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Sample records for psychiatric sickness absence

  1. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7......% for any somatoform disorder. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex and unemployment were predictors of a psychiatric disorder, whereas living with children below 18 years and being a skilled worker carried a reduced risk of a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of psychiatric...

  2. [Sickness absence and disability due to psychiatric disorders from a gender perspective - a systematic literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, S; Stengler, K

    2013-06-01

    This work is aimed at providing a review of the literature on gender differences in the prevalence of mental disorders at the workplace. A systematic literature search of all original works on sickness absence and disability due to psychiatric disorders published in PubMed from 2000 through to 2011 was undertaken. Female employees have more frequent and longer sickness absences due to psychiatric disorders. Male employees are at a high risk of disability due to psychiatric disorders. Gender-specific prevention strategies at the workplace should target the prevention of short and long-term consequences for female employees and the long-term impact of psychiatric disorders in male employees. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about implications for gender specific prevention strategies at the workplace. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence in office workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Hoedeman, R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Bültmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence (SA). Methods: Mental health symptoms were measured in 1137 office workers with the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), including scales for distress, depression, anxiety and

  4. Mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence in office workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Hoedeman, Rob; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    Background: To investigate mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence (SA). Methods: Mental health symptoms were measured in 1137 office workers with the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), including scales for distress, depression,

  5. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...

  6. Coping and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes;

  7. Coping and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rhenen, Willem; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Blonk, Roland W. B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes;

  8. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence -- a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7......% for any somatoform disorder. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex and unemployment were predictors of a psychiatric disorder, whereas living with children below 18 years and being a skilled worker carried a reduced risk of a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of psychiatric...

  9. Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution

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    Brage Sören

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000. All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years. Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women

  10. Undetected Common Mental Disorders in Long-Term Sickness Absence

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Joergen Soegaard

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3) the rate of return to work among sick listed individuals without a psychiatric disorder, who are registered on long-term sickness absence (LSA). Methods. A total of 2,414 incident individuals on LSA wit...

  11. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  12. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    did not indicate that sickness absence behavior has become more common in Denmark during the past 20 years; although, an increase was seen in the beginning of this century. It is apparent that the many reports on sickness absence that highlight an increasing trend are based on sickness benefit...... a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  13. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soegaard, Hans Joergen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3) the rate of return to work among sick listed individuals without a psychiatric disorder, who are registered on long-term sickness absence (LSA). Methods. A total of 2,414 incident individuals on LSA with a response rate of 46.4%, were identified for a two-phase study. The subsample of this study involved individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric diagnosis 21%, depression 14%, anxiety 4%, and somatoform disorder 6%. Conclusions. Undetected CMD may delay the initiation of appropriate treatment and complicate the rehabilitation and return to work.

  14. Undetected Common Mental Disorders in Long-Term Sickness Absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Joergen Soegaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1 the frequencies of CMD, (2 the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3 the rate of return to work among sick listed individuals without a psychiatric disorder, who are registered on long-term sickness absence (LSA. Methods. A total of 2,414 incident individuals on LSA with a response rate of 46.4%, were identified for a two-phase study. The subsample of this study involved individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric diagnosis 21%, depression 14%, anxiety 4%, and somatoform disorder 6%. Conclusions. Undetected CMD may delay the initiation of appropriate treatment and complicate the rehabilitation and return to work.

  15. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all

  16. Psychological symptoms and subsequent sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B.; van Rhenen, W.; Anema, J.R.; Taris, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems are associated with sickness absence (SA). The present study aimed at establishing which symptoms - distress, depression, anxiety, or somatization - at which symptom levels were associated with SA frequency and duration. Moreover, a number of possible confounders or

  17. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnan...

  18. Job satisfaction and sickness absence : a questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. Aim To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. Methods A sample of workers

  19. The measurements of sickness absence – a theoretical perspective

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    Gunnel Hensing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of sickness absence is a challenge in spite of accessible numbers of spells, persons, and days of absence in public and employer registers. Concepts and their definitions are still to a small extent standardized, and clear and explicit definitions need to be provided. In epidemiological studies, the definition of the study base is important, and in sickness absence research a prerequisite is that an individual belongs to a sickness absence insurance scheme. Population at risk can be identified at three levels: the general population, the sickness insured population, and the sickness absent population. Cases in sickness absence studies can be quantified in terms of spell-, person-, or time based measurements. Each of these ways reflects different contents of sickness absence as a phenomenon, and the choice of measurement should be guided by the purpose of the study as well as the target area. Five different measurements (frequency, length, cumulative incidence, incidence rate, and duration are suggested and their application is discussed. These five measurements can be seen as a summary of measurements used in different studies and an application of epidemiologic methods into sickness absence research. There are opportunities to increase the quality of sickness absence research, with an increased awareness of the importance of the measurements used.

  20. Shame among long-term sickness absentees: correlates and impact on subsequent sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapstad, Marit; Øverland, Simon; Henderson, Max; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel

    2014-02-01

    The contribution of general psychological aspects, such as emotions, has received little focus in research on sickness absence. We wanted to study the relationship between shame and sickness absence, which factors that explained differences in levels of shame, and if shame predicted subsequent sickness absence. We employed a Swedish population-based cohort of current sickness absentees (19-64 years old), responding to a mailed questionnaire in 2008. Data was linked to national registries on sickness absence. The young, those born outside the Nordic countries, those on lower incomes and those with higher level of education reported being more ashamed of their sickness absence. Those with more sickness absence in the past were also more likely to report higher levels of shame. Level of shame was not associated with gender or occupational class. Compared to those absent for a somatic cause, mental or co-morbid illness was associated with higher levels of shame. Those reporting high level of shame were more likely to have prolonged sickness absence the following year. Symptoms of depression at baseline only partly explained these associations. Our results suggest that shame might prolong sickness absence. Increased understanding of the impact of social and emotional aspects around sickness absence could be an important source for improved quality of rehabilitation.

  1. Resources for preventing sickness absence due to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolli Salathé, C; Melloh, M; Mannion, A F; Tamcan, Ö; Müller, U; Boos, N; Elfering, A

    2012-06-01

    After an episode of non-specific low back pain (LBP) some individuals fail to return to work. The factors leading to such LBP-related sickness absence are not yet fully understood. To identify individual resources, over and above the already established predictors, for preventing LBP-related sickness absence in a population-based sample of workers experiencing an episode of LBP. Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Participants were from a working population who reported an episode of acute or subacute LBP at baseline. Four potential resources-life satisfaction, doing sports, job satisfaction and social support at work-were examined for their incremental value in predicting sickness absence over and above baseline sickness absence and fear-avoidance beliefs about work. In all, 279 workers participated in the study. All four resources showed an inverse relationship with regard to sickness absence. A multiple regression analysis revealed that life satisfaction as a resource protected against sickness absence, when controlling for established risk factors. Job satisfaction and social support at work minimized the influence of sickness absence at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. In a non-clinical working sample of individuals experiencing an acute/subacute episode of LBP, life satisfaction was a unique predictor of sickness absence after 1 year. Prevention in the occupational setting should not only address common risk factors but also occupational and individual resources that keep workers satisfied with life despite having LBP.

  2. Locality and habitus: the origins of sickness absence practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, P; Nakari, R; Ahonen, H; Vahtera, J; Pentti, J

    2000-01-01

    This article aims to understanding the differences observed in the sickness absence practices of three municipal work organisations. Sickness absence figures were contextualised with a two-level analysis. The working communities were studied with the material collected for the study from documents, interviews, and a postal questionnaire survey on psychosocial working conditions. At the locality level the quality and quantity of economic, social, and cultural capitals were assessed. On the basis of this material, community diagnoses of the three localities are presented. The relationship of the way of life and being ill in the locality to the sickness absences among the employees of the municipality is discussed using the concepts of 'field', 'habitus', 'practice' and 'capital' as presented by Bourdieu. Sickness absence practices seem to be connected to the relative dominance of social classes in the locality. We conclude that the sickness absence practice of the municipal working community is an expression of the sickness absence habitus which is deeply rooted in the social history of the locality and in the health-related behaviour of the residents. In being not too structuralistic and not too relativistic, Bourdieu's theory helps us to understand the reality of the sickness absences; they can only be influenced marginally and temporarily by simple intervention measures in the work-places. More lasting changes in the level of sickness absences would require profound changes in the working community and-ultimately-in the whole locality.

  3. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to

  4. Sickness absence and flight type exposure in flight crew members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, A.; van der Beek, A.J.; Penders, G.B.S.; Hlobil, H.; Smid, T.; Boot, C.R.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shift work research has shown that the relationship between exposure to irregular working times and sickness absence may differ between working populations. Not much is known about the prevalence of sickness absence in flight crews or about the relationship between exposure to different

  5. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence is the outcome in many epidemiologic studies and is often based on summary measures such as the number of sickness absences per year. In this study the use of modern statistical methods was examined by making better use of the available information. Since sickness...... absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... between the psychosocial work environment and sickness absence were used to illustrate the results. RESULTS: Standard methods were found to underestimate true effect sizes by approximately one-tenth [method i] and one-third [method ii] and to have lower statistical power than frailty models. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Physical and Mental Fatigue as Predictors of Sickness Absence Among Norwegian Nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Bultmann, Ute; Groothoff, Johan; van Rhenen, Willem; Mageroy, Nils; Moen, Bente E.; Pallesen, Stale; Bjorvatn, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether fatigue can be used to screen nursing populations for risk of sickness absence. Data were available from a prospective cohort study of 2,059 Norwegian nurses working in hospital care, psychiatric care, and nursing home/home care settings. Physical and mental fatigue were

  8. Physical and mental fatigue as predictors of sickness absence among Norwegian nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; et al.,; Groothoff, J.W.; Rhenen, van W.; Bültmann, U.; Magerøy, B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether fatigue can be used to screen nursing populations for risk of sickness absence. Data were available from a prospective cohort study of 2,059 Norwegian nurses working in hospital care, psychiatric care, and nursing home/home care settings. Physical and mental fatigue were

  9. Interrelationships between education, occupational class, income and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piha, Kustaa; Laaksonen, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2010-06-01

    Socio-economic position measures, such as education, occupational class and income, are well-known determinants of health. However, previous studies have not paid attention to mutual interrelationships between these socio-economic position measures and medically confirmed sickness absence. The study is a register-based study. The participants were municipal employees of the City of Helsinki aged 25-59 years in 2003. There were 21,599 women and 5841 men participants. Three socio-economic position measures were used, namely three-level education, four-level occupational class and gross individual income quartiles. Main outcome measure was medically confirmed sickness absence spells of 4 days or longer. Inequality indices were calculated using Poisson regression analysis. High education, occupational class and individual income were all consistently associated with lower sickness absence rates among both women and men. After mutual adjustment, education and occupational class remained independent determinants of sickness absence. The association of individual income with sickness absence was practically explained by temporally preceding education and occupational class. Our results indicate that education and occupational class-rather than income-are strong determinants of sickness absence. Education, occupational class and income are complementary socio-economic position measures. To better inform sickness absence policy, future studies should aim to establish whether the observed socio-economic differences reflect broader differences in ill-health, lifestyle and working conditions.

  10. Sickness absence in Poland after socio-economic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Szubert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the analysis was to determine the magnitude and causes of the sickness-related temporary incapacity for work in Poland, and to identify changes in sickness absence and its differences by the type of economic activity and region. Material and Methods: This analysis is based on the 2006-2012 data on sickness absence compiled from medical certificates of temporary incapacity for work and published by the Social Insurance Institution (Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych. The sickness absence is described in terms of the number of sick leave days relative to the number of the employed or insured people. Results: In 2012, the number of days of disability per one employed was 14.5 (12.1 men, 17.4 women, representing 3.98% of the time lost due to illness. The main causes of absence were: complications of pregnancy and mother's diseases during pregnancy (33% of the sick leave days in women, injury and poisoning (men: 24%; women: 8%, diseases of the musculoskeletal system (men: 17%; woman: 11%. The highest level of sickness absence was noted in the łódzkie, śląskie and warmińsko-mazurskie provinces (38-19% higher than nationwide and in the administrative and support sectors (22.2 days per 1 employee, when analyzed by sectors of the national economy. Conclusions: The high increase in sickness absence over the recent 7 years due to cancer, mental and muscloskeletal disorders may be an important risk factor for early assessment of permanent incapacity for work. Another major problem is female sickness absence due to pregnancy complications and mother's diseases during pregnancy. Med Pr 2014;65(1:73–84

  11. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  12. Resources for preventing sickness absence due to low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rolli Salathé, C.; Melloh, M.; Mannion, A. F.; Tamcan, ö; Müller, U.; N., Boos; A., Elfering

    2017-01-01

    Background After an episode of non-specific low back pain (LBP) some individuals fail to return to work. The factors leading to such LBP-related sickness absence are not yet fully understood. Aims To identify individual resources, over and above the already established predictors, for preventing LBP-related sickness absence in a population-based sample of workers experiencing an episode of LBP. Methods Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Participants were from a working population who reporte...

  13. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meaningfulness of the job, collaboration among colleagues, trustworthiness of the closest superior and bullying have previously been shown to be major covariates of intention to quit the job. AIMS: To test if these elements of the psychosocial work environment are also the most......'s salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...... high sickness absence and 29 psychosocial work elements were analysed, adjusting for relevant confounders. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, three elements had an independent statistically significant association with high sickness absence: no exposure to bullying (odds ratio (95...

  14. Sickness absence among peer-supported drivers after occupational trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarner, A; Uter, W; Ruhmann, L; Wrenger, N; Martin, A; Drexler, H

    2017-03-01

    Psychological first aid is a common approach for providing support after potentially traumatic events (PTEs). In Germany, a peer support model is recommended by the German Statutory Accident Insurance (DGUV) to reduce sickness absence after occupational accidents, especially in public transportation. However, data on the effectiveness of peer support are very sparse. To analyse whether peer support has an impact on sickness absence after work-related traumatic events in public transportation. An analysis was conducted in two German public transportation corporations. Due to ethical requirements, we used a historical cohort study comparing peer support by colleagues (VAG-1), peer support at supervisor level (VGF) and a non-intervention group (VAG-0). The study period was from March 2003 to December 2012. We used a negative binominal regression model to estimate the relative risk associated with the interventions and potential confounders. A total of 259 incident PTEs in employees were observed. A regression analysis identified the severity of PTE (severe and fatal events), VGF and age as significant factors in predicting duration of post-event sickness absence. In a stratified analysis, the mode of peer support (VGF) and age predicted sickness absence for less severe PTEs but this was not significant for severe PTEs. Severe and fatal PTEs had the strongest impact on sickness absence after PTEs. For less severe PTE, peer support provided by colleagues may be superior to supervisor support.

  15. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...... if a multidimensional prevention programme combining physical training, patient transfer technique and stress management prevents sickness absence and LBP in NA students. METHODS: The study was a 14-month cluster randomized controlled study. The participants were NA students from 37 randomly selected classes located...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline...

  16. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study...... follows a cohort of 5357 working employees and 106 long-term sickness absent employees in Denmark. They were interviewed in 2000 regarding self-efficacy and various co-variates, and followed for 78 weeks in a national sickness absence register. Cox regression analysis was performed in order to assess...... the effect of self-efficacy on Return-to-Work after sickness absence. RESULTS: General self-efficacy was significantly lower among those with sickness absence compared to the general working population. Self-efficacy showed no statistically significant association with later onset of sickness absence...

  17. Gender and age differences in the recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bültmann Ute

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental disorders (CMDs are an important cause of sickness absence and long-term work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs, including distress, adjustment disorders, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, according to age, in male and female employees in the Netherlands. Methods Data on sickness absence episodes due to CMDs were obtained for 137,172 employees working in the Dutch Post and Telecommunication companies between 2001 and 2007. The incidence density (ID and recurrence density (RD of sickness absence due to CMDs was calculated per 1000 person-years in men and women in the age-groups of Results The ID of one episode of CMDs sickness absence was 25.0 per 1000 person-years, and the RD was 76.7 per 1000 person-years. Sickness absence due to psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression does not have a higher recurrence density of sickness absence due to any CMDs as compared to stress-related disorders (distress and adjustment disorders: 81.6 versus 76.0 per 1000 person-years. The ID of sickness absence due to CMDs was higher in women than in men, but the RD was similar. Recurrences were more frequent in women Conclusions Employees who have been absent from work due to CMDs are at increased risk of recurrent sickness absence due to CMDs and should be monitored after they return to work. The RD was similar in men and in women. In women

  18. Attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Johnsen, Roar; Risør, Mette Bech

    2014-08-27

    In the health and care sector, sickness absence and sickness presenteeism are frequent phenomena and constitute a field in need of exploration. Attitudes towards sickness absence involve also attitudes towards sickness presenteeism, i.e. going to work while sick, confirmed by previous studies. Sickness behavior, reflecting attitudes on work absence, could differ between countries and influence absence rates. But little is known about attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. The aim of the present paper is therefore to explore attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees in both countries. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, the main attention of which was attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism. FGDs were conducted in two nursing homes in Norway and two in Denmark, with different geographic locations: one in a rural area and one in an urban area in each country. FGDs were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using framework analysis to identify major themes and explanatory patterns. Four major significant themes were identified from the FGDs: a) sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, b) acceptable causes of sickness absence, c) job identity, and d) organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace. Our analyses showed that social commitment and loyalty to residents and colleagues was important for sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, as were perceived acceptable and non-acceptable reasons for sickness absence. Organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace were also found to have an influence on attitudes towards sickness absence. The general interpretation of the findings was that attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees were embedded in situational patterns of moral relationships and were

  19. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n=801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10-2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, I.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; van Rhenen, W.; de Boer, M.R.; Bultmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental

  1. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental

  2. Sickness presenteeism is more than an alternative to sickness absence: results from the population-based SLOSH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Westerlund, Hugo; Hagberg, Jan; Svedberg, Pia; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-11-01

    Sickness presenteeism, defined as 'going to work despite judging that one should have reported in sick', is usually considered to be a complementary alternative to sickness absence. Nonetheless, several studies have reported a positive association between sickness absence and sickness presenteeism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the contemporaneous positive association between sickness absence and sickness presenteeism can be explained by illness, work incapacity, and/or work environment. A cross-sectional study based on answers to a comprehensive questionnaire from 8,304 working women and men, those in the second wave of the nationally representative Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between sickness presenteeism and sickness absence. Sickness absence was strongly associated with sickness presenteeism. Sickness absence of 1-7 days during a 12-month period more than doubled the odds of also having sickness presenteeism of more than 8 days during the same 12-month period (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.79-2.49). Adjusting for age and sex did not attenuate the association; further adjustment for work environment, self-rated health, chronic diseases, and work capacity reduced the odds somewhat, but they remained highly significant (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.56-2.25). The results suggest that sickness presenteeism is not, as earlier hypothesised, just an alternative to sickness absence, given a certain level of health or work incapacity. Other, so far unknown explanations for both sickness absence and sickness presenteeism must be sought.

  3. Controlling sickness absence: a study of changes in the Danish sickness absence legislation since 1973

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    amendments to the act. RESULTS: Entitlement to sickness benefit in Denmark has undergone considerable changes during the past 30 years. The guiding principles of the reforms have been financial savings in combination with an assumption that human behaviour can be controlled through bureaucratic...

  4. Sleep disturbances and fatigue : independent predictors of sickness absence? A prospective study among 6538 employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    Background: Although sleep disturbances and fatigue are common conditions, frequently shown to be associated with sickness absence, only a few studies have prospectively investigated their independent effects on sickness absence, while adjusting for depressive symptoms. This study aims (i) to

  5. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. Purposes: This study investigated the relationship

  6. Job satisfaction and short-term sickness absence among Dutch workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A; Roelen, CAM; Groothoff, JW

    Background Sickness absence is a considerable economic and social problem. Short-term sickness absence is known to be associated with behavioural attitudes. The correlation between sickness absence and job satisfaction has been studied infrequently and with contradictory results. Aims This study

  7. Associations of work ability with frequent and long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Background Reduced work ability is related to long-term sickness absence. The relationship between work ability and frequent sickness absence has not previously been investigated. It is important to distinguish between frequent and long-term sickness absence as they are outcomes of different

  8. Common Mental Disorders in Longterm-Sickness Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...... to work (RTW). Comorbidity with somatic disorders also worsens RTW. CMD are, controlled for lifestyle, independent causes for the development of chronic and disabling somatic disorders. Collaborative care seems to be most effective intervention with regard to RTW. In this dissertation, the intervention...... the half was unrecognized. RTW was improved for individuals with an unrecognized CMD and sick-listed from full-time work. A screening instrument was developed and the implications of screening are discussed. The book is of interest for primary care and RTW rehabilitation officers....

  9. Psychometric analysis of common mental disorders -- Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of the present study for Common Mental Disorders - Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: It is validity tested in a well-defined Danish population comprising all persons on continuous sickness absence just exceeding eight weeks. CMD-SQ is composed of SCL-SOM (somatization), Whiteley-7 (illness worry...... and conviction), SCL-ANX4 (anxiety), SCL-DEP6 (depression), SCL-8 (emotional disorder), and CAGE (alcohol dependency). RESULTS: Of 2,414 incident persons on long-term sickness absence within one year, 1,121 participated in the study by filling in CMD-SQ and a subsample of 337 was diagnosed by a psychiatric...... of SC-ANX4, SCL-DEP6, and SCL-8, called SCL-8AD, showed the best and excellent psychometric and screening statistics. CONCLUSIONS: SCL-8AD, a sub-scale of CMD-SQ, is a promising candidate for screening and measurement of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence....

  10. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-04-23

    Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence.

  11. Variation in effect of intervention studies in research on sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegaard H

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hans Joergen SoegaardResearch Unit West, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Aarhus University Hospital, RisskovBackground: Intervention studies in sickness absence research demonstrate a low effect and ambiguous results in reducing sickness absence and improving work status. The aim of this study was to determine if the effect of interventions is related to type of intervention, target population, inclusion criteria used, and impact of the scientific quality of the studies.Methods: Based on a structured review of 57 studies, short-term, medium-term, and long-term effects were analyzed with regard to the type of intervention, target population, inclusion criteria, and scientific quality of the studies.Results: The overall result was that the effect rate was low, ie, about 20% for short-term effect (up to 6 months and medium-term effect (6–12 months, and 40% for long-term effect (≥12 months. Interventions using stress reduction were most effective with regard to short-term and medium-term effects, whereas collaborative care was most effective for long-term effects. The effects were related to the inclusion criteria and, to a minor degree, to the scientific quality of the studies.Conclusion: In the field of sickness absence research, more attention should be paid to the interrelationship between the types of interventions, target populations, and inclusion criteria for the studies. Larger studies of high methodological quality are needed. Steps should be taken to standardize outcome measures.Keywords: nonparticipation, sickness absence, return to work, controlled trial, review

  12. Leadership effectiveness and recorded sickness absence among nursing staff: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A H; Roelen, Corné A M; Van Zweeden, Nely F; Jongsma, Dianne; Van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2011-07-01

    To investigate nurse managers' leadership behaviour in relation to the sickness absence records of nursing staff. Sickness absence is high in healthcare and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. Nurse managers' leadership behaviour may be associated with nursing staff sickness absence. Six nurse managers completed the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD) questionnaire, which assesses leadership behaviour in terms of leadership flexibility (i.e. the range of leadership styles) and effectiveness (i.e. using the leadership style that is appropriate for a given situation). LEAD scores were linked to the number of recorded days of sickness absence and both short (1-7 days) and long (>7 days) episodes of sickness absence in the nursing teams. Leadership flexibility of nurse managers was not associated with sickness absence among nurses. High leadership effectiveness was associated with fewer days and fewer short episodes of sickness absence. Leadership effectiveness was unrelated to the number of long episodes of sickness absence. Effective nurse managers had less short-term sickness absence in their nursing teams. If these tentative cross-sectional associations are confirmed in longitudinal studies including more departments, then training effective leadership may improve the management of short-term sickness absence. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Emotional dissonance and sickness absence: a prospective study of employees working with clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indregard, Anne-Marthe Rustad; Knardahl, Stein; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland

    2017-01-01

    (1) Determine the relationship between emotional dissonance and medically certified sickness absence among employees working with clients and (2) compare the impact of emotional dissonance on medically certified sickness absence with the impact of other psychological and social work factors. A sample of 7758 employees was recruited from 96 Norwegian organizations in the period 2004 to 2014, all working with clients. The study design was prospective with emotional dissonance measured at baseline and then linked to official registry data of medically certified sickness absence for the year following the survey assessment. Quantitative demands, decision demands, role clarity, role conflict, control over work intensity, and decision control were included as additional work exposures. The impact of the study variables on the presence and duration of medically certified sickness absence was investigated with a negative binomial hurdle model. In the fully adjusted model, emotional dissonance and role conflict significantly predicted the presence of medically certified sickness absence. Control over work intensity and decision control were negatively related to presence of sickness absence. Only role conflict was a risk factor for the duration of sickness absence when all factors were analysed simultaneously. Emotional dissonance is a risk factor for the presence of medically certified sickness absence in client-driven work environments. Theoretical models of sickness absence, as well as interventions aiming to prevent sickness absence in such environments, should be aware of the effect emotional dissonance may have on employees.

  14. Personal Factors Associated with Sickness Absence: A Study of 194 Men with Contrasting Sickness Absence Experience in a Refinery Population1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. J.

    1968-01-01

    Men with different patterns of sickness absence behaviour have been identified from a refinery population by simple epidemiological techniques. A detailed clinical study is described of four groups: 56 men with five or more sickness spells in 1964 and a matched control of 56 men; 35 men who had 60 or more days of sickness absence in 1964; and finally 47 men who had not had one day off sick for at least eight years. Whereas the men who were frequently sick tended to be younger and mostly on day work, those with long periods of sickness were reasonably representative of the whole population, and the men without any sickness absence were older and mostly on shift work. An analysis of records both before and since 1964 showed that the groups had maintained a consistent pattern of sickness absence, but when individuals were considered their behaviour was less consistent. Nevertheless there appeared to be states of sickness absence `liability' and also `resistance' which persisted for a variable length of time from a year or two up to many years. The pre-employment medical examination proved in retrospect to have been of little predictive value. Absenteeism, lateness, and also occupational injuries were all strongly associated with sickness spells, although the level of overtime was not. Previous episodes of neurotic illness, peptic ulceration, and loss of work due to back pain were also associated with frequent sickness spells, so also were frequent colds and troublesome constipation. An unexpected finding from the physical examination was that over one quarter of those who were never sick had some organic disease. Although neither the social nor economic circumstances differed between the groups, the attitude of the men towards themselves and their work proved to be of major importance. A memory of an unhappy childhood was more common in both groups with a lot of sickness absence, whilst dislike of the job or frustrated ambition was common in men with frequent spells

  15. Job satisfaction and short-term sickness absence among Dutch workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbomer, Annette; Roelen, Corné A M; Groothoff, Johan W

    2006-06-01

    Sickness absence is a considerable economic and social problem. Short-term sickness absence is known to be associated with behavioural attitudes. The correlation between sickness absence and job satisfaction has been studied infrequently and with contradictory results. This study investigated the correlation between short-term sickness absence and both global and specific job satisfaction. We defined short-term sickness absence as spells of up to 42 days. A random sample of 898 Dutch workers from a variety of economic sectors and companies received a self-report questionnaire on their first day of sick leave. The questionnaire measured global and specific job satisfaction. In our regression analysis, we controlled for the confounding factors of age, gender, educational level, perceived workload, job autonomy and decision latitude. The duration of an absence spell was defined as the amount of calendar days between sick leave and return to work. Global job satisfaction did not correlate significantly with the duration of short-term sickness absence. While increasing physical job demands predicted longer absence, increasing job autonomy and educational level predicted shorter absence. Satisfaction with colleagues predicted longer duration absence. Global job satisfaction did not correlate with the duration of short-term absence spells, but specific satisfaction with colleagues was associated with longer sickness spells.

  16. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; van der Beek, Allard J; Smid, Tjabe

    2017-01-11

    Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees) cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days) and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02-1.69). Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to be negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes, and

  17. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwin van Drongelen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. Methods This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. Results After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02–1.69. Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to

  18. Psychometric analysis of common mental disorders -- Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) in long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-11-01

    Mental disorders often go undetected in primary care, for persons awarded disability pension, and in sick-leave certificates. No validity tests of instruments for detection and measurement of mental disorders have been performed in long-term sickness absence (LSA). This is the aim of the present study for Common Mental Disorders - Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). It is validity tested in a well-defined Danish population comprising all persons on continuous sickness absence just exceeding eight weeks. CMD-SQ is composed of SCL-SOM (somatization), Whiteley-7 (illness worry and conviction), SCL-ANX4 (anxiety), SCL-DEP6 (depression), SCL-8 (emotional disorder), and CAGE (alcohol dependency). Of 2,414 incident persons on long-term sickness absence within one year, 1,121 participated in the study by filling in CMD-SQ and a subsample of 337 was diagnosed by a psychiatric examination including Present State Examination. Psychometric properties such as scalability and monotonicity, construct validity, and predictive validity were analyzed. Further change over time was analyzed. SCL-SOM and Whiteley-7 showed slight psychometric and screening statistics whereas a combined scale of SC-ANX4, SCL-DEP6, and SCL-8, called SCL-8AD, showed the best and excellent psychometric and screening statistics. SCL-8AD, a sub-scale of CMD-SQ, is a promising candidate for screening and measurement of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence.

  19. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. METHODS: The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from...... 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high...... perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS...

  20. Workplace bullying and sickness absence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Indregard, Anne-Marthe Rustad; Øverland, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The association between workplace bullying and sickness absence remains unclear. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of research on the association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published primary studies on workplace bullying and sickness absence. Studies based on prospective design or registry data on sickness absence were included. Cross-sectional studies with self-reported sickness absence were excluded. Seventeen primary studies were included in the review, sixteen originated from the Nordic countries and fifteen included registry data on sickness absence. All but one study found that exposure to workplace bullying was associated with increased risk of sickness absence. A meta-analysis of ten independent studies showed that exposure to bullying increased the risk of sickness absence (odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.39-1.79). Five studies included variables that moderated the association between bullying and absenteeism. None of the studies included mediating variables. No studies examined sickness absence as a risk factor for later exposure to bullying. Following the GRADE guidelines, the evidence for an association between bullying and sickness absence is moderate. Workplace bullying is a risk factor for sickness absence, but the mechanisms to explain this relationship are not sufficiently described. It is unclear whether sickness absence predicts later exposure to bullying. While, the methodological quality of the reviewed studies was high, the knowledge base is small. There is a need for more research on how and when bullying is related to sickness absence and the possible bidirectional relationships involved.

  1. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response......) of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.52). The rate ratio for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks was 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Evening work may cause long-term sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks....

  2. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis

    2017-01-01

    by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects. RESULTS: High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.......68-0.99), but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81-1.18) or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary...

  3. Job satisfaction and short sickness absence due to the common cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Notenbomer, Annette; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether short episodes of sickness absence were associated with job satisfaction. Participants: 199 wage earners who reported sick due to the common cold between January 2003 and April 2003. Methods: Job satisfaction was assessed on the first day of sickness

  4. Transitions between sickness absence, work, unemployment, and disability in Denmark 2004-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob; Bjørner, Jakob; Burr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Studies of labor market outcomes like sickness absence are usually restricted to a single outcome. This paper investigates the use of multi-state models for studying multiple transitions between sick-listing, work, unemployment, and disability pension by analyzing longitudinal register data. Every...... person sick-listed in Denmark during 2004 was followed until the spring of 2008....

  5. Managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between managerial leadership and self-reported sickness absence/presenteeism among Swedish men and women. Five thousand one hundred and forty-one Swedish employees, 56% of the participants in a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population, were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study. The leadership dimensions measured were five subscales of a standardized leadership questionnaire (Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness Programme): Integrity, Team integration, Inspirational leadership, Autocratic leadership, and Self-centred leadership. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for factors in private life, employment category, labour-market sector, working conditions, self-reported general health, and satisfaction with life in general. Inspirational leadership was associated with a lower rate of short spells of sickness absence (leadership was related to a greater amount of total sick days taken by men. Sometimes showing integrity was associated with higher rate of sickness absence >1 week among men, and seldom showing integrity was associated with more sickness presenteeism among women. Managers performing Team integration were sometimes associated with women taking fewer short (1 week) spells of sickness absence. Adjustment for self-reported general health did not alter these associations for men, but did so to some extent for women. Managerial leadership was found to be relevant for the understanding of sickness absence in the Swedish working population. There were distinctive gender differences.

  6. Sickness certification at oncology clinics: perceived problems, support, need for education and reasons for certifying unnecessarily long sickness absences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, R; Arrelöv, B; Gustavsson, C; Kjeldgård, L; Ljungquist, T; Nilsson, G H; Alexanderson, K

    2014-01-01

    Physicians' work with sickness certifications is an understudied field. The aims of this study were to gain knowledge of experiences concerning the sickness certification process among physicians working at oncology clinics. In 2008, all physicians working in Sweden (n = 36 898) were sent a questionnaire concerning sick-listing practices. All respondents working at an oncology clinic (n = 428) were included in the current study. Most of the physicians had sickness certification consultations at least weekly (91.3%). More than one fifth (22.3%) reported that they worked at a clinic with a workplace policy regarding the handling of sickness certification and 61.1% reported receiving at least some support in such cases from their immediate manager. Issuing unnecessary long sickness certificates were related to experiencing delicate interactions with patients and to lack of time. To a moderate degree, further competence was requested regarding: different types of compensation in the social insurance system, responsibilities of the Social Insurance Agency and employers, and sickness insurance rules. The large majority of physicians working in oncology reported regularly having consultations involving sickness certification. Overall, they reported few problems, low level of need for more competence regarding sickness certification, and low frequency of issuing sickness absences for longer periods than necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Sickness Absence with Musculoskeletal Diagnoses : An Eleven-Year Follow-Up of Young Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Background: In Sweden, as well as in most Western countries, sickness absence is a major public health problem that has increased in recent years. This is a complex phenomenon related not only to ill health factors, but also to other factors on the levels of the individual, the family, the workplace, and the society. Most studies of sickness absence are cross sectional, which makes it difficult to investigate aetiological factors. A longitudinal study design is preferable, because sick-leave ...

  9. Leadership effectiveness and recorded sickness absence among nursing staff : a cross-sectional pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; Van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Aim To investigate nurse managers' leadership behaviour in relation to the sickness absence records of nursing staff. Background Sickness absence is high in healthcare and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. Nurse managers' leadership behaviour may be associated with nursing staff

  10. Predictors of sickness absence in college and university educated self-employed : a historic register study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E. C.; Van der Klink, Jac J. L.; De Boer, Michiel R.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite a large proportion of the workforce being self-employed, few studies have been conducted on risk factors for sickness absence in this population. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for future sickness absence in a population of college and university educated

  11. Longitudinal Relationships Between Organizational Justice, Productivity Loss, and Sickness Absence Among Older Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice. METHOD: A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted

  12. Longitudinal relationships between organizational justice, productivity, loss and sickness absence older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Meer, L. van der; Leijten, F.R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice.Method A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted

  13. Prediction of sickness absence in patients with chronic low back pain : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, Wietske; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    Objectives: To provide evidence of predictors for sickness absence in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP), distinguishing predictors aimed at the decision to report sick (absence threshold) and decision to return to work (return to work threshold). Methods: Medical and

  14. Predicting long-term sickness absence and early retirement pension from self-reported work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sell, Lea; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market.......The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market....

  15. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Brødsgaard Grynderup

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. Methods Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the “Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease” (PRISME cohort and the “Workplace Bullying and Harassment” (WBH cohort (n = 5418. Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects. Results High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.99, but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81–1.18 or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82–1.18 were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association

  16. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis; Conway, Paul Maurice; Bonde, Jens Peter; Garde, Anne Helene; Gullander, Maria; Kaerlev, Linda; Persson, Roger; Rugulies, Reiner; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Høgh, Annie; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-09-16

    Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects. High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99), but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81-1.18) or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We found no

  17. The relation between presenteeism and different types of future sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Heidi; Clays, Els; De Clercq, Bart; De Bacquer, Dirk; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between sickness presenteeism and different types of future sickness absence in 2,983 Belgian middle-aged workers. Data were collected from 1,372 male and 1,611 female workers. Presenteeism was assessed by a single question, evaluating the frequency of occasions of going at work, despite illness, during the preceding year. Prospective, registered sickness absence data were collected during 12 months of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between presenteeism and short/long spells of absenteeism and high sickness absence frequency. High rates (>5 times) of presenteeism at baseline were significantly and independently associated with both long spells of sickness absence (at least 15 consecutive sick leave days) (men, OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.24-6.03; women, OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.31-4.40) and short spells of sickness absence (sick leave between 1 and 3 days) (men, OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.25-4.51; women, OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.17-3.11) in both genders during one year follow-up. Moderate rates (2-5 times) of presenteeism were significantly associated with long spells of sickness absence only in the male group (OR=1.90, 95%CI= 1.21-2.97). With regard to high sickness frequency (at least 3 sick leave episodes), a significant and positive association with high rates of presenteeism was demonstrated only in the female workers (OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.40-4.04). These results suggest that presenteeism was related to different types of future sickness absence.

  18. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A H; Roelen, Corné A M; van Zweeden, Nely F; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. This study investigated the relationship between managerial leadership and sickness absence in health care by associating nurse managers' leadership styles with registered sickness absence among their nursing staff. The cross-sectional study included 699 nurses working in six wards (staff range = 91-140 employees) of a Dutch somatic hospital employing a total of 1,153 persons. The nurse managers heading the wards were asked to complete the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description questionnaire for situational leadership. The Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description scores were linked to employer-registered nursing staff sickness absence. High relationship-high task behavior (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65-0.85) and high relationship-low task behavior (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.14 -0.98) were inversely related to the number of short (one to seven consecutive days) episodes of sickness absence among the staff. Low relationship-high task styles (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.14-5.22) as well as low relationship-low task styles (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.26-4.71) were positively associated with the number of short episodes of sickness absence. However, the leadership styles only explained 10% of the variance in short episodes of sickness absence. Leadership styles are associated with registered sickness absence. The nursing staff of relationship-oriented nurse managers has fewer short episodes of sickness absence than the staff of task-oriented managers. Training nurse managers in relational leadership styles may reduce understaffing and improve nursing efficiency and quality.

  19. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  20. Association Between Cortisol to DHEA-s Ratio and Sickness Absence in Japanese Male Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Fujii, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Takaki, Jiro; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and sickness absence over 2 years in Japanese male workers. A baseline survey including questions about health behavior, along with blood sampling for cortisol and DHEA-s, was conducted in 2009. In total, 429 men (mean ± SD age, 52.9 ± 8.6 years) from whom blood samples were collected at baseline were followed until December 31, 2011. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sickness absence were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusted for potential confounders. Among 35 workers who took sickness absences, 31 had physical illness. A high cortisol to DHEA-s ratio increased the risk of sickness absence (crude HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.12-6.41; adjusted HR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.35-8.20). The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio was linearly associated with an increased risk of sickness absence (p for trend s levels were not associated with sickness absences. This trend did not change when limited to absences resulting from physical illness. Hormonal conditions related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and adrenal function should be considered when predicting sickness absence. The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio may be more informative than single effects of cortisol and DHEA-s levels.

  1. Separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Pain and emotional exhaustion are prevalent conditions with consequences for sickness absence. Although they often co-occur, their combined associations with sickness absence are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with subsequent sickness absence. The data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey sent to 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000 to 2002 (n = 6457) linked with the City of Helsinki personnel register information on sickness absence (3 years on from the survey). Self-certified (1-3 days) and medically certified sickness absence spells (4-14 days, more than 14 days) were used as outcomes. Acute and chronic pain and emotional exhaustion were measured in a questionnaire survey. For the purposes of this study, sickness absence and pain variables were merged to form a new variable with 6 mutually exclusive categories. The main statistical method was negative binomial regression analysis. The synergy index was used to estimate the interaction. Among women, acute and chronic pain with and without emotional exhaustion predicted sickness absence, particularly absence lasting for more than 2 weeks, whereas emotional exhaustion alone did not. The associations persisted when further adjusted for socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, and somatic and mental health. A synergistic interaction effect was found for co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion on medically certified sickness absence. The results for men were mainly similar, but less stable. In order to tackle sickness absence, special attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of employees with co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion.

  2. Childbirth, hospitalisation and sickness absence: a study of female twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Alexanderson, Kristina; Narusyte, Jurgita; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of giving birth with morbidity in terms of hospitalisation and social consequences of morbidity in terms of sickness absence (SA), while taking familial (genetics and shared environmental) factors into account. Design Prospective register-based cohort study. Estimates of risk of hospitalisation and SA were calculated as HRs with 95% CIs. Setting All female twins, that is, women with a twin sister, born in Sweden. Participants 5118 Swedish female twins (women with a twin sister), born during 1959–1990, where at least one in the twin pair had their first childbirth (T0) during 1994–2009 and none gave birth before 1994. Main outcome measures Hospitalisation and SA during year 3–5 after first delivery or equivalent. Results Preceding the first childbirth, the mean annual number of SA days increased for mothers, and then decreased again. Hospitalisation after T0 was associated with higher HRs of short-term and long-term SA (HR for short-term SA 3.0; 95% CI 2.5 to 3.6 and for long-term SA 2.3; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Hospitalisation both before and after first childbirth was associated with a higher risk of future SA (HR for long-term SA 4.2; 95% CI 2.7 to 6.4). Familial factors influenced the association between hospitalisation and long-term SA, regardless of childbirth status. Conclusions Women giving birth did not have a higher risk for SA than those not giving birth and results indicate a positive health selection into giving birth. Mothers hospitalised before and/or after giving birth had higher risks for future SA, that is, there was a strong association between morbidity and future SA. PMID:25573523

  3. Short-term sick leave and future risk of sickness absence and unemployment - the impact of health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Hanna; Lindholm, Christina; Malfert, Mauricio; Möller, Jette

    2012-10-10

    assumption that short-term sick leave may have consequences for future sick leave beyond the effect of ill health. The results point to the importance of paying attention to short-term sick leave in order to prevent subsequent sickness absence.

  4. Short-term sick leave and future risk of sickness absence and unemployment - the impact of health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusions The results support the assumption that short-term sick leave may have consequences for future sick leave beyond the effect of ill health. The results point to the importance of paying attention to short-term sick leave in order to prevent subsequent sickness absence. PMID:23050983

  5. Sickness absence indicating depressive symptoms of working population in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cheolmin; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Jeon, Sang Won; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Yong-Ku; Patkar, Ashwin A; Han, Changsu

    2017-11-11

    Sickness absence has been regarded as an important indicator of workers' health and work productivity. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and sickness absence in workers of South Korea. We used nationwide cross-sectional survey data from 2889 individuals in the working population aged over 19 years in South Korea. Depressive symptoms were measured using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Those respondents who scored above 10 on PHQ-9 were regarded as having depressive symptoms. Sickness absence was considered a binary variable with an absence of at least 1 day in the past month. The survey instrument contained questions about sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, work-related factors, and chronic illnesses. Logistic regression models were used to find odds ratios and confidence intervals. The prevalence of sickness absence was found to be overall 4.6%. The adjusted odds ratio of sickness absence with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) was 3.63 (Confidence Interval: 2.13-6.20) after controlling of possible confounders. Compared to minimal depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 memory of the respondent in this study may result in a recall bias. Incidence of at least 1 day of sickness absence per month increased the risk of depressive symptoms after controlling for the possible confounding factors in general working population. It may be necessary to consider strategies for assessing depression in the workers who take sick leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Organizational factors related to low levels of sickness absence in a representative set of Swedish companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bergman, Peter; Aborg, Carl; Johansson, Gun; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Parmsund, Marianne; Svartengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to identify manageable organizational factors that could explain why some companies have low levels of sickness absence. There may be factors at company level that can be managed to influence levels of sickness absence, and promote health and a prosperous organization. 38 representative Swedish companies. The study included a total of 204 semi-structured interviews at 38 representative Swedish companies. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied to the interviews, primarily with managers, to indicate the organizational factors that characterize companies with low levels of sickness absence. The factors that were found to characterize companies with low levels of sickness absence concerned strategies and procedures for managing leadership, employee development, communication, employee participation and involvement, corporate values and visions, and employee health. The results may be useful in finding strategies and procedures to reduce levels of sickness absence and promote health. There is research at individual level on the reasons for sickness absence. This study tries to elevate the issue to an organizational level. The findings suggest that explicit strategies for managing certain organizational factors can reduce sickness absence and help companies to develop more health-promoting strategies.

  7. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager’s behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Methods Leader behavior was measured by questionnaire, where employees assessed their line manager’s behavior (N = 1008; response rate 40%). Data on sickness absence were provided at department level (N = 35) and were measured at two times. Analyses were primarily conducted using linear regression; leader behavior was aggregated and weighted by department size. Results The results show a relationship between several leader behaviors and sickness absence. The line managers’ display of loyalty to their superiors was related to higher sickness absence; whereas task monitoring was related to lower absence. Social support was related to higher sickness absence. However, the effect of social support was no longer significant when the line manager also displayed high levels of problem confrontation. Conclusions The findings clearly support the line manager’s importance for employee sickness absence during organizational change. We conclude that more awareness concerning the manager’s role in change processes is needed. PMID:22984817

  8. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Kjekshus, Lars Erik

    2012-09-17

    Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager's behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Leader behavior was measured by questionnaire, where employees assessed their line manager's behavior (N = 1008; response rate 40%). Data on sickness absence were provided at department level (N = 35) and were measured at two times. Analyses were primarily conducted using linear regression; leader behavior was aggregated and weighted by department size. The results show a relationship between several leader behaviors and sickness absence. The line managers' display of loyalty to their superiors was related to higher sickness absence; whereas task monitoring was related to lower absence. Social support was related to higher sickness absence. However, the effect of social support was no longer significant when the line manager also displayed high levels of problem confrontation. The findings clearly support the line manager's importance for employee sickness absence during organizational change. We conclude that more awareness concerning the manager's role in change processes is needed.

  9. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstrøm Vilde Hoff

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager’s behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Methods Leader behavior was measured by questionnaire, where employees assessed their line manager’s behavior (N = 1008; response rate 40%. Data on sickness absence were provided at department level (N = 35 and were measured at two times. Analyses were primarily conducted using linear regression; leader behavior was aggregated and weighted by department size. Results The results show a relationship between several leader behaviors and sickness absence. The line managers’ display of loyalty to their superiors was related to higher sickness absence; whereas task monitoring was related to lower absence. Social support was related to higher sickness absence. However, the effect of social support was no longer significant when the line manager also displayed high levels of problem confrontation. Conclusions The findings clearly support the line manager’s importance for employee sickness absence during organizational change. We conclude that more awareness concerning the manager’s role in change processes is needed.

  10. Process evaluation of a problem solving intervention to prevent recurrent sickness absence in workers with common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Karina; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Common mental disorders (CMOs) are a major cause of sickness absence. Twenty to 30% of the workers who return to work after sickness absence due to CMOs experience recurrent sickness absence. We developed the Stimulating Healthy participation And Relapse Prevention (SHARP)-at work intervention, a

  11. Effect of Psychosocial Work Environment on Sickness Absence Among Patients Treated for Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biering, Karin; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Hjollund, Niels Henrik

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades mortality has declined in patients with coronary heart disease due to improvements in treatments and changes in life style, resulting in more people living with chronic heart disease. This implies that focus on rehabilitation and re-integration to the work-force becomes increasingly important. Previous studies among healthy workers suggest that the psychosocial working environment is associated with sickness absence. Whether the psychosocial working environment plays a role for patients with existing cardiovascular disease on return to work and sickness absence is less studied. A cohort of patients under 67 years and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was established in 2006. Three months after the procedure the patients (n = 625) answered a questionnaire about their psychosocial working environment. Patients were followed in registers for the following year. We examined the association between psychosocial working environment and sickness absence at 3 months, 1 year and new sick-listings during the first year with logistic regression. A total of 528 patients had returned to work 3 months after the PCI, while 97 was still sick-listed. After 1 year one was dead, 465 were working and 85 were receiving health related benefits, while 74 had left the workforce permanently. A number of 106 patients were sick-listed during the whole first year or had left the workforce permanently. After the initial return to work, 90 experienced a new sickness absence during the first year while the remaining 429 did not. High work pace, low commitment to the workplace, low recognition (rewards) and low job control were associated with sickness absence at 3 months, but not after 1 year. Low job control as well as job strain (combination of high demands and low control) was associated with new sick-listings. The psychosocial working environment was associated with sickness absence 3 months after the PCI, but not 1 year after.

  12. Screening instruments for predicting return to work in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A-M H; Stapelfeldt, C M; Nielsen, C V

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple somatic symptoms are common and may cause prolonged sickness absence (SA) and unsuccessful return to work (RTW). Aims: To compare three instruments and their predictive and discriminative abilities regarding RTW. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study of participants recruited...... alternative to more time-consuming instruments such as SCL-SOM or BDSQ for estimating the chances of RTW among sickness absentees....

  13. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence due to depressive disorders : A delphi approach involving scientists and physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, G.; Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Buitenhuis, J.; Bültmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common and highly recurrent mental disorder that is accompanied by poor functioning at home and at work. Not all depressed employees report sick and little is known about variables associated with sickness absence (SA) due to depression. Recurrent SA due to depression tends to

  14. Predictors of Recurrent Sickness Absence Due to Depressive Disorders - A Delphi Approach Involving Scientists and Physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, G.; Roelen, C.A.M.; van Rhenen, W.; Buitenhuis, J.; Bultmann, U.; Anema, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common and highly recurrent mental disorder that is accompanied by poor functioning at home and at work. Not all depressed employees report sick and little is known about variables associated with sickness absence (SA) due to depression. Recurrent SA due to depression

  15. Sickness absence associated with shared and open-plan offices - a national cross sectional questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Feveile, H; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    of office; the analysis was adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and physical activity during leisure time. Results Sickness absence was significantly related to having a greater number of occupants in the office (P...Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether shared and open-plan offices are associated with more days of sickness absence than cellular offices. Methods The analysis was based on a national survey of Danish inhabitants between 18–59 years of age (response rate 62%), and the study...... for confounders. Compared to cellular offices, occupants in 2-person offices had 50% more days of sickness absence [rate ratio (RR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13–1.98], occupants in 3–6-person offices had 36% more days of sickness absence (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08–1.73), and occupants in open...

  16. Self-reported noise exposure as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Lund, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    men and women when adjusting for demographic factors and health behavior. After further adjustment for physical workload at work the association between noise exposure and sickness absence disappeared for women, but not for men. Men that reported to be exposed to loud noise between one......Self-reported noise exposure is on the rise in Denmark. Little is known, however, about the social consequences, including sickness absence, of noise exposure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between self-reported noise exposure and long-term sickness absence....... The association was investigated using the Cox proportional hazards model to analyze outcomes in Danish register data on the basis of Danish survey data (5357 employees aged 18-69 in 2000). The analyses showed that self-reported noise exposure was significantly associated with long-term sickness absence for both...

  17. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    : More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level......: In 2000, two cross-sectional samples of 8562 public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark were surveyed. The study outcome, self-reported number of sick-leave days the year preceding interview, was dichotomized into 7 days or less, and more than 7 days. Chi square test was used to analyse distribution......AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS...

  18. [Non work-related sickness absence in 2013 in a Spanish banking sector company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Díaz-Garrido, Ramón; González-Gómez, María Fernanda; Jaureguizar-Cervera, Enrique; Piñaga-Solé, Montserrat; Reyes-García, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    To describe the incidence and duration of episodes of non work-related temporary sickness absence (SA) between January and December of 2013, by diagnostic groups, in a banking sector company. Cross-sectional study of 3.193 episodes of SA (≥ day), excluding work-related injuries and illnesses. The distribution of the duration of SA episodes by medical diagnosis was analyzed by calculating the median duration, 25th and 75th percentiles, mean and standard deviation. The median duration of SA was 9 days for cases where there was a medical diagnosis (n=2.931, 91.8%); the 25th and 75th percentiles were 4 and 32 days, respectively. The most frequent pathologies were respiratory (19.9%), followed by musculoskeletal (19.1%) and pregnancy-related disorders (17.3%). Neoplasms had the longest median duration (49 days), followed by pregnancy-related disorders (39 days) and psychiatric disorders (23 days). Overall sickness absence incidence in our study population was lower, but had a longer duration, as compared to similar studies. The incidence and duration by diagnostic groups were very similar to that reported in the literature, except for pregnancy-related disorders, where both were clearly higher (incidence 4 to 11 times and duration 0.4 times larger) in our company (<0.001). This analysis is useful from a prevention perspective, and suggests the need to prioritize the study to the control of potential workplace exposures that might be affecting pregnant workers' health. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  19. Sickness Absence and Disability Pension After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A 5-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Bränström, Richard; Nilsson, Kerstin; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-06-20

    Purpose To explore future diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer compared with women without breast cancer. Also, to examine associations with disease-related and sociodemographic factors among those with breast cancer. Methods Longitudinal register data on 3,547 women living in Sweden (age 20 to 65 years) who were first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2005, and a matched comparison cohort (n = 14,188), were analyzed for the annual prevalence of diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension over 5 years. Logistic regressions were used to explore associations of disease-related and sociodemographic factors with future sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer. Results Immediately after being diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of women with sickness absence was high but decreased continuously from the 1st through 5th year after diagnosis (71%, 40%, 30%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). In comparison, the range for women without breast cancer was 17% to 11%, respectively. The higher prevalence of sickness absence after breast cancer was mainly a result of breast cancer diagnosis, not a mental diagnosis, or other somatic diagnoses. Advanced cancer at diagnosis, > 90 days sickness absence before diagnosis, low education, and being born outside Sweden were associated with higher odds ratios for sickness absence and disability pension (odds ratio range, 1.40 to 6.45). Conclusion The level of sickness absence increased substantially in women with breast cancer during the first year after diagnosis and approached the level of breast cancer-free women in the following years; however, even in the first year, most women were not on sickness absence for a substantial time, and even in high-risk groups, many were not on sickness absence or disability pension in the following years. Information about relatively low future sickness absence and disability pension levels can be used by

  20. Sleep and sickness absence: a nationally representative register-based follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Kaikkonen, Risto; Härkänen, Tommi; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to examine various sleep measures as determinants of sickness absence while considering confounders. Nationally representative Health 2000 Survey linked with sickness absence data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Finland. Working-aged women (n = 1,875) and men (n = 1,885). N/A. Insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired during daytime than other people of same age, use of sleeping pills, excessive daytime sleepiness, probable sleep apnea (4 items about snoring/apnea), and reporting that sleep duration varies between different seasons were examined as determinants of sickness absence over a 7.2 year follow-up. Poisson and gamma regression models were fitted. After adjusting age, all examined sleep disturbances except excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with sickness absence among men (RRs 1.3-2.5). Among women, after adjusting for age, insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired than others, and use of sleeping pills were associated with sickness absence (RRs 1.4-1.8). After further adjustments for education, working conditions, health behaviors, and objectively measured mental and somatic health, the associations somewhat attenuated but mainly remained. The optimal sleep duration with the lowest risk of sickness absence was 7.6 hours for women and 7.8 hours for men. Although persistence of other health problems could affect the estimates, direct costs due to sickness absence could decrease by up to 28% if sleep disturbances could be fully addressed. This study highlights the need for prevention of sleep disturbances and promotion of optimal sleep length to prevent sickness absence. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. [Incidence of non-work-related sickness absence in Spain by economic activity of the company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Benavides, Fernando; Zaballa, Elena; Duran, Xavier; Sanchez-Niubo, Victòria; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David

    The management of sickness absence due to non-work-related diseases in Spain has typically focused on the control of its duration. The goal of this study was to provide estimates for the incidence of sickness absence due to nonwork-related diseases by economic activity to help shift the focus of management of sickness absence towards prevention. Retrospective study based on 646,337 workers and 133,812 episodes of sickness absence started in 2009, from the Working Continuous Life Sample. Incidence rate and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Poisson regression models, crude and adjusted for age, company size, and occupational category, separately for men and women. The overall incidence rate was 29.8 per 100 person-years; 24.7 (95%CI: 24.5-24.9) in men and 36.3 (36.0- 36.5) in women. By economic activity, the highest crude incidence rates in men were found in "Water supply, sanitation and wastes" (35.4) and "Health activities" (33.9); for women, "Health activities" (48.3), "Public administration" (41.2) and "Transportation and storage" (41.0) were the highest sectors. Companies can compare their sickness absence incidence rates to these benchmark values to determine if they are within the expected reference range, which may guide management decisions more towards the prevention of sickness absence. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  2. Longitudinal Relationships Between Organizational Justice, Productivity Loss, and Sickness Absence Among Older Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybema, Jan F; van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice. A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted among employed persons aged 45-64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). Participants (N = 7011) yearly filled out an online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling in LISREL was conducted to assess the longitudinal relationships between distributive justice of salary, distributive justice of appreciation, procedural justice, productivity loss, and sickness absence. Both distributive justice of appreciation and procedural justice contributed to lower productivity loss and lower sickness absence at 1-year follow-up. Productivity loss increased perceptions of distributive justice of appreciation at 1-year follow-up, whereas sickness absence lowered both perceptions of distributive justice of appreciation and procedural justice at follow-up. Improving organizational justice lowers the risk of productivity loss and sickness absence and may be a useful tool to improve the productivity of organizations.

  3. Predictors of work presence--sickness absence in a salutogenic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Lars-Gunnar; Janson, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify determinants of work presence, i.e. factors that counteract short and/or long term sickness absence. The analyses were based on logistic regression analyses on Swedish regional survey data. Individuals who had not reported sickness absence during the preceding year were compared to on one hand individuals with short term sickness absence ( 28 days). We found predictors of work presence in personal background as well as in work related variables. A high level of sense of coherence was found to counteract short as well as long term sickness absence. Gender specific differences were observed. Although a set of predictors common for the short and long term perspective were found the predictors in general were found to differentiate substantially with respect to short or long term sickness absence. Implications for sickness absence prevention and health promotion could be drawn from the results. Primarily different aspects of control over working situation, work satisfaction and for women a high level of sense of coherence were believed to have these implications.

  4. Relationship Between Occupational Stress Dimensions and Sickness Absence Among a Gas Company Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Zare

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Working conditions have considerably changed and exposure to psychosocial risk factors, particularly occupational stress, has recently had an increasing trend. Studies have shown that sickness absence was the worst outcome of occupational stress. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between dimensions of occupational stress and sickness absence in a gas company in Boushehr, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 employees of a gas company, Boushehr, Iran who were selected through random sampling. Osipow occupational stress questionnaire was used to determine the participants’ stress levels. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The participants’ mean of sickness absence was 2.164.57± days per year. Besides, 1.5%, 32.5%, 36.3%, and 29.8% of the participants had low, low to moderate, moderate to severe, and severe occupational stress, respectively. Additionally, the mean of total stress was moderate to severe among the study participants. This was also the case concerning the stress dimensions. The results revealed a significant relationship between the number of sickness absences and dimensions of occupational stress, including workload, role insufficiency, role conflict, responsibility, physical environment, and total stress (P=0.0001. Conclusion: The majority of the employees had high levels of occupational stress. Besides, a significant association was observed between the dimensions of occupational stress and sickness absence. Accordingly, to decrease the number of sickness absence, we should take measures to reduce occupational stress.

  5. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Jelastopulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently ( < 5 days/year compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (% were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8, and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%, respectively. Short sick-leave spells ( < 4 days may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004 combined with a small yet significant decline as a

  6. Sickness absence and disability pension following breast cancer - A population-based matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Marie Høyer; Lampic, Claudia; Nordin, Karin; Ahlgren, Johan; Bergkvist, Leif; Lambe, Mats; Berglund, Anders; Johansson, Birgitta

    2014-12-01

    To compare sickness absence and disability pension in a population-based cohort of women with breast cancer (n = 463) from 1 year pre-diagnosis until 3 years post-diagnosis with a matched control group (n = 2310), and to investigate predictors of sickness absence during the 2nd and 3rd year post-diagnosis. Following breast cancer, the proportion of disease-free women with sickness absence decreased post-diagnosis (1st-3rd year; 78%-31%-19%), but did not reach the pre-diagnostic level (14%; P pension post-diagnosis (P > 0.05). Among patients, chemotherapy, baseline fatigue and pre-diagnosis sick days predicted sickness absence during the 2nd, 3rd, and 2nd and 3rd year post-diagnosis, respectively (P < 0.05). Breast cancer is associated with increased sickness absence 3 years post-diagnosis. In a clinical setting, prevention and treatment of side effects are important in reducing long-term consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    of computer use and furthermore followed for 300 weeks in a central register of sickness absence for more than 2 weeks.147 participants of the 2,146 (6.9%) became first time sick listed in the follow-up period. Overall, mean weekly computer use did not turn out to be a risk factor for later sickness absence....... The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck......The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time.A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration...

  8. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time.A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration...... of computer use and furthermore followed for 300 weeks in a central register of sickness absence for more than 2 weeks.147 participants of the 2,146 (6.9%) became first time sick listed in the follow-up period. Overall, mean weekly computer use did not turn out to be a risk factor for later sickness absence....... The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck...

  9. Multilevel analysis of workplace and individual risk factors for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine if psychosocial and physical work-environment factors predict long-term sickness absence (>8 weeks) at both the individual and the workplace level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces....... Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel logistic regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors of long-term sickness absence over 5 years based on data from a national absence register. RESULTS: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by physical work......-environment factors at the individual level and psychosocial work environment factors at the workplace level. Interaction between the individual physical and workplace-level psychosocial risk factors was found. CONCLUSION: Workplace-based absence reduction interventions can be enhanced by concurrently addressing...

  10. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3...... diagnosis 21%, depression 14%, anxiety 4%, and somatoform disorder 6%. Conclusions. Undetected CMD may delay the initiation of appropriate treatment and complicate the rehabilitation and return to work....

  11. Absence from work and the medical sickness certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, F; Salesi, M; Sarra, M V; Ricci, S

    2013-03-01

    Internet and dematerialization have greatly facilitated the medical profession. Contractual physicians and national health service doctors now have efficient tools for the electronic management of their routine administrative workload. A recent innovation is the medical sickness certificate issued by primary care providers and national health service physicians. Following postponements and uncertainties, procedures for the electronic completion and online transmission of the sickness certificate are now complete. The changes introduced by the so-called "Brunetta decree", however, have made its application difficult and continuous improvement to the system is needed, considering also the severe penalties imposed for violations. In the light of serious legal repercussions for health care professionals, this article examines various critical issues, highlighting the pitfalls and the network's enormous potential for ascertaining evidence of irregularities. The overheated debate on absenteeism due to illness, the diverse roles of national health physicians and self-employed doctors responsible for issuing a sickness certificate, and problems related to circumstances in which a doctor operates, are the key topics in this discussion. Computerization is an effective tool for optimizing public resources; however, it also seeks to ferret out, through the traceability of certification, abuse of medical certification, with severe penalties applied if certificates are discovered to contain misleading or untrue information.

  12. Case-specific colleague guidance for general practitioners' management of sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhagen, H P; Harvey, S B; Rosvold, E O; Bruusgaard, D; Blonk, R; Mykletun, A

    2017-08-24

    General practitioners (GPs) report sickness absence certification as challenging. They express need for support with functional assessment beyond guidelines and reforms. Case-specific collegial one-to-one guidance for other clinical topics has proved popular with GPs and may be an acceptable and effective way to improve GPs skills and competence in sickness absence certification. To present a new model of case-specific colleague guidance focusing on the management of long-term sickness absence and to describe its feasibility in terms of application and reception among GPs, and also GPs' self-reports of effects on their practice. Randomly selected GPs received case-specific collegial guidance over a 12-month period, in two Norwegian trials, delivered by former GPs employed by the social security administration. We measured reception and perceived effects by GPs' self-report and registered participation and withdrawal rates. The participation rate (n = 165) was 94%, and no GPs withdrew during training. Among the 116 GPs responding to the survey (70%), 112 (97%; 95% CI 92-99) stated they would recommend it to their colleagues. Considerable benefit from the guidance was reported by 68 (59%; 95% CI 50-68). The GPs self-reported other effects on their sickness absence certification, specifically an increased use of part-time sickness absence (Fit-Note equivalent). This model of case-specific colleague guidance to aid GPs' management of long-term sickness absence is feasible and was popular. This type of guidance was perceived by GPs to be somewhat beneficial and to alter their sickness absence certification behaviour, though the true impact requires further testing in controlled trials.

  13. Employee experience of workplace supervisor contact and support during long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Nicholas J; Selander, John; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-07

    Workplace support is an important factor in promoting successful return to work. The purpose of this article is to examine relationships between supervisor contact, perceived workplace support and demographic variables among employees on long-term sickness absence. Data were collected from 204 public employees at a municipality in Sweden who had been on long term sickness absence (60 days or more) using a 23 question survey instrument that collected information on demographic variables, supervisor contact and perceived workplace support. Most injured employees (97%) reported having contact with their supervisors during their sickness absence, with a majority (56%) reporting high levels of support, including early (58.6%) and multiple (70.7%) contacts. Most were pleased with amount of contact (68.9%) and the majority had discussed workplace accommodations (68.1%). Employees who self-initiated contact, felt the amount of contact was appropriate, had a personal meeting with their supervisors and discussed workplace adjustments reported experiencing higher levels of support from supervisors. Employees on long-term sickness absence appreciate contact from their supervisors and this is associated with perceived workplace support. However, the amount and employee experience of this contact is important. It needs to be perceived by employees as supportive, which includes a focus on strategies (e.g., work adjustment) to facilitate a return to work. Supervisor training is required in this area to support the return to work process. Implications for Rehabilitation Contact and support from workplace supervisors is important to workers on long-term sickness absence. Employees appreciate frequent contact from supervisors during long-terms sickness absence. Employees appreciate a personal meeting with supervisors and the opportunity to discuss issues related to return to work such as work adjustment. Employers should provide training to supervisors on how to communicate and

  14. Workplace levels of psychosocial factors as prospective predictors of registered sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether workplace levels of psychosocial work environment factors predict individual sickness absence. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces in three organizations: municipal care, technical services, and a pharmaceutical...... absence in the technical services (rate ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.86) and high workplace levels of skill discretion predicted low sickness absence in the pharmaceutical company (rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.88) after control for relevant confounders. Workplaces...

  15. The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    absence between the two groups. A per protocol analysis, where 89 (46%) office workers participated ≥70 % showed a significant 6% improvement in job performance (p = ...The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers: a randomized controlled trial Christensen, JR. 1, Sjøgaard, G. 1, Søgaard, K. 1, Justesen, JB. 1 SDU (Odense, Denmark) Introduction Physical training may improve health and decrease...... the risk of sickness absence and low job performance. The aim of this paper was thus to investigate the effect of individually tailored intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) on sickness absence and job performance among office workers. Methods In a randomized controlled trial employees from six...

  16. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstrøm Vilde Hoff; Kjekshus Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager’s behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Methods Leader behavior was measured by questionnai...

  17. The effects of multimodal rehabilitation on pain-related sickness absence - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Hillevi; Björk Brämberg, Elisabeth; Hagberg, Jan; Bodin, Lennart; Jensen, Irene

    2017-03-27

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects on sickness absence of multimodal rehabilitation delivered within the framework of a national implementation of evidence based rehabilitation, the rehabilitation guarantee for nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. This was an observational matched controlled study of all persons receiving multimodal rehabilitation from the last quarter of 2009 until the end of 2010. The matching was based on age, sex, sickness absence the quarter before intervention start and pain-related diagnosis. The participants were followed by register data for 6 or 12 months. The matched controls received rehabilitation in accordance with treatment-as-usual. Of the participants, 54% (N = 3636) were on registered sickness absence at baseline and the quarter before rehabilitation. The average difference in number of days of sickness absence between the participants who received multimodal rehabilitation and the matched controls was to the advantage of the matched controls, 14.7 days (CI 11.7; 17.7, p ≤ 0.001) at 6-month follow-up and 9.5 days (CI 6.7; 12.3, p ≤ 0.001) at 12-month follow-up. A significant difference in newly granted disability pensions was found in favor of the intervention. When implemented nationwide, multimodal rehabilitation appears not to reduce sickness absence compared to treatment-as-usual. Implications for Rehabilitation A nationwide implementation of multimodal rehabilitation was not effective in reducing sickness absence compared to treatment-as-usual for persons with nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Multimodal rehabilitation was effective in reducing the risk of future disability pension for persons with nonspecific musculoskeletal pain compared to treatment-as-usual. To be effective in reducing sick leave multimodal rehabilitation must be started within 60 days of sick leave. The evidence for positive effect of multimodal rehabilitation is mainly for sick listed patients. Prevention of sick

  18. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  19. Does the home domain reduce or enhance sickness absence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brummelhuis, L.L.; ter Hoeven, C.L.; de Jong, M.T.D.; Peper, B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined depleting and enriching effects of employees’ home domain (home demands and quality time spent at home) on unscheduled absence from work. We used longitudinal, different source data from 1014 employees. The results showed that a home quality time was negatively related to absence

  20. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Silvestre da Silva-Junior

    Full Text Available Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD.The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385 included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD.All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models.Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive

  1. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, João Silvestre da; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD). The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385) included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions) and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD. All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models. Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive actions and

  2. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on short-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Framke, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Ole Henning; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    , workshops, and workplace-directed intervention activities focusing on the core task at work. Using Poisson regression, we tested differences in incidence rates in short-term sickness absence between the intervention and control groups during a 29-months follow-up. Results: Estimated short-term sickness...... absence days per person-year during follow-up were 8.68 and 9.17 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The rate ratio (RR) for comparing incident sickness absence in the intervention to control groups during follow-up was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.86–1.00] in the crude...... analysis and 0.89 (95% CI 0.83–0.96) when adjusting for age, sex, job group, type and size of workplace, and workplace average level of previous short-term sickness absence. A supplementary analysis showed that the intervention also was associated with a reduced risk of long-term sickness absence...

  3. Social Factors of Sickness Absences and the Significance of the Nature-culture Interplay in Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt-Rawden, Kari Bjerke; Tellnes, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    none declared. The aim of this study was to focus on and to discuss how social factors influence sickness absence. There were two aims of this study: a) To explore and reveal the absentees experiences and perceptions of sickness absence in daily life b) To explore and reveal the absentees own perceptions and experiences of coping while being on sickness absence. Methods. Qualitative method through a pragmatic synthesis of elements of ethnography and grounded theory were used. The sample from the county of Oppland, Norway (n=30) had a mental or a musculoskeletal diagnosis in accordance with the ICPC-2 medical classification system. Results. The interplay between working conditions and private life burdens has an impact on the development of illness and sickness absence, reinforcing the perception of a total life burden situation for women; including caring responsibilities. Men experience stress and conflicts at work, mostly from the leadership and its organizational structure. The majority of the sample used different techniques and strategies to cope with their illnesses, highlighting the significance of the nature-culture interplay. Conclusion. A holistic approach that considers the whole life situation must also be considered in order to understand gender differences in sickness absence. The importance of being involved in daily activities, and feelings of belonging to a social network were important for both men and women. This research may also add important awareness and understanding of Nature-Culture-Health (NaCuHeal) benefits in public health.

  4. Job burnout and job wornout as risk factors for long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallsten, Lennart; Voss, Margaretha; Stark, Stefan; Josephson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem has been assumed to be a risk for burnout-related disorders, and a contingent self-worth notion of job burnout was applied to study the prospective relationship between job burnout and registered episodes of sickness absence of ≥ 60 consecutive days. Job burnout was defined as being in the high quartiles on the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS) scales of exhaustion and cynicism and, in addition, as being above the median on a scale for performance-based self-esteem. Another high exhaustion-cynicism group, a "job wornout" group, was defined as being high on the same MBI-GS scales but having performance-based self-esteem scores below the median. Data were analyzed by a multivariate, logistic regression approach. 4,109 public employees in Sweden. The job burnout group showed an over-risk of long-term sickness absence incidence, both compared with a low exhaustion-cynicism reference group and with the job wornout group after adjustment for several potential confounders. No association with incidence of long-term sickness absence was found for the job wornout group. The differential vulnerability to long-term sickness absence among high exhaustion-cynicism groups suggests that a self-worth perspective of job burnout can be advantageous for prevention of the costly long-term sickness absences.

  5. [Influence of the working conditions on sickness absence due to common diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Álvarez, Manuel; Álvarez-Theurer, Esther; Romero Saldaña, Manuel

    2017-06-13

    To estimate the importance of the working environment in sickness absence, as well as to show possible relationships with clinical-work variables. A descriptive observational study. SITE: Medical Inspection of an Andalusian province. A total of 1016 workers on certified sick leave due to a common illness. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, profession, activity, risk assessment, and perceived occupational cause, on patients who voluntarily gave their consent when they were reviewed during 2015. The illness that caused certified sickness absences was verified in the computerised medical records. Using criteria applied by experts, the role of working conditions in each episode of certified sick leave was assessed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine any relationships between the variables. An inadequate work environment was found in 17.1% of the sickness processes. Health and hospitality services activities have a significant association with working conditions as a cause of sick leave (P<.001). With respect to diagnosis, anxiety-depressive disorders (P<.01) and low back pain (P<.05) were associated with working conditions. The factors related to certified sickness absence and work environment were: residence (OR=0.34, 0.21-0.6), normal/higher education (OR=1.7, 1.2-2.4), (OR=2.0 1.3-3.1), large companies (OR=1.97, 1.3-2.9), and job (OR=2.7, 1.6-3, 2). Sickness absence is affected by factors related to the work environment. Specific preventive actions for workers at their workplace could reduce work related diseases classified as a common illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-rated coping styles and registered sickness absence among nurses working in hospital care : A prospective 1-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, J. A. H.; Plat, N.; Mageroy, N.; Moen, B. E.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Groothoff, J. W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Background: Sickness absence is an important problem in healthcare that affects the quality of care. Sickness absence has been related to coping strategies. Problem-focused coping was shown to be associated with low sickness absence and emotion-focused coping with high sickness absence among postal

  7. Work-family interference and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik; Marklund, Staffan; Voss, Margaretha

    2010-12-01

    Alongside work environment factors, interference between work and domestic life has been proposed as an important explanation for long-term sickness absence, particularly for women. The aim was to investigate the association between work-to-family interference, family-to-work interference and long-term sickness absence among women and men in different family- and work-related settings. The study population was a random sample of 2867 gainfully employed adults in Sweden aged 25-50. In 2004, telephone interview data were collected that included questions about family, work and health. The outcome measure was having at least one spell of long-term sickness absence (>14 days) in 2005 based on social insurance register data. Associations were analysed by logistic regression. Work-to-family interference was more common than family-to-work interference and more often reported by women. The overall associations with long-term sickness absence were weak. However, after adjustment for age and self-reported health, work-to-family interference was associated with long-term sick leave among men with higher socioeconomic status (odds ratio 2.87; 95% CI 1.36-6.07), and there was also a tendency to association among women bearing the main responsibility for housework and family (1.59; 0.99-2.54). These findings suggest that work-to-family interference is associated with long-term sickness absence in the working population, but in a gender- and situation-specific manner. Hence, extensive work responsibilities for men, and probably extensive family responsibilities for women, could hamper the balance between work and family and increase the risk of long-term sick leave. Further studies are warranted within this area.

  8. The attribution of work environment in explaining gender differences in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Holte, Kari Anne; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    40.2 years) was interviewed in 2000 regarding gender, age, family status, socio-economic position and psychosocial and physical work environment factors. The participants were followed for 18 months in order to assess their incidence of long-term sickness absence exceeding 8 consecutive weeks...... in psychosocial work environment exposures explained 32% of the differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between men and women, causing the effect of gender to become statistically insignificant. The combined effect of physical and psychosocial factors was similar, explaining 30% of the gender difference....... Conclusion Differences in psychosocial work environments in terms of emotional demands, reward at work, management quality and role conflicts, explained roughly 30% of women's excess long-term sickness absence risk. Assuming women and men had identical working conditions would leave the larger part...

  9. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically...... unexplained. Systematic text condensation was applied for analysis. Inspired by theories of marginalization and coping, the authors searched for knowledge of how patients' positive resources can be mobilized to counteract processes of marginality. RESULTS: Analysis revealed how invisible symptoms and lack...... of objective findings were perceived as an additional burden to the sickness absence itself. Factors that could counteract further marginalization were a supportive social network, positive coping strategies such as keeping to the daily schedule and physical activity, and positive attention and confidence from...

  10. Does Workplace Bullying Affect Long-Term Sickness Absence Among Co-Workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To examine if non-bullied employees at work units (WUs) with workplace bullying have more long-term sickness absence (LTSA) than employees in non-bullying WUs. METHODS: We included 7229 public health employees from 302 WUs and 3158 responders to a questionnaire on working conditions and health...... in 2007. WUs were classified into three categories of WUs; 1) no bullying (0% bullied); 2) moderate prevalence of bullying (bullied); and 3) high prevalence of bullying (≥10% bullied). LTSA (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence) during the following two years was obtained by linkage to the Danish...... register of sickness absence compensation benefits and social transfer payments. RESULTS: Non-bullied co-workers in WUs, where bullying was reported had 15 to 22% more LTSA compared with non-bullying WUs. CONCLUSION: Workplace bullying may be associated with LTSA in the entire WU....

  11. Sickness absence: could gender divide be explained by occupation, income, mental distress and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeby, Lisbeth; Bruusgaard, Dag; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2009-09-01

    Women have more spells of sickness absence than men but the reasons for this are unknown. We wanted to see if occupation, working conditions, income, health and mental distress may explain this gender difference. In a health survey in 2000-01 of all Oslo inhabitants aged 40, 45, and 59/60 years, 11,072 (48.7%) participated. Survey data were linked to the National Insurance Administration and Statistics Norway for the 8,174 eligible for sickness pay in the next four years. Occupation, working conditions, general health and mental distress were self-reported, and income was from official statistics. Long-term sickness absence (>16 days) was calculated for 2001-04 as cumulative incidence and number of days reimbursed. Cumulative incidence was 50.1% for women and 34.7% for men in the four years after the survey. An age-adjusted female overweight of 48% was only reduced to 41% by adjusting for occupation, working conditions, income, self-reported health and mental distress. Duration of long-term sickness absence was 17 days more for women than for men, and was not influenced by adjustments. We have not explained why women have more sickness absence than men, either by work-related factors or by general health or mental distress. Factors explaining the gender divide should be sought elsewhere.

  12. [Comparison in Andalusia and Catalonia of sickness absence for influenza (H1N1) 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torá, Isabel; Delclós, Jordi; Martínez, José Miguel; Tobías, Aurelio; Jardí, Josefina; Alberti, Constança; Manzanera, Rafael; Dios Villar, Juan de; Delgado, Miguel; Benavides, Fernando G

    2011-01-01

    This study compared surveillance of cases of sickness absence due to illness caused by influenza and reported in Andalusia and Catalonia in the period 2007-2009. A time series of incident cases of sickness absence due to influenza, by sex and age, in which episodes in Andalusia and Catalonia in a previous epidemic period (from 01/01/2007 through 30/09/2009) were compared to the pandemic period (last three months of 2009). The weekly number of new cases of sickness absence due to influenza was calculated, and the minimum, median and maximum values were plotted for each of these two periods. Unexpectedly, women had a higher proportion of new cases of sickness absence due to influenza during the pandemic period (52.2% in Catalonia and 49.7% in Andalusia). During both periods the 25 to 34 year old age group had a higher number of new cases of sickness absence both in Catalonia (37.439 in the epidemic period and 15.379 in the pandemic) and Andalusia (20.465 epidemic period and 9.630 pandemic period). The arrival of the pandemic was around November (approximately 10.000 cases in Catalonia and 5.000 cases in Andalusia), resulting in a significant increase of cases in contrast to the median of the epidemic period. During the 2009 pandemic, there was an increase in new cases of sickness absence due to influenza, somewhat greater in Catalonia than Andalusia, with an earlier peak in November, especially among women in these two autonomous communities.

  13. Gender differences in sickness absence and the gender division of family responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Angelov, Nikolay; Johansson, Per-Olov; Lindahl, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates possible reasons for the gender difference in sickness absence. We estimate both short- and long-term effects of parenthood in a within-couple analysis based on the timing of parenthood. We find that after entering parenthood, women increase their sickness absence by between 0.5 days per month (during the child's third year) and 0.85 days per month (during year 17) more than their spouse. By investigating possible explanations for the observed effect, we conclude that ...

  14. Sickness absence and workplace levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions at public service workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of psychosocial work conditions on sickness absence while addressing methodological weaknesses in earlier studies. METHODS: The participants were 13,437 employees from 698 public service workplace units in Aarhus County, Denmark....... Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was rated on a scale from 0 (low) to 10 (high). Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence in three groups with different levels of satisfaction...

  15. Sickness absence in student nursing assistants following a preventive intervention programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, A L; Marott, J L; Suadicani, P

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that a multidimensional programme combining physical training, patient transfer techniques and stress management significantly reduced sickness absence rates in student nurse assistants (NAs) after 14 months of follow-up. At follow-up, the control group had...... after a further 36 months of follow-up and to analyse the association of GH, MH and VT scores with sickness absence. METHODS: This was a cluster randomized prospective study. The original study involved assessment at baseline and follow-up at 14 months (the duration of the student NA course). Of 568...

  16. Multiple social roles, health, and sickness absence--a five-year follow-up study of professional women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Carin Staland; Spak, Lena; Hensing, Gunnel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze associations between changes in social roles and physical health, mental well-being, psychiatric disorder, and long-term sickness absence over a five-year period. The study was part of a general population-based multipurpose project. Professional women from six birth cohorts born in 1935, 1945, 1955, 1965, 1970, or 1975 (N = 532) were interviewed twice. Self-rated information on physical health, mental well-being, long-term sickness absence, and changes in social roles was used. Information on psychiatric disorders was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-R and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV diagnoses. Multivariate logistic regressions were adjusted for age, socio-economic position, alcohol dependence and abuse, and health at baseline. An increase in number of social roles was associated with lower odds for poor mental well-being, odds ratio (OR) 0.4 (confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 0.8), while a decrease was associated with higher odds for poor mental well-being, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8 to 11.0), psychiatric disorder, OR 2.6 (1.0 to 6.8), and sickness absence, OR 4.4 (1.6 to 11.7). The results indicated that an increase in number of social roles might be protective against poor mental well-being, while a decrease in number of roles might be related to increased psychiatric disorders and long-term sickness absence. More studies on long-term health implications of gender-specific experiences are needed.

  17. Predictors of sickness absence in patients with a new episode of low back pain in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloh, Markus; Elfering, Achim; Salathé, Cornelia Rolli; Käser, Anja; Barz, Thomas; Röder, Christoph; Theis, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    This study examines predictors of sickness absence in patients presenting to a health practitioner with acute/ subacute low back pain (LBP). Aims of this study were to identify baseline-variables that detect patients with a new LBP episode at risk of sickness absence and to identify prognostic models for sickness absence at different time points after initial presentation. Prospective cohort study investigating 310 patients presenting to a health practitioner with a new episode of LBP at baseline, three-, six-, twelve-week and six-month follow-up, addressing work-related, psychological and biomedical factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify baseline-predictors of sickness absence at different time points. Prognostic models comprised 'job control', 'depression' and 'functional limitation' as predictive baseline-factors of sickness absence at three and six-week follow-up with 'job control' being the best single predictor (OR 0.47; 95%CI 0.26-0.87). The six-week model explained 47% of variance of sickness absence at six-week follow-up (p<0.001). The prediction of sickness absence beyond six-weeks is limited, and health practitioners should re-assess patients at six weeks, especially if they have previously been identified as at risk of sickness absence. This would allow timely intervention with measures designed to reduce the likelihood of prolonged sickness absence.

  18. Physical exercise, sickness absence and subjective employability: An 8-year longitudinal observational study among musculoskeletal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Vera; Paech, Juliane; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-06-13

    Physical exercise recommendations become particularly effective when embedded into medical rehabilitation. However, little is known about long-term behaviour maintenance and its effect on sickness absence and subjective employability. The current longitudinal observational study investigated self-reported physical exercise, sickness absence and subjective employability over a period of 8 years. A total of 601 (T0) outpatients (mean age 45.14 years; standard deviation 10.73 years, age range 18-65 years) with different orthopaedic disorders were recruited during their 3-week medical rehabilitation in Germany. Of these, 61.7% (n = 371) were female. Follow-ups were carried out at 6 months (T1, n = 495), 12 months (T2, n = 340), 3 years (T3, n = 296) and 8 years (T4, n = 142) after baseline. Patient characteristics, exercise status, social-cognitive variables, sickness absence and subjective employability were obtained via self-report questionnaires. SPSS hierarchical regression models were used for data analysis, controlling for baseline measures and sociodemographic variables. Physical exercise status 6 months after rehabilitation treatment (T1) predicted sickness absence at 12 months (T2). Inactive people were 3.28 times more likely to be on sick leave at T2. In addition, physical exercise at T1 predicted subjective employability 12 months (T2) and 3 years (T3) later. Those who met the recommendations to be physically active for at least 40 min a week were more likely to feel able to work. Exercise appears to play an important role in reducing sickness absence and subjective employability and should be promoted within and after rehabilitation treatment.

  19. The relationship between three stages of job change and long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff

    2013-12-01

    Although several researchers originally assumed that change always causes strain, a growing number of studies suggest that job change can have positive effects. However, the focus of these studies has generally been on subjective measures of satisfaction and well-being and rarely on health. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate how job change relates to long-term sickness absence during three stages: exit, entry, and normalization. Norwegian hospital employees, a low-unemployment group, were followed over a 6-year period as they moved in and out of different jobs. The study used fixed-effect methods to analyze changes in absence for each employee. The results show increased odds of long-term sickness absence during the 2 years prior to exiting an organization, a significant drop after the employee entered a new organization, and then a gradual increase in long-term sickness absence thereafter. After 2 years, the employee's odds of entering into long-term sickness absence were no longer significantly different from normal (i.e., the odds in months not related to job change). These findings on employee health are congruent with conclusions drawn from research on job satisfaction and well-being. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Joint association of sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions with registered long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E. H.; Larsen, Ann D.; Thorsen, Sannie V.

    2016-01-01

    questionnaire response. We defined sleep problems by self-reported symptoms and/or register data on hypnotics purchases of hypnotics. Psychosocial working conditions included quantitative and emotional demands, influence, supervisor recognition and social support, leadership quality, and social support from...... problems and psychosocial working conditions interact in their associations with long-term sickness absence. Methods: We linked questionnaire data from participants to two surveys of random samples of the Danish working population (N=10 752) with registries on long-term sick leave during five years after...... of long-term sickness absence [HR 1.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.38–1.73]. This association was statistically significantly stronger among participants with high quantitative demands and weaker among those with high supervisor recognition (P

  1. The influence of lifestyle and gender on sickness absence in Brazilian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; do Carmo Luiz, Olinda; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-04-06

    Despite an increasing body of knowledge concerning gender and lifestyle factors as determinants of sickness absence in well-developed countries, the relationship between these variables has not been elucidated in emerging economic power countries, where the burden of non-communicable diseases is particularly high. This study aimed to analyze the relationships among lifestyle-related factors and sick leave and to examine whether gender differences in sickness absence can be explained by differences in socio-demographic, work and lifestyle-related factors among Brazilian workers. In this longitudinal study with a one year follow-up among 2.150 employees of a Brazilian airline company, sick leave was the primary outcome of interest. Independent variables collected by interview at enrolment in the study were gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity and smoking). In addition, the risk for coronary heart disease was determined based on measurement of blood pressure, total cholesterol and glucose levels. The total number of days on sick leave during 12 months follow-up was available from the company register. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of socio-demographic, type of work and lifestyle-related factors on sick leave. Younger employees, those with lower educational level, those who worked as air crew members and those with higher levels of stress were more likely to have sick leave. Body mass index and level of physical activity were not associated with sick leave. After adjustment by socio-demographic variables, increased odds for 10 or more days of sick leave were found in smokers (OR=1.51, CI=1.05-2.17), and ex-smokers (OR=1.45, CI=1.01-2.10). Women were more likely to have 10 or more days of sick leave. Gender differences were reduced mainly when adjusted for type of work (15%) and educational level (7%). The higher occurrence of sick leave among women than

  2. Fatigue and job stress as predictors for sickness absence during common infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, D.C.; Swaen, G.M.H.; Kant, I.J.; Schayck, C.P. van; Galama, J.M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of health and work-related factors as predictors of subsequent sickness absence when experiencing common infections (common cold, flu-like illness, and gastroenteritis). Self-administered questionnaire data were used (baseline n = 12,140). To

  3. A lifecourse approach to long-term sickness absence--a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Henderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most research on long-term sickness absence has focussed on exposure to occupational psychosocial risk factors such as low decision latitude. These provide an incomplete explanation as they do not account for other relevant factors. Such occupational risk factors may be confounded by social or temperamental risk factors earlier in life. METHODS: We analysed data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Long-term sickness absence was defined as receipt of Incapacity Benefit/Severe Disablement Allowance at age 42. In those in employment aged 33 we examined the effects of psychological distress, musculoskeletal symptoms, and low decision latitude. These were then adjusted for IQ, educational attainment, and the presence of early life somatic and neurotic symptoms. RESULTS: Low decision latitude predicted subsequent long-term absence, and this association remained, albeit reduced, following adjustment for psychological distress and musculoskeletal symptoms at age 33. Low decision latitude was no longer associated with long-term absence when IQ and educational attainment were included. Adjusting for early life somatic and neurotic symptoms had little impact. DISCUSSION: A greater understanding of the ways in which occupational risk factors interact with individual vulnerabilities across the life-course is required. Self reported low decision latitude might reflect the impact of education and cognitive ability on how threat, and the ability to manage threat, is perceived, rather than being an independent risk factor for long-term sick leave. This has implications for policy aimed at reducing long-term sick leave.

  4. Sickness absence and return to work rates in women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; de Graaf, Jan H.; Balak, Fulya; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Most women are diagnosed with breast cancer when they are of working age. How long are breast cancer patients absent? How many of them return to work? ArboNed Occupational Health Services documents sickness absence data of 1 million workers of whom 40% were women. Between 2001 and 2005, 2,259 women

  5. Fatigue as Prognostic Risk Marker of Mental Sickness Absence in White Collar Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Heymans, M.W.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bultmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate fatigue as prognostic risk marker for identifying working employees at risk of long-term sickness absence (SA). Methods: At baseline, fatigue was measured in 633 white collar employees with the checklist individual strength (CIS) including scales for fatigue severity, reduced

  6. Fatigue as prognostic risk marker of mental sickness absence in white collar employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Heymans, M. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Bültmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate fatigue as prognostic risk marker for identifying working employees at risk of long-term sickness absence (SA). At baseline, fatigue was measured in 633 white collar employees with the checklist individual strength (CIS) including scales for fatigue severity, reduced concentration,

  7. The influence of lifestyle and gender on sickness absence in Brazilian workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Rabacow (Fabiana Maluf); R.B. Levy (Renata Bertazzi); P.R. Menezes (Paulo Rossi); O. Do Carmo Luiz (Olinda); A.M. Malik (Ana Maria); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Despite an increasing body of knowledge concerning gender and lifestyle factors as determinants of sickness absence in well-developed countries, the relationship between these variables has not been elucidated in emerging economic power countries, where the burden of

  8. Predictors of sickness absence and job satisfaction among staff of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their average age was 37.05±8.84 years with a slight preponderance of female over male (1.4:1). There were statistically significant associations between duration of sickness absence and job satisfaction (p=0.002). Following logistic regression, occupation was found as an independent predictor of job satisfaction.

  9. Organisational downsizing, sickness absence, and mortality: 10-town prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Virtanen, Pekka; Ferrie, Jane E

    2004-03-06

    To examine whether downsizing, the reduction of personnel in organisations, is a predictor of increased sickness absence and mortality among employees. Prospective cohort study over 7.5 years of employees grouped into categories on the basis of reductions of personnel in their occupation and workplace: no downsizing (downsizing (8-18%), and major downsizing (> 18%). Four towns in Finland. 5909 male and 16 521 female municipal employees, aged 19-62 years, who kept their jobs. Annual sickness absence rate based on employers' records before and after downsizing by employment contract; all cause and cause specific mortality obtained from the national mortality register. Major downsizing was associated with an increase in sickness absence (P for trend downsizing was also associated with cardiovascular deaths (P for trend downsizing than after no downsizing. Splitting the follow up period into two halves showed a 5.1 (1.4 to 19.3) times increase in cardiovascular mortality for major downsizing during the first four years after downsizing. The corresponding hazard ratio was 1.4 (0.6 to 3.1) during the second half of follow up. Organisational downsizing may increase sickness absence and the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in employees who keep their jobs

  10. Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal sickness absence and return to work among welders and metal workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); B. Naaktgeboren; W.K. Post (Wendel)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To analyse factors that determine the occurrence of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal problems and the time it takes to return to work. METHODS: A longitudinal study with two year follow up was conducted among 283 male welders and metal

  11. Predicting the duration of sickness absence for patients with common mental disorders in occupational health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to determine the factors that best predict the duration of absence from work among employees with common mental disorders. Methods: A cohort of 188 employees, of whom 102 were teachers, on sick leave with common mental disorders was followed for 1 year. Only

  12. Updating and prospective validation of a prognostic model for high sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Heymans, M.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Rhenen, W.; Pallesen, S.; Bjorvatn, B.; Moen, B.E.; Mageroy, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further develop and validate a Dutch prognostic model for high sickness absence (SA). Methods Three-wave longitudinal cohort study of 2,059 Norwegian nurses. The Dutch prognostic model was used to predict high SA among Norwegian nurses at wave 2. Subsequently, the model was updated by

  13. Case-specific colleague guidance for general practitioners' management of sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordhagen, H.P.; Harvey, S.; Rosvold, E.O.; Bruusgaard, D.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Mykletun, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) report sickness absence certification as challenging. They express need for support with functional assessment beyond guidelines and reforms. Case-specific collegial one-to-one guidance for other clinical topics has proved popular with GPs and may be an

  14. Prognostic factors related to recurrent low-back pain and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Bongers, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the prognostic factors related to the recurrence of low-back pain and future sickness absence due to low-back pain. Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population with a three year follow-up period. They were collected with annual

  15. Overweight and distress have a joint association with long-term sickness absence among dutch employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objectives: To examine separate and joint associations of overweight and distress with long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: We included a total of 2724 Dutch employees participating in occupational health checks between 2008 and 2012. Overweight was defined as a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2)

  16. Risk reclassification analysis investigating the added value of fatigue to sickness absence predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Bultmann, U.; Groothoff, J.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Heymans, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prognostic models including age, self-rated health and prior sickness absence (SA) have been found to predict high (≥30) SA days and high (≥3) SA episodes during 1-year follow-up. More predictors of high SA are needed to improve these SA prognostic models. The purpose of this study was

  17. Fatigue as Prognostic Risk Marker of Mental Sickness Absence in White Collar Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Heymans, M. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Bultmann, U.

    Purpose To investigate fatigue as prognostic risk marker for identifying working employees at risk of long-term sickness absence (SA). Methods At baseline, fatigue was measured in 633 white collar employees with the checklist individual strength (CIS) including scales for fatigue severity, reduced

  18. Risk reclassification analysis investigating the added value of fatigue to sickness absence predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Bultmann, Ute; Groothoff, Johan W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Heymans, Martijn W.

    2015-01-01

    Prognostic models including age, self-rated health and prior sickness absence (SA) have been found to predict high (a parts per thousand yen30) SA days and high (a parts per thousand yen3) SA episodes during 1-year follow-up. More predictors of high SA are needed to improve these SA prognostic

  19. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C.; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (unemployment rates in Greece so other possible reasons should be explored. PMID:22690189

  20. Recovery and recurrence of mental sickness absence among production and office workers in the industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, Giny; Bultmann, Ute; Hoedeman, Rob; de Bruin, Johan; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    Background: Manual workers in the public sector have previously been found to be at risk of mental sickness absence (SA). As the impact of mental illness differs across economic sectors, this study investigated mental SA in the industrial sector, differentiating between office and production

  1. Incidence rates of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Hees, Hiske

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, growing attention has been given to the mental health of workers. One way to examine the mental health of workers is to look at the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence. There is a scarcity of literature in which the incidence rates of mental

  2. A one-item workability measure mediates work demands, individual resources and health in the prediction of sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    with workability as mediator was performed for a binary outcome of sickness absence. The predictors in the analysis were as follows: age, social class, physical health, mental health, number of diagnoses, ergonomic exposures, occupational noise, exposure to risks, social support from supervisor, job control...... absence. We also estimated the relative importance of health and work environment for workability and sickness absence. METHODS: Baseline data were collected within a Danish work and health survey (3,214 men and 3,529 women) and followed up in a register of sickness absence. Probit regression analysis...... and quantitative demands. RESULTS: High age, poor health and ergonomic exposures were associated with low workability and mediated by workability to sickness absence for both genders. Low social class and low quantitative demands were associated with low workability and mediated to sickness absence among men...

  3. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity-a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Lund, Thomas; Lindholdt, Louise

    2016-01-01

    adjusting for RTW expectations, the odds were somewhat attenuated and no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: Employees on sick leave due to self-reported mental health problems spent more weeks in sickness absence and temporary benefits and had a higher risk of not having returned to work within a year......BACKGROUND: To investigate differences in return to work (RTW) and employment trajectories in individuals on sick leave for either mental health reasons or other health related reasons. METHODS: This study was based on 2036 new sickness absence cases who completed a questionnaire on social...... characteristics, expectations for RTW and reasons for sickness absence. They were divided into two exposure groups according to their self-reported sickness absence reason: mental health reasons or other health reasons. The outcome was employment status during the following 51 weeks and was measured both as time...

  4. Towards a Better Understanding of Sickness Absence in Adolescence: A Qualitative Study among Dutch Intermediate Vocational Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne T. M. Vanneste

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate approach to sickness absence can reduce school dropout which is a major problem in Intermediate Vocational Education (IVE. This practice-based study explores the sickness absence reasons and factors influencing reporting the sickness, from a student’s perspective. Semistructured interviews were held until saturation. Data were collected and analysed by a multidisciplinary research team including youth health care physicians working with IVE students. The results show that, according to the students, reasons for sickness reporting were health-related or related to problems at home or in school. Students view their sickness absence as necessity, as asking for understanding, or as pardonable. Their views depended on (1 the perception of medical legitimacy, (2 feeling able to take their own responsibility, (3 feeling being taken seriously at school, and (4 the perception that the sickness reporting procedure at school is anonymous and easy. In conclusion, reporting sickness seems more a reaction to a necessity or opportunity than the result of a conscious decision-making process. Personalizing the sickness reporting procedures and demonstrating interest rather than control while discussing the sickness absence with the individual IVE student might very well affect their sickness absence levels.

  5. Sickness absence in gender-equal companies A register study at organizational level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öhman Ann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differences in sickness absence between men and women in Sweden have attracted a great deal of interest nationally in the media and among policymakers over a long period. The fact that women have much higher levels of sickness absence has been explained in various ways. These explanations are contextual and one of the theories points to the lack of gender equality as an explanation. In this study, we evaluate the impact of gender equality on health at organizational level. Gender equality is measured by an index ranking companies at organizational level; health is measured as days on sickness benefit. Methods Gender equality was measured using the Organizational Gender Gap Index or OGGI, which is constructed on the basis of six variables accessible in Swedish official registers. Each variable corresponds to a key word illustrating the interim objectives of the "National Plan for Gender Equality", implemented by the Swedish Parliament in 2006. Health is measured by a variable, days on sickness benefit, also accessible in the same registers. Results We found significant associations between company gender equality and days on sickness benefit. In gender-equal companies, the risk for days on sickness benefit was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8 higher than in gender-unequal companies. The differences were greater for men than for women: OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.7-2.0 compared to OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3-1.5. Conclusions Even though employees at gender-equal companies had more days on sickness benefit, the differences between men and women in this measure were smaller in gender-equal companies. Gender equality appears to alter health patterns, converging the differences between men and women.

  6. Sickness absence in gender-equal companies: a register study at organizational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörlin, Ann; Ohman, Ann; Lindholm, Lars

    2011-07-11

    The differences in sickness absence between men and women in Sweden have attracted a great deal of interest nationally in the media and among policymakers over a long period. The fact that women have much higher levels of sickness absence has been explained in various ways. These explanations are contextual and one of the theories points to the lack of gender equality as an explanation. In this study, we evaluate the impact of gender equality on health at organizational level. Gender equality is measured by an index ranking companies at organizational level; health is measured as days on sickness benefit. Gender equality was measured using the Organizational Gender Gap Index or OGGI, which is constructed on the basis of six variables accessible in Swedish official registers. Each variable corresponds to a key word illustrating the interim objectives of the "National Plan for Gender Equality", implemented by the Swedish Parliament in 2006. Health is measured by a variable, days on sickness benefit, also accessible in the same registers. We found significant associations between company gender equality and days on sickness benefit. In gender-equal companies, the risk for days on sickness benefit was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8) higher than in gender-unequal companies. The differences were greater for men than for women: OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.7-2.0) compared to OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3-1.5). Even though employees at gender-equal companies had more days on sickness benefit, the differences between men and women in this measure were smaller in gender-equal companies. Gender equality appears to alter health patterns, converging the differences between men and women.

  7. The impact of poor psychosocial work environment on non-work-related sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina-Romero, C; Sainz, J C; Pastrana-Jiménez, J I; García-Diéguez, N; Irízar-Muñoz, I; Aleixandre-Chiva, J L; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Calvo-Bonacho, E

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to analyse the impact of psychosocial work environment on non-work-related sickness absence (NWRSA) among a prospective cohort study, stratified using a random sampling technique. Psychosocial variables were assessed among 15,643 healthy workers using a brief version of the Spanish adaptation of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. A one year follow-up assessed the total count of NWRSA days. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used for multivariate analyses. After adjusting for covariates, low levels of job control and possibilities for development (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01-1.36 [men]; OR: 1.39 95% CI: 1.09-1.77 [women]), poor social support and quality of leadership (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.50 [men]; OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.01-1.63 [women]), and poor rewards (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57 [men]; OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01-1.66 [women]) predicted a total count of sickness absence greater than zero, in both men and women. Double presence was also significantly associated with NWRSA different than 0, but only among women (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81). Analyses found no association between psychosocial risk factors at work and the total count (i.e., number of days) of sickness absences. The results suggest that work-related psychosocial factors may increase the likelihood of initiating an NWRSA episode, but were not associated with the length of the sickness absence episode. Among our large cohort we observed that some associations were gender-dependent, suggesting that future research should consider gender when designing psychosocial interventions aimed at decreasing sickness absences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low job satisfaction does not identify nurses at risk of future sickness absence : Results from a Norwegian cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Magerøy, B.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Pallesen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Sickness absence is high in healthcare and contributes to nursing staff shortages reducing the efficiency and quality of patient care. Assessing the risk of sickness absence in working nurses opens opportunities for preventive strategies. Job satisfaction has attracted much attention in healthcare

  9. A prospective cohort study on musculoskeletal risk factors for long-term sickness absence among healthcare workers in eldercare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Thomas; Mortensen, Ole S

    2012-01-01

    The socioeconomic burden of sickness absence from musculoskeletal disorders is considerable. However, knowledge about the risk of sickness absence from pain in different body regions among specific job groups is needed to more efficiently target preventative strategies. This study estimates the r...

  10. Job strain and informal caregiving as predictors of long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2017-01-01

    France, 14 727 from Finland, and 5275 from the UK. A total of 26 800 participants, age 52 (interquartile range 47-56) years participated in the study. Job strain was assessed using the demand-control model. Informal caregiving was defined as care for a sick, disabled, or elderly person. Long......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the individual, joint and interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on long-term sickness absence with special attention to gender differences. METHODS: The study comprised a prospective cohort study of 6798 working adults from...

  11. Physical work environment risk factors for long term sickness absence: prospective findings among a cohort of 5357 employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    employees interviewed in 2000 about their physical work environment, and various covariates were followed for 18 months in a national sickness absence register. Outcome measurements Cox regression analysis was performed to assess risk estimates for physical risk factors in the work environment and onset...... risk factors among female employees (Pincreased the risk of onset of long term sickness absence. The study shows a potential for reducing long term sickness absence through modifying work......OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of physical work environment on long term sickness absence and to investigate interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study of long term sickness absence among employees in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 5357...

  12. Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Taloyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. METHODS: Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12, also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06. Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. CONCLUSION: The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  13. Sickness Presenteeism Predicts Suboptimal Self-Rated Health and Sickness Absence: A Nationally Representative Study of the Swedish Working Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloyan, Marina; Aronsson, Gunnar; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Alexanderson, Kristina; Westerlund, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP) may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. Methods Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98–7.12), also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30–2.06). Those who reported 1–7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. Conclusion The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health. PMID:22984547

  14. Gender differences in sickness absence--the contribution of occupation and workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Mastekaasa, Arne; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Piha, Kustaa; Lahelma, Eero

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether differences in male and female occupations and workplaces explain gender differences in self-certified (1-3 days) and medically confirmed sickness absence episodes of various lengths (> or = 4 days, >2 weeks, >60 days). Analyses in the main ICD-10 diagnostic groups were conducted for absence episodes of >2 weeks. Furthermore, we examined whether the contribution of occupation is related to different distributions of female and male jobs across the social class hierarchy. All municipal employees of the City of Helsinki at the beginning of 2004 (N=36 395) were followed-up until the end of 2007. Conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression was used to control for differences between occupations and workplaces. Controlling for occupation accounted for half of the female excess in self-certified and medically confirmed episodes lasting >60 days. In the intermediate categories, this explained about one third of the female excess. The effect of workplace was similar but weaker. Occupational and workplace differences explained the female excess in sickness absence due to mental and behavioral disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, and respiratory diseases. The effect of occupation was clearly stronger than that of social class in self-certified absence episodes, whereas in medically confirmed sickness absence episodes gender differences were to a large extent related to social class differences between occupations. Differences between occupations held by women and men explain a substantial part of the female excess in sickness absence. Mental and behavioral disorders and musculoskeletal diseases substantially contribute to this explanation.

  15. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen Sigurd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95

  16. Does workplace social capital protect against long-term sickness absence? Linking workplace aggregated social capital to sickness absence registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Sophie K; Madsen, Ida E H; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Melkevik, Ole; Bjørner, Jakob Bue; Andersen, Ingelise; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-08-01

    Most previous prospective studies have examined workplace social capital as a resource of the individual. However, literature suggests that social capital is a collective good. In the present study we examined whether a high level of workplace aggregated social capital (WASC) predicts a decreased risk of individual-level long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in Danish private sector employees. A sample of 2043 employees (aged 18-64 years, 38.5% women) from 260 Danish private-sector companies filled in a questionnaire on workplace social capital and covariates. WASC was calculated by assigning the company-averaged social capital score to all employees of each company. We derived LTSA, defined as sickness absence of more than three weeks, from a national register. We examined if WASC predicted employee LTSA using multilevel survival analyses, while excluding participants with LTSA in the three months preceding baseline. We found no statistically significant association in any of the analyses. The hazard ratio for LTSA in the fully adjusted model was 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-1.13) per one standard deviation increase in WASC. When using WASC as a categorical exposure we found a statistically non-significant tendency towards a decreased risk of LTSA in employees with medium WASC (fully adjusted model: HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.48-1.27)). Post hoc analyses with workplace social capital as a resource of the individual showed similar results. WASC did not predict LTSA in this sample of Danish private-sector employees.

  17. The understanding of Norwegian women’s sickness absence: towards a holistic approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Johanne Solheim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Vanlig tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: In Norway men's sickness absence from work has been stable or reduced over the last decades while women's sickness-absence ratio has increased, but the reasons for these developments are complex and unclear. There have been considerable efforts introduced and implemented to reduce sickness absence, but they have not succeeded. One reason for this may be the insufficient knowledge about the reasons for sick leave, and especially for women's sick leave. The aim: This article aims to examine how social factors influence sickness absence and how long-term absentees interpret and explain their ill health and sickness absence. Method: In one Norwegian county in 2010 we performed individual in-depth interviews with 20 women and ten men between the ages of 25-60 years who had been or were sick-listed for more than 30 days during the last year with a mental illness or musculoskeletal diagnoses. Results: The study illustrates how social factors influence sickness absence in different ways. The women indicated complex causes for their sickness absence, and often described an interaction between work-related and domestic-related aspects. Some accounts illustrate that their ill health might have roots in life occurrences from childhood

  18. The transition between work, sickness absence and pension in a cohort of Danish colorectal cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Harling, Henrik; Pedersen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic and clinical factors on the transitions between work, sickness absence and retirement in a cohort of Danish colorectal cancer survivors. Design: Register-based cohort study with up to 10 years of follow-up. Setting......: Population-based study with use of administrative health-related and socioeconomic registers. Participants: All persons (N=4343) diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Denmark during the years 2001-2009 while they were in their working age (18-63 years) and who were part of the labour force 1 year postdiagnosis.......91), not operated curatively 1.35 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.63) and with occurrence of postoperative complications 1.25 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.41). The opposite was found for the transition from sickness absence back to work. Conclusions: This nationwide study of colorectal cancer patients who have survived 1 year shows...

  19. 'Mental health day' sickness absence amongst nurses and midwives: workplace, workforce, psychosocial and health characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Perry, Lin; Duffield, Christine; Sibbritt, David; Gallagher, Robyn; Nicholls, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    To examine the workforce, workplace, psychosocial and health characteristics of nurses and midwives in relation to their reported use of sickness absence described as 'mental health days'. The occupational stress associated with the nursing profession is increasingly recognized and nurse/midwifery absenteeism is a significant global problem. Taking a 'mental health day' as sickness absence is a common phenomenon in Australian health care. No previous studies have empirically explored the characteristics of nurses and midwives using such sickness absence. Online cross-sectional survey. Survey comprising validated tools and questions on workplace and health characteristics was distributed to nurses and midwives in New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 - February 2015. Sample characteristics were reported using descriptive statistics. Factors independently predictive of 'mental health day' reportage were determined using logistic regression. Fifty-four percentage of the n = 5041 nurse and midwife respondents took 'mental health days'. Those affected were significantly more likely to be at younger ages, working shifts with less time sitting at work; to report workplace abuse and plans to leave; having been admitted to hospital in previous 12 months; to be current smokers; to report mental health problems, accomplishing less due to emotional problems and current psychotropic medication use. Specific characteristics of nurses and midwives who report taking 'mental health day' sickness absence offer healthcare administrators and managers opportunities for early identification and intervention with workplace measures and support frameworks to promote well-being, health promotion and safety. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Healthier after Psychotherapy? Analysis of Claims Data (Lower Saxony, Germany) on Sickness Absence Duration before and after Outpatient Psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Jelena; de Zwaan, Martina; Geyer, Siegfried

    2017-11-17

    Introduction In employed populations sickness absence can be used as a good indicator of health status. In the present study, it was examined how periods of sickness absence are developing within one year before and after psychotherapy under comparison of three types of psychotherapy (behavior therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis), all fully covered by statutory health insurance. Methods and data The analyses were performed with pseudonymized claims data from the AOK Niedersachsen, a statutory health insurance (N=2,900,065 insured). Certified sickness absences before and after psychotherapy were examined for 9,916 patients. Parallelized controls were used to build a comparison of the length of sickness absences. Analyses were performed separately for women and for men. Results Within one year before starting psychotherapy, patients had longer sickness absences than controls on average. There was a reduction in the length of sickness absence of 20 days (median) within one year before to 12 days (median) within one year after the psychotherapy. The obtained differences between types of psychotherapy were considerable. Discussion Differences in terms of sickness absences may in part be explained by socio-demographic differences. Patients who underwent psychoanalysis were younger and had higher educational levels. However, it remains unclear why the differences of sickness absence periods were that high. It has to be discussed whether self-selection of patients with better health into psychoanalysis had occurred. Conclusions Patients undergoing psychoanalysis differ from patients who underwent other types of psychotherapy in terms of their duration of sickness absence as well as socio-demographic profile. Thus, due to differences in the composition of patients future research in psychotherapy will have to differentiate by type of psychotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity—a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Pedersen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate differences in return to work (RTW and employment trajectories in individuals on sick leave for either mental health reasons or other health related reasons. Methods This study was based on 2036 new sickness absence cases who completed a questionnaire on social characteristics, expectations for RTW and reasons for sickness absence. They were divided into two exposure groups according to their self-reported sickness absence reason: mental health reasons or other health reasons. The outcome was employment status during the following 51 weeks and was measured both as time-to-event analysis and with sequence analysis. Results Individuals with mental health reasons for sickness absence had a higher risk of not having returned to work (RR 0.87 (0.80;0.93. Adjusting for gender, age, education and employment did not change the estimate, however, after adding RTW expectations to the model, the excess risk was no longer present (RR 1.01 (0.95;1.08. In relation to the sequence analysis, individuals with mental health related absence had significantly higher odds of being in the sickness absence cluster and significantly lower odds for being in the fast RTW cluster, but when adjusting for RTW expectations, the odds were somewhat attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Employees on sick leave due to self-reported mental health problems spent more weeks in sickness absence and temporary benefits and had a higher risk of not having returned to work within a year compared to employees on sick leave due to other health reasons. The difference could be explained by their lower RTW expectations at baseline. This emphasises the need to develop suitable and specific interventions to facilitate RTW for this group of sickness absentees.

  2. Sickness and sickness absence of remaining employees in a time of economic crisis: a study among employees of municipalities in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigursteinsdóttir, Hjördís; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-05-01

    This article focuses on sickness and sickness absence among employees of 20 municipalities in Iceland who remained at work after the economic crisis in October 2008. The aim was to examine the impact of economic crisis on sickness and sickness absence of "survivors" working within the educational system (primary school teachers and kindergarten teachers) and the care services (elderly care and care of disabled people) operated by the municipalities. The study was based on mixed methods research comprising a balanced panel data set and focus groups. An online survey conducted three times among 2356 employees of 20 municipalities and seven focus group interviews in two municipalities (39 participants). The generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyze the quantitative data, and focused coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. The main finding showed that the economic crisis had negative health implications for the municipal employees. The negative effects grew stronger over time. Employee sickness and sickness absence increased substantially in both downsized and non-downsized workplaces. However, employees of downsized workplaces were more likely to be sick. Sickness and sickness absence were more common among younger than older employees, but no gender differences were observed. The study demonstrates the importance of protecting the health and well-being of all employees in the wake of an economic crisis, not only those who lose their jobs or work in downsized workplaces. This is important in the immediate aftermath of a crisis, but also for a significant time thereafter. This is of practical relevance for those responsible for occupational health and safety, as most Western countries periodically go through economic crises, resulting in strains on employees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Depressive symptoms and the risk of long-term sickness absence: a prospective study among 4747 employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. METHODS: This prospective study is based on 4,747 male and female employees, participating in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study....... Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline. Data on sickness absence were obtained from a national register on social transfer payments. Onset of long-term sickness absence was followed up for 78 weeks. RESULTS: The cumulative 78 weeks incidence for the onset of long-term sickness absence was 6.5% in men...... and 8.9% in women. Both men and women with severe depressive symptoms (...

  4. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity-a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Lund, Thomas; Lindholdt, Louise

    2016-01-01

    -to-event analysis and with sequence analysis. RESULTS: Individuals with mental health reasons for sickness absence had a higher risk of not having returned to work (RR 0.87 (0.80;0.93)). Adjusting for gender, age, education and employment did not change the estimate, however, after adding RTW expectations...... to the model, the excess risk was no longer present (RR 1.01 (0.95;1.08)). In relation to the sequence analysis, individuals with mental health related absence had significantly higher odds of being in the sickness absence cluster and significantly lower odds for being in the fast RTW cluster, but when......BACKGROUND: To investigate differences in return to work (RTW) and employment trajectories in individuals on sick leave for either mental health reasons or other health related reasons. METHODS: This study was based on 2036 new sickness absence cases who completed a questionnaire on social...

  5. Widespread pain - do pain intensity and care-seeking influence sickness absence? - A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Søren; Christiansen, David Høyrup; Jensen, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    pain and sickness absence has not been studied. Additionally it is unknown whether care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders has a positive or negative impact on future absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pain intensity on the association...... the results. Similar findings were observed for sickness absence of shorter duration, although the association was weaker. Care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders did not overall alter the odds of later sickness absence.CONCLUSION: Pain intensity and care-seeking due......BACKGROUND: Both musculoskeletal pain-intensity in relation to a specific location (e.g. lower back or shoulder) and pain in multiple body regions have been shown to be associated with impaired function and sickness absence, but the impact of pain intensity on the association between widespread...

  6. Barriers and facilitators for implementation of a return-to-work intervention for sickness absence beneficiaries with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Marie H. T.; Moefelt, Louise; Dahl Nielsen, Maj Britt

    2015-01-01

    , different interpretations of sickness absence legislation among stakeholders, competing rehabilitation alternatives, and lack of managerial support for the intervention. An important facilitator was the motivation and availability of resources to solve disagreements through extensive communication...

  7. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. METHODS: Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year...... and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit...... prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49-63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort...

  8. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Trine Rønde; Jensen, Signe Marie; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year...... prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1...... doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds...

  9. Stability of return to work after a coordinated and tailored intervention for sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Marie H. T.; D. Nielsen, Maj Britt; Pedersen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    showed no benefits in terms of improved stability of RTW, reduced sickness absence or improved labour market status after 2 years when compared to conventional case management. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: Evidence for effective return-to-work (RTW) interventions for people with mental health......) and of conventional case management (n = 80) for 2 years to compare their risk of recurrent sickness absence and unemployment after RTW, their cumulative sickness absence and their labour market status after 2 years. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant intervention effect in terms of the risk of recurrent...... compared to conventional case management of sickness absence beneficiaries in Denmark. A stronger focus on cooperation with social insurance officers and employers may produce better results....

  10. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Intervention in Reducing Depression and Sickness Absence: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Eißing, Tabea; Telle, Nils-Torge; Siegmund-Schultze, Elisabeth; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-06-15

    Depression is highly prevalent in the working population and is associated with significant loss of workdays; however, access to evidence-based treatment is limited. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a Web-based intervention in reducing mild to moderate depression and sickness absence. In an open-label randomized controlled trial, participants were recruited from a large-scale statutory health insurance and were assigned to two groups. The intervention group had access to a 12 week Web-based program consisting of structured interactive sessions and therapist support upon request. The wait-list control group had access to unguided Web-based psycho-education. Depressive symptoms were self-assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and follow-up (12 weeks after treatment) using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) as primary outcome measures. Data on sickness absence was retrieved from health insurance records. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and per-protocol (PP) analysis were performed. Of the 180 participants who were randomized, 88 completed the post-assessment (retention rate: 48.8%, 88/180). ITT analysis showed a significant between-group difference in depressive symptoms during post-treatment in favor of the intervention group, corresponding to a moderate effect size (PHQ-9: d=0.55, 95% CI 0.25-0.85, Psignificant effect on one primary outcome (PHQ-9: d=0.61, 95% CI 0.15-1.07, P=.04, and BDI-II: d=0.25 95% CI -0.18 to 0.65, P=.37). Analysis of clinical significance using reliable change index revealed that significantly more participants who used the Web-based intervention (63%, 63/100) responded to the treatment versus the control group (33%, 27/80; P<.001). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 4.08. Within both groups, there was a reduction in work absence frequency (IG: -67.23%, P<.001, CG: -82.61%, P<.001), but no statistical difference in sickness absence between groups was found (P=.07). The Web

  11. The mediating role of recovery opportunities on future sickness absence from a gender- and age-sensitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Noor, A; Sluiter, J K; Hagberg, M

    2017-01-01

    A lack of sufficient recovery during and after work may help to explain impaired health in the long run. We aimed to increase knowledge on the mediating role of recovery opportunities (RO) during and after work on future sickness absence from a gender- and age-sensitive perspective. We used data on RO from a Swedish national survey in 2011 and linked these to sickness absence (>14 days) two years later among the general working population (N = 7,649). Mediation of the relationship between gender and sickness absence by exposure to RO was studied through linear regression. We conducted separate analyses for RO during and after work and for three different age groups (16-29; 30-49; 50-64). The sample consisted of 3,563 men and 4,086 women. Sickness absence was higher among the women than among the men (11 days vs 5 days, pwork (ß 0.4-0.6) mediated the relationship between gender and sickness absence. Mediation effects existed across age groups, with the strongest effects of RO during work found among the age group between 50 and 64 years of age (attenuation 36%). Our results indicate that gender inequality is also reflected in worse RO among women. This partially explains the increased risk of future sickness absence, particularly among those above 50 years of age. These findings show that RO during work deserve more attention in working life research.

  12. Sickness absence and psychosocial job quality: an analysis from a longitudinal survey of working Australians, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Butterworth, Peter; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne M; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-05-15

    Sickness absence is associated with adverse health, organizational, and societal outcomes. Using data from a longitudinal cohort study of working Australians (the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey), we examined the relationship between changes in individuals' overall psychosocial job quality and variation in sickness absence. The outcome variables were paid sickness absence (yes/no) and number of days of paid sickness absence in the past year (2005-2012). The main exposure variable was psychosocial job quality, measured using a psychosocial job quality index (levels of job control, demands and complexity, insecurity, and perceptions of unfair pay). Analysis was conducted using longitudinal fixed-effects logistic regression models and negative binomial regression models. There was a dose-response relationship between the number of psychosocial job stressors reported by an individual and the odds of paid sickness absence (1 adversity: odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.45 (P = 0.002); 2 adversities: OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.51 (P = 0.002); ≥3 adversities: OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.94 (P job quality. These results suggest that workplace interventions aiming to improve the quality of work could help reduce sickness absence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sickness absence and concurrent low back and neck-shoulder pain: results from the MUSIC-Norrtälje study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Teresia; Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas; Wiktorin, Christina; Liwing, Johan; Norrman, Linda

    2007-05-01

    In Sweden, musculoskeletal disorders, in particular low back disorders (LBD) and neck-shoulder disorders (NSD) constitute by far the most common disorders, causing sick leave and early retirement. Studies that compare sickness absence in individuals with LBD and individuals with NSD are lacking. Moreover, it is likely that having concurrent complaints from the low back region and the neck-shoulder region could influence sickness absence. The purpose of the present study was to explore potential differences in sickness absence and in long-term sickness absence during a 5-year period, 1995-2001, among individuals with (1) solely LBD, (2) solely NSD, and (3) concurrent LBD and NSD. The present study was based on 817 subjects from the MUSIC-Norrtälje study, whom were working at baseline and whom at both baseline and follow-up reported LBD and/or NSD. Three groups were identified based on pain and pain-related disability at both baseline and follow-up: (1) solely LBD, (2) solely NSD, and (3) concurrent LBD and NSD. Subjects who did not give consistent answers at both the baseline and follow-up occasions were assigned a fourth group: (4) migrating LBD/NSD. Two outcomes were analysed: (1) prevalence of sickness absence, and (2) long-term sickness absence among those with sickness absence days. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for sickness absence in the different disorder groups, taking into account confounding factors such as gender, age and other non-musculoskeletal-related disorders. In the group concurrent LBD and NSD, 59% had been sickness absent between baseline and follow up, compared to 42% in the group solely LBD, 41% in the group solely NSD, and 46% in the group migrating LBD/NSD. No difference in sickness absence was found between the group solely LBD compared to the group solely NSD [OR 0.65 (0.36-1.17)]. The adjusted OR for sickness absence in the group concurrent LBD and NSD compared to subjects with solely LBD or solely

  14. Sickness absence due to otoaudiological diagnoses and risk of disability pension: a nationwide Swedish prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Friberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing difficulties are a large public health problem. Knowledge is scarce regarding risk of disability pension among people who have been sickness absent due to these difficulties. METHODS: A cohort including all 4,687,756 individuals living in Sweden in 2005, aged 20-64, and not on disability or old-age pension, was followed through 2009. Incidence rate ratios (RR of disability pension with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: In multivariable models, individuals who had a sick-leave spell due to otoaudiological diagnoses in 2005 had a 1.52-fold (95% CI: 1.43-1.62 increased risk of being granted a disability pension compared to individuals on sick leave due to other diagnoses. Hearing and tinnitus sick-leave diagnoses were associated with risk of disability pension: RR 3.38, 95% CI: 3.04-3.75, and 3.30, 95% CI: 2.95-3.68, respectively. No association was observed between sick leave due to vertigo diagnoses and disability pension whereas otological diagnoses and no sick leave were inversely associated with risk of disability pension compared to non-otoaudiological sick-leave diagnoses. Sick leave due to otoaudiological diagnoses was positively associated with risk of disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses and sick leave due to a tinnitus diagnosis was also associated with risk of disability pension due to mental diagnoses. The risk of disability pension among individuals with hearing or tinnitus sick-leave diagnoses was highest in the age group 35-44. Moreover, men had a slightly higher risk. CONCLUSION: This large cohort study suggests an increased risk of disability pension among those with sickness absence due to otoaudiological diagnoses, particularly hearing and tinnitus diagnoses, compared to those with sickness absence due to non-otoaudiological diagnoses.

  15. Sickness absence and ventilatory capacity of workers exposed to sulphuric acid mist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. K.

    1970-01-01

    Williams, M. K. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 61-66. Sickness absence and ventilatory capacity of workers exposed to sulphuric acid mist. The certified sickness absence and ventilatory capacity of men exposed to high concentrations of sulphuric acid mist in the Forming department of an electric accumulator factory, and in control departments, were investigated. The Forming men showed a slight excess of spells of respiratory disease, particularly bronchitis, but not of other disease. The excess of repiratory disease was due to an increased number of spells in men attacked rather than to an increase in the proportion of men attacked. The absence of a marked excess of lower respiratory tract disease might be due to large mist particle size. The forced expiratory volume over one second (F.E.V.1·0) and the forced vital capacity (F.V.C.) were measured in Forming men and in a control group at the beginning and end of the afternoon shifts on a Monday and Friday. Statistically significant decreases of both tests on both days could be attributed to circadian variation. Differences between the Forming and control departments in the mean changes of F.E.V.1·0 and F.V.C. during the shift were not significant. PMID:5418921

  16. Occupation-specific screening for future sickness absence: criterion validity of the trucker strain monitor (TSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Croon, Einar M; Blonk, Roland W B; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2005-02-01

    Monitoring psychological job strain may help occupational physicians to take preventive action at the appropriate time. For this purpose, the 10-item trucker strain monitor (TSM) assessing work-related fatigue and sleeping problems in truck drivers was developed. This study examined (1) test-retest reliability, (2) criterion validity of the TSM with respect to future sickness absence due to psychological health complaints and (3) usefulness of the TSM two-scales structure. The TSM and self-administered questionnaires, providing information about stressful working conditions (job control and job demands) and sickness absence, were sent to a random sample of 2000 drivers in 1998. Of the 1123 responders, 820 returned a completed questionnaire 2 years later (response: 72%). The TSM work-related fatigue scale, the TSM sleeping problems scale and the TSM composite scale showed satisfactory 2-year test-retest reliability (coefficient r=0.62, 0.66 and 0.67, respectively). The work-related fatigue, sleeping problems scale and composite scale had sensitivities of 61, 65 and 61%, respectively in identifying drivers with future sickness absence due to psychological health complaints. The specificity and positive predictive value of the TSM composite scale were 77 and 11%, respectively. The work-related fatigue scale and the sleeping problems scale were moderately strong correlated (r=0.62). However, stressful working conditions were differentially associated with the two scales. The results support the test-retest reliability, criterion validity and two-factor structure of the TSM. In general, the results suggest that the use of occupation-specific psychological job strain questionnaires is fruitful.

  17. A multisite randomized controlled trial on time to self-support among sickness absence beneficiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Vinsløv Hansen, Jørgen; Aust, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    .54-0.95). In M1, we found no difference between the two groups (HR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.84-1.17). CONCLUSION: The effect of the CTM programme on return to self-support differed substantially across the three participating municipalities. Thus, generalizing the study results to other Danish municipalities......BACKGROUND: In 2010, the Danish Government launched the Danish national return-to-work (RTW) programme to reduce sickness absence and promote labour market attainment. Multidisciplinary teams delivered the RTW programme, which comprised a coordinated, tailored and multidisciplinary effort (CTM...

  18. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures......-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results: During the follow-up period...

  19. Efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' on reducing sickness absence among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2015-01-01

    intervention is a promising initiative for health care workers since participants achieved a substantial effect on their experience of pain, on their work ability and on their fear of physical movement relating to pain. Moreover, a difference in aerobic capacity was apparent between the sample groups. TPA......) received health guidance for 1.5 h and were randomised to TPA or REF. The primary aim was to make a comparison of participants' self-reported sickness absence due to musculoskeletal troubles measured three months after baseline. Secondary outcomes included anthropometric, health-related and physical...

  20. Workplace social capital and risk of long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Hasle, Peter; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2016-01-01

    variables, prevalent health problems and health behaviours (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74–0.99). The HR was attenuated and lost statistical significance after further adjustment for occupational grade (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.78–1.04). When stratified by occupational grade, high WSC predicted a decreased risk......Background: Workplace social capital (WSC) is an emerging topic among both work environment professionals and researchers. We examined (i) whether high WSC protected against risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a random sample of the Danish workforce during a 1-year follow-up and (ii...

  1. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess Halvor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

  2. Do gastrointestinal complaints increase the risk for subsequent medically certified long-term sickness absence? The HUSK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øverland Simon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal complaints are very common in the general population and very often co-occur with common mental disorders. We aimed to study the prospective impact of gastrointestinal complaints on long term sickness absence, and address the contribution from co-occurring common mental disorders and other somatic symptoms. Method Health data on 13 880 40-45 year olds from the Hordaland Health Study (1997-99 were linked to national registries on sickness absence. As part of a wider health screening, gastrointestinal complaints were ascertained. Participant's anxiety and depression, and the presence of other somatic symptoms were evaluated. In Cox regression models, we predicted sickness absences over an average 5.4 years follow-up, with adjustment for confounders, anxiety and depression and other somatic symptoms. Results After adjusting for gender, level of education and smoking, those reporting GI complaints had higher risk for later sickness absence (HR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.34-1.51. GI complaints were associated with both anxiety (OR = 3.66, 95% CI 3.31-4.04 and depression (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.89-3.72, and a high level of other somatic symptoms (OR = 8.50, 95% CI 7.69-9.40. The association of GI complaints was still independently associated with future sickness absence (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.16 adjusting for mental illness and other somatic symptoms. Discussion Sickness absence is a complex behavioural outcome, but our results suggest GI complaints contribute by increasing the risk of long term sickness absence independently of comorbid mental illness and presence of other somatic symptoms. Occupational consequences of illness are important, and should also be addressed clinically with patients presenting with GI complaints.

  3. Alcohol consumption and risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Maja Baeksgaard; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Becker, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: We investigated the association between weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking and the risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension. DESIGN: Prospective register-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 17 690 men and women, aged 18-60 years from......% CI 1.05-1.46, P = 0.01), 1.28 (95% CI 1.04-1.59, P =0.02) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.21-1.81, P = 0.00) respectively, for abstainers and those with alcohol consumption of 21-27 and ≥ 28 drinks per week when compared with individuals who had 1-13 drinks per week. Corresponding HRs for sickness absence were 1...... with moderate alcohol consumption. Binge drinking was associated with higher HR of unemployment compared to non-binge drinking in women: HR of 1.21 (95 % CI 1.03-1.41, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In Danish men aged 18-60, alcohol abstinence and heavy consumption is associated with increased subsequent risk...

  4. The gender gap in sickness absence from work and the influence of parental absence on offspring absence 15 years later: register-based cohort of Norwegians born in 1974-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Petter; Corbett, Karina; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind

    2015-07-21

    Women have shown consistently higher levels of sickness absence from work in comparison to men, but explanations for this gender gap have not been completely understood. Life-course studies suggest that health and health-related social benefits in adult age are influenced by early life experiences. We aimed to estimate intergenerational associations with a 15-year time gap between parents' and offspring sickness absences, pursuing the hypothesis that this parental influence would have a stronger impact for women than for men. All persons born alive between 1974 and 1976 in Norway were followed up in several national registries. Employed persons considered to be at risk of sickness absence and also with parents at risk of sickness absence (n = 78,878) were followed in the calendar year of their 33(rd) birthday with respect to spells lasting >16 days. The probability of one or more spells during this year constituted the one-year risk under study. Additive risk differences in association with an exposure (parental sickness absence 15 years earlier) were estimated in a binomial regression analysis. The estimates were adjusted for parental socioeconomic factors. The 1-year sickness absence risk was higher for women (30.4%) than for men (12.3%). The crude risk differences between those exposed and those unexposed to parental sickness absence were similar in percentage points (PP) for women (3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6 to 4.9) and men (3.8; 95% CI 2.9 to 4.6). The risk differences were moderately attenuated after adjustment for parental education and father's income to 3.4 PP (2.2 to 4.5) for women and 2.8 PP (2.0 to 3.7) for men. Male absence was more strongly associated with the father's than with the mother's sickness absence, while associations for women were stronger for the same diagnostic groups as their parents. Parental sickness absence was moderately associated with sickness absence in the next generation. Bias from unmeasured confounders cannot

  5. Health problems and disability in long-term sickness absence: ICF coding of medical certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgell Roland

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and to explore the distribution, including gender differences, of health problems and disabilities as reflected in long-term sickness absence certificates. Methods A total of 433 patients with long sick-listing periods, 267 women and 166 men, were included in the study. All certificates exceeding 28 days of sick-listing sent to the local office of the Swedish Social Insurance Administration of a municipality in the Stockholm area were collected during four weeks in 2004-2005. ICD-10 medical diagnosis codes in the certificates were retrieved and free text information on disabilities in body function, body structure or activity and participation were coded according to ICF short version. Results In 89.8% of the certificates there were descriptions of disabilities that readily could be classified according to ICF. In a reliability test 123/131 (94% items of randomly chosen free text information were identically classified by two of the authors. On average 2.4 disability categories (range 0-9 were found per patient; the most frequent were 'Sensation of pain' (35.1% of the patients, 'Emotional functions' (34.1%, 'Energy and drive functions' (22.4%, and 'Sleep functions' (16.9%. The dominating ICD-10 diagnostic groups were 'Mental and behavioural disorders' (34.4% and 'Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue' (32.8%. 'Reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders' (14.7%, and 'Depressive episode' (11.5% were the most frequent diagnostic codes. Disabilities in mental functions and activity/participation were more commonly described among women, while disabilities related to the musculoskeletal system were more frequent among men. Conclusions Both ICD-10 diagnoses and ICF categories were dominated by mental and musculoskeletal health problems, but there seems to be gender

  6. Does postponement of first pregnancy increase gender differences in sickness absence? A register based analysis of Norwegian employees in 1993-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja M S Ariansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 1970-2012, the average age at first delivery increased from 23.2-28.5 in Norway. Postponement of first pregnancy increases risks of medical complications both during and after pregnancy. Sickness absence during pregnancy has over the last two decades increased considerably more than in non-pregnant women. The aim of this paper is twofold: Firstly to investigate if postponement of pregnancy is related to increased sickness absence and thus contributing to the increased gender difference in sickness absence; and secondly, to estimate how much of the increased gender difference in sickness absence that can be accounted for by increased sickness absence amongst pregnant women. METHODS: We employed registry-data to analyse sickness absence among all Norwegian employees with income equivalent to full-time work in the period 1993-2007. RESULTS: After control for age, education, and income, pregnant women's sickness absence (age 20-44 increased on average 0.94 percentage points each year, compared to 0.29 in non-pregnant women and 0.14 in men. In pregnant women aged 20-24, sickness absence during pregnancy increased by 0.96 percent points per calendar year, compared to 0.60 in age-group 30-34. Sickness absence during pregnancy accounted for 25% of the increased gender gap in sickness absence, accounting for changes in education, income and age. CONCLUSIONS: Postponement of first pregnancy does not explain the increase in pregnant women's sickness absence during the period 1993-2007 as both the highest level and increase in sickness absence is seen in the younger women. Reasons are poorly understood, but still important as it accounts for 25% of the increased gender gap in sickness absence.

  7. Does postponement of first pregnancy increase gender differences in sickness absence? A register based analysis of Norwegian employees in 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariansen, Anja M S; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2014-01-01

    From 1970-2012, the average age at first delivery increased from 23.2-28.5 in Norway. Postponement of first pregnancy increases risks of medical complications both during and after pregnancy. Sickness absence during pregnancy has over the last two decades increased considerably more than in non-pregnant women. The aim of this paper is twofold: Firstly to investigate if postponement of pregnancy is related to increased sickness absence and thus contributing to the increased gender difference in sickness absence; and secondly, to estimate how much of the increased gender difference in sickness absence that can be accounted for by increased sickness absence amongst pregnant women. We employed registry-data to analyse sickness absence among all Norwegian employees with income equivalent to full-time work in the period 1993-2007. After control for age, education, and income, pregnant women's sickness absence (age 20-44) increased on average 0.94 percentage points each year, compared to 0.29 in non-pregnant women and 0.14 in men. In pregnant women aged 20-24, sickness absence during pregnancy increased by 0.96 percent points per calendar year, compared to 0.60 in age-group 30-34. Sickness absence during pregnancy accounted for 25% of the increased gender gap in sickness absence, accounting for changes in education, income and age. Postponement of first pregnancy does not explain the increase in pregnant women's sickness absence during the period 1993-2007 as both the highest level and increase in sickness absence is seen in the younger women. Reasons are poorly understood, but still important as it accounts for 25% of the increased gender gap in sickness absence.

  8. Does Postponement of First Pregnancy Increase Gender Differences in Sickness Absence? A Register Based Analysis of Norwegian Employees in 1993–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariansen, Anja M. S.; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2014-01-01

    Background From 1970–2012, the average age at first delivery increased from 23.2–28.5 in Norway. Postponement of first pregnancy increases risks of medical complications both during and after pregnancy. Sickness absence during pregnancy has over the last two decades increased considerably more than in non-pregnant women. The aim of this paper is twofold: Firstly to investigate if postponement of pregnancy is related to increased sickness absence and thus contributing to the increased gender difference in sickness absence; and secondly, to estimate how much of the increased gender difference in sickness absence that can be accounted for by increased sickness absence amongst pregnant women. Methods We employed registry-data to analyse sickness absence among all Norwegian employees with income equivalent to full-time work in the period 1993–2007. Results After control for age, education, and income, pregnant women's sickness absence (age 20–44) increased on average 0.94 percentage points each year, compared to 0.29 in non-pregnant women and 0.14 in men. In pregnant women aged 20–24, sickness absence during pregnancy increased by 0.96 percent points per calendar year, compared to 0.60 in age-group 30–34. Sickness absence during pregnancy accounted for 25% of the increased gender gap in sickness absence, accounting for changes in education, income and age. Conclusions Postponement of first pregnancy does not explain the increase in pregnant women's sickness absence during the period 1993–2007 as both the highest level and increase in sickness absence is seen in the younger women. Reasons are poorly understood, but still important as it accounts for 25% of the increased gender gap in sickness absence. PMID:24667483

  9. The impact of the HDI on the association of psychosocial work demands with sickness absence and presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Johanna; Burkert, Nathalie; Dorner, Thomas E; Großschädl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether psychosocial work demands have a different impact on sickness absence and presenteeism in countries with a high vs. countries with a low Human Development Index (HDI). This article is based on an analysis of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey. We investigated single items as well as complex constructs and indices. Sickness absence and presenteeism were measured as outcome variables. Following the model of Karasek and Theorell, we measured the HDI at the macro level and psychosocial job demands at the micro level as independent variables. The multivariate multilevel analysis reveals a significant association between the HDI and the number of days recorded for sickness absence. In countries with a higher HDI, people report a lower number of days with sickness absence. Higher psychosocial job demands are associated with poorer health. There are significant cross-level interaction effects between psychosocial job demands and the HDI for these associations. Psychosocial job demands are stronger associated with sickness absence and presenteeism in high-HDI than in low-HDI countries. We argue that Public Health Actions that are connected to work characteristics need to take into consideration the level of HDI of the countries. In low- and high-HDI countries, different actions could be necessary to reach the needs of the working population. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Sickness absence patterns and trends in the health care sector: 5-year monitoring of female municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Jensen, Chris; Braaten, Tonje

    2014-07-08

    Sickness absence is a growing public health problem in Norway and Denmark, with the highest absence rates being registered in Norway. We compared time trends in sickness absence patterns of municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. Data from 2004 to 2008 were extracted from the personnel registers of the municipalities of Kristiansand, Norway, and Aarhus, Denmark, for 3,181 and 8,545 female employees, respectively. Age-specific comparative statistics on sickness absence rates (number of calendar days of sickness absence/possible working days) and number of sick leave episodes were calculated for each year of the study period. There was an overall increasing trend in sickness absence rates in Denmark (P = 0.002), where rates were highest in the 20-29- (P = 0.01) and 50-59-year-old age groups (P = 0.03). Sickness absence rates in Norway were stable, except for an increase in the 20-29-year-old age group (P = 0.004). In both Norway and Denmark, the mean number of sick leave episodes increased (P Denmark. Both short-term and long-term absence increased in Denmark (P = 0.003 and P Denmark, while the largest overall increase in sick leave episodes was found in Norway. In both countries, the largest increases were observed among young employees. The results indicate that the two countries are converging in regard to sickness absence measured as rates and episodes.

  11. Predictive validity of common mental disorders screening questionnaire as a screening instrument in long sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Screening instruments for detection of common mental disorders have not been validity tested in long term sickness absence (LSA), which is the aim of this study for the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: Of all 2,414 incident persons on continuous sick......-leave for more than eight weeks in a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants 1,121 participated in a two-phased study by being screened for mental disorders by CMD-SQ in Phase 1. A subgroup of 337 was examined by a psychiatrist and diagnosed with Present State Examination in Phase 2. Results performed on Phase......-scale in CMD-SQ, SCL-8AD, compiled of SCL-ANX4, SCL-8, and SCL-DEP6, showed the best psychometric properties in detection of any mental disorder (AUC 0.80). Other scales were tested as well. The psychometric properties were dependent on sex and age. The plots of Q, SE, and 1-SP against decreasing cut...

  12. Predicting sickness absence-are extended health check-ups of any value? Comparisons of three individual risk models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Anna; Nyfjäll, Mats; Bildt, Carina; Vingård, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To predict sickness absence by three health check-up models. A study group of 821 participants from the public sector in Sweden where three health check-up models were compared 1) the limited variable model including smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, and cholesterol, 2) the several variable model including smoking, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, relation between low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins, serum triglycerides, and fitness test, and 3) Self-rated health measured by one single question. Sickness absence data during 1 year was delivered from the employer. The three models served their purpose to predict sickness absence. The self-rated health-model with one single question has as good quality in predestination as more complicated models. This may have an implication for cost-effective procedures in occupational health services.

  13. Emotional support predicts more sickness absence and poorer self assessed work ability: a two-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristenson Margareta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While back pain and stressful work environment are shown to be important causes of sickness absence the effect of psychosocial resources on sickness absence, and on self assessed work ability, is less commonly investigated. The aim of this study was to assess these associations in a two-year follow-up study. Methods 341 working people aged 45 to 64, randomly drawn from the population, responded to a questionnaire at baseline and at a two-year follow-up. Poisson regression was used to analyse the association of psychosocial factors (psychosocial instruments on work environment, emotional support and psychological resources and previous back pain (low back and/or neck at baseline with sickness absence (spells and days at follow-up, controlling for effects of age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, occupation, disease and previous sickness absence. Logistic regression was used to study the associations of psychosocial factors and previous back pain at baseline with self assessed prognosis of poor work ability six months from follow-up. Finally, a multivariate analysis tested the independent effects of previous back pain and 3 psychosocial factors derived in a factor analysis: 1. work environment; 2. emotional support; 3. psychological resources, on work ability and absence days and spells. Results 80% of the sickness absence spells within the last 12 months before follow-up were short-term (≤ 14 days. In the final model, high emotional support predicted more sickness absence spells (RR 1.36; 1.11-1.67 and days (RR 1.68, 1.22-2.31. Previous back pain (OR 2.56; 1.13-5.81, high emotional support (OR 1.58; 1.02-2.46, and low psychological resources (OR 0.62; 0.44-0.89 were related to poorer self assessed prognosis of work ability at follow up. Conclusions In a general middle aged working population high emotional support was related to more sickness absence and also poorer self assessed prognosis of work ability. Our findings suggest

  14. Effort-reward imbalance is associated with the frequency of sickness absence among female hospital nurses : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Background: Most research on sickness absence among nurses has focused on long-term work disability. Absence from work due to short-term sickness, however, is more common and frequent short absences result in understaffing and increased workload of nursing teams. Objectives: To investigate health

  15. Exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence among office workers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vinsløv Hansen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    = 1.94; 95 % CI, 1.04–3.64), whereas the corresponding risk for men was insignificant (HR = 1.28; 95 % CI, 0.37–4.41). Conclusions This study indicates that frequent selfreported exposure to disturbing noise at work is associated with increased risk of LTSA among office workers......Purpose To investigate the association between selfreported exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) for more than two consecutive weeks among office workers. Methods LTSA was measured using register data that were linked to survey data from 2,883 office workers...... aged 18–59 who were surveyed in 2005 on exposure to disturbing noise. The risk of LTSA was investigated using Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of the study population, 4.4 % had LTSA in the 1-year follow-up period. Compared to office workers who were ‘rarely or never’ exposed to disturbing noise...

  16. The impact of health behaviour on long term sickness absence: results from DWECS/DREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Long term sickness absence (LTSA) is a major public health problem. We examined the impact of four, potentially modifiable, health behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, and the associated variable of body mass index on the risk of subsequent LTSA....... This was done by following a representative population sample of 5,020 Danish employees aged 18-69 for 18 months in a national register on social transfer payments. Risk estimates for onset of LTSA and etiologic fractions were computed. In women, ex-smokers and heavy smokers had an increased risk of LTSA of 1.......61 and 2.05 respectively after adjustment for age, family status, socio economic status, school education, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures and diagnosed disease. In men, effect estimates were smaller and only borderline significant in the fully-adjusted model. The etiologic fraction...

  17. 0156 Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy - a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten Hansen, Mette; Marie Thulstrup, Ane; Kolding Kristensen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if parity, fertility treatment, body mass index (BMI), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise are risk factors for sickness absence during pregnancy weeks 10 to 30. METHOD: We use data from The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Danish...... Register for Evaluation of Marginalisation (DREAM). DNBC contains information on 100 418 pregnancies included from 1996 until 2002. Around pregnancy weeks 12-16 the participants were interviewed by telephone and provided information on potential predictors, on occupational exposures, lifestyle factors...... and health. We excluded women, who were no longer pregnant at the time of the interview, were unemployed, multiple pregnant or had an obstetrical event within one year before the DNBC pregnancy. This resulted in a study population of 65 047 pregnancies. Outcome data were retrieved from DREAM, which contains...

  18. Do psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U.; Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Rikke Voss

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work unit-levels of psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: A total of 5,416 Danish female eldercare workers from 309 work units were surveyed...... using questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and psychosocial working conditions. LTSA was derived from a national register. We aggregated scores of psychosocial working conditions to the work unit-level and conducted multi-level Poisson regression analyses. Results: Depressive symptoms......, but not psychosocial working conditions, predicted LTSA. Psychosocial working conditions did not statistically significantly modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. Conclusions: Psychosocial working conditions did not modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. The results, however, need...

  19. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: a Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Real; Lluís Jover; Ricard Verdaguer; Antoni Griera; Cinto Segalàs; Pino Alonso; Fernando Contreras; Antoni Arteman; Menchón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse) due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-...

  20. The dimensional structure of the functional abilities in cases of long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulders Henny PG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health problems that working people suffer can affect their functional abilities and, consequently, can cause a mismatch between those abilities and the demands of the work, leading to sickness absence. A lasting decrease in functional abilities can lead to long-term sickness absence and work disability, with negative consequences for both the worker and the larger society. The objective of this study was to identify common disability characteristics among large groups of long-term sick-listed and disabled employees. Methods As part of the disability benefit entitlement procedure in the Netherlands, an insurance physician assesses the functional abilities of the claimant in a standardised form, known as the List of Functional Abilities (LFA, which consists of six sections containing a total of 106 items. For the purposes of this study, we compiled data from 50,931 assessments. These data were used in an exploratory factor analyses, and the results were then used to construct scales. The stability of dimensional structure of the LFA and of the internal consistency of the scales was studied using data from 80,968 assessments carried out earlier, under a slightly different legislation. Results Three separate factor analyses carried out on the functional abilities of five sections of the LFA resulted in 14 scale variables, and one extra scale variable was based on the items from the sixth section. The resulting scale variables showed Cronbach's Alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.97, with the exception of one of 0.54. The dimensional structure of the LFA in the verification population differed in some aspects. The Cronbach's Alphas of the verification population ranged from 0.58 to 0.97, again with the exception of the same scale: Alpha = 0.49. Conclusion The differences between the dimensional structures of the primary data and the earlier data we found in this study restrict the possibilities to generalise the results. The scales

  1. Sickness absence in musculoskeletal disorders - patients' experiences of interactions with the Social Insurance Agency and health care. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvidsson Barbro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence has represented a growing public health problem in many Western countries over the last decade. In Sweden disorders of the musculoskeletal system cause approximately one third of all sick leave. The Social Insurance Agency (SIA and the health care system are important actors in handling the sickness absence process. The objective was to study how patients with personal experience of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders perceived their contact with these actors and what they considered as obstructing or facilitating factors for recovery and return to work in this situation. Methods In-depth interviews using open-ended questions were conducted with fifteen informants (aged 33-63, 11 women, all with experience of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders and purposefully recruited to represent various backgrounds as regards diagnosis, length of sick leave and return to work. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Results The informants' perceived the interaction with the SIA and health care as ranging from coherent to fragmented. Being on sick leave was described as going through a process of adjustment in both private and working life. This process of adjustment was interactive and included not only the possibilities to adjust work demands and living conditions but also personal and emotional adjustment. The informants' experiences of fragmented interaction reflected a sense that their entire situation was not being taken into account. Coherent interaction was described as facilitating recovery and return to work, while fragmented interaction was described as obstructing this. The complex division of responsibilities within the Swedish rehabilitation system may hamper sickness absentees' possibilities of taking responsibility for their own rehabilitation. Conclusions This study shows that people on sick leave considered the interaction

  2. Physical and mental health functioning after all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence: a register-linkage follow-up study among ageing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Lahti, Jouni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-01-25

    Sickness absence has been shown to be a risk marker for severe future health outcomes, such as disability retirement and premature death. However, it is poorly understood how all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence is reflected in subsequent physical and mental health functioning over time. The aim of this study was to examine the association of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence with subsequent changes in physical and mental health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Prospective survey and register data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used. Register based records for medically certified all-cause and diagnostic-specific sickness absence spells (>14 consecutive calendar days) in 2004-2007 were examined in relation to subsequent physical and mental health functioning measured by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 2007 and 2012. In total, 3079 respondents who were continuously employed over the sickness absence follow-up were included in the analyses. Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine the associations. During the 3-year follow-up, 30% of the participants had at least one spell of medically certified sickness absence. All-cause sickness absence was associated with lower subsequent physical and mental health functioning in a stepwise manner: the more absence days, the poorer the subsequent physical and mental health functioning. These differences remained but narrowed slightly during the follow-up. Furthermore, the adverse association for physical health functioning was strongest among those with sickness absence due to diseases of musculoskeletal or respiratory systems, and on mental functioning among those with sickness absence due to mental disorders. Sickness absence showed a persistent adverse stepwise association with subsequent physical and mental health functioning. Evidence on health-related outcomes after long-term sickness absence may provide useful

  3. Physical and mental health functioning after all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence: a register-linkage follow-up study among ageing employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Mänty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence has been shown to be a risk marker for severe future health outcomes, such as disability retirement and premature death. However, it is poorly understood how all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence is reflected in subsequent physical and mental health functioning over time. The aim of this study was to examine the association of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence with subsequent changes in physical and mental health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Methods Prospective survey and register data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used. Register based records for medically certified all-cause and diagnostic-specific sickness absence spells (>14 consecutive calendar days in 2004–2007 were examined in relation to subsequent physical and mental health functioning measured by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 2007 and 2012. In total, 3079 respondents who were continuously employed over the sickness absence follow-up were included in the analyses. Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine the associations. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 30% of the participants had at least one spell of medically certified sickness absence. All-cause sickness absence was associated with lower subsequent physical and mental health functioning in a stepwise manner: the more absence days, the poorer the subsequent physical and mental health functioning. These differences remained but narrowed slightly during the follow-up. Furthermore, the adverse association for physical health functioning was strongest among those with sickness absence due to diseases of musculoskeletal or respiratory systems, and on mental functioning among those with sickness absence due to mental disorders. Conclusions Sickness absence showed a persistent adverse stepwise association with subsequent physical and mental health functioning. Evidence on health

  4. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension--a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Emilie; Gustafsson, Klas; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-09-12

    Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review of published studies. Studies presenting empirical data on hearing difficulties or ear-related diagnoses and sick leave or disability pension, published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, were included. Studies were sought for in three ways: in literature databases (Pub-Med, Embase, PsycInfo, SSCI, and Cochrane) through March 2011, through scrutinising lists of references, and through contacts. Identified publications were assessed for relevance and data was extracted from the studies deemed relevant. A total of 18 studies were assessed as relevant and included in this review, regardless of scientific quality. Fourteen studies presented empirical data on hearing difficulties/ear diagnoses and sick leave and six on these conditions and disability pension. Only two studies presented rate ratios or odds ratios regarding associations between hearing difficulties and sick leave, and only two on hearing difficulties and risk of disability pension. Both measures of hearing difficulties and of sick leave varied considerable between the studies. Remarkably few studies on hearing difficulties in relation to sickness absence or disability pension were identified. The results presented in them cannot provide evidence for direction or magnitude of potential associations.

  5. Relationship between sickness presenteeism (WHO-HPQ) with depression and sickness absence due to mental disease in a cohort of Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawakami, Norito; Shimazu, Akihito; Takahashi, Masaya; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko

    2015-07-15

    Absence due to mental disease in the workplace has become a global public health problem. We aimed to evaluate the influence of presenteeism on depression and absence due to mental disease. A prospective study of 1831 Japanese employees from all areas of Japan was conducted. Presenteeism and depression were measured by the validated Japanese version of the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) and the K6 scale, respectively. Absence due to mental disease across a 2-year follow up was surveyed through medical certificates obtained for work absence. After adjusting for age and gender, participants with higher rates of sickness absolute and relative presenteeism (the lowest tertile of the scores) were significantly more likely to be absent due to mental disease (OR=4.40, 95% CI: 1.65-11.73, and OR=3.31, 95% CI: 1.50-7.27). Subsequently, higher rates of sickness absolute or relative presenteeism were significantly associated with higher rates of depression (K6≥13) one year later (OR=3.79, 95% CI: 2.48-5.81, and OR=2.89, 95% CI: 1.98-4.22). The number of females in the sample was relatively small. However, the rates of absence for females with and without mental illness did not significantly differ from those of men. More sickness presenteeism scores were found to be related to higher rates of depression and absence due to mental disease in this large-scale cohort of Japanese workers. Measurement of presenteeism could be used to evaluate the risk for depression and absenteeism. Furthermore, our findings suggest that intervention to improve presenteeism would be effective in preventing depression and absence due to mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prognostic factors for long-term sickness absence among employees with neck-shoulder and low-back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Hansen, Jørgen V; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    to be included in our analyses: people with pain in the neck-shoulder (N=848) and low-back (N=676) regions. Data on long-term sickness absence of >or=3 weeks for the period 2001-2002 were attained from the Danish national register of social transfer payments. RESULTS: One fifth of employees with neck...

  7. Longitudinal Relationship Between Sitting Time on a Working Day and Vitality, Work Performance, Presenteeism, and Sickness Absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bernaards, C.M.; Steijn, W.M.P.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between sitting time on a working day and vitality, work performance, presenteeism, and sickness absence. Methods: At the start and end of a five-month intervention program at the workplace, as well as 10 months after the

  8. Longitudinal relationship between sitting time on a working day and vitality, work performance, presenteeism, and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Ingrid J.M.; Bernaards, Claire M.; Steijn, Wouter M. P.; Hildebrandt, Vincent H.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between sitting time on a working day and vitality, work performance, presenteeism, and sickness absence. METHODS: At the start and end of a five-month intervention program at the workplace, as well as 10 months after the

  9. Do traditional male role norms modify the association between high emotional demands in work, and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Hansen, Claus D.; Lund, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Ambulance workers are exposed to high levels of emotional demands, which could affect sickness absence. Being a male dominated occupation, it is hypothesised that ambulance workers adhere to more traditional male role norms than men in other occupations. The aim is to investigate...

  10. Shift work and mental health sickness absence : a 10-year observational cohort study among male production workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder-Kuper, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Objectives Epidemiological studies investigating mental-health-related sickness absence (SA) among shift workers are lacking. This 10-year observational study investigated the risk of mental health SA among shift compared with day workers. Methods The data of 5826 male production workers were used

  11. External Validation and Update of a Prediction Rule for the Duration of Sickness Absence Due to Common Mental Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute; Sluiter, J. K.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.

    Purpose The objective of the present study was to validate an existing prediction rule (including age, education, depressive/anxiety symptoms, and recovery expectations) for predictions of the duration of sickness absence due to common mental disorders (CMDs) and investigate the added value of

  12. Managerial leadership is associated with employee stress, health, and sickness absence independently of the demand-control-support model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Hugo; Nyberg, Anna; Bernin, Peggy; Hyde, Martin; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Jäppinen, Paavo; Väänänen, Ari; Theorell, Töres

    2010-01-01

    Research on health effects of managerial leadership has only taken established work environment factors into account to a limited extent. We therefore investigated the associations between a measure of Attentive Managerial Leadership (AML), and perceived stress, age-relative self-rated health, and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue, adjusting for the dimensions of the Demand-Control-Support model. Blue- and white-collar workers from Finland, Germany and Sweden employed in a multi-national forest industry company (N=12,622). Cross-sectional data on leadership and health from a company-wide survey analysed with logistic regression in different subgroups. AML was associated with perceived stress, age-relative self-rated health, and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue after controlling for the Demand-Control-Support model. Lack of AML was significantly associated with a high stress level in all subgroups (OR=1.68-2.67). Associations with age-relative self-rated health and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue were weaker, but still significant, and in the expected direction for several of the subgroups studied, suggesting an association between lack of AML and negative health consequences. The study indicates that managerial leadership is associated with employee stress, health, and sickness absence independently of the Demand-Control-Support model and should be considered in future studies of health consequences for employees, and in work environment interventions.

  13. Cross-National Validation of Prognostic Models Predicting Sickness Absence and the Added Value of Work Environment Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Stapelfeldt, Christina M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; van Rhenen, Willem; Labriola, Merete; Nielsen, Claus V.; Bultmann, Ute; Jensen, Chris

    Purpose To validate Dutch prognostic models including age, self-rated health and prior sickness absence (SA) for ability to predict high SA in Danish eldercare. The added value of work environment variables to the models' risk discrimination was also investigated. Methods 2,562 municipal eldercare

  14. The mediating role of recovery opportunities on future sickness absence from a gender- and age-sensitive perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; Noor, A.; Sluiter, J. K.; Hagberg, M.

    2017-01-01

    A lack of sufficient recovery during and after work may help to explain impaired health in the long run. We aimed to increase knowledge on the mediating role of recovery opportunities (RO) during and after work on future sickness absence from a gender- and age-sensitive perspective. We used data on

  15. Economic Evaluation of a Problem Solving Intervention to Prevent Recurrent Sickness Absence in Workers with Common Mental Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; Bulmann, Ute; van Rhenen, Willem; Groen, Henk; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Workers with common mental disorders (CMDs) frequently experience recurrent sickness absence but scientifically evaluated interventions to prevent recurrences are lacking. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a problem solving

  16. Shift work and mental health sickness absence : A 10-year observational cohort study among male production workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Objectives Epidemiological studies investigating mental-health-related sickness absence (SA) among shift workers are lacking. This 10-year observational study investigated the risk of mental health SA among shift compared with day workers. Methods The data of 5826 male production workers were used

  17. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-08-17

    To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49-63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort. Very hard physical work throughout working life was a risk factor for LTSA (HR 1.66,95% CI 1.32 to 2.07), disability pension (HR 2.21,95% CI 1.04 to 4.72) and early retirement (HR 1.57,95% CI 1.13 to 2.17). Both short-term (work during working life and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit from the labour market. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Bültmann, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation...... and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long......-term sickness absence for more than 18 months based on data from a national absence register. Results: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by psychosocial factors and by burnout at work unit level. Conclusion: To reduce sickness absence, organizations within human services should improve the psychosocial...

  19. Association Between Improvement in Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Changes in Sickness Absence: Results of the ICARIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; Catalina-Romero, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Sánchez Chaparro, Miguel Ángel; Brotons, Carlos; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes in cardiovascular risk (CVR) are associated with the length and cost of sickness absence. A prospective cohort of 179 186 participants was evaluated. Each participant's CVR (SCORE) was assessed on 2 consecutive medical examinations, approximately 1 year apart (365 ± 90 days). Cardiovascular risk was categorized as < 4% or ≥ 4%, and participants were divided into 4 groups according to changes in their risk between the 2 assessments. After the second CVR estimate, a 1-year follow-up was carried out to assess sickness absence. Differences between the 4 groups in terms of the total count of sickness absence days during the follow-up period were tested using Poisson regression models. After adjustment for covariates, participants who showed an improvement in CVR had a lower count of sickness absence days compared with both those who showed a worsening in risk and those who remained stable at ≥ 4% (RR, 0.91; 95%CI, 0.84-0.98). In comparison with participants whose CVR did not improve, more of the participants whose risk did improve had quit smoking (+17.2%; P < .001), and had controlled their blood pressure (+26.0%, P < .001), total cholesterol (+9.3%; P < .001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+14.9%; P < .001), and triglyceride levels (+14.6%; P < .001). Our results suggest that an improvement in CVR profile is accompanied by a decrease in sickness absence during a 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bültmann, Ute; Bjørner, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Based on the literature, 15 predictor variables were retrieved from the DAnish National working Environment Survey (DANES) and included in a model predicting incident LTSA (≥4 consecutive weeks) during 1-year follow-up in a sample of 4000 DANES participants. The 15-predictor model was reduced by backward stepwise statistical techniques and then validated in a sample of 2524 DANES participants, not included in the development sample. Identification of employees at increased LTSA risk was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) reflected discrimination between employees with and without LTSA during follow-up. The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC = 0.68; 95% CI 0.61-0.76), but not practically useful. A prediction model based on occupational health survey variables identified employees with an increased LTSA risk, but should be further developed into a practically useful tool to predict the risk of LTSA in the general working population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for

  1. Workplace social capital and risk of long-term sickness absence. Are associations modified by occupational grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Hasle, Peter; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Aust, Birgit; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2016-04-01

    Workplace social capital (WSC) is an emerging topic among both work environment professionals and researchers. We examined (i) whether high WSC protected against risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a random sample of the Danish workforce during a 1-year follow-up and (ii) whether the association of WSC with sickness absence was modified by occupational grade.  We measured WSC by self-report in a cohort of 3075 employees and linked responses to a national register of sickness absence. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of onset of LTSA (≥21 days), adjusted for covariates. We stratified analyses by occupational grade and examined if there was an interaction effect of WSC and occupational grade.  A one standard deviation higher WSC score predicted a reduced risk of sickness absence after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, prevalent health problems and health behaviours (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74-0.99). The HR was attenuated and lost statistical significance after further adjustment for occupational grade (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.78-1.04). When stratified by occupational grade, high WSC predicted a decreased risk of sickness absence among higher grade workers (HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44-0.84) but not among lower grade workers (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.83-1.15). The interaction effect of WSC and occupational grade was statistically significant (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99).  High WSC might reduce risk of LTSA. However, the protective effect appears to be limited to workers of higher occupational grade. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  2. Fatigue as prognostic risk marker of mental sickness absence in white collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, C A M; Heymans, M W; van Rhenen, W; Groothoff, J W; Twisk, J W R; Bültmann, U

    2014-06-01

    To investigate fatigue as prognostic risk marker for identifying working employees at risk of long-term sickness absence (SA). At baseline, fatigue was measured in 633 white collar employees with the checklist individual strength (CIS) including scales for fatigue severity, reduced concentration, reduced motivation, and reduced physical activity. SA was medically certified by an occupational physician in the 3rd or 4th SA week with diagnostic codes according to the 10th version of the International Classification of Diseases. Medically certified SA was retrieved at the individual level from an occupational health register after 1-year follow-up. CIS scores were investigated as prognostic risk markers predicting medically certified SA and particularly SA certified as mental SA. 614 employees (N = 378 men and N = 236 women) had complete data and were eligible for analysis; 63 (10 %) had medically certified SA of whom 39 (6 %) had mental SA. Fatigue severity and total CIS scores were associated with medically certified SA in men, but poorly discriminated between men with and without medically certified SA. Fatigue severity, reduced concentration, reduced motivation, and total CIS scores were also associated with mental SA in men. CIS and its reduced concentration scale were valid prognostic risk markers of mental SA. CONCLUSION Fatigue was a prognostic risk marker of mental SA in white collar men. The CIS should be further validated as a screening tool for the risk of mental SA in white collar working populations.

  3. 10-year trends of educational differences in long sickness absence due to mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanen, Hilla; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-07-27

    Mental disorders are a key cause of sickness absence (SA) and challenge prolonging working careers. Thus, evidence on the development of SA trends is needed. In this study, educational differences in long SAs due to mental disorders were examined in two age groups among employees of the City of Helsinki from 2004 to 2013. All permanently and temporarily employed staff aged 18-34 and 35-49 were included in the analyses (n=~27800 per year). SA spells of ≥14 days due to mental disorders were examined annually. Education was classified to higher and lower levels. Joinpoint regression was used to identify major turning points in SA trends. Joinpoint regression models showed that lower educated groups had more long SAs spells due to mental disorders than those groups with higher education. SA trends decreased during the study period in all studied age and educational groups. Lower educated age groups had similar SA trends. Younger employees with higher education had the fewest SAs. A clear educational gradient was found in long SAs due to mental disorders during the study period. SA trends decreased from 2004 to 2013.

  4. Objectively measured work load, health status and sickness absence among Danish ambulance personnel. A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reviews show that ambulance personnel (AP) have an increased risk of work-related health problems especially musculoskeletal disorders. Because of the unpredictable character of the AP’s work environment, standard measures of work environment exposures are imprecise. The aim of this p......Background: Reviews show that ambulance personnel (AP) have an increased risk of work-related health problems especially musculoskeletal disorders. Because of the unpredictable character of the AP’s work environment, standard measures of work environment exposures are imprecise. The aim...... of this presentation is to examine the associations between objectively measured work load taken from the company register, health and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in 1-year follow up period. Methods: Data is taken from the first round of MARS – Men, accidents, risk and safety, a two wave panel study of AP...... workers in Denmark (n = 1606) collected in winter 2010/11. The response rate to the questionnaire was 62% in the baseline. The respondents were asked about health status, physical (DMQ) and psychosocial work environment factors (COPSOQ). Information from the company register about work load (e.g. mean...

  5. Updating and prospective validation of a prognostic model for high sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, C A M; Heymans, M W; Twisk, J W R; van Rhenen, W; Pallesen, S; Bjorvatn, B; Moen, B E; Magerøy, N

    2015-01-01

    To further develop and validate a Dutch prognostic model for high sickness absence (SA). Three-wave longitudinal cohort study of 2,059 Norwegian nurses. The Dutch prognostic model was used to predict high SA among Norwegian nurses at wave 2. Subsequently, the model was updated by adding person-related (age, gender, marital status, children at home, and coping strategies), health-related (BMI, physical activity, smoking, and caffeine and alcohol intake), and work-related (job satisfaction, job demands, decision latitude, social support at work, and both work-to-family and family-to-work spillover) variables. The updated model was then prospectively validated for predictions at wave 3. 1,557 (77 %) nurses had complete data at wave 2 and 1,342 (65 %) at wave 3. The risk of high SA was under-estimated by the Dutch model, but discrimination between high-risk and low-risk nurses was fair after re-calibration to the Norwegian data. Gender, marital status, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, job satisfaction, job demands, decision latitude, support at the workplace, and work-to-family spillover were identified as potential predictors of high SA. However, these predictors did not improve the model's discriminative ability, which remained fair at wave 3. The prognostic model correctly identifies 73 % of Norwegian nurses at risk of high SA, although additional predictors are needed before the model can be used to screen working populations for risk of high SA.

  6. Psychosocial work environment and mental health-related long-term sickness absence among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; van Hoffen, Marieke F A; Waage, Siri; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Twisk, Jos W R; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente E; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-10-14

    We investigated which job demands and job resources were predictive of mental health-related long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in nurses. The data of 2059 nurses were obtained from the Norwegian survey of Shift work, Sleep and Health. Job demands (psychological demands, role conflict, and harassment at the workplace) and job resources (social support at work, role clarity, and fair leadership) were measured at baseline and linked to mental health-related LTSA during 2-year follow-up. Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and related 95% confidence intervals (CI). The c-statistic was used to investigate the discriminative ability of the Cox regression models. A total of 1533 (75%) nurses were included in the analyses; 103 (7%) of them had mental health-related LTSA during 2-year follow-up. Harassment (HR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.17) and social support (HR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.87-0.98) were associated with mental health-related LTSA. However, the Cox regression model did not discriminate between nurses with and without mental health-related LTSA (c = 0.59; 95% CI 0.53-0.65). Harassment was positively and social support at the workplace was negatively related to mental health-related LTSA, but both failed to discriminate between nurses with and without mental health-related LTSA during 2-year follow-up.

  7. The indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying: a mediation analysis using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Heidi; Braeckman, Lutgart; De Clercq, Bart; Casini, Annalisa; De Bacquer, Dirk; Kittel, France; Clays, Els

    2016-08-22

    In this longitudinal study the complex interplay between both job strain and bullying in relation to sickness absence was investigated. Following the "work environment hypothesis", which establishes several work characteristics as antecedents of bullying, we assumed that job strain, conceptualized by the Job-Demand-Control model, has an indirect relation with long-term sickness absence through bullying. The sample consisted of 2983 Belgian workers, aged 30 to 55 years, who participated in the Belstress III study. They completed a survey, including the Job Content Questionnaire and a bullying inventory, at baseline. Their sickness absence figures were registered during 1 year follow-up. Long-term sickness absence was defined as at least 15 consecutive days. A mediation analysis, using structural equation modeling, was performed to examine the indirect association of job strain through bullying with long-term sickness absence. The full structural model was adjusted for several possible confounders: age, gender, occupational group, educational level, company, smoking habits, alcohol use, body mass index, self-rated health, baseline long-term sickness absence and neuroticism. The results support the hypothesis: a significant indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying was observed, suggesting that bullying is an intermediate variable between job strain and long-term sickness absence. No evidence for the reversed pathway of an indirect association of bullying through job strain was found. Bullying was observed as a mediating variable in the relation between job strain and sickness absence. The results suggest that exposure to job strain may create circumstances in which a worker risks to become a target of bullying. Our findings are generally in line with the work environment hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of organizational work factors in the origin of bullying. This study highlights that remodeling jobs to reduce

  8. [Pre-surgical period and non-work-related sickness absence due to inguinal hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moraga, Montserrat; Catalina-Romero, Carlos; Martínez-Muñoz, Paloma; Cobo-Santiago, María Dolores; González-López, Maite; Cabrera-Sierra, Martha; Porrero-Carro, José Luis; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva

    2014-04-01

    To analyze non-work-related sickness absence (NWR-SA) due to inguinal hernia and the factors related to its duration, paying particular attention to the pre-surgical period of NWR-SA. Prospective cohort study was conducted on 1,003 workers with an episode of NWR-SA due to an inguinal hernia, belonging to the insured population of a mutual insurance company. We assessed the duration of the NWR-SA episodes and the main demographic, occupational and clinical variables potentially related to it. Cox regression analyses were conducted to establish the predictors of NWR-SA duration. The mean duration of NWR-SA due to inguinal hernia was 68.6 days. After multivariate analysis (Cox regression), having a pre-surgical period of NWR-SA (HR = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.28-0.43), manual occupations (HR=0.68; 95%CI: 0.49-0.95), construction sector (HR=0.71; 95%CI: 0.58-0.88), direct payment methods by a Mutual Insurance Company during sick leave in self-employed workers (HR=0.58; 95%CI, 0.41-0.82), or employees (HR=0.51; 95%CI: 0.36-0.72), comorbidity (HR=0.45; 95%CI:0.34-0.59), and surgery performed under an entity other than the Public Health System or a mutual insurance company (HR=0,76; 95%CI: 0.59-0.97) were associated with longer NWR-SA. The Mutual Insurance Company always performed the surgery when a pre-surgery period of NWR-SA existed (mean duration=47 ±39.6 days); that was associated with shorter periods of post-surgical NWR-SA (P=.001). The NWR-SA due to inguinal hernia is a multifactorial phenomenon in which the pre-surgery period plays an important role. The collaboration between organizations involved in the management of NWR-SA seems to be an effective strategy for reducing its duration. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcohol consumption and risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension in Denmark: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Maja Baeksgaard; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Becker, Ulrik; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the association between weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking and the risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension. Prospective register-based cohort study. Denmark. A sample of 17 690 men and women, aged 18-60 years from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey in 2000, 2005 and 2010 participated in the study. Participants worked the entire year prior to baseline. Administrative registers were used to obtain information on unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension during a 5-year follow-up period. Data were analysed by multivariate Cox regression model with random effect (frailty) adjusted for cohabitation status, educational level, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking habits, calendar year and geographic region. Among males, adjusted hazards ratios (HR) of unemployment were 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.46, P = 0.01), 1.28 (95% CI 1.04-1.59, P =0.02) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.21-1.81, P = 0.00) respectively, for abstainers and those with alcohol consumption of 21-27 and ≥ 28 drinks per week when compared with individuals who had 1-13 drinks per week. Corresponding HRs for sickness absence were 1.16 (95% CI 1.02-1.33, P = 0.03), 1.02 (95% CI 0.85-1.23, P = 0.84), and 1.23 (95 % CI 1.04-1.46, P = 0.02). Male abstainers had increased HR for subsequently receiving disability pension. Female abstainers had increased HR of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension compared to women with moderate alcohol consumption. Binge drinking was associated with higher HR of unemployment compared to non-binge drinking in women: HR of 1.21 (95 % CI 1.03-1.41, P = 0.02). In Danish men aged 18-60, alcohol abstinence and heavy consumption is associated with increased subsequent risk of unemployment and sickness absence compared with low consumption. In Danish women abstainers have increased risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension, while binge drinkers are more likely to become unemployed subsequently. © 2017

  10. Does unbalanced gender composition in the workplace influence the association between psychosocial working conditions and sickness absence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Robin; Lidwall, Ulrik; Holmgren, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that bad psychosocial working conditions contribute to sick-leave. Some theorists argue that skewed gender composition can be one of the factors contributing to bad psychosocial working conditions. We examine whether workplace gender composition has an effect on the association between job strain and sick-leave. Associations were assessed using a case-control study with Swedish data collected in 2008 (n=5595). Results indicated that there was an association between high strain jobs and sickness absence among both women (Adj. OR 2.04, CI95% 1.62-2.57) and men (2.24, 1.67-3.01). Furthermore, both women (2.87, 1.34-6.26) and men (2.53, 1.74-3.69) in male-dominated workplaces had the highest risk for sickness absence due to high strain jobs. Male-dominated workplaces were, in general adverse for both women and men. The results indicated that a minority position strengthens job strain for women while it weakens the association for men. Using modern gender theories, we could argue that some of these results might be explained by the general use of masculinity as the social norm in the labor market. However, findings from this study need to be validated by further research.

  11. Increased risk of long-term sickness absence, lower rate of return to work, and higher risk of unemployment and disability pensioning for thyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, M A; Watt, T; Pedersen, J

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a longitudinal register study...... regression analyses estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the first year after diagnosis and subsequent years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Transitions between work, long-term sickness absence, unemployment, and disability pension were measured. RESULTS: Patients differed significantly from the general...... population with regard to sickness absence, disability pension, return from sickness absence, and unemployment. In the first year after diagnosis, higher risks of sickness absence was seen for GO (HR 6.94) and other hyperthyroid patients (HR 2.08), who also had lower probability of returning from sickness...

  12. Educational differences in sickness absence trends among young employees from 2002 to 2013 in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Socioeconomic differences in sickness absence (SA) are well established among older employees but poorly understood among the young. Our aim was to examine 12-year trends in educational differences in SA among young female and male employees, and to assess the magnitude of the differences. Design We examined annual SA spells. The data were obtained from the employer's registers and linked to Statistics Finland's register data on completed education and qualifications. Education was classified into four hierarchical groups. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify turning points in SA trends. The magnitude of the relative educational differences was estimated in accordance with the relative index of inequality for 2002, 2008 and 2013. Setting Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, in 2002–2013. Participants The analyses covered female and male employees aged 25–34 years: employees aged 35–54 years were used as a reference group. Outcome SA spells. Results An educational gradient emerged among younger and older women and men. SA spells increased in the early 2000s, and downward turning points were located in 2007–2010 in all educational groups among women and in most groups among men. The magnitude of the differences remained broadly stable among younger women from 2002 to 2013, and decreased slightly among older women and more strongly among younger and older men. The educational differences were greater among men than women in the early 2000s, but similar among both at the end of the study period. Conclusions The changes in SA spells may reflect the economic downturn started in 2008 and resulting job insecurity. Early preventive measures aimed at reducing educational differences in SA should be focused at an early stage on those with low levels of education in particular. PMID:27154473

  13. The relationship between gender segregation in the workplace and long-term sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryngelson, Anna; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Fritzell, Johan

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate whether the gender composition in workplaces is related to long-term sickness absence (LSA). We start off with Kanter's theory on ''tokenism,'' suggesting an increased risk of stress among minority groups (tokens), which, in turn, might increase the risk of ill health and LSA. The dataset consists of information obtained from the Swedish level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Swedish Establishment Survey (APU), linked to register-based data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. The longitudinal data is representative for the Swedish population and consists of 496 women and 566 men, aged 20-55 at baseline. Our study group consisted of employed persons in 1991 and we analyze, by means of piecewise constant intensity regressions, the first entry into LSA with a follow-up period of nine years. Compared with women in gender-integrated workplaces, women's risk of LSA is most elevated at both extremely male-dominated (0-20% females) and extremely female-dominated workplaces (80-100% females), although the result among women in the most male-dominated group did not reach statistical significance at the 5% level. Men's risk seems less varied by gender composition. The present study suggests that the gender composition in the workplace has an impact on the risk of LSA, especially among women. Our findings lend no support for Kanter's theory on the effects of being a token. Most likely, women's and men's different status positions have an impact on the different associations found.

  14. The EASY (Early Access to Support for You) sickness absence service: a four-year evaluation of the impact on absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith; Mackay, Daniel; Demou, Evangelia; Craig, Joyce; Frank, John; Macdonald, Ewan B

    2015-03-01

    In May 2008, the National Health Service (NHS) Lanarkshire (NHSL) implemented a unique telephone-based sickness absence management service entitled "EASY" (Early Access to Support for You). The EASY service supplements existing absence policies and enables telephone communication between the absentee, their line manager, and the EASY service from the first day of absence and referral to occupational health services at day ten. The aim of this study was to determine if the EASY service was effective between May 2008 and May 2012 in reducing sickness absence in NHSL compared to normal occupational healthcare in NHS Scotland and is, as such, a cost-saving intervention. This study included time-series analysis of health board sickness absence data and analyses of the EASY service database (survival analyses and Cox's proportional hazards model). The EASY service was effective in reducing sickness absence by 21% in NHSL, whereas the nonspecific tightening of the sickness absence policies across the rest of Scottish NHS health boards reduced sickness absence by approximately 9%. The richness of the EASY database gave detailed information on absentees by cause, duration, job family, and reporting compliance. The mean duration of musculoskeletal absences was significantly shorter in years 2, 3, and 4 compared to year 1. Those absentees contacted by phone on the first day of absence were more likely to return to work than those contacted on subsequent days. The EASY service improves economic efficiency; the value of the hours saved from the reduced sickness absence exceeds the cost of operating the service. The study highlights the importance of an early telephone-based intervention for sickness absence management.

  15. Unemployment at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension and death in native Swedes and immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Youth unemployment is an increasing problem for societies around the world. Research has revealed negative health effects of unemployment, and this longitudinal register-based cohort study examined the relationship between unemployment and later sickness absence, disability pension and death among youth in Sweden. Method: The study group of 199 623 individuals comprised all immigrants born between 1968 and 1972 who immigrated before 1990 (25 607) and a random sample of native Swedes in the same age-range (174 016). The baseline year was 1992, and the follow-up period was from 1993 to 2007. Subjects with unemployment benefit in 1990–91, disability pension in 1990–92, severe disorders leading to hospitalization in 1990–92 and subjects who emigrated during follow-up were excluded. Results: Those who were unemployed in 1992 had elevated risk of ≥60 days of sickness absence (OR 1.02–1.49), disability pension (HR 1.08–1.62) and all except native Swedish women had elevated risk of death (HR 1.01–1.65) during follow-up compared with non-unemployed individuals. The risk of future sickness absence increased with the length of unemployment in 1992 (OR 1.06–1.54), and the risk of sickness absence increased over time. A larger part of the immigrant cohort was unemployed at baseline than native Swedes. Selection to unemployment by less healthy subjects may explain part of the association between unemployment and the studied outcomes. Conclusion: Unemployment at an early age may influence the future health of the individual. To a society it may lead to increased burdens on the welfare system and productivity loss for many years. PMID:22930745

  16. Using a psychosocial subgroup assignment to predict sickness absence in a working population with neck and back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Irene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall objective was to evaluate the predictive validity of a subgroup classification based on the Swedish version of the MPI, the MPI-S, among gainfully employed workers with neck pain (NP and/or low back pain (LBP during a follow-up period of 18 and 36 months. Methods This is a prospective cohort study that is part of a larger longitudinal multi-centre study entitled Work and Health in the Process and Engineering Industries (AHA. The attempt was to classify individuals at risk for developing chronic disabling NP and LBP. This is the first study using the MPI-questionnaire in a working population with NP and LBP. Results Dysfunctional individuals (DYS demonstrated more statistically significant sickness absence compared to adaptive copers (AC after 36 months. DYS also had a threefold increase in the risk ratio of long-term sickness absence at 18 months. Interpersonally distressed (ID subgroup showed overall more sickness absence compared to the AC subgroup at the 36-month follow-up and had a twofold increase in the risk ratio of long-term sickness absence at 18 months. There was a significant difference in bodily pain, mental and physical health for ID and DYS subgroups compared to the AC group at both follow-ups. Conclusions The present study shows that this multidimensional approach to the classification of individuals based on psychological and psychosocial characteristics can distinguish different groups in gainfully employed working population with NP/LBP. The results in this study confirm the predictive validity of the MPI-S subgroup classification system.

  17. Using a psychosocial subgroup assignment to predict sickness absence in a working population with neck and back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The overall objective was to evaluate the predictive validity of a subgroup classification based on the Swedish version of the MPI, the MPI-S, among gainfully employed workers with neck pain (NP) and/or low back pain (LBP) during a follow-up period of 18 and 36 months. Methods This is a prospective cohort study that is part of a larger longitudinal multi-centre study entitled Work and Health in the Process and Engineering Industries (AHA). The attempt was to classify individuals at risk for developing chronic disabling NP and LBP. This is the first study using the MPI-questionnaire in a working population with NP and LBP. Results Dysfunctional individuals (DYS) demonstrated more statistically significant sickness absence compared to adaptive copers (AC) after 36 months. DYS also had a threefold increase in the risk ratio of long-term sickness absence at 18 months. Interpersonally distressed (ID) subgroup showed overall more sickness absence compared to the AC subgroup at the 36-month follow-up and had a twofold increase in the risk ratio of long-term sickness absence at 18 months. There was a significant difference in bodily pain, mental and physical health for ID and DYS subgroups compared to the AC group at both follow-ups. Conclusions The present study shows that this multidimensional approach to the classification of individuals based on psychological and psychosocial characteristics can distinguish different groups in gainfully employed working population with NP/LBP. The results in this study confirm the predictive validity of the MPI-S subgroup classification system. PMID:21521502

  18. Unemployment at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension and death in native Swedes and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Magnus; Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2013-08-01

    Youth unemployment is an increasing problem for societies around the world. Research has revealed negative health effects of unemployment, and this longitudinal register-based cohort study examined the relationship between unemployment and later sickness absence, disability pension and death among youth in Sweden. The study group of 199,623 individuals comprised all immigrants born between 1968 and 1972 who immigrated before 1990 (25,607) and a random sample of native Swedes in the same age-range (174,016). The baseline year was 1992, and the follow-up period was from 1993 to 2007. Subjects with unemployment benefit in 1990-91, disability pension in 1990-92, severe disorders leading to hospitalization in 1990-92 and subjects who emigrated during follow-up were excluded. Those who were unemployed in 1992 had elevated risk of ≥60 days of sickness absence (OR 1.02-1.49), disability pension (HR 1.08-1.62) and all except native Swedish women had elevated risk of death (HR 1.01-1.65) during follow-up compared with non-unemployed individuals. The risk of future sickness absence increased with the length of unemployment in 1992 (OR 1.06-1.54), and the risk of sickness absence increased over time. A larger part of the immigrant cohort was unemployed at baseline than native Swedes. Selection to unemployment by less healthy subjects may explain part of the association between unemployment and the studied outcomes. Unemployment at an early age may influence the future health of the individual. To a society it may lead to increased burdens on the welfare system and productivity loss for many years.

  19. Does organisational justice protect from sickness absence following a major life event? A Finnish public sector study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, M; Kivimäki, M; Linna, A; Brockner, J; van den Bos, K; Greenberg, J; Pentti, J; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J

    2010-05-01

    It has been shown that fairness perceptions have a strong impact on health, especially under conditions of great work stress. The aim of this study was to extend previous research in studying whether working in high justice workplace would protect from health effects following environmental stressors outside work. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the relationships between organisational justice and sickness-related absences both before and after a major life event among 25 459 public sector employees working in 2551 work units were studied. Sickness absences covered the period from 36 months before the event until 30 months after the event. The increase in sickness absences after the event was larger and stayed at a higher level even 30 months after the event, among those who perceived the management practices in their work unit to be relatively unfair. Similar patterns were found for each of the distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions of organisational justice. Fair organisational and managerial procedures may buffer the negative health effects of psychosocial health risks outside work.

  20. Sickness absence and disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses: risk of premature death--a nationwide prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Emilie; Rosenhall, Ulf; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2014-02-08

    It is estimated that hearing difficulties will be one of the top ten leading burdens of disease by 2030. Knowledge of mortality among individuals on sick leave or disability pension due to hearing diagnoses is virtually non-existent. We aimed prospectively to examine the associations of diagnosis-specific sick leave and disability pension due to different otoaudiological diagnoses with risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. A cohort, based on Swedish registry data, including all 5,248,672 individuals living in Sweden in 2005, aged 20-64, and not on old-age pension, was followed through 2010. Otoaudiological diagnoses were placed in the following categories: otological, hearing, vertigo, and tinnitus. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models; individuals on sick leave or disability pension due to different otoaudiological diagnoses during 2005 were compared with those not on sick leave or disability pension. In multivariable models, individuals with sickness absence due to otoaudiological diagnoses showed a lower risk of mortality, while individuals on disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses showed a 14% (95% CI 1-29%) increased risk of mortality, compared with individuals not on sick leave or disability pension. The risk increase among individuals on disability pension was largely attributable to otological (HR 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.33) and hearing diagnoses (HR 1.20; 95% CI = 1.00-1.43). This large nationwide population-based cohort study suggests an increased risk of mortality among individuals on disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses.

  1. Sickness absence and disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses: risk of premature death – a nationwide prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that hearing difficulties will be one of the top ten leading burdens of disease by 2030. Knowledge of mortality among individuals on sick leave or disability pension due to hearing diagnoses is virtually non-existent. We aimed prospectively to examine the associations of diagnosis-specific sick leave and disability pension due to different otoaudiological diagnoses with risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods A cohort, based on Swedish registry data, including all 5 248 672 individuals living in Sweden in 2005, aged 20–64, and not on old-age pension, was followed through 2010. Otoaudiological diagnoses were placed in the following categories: otological, hearing, vertigo, and tinnitus. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models; individuals on sick leave or disability pension due to different otoaudiological diagnoses during 2005 were compared with those not on sick leave or disability pension. Results In multivariable models, individuals with sickness absence due to otoaudiological diagnoses showed a lower risk of mortality, while individuals on disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses showed a 14% (95% CI 1-29%) increased risk of mortality, compared with individuals not on sick leave or disability pension. The risk increase among individuals on disability pension was largely attributable to otological (HR 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.33) and hearing diagnoses (HR 1.20; 95% CI = 1.00-1.43). Conclusion This large nationwide population-based cohort study suggests an increased risk of mortality among individuals on disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses. PMID:24507477

  2. Psychosocial work environment exposures as risk factors for long-term sickness absence among Danish employees: results from DWECS/DREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines effects of psychosocial risk factors on long-term sickness absence, and investigates possible interactions between psychosocial and physical work environment risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5,357 employees were interviewed in 2000 regarding work environment......-term sickness absence among men. No significant interactions between psychosocial and physical exposures were found for female or male employees. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests a potential for reducing long-term sickness absence through interventions targeted toward reducing role conflict, and improving reward...

  3. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Real

    Full Text Available Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-economic crisis.Relationships were analyzed (using chi-squared tests and multivariate modelling via binary logistic regression between clinical, social/employment-related and demographic factors associated and long-term sickness absence (>60 consecutive days due to mental disorders in a cohort of 7112 Spanish patients during the period 2008-2012.Older age, severe mental disorders, being self-employed, having a non-permanent contract, and working in the real estate and construction sector were associated with an increased probability of long-term sickness absence (gender had a mediating role with respect to some of these variables. Relapses were associated with short-term sick leave (return to work due to 'improvement' and with working in the transport sector and public administration.Aside from medical factors, other social/employment-related and demographic factors have a significant influence on the duration of sickness absence due to mental disorders.

  4. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Eva; Jover, Lluís; Verdaguer, Ricard; Griera, Antoni; Segalàs, Cinto; Alonso, Pino; Contreras, Fernando; Arteman, Antoni; Menchón, José M

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse) due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-economic crisis. Relationships were analyzed (using chi-squared tests and multivariate modelling via binary logistic regression) between clinical, social/employment-related and demographic factors associated and long-term sickness absence (>60 consecutive days) due to mental disorders in a cohort of 7112 Spanish patients during the period 2008-2012. Older age, severe mental disorders, being self-employed, having a non-permanent contract, and working in the real estate and construction sector were associated with an increased probability of long-term sickness absence (gender had a mediating role with respect to some of these variables). Relapses were associated with short-term sick leave (return to work due to 'improvement') and with working in the transport sector and public administration. Aside from medical factors, other social/employment-related and demographic factors have a significant influence on the duration of sickness absence due to mental disorders.

  5. Barriers and enablers to returning to work from long-term sickness absence: Part I-A quantitative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Belinda J; Brown, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in the United Kingdom labor market has become a major health issue in recent years. In contrast to short-term sickness absence, rates for LTSA have been on the increase. This paper, part 1 of a two-part paper, identifies individual domain barriers to returning to work (RTW) from LTSA across the work disability timeline in the UK labor market. This is a retrospective cohort study of 6,246 workers from an occupationally diverse Police Force within the UK using a large administrative database. A series of chi-squared analyses were conducted to analyze the between and within group associations. Next, multiple logistic regression analyses using the Enter method were performed to develop a predictive model for RTW and Absence Phase. Findings substantiated the presence of individual domain barriers to RTW and predictors of RTW outcome and established the absence phase specificity of a number of risk factors of prolonged work disability. In particular, injury/illness especially mental ill health (MIH), physical job demands, sex, and number of episodes of LTSA are significant individual domain barriers to RTW and represent important risk factors for prolonged work disability. Duration of work disability is associated with medical diagnosis, especially MIH, physical job demands, sex, and number of LTSA episodes. Findings also support the importance of using the outcome measure of absence phase of risk factors in addition to RTW outcome. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Involvement and structure: a qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Maria; Westerlund, Hugo; Backhans, Mona; Melinder, Karin

    2011-05-16

    Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated

  7. Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backhans Mona

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes, Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes, Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees, and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace, which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991, which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were

  8. Sickness absence due to mental disorders and psychosocial stressors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, João Silvestre; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefit due to sickness in Brazil. Occupational exposure to psychosocial stressors can affect the workers' mental health. The social security medical experts are responsible for characterizing if those sicknesses are work-related. To evaluate the factors associated with sick leave due to mental disorders, in particular, the perception of workers on psychosocial factors at work. This is an analytical study carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, with 131 applicants for sickness benefit due to mental disorders. Questionnaires were applied to assess the sociodemographic data, habits/lifestyle information, and perceived psychosocial factors at work. The most common diagnosis was depressive disorders (40.4%). The medical experts considered 23.7% of all applications as work-related. Most of the participants were female (68.7%), up to 40 years of age (73.3%), married/common-law marriage (51.1%), with educational level greater than or equal to 11 years (80.2%), nonsmokers (80.9%), not alcohol consumers (84%), and practice of physical activities (77.9%). Regarding psychosocial factors, most of the participants informed a high job strain (56.5%), low social support (52.7%), effort-reward imbalance (55.7%), and high overcommitment (87.0%). There was no statistical association between the work-related mental disorders sickness benefits and independent variables. The concession of social security sickness benefits is not associated with sociodemographic data, habits/lifestyle, or psychosocial factors at work. Occupational exposure to unfavorable psychosocial factors was reported by most workers on sick leave due to mental disorders. However, several cases were not recognized by the social security medical experts as work-related, which may have influenced the results of the associations.

  9. Pupils with special educational needs in basic education schools and teachers' sickness absences--a register-linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Pentti, Jaana; Ahola, Kirsi; Oksanen, Tuula; Pohjonen, Tiina; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2012-05-01

    We examined whether having a high percentage of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in basic education schools increases the risk of sickness absence among teachers and whether this risk is dependent on the pupil-teacher ratio (PTR), an indicator of teacher resources at school. We obtained register data on 8089 teachers working in 404 schools in 10 municipalities in Finland during the school year 2004-2005. We used multilevel multinomial regression models to examine the risk of teachers' short- and long-term sickness absence in relation to the percentage of SEN pupils and the PTR at school. We tested the equality of trends in groups with high and low PTR using PTR × SEN interaction term. After adjustment for teacher and school characteristics, the risk for long-term absences was higher among teachers at schools with a high percentage of SEN pupils than among teachers at schools with a low percentage of SEN pupils [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-1.8). This was also the case for short-term absences (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7). In analyses stratified by the PTR levels, the association between the percentage of SEN pupils and long-term absences was 15% higher among teachers with a high PTR than among those with a low PTR (P for interaction=0.10). Teachers' sickness absenteeism seems to increase with a higher percentage of SEN pupils, especially when the PTR is high. Teacher resources at schools that have a high percentage of SEN pupils should be well maintained to ensure the health of teachers.

  10. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  11. Using administrative sickness absence data as a marker of future disability pension: the prospective DREAM study of Danish private sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.; Kivimaki, M.; Labriola, M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine duration of sickness absence as a risk marker for future disability pension among all private sector employees in Denmark 1998-2004. METHODS: All private sector employees receiving sickness absence compensation from the municipality in 1998, a total......: The findings suggest that administratively collected data on sickness absence compensation are an important predictor of disability pension among private sector employees. The use of information on sick leave may improve the effectiveness of early interventions by policy makers, case managing authorities...... duration as an early risk marker. RESULTS: 5694 persons (2.5%) received disability pension during follow-up, more men (53.4%) than women (46.6%). There was a strong graded association between increasing length of absence and increasing risk of future disability pension. Significant differences were found...

  12. The contribution of work engagement to self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; Schaufeli, Wilmar|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Methods: Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using questionnaires,

  13. Adjustment and social support at work early after breast cancer surgery and its associations with sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Marie I; Petersson, Lena-Marie; Wennman-Larsen, Agneta; Olsson, Mariann; Vaez, Marjan; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    As half of the women with breast cancer are of working ages and usually survive, knowledge is needed on how to support them early regarding work-related problems caused by treatments. Most previous studies have focused on individual and disease-related factors, whereas few have focused on work-related factors such as work adjustment and social support. The aim of this study was to investigate received and perceived social support from supervisor and colleagues as well as work adjustments, and their associations with sickness absence, among women who recently had had breast cancer surgery. Inclusion criteria were as follows: women aged 20-63 years, living in Stockholm County, treated surgically for a first diagnosis of breast cancer, literate in Swedish, without pre-surgical chemotherapy or known distant metastases. Included in the study were 605 women who worked at diagnosis and that had answered a questionnaire within eight weeks of inclusion. Descriptive statistics, univariate, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of being sickness absent. Most women perceived and received social support and work adjustment after breast cancer surgery. Low adjustment (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.45-3.18) and less social support (OR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16-2.78) were significantly associated with being sickness absent. Adjusting for sociodemographics, strenuous work posture, and treatment did not attenuate these associations. Adjustment at work and social support from employer are associated with sickness absence and needs to be explored in discussions on return to work after breast cancer surgery. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Estimating non work-related sickness leave absences related to a previous occupational injury in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia; Navarro, Albert; Moriña, David; Albertí-Casas, Constança; Jardí-Lliberia, Josefina; de Montserrat-Nonó, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of non-work sickness absence (ITcc) related to previous occupational injuries with (ATB) or without (ATSB) sick leave. Prospective longitudinal study. Workers with ATB or ATSB notified to the Occupational Accident Registry of Catalonia were selected in the last term of 2009. They were followed-up for six months after returning to work (ATB) or after the accident (ATSB), by sex and occupation. Official labor and health authority registries were used as information sources. An "injury-associated ITcc" was defined when the sick leave occurred in the following six months and within the same diagnosis group. The absolute and relative frequency were calculated according to time elapsed and its duration (cumulated days, measures of central trend and dispersion), by diagnosis group or affected body area, as compared to all of Catalonia. 2,9%of ATB (n=627) had an injury-associated ITcc, with differences by diagnosis, sex and occupation; this was also the case for 2,1% of ATSB (n=496).With the same diagnosis, duration of ITcc was longer among those who had an associated injury, and with respect to all of Catalonia. Some of the under-reporting of occupational pathology corresponds to episodes initially recognized as being work-related. Duration of sickness absence depends not only on diagnosis and clinical course, but also on criteria established by the entities managing the case. This could imply that more complicated injuries are referred to the national health system, resulting in personal, legal, healthcare and economic cost consequences for all involved stakeholders. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  15. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study of 4.9 million inhabitants of Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the magnitude and increase of sickness absence due to mental diagnoses, little is known regarding long-term health outcomes. The aim of this nationwide population-based, prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: A cohort of all 4 857 943 individuals living in Sweden on 31.12.2004 (aged 16-64 years, not sickness absent, or on retirement or disability pension, was followed from 01.01.2005 through 31.12.2008 for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (suicide, cancer, circulatory disease through linkage of individual register data. Individuals with at least one new sick-leave spell with a mental diagnosis in 2005 were compared to individuals with no sickness absence. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, education, country of birth, family situation, area of residence, and pre-existing morbidity (diagnosis-specific hospital inpatient (2000-2005 and outpatient (2001-2005 care. RESULTS: In the multivariate analyses, mental sickness absence in 2005 was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality: HR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.47-1.86 in women and in men: 1.73, 1.57-1.91; for suicide, cancer (both smoking and non-smoking related as well as mortality due to circulatory disease only in men. Estimates for cause-specific mortality ranged from 1.48 to 3.37. Associations with all-cause mortality were found for all mental sickness absence diagnostic groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about the prognosis of patients sickness absent with specific mental diagnoses is of crucial clinical importance in health care. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses may here be used as a risk indictor for subsequent mortality.

  16. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study of 4.9 million inhabitants of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Runeson, Bo; Perski, Aleksander; Melchior, Maria; Head, Jenny; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Despite the magnitude and increase of sickness absence due to mental diagnoses, little is known regarding long-term health outcomes. The aim of this nationwide population-based, prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. A cohort of all 4 857 943 individuals living in Sweden on 31.12.2004 (aged 16-64 years, not sickness absent, or on retirement or disability pension), was followed from 01.01.2005 through 31.12.2008 for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (suicide, cancer, circulatory disease) through linkage of individual register data. Individuals with at least one new sick-leave spell with a mental diagnosis in 2005 were compared to individuals with no sickness absence. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, education, country of birth, family situation, area of residence, and pre-existing morbidity (diagnosis-specific hospital inpatient (2000-2005) and outpatient (2001-2005) care). In the multivariate analyses, mental sickness absence in 2005 was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality: HR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.47-1.86 in women and in men: 1.73, 1.57-1.91; for suicide, cancer (both smoking and non-smoking related) as well as mortality due to circulatory disease only in men. Estimates for cause-specific mortality ranged from 1.48 to 3.37. Associations with all-cause mortality were found for all mental sickness absence diagnostic groups studied. Knowledge about the prognosis of patients sickness absent with specific mental diagnoses is of crucial clinical importance in health care. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses may here be used as a risk indictor for subsequent mortality.

  17. Increased risk among older veterans of prescribing psychotropic medication in the absence of psychiatric diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechers, Ilse R; Kirwin, Paul D; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    This study uses Veterans Health Administration (VHA) pharmacy and encounter claims to evaluate the use of psychotropic medications without a psychiatric diagnosis across age groups. National VHA administrative data for fiscal year 2010 (FY2010) were used to identify all veterans who filled a prescription for at least one psychotropic medication from VHA (N = 1.85 million). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare the proportion of these veterans without any psychiatric diagnosis, across age groups, adjusting for possible medical indications. Analyses were repeated for six different classes of psychotropic medications and comparing mental health utilizers and non-mental health utilizers. Comparisons were made to prescribing of HIV and diabetes medications without an indicated diagnosis. Of all VHA patients prescribed a psychotropic medication in FY2010, 30% had no psychiatric diagnosis, with highest proportions among veterans ages 65-85. This practice was most frequent among nonmental health utilizers and far more prevalent for psychotropic medications than for HIV or diabetes medications. Logistic regression analysis found that age greater than 65 was the strongest predictor of being prescribed a psychotropic without a psychiatric diagnosis. Adjustment for possible medical use of psychotropics and overall medical comorbidity did not substantially alter these trends. Older veterans, especially those not using specialty mental healthcare, are more likely to be prescribed psychotropic medications in the absence of a psychiatric diagnosis, perhaps representing unnecessary use, under-diagnosis of mental illness, or incomplete documentation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Threshold of musculoskeletal pain intensity for increased risk of long-term sickness absence among female healthcare workers in eldercare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars L Andersen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders increase the risk for absenteeism and work disability. However, the threshold when musculoskeletal pain intensity significantly increases the risk of sickness absence among different occupations is unknown. This study estimates the risk for long-term sickness absence (LTSA from different pain intensities in the low back, neck/shoulder and knees among female healthcare workers in eldercare. METHODS: Prospective cohort study among 8,732 Danish female healthcare workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004-2005, and subsequently followed for one year in a national register of social transfer payments (DREAM. Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR analysis we modeled risk estimates of pain intensities on a scale from 0-9 (reference 0, where 0 is no pain and 9 is worst imaginable pain in the low back, neck/shoulders and knees during the last three months for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for at least eight consecutive weeks during one-year follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 6.3%. With adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and leisure physical activity, the thresholds of pain intensities significantly increasing risk of LTSA for the low back (HR 1.44 [95%CI 1.07-1.93], neck/shoulders (HR 1.47 [95%CI 1.10-1.96] and knees (HR 1.43 [95%CI 1.06-1.93] were 5, 4 and 3 (scale 0-9, respectively, referencing pain intensity of 0. CONCLUSION: The threshold of pain intensity significantly increasing the risk for LTSA among female healthcare workers varies across body regions, with knee pain having the lowest threshold. This knowledge may be used in the prevention of LTSA among health care workers.

  19. Efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' in reducing sickness absence among health care workers: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya; Herborg, Lene Gram; Sørensen, Thomas Lund; Søgaard, Karen

    2013-10-02

    Health care workers have high physical work demands, involving patient handling and manual work tasks. A strategy for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders can enhance the physical capacity of the health care worker. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' for health care workers in the Sonderborg Municipality. This protocol describes the design of a randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' versus a reference group for health care workers in the Sonderborg Municipality. Inclusion criteria to be fulfilled: health care workers with daily work that includes manual work and with the experience of work-related musculoskeletal pain in the back or upper body.All participants will receive 'Health Guidance', a (90-minute) individualised dialogue focusing on improving life style, based on assessments of risk behaviour, on motivation for change and on personal resources. In addition, the experimental groups will receive 'Tailored Physical Activity' (three 50-minute sessions per week over 10 weeks). The reference group will receive only 'Health Guidance'.The primary outcome measure is the participants' self-reported sickness absence during the last three months due to musculoskeletal troubles, measured 3 and 12 months after baseline.In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric measurements, functional capacity and self-reported number of sick days, musculoskeletal symptoms, self-reported health, work ability, work productivity, physical capacity, kinesiophobia and physical functional status. The results from this study will contribute to the knowledge about evidence-based interventions for prevention of sickness absence among health care workers. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01543984.

  20. Global measure of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions versus measures of specific aspects of psychosocial work conditions in explaining sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to identify particular aspects of psychosocial work conditions as predictors of sickness absence remain inconclusive. A global measure has previously been suggested to be an efficient way to measure psychosocial work conditions in questionnaires. This paper investigates whether satisfaction with specific aspects of psychosocial work conditions explains sickness absence beyond its association with a global measure of psychosocial work conditions. Methods The participants were 13,437 employees from 698 public service workplaces in Aarhus County, Denmark. 33 items from a questionnaire fell in groupings around six aspects of psychosocial work conditions: skill discretion, professionalism, management, decision authority, workload and cooperation. A global measure rating satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions on a scale from 0 to 10 was also included in the questionnaire. Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence with different levels of satisfaction with six aspects of psychosocial work conditions. The covariates included were gender, age, occupation, size of workplace, contact to hospital, civil status and children below 13 living at home. Results Dissatisfaction with each of the six aspects of psychosocial work conditions was associated with an increase in sickness absence. When all aspects were simultaneously included in the model, only skill discretion and professionalism were negatively associated with sickness absence. When a global measure of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was also included in the model none of the specific aspects showed a statistically significant association with sickness absence. Conclusion Low global satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions is associated with increased levels of sickness absence. Including specific aspects of

  1. Sickness absence and permanent work disability in relation to upper- and lower-body pain and occupational mechanical and psychosocial exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Tine Gjedde; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Frost, Poul

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if combined pain (pain in the upper and lower body), high occupational mechanical exposures, and job strain predict sickness absence and permanent work disability, particularly if co-occurring. This longitudinal study was based on the musculoskeletal research database at the Danish Ramazzini Centre. We linked baseline information from 2001-2004 on musculoskeletal pain, job titles, and covariates with register information on sickness absence and permanent work disability. Mechanical and psychosocial exposure estimates were obtained from job exposure matrices. We used multivariable Cox regression. The study included 25 292 persons. Compared to low occupational mechanical exposures and no pain, low mechanical exposures and combined pain showed an adjusted hazard ratio (HR adj) of 1.81 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.58-2.08], while high mechanical exposures and combined pain showed HR adj3.71 (95% CI 3.24-4.25) for sickness absence. The corresponding values for permanent work disability were 3.35 (95% CI 1.74-6.45) and 4.59 (95% CI 2.36-8.94). Job strain showed an association with sickness absence [HR adj1.24 (95% CI 1.10-1.39)], while low social support was associated with both sickness absence and permanent work disability [HR adj1.30 (95% CI 1.19-1.41) and 2.19 (95% CI 1.41-3.41), respectively]. Combined pain in the upper and lower body was associated with sickness absence and permanent work disability, and high occupational mechanical exposures further increased the risk. Job strain showed a modest association with sickness absence, while low social support at work was associated with both outcomes, especially permanent work disability.

  2. The Management of Long-Term Sickness Absence in Large Public Sector Healthcare Organisations: A Realist Evaluation Using Mixed Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Angela; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam

    2015-09-01

    The success of measures to reduce long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in public sector organisations is contingent on organisational context. This realist evaluation investigates how interventions interact with context to influence successful management of LTSA. Multi-method case study in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland comprising realist literature review, semi-structured interviews (61 participants), Process-Mapping and feedback meetings (59 participants), observation of training, analysis of documents. Important activities included early intervention; workplace-based occupational rehabilitation; robust sickness absence policies with clear trigger points for action. Used appropriately, in a context of good interpersonal and interdepartmental communication and shared goals, these are able to increase the motivation of staff to return to work. Line managers are encouraged to take a proactive approach when senior managers provide support and accountability. Hindering factors: delayed intervention; inconsistent implementation of policy and procedure; lack of resources; organisational complexity; stakeholders misunderstanding each other's goals and motives. Different mechanisms have the potential to encourage common motivations for earlier return from LTSA, such as employees feeling that they have the support of their line manager to return to work and having the confidence to do so. Line managers' proactively engage when they have confidence in the support of seniors and in their own ability to address LTSA. Fostering these motivations calls for a thoughtful, diagnostic process, taking into account the contextual factors (and whether they can be modified) and considering how a given intervention can be used to trigger the appropriate mechanisms.

  3. Effect of Rheumatoid Arthritis on Longterm Sickness Absence in 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Mandrup; Hetland, Merete Lund; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    was 20% lower in 2006–2011 (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.7–2.2) compared with 1994–1999 (p older age, shorter education, a physically demanding job, and somatic and/or psychiatric comorbidities increased the risk of LTSA. Conclusion. While improvements were observed from...... population, (2) examine whether the risk of LTSA has changed in recent years, and (3) evaluate the effect of other risk factors for LTSA (e.g., physical work demands, age, sex, education, and psychiatric and somatic comorbidities). Methods. A total of 6677 patients with RA aged 18–59 years in the years 1994...

  4. Work participation and health-related characteristics of sickness absence beneficiaries with multiple somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A H; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Nielsen, M B D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim was to study whether high levels of multiple symptoms influenced sick-listed individuals' employment status or desire to return to work (RTW) and whether this was associated with social relations at work. Study design: A cross-sectional study nested in a clinical trial......-listing, and use of health care were register-data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses with adjustments were performed. Results: Beneficiaries with high SCL-SOM score (n = 218, 33%) reported poorer health, job satisfaction, a lower desire to RTW and more problems with supervisors. The risk of being...

  5. Income inequality as a moderator of the relationship between psychological job demands and sickness absence, in particular in men: an international comparison of 23 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Johanna; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether more sickness absence is reported in countries with higher income inequality than elsewhere, and whether the level of income inequality moderates the association between psycho-social job demands and sickness absence. Our analysis is based on the Fifth European Working Conditions Survey that compared 23 European countries. We performed multi-level regression analysis. On the macro-level of analysis we included the Gini-Index as measure of inequality. On the micro-level of analysis we followed the Karasek-Theorell model and included three scales for psychological job demands, physical job demands, and decision latitude in the model. The model was stratified by sex. We found that, in countries with high income inequality, workers report significantly more sickness absence than workers in countries with low income inequality. In addition we found that the level of income inequality moderates the relationship between psychological job demands and sickness absence. High psychological job demands are significantly more strongly related to more days of sickness absence in countries with low income inequality than in countries with high income inequality. As the nature and causal pathways of cross-level interaction effects still cannot be fully explained, we argue that future research should aim to explore such causal pathways. In accordance with WHO recommendations we argue that inequalities should be reduced. In addition we state that, particularly in countries with low levels of income inequality, policies should aim to reduce psychological job demands.

  6. A multi-faceted workplace intervention targeting low back pain was effective for physical work demands and maladaptive pain behaviours, but not for work ability and sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to test whether a multi-faceted intervention effective for low back pain was effective for physical capacity, work demands, maladaptive pain behaviours, work ability and sickness absence due to low back pain. Methods: A stepped wedge cluster randomised, controlled...... trial with 594 nurses' aides was conducted. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of physical training (12 sessions), cognitive behavioural training (two sessions) and participatory ergonomics (five sessions). Occupational lifting, fear avoidance, physical exertion, muscle strength, support....... Conclusions: The intervention was significantly effective for physical work demands and maladaptive pain behaviours, but not for work ability and sickness absence due to low back pain. To improve work ability or reduce sickness absence due to low back pain more specific interventions should probably...

  7. The role of poor sleep in the relation between workplace bullying/unwanted sexual attention and long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While exposure to bullying and unwanted sexual attention was previously found to increase the risk of sickness absence, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Poor sleep can be a consequence of stressful exposures and a cause of poor health, and poor sleep is also a determinant...... of insufficient recovery. Therefore, the present study investigated whether poor sleep mediates and/or moderates the association between bullying and unwanted sexual attention, on the one hand, and long-term sickness absence (LTSA), on the other hand. Methods: We used questionnaire data from 7650 individuals...... contributing with 15,040 2-year observation periods. Workplace bullying, unwanted sexual attention, disturbed sleep, and difficulties awakening were measured at three time points, and participants were followed in registers to measure the occurrence of LTSA, defined as ≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence...

  8. Longitudinal Relationship Between Sitting Time on a Working Day and Vitality, Work Performance, Presenteeism, and Sickness Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Ingrid J.M.; Bernaards, Claire M.; Steijn, Wouter M.P.; Hildebrandt, Vincent H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between sitting time on a working day and vitality, work performance, presenteeism, and sickness absence. Methods: At the start and end of a five-month intervention program at the workplace, as well as 10 months after the intervention, sitting time and work-related outcomes were measured using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and company records. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the longitudinal relationship between sitting time and work-related outcomes, and possible interaction effects over time. Results: A significant and sustainable decrease in sitting time on a working day was observed. Sitting less was significantly related to higher vitality scores, but this effect was marginal (b = −0.0006, P = 0.000). Conclusions: Our finding of significant though marginal associations between sitting time and important work-related outcomes justifies further research. PMID:27299213

  9. Sickness absence in relation to breast and arm symptoms shortly after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennman-Larsen, Agneta; Alexanderson, Kristina; Olsson, Mariann; Nilsson, Marie I; Petersson, Lena-Marie

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether and, to what extent, breast and arm symptoms are associated with sick leave (SL) shortly after breast cancer (BC) surgery, and to investigate the associations of these symptoms and different surgical procedures with SL, adjusting for age and work posture. Women (n = 511), aged 26-63 years, who worked ≥ 75% before a BC diagnosis, were included within 12 weeks of surgery. 31% reported breast symptoms and 22% arm symptoms; and, of these, 47% reported both. Having strenuous work postures increased the OR for being on SL most (OR 2.60), followed by breast symptoms (OR 2.40), more extensive axillary (OR 2.24) or breast surgery (OR 2.13), and arm symptoms (OR 2.06). Breast and arm symptoms are as strongly associated with being on SL as types of breast and/or axillary surgery. Early self-reported symptoms are important to consider in guidelines for SL and rehabilitation after BC surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Do psychosocial work factors and social relations exert independent effects on sickness absence? A six year prospective study of the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, M; Niedhammer, I; Berkman, L F; Goldberg, M

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether psychosocial work characteristics and social relations exert independent effects on the incidence of sickness absence in a population of middle aged French employees over six years of follow up. This study included 9631 men and 3595 women participating in the French GAZEL cohort. Social relations (social networks, personal social support, and social relations satisfaction) were measured in 1994 by self report. Psychosocial work characteristics (decision latitude, psychological demands, and social support at work) were ascertained in 1995. Sickness absence data were collected independently. The authors studied the incidence of short (>7 days), intermediate (7-21 days), and long (>21 days) spells of absence from 1995 to 31 December 2001. Rate ratios associated with psychosocial exposures, adjusted on sociodemographic characteristics, and health behaviours, were calculated by means of log-linear Poisson regression. A cohort of 20000 employees of France's national gas and electricity company (the GAZEL study). Among men and women, levels of decision latitude and personal social support below the median predicted 17% to 24% increases in absence rates. Low satisfaction with social relations and low social support at work lead to a 10% to 26% excess in sick leaves among men. No interactive effects were found between the variables under study. The quality of the work environment and of social relations affect sickness absence over an extended period of follow up. This study supports the hypothesis of independent, not interactive effects.

  11. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence due to depressive disorders--a Delphi approach involving scientists and physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giny Norder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and highly recurrent mental disorder that is accompanied by poor functioning at home and at work. Not all depressed employees report sick and little is known about variables associated with sickness absence (SA due to depression. Recurrent SA due to depression tends to marginalize employees from the workforce and exclude them from social participation. Therefore, this study sought group consensus on factors predicting recurrent SA due to depression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 23 scientists in the field of work and mental health and 23 physicians with expertise in assessing work disability were invited for a Delphi study. Sixty-seven factors retrieved from the literature were scored for their impact on the recurrence of SA due to depression, range 1 (no impact to 10 (very high impact in two Delphi rounds. The third Delphi round addressed the assessability and modifiability of elected predictors. Group consensus was defined as 75% agreement. In the first round (response 78%, group consensus was reached on a high impact of 13 factors on recurrent SA due to depression. The second round (response 79% added another 8 factors with high impact on recurrent SA due to depression. The panelists were of the opinion that stressful life and work events, age at first diagnosis, duration of the last depressive episode, anxiety, lifetime number of depressive episodes, and psychological work demands were readily assessable in consultation with patients. Furthermore, work factors, particularly decision latitude, psychological job demands, and commitment to work, were recognized as modifiable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although results have to be validated with further quantitative research, physicians may identify employees at risk of recurrent SA due to depression and may support them to adjust their work aimed at increasing commitment to work and preventing future SA due to depression.

  12. Risk factors for sickness absence due to low back pain and prognostic factors for return to work in a cohort of shipyard workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Alexopoulos (Evangelos); E.C. Konstantinou (Eleni); G. Bakoyannis (Giorgos); D. Tanagra (Dimitra); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for the occurrence of sickness absence due to low back pain (LBP) and to evaluate prognostic factors for return to work. A longitudinal study with 1-year follow-up was conducted among 853 shipyard workers. The cohort was drawn

  13. Clinical and non-clinical depressive symptoms and risk of long-term sickness absence among female employees in the Danish eldercare sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, PU; Andersen, Rikke Voss; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    , and occupational group. Limitations: Missing information on the cause of sickness absence and prevalent somatic illness. Conclusion: A clear dose–response relationship exists between increasing depressive symptoms and risk of LTSA. The adverse effect of non-clinical depressive symptoms on LTSA already manifests...

  14. Impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of neck and upper extremities on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. IJzelenberg (Wilhelmina); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To describe the presence of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities among industrial workers with low back pain, and to examine whether it has an impact on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain. METHODS: A self

  15. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Gabe; Hees, Hiske L.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Lagerveld, Suzanne E.; Schene, Aart H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians'

  16. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and

  17. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: A concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and

  18. Can the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale be used to screen for risk of long-term sickness absence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; van Hoffen, M. F. A.; Groothoff, J. W.; de Bruin, J.; Schaufeli, W. B.; van Rhenen, W.

    To investigate the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for their ability to identify non-sicklisted employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). One-year prospective cohort study including 4,921 employees participating

  19. Can the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale be used to screen for risk of long-term sickness absence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A M; van Hoffen, M. F A; Groothoff, J. W.; de Bruin, J.; Schaufeli, W. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563; van Rhenen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Survey (MBI—GS) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for their ability to identify non-sicklisted employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: One-year prospective cohort study including 4,921

  20. The contribution of the psychosocial work environment to sickness absence in human service workers : Results of a 3-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Christensen, Karl B.; Borritz, Marianne; Villadsen, Ebbe; Bultmann, Ute; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated to what extent psychosocial. work characteristics predict sickness absence in a cohort of 890 human service professionals (84% women), followed-up for 3 years. We measured 16 different psychosocial work characteristics at baseline and analysed their associations with number of

  1. Prolonged fatigue is associated with sickness absence in men but not in women : prospective study with 1-year follow-up of white-collar employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged fatigue adversely affects an individual's performance and functioning. The present study investigated the prospective associations between prolonged fatigue and sickness absence (SA) during 1-year follow-up. At baseline, a convenience sample of white-collar employees received the 20-item

  2. How do job characteristics, family situation, domestic work, and lifestyle factors relate to sickness absence? A study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Margaretha; Floderus, Birgitta; Diderichsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    of alcohol as sedative, anxiety of reorganization, not holding a supervisor position, adverse life events, and divorce were related with sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified different areas at work and outside work for women and men that could be targets for actions aiming at preventing high...

  3. The contribution of work engagement to self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rongen (Anne); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); W.B. Schaufeli (Wilmar); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Methods: Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using

  4. The effect of hospital mergers on long-term sickness absence among hospital employees: a fixed effects multivariate regression analysis using panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjekshus, Lars Erik; Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Dahl, Espen; Lorentzen, Thomas

    2014-02-03

    Hospitals are merging to become more cost-effective. Mergers are often complex and difficult processes with variable outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of mergers on long-term sickness absence among hospital employees. Long-term sickness absence was analyzed among hospital employees (N = 107 209) in 57 hospitals involved in 23 mergers in Norway between 2000 and 2009. Variation in long-term sickness absence was explained through a fixed effects multivariate regression analysis using panel data with years-since-merger as the independent variable. We found a significant but modest effect of mergers on long-term sickness absence in the year of the merger, and in years 2, 3 and 4; analyzed by gender there was a significant effect for women, also for these years, but only in year 4 for men. However, men are less represented among the hospital workforce; this could explain the lack of significance. Mergers has a significant effect on employee health that should be taken into consideration when deciding to merge hospitals. This study illustrates the importance of analyzing the effects of mergers over several years and the need for more detailed analyses of merger processes and of the changes that may occur as a result of such mergers.

  5. Work Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Wallette, Mårten

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether low levels of absence increase the probability of permanent employment and reduce that of unemployment for Swedish temporary workers. We investigate two reasons for absence: worker sickness and sickness of a dependent child. Using a competing risk estimation model......, we find that sick leave reduces the probability of permanent employment for women and increases the probability of unemployment for men. Absence due to child sickness increases the risk of unemployment for women. Although the influence of sick leave varies substantially among different temporary jobs...

  6. Occupational class differences in long sickness absence: a register-based study of 2.1 million Finnish women and men in 1996-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-07-20

    Sickness absence is consistently higher in lower occupational classes, but attempts to analyse changes over time in socioeconomic differences are scarce. We examined trends in medically certified sickness absence by occupational class in Finland from 1996 to 2013 and assessed the magnitude and changes in absolute and relative occupational class differences. Population-based, repeated cross-sectional study. A 70% random sample of Finns aged between 25 and 63 years in the years 1996-2013. The study focused on 25- to 63 year-old female (n between 572 246 and 690 925) and male (n between 525 698 and 644 425) upper and lower non-manual and manual workers. Disability and old age pensioners, students, the unemployed, entrepreneurs and farmers were excluded. The analyses covered 2 160 084 persons, that is, 77% of the random sample.For primary and secondary outcome measures, we examined yearly prevalence of over 10 working days long sickness absence by occupational class. The Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were used to assess the magnitude and changes in occupational class differences. Compared with mid-1990s, sickness absence prevalence was slightly lower in 2013 in all occupational classes except for female lower non-manual workers. Hierarchical occupational class differences in sickness absence were found. Absolute differences (SII) peaked in 2005 in both women (0.12, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.13) and men (0.15, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.15) but reached the previous level in women by 2009 and decreased modestly in men until 2013. Relative differences narrowed over time (p<0.001) but levelled off by 2013. Sickness absence prevalence is currently slightly lower in almost all occupational classes than in the mid-1990s, but occupational class differences have remained large. Ill health and poor working conditions especially in the lower occupational classes should be targeted in order to reduce sickness absence and to achieve longer

  7. Gender differences in the duration of non-work-related sickness absence episodes due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcas, M Marta; Delclos, George L; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Martínez, José Miguel; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-11-01

    There is wide evidence that women present longer duration of sickness absence (SA) than men. Musculoskeletal disorders are influenced by gender due to the sexual division of work. 354 432 episodes of non-work-related SA due to musculoskeletal disorders, which were registered in Catalonia between 2005 and 2008, were selected. The outcome variable was the duration of SA. Frailty survival models, stratified by sex and adjusted for explanatory variables (age, employment status, case management, economic activity and repeated episode), were fitted to study the association between each variable and the duration of SA, obtaining HRs. Women presented longer SA episodes than men in all variable categories. A trend from shorter to longer duration of SA with increasing age was observed in men, whereas in women, it had a fluctuating pattern. Analysing most frequent diagnostic subgroups from the sample, only 'non-specific lumbago' and 'sciatic lumbago' showed these age patterns. Frailty survival models applied to these 2 subgroups confirmed the described age patterns in SA duration. Women have longer non-work-related SA due to musculoskeletal disorders than men. However, while men have longer absences as their age increases, in women some older groups have shorter absences than younger ones. These findings could be explained by gender differences in the interaction between paid work and family demands. Our results highlight the need for continued research on SA from a gender perspective, in order to improve management of SA in terms of clinical practice and public policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Early identification of work-related stress predicted sickness absence in employed women with musculoskeletal or mental disorders: a prospective, longitudinal study in a primary health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Fjällström-Lundgren, Malin; Hensing, Gunnel

    2013-03-01

    The objectives were to identify work-related stress, and to analyse whether or not work-related stress served to predict sick-leave in a population of employed women who saw a doctor due to musculoskeletal or mental disorder at primary health care centres. This prospective study was based on data collected with the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ) at baseline 2008 and at follow-up 2009 in the primary health care centres in western Sweden. A total of 198 women participated. High perceived stress owing to indistinct organization and conflicts at baseline increased the risk for sick-leave 8 days or longer at follow-up. The adjusted relative risk (RR) was 2.50 (1.14-5.49). The combination of high stress perception owing to indistinct organization and high stress perception owing to individual demands and commitment increased the risk for sickness absence of 8 days or longer with an adjusted RR of 4.34 (1.72-10.99). Work-related stress predicted sick-leave during the follow-up at 12 months. The WSQ seemed to be useful in identifying women at risk of future sick-leave. Thus, it can be recommended to introduce questions and questionnaires on work-related stress in primary health care settings to early identify women with the need for preventive measures in order to decrease risk for sick-leave due to work-related stress.

  9. Socioeconomic differences in health check-ups and medically certified sickness absence: a 10-year follow-up among middle-aged municipal employees in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piha, Kustaa; Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-04-01

    There is contradictory evidence on the association between health check-ups and future morbidity. Among the general population, those with high socioeconomic position participate more often in health check-ups. The main aims of this study were to analyse if attendance to health check-ups are socioeconomically patterned and affect sickness absence over a 10-year follow-up. This register-based follow-up study included municipal employees of the City of Helsinki. 13 037 employees were invited to age-based health check-up during 2000-2002, with a 62% attendance rate. Education, occupational class and individual income were used to measure socioeconomic position. Medically certified sickness absence of 4 days or more was measured and controlled for at the baseline and used as an outcome over follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 7.5 years. Poisson regression was used. Men and employees with lower socioeconomic position participated more actively in health check-ups. Among women, non-attendance to health check-up predicted higher sickness absence during follow-up (relative risk =1.26, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.37) in the fully adjusted model. Health check-ups were not effective in reducing socioeconomic differences in sickness absence. Age-based health check-ups reduced subsequent sickness absence and should be promoted. Attendance to health check-ups should be as high as possible. Contextual factors need to be taken into account when applying the results in interventions in other settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Behavioral determinants as predictors of return to work after long-term sickness absence: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Krol, Boudien; Reneman, Michiel F; Bültmann, Ute; Franche, Renée-Louise; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this prospective, longitudinal cohort study was to analyze the association between the three behavioral determinants of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model--attitude, subjective norm and self-efficacy--and the time to return-to-work (RTW) in employees on long-term sick leave. The study was based on a sample of 926 employees on sickness absence (maximum duration of 12 weeks). The employees filled out a baseline questionnaire and were subsequently followed until the tenth month after listing sick. The TPB-determinants were measured at baseline. Work attitude was measured with a Dutch language version of the Work Involvement Scale. Subjective norm was measured with a self-structured scale reflecting a person's perception of social support and social pressure. Self-efficacy was measured with the three subscales of a standardised Dutch version of the general self-efficacy scale (ALCOS): willingness to expend effort in completing the behavior, persistence in the face of adversity, and willingness to initiate behavior. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify behavioral determinants of the time to RTW. Median time to RTW was 160 days. In the univariate analysis, all potential prognostic factors were significantly associated (P behavior as significant predictive factors. This prospective, longitudinal cohort-study showed that work attitude, social support and willingness to expend effort in completing the behavior are significantly associated with a shorter time to RTW in employees on long-term sickness absence. This provides suggestive evidence for the relevance of behavioral characteristics in the prediction of duration of sickness absence. It may be a promising approach to address the behavioral determinants in the development of interventions focusing on RTW in employees on long-term sick leave.

  11. Shift work and mental health sickness absence: a 10-year observational cohort study among male production workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norder, Giny; Roelen, Corné A M; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating mental-health-related sickness absence (SA) among shift workers are lacking. This 10-year observational study investigated the risk of mental health SA among shift compared with day workers. The data of 5826 male production workers were used for analyses: 4288 (74%) shift and 1538 (26%) day workers. The risk of mental health SA was analyzed with Cox regression analysis. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were adjusted for age and occupational grade. During a 10-year follow-up, 351 shift workers and 126 day workers had incident mental health SA. The risk of mental health SA did not differ (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.84-1.26) between shift and day workers. Among shift workers, the risk of SA due to mood disorders (HR 1.87, 95% CI 0.73-4.76) was non-significantly higher than among day workers. A total of 96 shift workers and 21 day workers had recurrent mental health SA. The risk of recurrent mental health SA did not differ (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.62-1.74) between shift and day workers. The risk of incident and recurrent mental health SA did not differ between shift and day workers.

  12. Comparison of self-reported and register data on sickness absence among Norwegian patients participating in an occupational rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Øyeflaten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sick leave and return to work are common outcome variables in studies where the aim is to measure the effect of targeted interventions for individuals that are on sick leave benefits or other allowances. Use of official register data is often restricted, and research on sick leave and return to work are often based on the participants self-reports. However, there is insufficient documentation that there is agreement between self-reports and register data on sick leave benefits and allowances.Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the individuals' knowledge about states of sick leave benefits or allowances compared with register data from The Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV in Norway.Method: 153 individuals, sick-listed or on allowances, participated in a 4-week inpatient occupational rehabilitation program. 132 (86% answered a questionnaire on assessments of work, sick leave, and allowances three months after completed rehabilitation. Self-reported data were compared with register data from NAV according to four categories: working, sick-listed, on medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance or disability pension. Agreement between self-reported and register data was evaluated in cross-tabulations and reported with kappa values. Stratified analyses were done for gender, age, education, medical diagnosis and length of sick leave/allowances at baseline.Results: Good agreement was found for medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance (kappa=.70 and disability pension (kappa=.65. Moderate agreement was found for working (kappa=.49 and fair agreement for sick-listed (kappa=.36. Stratified analyses showed significant better kappa values for individuals that had been sick-listed less than 12 months before entering the rehabilitation program.Conclusions: Agreements from good to fair were found between self-reported and official register data on sick leave. However, official register data is preferred in research because this will

  13. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prospective association of cumulative mechanical exposure during working life with health-related labor market outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study combines data from 5076 older workers (age 49-63 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures from a JEM for ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in one year), lifting-years (lifting loads weighing ≥20 kg >10 times each day in one year), kneeling-years (kneeling for one hour each day in one year) and vibration-years (whole-body vibration for one hour each day in one year). Cox-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results During the follow-up period, 970 persons (19.3%) had ≥1 episode of LTSA and 85 persons (1.7%) were granted a disability pension. Number of ton-, lifting- and kneeling-years showed an exposure-response association with increased risk of LTSA (Ppension (HR 1.75 95% CI 1.01-3.04). Conclusions Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life - such as lifting and kneeling work - increased the risk of LTSA. Importantly, being exposed to lifting increased the risk of disability pension.

  14. Cross-national validation of prognostic models predicting sickness absence and the added value of work environment variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Heymans, Martijn W; van Rhenen, Willem; Labriola, Merete; Nielsen, Claus V; Bültmann, Ute; Jensen, Chris

    2015-06-01

    To validate Dutch prognostic models including age, self-rated health and prior sickness absence (SA) for ability to predict high SA in Danish eldercare. The added value of work environment variables to the models' risk discrimination was also investigated. 2,562 municipal eldercare workers (95% women) participated in the Working in Eldercare Survey. Predictor variables were measured by questionnaire at baseline in 2005. Prognostic models were validated for predictions of high (≥30) SA days and high (≥3) SA episodes retrieved from employer records during 1-year follow-up. The accuracy of predictions was assessed by calibration graphs and the ability of the models to discriminate between high- and low-risk workers was investigated by ROC-analysis. The added value of work environment variables was measured with Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI). 1,930 workers had complete data for analysis. The models underestimated the risk of high SA in eldercare workers and the SA episodes model had to be re-calibrated to the Danish data. Discrimination was practically useful for the re-calibrated SA episodes model, but not the SA days model. Physical workload improved the SA days model (IDI = 0.40; 95% CI 0.19-0.60) and psychosocial work factors, particularly the quality of leadership (IDI = 0.70; 95% CI 053-0.86) improved the SA episodes model. The prognostic model predicting high SA days showed poor performance even after physical workload was added. The prognostic model predicting high SA episodes could be used to identify high-risk workers, especially when psychosocial work factors are added as predictor variables.

  15. Compensating for non-response in a study estimating the incidence of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence by a two-phased design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    , municipality, and social transfer income variables were used for the adjustment of weights in weighted analyses and in the imputation models. RESULTS: The frequencies were: any mental disorder 46%-49%, depression 31%-36%, anxiety 13%-15%, and somatoform disorder 8%-9%. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of whether......AIMS: The study compensates for the non-response that was observed in a previous study that estimated the frequencies of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) (more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence). In this study, the frequency of any mental disorder was estimated...... at 48% by a two-phase design and weighted logistic regression. The total non-response rate was 53.6%. This motivated the present study to compensate for non-response by applying adjustment of the weights and by multiple imputation of missing data in the estimation of the frequencies of mental disorders...

  16. Impact of improved recording of work-relatedness in primary care visits at occupational health services on sickness absences: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Ojajärvi, Ulla; Talola, Nina; Viljamaa, Mervi; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Uitti, Jukka

    2017-07-26

    Employment protects and fosters health. Occupational health services, particularly in Finland, have a central role in protecting employee health and preventing work ability problems. However, primary care within occupational health services is currently underused in informing preventive activities. This study was designed to assess whether the recording of work ability problems and improvement of follow-up of work-related primary care visits can reduce sickness absences and work disability pensions after 1 year. A pragmatic trial will be conducted using patient electronic registers and registers of the central pensions agency in Finland. Twenty-two occupational health centres will be randomised to intervention and control groups. Intervention units will receive training to improve recording of work ability illnesses in the primary care setting and improved follow-up procedures. The intervention impact will be assessed through examining rates of sickness absence across intervention and control clinics as well as before and after the intervention. The trial will develop knowledge of the intervention potential of primary care for preventing work disability pensions and sickness absence. The use of routine patient registers and pensions registers to assess the outcomes of a randomised controlled trial will bring forward trial methodology, particularly when using register-based data. If successful, the intervention will improve the quality of occupational health care primary care and contribute to reducing work disability. ISRCTN Registry reference number ISRCTN45728263 . Registered on 18 April 2016.

  17. Longitudinal relationship between depressive symptoms and work outcomes in clinically treated patients with long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, Hiske L; Koeter, Maarten W J; Schene, Aart H

    2013-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) negatively affects a wide range of work outcomes (absenteeism, work productivity, work limitations). However, the exact longitudinal relationship between depressive symptoms and work outcomes in MDD patients with long-term sickness absence is still unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the temporal and directional relationship between depressive symptoms and various work outcomes in these patients. Patients (n = 117) were diagnosed with MDD according to DSM-IV criteria, had a median duration of MDD-related sickness absence of 4.8 months (IQR = 2.6-10.1 months) at baseline, and were referred by occupational physicians. All patients received outpatient treatment for their MDD. Depressive symptoms and work outcomes were examined during baseline, and 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-ups. Within-subject changes in the severity of depressive symptoms were significantly related to within-subject changes in all work outcomes (all scales: p depressive symptoms predicted subsequent improvements in all work outcomes (all scales: p work limitations predicted a subsequent reduction in depressive symptoms. All work outcomes were assessed through self-report. Work limitations at the start of absenteeism were retrospectively assessed. Symptom reduction remains crucial for improving adverse work outcomes in MDD patients with long-term sickness absence. In addition, a treatment focus on qualitative functioning in the workplace may accelerate depression recovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of Amplitude and Stability of Circadian Rhythm, Sleep Quality, and Occupational Stress with Sickness Absence among a Gas Company Employees-A Cross Sectional Study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Rezvan; Choobineh, Alireza; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2017-09-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the relationship between sickness absence and occupational stress, sleep quality, and amplitude and stability of circadian rhythm as well as to determine contributing factors of sickness absence. This cross sectional study was conducted on 400 randomly selected employees of an Iranian gas company. The data were collected using Pittsburgh sleep quality index, Karolinska sleepiness scale, circadian type inventory, and Osipow occupational stress questionnaires. The mean age and job tenure of the participants were 33.18 ± 5.64 years and 6.06 ± 4.99 years, respectively. Also, the participants had been absent from work on average 2.16 days a year. According to the results, 209 participants had no absences, 129 participants had short-term absences, and 62 participants had long-term absences. The results showed a significant relationship between short-term absenteeism and amplitude of circadian rhythm [odds ratio (OR) = 6.13], sleep quality (OR = 14.46), sleepiness (OR = 2.08), role boundary (OR = 6.45), and responsibility (OR = 5.23). Long-term absenteeism was also significantly associated with amplitude of circadian rhythm (OR = 2.42), sleep quality (OR = 21.56), sleepiness (OR = 6.44), role overload (OR = 4.84), role boundary (OR = 4.27), and responsibility (OR = 3.72). The results revealed that poor sleep quality, amplitude of circadian rhythm, and occupational stress were the contributing factors for sickness absence in the study population.

  19. In Sickness and in Health: Perineuronal Nets and Synaptic Plasticity in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Pantazopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging evidence implicates perineuronal nets (PNNs and extracellular matrix (ECM molecules that compose or interact with PNNs, in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders. Studies on schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, mood disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, and epilepsy point to the involvement of ECM molecules such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, Reelin, and matrix metalloproteases, as well as their cell surface receptors. In many of these disorders, PNN abnormalities have also been reported. In the context of the “quadripartite” synapse concept, that is, the functional unit composed of the pre- and postsynaptic terminals, glial processes, and ECM, and of the role that PNNs and ECM molecules play in regulating synaptic functions and plasticity, these findings resonate with one of the most well-replicated aspects of the pathology of psychiatric disorders, that is, synaptic abnormalities. Here we review the evidence for PNN/ECM-related pathology in these disorders, with particular emphasis on schizophrenia, and discuss the hypothesis that such pathology may significantly contribute to synaptic dysfunction.

  20. Absence of relation between sick leave caused by musculoskeletal disorders and exposure to magnetic fields in an aluminum plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moen, B.E. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Div. of Occupational Medicine; Drabloes, P.A.; Pedersen, S.; Sjoeen, M. [Norsk Hydro Karmoey Fabrikker, Haavik (Norway); Thommesen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    1996-04-01

    This is a study of the relationship between occupational exposure to magnetic fields in pot rooms and occurrence of sick leave caused by musculoskeletal disorders. The average exposure to static magnetic fields was 8 mT in the pot rooms. Ripple fields were recorded as well. A cohort of 342 exposed workers and 222 unexposed workers from the same electrolysis plant was retrospectively followed for 5 years. The reference group has a type of work similar to the exposed group except for the expose to magnetic fields. The occurrence of sick leave and the diagnoses causing the sick leave were obtained from the Occupational Health Care Unit: these data were stored in their computer files. The data were complete. No relationship between the occurrence of sick leave caused by musculoskeletal disorders and exposure to magnetic fields was found. This was the case for both the annual number of periods of sick leave and the total number of days with sick leave. The results must be interpreted with caution due to limitations in the design and available data. Also, static magnetic fields constituted the major exposure, and the results may be different when related to work in other types of magnetic-field exposure.

  1. Psychiatric emergency room decision-making, social control and the 'undeserving sick'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alisa

    2006-01-01

    The influence of social factors on involuntary hospitalisation has been an important and controversial area of sociological focus for many years. Traditionally, social control theory has been used to understand disproportionate rates of involuntary hospitalisation among marginalised and powerless groups. However, dramatic changes in the social context of mental healthcare have necessitated a re-examination of the role of social factors in involuntary hospitalisation. In this study 287 psychiatric emergency room visits were examined in order to test hypotheses for understanding social influences on disposition. Little support for the traditional social control hypothesis was found. People from marginalised groups were not disproportionately involuntarily hospitalised, but instead were disproportionately treated and released from the hospital as people's social resources were used to access care rather than to prevent hospitalisation. This study highlights the importance of the historical relevance of our theoretical understanding of the relationship between social factors and involuntary commitment.

  2. Optimal cutoff values of WHO-HPQ presenteeism scores by ROC analysis for preventing mental sickness absence in Japanese prospective cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Suzuki

    Full Text Available Sickness absence due to mental disease in the workplace has become a global public health problem. Previous studies report that sickness presenteeism is associated with sickness absence. We aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores for presenteeism in the screening of the future absences due to mental disease.A prospective study of 2195 Japanese employees from all areas of Japan was conducted. Presenteeism and depression were measured by the validated Japanese version of the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (WHO-HPQ and K6 scale, respectively. Absence due to mental disease across a 2-year follow-up was surveyed using medical certificates obtained for work absence. Socioeconomic status was measured via a self-administered questionnaire. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cutoff scores for absolute and relative presenteeism in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity.The AUC values for absolute and relative presenteeism were 0.708 (95% CI, 0.618-0.797 and 0.646 (95% CI, 0.546-0.746, respectively. Optimal cutoff scores of absolute and relative presenteeism were 40 and 0.8, respectively. With multivariate adjustment, cohort participants with our proposal cutoff scores for absolute and relative presenteeism were significantly more likely to be absent due to mental disease (OR = 4.85, 95% CI: 2.20-10.73 and OR = 5.37, 95% CI: 2.42-11.93, respectively. The inclusion or exclusion of depressive symptoms (K6≥13 at baseline in the multivariate adjustment did not influence the results.Our proposed optimal cutoff scores of absolute and relative presenteeism are 40 and 0.8, respectively. Participants who scored worse than the cutoff scores for presenteeism were significantly more likely to be absent in future because of mental disease. Our findings suggest that the utility of presenteeism in the screening of sickness absence due to mental disease would

  3. Optimal cutoff values of WHO-HPQ presenteeism scores by ROC analysis for preventing mental sickness absence in Japanese prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Sasaki, Yasuharu; Song, Yixuan; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawakami, Norito; Shimazu, Akihito; Takahashi, Masaya; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence due to mental disease in the workplace has become a global public health problem. Previous studies report that sickness presenteeism is associated with sickness absence. We aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores for presenteeism in the screening of the future absences due to mental disease. A prospective study of 2195 Japanese employees from all areas of Japan was conducted. Presenteeism and depression were measured by the validated Japanese version of the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) and K6 scale, respectively. Absence due to mental disease across a 2-year follow-up was surveyed using medical certificates obtained for work absence. Socioeconomic status was measured via a self-administered questionnaire. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cutoff scores for absolute and relative presenteeism in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. The AUC values for absolute and relative presenteeism were 0.708 (95% CI, 0.618-0.797) and 0.646 (95% CI, 0.546-0.746), respectively. Optimal cutoff scores of absolute and relative presenteeism were 40 and 0.8, respectively. With multivariate adjustment, cohort participants with our proposal cutoff scores for absolute and relative presenteeism were significantly more likely to be absent due to mental disease (OR = 4.85, 95% CI: 2.20-10.73 and OR = 5.37, 95% CI: 2.42-11.93, respectively). The inclusion or exclusion of depressive symptoms (K6≥13) at baseline in the multivariate adjustment did not influence the results. Our proposed optimal cutoff scores of absolute and relative presenteeism are 40 and 0.8, respectively. Participants who scored worse than the cutoff scores for presenteeism were significantly more likely to be absent in future because of mental disease. Our findings suggest that the utility of presenteeism in the screening of sickness absence due to mental disease would help

  4. Job mismatching, unequal opportunities and long-term sickness absence in female white-collar workers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmark, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    To investigate associations between long-term sick-listing and factors at work and in family life. Associations were investigated in a cross-sectional case-referent study. The study base included women in white-collar jobs, aged 30-55 years, living in three urban areas in Sweden between February 2004 and October 2004. A postal questionnaire was constructed with questions on occupational and family circumstances, and sent to 513 randomly selected female white-collar workers, of whom 233 had ongoing sick-leave of 90 days or more. The response rate was 81% (n = 413). Most of the women in this study were in managerial positions. The unadjusted associations showed that sick-listed women with children showed the highest estimates regarding reported long working hours, bullying, high mental strain, low control and low influence at work, and work-family imbalance. In a regression model, the strongest associations were: experiencing too high mental strain in work tasks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.09-3.15) and low control and influence at work (OR=2.17, 95% CI= 1.60-2.94). Sick-listed women reported an overall higher dissatisfaction with their workplace and working life. There seems to be a greater tendency for the sick-listed women in this study to experience low control and too high mental strain at work and to live in traditional family relationships with unequal opportunities. The women who were sick-listed were probably less able to cope with work stress and to find a balance between work and family life.

  5. Early coordinated multidisciplinary intervention to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Annette; Langberg, Henning; Petersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders account for one third of the long-term absenteeism in Denmark and the number of individuals sick listed for more than four weeks is increasing. Compared to other diagnoses, patients with musculoskeletal diseases, including low back pain, are less likely to return to work...... after a period of sick leave. It seems that a multidisciplinary intervention, including cooperation between the health sector, the social sector and in the work place, has a positive effect on days off work due to musculoskeletal disorders and particularly low back pain. It is a challenge to coordinate...

  6. Do psychosocial work environment factors measured with scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire predict register-based sickness absence of 3 weeks or more in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse the predictive validity of 18 psychosocial work environment scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire version II (COPSOQ II) with regard to risk of sickness absence. METHODS: The study population consisted of 3188 wage earners (52% women) from a representative sample...... of Danish residents. Participants received the long version of the COPSOQ II in autumn and winter 2004-2005, including 18 psychosocial work environment scales from the domains ''Demands at work'', ''Work organization and job contents'', and ''Interpersonal relations and leadership''. The study endpoint......% CI 1.15-1.52). After applying adjustment for multiple testing, the effect of emotional demands and of role conflict remained statistically significant, but not the effect of cognitive demands. CONCLUSIONS: Selected psychosocial work environment factors from the COPSOQ predict register-based sickness...

  7. Reducing long term sickness absence by an activating intervention in adjustment disorders: a cluster randomised controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klink, J. J. L.; Blonk, R. W. B.; Schene, A. H.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To compare an innovative activating intervention with "care as usual" (control group) for the guidance of employees on sickness leave because of an adjustment disorder. It was hypothesised that the intervention would be more effective than care as usual in lowering the intensity of symptoms,

  8. Reducing long term sickness absence by an activating intervention in adjustment disorders : a cluster randomised controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, J.J.L. van der; Blonk, R.W.B.; Schene, A.H.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2003-01-01

    To compare an innovative activating intervention with "care as usual" (control group) for the guidance of employees on sickness leave because of an adjustment disorder. It was hypothesised that the intervention would be more effective than care as usual in lowering the intensity of symptoms,

  9. Long-term sickness absence due to back disorders in crane operators exposed to whole-body vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Hulshof, C. T.; KOEMEESTER, A. P.

    1988-01-01

    In a retrospective (10-year) follow-up study, the incidence of at least one spell of sickness absenteeism of 28 d or longer in crane operators exposed to whole-body vibration and a control group was investigated. In contrast to a previous study on permanent work disability in the same groups, no

  10. Early coordinated multidisciplinary intervention to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion in patients with low back pain: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Annette; Langberg, Henning; Petersen, Tom; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2013-03-13

    -statement in designing and reporting RCTs. This large RCT is testing the effectiveness of a preventive intervention targeting patients on short term sick leave or at risk being sick listed because of low back pain. We have developed a novel multidisciplinary team structure using the treating physiotherapist as the return to work coordinator, and having the case manager from the municipal sickness benefit office participating in team meetings. The study has the potential to contribute to the knowledge about how to target the challenges in the treatment of LBP. The aim is to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion--both on the individual level and economic costs at community level. Short term results will be available in 2014.This study is approved by the Danish Regional Ethics Committee (J.nr: H-C-2008-112) and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01690234.

  11. A multi-wave study of organizational justice at work and long-term sickness absence among employees with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mental health problems are strong predictors of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). In this study, we investigated whether organizational justice at work - fairness in resolving conflicts and distributing work - prevents risk of LTSA among employees with depressive symptoms. METHODS......: In a longitudinal study with five waves of data collection, we examined a cohort of 1034 employees with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms and organizational justice were assessed by self-administered questionnaires and information on LTSA was derived from a national register. Using Poisson regression...... with depressive symptoms. A protective effect of favorable changes in organizational justice was not found....

  12. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. Method Prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 5603 employees (the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study) interviewed in 2000, and fol......Objective To estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. Method Prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 5603 employees (the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study) interviewed in 2000...... consecutive weeks. Age, gender, body mass index, smoking and diagnosed disease were controlled for. Results In 2000 the prevalence among blue- and white-collar workers, respectively, of severe pain was 33% and 29% (neck/shoulder), 33% and 25% (low back), 16% and 11% (hand/wrists), and 16% and 12% (knees......). During 2001-2002, the prevalence of LTSA among blue- and white-collar workers was 18% and 12%, respectively. Hand/wrist pain (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.81) and low back pain (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53) were significant risk factors among the total cohort. Neck/shoulder pain was a significant risk...

  13. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe de Vries

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors. RESULTS: Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon, Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician. All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  14. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gabe; Hees, Hiske L; Koeter, Maarten W J; Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Schene, Aart H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors. Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health) problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon), Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work) and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician). All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment. In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  15. Sickness absence, social relations, and self-esteem: a qualitative study of the importance of relationships with family, workmates, and friends among persons initially long-term sickness absent due to back diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tommy; Müssener, Ulrika; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore and analyze accounts of social interactions and relationships with family, workmates, and friends supplied by persons with experience of sickness absence due to back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses. The focus was on experiences that seemed to involve positive and negative self-evaluative aspects, and therefore may be important to the self-conception and self-esteem of the absentee, and possibly to return to work. The interviewees were women and men between 25 to 34 years of age who had been sickness certified due to back, neck, or shoulder diagnosis. A descriptive and explorative method was used to analyze data from five focus-group interviews. The importance of being supported and encouraged by family members, and the importance of feeling needed at work as well as being part of a social context were aspects stressed by the respondents. Our results indicate that these interactions and relations are important to the absentees' self-esteem, and that this should be taken into account when discussing rehabilitation efforts.

  16. Severe MUPS in a sick-listed population: a cross-sectional study on prevalence, recognition, psychiatric co-morbidity and impairment

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    Koopmans Petra C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the prevalence of MUPS in sick-listed-employees and its associations with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment. Secondary objectives were to investigate the classification of the occupational health physicians (OHPs, their opinions about the causes as well as the attributions of the employee. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 489 sick-listed employees from 5 OHP group practices, MUPS, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, the Whitely Index (WI, the Four- Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. We used a cut off score of 15 on the PHQ for the categorisation of severe MUPS. The opinions of the OHPs were evaluated by means of a separate questionnaire with regard to the presence of employees physical symptoms, and the symptoms attributions, and the diagnoses of the OHPs. Results Severe MUPS had a prevalence of 15.1% in this population of sick-listed employees. These employees had 4-6 times more depressive and anxiety disorders, and were more impaired. Female gender and PHQ-9 scores were determinants of severe MUPS. Most of the time the OHPs diagnosed employees with severe MUPS as having a mental disorder. The employees attributed their physical symptoms in 66% to mental or to both mental and physical causes. Conclusion The prevalence of severe MUPS is higher in long-term sick-listed employees than in the non-sick- listed working population and at least equals the prevalence in the general practice population. Severe MUPS are associated with

  17. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug allergy - serum sickness; Allergic reaction - serum sickness; Allergy - serum sickness ... symptoms of serum sickness. Certain medicines (such as penicillin, cefaclor, and sulfa) can cause a similar reaction. ...

  18. Relationship between sickness presenteeism and awareness and presence or absence of systems for return to work among workers with mental health problems in Japan: an Internet-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doki, Shotaro; Sasahara, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Shun; Hirai, Yasuhito; Oi, Yuichi; Usami, Kazuya; Matsuzaki, Ichiyo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between sickness presenteeism and the degree of awareness of company regulations regarding financial compensation for absenteeism. An Internet-based survey of 258 full-time workers who had more than 28 days of sickness absence due to mental health problems was conducted. Workers were categorized as having either low or high sickness presenteeism, and awareness and presence or absence of systems for return to work and duration of financial compensation were compared between groups. The following factors were significantly related to high sickness presenteeism based on logistic regression analyses: working for a private company (odds ratio [OR]=2.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-5.99); recognition of a gradual resumption system (OR=3.89, 95% CI=1.02-14.81); and awareness regarding the duration of financial compensation (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.07). No relationship was found between mental sickness presenteeism and presence or absence of systems for return to work in our multivariate analysis; however, a relationship was apparent between sickness presenteeism and characteristics of the workers' companies. These results are expected to contribute to research involving human resources and occupational health.

  19. Effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing sickness absence and improving mental health in individuals at risk of having a mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Labriola, Merete

    2015-01-01

    received a questionnaire on psychological symptoms, mental health-related quality of life, and locus of control. RESULTS: During the first 6 months after inclusion, the two groups had almost the same RR of a full return to work (RR:0.97, 95% CI: 0.78;1.21), but during the first 3 months, the individuals......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychoeducation on return to work as an adjunct to standard case management in individuals on sick leave at risk of having a mental disorder. The participants could have different diagnoses but were all at risk of having a mental...... the control group. The intervention did not decrease the level of psychological symptoms or improve mental health-related quality of life; however, individuals in the intervention group improved their scores on internal locus of control at both 3 and 6 months. CONCLUSION: Offering psychoeducation...

  20. Socioeconomic differences in the association between sickness absence and mortality: The prospective DREAM study of Danish private sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Kivimäki, Mika; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2008-01-01

    . However, employees with 6+ weeks of absence compared to those with 1 week of absence had a substantial excess risk of death in all groups; adjusted hazard ratio 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.8-2.7) for women; 2.1 (1.8-2.4) for men; 3.7 (1.9-7.2) in white collar occupations; 3.3 (2.2-5.0) in intermediate...

  1. A multi-wave study of organizational justice at work and long-term sickness absence among employees with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mental health problems are strong predictors of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). In this study, we investigated whether organizational justice at work - fairness in resolving conflicts and distributing work - prevents risk of LTSA among employees with depressive symptoms. METHODS...... analyses, we calculated rate ratios (RR) for the prospective association of organizational justice and change in organizational justice with time to onset of LTSA. All analyses were sex stratified. RESULTS: Among men, intermediate levels of organizational justice were statistically significantly associated.......20-1.10). We found no such results for women. In both sexes, neither favorable nor adverse changes in organizational justice were statistically significantly associated with the risk of LTSA. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that organizational justice may have a protective effect on the risk of LTSA among men...

  2. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. Method Prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 5603 employees (the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study) interviewed in 2000...... consecutive weeks. Age, gender, body mass index, smoking and diagnosed disease were controlled for. Results In 2000 the prevalence among blue- and white-collar workers, respectively, of severe pain was 33% and 29% (neck/shoulder), 33% and 25% (low back), 16% and 11% (hand/wrists), and 16% and 12% (knees...... factor among white-collar workers only (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.85). Knee pain was not a significant risk factor. Conclusion While hand/wrist pain and low back pain are general risk factors for LTSA, neck/shoulder pain is a specific risk factor among white-collar workers. This study suggests...

  3. Physical workload and risk of long-term sickness absence in the general working population and among blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Fallentin, Nils; Thorsen, Sannie Vester

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: Several of the investigated types of physical workload were risk factors for LTSA when exceeding 25% of the work time. A higher number of combined physical workloads was associated with progressively increased risk. Our study underscores the importance of physical workload as risk factors......OBJECTIVE: To determine the prospective association between physical workload--in terms of specific physical exposures and the number of exposures--and long-term sickness absence (LTSA). METHODS: Using cox-regression analyses, we estimated the risk of register-based incident LTSA (at least 3...... consecutive weeks) from self-reported exposure to different physical workloads among 11,908 wage earners from the general working population (Danish Work Environment Cohort Study year 2000 and 2005). RESULTS: The incidence of LTSA was 8.9% during two-year follow-up. Spending 25% or more of the total work time...

  4. Psychosocial work environment predictors of short and long spells of registered sickness absence during a 2-year follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Christensen, Karl B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on short and long absence spells. METHODS: Questionnaire data on work environment exposures and registered absence data during 2-year follow up were analyzed with Poisson regression...... for 1919 employees from the private and public sector. RESULTS: Short spells (1-10 working days) were predicted by low supervisor support, low predictability, and low meaning at work among men and high skill discretion among women. Long spells (>10 days) were predicted by low decision authority, low...... supervisor support, and low predictability among men and high psychologic demands and low decision authority among women. The variables predictability and meaning at work were developed for this study. CONCLUSION: Specific psychosocial work environment factors have both common and different effects on short...

  5. Does transfer of work from a public sector organisation to a commercial enterprise without staff reductions increase risk of long-term sickness absence among the staff? A cohort study of laboratory and radiology employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinen, Lauri; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-08-01

    Privatisations of public sector organisations are not uncommon, and some studies suggest that such organisational changes may adversely affect employee health. In this study, we examined whether transfer of work from public sector hospital units to commercial enterprises, without major staff reductions, was associated with an increased risk of long-term sickness absence among employees. A cohort study of 962 employees from four public hospital laboratory and radiology units in three hospitals which were privatised during the follow-up and 1832 employees from similar units without such organisational changes. Records of new long-term sick leaves (>90 days) were obtained from national health registers and were linked to the data. Mean follow-up was 9.2 years. Age- and sex-adjusted HR for long-term sickness absence after privatisation was 0.83 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.00) among employees whose work unit underwent a change from a public organisation to a commercial enterprise compared with employees in unchanged work units. Further adjustments for occupation, socioeconomic status, type of job contract, size of residence and sick leaves before privatisation had little impact on the observed association. A sensitivity analysis with harmonised occupations across the two groups replicated the finding (multivariable adjusted HR 0.92 (0.70-1.20)). In this study, transfer of work from public organisation to commercial enterprise did not increase the risk of long-term sickness absence among employees.

  6. Medicina del trabajo y calidad del diagnóstico de los procesos causantes de incapacidad temporal Occupational health and quality of diagnosis in the sickness absence processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Álvarez Theurer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad del diagnóstico del parte de baja en los procesos de incapacidad temporal. Material y Método: Estudio observacional descriptivo, de una muestra aleatoria de 1200 pacientes en baja laboral de duración superior a 15 días, controlados por la Unidad Médica de Valoración de Incapacidades (UMVI de Córdoba, desde 1-01-2007 a 30-06-2008. Fuentes de datos: Partes de baja y alta de los trabajadores, recogidos en la UMVI, contando con el asesoramiento del Médico del Trabajo. Se valoró la calidad mediante la reproducibilidad, a través del índice kappa, y la validez del diagnóstico por grupos de la CIE-9-MC con los parámetros sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos. Resultados: La mayor concordancia se obtuvo para el grupo diagnóstico de trastornos mentales (kappa 0,86; error estándar 0,03. La sensibilidad más alta se produjo en los grupos diagnósticos V (82,9%, XII (78,6% y XIII (78,4%, y los valores predictivos positivos fueron superiores en los grupos V (94,6%, XIII (85% y II (85%. Conclusiones: La calidad del diagnóstico que consta en los partes de baja es aceptable. Una buena información a los médicos de Atención Primaria y una estrecha colaboración con el médico especialista en Medicina del trabajo permitirá mejorar la calidad de los diagnósticos.Objective: To evaluate the quality of the diagnosis in the sick leave certificate of the sickness absence processes. Material and Method: Descriptive observational study. A sample of 1200 patients of long term sick leave (>15 days, controlled by the Medical Unit of Valuation of Disabilities (MUVD, from 1-01-2007 at 30-06-2008. Data source: sickness leaves certificates, registered in the MUVD, having the advice of the occupational medicine specialist. The quality was determined using the reliability, through the kappa index; and the agreement of the diagnosis for groups of the CIE-9-MC with the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values

  7. Reducing sickness absence from work due to low back pain: how well do intervention strategies match modifiable risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Linton, Steven J; Pransky, Glenn

    2006-12-01

    To assess, from the review literature, the extent to which effective strategies for reducing work absence after acute low back pain (LBP) match empirical risk factors. From 17 recent review articles (2000-2005), disability risk factors and interventions were cross-tabulated to assess levels of relative concordance. Potentially modifiable risk factors included 23 variables describing 3 workplace and 3 personal domains. Effective interventions included 25 strategies that were personal (physical or behavioral), engineering, or administrative in nature. There was a strong risk factor concordance for workplace technical and organizational interventions, graded activity exposure, and cognitive restructuring of pain beliefs. There was less risk factor concordance for exercise, back education, and RTW coordination. Few interventions focused on relieving emotional distress or improving job dissatisfaction, two well-supported risk factors. Gaps between the epidemiological and intervention research of back disability prevention could be reduced by testing mediators of intervention effects or by stratifying outcomes according to pre-intervention risk factors.

  8. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.

  9. Interrelationships between education, occupational class and income as determinants of sickness absence among young employees in 2002-2007 and 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanen, Hilla; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahti, Jouni; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2015-04-08

    A low socioeconomic position (SEP) is consistently associated with ill health, sickness absence (SA) and permanent disability, but studies among young employees are lacking. We examined the interrelationships between education, occupational class and income as determinants of SA among 25-34-year-old employees. We also examined, whether the association between SEP and SA varied over time in 2002-2007 and 2008-2013. The analyses covered young, 25-34-year-old women and men employed by the City of Helsinki over the time periods 2002-2007 and 2008-2013. Four-level education and occupational class classifications were used, as well as income quartiles. The outcome measure was the number of annual SA days. Education had the strongest and most consistent independent association with SA among women and men in both periods under study. Occupational class had weaker independent and less consistent association with SA. Income had an independent association with SA, which strengthened over time among the men. The interrelationships between the SEP indicators and SA were partly explained by prior or mediated through subsequent SEP indicators. Socioeconomic differences followed only partially a gradient for occupational class and also for income among men. Preventive measures to reduce the risk of SA should be considered, especially among young employees with a basic or lower-secondary education.

  10. Associations between organizational injustice and work ability, self-reported disability days, and medical consultations: cross-sectional findings from employees with prior sickness absence payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Katja; Peters, Elke; Michel, Elliot; Radoschewski, Friedrich Michael; Bethge, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify associations between organizational injustice and work ability, disability days, and consultations with general practitioners. Cross-sectional data of persons previously receiving sickness absence benefits were used for analyses. Organizational injustice was assessed using a German version of the "organizational justice questionnaire". Dependent variables were the Work Ability Index, self-reported disability days, and consultations with general practitioners. Associations were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral health risks, neuroticism, effort-reward imbalance, and overcommitment. The analysis included 2983 employed persons (54.1% women, mean age: 47.9 years). High organizational injustice was associated with poor work ability (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.55-2.69). There were also slight associations with frequent self-reported disability days (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.68). The dependent variables were also associated with the effort-reward ratio and overcommitment. Organizational injustice is associated with work ability, self-reported disability days, and health-care utilization. Results support the notion of a complementary role of the models of organizational justice and effort-reward imbalance.

  11. Self-assessed mental health problems and work capacity as determinants of return to work: a prospective general population-based study of individuals with all-cause sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensing, Gunnel; Bertilsson, Monica; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Waern, Margda; Vaez, Marjan

    2013-10-14

    Mental health problems are common in the work force and influence work capacity and sickness absence. The aim was to examine self-assessed mental health problems and work capacity as determinants of time until return to work (RTW). Employed women and men (n=6140), aged 19-64 years, registered as sick with all-cause sickness absence between February 18 and April 15, 2008 received a self-administered questionnaire covering health and work situation (response rate 54%). Demographic data was collected from official registers. This follow-up study included 2502 individuals. Of these, 1082 were currently off sick when answering the questionnaire. Register data on total number of benefit compensated sick-leave days in the end of 2008 were used to determine the time until RTW. Self-reported persistent mental illness, the WHO (Ten) Mental Well-Being Index and self-assessed work capacity in relation to knowledge, mental, collaborative and physical demands at work were used as determinants. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of RTW. The likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) was higher among those with persistent mental illness OR= 2.97 (95% CI, 2.10-4.20) and those with low mental well-being OR= 2.89 (95% CI, 2.31-3.62) after adjusting for gender, age, SES, hours worked and sick leave 2007. An analysis of employees who were off sick when they answered the questionnaire, the likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) was higher among those who reported low capacity to work in relation to knowledge, mental, collaborative and physical demands at work. In a multivariable analysis, the likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) among those with low mental well-being remained significant OR=1.93 (95% CI 1.46-2.55) even after adjustment for all dimensions of capacity to work. Self-assessed persistent mental illness, low mental well-being and low work capacity increased the likelihood of prolonged RTW

  12. Exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence among office workers: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Jesper; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Burr, Hermann

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) for more than two consecutive weeks among office workers. LTSA was measured using register data that were linked to survey data from 2,883 office workers aged 18-59 who were surveyed in 2005 on exposure to disturbing noise. The risk of LTSA was investigated using Cox proportional hazards model. Of the study population, 4.4 % had LTSA in the 1-year follow-up period. Compared to office workers who were 'rarely or never' exposed to disturbing noise at work, office workers who reported being 'frequently' exposed to disturbing noise had a significantly increased estimated risk of LTSA when adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, and managerial position (HR = 1.90; 95 % CI, 1.12-3.22). After additional adjustment for psychosocial work conditions, the estimated risk of LTSA for office workers who were frequently exposed to disturbing noise became marginally insignificant (HR = 1.73; 95 % CI, 0.99-3.01). A subgroup analysis showed that women who reported being frequently exposed to disturbing noise had a significantly increased estimated risk of LTSA (HR = 1.94; 95 % CI, 1.04-3.64), whereas the corresponding risk for men was insignificant (HR = 1.28; 95 % CI, 0.37-4.41). This study indicates that frequent self-reported exposure to disturbing noise at work is associated with increased risk of LTSA among office workers and that this association may be stronger for women than for men.

  13. An Exploration of the Factors Considered When Forming Expectations for Returning to Work following Sickness Absence Due to a Musculoskeletal Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Young

    Full Text Available Workers' own expectations for returning to work following a period of sickness absence have been found to be one of the best predictors of future work status; however, there is a limited understanding of why people expect what they do. The current study was undertaken with the aim of determining what people take into consideration when forming their expectations for returning to work.Thirty-four people (8 women, 26 men, who were off work due to a musculoskeletal condition, participated in one of 14 focus groups. Participants were aged 25 to 65 (M = 45, SD = 12.6, and all had been out of work for 3 months or less.All participants reported expecting to return to work, with the most common timeframe being approximately 30 days (Range = 1 day-12 months. When explaining what they thought about when forming their expectations, participants referenced numerous considerations. Much of what was spoken about could be compartmentalized to reflect features of themselves, their condition, or their broader environmental contexts. Participant's subjective experience of these features influenced his or her expectations. Prominent themes included concerns about employability, a desire to get back to normal, no job to go back to, mixed emotions, re-injury concerns, the judgments of workplace stakeholders, being needed by their employer, waiting for input, until the money runs out, and working out what was in their best interest.Indications are that many of the reported considerations are amenable to intervention, suggesting opportunities to assist workers in the process of returning to work.

  14. Occurrence of sickness absence and disability pension in relation to childbirth: A 16-year follow-up study of 6323 Swedish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusyte, Jurgita; Björkenstam, Emma; Alexanderson, Kristina; Ropponen, Annina; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Svedberg, Pia

    2016-02-01

    Pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period may imply morbidity leading to work incapacity; however, this is seldom studied. This study aimed to compare twin sisters giving or not giving birth regarding occurrence of sickness absence (SA) and disability pension (DP). This population-based cohort study included all 6323 female twins born in Sweden 1959-1990, using register data for 1994-2010 about SA and DP. Average number of SA/DP days/year was calculated in relation to the year of the first delivery, or, if not giving birth, the year when the twin sister gave birth. Twin pairs discordant for delivery were used to investigate the importance of genetic and environmental factors for occurrence of SA and DP. In all, 52% had a first delivery during 1994-2010. Except for the year of delivery, the average number of SA days/year was similar when comparing women who gave birth to those who did not, while number of DP days was significantly higher in women who did not give birth. Differences between the groups seem attributable to genetic factors. Women who delivered once had higher levels of SA and DP than those who had several deliveries. DP with mental diagnoses was more common among women who had not delivered whereas DP with musculoskeletal diagnoses occurred more often among women who delivered. Levels of SA were similar among women who gave birth and who did not. Women not giving birth had significantly higher levels of DP, indicating health selections into childbirth. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. The longitudinal association between multiple job holding and long-term sickness absence among Danish employees: an explorative study using register-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwhuis, Stef; Garde, Anne Helene; Geuskens, Goedele A; Boot, Cécile R L; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-11-01

    Multiple job holding (MJH) is common in many countries, but little is known about its (health) consequences. Our aim is to explore the longitudinal association between MJH and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among Danish employees. We included employees (N = 8968) who participated in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS), based on a representative sample of the Danish working population. Three dichotomous independent variables were created: MJH in general, combination MJH (i.e. second job as employee) and hybrid MJH (i.e. self-employed in second job). LTSA (≥5 weeks) was measured using the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization during 78 weeks of follow-up. Potential confounders included demographics, health, and work characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study whether LTSA was associated with MJH in general, combination MJH, and hybrid MJH. Interaction effects for gender, age, total working hours per week (≤37 or >37 h a week), and shift work were tested. In total, 11.7% (N = 1048) of the respondents reported having multiple jobs and 7.6% (N = 678) experienced LTSA during follow-up. After adjustment for confounders, no significant association between LTSA and MJH in general (OR = 0.82), combination MJH (OR = 0.81), or hybrid MJH (OR = 0.83) was found. Among employees working more than 37 h per week, combination MJH was associated with a higher likelihood of LTSA (OR = 1.50). We did not find evidence for an increased likelihood of LTSA among multiple job holders. Future research should study the likelihood of LTSA among subgroups of multiple job holders, e.g. those working long hours.

  16. Can the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale be used to screen for risk of long-term sickness absence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, C A M; van Hoffen, M F A; Groothoff, J W; de Bruin, J; Schaufeli, W B; van Rhenen, W

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for their ability to identify non-sicklisted employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). One-year prospective cohort study including 4,921 employees participating in occupational health surveys in the period 2008-2010. The MBI-GS and UWES were part of the health survey questionnaire and LTSA in the year following the health survey was retrieved from an occupational health register. Associations of baseline MBI-GS and UWES scores with LTSA during 1-year follow-up were stratified by the cause (mental, musculoskeletal, and other somatic illness) of LTSA. Discrimination was assessed by the area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic curve and considered practically useful for AUC ≥0.75. During 1-year follow-up, 103 employees (2%) had LTSA due to mental (N = 43), musculoskeletal (N = 31), or other somatic (N = 29) illness. MBI-GS scores were positively and UWES scores negatively associated with mental LTSA, but not musculoskeletal or other somatic LTSA. Discrimination between employees at high and low risk of mental LTSA was moderate: AUC = 0.68 for the MBI-GS and AUC = 0.70 for the UWES. Discrimination did not improve when the MBI-GS and UWES were used simultaneously. The MBI-GS and UWES predicted future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted employees, but discrimination was not practically useful for identifying employees at high risk of LTSA. However, both instruments could be used to select employees for further assessment of mental LTSA risk.

  17. Pathogenesis of Borna Disease Virus: Granulocyte Fractions of Psychiatric Patients Harbor Infectious Virus in the Absence of Antiviral Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planz, Oliver; Rentzsch, Christine; Batra, Anil; Batra, Arvind; Winkler, Tanja; Büttner, Mathias; Rziha, Hanns-Joachim; Stitz, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) causes acute and persistent infections in various vertebrates. During recent years, BDV-specific serum antibodies, BDV antigen, and BDV-specific nucleic acid were found in humans suffering from psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected in human autopsy brain tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Whether BDV infection can be associated with psychiatric disorders is still a matter of debate; no direct evidence has ever been presented. In the present study we report on (i) the detection of BDV-specific nucleic acid in human granulocyte cell fraction from three different psychiatric patients and (ii) the isolation of infectious BDV from these cells obtained from a patient with multiple psychiatric disorders. In leukocyte preparations other than granulocytes, either no BDV RNA was detected or positive PCR results were obtained only if there was at least 20% contamination with granulocytes. Parts of the antigenome of the isolated virus were sequenced, demonstrating the close relationship to the prototype BDV strains (He/80 and strain V) as well as to other human virus sequences. Our data provide strong evidence that cells in the granulocyte fraction represent the major if not the sole cell type harboring BDV-specific nucleic acid in human blood and contain infectious virus. In contrast to most other reports of putative human isolates, where sequences are virtually identical to those of the established laboratory strains, this isolate shows divergence in the region previously defined as variable in BDV from naturally infected animals. PMID:10400715

  18. Effectiveness of an intervention to reduce sickness absence in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, E.P.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Terluin, B.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an activating intervention designed to reduce sick leave duration in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders. METHOD: In a 1.5-year randomized controlled trial, 194 patients with minor mental disorders

  19. Behavioral Determinants as Predictors of Return to Work After Long-Term Sickness Absence : An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Krol, Boudien; Reneman, Michiel F.; Bultmann, Ute; Franche, Renee-Louise; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Background The aim of this prospective, longitudinal cohort study was to analyze the association between the three behavioral determinants of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model-attitude, subjective norm and self-efficacy-and the time to return-to-work (RTW) in employees on long-term sick

  20. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  1. Effects of statewide health promotion in primary schools on children's sick days, visits to a physician and parental absence from work: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Lauer, Romy; Traub, Meike; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2016-12-12

    Based on the World Health Organization's global school health initiative we investigate intervention effects of statewide health promotion in schools on the numbers of children's sick days and visits to a physician, and parental days off work due to child illness. Cluster-randomized trial with 1-year follow-up in primary schools in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Anthropometric measurements of first and second grade school children were taken by trained staff. Parents filled in questionnaires for information about socio-demographics, health-related variables, numbers of children's sick days, visits to a physician, and days parents had to stay off work to care for a sick child. Longitudinal differences in the outcome variables were calculated between baseline and follow-up. Intraclass correlation coefficients were determined to quantify a possible clustering of data in schools. Accordingly, linear models and linear mixed models were applied to identify relationships and ascertain significances. Data from 1943 children (1(st) grade n = 1024, 6.6 ± 0.4 years old; 2(nd) grade n = 919, 7.6 ± 0.4 years old) were available at baseline. Unadjusted differences regarding both grades were found between mean longitudinal changes in intervention and control group in children's sick days (-3.2 ± 7.1 vs. -2.3 ± 5.6, p = 0.013), and maternal days off work (-0.9 ± 2.4 vs. -0.5 ± 2.8, p = 0.019). The intervention effect on sick days was adjusted in a linear regression for baseline values, gender and migration background and confirmed for first grade children (B = -0.83, p = 0.003). The intervention effect on maternal days off work lost its significance after adjusting for baseline values. No significant differences were detected in the numbers of children's visits to a physician and paternal days off work. School-based health promotion slightly reduces sick days in first grade children. Subsequently, parents may not

  2. Effects of statewide health promotion in primary schools on children’s sick days, visits to a physician and parental absence from work: a cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Kesztyüs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the World Health Organization’s global school health initiative we investigate intervention effects of statewide health promotion in schools on the numbers of children’s sick days and visits to a physician, and parental days off work due to child illness. Methods Cluster-randomized trial with 1-year follow-up in primary schools in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Anthropometric measurements of first and second grade school children were taken by trained staff. Parents filled in questionnaires for information about socio-demographics, health-related variables, numbers of children’s sick days, visits to a physician, and days parents had to stay off work to care for a sick child. Longitudinal differences in the outcome variables were calculated between baseline and follow-up. Intraclass correlation coefficients were determined to quantify a possible clustering of data in schools. Accordingly, linear models and linear mixed models were applied to identify relationships and ascertain significances. Results Data from 1943 children (1st grade n = 1024, 6.6 ± 0.4 years old; 2nd grade n = 919, 7.6 ± 0.4 years old were available at baseline. Unadjusted differences regarding both grades were found between mean longitudinal changes in intervention and control group in children’s sick days (−3.2 ± 7.1 vs. -2.3 ± 5.6, p = 0.013, and maternal days off work (−0.9 ± 2.4 vs. -0.5 ± 2.8, p = 0.019. The intervention effect on sick days was adjusted in a linear regression for baseline values, gender and migration background and confirmed for first grade children (B = −0.83, p = 0.003. The intervention effect on maternal days off work lost its significance after adjusting for baseline values. No significant differences were detected in the numbers of children’s visits to a physician and paternal days off work. Conclusions School-based health promotion

  3. Determinants for return to work among sickness certified patients in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Celsing Anna-Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sickness absence is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. Early identification of the condition is essential to facilitate return to work. The aim of this study was to analyse possible determinants of return to work and their relative impact. Methods All 943 subjects aged 18 to 63 years, sickness certified at a Primary Health Care Centre in Sweden from 1 January until 31 August 2004, were followed up for three years. Baseline information on sex, age, sick leave diagnosis, employment status, extent of sick leave, and sickness absence during the year before baseline was obtained, as was information on all compensated days of sick leave, disability pension and death during follow-up. Results Slightly more than half the subjects were women, mean age was 39 years. Half of the study population returned to work within 14 days after baseline, and after three years only 15 subjects were still on sick leave. In multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis the extent of previous sick leave, age, being on part-time sick leave, and having a psychiatric, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous disease, digestive system, or injury or poisoning diagnosis decreased the return to work rate, while being employed increased it. Marital status, sex, being born in Sweden, citizenship, and annual salary had no influence. In logistic regression analyses across follow-up time these variables altogether explained 88-90% of return to work variation. Conclusions Return to work was positively or negatively associated by a number of variables easily accessible in the GP’s office. Track record data in the form of previous sick leave was the most influential variable.

  4. Health in women on long-term sick leave because of pain or mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytsy, Per; Larsson, Kjerstin; Anderzén, Ingrid

    2015-03-01

    Mental illness and pain are common causes of long-term sick absence and major difficulties in vocational rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate health in a group of women with pain or mental illness who had exhausted their days of sickness benefit. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 355 women on long-term sick leave participating in controlled intervention studies aiming at returning to work. The study population filled in a written questionnaire with questions of self-rated health and sleep quality and validated indexes of mental health, satisfaction with life and general self-efficacy. Clinical psychiatric screening was performed on 230 individuals. The study population had a mean age of 48.8 years (SD 8.4), with an average time on sick leave of 7.8 years (SD 3.2). Self-rated health and sleep quality was poor compared with other populations. In all, 80.1% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis according to the psychiatric screening, and the average numbers of psychiatric diagnoses were 2.2 (SD 1.9). Foreign-born women showed significantly higher levels of mental illness, poorer self-rated health and sleep quality and lower self-efficacy and life satisfaction than native Swedish women. Women with long sick leave because of mental illness and/or pain have poor self-rated health and sleep quality, high prevalence of mental illness and low self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Psychiatric screening suggests more extensive mental illness than what was stated on the sick leave certificates. The health of foreign-born women seems to be worse than that of native Swedish women.

  5. Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motion sickness is a common problem in people traveling by car, train, airplanes, and especially boats. Anyone ... children, pregnant women, and people taking certain medicines. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy feeling ...

  6. Motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Kruit, H.

    2000-01-01

    The number of recently published papers on motion sickness may convey the impression that motion sickness is far from being understood. The current review focusses on a concept which tends to unify the different manifestations and theories of motion sickness. The paper highlights the relations

  7. Are self-report of disability pension and long-term sickness absence accurate? Comparisons of self-reported interview data with national register data in a Swedish twin cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported disability pension (DP and sickness absence are commonly used in epidemiological and other studies as a measure of exposure or even as an outcome. The aims were (1 to compare such self-reports with national register information in order to evaluate the validity of self-reported DP and sickness absence, and (2 to estimate the concordance of reporting behaviour in different twin zygosity groups, also by sex. Methods All Swedish twins born 1933-1958 who participated in the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin study (SALT 1998-2003, were included (31,122 individuals. The self-reported DP and long-term sickness absence (LTSA at the time of interview was compared to the corresponding register information retrieved from the National Social Insurance Agency by calculating the proportions of agreements, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, concordance rates, and chi-square test, to evaluate construct validity. Results The proportions of overall agreement were 96% and specificity 99% for both DP and LTSA, while the sensitivity was 70% for DP and 45% for LTSA. Kappa estimates were 0.76 for DP, and 0.58 for LTSA. The proportions of positive agreement were 64% for DP and 42% for LTSA. No difference in response style was found between zygosity groups among complete twin pairs for DP and LTSA. Results were similar for women and men and across age. Kappa estimates for DP differed somewhat depending on years of education, 0.68 (college/university vs. 0.77 (less than 13 years in school but not for LTSA. Conclusions Self-reported DP data may be very useful in studies when register information is not available, however, register data is preferred especially for LTSA. The same degree of twin similarity was found for truthful self-report of DP and LTSA in both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Thus, the response style was not influenced by genetic factors. One consequence of this would be that when estimating the relative importance of

  8. Effects of a randomized controlled intervention trial on return to work and health care utilization after long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, Anne-Mette H.; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the RCT study was to investigate if the effect of a multidisciplinary intervention on return to work (RTW) and health care utilization differed by participants’ self-reported health status at baseline, defined by a) level of somatic symptoms, b) health anxiety and c) self-r...... resulted in a reduced chance of RTW among participants with low health anxiety levels. Trial registration: ISRCTN43004323, and ISRCTN51445682......Background: The aim of the RCT study was to investigate if the effect of a multidisciplinary intervention on return to work (RTW) and health care utilization differed by participants’ self-reported health status at baseline, defined by a) level of somatic symptoms, b) health anxiety and c) self......) and odds ratio (OR) were used as measures of associations. Results were adjusted for gender, age, educational level, work ability and previous sick leave. Results: Among all responders we found no effect of the intervention on RTW. Among participants with low health anxiety, the one-year probability of RTW...

  9. Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make you sick (if you can). That includes cigarette smoke. If you are a smoker, don’t smoke before you travel.Talk to your doctor about alternative therapies, such as pressure bands. These bracelet-like ...

  10. Sickness abenteeism of pregnant employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Domitrica-Miloradović

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical supervisors of sickness absenteeism find frequent and long lasting sickness absences during pregnancy. They wanted to find reasons for these absences from work.Methods: Data about pregnant employees in Ljubljana region of the Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia was collected for the year 2004. They were selected by chosen general practitioner, chosen obstetrician, age and causal diagnoses for sickness absenteeism.Results: In the year 2004 there were 1504 pregnant employees sickness absent from work (the number of births in the same region was 5044. The average length was 122.47 days (30– 414. The number of sickness absent pregnant employees differed much regarding the chosen general practitioner and chosen obstetrician. The most frequent age for sickness absenteeism was 30 years (155, the largest average duration was in pregnant women aged 36 years (288.77 days. The most frequent reason for sickness absenteeism was imminent abortion. Conclusions: Legislation in the Republic Slovenia protects pregnant employees against risks on their working places. Chosen general practitioners and chosen obstetricians are not familiar with it. The diagnosis Z 34.9 (healthy pregnancy and combination with the described risk on the working place prove it. The relation between the risk factors and the consequent pathology of pregnancy should be evaluated with a special study. The opinions of the chosen obstetricians often lack clinical status. The diagnosis its elf and also the age of the pregnant employees are not enough for the decision about ability of the pregnant patients to work.

  11. Psychiatric legal investigation for sickness benefits due to disability at the Brazilian Federal Social Security Special Court in Florianópolis, capital city of the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Roberto; Damas, Fernando Balvedi

    2015-01-01

    To describe the profile of insured individuals that filed claims for sickness benefits and compare the results of the administrative and legal investigations. This case series included 114 insured persons that filed lawsuits against the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security (Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social, INSS). They underwent psychiatric examinations required by the Brazilian Federal Social Security Special Court in Florianópolis from August to December 2010. Mean age was 47 years, and participant age ranged from 24 to 64 years. Most insured individuals were women (79%), and most were employed (67.5%) and self-employed (26.5%) workers. Mean contribution time was 99.9 months, ranging from 8 to 352 months. Mean benefit duration was 20.4 months, ranging from 2 to 97 months. The most prevalent category of workers was service workers, store and supermarket salespeople (54.4%), followed by administrative workers (19.3%). Only 17 participants were found to be unable to work after benefit cessation, a 14.9% mismatch between administrative and legal investigations. The most frequent diagnoses were mood disorders (59.6%) and anxiety disorders (17.5%).

  12. Prevalence of sickness presenteeism and associated reasons in patients with hand eczema in the Netherlands: A cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, Jart; Flach, P.A.; Bültmann, U.; Schuttelaar, M.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the most prevalent occupational diseases. Possible occupational consequences of this disease include sickness absence and sickness presenteeism (attending work despite being ill). Sickness presenteeism can cause increased health problems and might be associated with

  13. Work-Home Interference, Perceived Total Workload, and the Risk of Future Sickness Absence Due to Stress-Related Mental Diagnoses Among Women and Men: a Prospective Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Pia; Mather, Lisa; Bergström, Gunnar; Lindfors, Petra; Blom, Victoria

    2018-02-01

    Work-home interference has been proposed as an important explanation for sickness absence (SA). Previous studies show mixed results, have not accounted for familial factors (genetics and shared everyday environment), or investigated diagnosis specific SA. The aim was to study whether work-home interference and perceived total workload predict SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses, or SA due to other mental diagnoses, among women and men, when adjusting for various confounders and familial factors. This study included 11,916 twins, 19-47 years (49% women). Data on work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts, perceived total workload, and relevant confounders were derived from a 2005 survey, and national register data on SA spells until 2013 were obtained. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Discordant twin pair design was applied to adjust for familial factors. Each one unit increase in work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts, and perceived total workload was associated with higher odds for SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses and to SA due to other mental diagnoses among women, when adjusting for sociodemographic factors (ORs 1.15-1.31). Including health or familial factors, no associations remained. For men, each one unit increase in work-to-home conflicts was associated with higher odds for SA due to stress-related diagnoses (ORs 1.23-1.35), independently of confounders. Work-to-home conflict was independently associated with future SA due to stress-related diagnoses among men only. Health- and work-related factors seem to be important confounders when researching work-home interference, perceived total workload, and SA. Not including such confounders involves risking drawing incorrect conclusions. Further studies are needed to confirm sex differences and whether genetic factors are important for the associations studied.

  14. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  15. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    . METHODS: The study was based on 1,952 female and 2,229 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by sickness incidence one year before and one year after the introduction of the qualifying day (sick-leave events/person days at risk). Information about explanatory factors was collected......AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life...... by a postal questionnaire in 1994. RESULTS: A decrease in sickness incidence was observed after the introduction of the qualifying day as well as an increase in the mean duration of sick-leave events. The proportion of long-term sick-leave events (15-365 days) increased; among men this increase was also found...

  16. The role of qualitative research in adding value to a randomised controlled trial: lessons from a pilot study of a guided e-learning intervention for managers to improve employee wellbeing and reduce sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jill; Berney, Lee; Stansfeld, Stephen; Lanz, Doris; Kerry, Sally; Chandola, Tarani; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2016-08-09

    Despite the growing popularity of mixed-methods studies and considerable emphasis on the potential value of qualitative research to the trial endeavour, there remains a dearth of published studies reporting on actual contribution. This paper presents a critically reflective account of our experience of the actual value of undertaking qualitative research alongside a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a guided e-learning intervention for managers in an NHS Mental Health Trust to improve employee wellbeing and reduce sickness absence. For the qualitative study we undertook 36 in-depth interviews with key informants, managers and employees. We observed and took in-depth field notes of 10 meetings involving managers and employees at the Trust, and the two qualitative researchers acted as participant observers at steering committee and monthly research team meetings. We adopted a narrative methodological orientation alongside a thematic approach to data analysis, eliciting a rich account of the complexities of managing stress at work. We identified two key overarching roles played by the qualitative research: 'problematising' and 'contextualising'. Specifically, the qualitative data revealed and challenged assumptions embedded in the trial about the nature of the learning process, and exposed the slippery and contested nature of abstracted variables, on which a trial depends. The qualitative data challenged the trial's logic model, and provided a rich understanding of the context within which the trial and intervention took place. While acknowledging the ever-present tension in mixed-methods research between the requirements of quantitative research to represent the social world as abstracted variables, and the goal of qualitative research to explore and document the complexity of social phenomena, we adopted a pragmatic position that enabled us to engage with this tension in a productive and partially integrative way. Our critically reflective account of the

  17. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient Health Information ... other respiratory infections If you are subject to motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting ...

  18. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder : a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, Anna; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW) process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES) in cases of sick-listed employees with a

  19. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain : a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, Anna; Geertzen, Jan H.; de Boer, Wout E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW) process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES) in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low

  20. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  1. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Jensen, Chris; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Fleten, Nils; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2012-08-15

    -related sick leave should be excluded in studies planning to use DREAM data on sickness benefit. Self-reported sick leave became more imprecise when number of absence days increased, but the sensitivity and specificity were acceptable for lengths not exceeding one week.

  2. Time to recurrence of mental health-related absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norder, G; Hoedeman, R; de Bruin, J; van Rhenen, W; Roelen, C A M

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental health-related absences from work. To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic categories. A 10-year observational study of workers employed at a steel mill. Sickness absence data were retrieved from an occupational health register. Mental health-related absences were defined as absence due to emotional disturbance or mental and behavioural disorders. The first mental health-related absence since baseline was called the index episode. Recurrences were defined as mental health-related absences occurring >28 days after recovery from the index episode. The frequency of recurrent mental health-related absence was assessed by the recurrence density (RD) per 1000 person-years. The time to recurrent mental health-related absence was investigated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Of 15461 workers, 391 had recurrent mental health-related absences. RD was 30.5, 34.3, 29.9 and 37.7 per 1000 person-years after index episodes due to emotional disturbance, mood disorders, neurotic disorders and other psychiatric disorders, respectively. RDs did not differ across ICD-10 diagnostic categories. The median time to recurrent mental health-related absence was 15.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6-17.7] and was shortest for mood disorders (5.2, 95% CI 1.4-8.9 months) and specific psychiatric disorders (5.3, 95% CI 1.0-13.1 months). Based on this observational study, we suggest that occupational and primary health care providers consider reviewing the mental health status of workers 6 months after recovery from mental health-related absence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low back pain (CLBP. Methods Using focus groups consisting of Labor Experts (LE's working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute, arguments and underlying grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES were investigated. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Two focus groups yielded 19 factors, of which 12 are categorized in the ICF model under activities (e.g. functional capacity and in the personal (e.g. age, tenure and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship. The remaining 7 factors are categorized under intervention, job accommodation and measures. Conclusions This focus group study shows that 19 factors may be relevant to RTW-ES in sick-listed employees with CLBP. Providing these results to professionals assessing RTW-ES might contribute to a more transparent and systematic approach. Considering the importance of the quality of the RTW process, optimizing the RTW-ES assessment is essential.

  4. Absentismo laboral por causa médica en trabajadores del área operativa de una compañía de extracción de minerales en Colombia, 2011 Sickness absence in workers from an operating area of a mining company in Colombia, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa María Vásquez Trespalacios

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El sector minero es uno de los más dinámicos de la economía en Colombia, sin embargo, poco se conoce acerca del ausentismo laboral que enfrenta. Objetivo: Describir la magnitud del ausentismo laboral por causa médica en el área operativa de una empresa minera Colombiana, durante el año 2011. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal, en el que se analizaron 130 ausencias por causa médica. Los episodios se categorizaron según grupos diagnósticos de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades versión 10 (CIE-10 y se calcularon indicadores de ausentismo. Resultados y discusión: 66.9% de las ausencias se debió a enfermedad general y el 33.3% a accidentes de trabajo. El promedio de ausencia es de 4.28 +/-5.64 días por trabajador. Las enfermedades musculoesqueléticas y los traumatismos y envenenamientos tuvieron los mayores días de ausencia, similar a lo reportado por otros investigadores. Los accidentes de trabajo generaron 315 días de ausencia. 19 ausentistas repetitivos aportaron en total 100 días perdidos. La edad promedio de los ausentistas repetitivos es de 28.6 años+/-6.7. Los ausentistas crónicos generaron una pérdida de 258 días por cada 100 trabajadores programados.Introduction: The mining sector is one of the most dynamic in Colombian economy, however, little is known about absenteeism. Aim: To describe the extent of sickness absence in an operating area of a mining company in Colombia, in 2011. Material and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study, which analyzed 130 sickness absences. The episodes were categorized according to diagnostic groups of the International Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10 and calculated rates of absenteeism. Results and discussion: 66.9% of absences were due to general illness and 33.3% of accidents at work. The average absence is 4.28 +/-5.64 days per worker. Most of absence days were generated by musculoskeletal diseases and injuries and

  5. Prediction of future labour market outcome in a cohort of long-term sick-listed Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    -term sick leave. METHODS: We obtained individual characteristics and follow-up data from the Danish Register of Sickness Absence Compensation Benefits and Social Transfer Payments (RSS) during 2004 to 2010 for 189,279 Danes who experienced a period of long-term sickness absence (4+ weeks). In a learning...

  6. "A powerful intervention: general practitioners'; use of sickness certification in depression"

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, S.; Maxwell, M; Wilson, P; Smith, M; Whittaker, W; Sutton, M.; Morrison, J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression is frequently cited as the reason for sickness absence, and it is estimated that sickness certificates are issued in one third of consultations for depression. Previous research has considered GP views of sickness certification but not specifically in relation to depression. This study aimed to explore GPs views of sickness certification in relation to depression. Methods A purposive sample of GP practices across Scotland was selected to reflect variations in le...

  7. Faster return to work after psychiatric consultation for sicklisted employees with common mental disorders compared to care as usual. A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis

    2010-07-01

    consultation for employees on sick leave in the OH setting improves time to RTW in patients with common mental disorders as compared to CAU. In further research, focus should be on early intervention in patients with common mental disorders on short sick leave duration. Psychiatric consultation might be particularly promising for improvement of RTW in those patients.Trial registration number: ISRCTN: 86722376Keywords: psychiatric consultation, mental disorders, RCT, sickness absence, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, somatoform disorder

  8. Documentation Requirements, Intrinsic Motivation, and Worker Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social...... and higher sickness absence. The association is statistically significant, but very small in substantive terms. The result is nevertheless consistent with the expectation in motivation crowding theory and contributes to the literature by including a new, reliable behavioral variable—sickness absence....../healthcare assistants perceive documentation requirements. We analyze how this perception relates to intrinsic motivation measured in a survey and sickness absence as reported in administrative registers, and find that individuals who perceive documentation requirements as controlling have lower intrinsic motivation...

  9. The sick building syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi Sumedha

    1985-01-01

    The sick building syndrome comprises of various nonspecific symptoms that occur in the occupants of a building. This feeling of ill health increases sickness absenteeism and causes a decrease in productivity of the workers. As this syndrome is increasingly becoming a major occupational hazard, the cause, management and prevention of this condition have been discussed in this article.

  10. The sick building syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sumedha M

    2008-08-01

    The sick building syndrome comprises of various nonspecific symptoms that occur in the occupants of a building. This feeling of ill health increases sickness absenteeism and causes a decrease in productivity of the workers. As this syndrome is increasingly becoming a major occupational hazard, the cause, management and prevention of this condition have been discussed in this article.

  11. Presenteeism among sick workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on absenteeism. However, ‘presenteeism’ is also an issue, i.e. staying at work even when feeling sick. Analyses have shown that, the greater the work pressure, the higher the percentage of people who keep working when feeling sick.

  12. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity .

  13. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jyoti; Das, R C; Srivastava, K; Patra, P; Khan, S A; Shashikumar, R

    2014-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity.

  14. Among Absences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando el género epistolar, una carta a mi madre, reflexiono sobre mi nueva vida e identidad como emigrante en Australia explorando mis percepciones sobre la diferencia cultural y lingüística. Lejos de mis hijas y nietos en México, en esta carta, tardíamente escrita, relato mis recuerdos, nostalgias y vivencias en el nuevo ambiente, y sobre todo, hablo de mis dificultades para manejar emocionalmente mi miedo a la ausencia en los momentos importantes del ciclo de vida, la enfermedad y la muerte. Using the epistolary genre, a letter to my mother, I reflect on my life and identity as an emigrant in Australia by exploring my perceptions of cultural and linguistic difference. Far from my children and grandchildren in Mexico, in this belatedly written letter I recall my memories, nostalgic feelings and expereinces in the new environment, and above all, I speak of my difficulties in mangaing emotionally my fears of being absent in the important moments of the cycle of life, sickness and death.

  15. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of sick leave and self-reported reasons given for sick leave during pregnancy. Furthermore, we aimed to estimate the frequency of long-term sick leave during pregnancy in relation to pre-baseline maternal characteristics and to identify predictors...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  16. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  17. How physicians have learned to handle sickness-certification cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Anna; Silén, Charlotte; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2011-05-01

    Sickness absence is a common ''prescription'' in health care in many Western countries. Despite the significance of sick-listing for the life situation of patients, physicians have limited training in how to handle sickness-certification cases and the research about sickness-certification practices is scarce. Gain knowledge on physicians' learning regarding management of sickness certification of patients in formal, informal, and non-formal learning situations, respectively, and possible changes in this from 2004 to 2008. Data from two comprehensive questionnaires to physicians in Sweden about their sickness-certification practice in 2004 (n = 7665) and 2008 (n = 36,898); response rates: 71% and 61%, respectively. Answers from all the physicians ≤64 years old and who had sickness certification tasks (n = 4019 and n = 14,210) were analysed. ratings of importance of different types of learning situations for their sickness-certification competence. Few physicians stated that formal learning situations had contributed to a large or fairly large extent to their competence in sickness certification, e.g. undergraduate studies had done that for 17%, internship for 37%, and resident training for 46%, respectively. Contacts with colleagues had been helpful for 65%. One-third was helped by training arranged by social insurance offices. There was a significant increase between 2004 and 2008 in all items related to formal and non-formal learning situations, while there were no changes regarding informal learning situations. This study of all physicians in Sweden shows that physicians primarily attain competence in sickness certification in their daily clinical practice; through contacts with colleagues and patients.

  18. Impact of social innovation on organisational performance and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.; Vaas, F.

    2010-01-01

    Social innovation is an organisational capability, defined as a strategic renewal in organising & organisational behaviour. This capability may consist of four resources: strategic orientation, product-market improvement, flexible work & organising smarter. Social innovation is theoretically rooted

  19. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... provide that a Federal employee who is the spouse, son, daughter, parent, or next of kin of a covered... grandparents and grandchildren, same-sex and opposite domestic partners, step parents, step children, foster... agencies must maintain strict privacy controls in handling medical certification for H1N1 influenza or any...

  20. Narrative Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2008-01-01

    examples of successful refugee resettlement and national self-assertion. Within the master narrative of Partition migration history, however, the experiences of forced movement and resettlement suffered by the ‘Untouchables' are obscured. Popular accounts of violence, forced movement and suffering...... are largely built around the narratives produced by upper caste and upper middle-class migrants and exclude the experiences of Untouchable migrants. This narrative absence becomes a gauge of both the discursive and physical exclusion of ‘Untouchable' refugees from the legitimate community of Partition...... migrants. Such a meta-version of Partition history constitutes the realm of the normal outside which ‘Untouchable' narratives exist as an aberration in the theme of modern citizen-making in post-colonial India. In this article, I examine these ‘aberrations' to provide an alternate reading that helps us...

  1. Sickness certification difficulties in Ireland--a GP focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M; Thorley, K; Von Hout, M-C

    2013-07-01

    Sickness certification causes problems for general practitioners (GPs). Difficulty with the assessment of capacity to work, conflict with patients and other non-medical factors have been shown to influence GPs' decision-making. Inadequate leadership and management of certification issues add to GPs' difficulties. To explore problems associated with sickness certification, as part of a larger mixed method research project exploring GPs' experiences and perceptions of sickness certification in Ireland. A qualitative study in an urban region of Ireland. A focus group of four male and four female GPs explored problems encountered by GPs in certifying sickness absence. Thematic data analysis was used. Three major themes emerged: perception of the sickness certification system, organization of health care and cultural factors in sickness absence behaviour. Employment structures in public and private sectors and lack of communication with other health care providers and employers were identified as complicating sickness certification. GPs encounter a complexity of issues in sick certification and are dissatisfied with their role in certifying sickness absence. Our results open the debate for policy change and development in Ireland.

  2. Relations between respiratory symptoms and sickness among workers in the animal feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, W K; Burdorf, A; Bruggeling, T G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The survey aimed at studying the associations between prevalent respiratory symptoms in an occupational population and sickness absence due to respiratory disorders. METHODS--A cross sectional survey among male workers in an animal feed mill was conducted. A total of 303 production workers and 102 office clerks completed a questionnaire on respiratory complaints, smoking habits, and occupational history. The questionnaire was used to identify workers with respiratory symptoms in the past 12 months. During this period all spells of sickness absence were recorded. Causes of sickness were classified in broad categories encompassing respiratory symptoms, influenza, musculoskeletal disorders, and others. RESULTS--Logistic regression analysis showed that workers with respiratory complaints experienced a higher sickness absence than those without respiratory complaints. Adjusted for age and smoking the odds ratio (OR) for sickness prevalence was 1.9 among office clerks and 2.6 among blue collar workers. Smoking increased the risk on sickness absence with ORs of 2.4 and 1.6, respectively. When restricting the analysis to sickness due to respiratory complaints, subjects with respiratory complaints had significantly higher risks for absence prevalence and absence rate than those without respiratory complaints. There were no differences in sickness absence between workers with asthma like complaints and those with chronic bronchitis like complaints. CONCLUSION--The clear associations between respiratory complaints and prevalence and rate of respiratory sickness absence indicate that workers with respiratory complaints are at risk of temporary disability and, thus, may experience a reduced ability to cope with routine activities at work. PMID:8044241

  3. Employees Sick-Listed with Mental Disorders : Who Returns to Work and When?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P. C.; van Rhenen, W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Bultmann, U.

    Purpose To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10

  4. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  5. Prescriptions for Sick Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing insulation in schools as an energy-saving measure has given rise to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), which afflicts roughly one-third of the nation's schools. This article examines asbestos, radon, electromagnetic radiation, and chemical pollutants and describes steps to make schools environmentally safe for students. School officials…

  6. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more...

  7. Social inequalities in "sickness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...... by education within different welfare contexts. This research has used either a limited number of countries or quantitative welfare state measures in studies of many countries. In this study, the authors expand on this knowledge by investigating whether a regime approach to the welfare state produces......-employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude...

  8. The consequences of sickness presenteeism on health and wellbeing over time: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K.; Collins, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    , and to date there has been no review of the empirical evidence. The aim of this systematic review was to present a summary of the sickness presenteeism evidence so far in relation to health and wellbeing over time. Methods: Eight databases were searched for longitudinal studies that investigated...... the consequences of workplace sickness presenteeism, had a baseline and at least one follow-up point, and included at least one specific measure of sickness presenteeism. Of the 453 papers identified, 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Findings: We adopted a thematic approach...... to the analysis because of the heterogeneous nature of the sickness presenteeism research. The majority of studies found that sickness presenteeism at baseline is a risk factor for future sickness absence and decreased self-rated health. However, our findings highlight that a consensus has not yet been reached...

  9. Sick building syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y. Aditama; Sita L. Andarini

    2002-01-01

    Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane...

  10. Sickness presenteeism determines job satisfaction via affective-motivational states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanika-Murray, Maria; Pontes, Halley M; Griffiths, Mark D; Biron, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Research on the consequences of sickness presenteeism, or the phenomenon of attending work whilst ill, has focused predominantly on identifying its economic, health, and absenteeism outcomes, in the process neglecting important attitudinal-motivational outcomes. A mediation model of sickness presenteeism as a determinant of job satisfaction via affective-motivational states (specifically engagement with work and addiction to work) is proposed. This model adds to the current literature, by focussing on (i) job satisfaction as an outcome of presenteeism, and (ii) the psychological processes associated with this. It posits sickness presenteeism as psychological absence and work engagement and work addiction as motivational states that originate in that. An online survey on sickness presenteeism, work engagement, work addiction, and job satisfaction was completed by 158 office workers. The results of bootstrapped mediation analysis with observable variables supported the model. Sickness presenteeism was negatively associated with job satisfaction. This relationship was fully mediated by both engagement with work and addiction to work, explaining a total of 48.07% of the variance in job satisfaction. Despite the small sample, the data provide preliminary support for the model. Given that there is currently no available research on the attitudinal consequences of sickness presenteeism, these findings offer promise for advancing theorising in this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 20 CFR 218.28 - Sick pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sick pay. 218.28 Section 218.28 Employees... Beginning Date § 218.28 Sick pay. (a) From railroad employer. If the employee is carried on the payroll while sick, the annuity can begin no earlier than the day after the last day of sick pay. However, sick...

  12. Early multidisciplinary assessment was associated with longer periods of sick leave: A randomized controlled trial in a primary health care centre

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Lars; Englund, Lars; Hallqvist, Johan; Wallman, Thorne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study the effects on sick leave from an early multidisciplinary assessment at a primary health care centre. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Patients who saw GPs at a primary health care centre in mid-Sweden and asked for a sickness certificate for psychiatric or musculoskeletal diagnoses were invited to participate. Patients included were sick-listed for less than four weeks; 33 patients were randomized either to an assessment within a week by a physiotherapi...

  13. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  14. Psychiatric Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-01-01

    into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can...... then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691...

  15. Depression- and anxiety-related sick leave and the risk of permanent disability and mortality in the working population in Germany: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedegaertner, Felix; Arnhold-Kerri, Sonja; Sittaro, Nicola-Alexander; Bleich, Stefan; Geyer, Siegfried; Lee, William E

    2013-02-17

    Anxiety and depression are the most common psychiatric disorders and are the cause of a large and increasing amount of sick-leave in most developed countries. They are also implicated as an increasing mortality risk in community surveys. In this study we addressed, whether sick leave due to anxiety, depression or comorbid anxiety and depression was associated with increased risk of retirement due to permanent disability and increased mortality in a cohort of German workers. 128,001 German workers with statutory health insurance were followed for a mean of 6.4 years. We examined the associations between 1) depression/anxiety-related sick leave managed on an outpatient basis and 2) anxiety/depression-related psychiatric inpatient treatment, and later permanent disability/mortality using Cox proportional hazard regression models (stratified by sex and disorder) adjusted for age, education and job code classification. Outpatient-managed depression/anxiety-related sick leave was significantly associated with higher permanent disability (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)) 1.48 (1.30, 1.69) for depression, 1.25 (1.07, 1.45) for anxiety, 1.91 (1.56, 2.35) for both). Among outpatients, comorbidly ill men (2.59 (1.97,3.41)) were more likely to retire early than women (1.42 (1.04,1.93)). Retirement rates were higher for depressive and comorbidly ill patients who needed inpatient treatment (depression 3.13 (2,51, 3,92), both 3.54 (2.80, 4.48)). Inpatient-treated depression was also associated with elevated mortality (2.50 (1.80, 3.48)). Anxiety (0.53 (0.38, 0.73)) and female outpatients with depression (0.61 (0.38, 0.97)) had reduced mortality compared to controls. Depression/anxiety diagnoses increase the risk of early retirement; comorbidity and severity further increase that risk, depression more strikingly than anxiety. Sickness-absence diagnoses of anxiety/depression identified a population at high risk of retiring early due to ill health, suggesting a target group

  16. Dust and the Sick Building Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul; Wohlfahrt Nielsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome......Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome...

  17. Sickness and love: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Vandamme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to

  18. GP consultations for common mental disorders and subsequent sickness certification: register-based study of the employed population in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesdal, Sturla; Holmaas, Tor Helge; Monstad, Karin; Hetlevik, Øystein

    2016-12-01

    Challenges related to work are in focus when employed people with common mental disorders (CMDs) consult their GPs. Many become sickness certified and remain on sick leave over time. To investigate the frequency of new CMD episodes among employed patients in Norwegian general practice and subsequent sickness certification. Using a national claims register, employed persons with a new episode of CMD were included. Sickness certification, sick leave over 16 days and length of absences were identified. Patient- and GP-related predictors for the different outcomes were assessed by means of logistic regression. During 1 year 2.6% of employed men and 4.2% of employed women consulted their GP with a new episode of CMD. Forty-five percent were sickness certified, and 24 percent were absent over 16 days. Thirty-eight percent had depression and 19% acute stress reaction, which carried the highest risk for initial sickness certification, 75%, though not for prolonged absence. Men and older patients had lower risk for sickness certification, but higher risk for long-term absence. Better knowledge of factors at the workplace detrimental to mental health, and better treatment for depression and stress reactions might contribute to timely return of sickness absentees. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Reincentivizing – a new theory of work and work absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulesius Hans O

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work capacity correlates weakly to disease concepts, which in turn are insufficient to explain sick leave behavior. With data mainly from Sweden, a welfare state with high sickness absence rates, our aim was to develop an explanatory theory of how to understand and deal with work absence and sick leave. Methods We used classic grounded theory for analyzing data from >130 interviews with people working or on sick leave, physicians, social security officers, and literature. Several hundreds of typed and handwritten memos were the basis for writing up the theory. Results In this paper we present a theory of work incentives and how to deal with work absence. We suggest that work disability can be seen as hurt work drivers or people caught in mode traps. Work drivers are specified as work capacities + work incentives, monetary and non-monetary. Also, people can get trapped in certain modes of behavior through changed capacities or incentives, or by inertia. Different modes have different drivers and these can trap the individual from reincentivizing, ie from going back to work or go on working. Hurt drivers and mode traps are recognized by driver assessments done on several different levels. Mode driver calculations are done by the worker. Then follows employer, physician, and social insurance officer assessments. Also, driver assessments are done on the macro level by legislators and other stakeholders. Reincentivizing is done by different repair strategies for hurt work drivers such as body repair, self repair, work-place repair, rehumanizing, controlling sick leave insurance, and strengthening monetary work incentives. Combinations of these driver repair strategies also do release people from mode traps. Conclusion Reincentivizing is about recognizing hurt work drivers and mode traps followed by repairing and releasing the same drivers and traps. Reincentivizing aims at explaining what is going on when work absence is dealt

  20. Motion sickness in ancient China: Seasickness and cart-sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Bauer, Matthias; Benson, Judy; Huppert, Doreen

    2016-07-19

    To find and analyze descriptions of motion sickness in Chinese historical sources. Databases and dictionaries were searched for various terms for seasickness and travel sickness, which were then entered into databases of full texts allowing selection of relevant passages from about the third to the 19th century ad. Already in 300 ad the Chinese differentiated cart-sickness, particularly experienced by persons from the arid north of China, from a ship-illness experienced by persons from the south, where rivers were important for transportation and travel. In the Middle Ages, a third form of motion sickness was called litter-influence experienced by persons transported in a bed suspended between 2 long poles. The ancient Chinese recognized the particular susceptibility of children to motion sickness. Therapeutic recommendations include drinking the urine of young boys, swallowing white sand-syrup, collecting water drops from a bamboo stick, or hiding some earth from the middle of the kitchen hearth under the hair. The Chinese medical classics distinguished several forms of travel sickness, all of which had their own written characters. The pathophysiologic mechanism was explained by the medicine of correspondences, which was based on malfunctions within the body, its invasion by external pathogens like wind, or the deficit or surfeit of certain bodily substances such as the life force Qi. The concept of motion as the trigger of sickness initially appeared in a chapter on warding off the influence of demons and corpses, e.g., ancient magic and beliefs. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Going ill to work--what personal circumstances, attitudes and work-related factors are associated with sickness presenteeism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. D.; Andersen, JH

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a broad range of possible factors relating to work, personal circumstances and attitudes towards sickness absence on a person's decision to go to work despite feeling ill, a phenomenon that has been termed sickness presence (SP), or 'presenteeism...

  2. "I Am Tired from All of These Feelings": Narrating Suffering in the Film "Sick"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božic-Vrbancic, Senka; Kokanovic, Renata; Kupsjak, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    This article explores "the politics of sentimentality" with specific reference to the documentary film "Sick," which represents the narrative of a young lesbian woman, Ana, who was confined in a psychiatric hospital in Croatia and "treated" for her homosexuality. We consider the ways our most intimate emotional…

  3. Equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H

    2014-09-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Bacteriotherapy of acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, V.M.; Strel' nikov, V.A.; Ikonnikova, T.B.; Kissina, E.V.; Lyannaya, A.M.; Goncharova, G.I.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1979-04-01

    Acute sickness is associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; there is a radical decrease in number of microorganisms of lactic fermentation (bifidobacterium, lactobacillus) and an increase in E. coli proteus, enterococcus, and clostridium. Extensive use is made of live microorganisms in the treatment of various diseases associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; in the case of acute radiation sickness, yeast, colibacterin, and E. coli have been used. In a number of cases, such therapy increased survival and life expectancy of irradiated animals. In this study, microorganisms of lactic fermentation (lactobacillus, bifidobacterium) and colibacterin were used for treatment of acute radiation sickness.

  5. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women ? a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in f...

  6. Early multidisciplinary assessment was associated with longer periods of sick leave: a randomized controlled trial in a primary health care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Lars; Englund, Lars; Hallqvist, Johan; Wallman, Thorne

    2013-09-01

    To study the effects on sick leave from an early multidisciplinary assessment at a primary health care centre. Randomized controlled trial. Patients who saw GPs at a primary health care centre in mid-Sweden and asked for a sickness certificate for psychiatric or musculoskeletal diagnoses were invited to participate. Patients included were sick-listed for less than four weeks; 33 patients were randomized either to an assessment within a week by a physiotherapist, a psychotherapist, and an occupational therapist or to "standard care". The therapists used methods and tools they normally use in their clinical work. Proportion of patients still sick-listed three months after randomization, total and net days on sick leave, and proportion who were on part-time sick leave. Results. At follow-up after three months, in contrast to the pre-trial hypothesis, there was a trend toward a higher proportion of patients still sick-listed in the intervention group (7/18) as compared with the control group (3/15). The intervention group also had significantly longer sick-listing periods (mean 58 days) than the control group (mean 36 days) (p = 0.038). The proportion of patients who were part time sick-listed was significantly higher in the intervention group (10/18) than in the control group (2/15) (p = 0.027). In this study an early multidisciplinary assessment was associated with longer periods on sick leave and more individuals on part-time sick leave.

  7. Attending work or not when sick - what makes the decision? A qualitative study among car mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morken, Tone; Haukenes, Inger; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2012-09-21

    High prevalence of sickness absence in countries with generous welfare schemes has generated debates on mechanisms that may influence workers' decisions about calling in sick for work. Little is known about the themes at stake during the decision-making process for reaching the choice of absence or attendance when feeling ill. The aim of the study was to examine decisions of absence versus attendance among car mechanics when feeling ill. Interviews with 263 male car mechanics from 19 companies were used for the study, analysed by systematic text condensation and presented as descriptions and quotations of experiences and opinions. Three major themes were at stake during the decision-making process: 1) Experienced degree of illness, focusing on the present health condition and indicators of whether you are fit for work or not; 2) daily life habits, where attending work was a daily routine, often learned from childhood; 3) the importance of the job, with focus on the importance of work, colleagues, customers and work environment. The car mechanics expressed a strong will to attend work in spite of illness. Knowledge about attitudes and dilemmas in reaching the decision regarding sickness absence or sickness attendance is useful in the prevention of sickness absence.

  8. The consequences of sickness presenteeism on health and wellbeing over time: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Kristian; Collins, Alison M

    2016-07-01

    The association between sickness presenteeism, defined as going to work despite illness, and different health outcomes is increasingly being recognized as a significant and relevant area of research. However, the long term effects on future employee health are less well understood, and to date there has been no review of the empirical evidence. The aim of this systematic review was to present a summary of the sickness presenteeism evidence so far in relation to health and wellbeing over time. Eight databases were searched for longitudinal studies that investigated the consequences of workplace sickness presenteeism, had a baseline and at least one follow-up point, and included at least one specific measure of sickness presenteeism. Of the 453 papers identified, 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. We adopted a thematic approach to the analysis because of the heterogeneous nature of the sickness presenteeism research. The majority of studies found that sickness presenteeism at baseline is a risk factor for future sickness absence and decreased self-rated health. However, our findings highlight that a consensus has not yet been reached in terms of physical and mental health. This is because the longitudinal studies included in this review adopt a wide variety of approaches including the definition of sickness presenteeism, recall periods, measures used and different statistical approaches which is problematic if this research area is to advance. Future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Return to work after early part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Kausto, Johanna; Shiri, Rahman; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Karppinen, Jaro; Miranda, Helena; Luukkonen, Ritva; Martimo, Kari-Pekka

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early part-time sick leave on return to work (RTW) and sickness absence among patients with musculoskeletal disorders. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in six occupational health units of medium- and large-size enterprises. Patients aged 18-60 years with musculoskeletal disorders (N=63) unable to perform their regular work were randomly allocated to part- or full-time sick leave. In the former group, workload was reduced by restricting work time by about a half. Remaining work tasks were modified when necessary, as specified in a "fit note" from the physician. The main outcomes were time to return to regular work activities and sickness absence during 12-month follow-up. Time to RTW sustained for ≥4 weeks was shorter in the intervention group (median 12 versus 20 days, P=0.10). Hazard ratio of RTW adjusted for age was 1.60 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.98-2.63] and 1.76 (95% CI 1.21-2.56) after further adjustment for pain interference with sleep and previous sickness absence at baseline. Total sickness absence during the 12-month follow-up was about 20% lower in the intervention than the control group. Compliance with the intervention was high with no discontinuations of part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal reasons. Early part-time sick leave may provide a faster and more sustainable return to regular duties than full-time sick leave among patients with musculoskeletal disorders. This is the first study to show that work participation can be safely increased with early part-time sick leave.

  10. Sick-building syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolwijk, J A

    1991-01-01

    The sick-building syndrome (SBS) is defined as the occurrence of an excessive number of subjective complaints by the occupants of a building. These complaints include headache, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, lethargy, inability to concentrate, objectionable odors, and less frequently, nausea, dizziness, chest tightness, etc. These complaints will always be reported by a fraction of the occupants of any building if a questionnaire is administered that asks the respondent to recall any subjective symptoms they remember having had in the last 2 weeks or or over some period of time. It is often considered that SBS symptom reports have a minimum prevalence of about 15 to 20% for a 2-week recall period. SBS symptoms reported by 30% or more of occupants are indicative of conditions in the building environment that warrant attention. It is not often that a clear, single cause is responsible for the excess symptom reports. The following factors, often in combinations, are seen to contribute to SBS: outdoor air supply that is inadequate, ventilation distribution or effectiveness that is inadequate, the presence of temporary or long-term sources of contaminants such as tobacco smoke, adhesives, composite materials such as chipboard, and the growth of microorganisms in the HVAC equipment or in carpets or other furnishings. Depending on which causes contribute, the condition may be intermittent or even temporary. Psychosocial factors such as labor-management relations and satisfaction or dissatisfaction with other factors in the work environment can have a profound influence on the level of response of the occupants to their environment. Although hard data are difficult to collect, it is likely that productivity in the office environment is sensitive to conditions causing SBS. PMID:1821387

  11. [Sick building syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram

    2008-07-01

    Over the past 50 years, a new man-made ecosystem has developed--the controlled indoor environment within the sealed exterior shells of modern non-industrial buildings. Emitted toxic volatile compounds from building materials, furnishings, and equipment, and inappropriate ventilation (resulting from the need to reduce expenses) contribute to reduce indoor air quality (IAQ), which has considerable potential to affect public health. Consequently, health problems related to this ecosystem have emerged. "Building-related illnesses" (BRI) refers to a group of illnesses with a fairly homogeneous clinical picture, objective abnormalities on clinical or laboratory evaluation, and one or more identifiable sources or agents known to cause infectious, immunologic, or allergic diseases. The term "sick building syndrome" (SBS) is used to refer to a heterogeneous group of work-related symptoms--including irritation of the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and throat, headache, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating. These are considered illnesses because of the occurrence of symptoms, even though affected workers do not have objective clinical or laboratory abnormalities and causative agents cannot be found. The clinical symptoms of SBS, although not life-threatening are disruptive: they reduce productivity and increase absenteeism from work. Noteworthy, the association of symptoms with psychosocial factors does not mean that "the problem is all in the workers' heads". The results of psychological testing of symptomatic and asymptomatic office workers are similar. To improve IAQ and reduce symptoms of SBS adequate ventilation and fresh air, which will reduce volatile compounds, maintaining thermal comfort (with humidity not exceeding 60%), and adequate lighting should be ensured.

  12. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winde Lee D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6% responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5% responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The

  13. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6%) responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5%) responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The study confirms that many GPs

  14. How primary health care physicians make sick listing decisions: The impact of medical factors and functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svärdsudd Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to issue sickness certification in Sweden for a patient should be based on the physician's assessment of the reduction of the patient's work capacity due to a disease or injury, not on psychosocial factors, in spite of the fact that they are known as risk factors for sickness absence. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of medical factors and functioning on sick listing probability. Methods Four hundred and seventy-four patient-physician consultations, where sick listing could be an option, in general practice in Örebro county, central Sweden, were documented using physician and patient questionnaires. Information sought was the physicians' assessments of causes and consequences of the patients' complaints, potential to recover, diagnoses and prescriptions on sick leave, and the patients' view of their family and work situation and functioning as well as data on the patients' former and present health situation. The outcome measure was whether or not a sickness certificate was issued. Multivariate analyses were performed. Results Complaints entirely or mainly somatic as assessed by the physician decreased the risk of sick listing, and complaints resulting in severe limitation of occupational work capacity, as assessed by the patient as well as the physician, increased the risk of sick listing, as did appointments for locomotor complaints. The results for patients with infectious diseases or musculoskeletal diseases were partly similar to those for all diseases. Conclusion The strongest predictors for sickness certification were patient's and GP's assessment of reduced work capacity, with a striking concordance between physician and patient on this assessment. When patient's complaints were judged to be non-somatic the risk of sickness certification was enhanced.

  15. Technological Advances in Psychiatric Nursing: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and treating mental illness has improved in many ways as a result of the fast pace of technological advances. The technologies that have the greatest potential impact are those that (1) increase the knowledge of how the brain functions and changes based on interventions, (2) have the potential to personalize interventions based on understanding genetic factors of drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics, and (3) use information technology to provide treatment in the absence of an adequate mental health workforce. Technologies are explored for psychiatric nurses to consider. Psychiatric nurses are encouraged to consider the experiences of psychiatric patients, including poor health, stigmatization, and suffering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day Care Teacher Sickeness Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette; Andersson, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child...... time periods, 2002–2003 and 2005–2006, by using generalized method of moments with lagged levels of the child-to-teacher ratio as instrument. Our estimation results are somewhat mixed. Generally, the results indicate that the child-to-teacher ratio is positively related to short-term sickness absence...

  17. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  18. Faster return to work after psychiatric consultation for sicklisted employees with common mental disorders compared to care as usual. A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Hoedeman, Rob; de Jong, Fransina J.; Meeuwissen, Jolanda A. C.; Drewes, Hanneke W.; van der Laan, Niels C.; Ader, Herman J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Return to work (RTW) of employees on sick leave for common mental disorders may require a multidisciplinary approach. This article aims to assess time to RTW after a psychiatric consultation providing treatment advice to the occupational physician (OP) for employees on sick leave for

  19. [Knowledge about previous psychiatric care: is it a guaranty for therapeutic investment or a curse in psychiatric emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, M; Hoyois, P

    1990-04-01

    A sample of 755 psychiatric emergencies taken in charge in the emergency service of the St-Luc Hospital, Brussels, was divided into two groups: patients without psychiatric background (498) and patients having received previous psychiatric care (238). A background of psychiatric follow-up strongly influence the taking on and therapeutic decisions to be made by psychiatrists: its absence protects the patient and is seen as the guaranty of a good investment from the therapist while the existence of previous psychiatric treatment rather leads to hospital in lieu of crisis intervention, even when the crisis mechanisms are not significantly different in both samples.

  20. "Here we're all in the same boat" - a qualitative study of group based rehabilitation for sick-listed citizens with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Kohberg, Maria; Herborg, Lene Gram

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain impacts upon everyday life. A degree of chronicity may pose an increased risk of sickness absence. One of two rehabilitative interventions, "Tailored Physical Activity" or "Chronic Pain Self-Management Program", was offered to sick-listed citizens who experienced pain. The ob...

  1. Predictors of repeated sick leave in the workplace because of mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado M

    2014-01-01

    at RTW and the number of previous sick-leave episodes were significant variables. Conclusion: Age and the number of previous sick-leave episodes appeared to be predictors of repeated sick leave. Therefore, effective intervention to prevent repeated sick leave for those with high risk is quite crucial. Analyses including various work-related factors with subjects from multiple companies should be conducted in future studies. Keywords: sickness absence, occupational mental health, relapse/recurrence

  2. Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day-Care Teacher Sickness Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elvira; Gørtz, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day-care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child-to-teache......The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day-care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child......-to-teacher ratio, i.e. the number of children per teacher in an institution, affects teacher sickness absenteeism. We control for individual teacher characteristics, workplace characteristics, and family background characteristics of the children in the day-care institutions. Our estimation results indicate...

  3. Child-to-teacher ratio and day care teacher sickness absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gørtz, Mette; Andersson, Elvira

    2014-12-01

    The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child-to-teacher ratio, that is, the number of children per teacher in an institution, affects teacher sickness absenteeism. We control for individual teacher characteristics, workplace characteristics, and family background characteristics of the children in the day care institutions. We perform estimations for two time periods, 2002-2003 and 2005-2006, by using generalized method of moments with lagged levels of the child-to-teacher ratio as instrument. Our estimation results are somewhat mixed. Generally, the results indicate that the child-to-teacher ratio is positively related to short-term sickness absence for nursery care teachers, but not for preschool teachers. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Munchausen syndrome mimicking psychiatric disease with concomitant genuine physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jaime; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Xavier, Miguel; Gusmão, Ricardo

    2010-11-29

    Munchausen syndrome is a disorder in which patients intentionally produce symptoms mimicking physical or psychiatric illnesses with the aim to assume the sick role and to gain medical attention. Once a patient receives a Munchausen syndrome diagnosis every complaint made thence tends to be regarded with scepticism by clinical staff. However, it is possible that a bona fide illness, which might be disregarded, may coexist in these patients. We report a case of MS mimicking psychiatric disease with concomitant genuine acute physical illness. Despite the initial doubts about the veracity of the latter, due to its prompt recognition, treatment was successful.

  5. The language of absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Hayuta

    2008-06-01

    This paper will focus on the concept of 'absence', which describes a continuum of non-responsiveness and misattunement of the environment in the stage of absolute dependence; it refers to concepts like lack, failure, non-recognition, impingement, neglect, tantalizing, ranging to mental, physical and sexual abuse. An extreme external absence causes shock and fear. The automatic survival response is an inner absence, an intrapsychic absence, a dissociation of parts of the self. The external and the inner absence are the negative image of each other. The concept of absence points to the synchronicity of outer and inner reality and portrays the non-responded-to needs of the self. This point of view of the development of psychopathology of the self on the basis of massive dissociation is inherently an intersubjective-field-theory. As the inner absence is created as a reaction to an absence of the other, in analysis - the analyst has an active role in reviving it. This paper will explore the language of absence, that is, the derivatives and consequences of these situations in the inner realm, and in the relations with the analyst. It is the author's contention that understanding and speaking this language has important clinical and technical implications. Understanding the language of absence enables the analyst to recognize its intersubjective and its intrapsychic presence, to provide an environment that allows for its revival, and to facilitate and regulate the annihilation anxiety that awakens when dissociated self-states are experienced. When the absence is present, i.e. when the traumatic experience and the dissociated reactions to it are experienced in an attuned relationship, it is rendered with meaning, symbolization, and validation, and enables the survival mode of dissociation to be relinquished.

  6. Attending work or not when sick – what makes the decision? A qualitative study among car mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morken Tone

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of sickness absence in countries with generous welfare schemes has generated debates on mechanisms that may influence workers’ decisions about calling in sick for work. Little is known about the themes at stake during the decision-making process for reaching the choice of absence or attendance when feeling ill. The aim of the study was to examine decisions of absence versus attendance among car mechanics when feeling ill. Methods Interviews with 263 male car mechanics from 19 companies were used for the study, analysed by systematic text condensation and presented as descriptions and quotations of experiences and opinions. Results Three major themes were at stake during the decision-making process: 1 Experienced degree of illness, focusing on the present health condition and indicators of whether you are fit for work or not; 2 daily life habits, where attending work was a daily routine, often learned from childhood; 3 the importance of the job, with focus on the importance of work, colleagues, customers and work environment. Conclusions The car mechanics expressed a strong will to attend work in spite of illness. Knowledge about attitudes and dilemmas in reaching the decision regarding sickness absence or sickness attendance is useful in the prevention of sickness absence.

  7. Psychosocial work environment and registered absence from work: estimating the etiologic fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is growing that an adverse psychosocial work environment increases sickness absence, but little is known on the magnitude of this problem or the impact of specific factors. METHODS: Psychological demands, decision authority, skill discretion, social support from colleagues...... or supervisor, predictability, and meaning of work were assessed with questionnaires at baseline and sickness absence was followed-up in employers' registers for 1,919 respondents (response rate 75.2%, 68% women, mainly low-skilled jobs) from 52 Danish workplaces during a 2-year period. Etiologic fractions (EFs......% of all sick-leave days. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that improving the psychosocial work environment among the less favorable 75% may prevent substantial amounts of absence....

  8. Sickness absenteeism and associated factors among horticulture employees in lume district, southeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Sebsibe; Ebrahim, Kamil; Gizaw, Zemichael

    2015-01-01

    Sickness absenteeism is the major occupational health problem in developing countries where the majority of working population are engaged in hazardous sectors, such as agriculture. However, there is a dearth of studies clarifying the situation in most of Subsaharan African countries, like Ethiopia. The present study determined the magnitude of sickness absenteeism and associated factors among horticulture employees in Lume District, southeast Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among horticulture employees in Lume District, southeast Ethiopia from March to May 2014. Stratified sampling followed by simple random sampling techniques was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariable analyses were employed to see the effect of explanatory variables on dependent variable. The magnitude of sickness absenteeism was 58.8 % [95 % CI: (54.9, 62.5)] in the past three months. Absence of periodic medical checkup, working for more than 48 h per week, working overtime, job dissatisfaction, and job stress were factors significantly associated with sickness absenteeism. In this study a relatively higher rate of sickness absenteeism was reported compared to other studies. Interventions to reduce sickness absenteeism should focus on areas, such as periodic medical checkup, monitoring work schedules, improving employees' job satisfaction, and managing job stress.

  9. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: effects on sick leaves and cost of lost workdays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana I Halonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, part of a drinking water distribution system was accidentally contaminated with waste water effluent causing a gastroenteritis outbreak in a Finnish town. We examined the acute and cumulative effects of this incidence on sick leaves among public sector employees residing in the clean and contaminated areas, and the additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence. METHODS: Daily information on sick leaves of 1789 Finnish Public Sector Study participants was obtained from employers' registers. Global Positioning System-coordinates were used for linking participants to the clean and contaminated areas. Prevalence ratios (PR for weekly sickness absences were calculated using binomial regression analysis. Calculations for the costs were based on prior studies. RESULTS: Among those living in the contaminated areas, the prevalence of participants on sick leave was 3.54 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.97-4.22 times higher on the week following the incidence compared to the reference period. Those living and working in the clean area were basically not affected, the corresponding PR for sick leaves was 1.12, 95% CI 0.73-1.73. No cumulative effects on sick leaves were observed among the exposed. The estimated additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence were 1.8-2.1 million euros. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sickness absences among public sector employees residing in affected areas increased shortly after drinking water distribution system was contaminated, but no long-term effects were observed. The estimated costs of lost workdays were remarkable, thus, the cost-benefits of better monitoring systems for the water distribution systems should be evaluated.

  10. Motion sickness: more than nausea and vomiting

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Motion sickness is a complex syndrome that includes many features besides nausea and vomiting. This review describes some of these factors and points out that under normal circumstances, many cases of motion sickness go unrecognized. Motion sickness can occur during exposure to physical motion, visual motion, and virtual motion, and only those without a functioning vestibular system are fully immune. The range of vulnerability in the normal population varies about 10,000 to 1. Sleep deprivati...

  11. Sickness-certification practice in different clinical settings; a survey of all physicians in a country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekmer Anna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How physicians handle sickness-certification is essential in the sickness-absence process. Few studies have focused this task of physicians' daily work. Most previous studies have only included general practitioners. However, a previous study indicated that this is a common task also among other physicians. The aim of this study was to gain detailed knowledge about physicians' work with sickness-certification and of the problems they experience in this work. Methods A comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness-certification practice was sent home to all physicians living and working in Sweden (N = 36,898; response rate: 61%. This study included physicians aged Results Sickness-certification consultations were frequent; 67% of all physicians had such, and of those, 83% had that at least once a week. The proportion who had such consultations >5 times a week varied between clinical settings; from 3% in dermatology to 79% in orthopaedics; and was 43% in primary health care. The OR for finding sickness-certification tasks problematic was highest among the physicians working in primary health care (OR 3.3; CI 2.9-3.7 and rheumatology clinics (OR 2.6; CI 1.9-3.5. About 60% found it problematic to assess patients' work capacity and to provide a prognosis regarding the duration of work incapacity. Conclusions So far, most interventions regarding physicians' sickness-certification practices have been targeted towards primary health care and general practitioners. Our results indicate that the ORs for finding these tasks problematic were highest in primary health care. Nevertheless, physicians in some other clinical settings more often have such consultations and many of them also find these tasks problematic, e.g. in rheumatology, neurology, psychiatry, and orthopaedic clinics. Thus, the results indicate that much can be gained through focusing on physicians in other types of clinics as well, when planning interventions to improve

  12. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  13. Sickness presenteeism: measurement and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whysall, Zara; Bowden, James; Hewitt, Michael

    2017-08-23

    Since work can be restorative to health, attending work when unwell should not be viewed as an inherently negative phenomenon. However, the functional benefits are likely to depend on the health condition, and the psychosocial quality of the work provided. The current study used a workforce survey to explore differences in the pattern of presenteeism and absenteeism by health condition, the association of psychosocial work factors with presenteeism compared to absenteeism, and their interaction to predict health. Findings indicate that instead of substituting absenteeism for presenteeism, the two tend to coincide, but the balance differs by health condition. Presenteeism is more likely to occur in poorer psychosocial environments, reinforcing the importance of ensuring work is designed and managed in ways that are beneficial rather than detrimental to health. The findings also highlight the methodological importance of differentiating between the act and impact of presenteeism in future research and practice. Practitioner Summary: Effective management of work-related health requires that practitioners manage both sickness absence and presence together, since employees tend to fluctuate between the two when unwell. Interventions should be tailored to the specific health concern, paying particular attention to the psychosocial environment in enabling employees to continue working without exacerbating health.

  14. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  15. Predictors of suicidal behaviour in 36,304 individuals sickness absent due to stress-related mental disorders -- a Swedish register linkage cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2013-01-01

    factors for severe medical outcomes, like suicidal behavior, is lacking to date. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of suicide attempt and suicide among sickness absentees with SRMD. METHODS: A cohort of 36,304 non-retired individuals, aged 16-64 years on 31.12.2004, with at least one...... sickness absence spell due to SRMD, initiated in 2005, was followed up with regard to suicide attempt (2006-2009) and suicide (2006-2008). Univariate and multivariate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for a number of predictors. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 266...... individuals attempted suicide and 34 committed suicide. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors increased the risk of suicide attempt: = 1 sickness absence spell, long duration of the first spell of sickness absence due to SRMD (> 180...

  16. Epilepsy with myoclonic absences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Pierre; Bureau, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Among the epileptic syndromes that are defined mainly on the basis of a characteristic seizure type, epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA) stands out as a somewhat controversial entity. This is because the sound and evident clinical characteristics on which it was identified some 30 years ago have evolved, mostly as a consequence of changes in the practical management of epilepsies and to the description of myoclonic components in a variety of other generalised epilepsies with absences. Myoclonic absences (MA) are described as typical absences with sudden onset and offset that are associated with generalised spike and wave (SW) discharges on the ECG, with distinctive traits. Clinically, absences are associated with axial hypertonia (the subject usually bends forward and slightly raises their shoulders and arms), and jerks synchronous with the SW discharges. Neurophysiologically, axial hypertonia and rhythmic jerks may be recorded on polygraphic surface electromyogram leads in association with the typical SW discharges; as such, despite an ECG, the diagnosis may be missed in the absence of video documentation of the seizure and/or adequate polygraphy. MA need to be distinguished from absences with other types of prominent myoclonic accompaniment (perioral, eyelid, limbs).The prognosis of EMA remains variable. Modern therapeutic combinations, such as valproic acid and ethosuximide, or valproic acid and lamotrigine, are usually effective; however, in a proportion of patients, seizures are resistant to drug treatment. These patients may experience cognitive deterioration and, in some cases, evolution towards a more severe form of epilepsy, including the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The more benign cases usually present with MA as the only seizure type, while patients who experience other seizures, especially generalised tonic-clonic seizures, in association with MA may have a less favourable outcome.

  17. Motion sickness: more than nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, James R

    2014-08-01

    Motion sickness is a complex syndrome that includes many features besides nausea and vomiting. This review describes some of these factors and points out that under normal circumstances, many cases of motion sickness go unrecognized. Motion sickness can occur during exposure to physical motion, visual motion, and virtual motion, and only those without a functioning vestibular system are fully immune. The range of vulnerability in the normal population varies about 10,000 to 1. Sleep deprivation can also enhance susceptibility. Systematic studies conducted in parabolic flight have identified velocity storage of semicircular canal signals-velocity integration-as being a key factor in both space motion sickness and terrestrial motion sickness. Adaptation procedures that have been developed to increase resistance to motion sickness reduce this time constant. A fully adequate theory of motion sickness is not presently available. Limitations of two popular theories, the evolutionary and the ecological, are described. A sensory conflict theory can explain many but not all aspects of motion sickness elicitation. However, extending the theory to include conflicts related to visceral afferent feedback elicited by voluntary and passive body motion greatly expands its explanatory range. Future goals should include determining why some conflicts are provocative and others are not but instead lead to perceptual reinterpretations of ongoing body motion. The contribution of visceral afferents in relation to vestibular and cerebellar signals in evoking sickness also deserves further exploration. Substantial progress is being made in identifying the physiological mechanisms underlying the evocation of nausea, vomiting, and anxiety, and a comprehensive understanding of motion sickness may soon be attainable. Adequate anti-motion sickness drugs without adverse side effects are not yet available.

  18. Psychiatric diagnoses in patients with burning mouth syndrome and atypical odontalgia referred from psychiatric to dental facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenoshita, Miho; Sato, Tomoko; Kato, Yuichi; Katagiri, Ayano; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Sato, Yusuke; Matsushima, Eisuke; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Toyofuku, Akira

    2010-10-13

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and atypical odontalgia (AO) are two conditions involving chronic oral pain in the absence of any organic cause. Psychiatrically they can both be considered as "somatoform disorder". From the dental point of view, however, the two disorders are quite distinct. BMS is a burning or stinging sensation in the mouth in association with a normal mucosa whereas AO is most frequently associated with a continuous pain in the teeth or in a tooth socket after extraction in the absence of any identifiable cause. Because of the absence of organic causes, BMS and AO are often regarded as psychogenic conditions, although the relationship between oral pain and psychologic factors is still unclear. Some studies have analyzed the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with chronic oral pain who have been referred from dental facilities to psychiatric facilities. No study to date has investigated patients referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities. To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses of chronic oral pain patients, diagnosed with BMS and AO, and referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities. Psychiatric diagnoses and disease conditions of BMS or AO were investigated in 162 patients by reviewing patients' medical records and referral forms. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision. The proportion of F4 classification (neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders) in AO patients was significantly higher than in BMS patients. BMS patients were more frequently given a F3 classification (mood/affective disorders). However, 50.8% of BMS patients and 33.3% of AO patients had no specific psychiatric diagnoses. Although BMS and AO are both chronic pain disorders occurring in the absence of any organic cause, the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with BMS and AO differ substantially.

  19. GENETIC PREDICTORS OF IDIOPATHIC SICK SINUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chernova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Published data demonstrating genetic determination of sick sinus syndrome is presented. The definition of this pathology is presented; the main symptoms are described, as well as genes that influence the development of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome, their polymorphisms and role in disorders of the cardiovascular system.

  20. Archives, libraries and museums: containers often sick, sometimes seriously sick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nicolucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As far as the feeling of quietness and peace that they often convey, archives, museums and libraries also hide dangers that you may not imagine, either for visitors or especially for the members of the staff. Indeed the poor microclimatic conditions – often the consequences of materials and construction or building technologies that appear definitely obsolete – often arouse suspicion and worry among the staff. Wrong Thermo hygrometric parameters, the presence of volatile organic elements, mineral fibers, biocides, radon gas, aerial dispersive molecules, are among others some of the chemical physical polluters of major influence that may contribute to giving life to the so-called Sick Building Syndrome. But such spaces also bear biological polluters that can provoke pathologies of various types and importance, among which the feared Illness of Legionnaire. The presence of electromagnetic fields, but above all wrong lighting and wrong ergonomic working positions represent some risk factors for members of staff and visitors.

  1. Risk of sick leave associated with outdoor air supply rate, humidification, and occupant complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, D K; Glencross, P M; Walters, M D

    2000-12-01

    We analyzed 1994 sick leave for 3,720 hourly employees of a large Massachusetts manufacturer, in 40 buildings with 115 independently ventilated work areas. Corporate records identified building characteristics and IEQ complaints. We rated ventilation as moderate (approximately 25 cfm/person, 12 ls-1) or high (approximately 50 cfm/person, 24 ls-1) outdoor air supply based on knowledge of ventilation systems and CO2 measurements on a subset of work areas, and used Poisson regression to analyze sick leave controlled for age, gender, seniority, hours of non-illness absence, shift, ethnicity, crowding, and type of job (office, technical, or manufacturing worker). We found consistent associations of increased sick leave with lower levels of outdoor air supply and IEQ complaints. Among office workers, the relative risk for short-term sick leave was 1.53 (95% confidence 1.22-1.92) with lower ventilation, and 1.52 (1.18-1.97) in areas with IEQ complaints. The effect of ventilation was independent of IEQ complaints and among those exposed to lower outdoor air supply rates the attributable risk of short-term sick leave was 35%. The cost of sick leave attributable to ventilation at current recommended rates was estimated as $480 per employee per year at Polaroid. These findings suggest that net savings of $400 per employee per year may be obtained with increased ventilation. Thus, currently recommended levels of outdoor air supply may be associated with significant morbidity, and lost productivity on a national scale could be as much as $22.8 billion per year. Additional studies of IEQ impacts on productivity and sick leave, and the mechanisms underlying the apparent association are needed.

  2. Individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness among six Skylab astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A.; Miller, E. F., II; Homick, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Motion sickness was studied in Skylab crewmen. By mission-day 8 (MD 8), astronauts were virtually free of motion sickness symptoms after rotation and linear acceleration tests. None of the Skylab-II astronauts (crewmen 1-3) was motion sick aloft, but astronaut 6 of the Skylab-III crew experienced motion sickness within an hour after transition into orbit. All three astronauts (4-6) of Skylab-III experienced motion sickness in the workshop, where astronaut 6 was most susceptible and astronaut 4 least susceptible. The higher susceptibility of SL-III crewmen in the workshop, as compared with SL-II crewmen, may be attributable to the fact that they were based in the command module (CM) less than one-third as long as were SL-II astronauts. I.e., the unnatural movements permitted in the open spaces of the workshop entrained more complex interactions of unusual vestibular and visual stimuli than did those in the CM. The observed reduced liability to kinetosis relative to earth may be due to absence of the gravity stimulus to the otolith organs.

  3. Problems in sickness certification of patients: a qualitative study on views of 26 physicians in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knorring, Mia; Sundberg, Linda; Löfgren, Anna; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    To identify what problems physicians experience in sickness certification of patients. Qualitative analyses of data from six focus-group discussions. Four counties in different regions of Sweden. Twenty-six physicians strategically selected to achieve variation with regard to sex, geographical location, urban/rural area, and type of clinic. The problems involved four areas: society and the social insurance system, the organization of healthcare, the performance of other actors in the system, and the physicians' working situation. In all areas the problems also involved manager issues such as overall leadership, organization of healthcare, and existing incentives and support systems for physicians' handling of patients' sickness certification. Many physicians described feelings of fatigue and a lack of pride in their work with sickness certification tasks, as they believed they contributed to unnecessary sickness absence and to medicalization of patients' non-medical problems. The problems identified have negative consequences both for patients and for the well-being of physicians. Many of the problems seem related to inadequate leadership and management of sickness certification issues. Therefore, they cannot be handled merely by training of physicians, which has so far been the main intervention in this area. They also have to be addressed on manager levels within healthcare. Further research is needed on how physicians cope with the problems identified and on managers' strategies and responsibilities in relation to these problems. If the complexity of the problems is not recognized, there is a risk that inadequate actions will be taken to solve them.

  4. Acute high-altitude sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Luks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At any point 1–5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly. This review provides detailed information about each of these important clinical entities. After reviewing the clinical features, epidemiology and current understanding of the pathophysiology of each disorder, we describe the current pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases.

  5. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees...... with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being...

  6. [Sick house syndrome: governmental actions and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomonori; Kigawa, Mika

    2009-05-01

    Since the 1980s, sick house syndrome has become one of the major challenges in environmental health. In Japan in 1980, first governmental measures were taken to limit formaldehyde release from building materials. In 2003, the Building Standards Law and the Community Health Law were revised, and these laws clarified the responsibility of building companies, local governments and health officers in preventing sick house syndrome. Telephone survey results demonstrated the decrease in the prevalence of sick house syndrome between 2002 and 2006 in Tokyo and Sapporo. Knowledge about sick house syndrome enabling patients to better deal with the syndrome and stricter regulations seem to have contributed to the decrease in the prevalence of the syndrome. Questionnaire surveys carried out through regional health centers demonstrated that the number of possible sick house syndrome patients visiting regional health centers varied, possibly reflecting different local prevalences and needs. Most of the regional health centers had staff members who were able to measure in-house environments, but their ability to discuss on health-related issues was limited, and cooperation between the centers and healthcare organizations was not sufficient. Information about healthcare organizations that can treat patients with sick house syndrome and simple self-diagnostic tools were among the most often cited useful support needs. Establishment of a hub regional health center to construct a comprehensive consultation and referral system that can meet local needs in dealing with sick house syndrome is recommended.

  7. Workplace mistreatment and sickness absenteeism from work: results from the 2010 National Health Interview survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay G; Chang, Chia C; Ray, Tapas K

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the association between workplace mistreatment and occurrence, duration, and costs of sickness absenteeism. We used the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and considered 13,807 employed adult respondents. We used a zero-inflated negative binomial (zinb) model to examine the association between exposure to workplace mistreatment and the occurrence and number of workdays missed due to illness/injury in the preceding 12 months. In 2010, 7.6% of US workers employed at the time of the survey reported having been mistreated at their workplace. Both occurrence and duration of sickness absence were higher for mistreated than for non-mistreated workers. The zinb results showed that being mistreated was associated with a 42% increase in the number of missed workdays, controlling for covariates. The marginal effect analysis showed that lost workdays differed by 2.45 days between mistreated and non-mistreated workers. This implies that workplace mistreatment was associated with $4.1 billion, or 5.5%, of sickness absenteeism costs in 2010. Workplace mistreatment is associated with sickness absence in the United States. While a causal relationship could not be established due to the cross-sectional design of the study, this study reveals the economic importance of developing workplace mistreatment prevention strategies. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Return to work among sickness-absent Danish employees: prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study/National Register on Social Transfer Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B

    2006-01-01

    return to work. A total of 930 (17.4%) employees experienced sickness absence in the 18 months after baseline. During the 12-month follow-up, 856 (92.0%) returned to work, the mean absence period being 6.6 weeks. Prolonged time to first return to work was associated with female gender, increased age...

  9. Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Co-morbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n    "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n    "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n    "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n    "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.

  10. Psychiatric services in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmebarek, Zoubir

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes the current provision of psychiatric services in Algeria - in particular, in-patient and out-patient facilities, child psychiatry and human resources. Education, training, associations and research in the field of mental health are also briefly presented. The challenges that must dealt with to improve psychiatric care and to comply with international standards are listed, by way of conclusion.

  11. Psychosocial work factors and sick leave, occupational accident, and disability pension: a cohort study of civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkka, Katariina; Kuoppala, Jaana; Väänänen-Tomppo, Irma; Lamminpää, Anne

    2013-02-01

    To study associations between psychosocial work factors (PWF) and sick leave, occupational accident, and disability pension. A random population of 967 civil servants participated in a survey on PWF and health. The median follow-up time was 7 years. Frequent feedback from supervisor, good opportunities for mental growth, good team climate, and high appreciation were associated with a decrease in the risk of sickness absences and shift/period work, monotonous movements, and crowdedness of workplace were associated with an increase in the risk of sickness absences. Good communication at work was associated with a decrease in client violence and high work pressure was associated with an increased risk of occupational accidents. High work control and good team climate were associated with a decreased and shift/period work and client violence was associated with an increased risk of disability pensions. Psychosocial work factors can predict health outcomes with economic impact.

  12. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  13. Primary Psychiatric Diseases

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    Sibel Mercan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of these dermatological diseases is entirely psychiatric origin. These patients show overconcern to their skin or self inflicted dermatoses unconsciously instead of facing with their real problems. In this group, delusions, dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder can be seen. They use denial as defence mechanism to their real psychiatric problems and prefer to apply dermatology instead of psychiatry. Dermatologist should be very careful before asking psychiatric consultation. Denial mechanism help patients to overcome agressive impulses like suicide or prevent further psychiatric damage like psychosis. Dermatologist should see these patients with short and frequent intervals with a good empathic approach. This will help to progress a powerful patient doctor relationship which will lead to a psychiatric evaluation.

  14. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...

  15. Past absence as a predictor of present absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke

    2014-01-01

    that past days and past spells have an equal potential of predicting present absent. Past absence behaviour can thus be used as an early warning for managers. The study also confirms that personal characteristics such as age and seniority also influence absence duration. Moreover, job characteristics......This article investigates whether past absence behaviour is a predictor of present absence duration in a large Danish municipality with 17,499 individuals observed from 1996 to 2004. Past absence behaviour is measured in both absence days and absence spells. The article also investigates a number...... of confounders such as gender, age, seniority, wage, contracted number of work hours and season. The results of the empirical study show that there is a significant positive relationship between employees' absence duration and past absence spells and past absence days, respectively. The study thus confirms...

  16. What Challenges Manual Workers’ Ability to Cope with Back Pain at Work, and What Influences Their Decision to Call in Sick?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pernille; Karsten, Mette Marie V.; Indahl, Aage

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although back pain (BP) is a very common cause for sickness absence, most people stay at work during BP episodes. Existing knowledge on the factors influencing the decision to stay at work despite pain is limited. The aim of this study was to explore challenges for coping with BP...... into teams created close co-worker relationships, which positively affected BP coping. Workers responded to BP by applying helpful individual adjustments to reduce or prevent pain. Traditional ergonomics was considered inconvenient, but nonetheless ideal. When pain was not decisive, the decision to call...... in sick was mainly governed by workplace factors (i.e. sick absence policies, job strain, and close co-workers relationships) and to a less degree by personal factors. CONCLUSION: Factors influencing BP coping at work and the decision to report sick was mainly governed by factors concerning general...

  17. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...... previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces....

  18. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  19. Kernicterus in sick and preterm infants (1999-2002): a need for an effective preventive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Vinod K; Johnson, Lois H; Shapiro, Steven M

    2004-10-01

    Kernicterus in sick and preterm infants is a rarity. Universal availability of phototherapy and concerted clinical efforts to identify, effectively manage and establish clinical guidelines have been instrumental in preventing kernicterus in US intensive care nurseries. However, in sick and preterm infants the absence of precise data on prevalence of bilirubin induced neurologic injury, the lack of proven predictive indices and the absence of evidence-based studies that clearly demonstrate the actual risk of kernicterus. These leave questions regarding the basis for clinical strategies and recommendations for the management of neonatal jaundice in this select population. This article reviews 6 preterm infants selected from the Pilot Kernicterus Registry who had recovered from life-threatening neonatal illnesses, briefly discusses current indices used to ascertain risk, and offers an initial bilirubin level based identification of infants while future directions and studies are conducted to supplement our presently incomplete knowledge for safer clinical practice.

  20. Encounters between workers sick-listed with common mental disorders and return-to-work stakeholders. Does workers' gender matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner

    Introduction: The aims of this paper were to examine how disabled workers assess encounters with return-to-work (RTW) stakeholders during sickness absence due to common mental disorders (CMD) and to investigate gender differences in these assessments. Method: Data on contact with and assessment of

  1. Predictors of long-term return to work and symptom remission in sick-listed patients with major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, Hiske L.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2012-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has substantial negative effects on work outcomes, little is known regarding how to promote a return to work (RTW) after MDD-related sickness absence. The present study aimed to examine predictors across multiple domains for long-term RTW in patients who are

  2. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A prospective study of prognostic factors for duration of sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalsgaard Jesper

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic carpal tunnel release with a single portal technique has been shown to reduce sick leave compared to open carpal tunnel release, claiming to be a less invasive procedure and reducing scar tenderness leading to a more rapid return to work, and the purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors for prolonged sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release in a group of employed Danish patients. Methods The design was a prospective study including 75 employed patients with carpal tunnel syndrome operated with ECTR at two hospitals. The mean age was 46 years (SD 10.1, the male/female ratio was 0.42, and the mean preoperative duration of symptoms 10 months (range 6-12. Only 21 (28% were unable to work preoperatively and mean sick leave was 4 weeks (range 1-4. At base-line and at the 3-month follow-up, a self-administered questionnaire was collected concerning physical, psychological, and social circumstances in relation to the hand problem. Data from a nerve conduction examination were collected at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. Significant prognostic factors were identified through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results After the operation, the mean functional score was reduced from 2.3 to 1.4 (SD 0.8 and the mean symptom score from 2.9 to 1.5 (SD 0.7. The mean sick leave from work after the operation was 19.8 days (SD 14.3. Eighteen patients (24% had more than 21 days of sick leave. Two patients (3% were still unable to work after 3 months. Significant prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis for more than 21 days of postoperative sick leave were preoperative sick leave, blaming oneself for the hand problem and a preoperative distal motor latency. Conclusion Preoperative sick leave, blaming oneself for the hand problem, and a preoperative distal nerve conduction motor latency were prognostic factors for postoperative work absence of more than 21 days. Other factors may be important

  4. Sickness presenteeism among health care providers in an academic tertiary care center in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nuhait, Mohammed; Al Harbi, Khaled; Al Jarboa, Amjad; Bustami, Rami; Alharbi, Shmaylan; Masud, Nazish; Albekairy, Abdulkareem; Almodaimegh, Hind

    The term sickness presenteeism (SP) has been described as the act of going to work despite having a state of health that may be regarded as poor enough to justify sick leave. SP has been observed to be prevalent among three-quarters of health care providers (HCPs). Working while sick not only puts patients at risk but also decreases productivity and increases the probability of medical errors. Moreover, SP has been identified as a risk factor for many negative health outcomes among the HCPs themselves, such as depression, burnout, and serious cardiac events. The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for and prevalence of SP and perceptions of the impact of this practice on patient safety among HCPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 279 purposively selected healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, dentists, pharmacists and other health care professionals) working at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs-King Abdulaziz Medical City (MNGHA-KAMC). While nearly all of the participants (91%) believed that working while sick exposed patients to risk, the rate of SP during the past year was reported as 74%, and one fourth of respondents reported working while sick 3-4 times during the past year. More than half of the participants were not aware of the existence of a departmental policy regarding sick leave. The most common reasons reported for working while sick were not wanting to burden co-workers (71%), feelings of duty toward patients (67%), and avoiding an increased future workload caused by absence (59%). A lack of awareness regarding the existing rules and polices related to sick leave was reported by more than half of the participants. Several predisposing and enabling factors were reported as determinants influencing SP, e.g., observation of the practice of SP by peers and feelings of sympathy towards coworkers, including not wanting to overburden them, were reported to be determinants informing the decision of whether to work

  5. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  6. Dynamics of absence seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, Farah; Sanz-Leon, Paula; Robinson, Peter

    A neural field model of the corticothalamic system is used to investigate the dynamics of absence seizures in the presence of temporally varying connection strength between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Variation of connection strength from cortex to thalamus drives the system into seizure once a threshold is passed and a supercritical Hopf bifurcation occurs. The dynamics and spectral characteristics of the resulting seizures are explored as functions of maximum connection strength, time above threshold, and ramp rate. The results enable spectral and temporal characteristics of seizures to be related to underlying physiological variations via nonlinear dynamics and neural field theory. Notably, this analysis adds to neural field modeling of a wide variety of brain activity phenomena and measurements in recent years. Australian Research Council Grants FL1401000225 and CE140100007.

  7. Psychiatrists′ work with sickness certification: frequency, experiences and severity of the certification tasks in a national survey in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Gunnar H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many psychiatrists are involved in sickness certification of their patients; however, there is very limited knowledge about this aspect of their work. The objective of this study was to explore frequencies of problematic issues in the sickness certification tasks and experiences of severity regarding these problematic issues among psychiatrists. Methods A cross-sectional nationwide questionnaire study to all physicians in Sweden. The 579 specialists in psychiatry who answered the questionnaire, were under 65 years of age, worked mainly in psychiatric care, and had consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week were included. Results The frequency of problematic sickness certification consultations a few times per year or more often was considered by 87.3% of the psychiatrists; 11.7% handle such cases at least once a week. A majority (60.9% reported ‘not having enough time with the patient’ at least once a week. The psychiatrists had access to several categories of professionals in their daily work. More than one third certified unnecessarily long sick-leave periods at least once a month due to waiting times for Social Insurance Office investigations or for treatments or investigations within health care. Conclusion The majority found it problematic to assess the level and duration of work incapacity, but also other types of problems like unnecessarily long sick-leave periods due to different types of waiting times. The findings have implications for different kinds of organisational and managerial support and training in sickness certification issues, like guidance to assess the level and duration of work incapacity.

  8. Psychiatrists′ work with sickness certification: frequency, experiences and severity of the certification tasks in a national survey in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many psychiatrists are involved in sickness certification of their patients; however, there is very limited knowledge about this aspect of their work. The objective of this study was to explore frequencies of problematic issues in the sickness certification tasks and experiences of severity regarding these problematic issues among psychiatrists. Methods A cross-sectional nationwide questionnaire study to all physicians in Sweden. The 579 specialists in psychiatry who answered the questionnaire, were under 65 years of age, worked mainly in psychiatric care, and had consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week were included. Results The frequency of problematic sickness certification consultations a few times per year or more often was considered by 87.3% of the psychiatrists; 11.7% handle such cases at least once a week. A majority (60.9%) reported ‘not having enough time with the patient’ at least once a week. The psychiatrists had access to several categories of professionals in their daily work. More than one third certified unnecessarily long sick-leave periods at least once a month due to waiting times for Social Insurance Office investigations or for treatments or investigations within health care. Conclusion The majority found it problematic to assess the level and duration of work incapacity, but also other types of problems like unnecessarily long sick-leave periods due to different types of waiting times. The findings have implications for different kinds of organisational and managerial support and training in sickness certification issues, like guidance to assess the level and duration of work incapacity. PMID:23075202

  9. [The sick building syndrome (SBS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezratty, Véronique

    2003-10-11

    AN INCREASINGLY COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROBLEM: Complaints related to indoor environment represent one of the most frequent problems that environmental health practitioners are confronted with. Hence the incidence of the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) has been increasing since the Seventies. DIFFERING DEFINITIONS AND CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS: The WHO defines SBS as an excess of complaints and symptoms occurring in certain occupants of non-industrial buildings. The syndrome can only be evoked after elimination in the person concerned of a disease related to the building, the aetiological agent of which is identifiable. The symptoms described during SBS (headaches, concentration problems, asthenia, irritation of the skin or nasal mucosa, of the eyes and upper respiratory tract.) are non specific and frequently observed in the general population. AN UNKNOWN CASE, BUT NUMEROUS AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS SUSPECTED: There is no unanimously accepted definition nor physio-pathological theory to explain the occurrence of SBS in a particular building. Many favouring factors, including the type and rate of ventilation, volatile organic compounds, particles and humidity have been suspected. TECHNICAL, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL MANAGEMENT IS REQUIRED: Although the symptoms are benign, they can be uncomfortable or even handicapping and prevent the functioning of workplaces. The SBS, the social and economical costs of which are high, requires multidisciplinary management.

  10. Selected aspects of absence at work and work-related health problems in Polish enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pęciłło, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Workers' working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers' health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers' disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers' sickness absence.

  11. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide - Table of Contents Facts For Families Guide - View by Topic Chinese Facts for Families Guide ... Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate for any child or adolescent ...

  12. An Analysis of Paid Family and Sick Leave Advocacy in Louisiana: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Phyllis Hutton; Theall, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with other developed countries, the United States lacks national paid maternity/family and sick leave policies, negatively impacting the health and economic security of both female and male workers and their children. Employer paid family and sick leave policies cover only about half of workers, and those lacking paid leaves are more likely to be less educated and with lower incomes. Louisiana has high proportions of poor and low income workers who especially would benefit from national or state paid leave policies. In the absence of national paid leaves, several states and cities have implemented paid family and sick leaves. In this context and following the American Public Health Association's endorsement of paid family and sick leaves for health and wellbeing, the Tulane University Mary Amelia Women's Center decided to advocate for paid leave policies in Louisiana. Highlights of a Louisiana spring 2015 initiative were a talk by the President of the Institute for Women's Policy Research on the economic and health benefits of paid family and sick leaves and bills submitted by a State Senator. As has happened elsewhere, opposition from businesses and Republican legislators blocked passage. This outcome fit the Center's original expectations that communicating about the important health and other benefits of paid family and sick leaves, and developing support for state-wide policies, would be a long process-but one important to begin. The initiative in Louisiana may provide insights for paid leave advocacy elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopat...

  14. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  15. Legislative change enabling use of early part-time sick leave enhanced return to work and work participation in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Virta, Lauri J; Kausto, Johanna; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Leinonen, Taina; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Burdorf, Alex; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of part-time sick leave at the early (first 12 weeks) stage of work disability due to mental disorder or musculoskeletal disease on sustained return to work (RTW) and overall work participation. Methods In a nation-wide register-based quasi-experimental study, we compared sustained RTW (ie, ≥28 consecutive days at work) and 2-year work participation between the part- and full-time sickness absence (SA) benefit groups (N=1878 in each group) using propensity-score matching. Persons who received partial or full SA benefit due to musculoskeletal diseases or mental disorders between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were eligible as cases or controls, respectively. Results A higher proportion showed sustained RTW after part- compared to full-time sick leave [absolute risk difference 8.0%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.3-10.9]. Moreover, the proportion of time at work was at a 10.5% higher level in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. The prevalence of full disability retirement was almost three-fold among the full- compared to part-time sick leave group, whereas partial disability retirement was 4.5-fold more prevalent in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. Conclusions The use of part-time sick leave during the first three months of SA enhances RTW and overall work participation during two years among persons with mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. The prescription of part-time sick leave can be recommended at an early stage of work disability.

  16. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Occupation-specific screening for future sickness absence: Criterion validity of the trucker strain monitor (TSM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M.de; Blonk, R.W.; Sluiter, J.K.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Monitoring psychological job strain may help occupational physicians to take preventive action at the appropriate time. For this purpose, the 10-item trucker strain monitor (TSM) assessing work-related fatigue and sleeping problems in truck drivers was developed. Objectives: This study

  18. Occupation-specific screening for future sickness absence: criterion validity of the trucker strain monitor (TSM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, Einar M.; Blonk, Roland W. B.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Monitoring psychological job strain may help occupational physicians to take preventive action at the appropriate time. For this purpose, the 10-item trucker strain monitor (TSM) assessing work-related fatigue and sleeping problems in truck drivers was developed. Objectives: This study

  19. Teachers' Sickness Absence in Primary Schools, School Climate and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imants, Jeroen; van Zoelen, Ad

    1995-01-01

    In the period from 1978 to 1988, teacher absenteeism increased considerably in the Netherlands, especially in primary education. This study questions whether teacher absenteeism is related to school climate and teachers' sense of efficacy. When climates of low- and high-absenteeism schools are compared, several school climate characteristics…

  20. Return to work among employees with long-term sickness absence in eldercare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Andersen, Malene Friis; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    Arbeit zurückzukehren. Este estudio investiga si las características del trabajo psicosocial y los estados psicológicos relacionados con el trabajo pueden influir en la predicción de la vuelta al trabajo (VAT) tras una ausencia prolongada por enfermedad entre el personal de cuidado de mayores. Hemos...... analizado la experiencia de 9947 empleados en un registro nacional, destinatarios de compensación por ausencia debida a enfermedad durante 1 año y encontramos que 598 de ellos tuvieron períodos de ausencia de 8 semanas consecutivas o más. Empleando el análisis de regresión Cox, se siguió la experiencia de...... estos 598 empleados durante un año a partir del inicio de su ausencia por enfermedad para investigar asociaciones entre los datos de línea de base de cuestionario sobre, por un lado, las características del trabajo psicosocial y los estados psicológicos relacionados con el trabajo, y por el otro el...