of science communication research, connections between scientists and audiences, and the creation of opportunities for scientists to engage publics without extensive customization. This article suggests roles, strategies, and mechanisms for scientific societies to promote and enhance their member's engagement of public audiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...... key problems in each of the five areas which need to be overcome in order to launch and sustain a successful net-based political deliberation forum....

  13. Re-establishing dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C

    2012-01-01

    In western countries, the older population is increasing and with age follows a risk of un-health. Every fifth hospital patient is above 65 years of age. As a consequence, nursing care to older patients is a significant but tacit nursing issue. The aim of this study was to explore Danish clinical...... nurses’ experiences of caring for older hospital patients. The study was based on Benner and Wrubel’s phenomenological notion that caring as a special kind of involvement, a grasp of a situation in terms of its meaning, is primary in nursing. A qualitative secondary analysis of data from an interview...... study with 29 nurses and nurse assistants was performed following Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings show that caring mainly concerns ‘re-establishing dignity’ especially through ‘seeing the patient as a unique person’, ‘assisting in getting rid of the bed’ and ‘supporting patient...

  14. Attitudes of Brazilian Medical Students Towards Psychiatric Patients and Mental Illness: A Quantitative Study Before and After Completing the Psychiatric Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Neto, Helio Gomes; Rosenheck, Robert A; Stefanovics, Elina A; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares

    2017-06-01

    The authors evaluated whether a psychiatric clerkship reduces stigmatized attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students. A 56-item questionnaire was used to assess the attitudes of medical students towards patients with mental illness and their beliefs about its causes before and after their participation in their psychiatric clerkship at a major medical school in Rio de Janeiro. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors, reflecting "social acceptance of people with mental illness," "normalizing roles for people with mental illness in society," "non-belief in supernatural causes for mental illness," and "belief in bio-psychosocial causes for mental illness." Analysis of variance was used to evaluate changes in these factors before and after the clerkship. One significant difference was identified with a higher score on the factor representing social acceptance after as compared to before the clerkship (p = 0.0074). No significant differences were observed on the other factors. Participation in a psychiatric clerkship was associated with greater social acceptance but not with improvement on other attitudinal factors. This may reflect ceiling effects in responses before the clerkship concerning supernatural and bio-psychosocial beliefs about causes of mental illness that left little room for change.

  15. Digital Denmark: From Information Society to Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Falch, Morten

    2000-01-01

    for a welfare society. However, globalisation and the spreading use of new information and communication technologies and services challenge this position. This article examines Denmark's performance in implementing its IS 2000 plans, the background to the Digital Denmark report, and its implications......The Danish Government recently issued a new policy report, Digital Denmark, on the "conversion to a network society", as a successor to its Information Society 2000 report (1994). This is part of a new round of information society policy vision statements that are, or will be forthcoming from...... national governments everywhere. Denmark provides an interesting case study because it ranks high in the benchmark indicators of information network society developments. This position has been obtained largely by public sector initiatives and without erosion of the highly reputed Scandinavian model...

  16. The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, A L; Nielsen, L P; Poulsen, B K

    2014-01-01

    The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric PatientsSoerensen AL1,2, Nielsen LP3,4, Poulsen BK3, Lisby M3,5, Mainz J6,7 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Denmark; 2University College of Northern Denmark; 3...... of PIP was assessed using four categories. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible predictive factors of PIP. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with one or more PIPs was 123/219(56%). “Interaction between drugs” was the most common category for potentially serious and potentially...... need to improve the quality in prescribing for psychiatric patients....

  17. The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt

    2014-01-01

    The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients Soerensen AL1,2, Nielsen LP3,4, Poulsen BK3, Lisby M3,5, Mainz J6,7 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Denmark; 2University College of Northern Denmark; 3...... of PIP was assessed using four categories. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible predictive factors of PIP. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with one or more PIPs was 123/219(56%). “Interaction between drugs” was the most common category for potentially serious and potentially...... need to improve the quality in prescribing for psychiatric patients....

  18. The serotonin transporter in psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Marie; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    of various psychiatric disorders and their treatment. We review studies that use PET to measure cerebral serotonin transporter activity in psychiatric disorders, focusing on major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment. We also discuss opportunities and limitations in the application...... of this neuroimaging method in clinical practice. Although results from individual studies diverge, meta-analysis indicates a trend towards reduced serotonin transporter availability in patients with major depressive disorder. Inconsistencies in results might suggest symptom heterogeneity in major depressive disorder...... and might therefore be relevant for stratification of patients into clinical subsets. PET has enabled the elucidation of mechanisms of response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and hence provides a basis for rational pharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder. Such imaging...

  19. Triage in psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæbye, Ditte; Høegh, Erica Bernt; Knop, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the Australasian triage system, a regional psychiatric triage system was introduced in the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen in 2011. Our aim of the study is to determine the characteristics of the patient according to the defined triage criteria and check...... if this is in accordance with recommendations. A random 10% data sample was obtained throughout 2012 in three PEUs of Copenhagen. Triage category, demographic, social and clinically relevant variables were collected. A total of 929 contacts were registered. We found significant associations between triage category...... and several clinical parameters. Time of visit was correlated to diagnoses. The results indicate that use of the new triage system in emergency psychiatry has facilitated urgency categorization, reduced waiting time, and optimized clinical decisions. These goals are important clinical implications...

  20. Cotard syndrome in neurological and psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Aguilar-Venegas, Luis C; Crail-Melendez, Daniel; Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Nente, Francisco; Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the frequency and characteristics of Cotard syndrome among neurological and psychiatric inpatients at a tertiary referral center. All inpatients from the National Institute of Neurology of Mexico (March 2007-May 2009) requiring neuropsychiatric consultation were reviewed. Among 1,321 inpatient consultations, 63.7% had neurological disease and one (0.11%) had viral encephalitis and Cotard syndrome. Of inpatients, 36.2% had pure psychiatric disorders and three (0.62%) had Cotard syndrome, associated with psychotic depression, depersonalization, and penile retraction (koro syndrome). This review discusses potential mechanisms for Cotard syndrome, including the role of a perceptual-emotional dissociation in self-misattribution in the deliré des negations.

  1. Phobias, other psychiatric comorbidities and chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchs, Felipe; Mercante, Juliane P P; Guendler, Vera Z; Vieira, Domingos S; Masruha, Marcelo R; Moreira, Frederico R; Bernik, Marcio; Zukerman, Eliova; Peres, Mario F P

    2006-12-01

    Comorbidity of chronic migraine (CM) with psychiatric disorders, mostly anxiety and mood disorders, is a well-recognized phenomenon. Phobias are one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general population. Phobias are more common in migraineurs than non-migraineurs. The clinical profile of phobias in CM has never been studied. We investigated the psychiatric profile in 56 patients with CM using the SCID I/P interview. Lifetime criteria for at least one mental disorder was found in 87.5% of the sample; 75% met criteria for at least one lifetime anxiety disorder and 60.7% of our sample fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for lifetime phobic avoidant disorders. Mood and anxiety scores were higher in phobic patients than in non-phobic CM controls. Number of phobias correlated with higher levels of anxiety and depression. Phobias are common in CM. Its recognition may influence its management. Early treatment may lead to better prognosis.

  2. Deep brain stimulation for intractable psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wayne K; Alterman, Ron L

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has virtually replaced ablative neurosurgery for use in medication-refractory movement disorders. DBS is now being studied in severe psychiatric conditions, such as treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Effects of DBS have been reported in ∼100 cases of OCD and ∼50 cases of TRD for seven (five common) anatomic targets. Although these published reports differ with respect to study design and methodology, the overall response rate appears to exceed 50% in OCD for some DBS targets. In TRD, >50% of patients responded during acute and long-term bilateral electrical stimulation in a different target. DBS was generally well tolerated in both OCD and TRD, but some unique, target- and stimulation-specific adverse effects were observed (e.g., hypomania). Further research is needed to test the efficacy and safety of DBS in psychiatric disorders, compare targets, and identify predictors of response.

  3. Tension‑Type Headache - Psychiatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Campos Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tension‑type headaches (Ctt are the most frequent headaches in the general population and those with higher socio‑economic impact, given the high degree of disability they cause. Objective: The authors propose to conduct a review of the available literature on the subject, from a psychiatric perspective. Discussion: Several studies have identified a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, personality traits and ineffective coping mechanisms in patients with Ctt, so it is essential to understand this relationship and the impact of these psychopathological factors on this kind of headaches. Conclusion: Their clinical and therapeutic approach is hampered by these and other factors and multiple strategies of pharmacological and psycho‑behavioral treatment have been used on them, however, scientific evidence is still scarce.

  4. Tension‑Type Headache - Psychiatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Campos Mendes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tension‑type headaches (Ctt are the most frequent headaches in the general population and those with higher socio‑economic impact, given the high degree of disability they cause. Objective: The authors propose to conduct a review of the available literature on the subject, from a psychiatric perspective. Discussion: Several studies have identified a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, personality traits and ineffective coping mechanisms in patients with Ctt, so it is essential to understand this relationship and the impact of these psychopathological factors on this kind of headaches. Conclusion: Their clinical and therapeutic approach is hampered by these and other factors and multiple strategies of pharmacological and psycho‑behavioral treatment have been used on them, however, scientific evidence is still scarce.

  5. Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Daniel H; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-09-25

    Large-scale genomic investigations have just begun to illuminate the molecular genetic contributions to major psychiatric illnesses, ranging from small-effect-size common variants to larger-effect-size rare mutations. The findings provide causal anchors from which to understand their neurobiological basis. Although these studies represent enormous success, they highlight major challenges reflected in the heterogeneity and polygenicity of all of these conditions and the difficulty of connecting multiple levels of molecular, cellular, and circuit functions to complex human behavior. Nevertheless, these advances place us on the threshold of a new frontier in the pathophysiological understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disease. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Psychiatric inpatient care at a county hospital before and after the inception of a university-affiliated psychiatry residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Benjamin K P; Ma, Albert Y

    2007-09-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), along with Kern Medical Center (KMC) and Kern County Mental Health (KCMH), established a new psychiatry residency program in 2004. In this study, we compared psychiatric care at a county psychiatric facility serving a population of 760,000 inhabitants before and after the initiation of this psychiatry residency program. Medical charts for all patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service during the year before the inception of the psychiatry residency program (2003-2004) and during the first year in which there was full implementation of residents after inception of the psychiatry residency program (2005-2006) were reviewed. Baseline characteristics, demographics, and various outcomes of the two groups were compared. After the residency program was established, the mean length of stay increased from 8.8 to 9.8 days (p psychiatric inpatient setting. More research is needed to identify strategies, such as guidelines to eliminate over-utilization of resources and methods to improve residents' competency, that may successfully enhance the quality of care provided by residents to psychiatric inpatients.

  7. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, K. E.; Kim, J. H.; Moon, S. Y.; Oh, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in...

  9. Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Co-morbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n    "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n    "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n    "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n    "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.

  10. Psychiatric disorders prior to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, M.; Goldacre, R; Talbot, K; Goldacre, MJ

    2016-01-01

    It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are overrepresented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with fr...

  11. Association between bullying and pediatric psychiatric hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Hadassa; Singh, Jasmine; Ghaffar, Ayesha; de Silva, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Bullying is a serious public health issue. We sought to demonstrate an association between bullying victimization and hospital admissions for acute psychiatric problems. We described the demographics and types of bullying in a sample of hospitalized patients in Staten Island, NY, and compared bullying victimization scores with psychiatric versus medical admissions. Methods: Patients in grades 3–12 were recruited from the Staten Island University Hospital Inpatient Pediatrics unit and emergency department. Patients completed the validated Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBQ) was analyzed to formulate a report of bullying in our sample as well as a sub-score measurement of bullying victimization. Pediatric residents simultaneously documented whether the subject was a medical versus an in-patient psychiatry admission. Statistical analysis was performed to look for an association between the victimization sub-score and a psychiatric indication for admission. Results: A total of 185 surveys were analyzed. Peak bullying occurred in 7th and 8th grades. Demographics and types of bullying in our sample were described. A strong association between bullying victimization and hospitalization for in-patient psychiatry was demonstrated. Association between bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, psychiatry, and social work consults was also shown. Concern for an association between hospitalization for psychogenic illness and bullying victimization was also raised. Conclusions: There is a significant association between bullying victimization and psychiatric hospital admissions. This raises the specter of the serious consequences of bullying as it is the first study to prospectively link hospital admissions to bullying. Studies using a valid measure of psychogenic illness to look for an association with bullying victimization are needed. PMID:29326819

  12. [Knowledge about previous psychiatric care: is it a guaranty for therapeutic investment or a curse in psychiatric emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, M; Hoyois, P

    1990-04-01

    A sample of 755 psychiatric emergencies taken in charge in the emergency service of the St-Luc Hospital, Brussels, was divided into two groups: patients without psychiatric background (498) and patients having received previous psychiatric care (238). A background of psychiatric follow-up strongly influence the taking on and therapeutic decisions to be made by psychiatrists: its absence protects the patient and is seen as the guaranty of a good investment from the therapist while the existence of previous psychiatric treatment rather leads to hospital in lieu of crisis intervention, even when the crisis mechanisms are not significantly different in both samples.

  13. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  14. [Complex hereditary diseases with psychiatric symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterberg, L

    1999-02-28

    Family and adoption studies indicate that genetic factors play a role in the development of many psychiatric disorders. A variable number of possible interacting genes giving a predisposition to the diseases is likely. The genetic dissection has been hampered by genetic complexity as well as by difficulties in defining the phenotypes. Genetic mapping efforts using sib pairs, twins and individual large families have revealed preliminary or tentative evidence of susceptibility loci for a number of psychiatric disorders. Illnesses described in this article include the prion disease familial fatal insomnia (FFI), alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, autism, bipolar affective disorder, dyslexia, enuresis nocturna, epilepsia, obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), schizophrenia, and the dementias, Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia. The genes and proteins related to the newly discovered transmitter in the central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO), and its genes and proteins are also reviewed. The number of mapped human genes now exceeds 30,000 of the estimated total number of 60,000 to 100,000 genes. This rapid development will facilitate gene mapping and efforts to isolate and identify the genes responsible for symptom susceptibility in many of the aetiologically unclear psychiatric diseases with complex genetic origin.

  15. Psychiatric diagnosis and aggression before acute hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasanti, A; Natoli, A; Moliterno, D; Rossattini, M; De Gaspari, I F; Mauri, M C

    2008-09-01

    To examine the predictors of aggressive behaviours occurring before acute hospitalisation. We analysed 350 acute admissions to a psychiatric ward during a 12-month period. The diagnoses were formulated according to the DSM IV axis I and II criteria. Aggressive behaviours occurring in the week before admission were retrospectively assessed using the modified overt aggression scale. The patients' clinical and sociodemographic variables, concurrent drug or alcohol abuse, and admission status were recorded at the time of admission. Aggressive and violent behaviours were highly prevalent, respectively, in 45% and 33% of the cases. Violence before admission was independently associated with drug abuse, involuntary admission status, and severe psychopathology. A diagnosis of a psychotic disorder did not increase the risk of aggression or violence, compared to the other psychiatric diagnoses. Personality disorders were significantly more associated to aggressive behaviours than psychotic disorders. The diagnosis of psychotic disorder is a poor predictor of aggression in a sample of psychiatric patients. Other clinical and non-clinical variables are associated to aggression before hospitalisation: they include drug abuse, involuntary admission status, general severity of symptoms, and diagnosis of personality disorder.

  16. Links between circadian rhythms and psychiatric disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia N Karatsoreos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the cause of psychiatric disorders is a goal of modern neuroscience, and will hopefully lead to the discovery of treatments to either prevent or alleviate the suffering caused by these diseases. One roadblock to attaining this goal is the realization that neuropsychiatric diseases are rarely due to a single gene polymorphism, environmental exposure, or developmental insult. Rather, it is a complex interaction between these various influences that likely leads to the development of clinically relevant syndromes. Our lab is exploring the links between environmental exposures and neurobehavioral function by investigating how disruption of the circadian (daily clock alters the structure and function of neural circuits, with the hypothesis that disrupting this crucial homeostatic system can directly contribute to altered vulnerability of the organism to other factors that interact to produce psychiatric illness. This review explores some historical and more recent findings that link disrupted circadian clocks to neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, mania, and schizophrenia. We take a comparative approach by exploring the effects observed in human populations, as well as some experimental models used in the laboratory to unravel mechanistic and causal relationships between disruption of the circadian clock and behavioral abnormalities. This is a rich area of research that we predict will contribute greatly to our understanding of how genes, environment, and development interact to modulate an individual’s vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

  17. Psychiatric aspects of cancer in the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, T E; Silberfarb, P M

    1987-01-01

    The greatest risk factor for cancer is ageing, yet little is known about the epidemiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders in the aged cancer population. This is particularly true for the group over 75 years of age. Four important areas of psychiatric treatment relevant to the aged cancer patient are: illness behaviour, cognitive disorders, depression and psychosocial adaptation. Within these areas the following four conclusions can be made: (a) Symptom presentation and health promoting practices are two important aspects of illness behaviour that affect the detection and prevention of cancer in the aged. (b) It is likely that there will be an increased co-occurrence of dementia and cancer, raising important issues of treatment and informed consent. (c) There appears to be evidence that depression in cancer patients does not increase with age. (d) Similar to depression, despite widely differing methods and age cutoffs, the results of several studies have shown that psychosocial adaptation to cancer is maintained with age. With respect to psychiatric treatment, no patient should be denied full use of appropriate therapy on grounds of old age alone, and more attention should be given to the systematic detection and evaluation of reversible cognitive disorders.

  18. Psychiatric referrals in two general hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doongaji D

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was undertaken to compare the patterns of psychiatric referrals in two general hospitals in Bombay viz. the King Edward Memorial Hospital (64 cases and the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre (62 cases. It was observed that depressive symptoms were the most common presenting symptoms in these patients attending either of the hospitals. Similarly, the commonest diagnoses were depression and organic mental disorder. Attempted suicide with organophosphorous compounds was the commonest reason for hospitalization at K.E.M. Hospital (p less than 0.001. A significant number of these patients were females (p less than 0.05. The psychiatric referrals at Jaslok had been hospitalized mainly for suspected medical or neurological illness (p less than 0.001. These patients belonged to higher economic strata and hence had a better paying capacity compared to patients at KEM hospital, a significant number of whom were unemployed (p less than 0.001. The duration of pre-referred illness of patients and their stay at Jaslok hospital were longer as compared to those at KEM Hospital (p less than 0.01. The number of non-relevant special investigations carried out on patients in Jaslok was more (p less than 0.01. Further analysis of diagnoses revealed that a significant number of patients at KEM Hospital were admitted as primary psychiatric illness (p less than 0.05.

  19. [A staff development model in psychiatric nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, D; Muller, M; Poggenpoel, M

    1995-03-01

    The nursing service manager is accountable for the quality of nursing care delivered in the nursing service. It is therefore important that the nursing service manager facilitates staff development in the nursing service. It is not only the nursing service manager's responsibility to make provision for staff development--the nurse also has a responsibility in this regard. He/she should purposefully make an effort to keep up to date with the latest developments. This article focuses on the co-responsibility of the psychiatric nurse and nursing service manager regarding staff development. A model for staff development is described, in accordance with the guidelines of Dickoff, James & Wiedenbach for theory development. An inductive approach was primarily followed to describe the provisional model, after which a literature study was employed to refine and purify the model. This model was exposed to expert evaluation, after which the final model for staff development of psychiatric nurses was described. Recommendations include the testing of certain hypotheses and utilisation of this model in psychiatric nursing practice.

  20. Suicidal behavior and abuse in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M L; Asnis, G M; Lipschitz, D S; Chorney, P

    1995-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between suicidal behaviors and histories of abuse in psychiatric outpatients. Two hundred fifty-one psychiatric outpatients were evaluated for history of abuse, suicidal behavior, demographics, and clinical characteristics using self-report instruments and a face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analysis indicated that physical abuse (battering) in adulthood and histories of a combination of childhood and adulthood abuse were significant predictors of past suicide attempts and current suicidal ideation. Victims of abuse were more likely than nonvictim controls to have been suicidal at a younger age and to have made multiple suicide attempts. Among patients with a history of abuse, suicide attempters could be distinguished from nonattempters on the basis of higher levels of dissociation, depression, and somatization. Abusive experiences in adulthood appear to play an important role in suicidal behavior among psychiatric outpatients. High levels of specific symptoms (i.e., depression, somatization, and dissociation) among patients with a history of abuse can help to identify outpatients at risk for suicidal behavior.

  1. Impact on the psychotic vulnerability of the therapeutic approachin the Prison Psychiatric Hospital in Seville (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Massé-García

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze changes in psychotic vulnerability following the implementation of a program of prison psychiatric treatment, recidivism after the release and various descriptive variables of criminological interest. Materials and methods: review of a sample consisting of 50 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia admitted to the Prison Psychiatric Hospital of Seville. Results: there was a statistically significant reduction of psychotic vulnerability according to an assessment using the Frankfurt psychopathological inventory (FBF-3, after conducting a complete psychiatric, psychological, social and rehabilitation approach in the prison environment. The core symptoms relating to complex perception and language also decreased significantly. The reduction is particularly noticeable in the number of patients categorized as medium-high and high severity. Recidivism in the follow-up of release of patients in the study sample is low (6% and there were no cases of serious felony or grievous bodily harm. Recidivism, when it occurs, is not immediate. Although there is some criminal versatility, it is limited. The most frequent victims are parents with a previous relationship with the patient. Most of the patients in the sample, and all recidivists, have comorbid substance abuse (dual diagnosis. Discussion: we need more comprehensive studies to establish causal relationships between the decrease in psychotic vulnerability and an integrated psychiatric, psychological, social and rehabilitation approach in prisons; or to attribute the low rate of recidivism to the decline of psychotic vulnerability.

  2. [Sleep disorder, a potential early diagnostic marker for psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Qin, Dong-Dong; Jiang, Hui-Hui; Hu, Xin-Tian; Ma, Yuan-Ye

    2011-02-01

    Sleep/circadian timing depends on several neurotransmitter systems, including 5-HT, NE, DA, Ach, GABA, etc. These neurotransmitter systems play critical roles in mental, emotional and cognitive functions in the brain. Dysfunctions of these systems not only result in sleep disorder, but are also related to many psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep disruption is tightly associated with an increased susceptibility to a broad range of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, such as depression and Parkinson diseases. Non-human primates, especially the rhesus monkey is an excellent biomedical model for human sleep and CNS diseases. Establishing nonhuman primates' model of mental disorders and monitoring the sleep changes during the development of the model will help us to know more about the relationships between sleep disorder and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep disorder as an early marker for psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases would permit early intervention of these diseases and draw attention to the potential therapeutic benefits of normalizing sleep rhythms in individuals with brain pathologies.

  3. Interactive Effect of Parent and Adolescent Psychiatric Symptoms on Substance Use among Adolescents in Community Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lourah M; Becker, Sara J; Wolff, Jennifer C; Graves, Hannah; Spirito, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Both adolescent and parent psychiatric symptoms are well-established risk factors for adolescent substance use (SU), but the ways that these symptoms interact are not well understood. This study examined the interactive effects of parent and adolescent psychiatric symptoms on adolescent frequency of alcohol and marijuana use, over and above the effects of parental SU. Seventy adolescents presenting to a community mental health center (CMHC) participated. Parent and adolescent psychiatric symptoms were measured with the brief symptom inventory (BSI) and child behavior checklist (CBCL), respectively. Hierarchical regressions revealed different patterns for adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. For alcohol, the BSI parent phobic anxiety subscale predicted increased adolescent use while the parent interpersonal sensitivity subscale predicted decreased use: the effects of these parental symptoms were strongest among adolescents with higher levels of externalizing problems on the CBCL. For marijuana, the BSI parent psychoticism subscale predicted increased adolescent use, whereas paranoid ideation predicted decreased use. Results suggest that adolescent SU treatment and assessment should attend to both adolescent and parent psychiatric symptoms.

  4. [The relation of selected psychiatric disorders to occurrence of suicide attempts among teenage psychiatrically hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is the third cause of death globally in the age group 10-19. Multiple risk factors (genetic, psychiatric, psychological, familial, social) increased number of suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to explore whether mental disorders are associated with the number of suicide attempts among psychiatric hospitalized adolescents. Retrospective, chart-based analysis of 119 patients, aged 13-18, treated in 2013-2014 in the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź. Inclusion criteria was diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioral and emotional disorders according to ICD 10. Exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnosis, incomplete information about intention of self-harm behaviors. For statistical analysis used Statistica 9.1. Among psychiatricaly hospitalized patients, 51.2% of people attempted suicide. No relationship was found (p > 0.05) between psychiatric diagnosis and frequency of suicide attempts in adolescents, but the most common suicide attempts related to people with a diagnosis of mood disorders (59.3%) and neurotic disorders (54.6%), and least frequently in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia , schizotypal and delusional disorders (40%) and behavioral and emotional disorders (44.4%). There is no relation between the occurrence of suicide attempts and the type of mental disorders among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  5. Price elasticity of demand for psychiatric consultation in a Nigerian psychiatric service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluyomi

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses price elasticity of demand (PED) in a region where most patients make payments for consultations out of pocket. PED is a measure of the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of goods or services to changes in price. The study was done in the context of an outpatient psychiatric clinic in a sub -Saharan African country. The study was performed at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Aggregate data were collected on weekly clinic attendance over a 24-month period October 2008 - September 2010 representing 12 months before, to 12months after a 67% increase in price of outpatient psychiatric consultation. The average weekly clinic attendance prior to the increase was compared to the average clinic attendance after the price increase. Arc-PED for consultation was also estimated. Clinic attendance dropped immediately and significantly in the weeks following the price increase. There was a 34.4% reduction in average weekly clinic attendance. Arc-PED for psychiatric consultation was -0.85. In comparison to reported PED on health care goods and services, this study finds a relatively high PED in psychiatric consultation following an increase in price of user fees of psychiatric consultation.

  6. Shared Decision Making for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services Before Discharge from Psychiatric Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Roe, David; Elwyn, Glyn; Kupermintz, Haggai; Patya, Noa; Peleg, Ido; Karnieli-Miller, Orit

    2018-02-02

    Shared decision making (SDM) is an effective health communication model designed to facilitate patient engagement in treatment decision making. In mental health, SDM has been applied and evaluated for medications decision making but less for its contribution to personal recovery and rehabilitation in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effect of SDM in choosing community psychiatric rehabilitation services before discharge from psychiatric hospitalization. A pre-post non-randomized design with two consecutive inpatient cohorts, SDM intervention (N = 51) and standard care (N = 50), was applied in two psychiatric hospitals in Israel. Participants in the intervention cohort reported greater engagement and knowledge after choosing rehabilitation services and greater services use at 6-to-12-month follow-up than those receiving standard care. No difference was found for rehospitalization rate. Two significant interaction effects indicated greater improvement in personal recovery over time for the SDM cohort. SDM can be applied to psychiatric rehabilitation decision making and can help promote personal recovery as part of the discharge process.

  7. [Living in a Temporary Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Warren G.

    Society is in the process of accelerated change and the institutionalization of this change through research and technology. Other factors affecting American society are an increase in affluence, an elevation of the educational level of the population, and a growing interdependence of institutions. The fact that this country is currently going…

  8. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  9. Public Libraries in postindustrial societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbeshausen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The article’s focus is on how public libraries are affected by structural changes in the wake of the transition to the knowledge society. Their attempts to match the knowledge society are illustrated by processes of sensemaking and sensegiving made in public libraries in Canada, the UK and Denmark....

  10. Clinical Pharmacology in Denmark in 2016 - 40 Years with the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology and 20 Years as a Medical Speciality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøsen, Kim; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Borregaard, Jeanett; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed; Christensen, Palle Mark; Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Damkier, Per; Hallas, Jesper; Heisterberg, Jens; Jessen, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Kampmann, Jens Peter Konnerup; Laursen, Britt Elmedal; Laursen, Torben; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Andersen, Ljubica Vukelic; Senderovitz, Thomas; Sonne, Jesper

    2016-12-01

    The Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology was founded in 1976, and mainly thanks to the persistent efforts of the society, clinical pharmacology became an independent medical speciality in Denmark in 1996. Since then, clinical pharmacology has gone from strength to strength. In the Danish healthcare system, clinical pharmacology has established itself as an indispensible part of the efforts to promote the rational, safe and economic use of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists are active in drug committees both in hospitals and in the primary sector. All clinical pharmacology centres offer a local medicines information service. Some centres have established an adverse drug effect manager function. Only one centre offers a therapeutic drug monitoring service. Clinical pharmacologists are responsible for the toxicological advice at the Danish Poison Information Centre at Bispebjerg University Hospital in the Capital Region. The Department of Clinical Pharmacology at Aarhus University Hospital works closely together with forensic toxicologists and pathologists, covering issues regarding illicit substances, forensic pharmacology, post-mortem toxicology, expert testimony and research. Therapeutic geriatric and psychiatric teach-inns for specialist and junior doctors are among the newest initiatives organized by clinical pharmacologists. Clinical pharmacologists work also in the Danish Medicines Agency and in the Danish pharmaceutical industry, and the latter has in particular a great growth potential for creating new jobs and career opportunities for clinical pharmacologists. As of July 2016, the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology has 175 members, and 70 of these are specialists in clinical pharmacology corresponding to approximately 2.5 specialists per 1000 doctors (Denmark has in total 28,000 doctors) or approximately 12 specialists per one million inhabitants. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. A former Romanian scientific society: The Society of Physical sciences (1890-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IAVORENCIUC GEORGE ANDREI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Society of Physical sciences (phisycs, chemistry and mineralogy has been an important Romanian scientific society since its establishment, in 1890 until the middle of the twentieth century. This paper seeks to provide an analysis of its activity in the first two decades of existence, a less studied period, namely how its enterprises contributed to the dissemination and spread of the latest scientific ideas within Romania’s culture. The society was founded at the initiative of some of the most proeminent Romanian scientists of that period and, until the end of the nineteenth century, it expanded its sphere of activity by including sections on mathemathics and natural history. Therefore, its activity, exemplified by public conferences, presentation of members’ personal scientific endeavors, intellectual debates or scientific missions, reflected the general development of physical sciences in Romania in that epoch. This research is based mostly on a close scrutiny of society’s scientific journal.

  12. Definitions and diagnoses: cultural implications of psychiatric help-seeking and psychiatrists' definitions of the situation in psychiatric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, A D

    1979-12-01

    This paper explores lay and psychiatric actors' definitions of mental illness by focusing on several aspects of emergency psychiatric diagnosis. First, it considers psychiatric diagnosis as a social and cultural process in which mental illnesses are defined with increasing specificity as individuals move from lay to psychiatric contexts. Second, the paper considers variation in psychiatric residents' conceptions of mental illness, their role in emergency contexts, and lastly, their diagnostic styles. Diagnostic styles are shown to exist and to be grounded in residents' definitions of the situation. It is suggested that the variation in psychiatrists' definitions of the psychiatric situation, especially as regards etiology, plays a prominent, but as yet unnoted, role in producing variability in psychiatric diagnosis. It is also argued that actors' definitions are cultural, grounded in non-professional lay ideology, and are not products of secondary professional socialization.

  13. Society of Toxicology Postdoctoral Assembly: Expanding Leadership, Scientific, and Career Resources for Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Toxicology (SOT) established the Postdoctoral Assembly (PDA) to identify and meet the needs of postdoctoral scholars, establish communication, and form collaborations within the SOT members. The PDA currently has representatives on key SOT committees and component ...

  14. Prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders among residents of a juvenile Remand Home in Nigeria: implications for mental health service planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, O

    2012-01-01

    Research has established that psychiatric disorders are common among children and adolescents within thejuvenile justice system. However, the bulk of these researches had been from the developed countries, with very limited data from sub-Sahara Africa. In a region like sub-Sahara Africa with acute shortage of mental healthcare resources, availability of data on mental health needs of children within the juvenile justice system is about the only way to ensure that they are not excluded from needed services. This study aims to determine the pattern, prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders among the residents of a juvenile justice facility in Nigeria and to speculate appropriate policy responses. Using a cross-sectional comparative study design, 60 consecutive residents of the Ibadan juvenile Remand home and 60 randomly selected age- and gender-matched school going adolescents were evaluated for the presence of current and lifetime psychiatric disorders. The Kiddies Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was used to assess psychiatric disorders. Logistic regression was done to determine sociodemographic variables that were independently associated with the presence of lifetime psychiatric disorders. Thirty eight (63%) of the Remand Home participants had at least one lifetime psychiatric disorder compared with 14 (23%) among the comparison group (p disorder compared with 2 (3%) among the comparison group (p = 0.004). Disruptive behaviour disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among the Remand Home residents. Indices of family disruption and inconsistency in caregivers were the key predictors of psychiatric disorders. Study has established further that psychiatric disorders are common among children within the juvenile justice system and that there is a need for appropriate policy response. Some policy directions were highlighted.

  15. A profile of students who followed a course in the didactics of psychiatric nursing at Unisa during 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, V J

    1996-03-01

    Students who followed the above course did so as part of the Nursing Education III course offered at UNISA. This research aims at establishing a profile of these students. Aspects covered include age, sex, marital status, professional and academic qualifications, professional posts held and current fields of occupation. Such knowledge will clarify who the psychiatric nurse educators of the future might be, and also what the target population for the above course could be. Students' personal perceptions of the above course are sought in the second part of the questionnaire. Such information should be valuable in improving future courses for educators of psychiatric nurses.

  16. Terminal delirium misdiagnosed as major psychiatric disorder: Palliative care in a psychiatric inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligeti, Sabitha; Baig, Muhammad R; Barrera, Fernando F

    2016-06-01

    Delirium is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by acute change in cognition and disturbance of consciousness. A similar state during the final days of life is termed "terminal delirium." We present three cases with end-stage chronic medical problems without any significant psychiatric history who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit or a locked dementia unit for management of "depression," "dementia," or "psychosis." Early diagnosis of terminal delirium helps prevent patients, family members, and staff from undergoing severe emotional distress and facilitates appropriate end-of-life care.

  17. Earthquake science in resilient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, T.; Clark, M. K.; Zekkos, D.; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A.; Willis, M.; Medwedeff, William; Knoper, Logan; Townsend, Kirk; Jin, Jonson

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake science is critical in reducing vulnerability to a broad range of seismic hazards. Evidence-based studies drawing from several branches of the Earth sciences and engineering can effectively mitigate losses experienced in earthquakes. Societies that invest in this research have lower fatality rates in earthquakes and can recover more rapidly. This commentary explores the scientific pathways through which earthquake-resilient societies are developed. We highlight recent case studies of evidence-based decision making and how modern research is improving the way societies respond to earthquakes.

  18. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders following Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tung Lee

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most common functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder observed in patients who visit general practitioners for GI-related complaints. A high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, particularly anxiety and depressive disorders, has been reported in patients with IBS. However, a clear temporal relationship between IBS and psychiatric disorders has not been well established.We explored the relationship between IBS and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder.We selected patients who were diagnosed with IBS caused by gastroenteritis, according to the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was formed of patients without IBS who were matched according to age and sex. The incidence rate and the hazard ratios (HRs of subsequent new-onset psychiatric disorders were calculated for both cohorts, based on psychiatrist diagnoses.The IBS cohort consisted of 4689 patients, and the comparison cohort comprised 18756 matched control patients without IBS. The risks of depressive disorder (HR = 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.30-3.19, anxiety disorder (HR = 2.89, 95% CI = 2.42-3.46, sleep disorder (HR = 2.47, 95% CI = 2.02-3.02, and bipolar disorder (HR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.34-4.46 were higher in the IBS cohort than in the comparison cohort. In addition, the incidence of newly diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder remained significantly increased in all of the stratified follow-up durations (0-1, 1-5, ≥5 y.IBS may increase the risk of subsequent depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, sleep disorder, and bipolar disorder. The risk ratios are highest for these disorders within 1 year of IBS diagnosis, but the risk remains statistically significant for more than 5 years. Clinicians should pay particular attention to psychiatric

  19. New York Zoological Society Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven P.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the institutional setting, history, and services of the New York Zoological Society Library. Topics covered include clientele; library collections and special collections; library staffing and organizational structure; computer applications; and relationships with other libraries. (11 references) (CLB)

  20. The Ambivalences of Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kaare Nielsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the conceptual heterogeneity in the field of ‘civil society’ in the light of a distinction between positions that reflect civil society as a democratic-emancipatory category and positions that consider civil society from the perspective of the state: as an instrumental resource for the technocratic planning of the competitive nation state.The article discusses the implications and perspectives in these two different strategic scenarios for conceptualizing civil society. The argument is made that civil society in relation to democratic citizenship should basically rather be understood as a concept for specific, communicative principles for institutionalizing societal relations and organizing public experience than as an overall concept for third sector organizations.