Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G; Christodoulaki, A G; Karkanias, A P
, affect body image and cause feelings of embarrassment with severe consequences on the patient's sense of wellbeing, his or her daily activities, interpersonal relationships or sexuality. Depressive symptoms often occur in prodromal stages of pancreatic cancer. Depression is a common diagnosis in patients with prostate cancer. Prostatectomy negatively affects patient's self-esteem, because it might be experienced as a threat to his sexual life. Disfigurement is related to skin cancer because of both cancer and surgical procedures. Therefore, it is a challenge for modern psycho-oncology to identify those patients who are vulnerable in developing psychiatric symptoms, to early diagnose anxiety and depression and to use psychotherapeutic interventions targeting individual psychological and psychiatric problems in relation to the localization of disease in the human body.
Myrbakk, Even; von Tetzchner, Stephen
The relationship between behavior problems and psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability is still unresolved. The present study compares the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability who were assessed on the ABC to have moderate and severe behavior problems and a matched…
L.D. Breeman (Linda)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children with psychiatric disorders are at risk for experiencing poor psychosocial, emotional, and behavioral adjustment after leaving school (Heijmens Visser, Van der Ende, Koot, & Verhulst, 2003; Wielemaker, 2009). These children thus need a good educational
Sannar, Elise M; Palka, Tamara; Beresford, Carol; Peura, Christine; Kaplan, Desmond; Verdi, Mary; Siegel, Matthew; Kaplan, Shir; Grados, Marco
We examined the relationship between sleep duration and awakenings to Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) scores in hospitalized youth with ASD and behavioral disturbance. Participants included 106 patients with a stay of at least 10 nights. Sleep in the hospital was recorded by staff observation. Higher scores on the ABC-C (irritability, stereotypy, and hyperactivity subscales) at admission were significantly associated with fewer minutes slept during the last five nights of hospitalization. There was no association between total awakenings and ABC-C scores or ADOS-2 comparison scores. Improved understanding of the relationship between sleep quality and maladaptive behavior in this challenging cohort of patients with ASD is vital to the definition and design of future effective interventions.
The therapeutic relationship is one of the most central and important factors in the treatment of mental health disorders. A better therapeutic relationship is associated with service engagement, medication adherence, and satisfaction with services. This study aimed to compare the demographic and clinical factors associated with the therapeutic relationship in voluntarily and involuntarily admitted psychiatric service users. We found that individuals who had been admitted involuntarily, who had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, and who reported higher levels of perceived pressures on admission were more likely to have a poorer therapeutic relationship with their consultant psychiatrist. Greater levels of insight and treatment satisfaction, together with higher levels of procedural justice experienced on admission, were associated with a better therapeutic relationship. We found that the level of perceived coercion on admission was not related to the therapeutic relationship. Targeted interventions to improve the therapeutic relationship, particularly for involuntarily admitted service users, are discussed.
Williams, W; Weiss, T W; Edens, A; Johnson, M; Thornby, J I
The relationship between hospital utilization and psychometric, demographic, and diagnostic data was examined among veterans with psychiatric problems. Data were obtained from the records of 500 psychiatric inpatients admitted to a Veterans Affairs medical center between 1984 and 1987 and followed for four years. All patients completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the California Personality Inventory, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, and the Psychological Inventory of Personality and Symptoms. Stepwise linear regression analysis was used to predict the number and length of inpatient stays, and Cox and logistic regression analyses predicted rehospitalization. Higher rates of psychiatric hospital utilization were found among patients who were unmarried, who had disabilities connected with their military service, who had lower levels of adaptive functioning, and who were diagnosed as having posttraumatic stress disorder, drug or alcohol use disorder, or passive-aggressive or antisocial personality disorder. Higher utilization was also found among those whom psychometric data characterized as less responsible and more compulsive. The data also predicted the length of subsequent medical hospitalization and identified patients who stayed out of the hospital longer and who were not rehospitalized. Hospital utilization was found to be a function of psychiatric diagnosis, marital status, and various personality factors. Factors relating to social disadvantage also played a role. Axis I diagnoses, particularly substance use disorders, were as important as, if not more important than, axis II diagnoses in predicting utilization.
Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.
Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…
Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V
Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...
Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219
Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P
Among two large, independent samples of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we examined associations between specific (maternal gestational smoking and drug use, early labor, low birth weight, and infant breathing problems at birth) and cumulative prenatal and perinatal risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity during childhood. Data from the (a) Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD, a randomized clinical trial with 579 children aged 7 to 9.9 years with combined-type ADHD, and the (b) Berkeley Girls ADHD Longitudinal Sample, a naturalistic study of 140 girls with ADHD (93 combined-type and 47 inattentive-type) who were first seen when they were 6 to 12 years old, were analyzed separately. In each sample, perinatal risk factors were assessed retrospectively by maternal report, and current childhood psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using maternal report on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Consistent findings across these two studies show that infant breathing problems, early labor, and total perinatal problems predicted childhood comorbid depression but not comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorders. These associations remained significant, in both samples, with control of family socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal symptoms of ADHD and depression. Results attenuated slightly with control of the number of child comorbidities plus SES and maternal symptoms. Accumulating evidence suggests that perinatal risk factors are important precursors of childhood psychiatric comorbidity and that the association between these risk factors and detrimental psychiatric outcomes cannot be explained by maternal psychiatric symptoms or SES during childhood.
Goodman, R.; Graham, P.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the prevalence and predictors of psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia. DESIGN--Cross sectional questionnaire survey of an epidemiological sample with individual assessments of a representative subgroup. The questionnaire survey was repeated on school age subjects four years later. SUBJECTS--428 hemiplegic children age 2 1/2-16 years, of whom 149 (aged 6-10 years) were individually assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Psychiatric symptom scores and the occurrence of psychiatric disorder. RESULTS--Psychiatric disorders affected 61% (95% confidence interval 53% to 69%) of subjects as judged by individual assessments and 54% (49% to 59%) and 42% (37% to 47%) as judged from parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Few affected children had been in contact with child mental health services. The strongest consistent predictor of psychiatric problems was intelligence quotient (IQ), which was highly correlated with an index of neurological severity; age, sex, and laterality of lesion had little or no predictive power. CONCLUSION--Though most hemiplegic children have considerable emotional or behavioural difficulties, these psychological complications commonly go unrecognised or untreated. Comprehensive health provision for children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders such as hemiplegia should be psychologically as well as physically oriented. PMID:8616413
Mazza, Elena T.
The professional literature on gatekeeping in social work education has grown; however, there remains a dearth in the literature regarding how educators truly work to engage students who are experiencing a psychiatric disability or other emotional problem. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 social work educators from 22 colleges…
Ross, Helen E.; Tisdall, Gordon W.
Examined use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs in university psychiatric health service and patterns of comorbidity with other psychiatric problems. Psychiatric service students (n=110) tended to drink less than did undergraduate comparison group and to report similar frequencies of adverse consequences. Alcohol disorders were significantly…
Cumurcu, Tongabay; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Ozcan, Ozlem; Demirel, Soner; Duz, Cem; Porgalı, Esra; Doganay, Selim
To investigate the rate of social phobia, anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric problems in children with strabismus. Prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. Forty-two children with strabismus and 47 control subjects 8-13 years of age were enrolled in this study. After the ophthalmologist's examination, all cases were assessed by a psychiatrist based on the structured interview technique of Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) was administered to each subject to evaluate social phobia. All participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Age as well as sex and income were comparable between the strabismus patients and control groups. Social phobia was diagnosed in 8 (19.04%) of the 42 strabismic children and in 1 (2.12%) of the control subjects. The CDI and SCARED (total score, social phobia, separation anxiety) scores of strabismus patients were significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.0001, p = 0.05, respectively). A relationship between strabismus in children and social phobia, depression, and anxiety on a symptom basis was underlined by our data. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dowling, N A; Merkouris, S S; Lorains, F K
Despite significant psychiatric comorbidity in problem gambling, there is little evidence on which to base treatment recommendations for subpopulations of problem gamblers with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This mini-review draws on two separate systematic searches to identify possible interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders, highlight the gaps in the currently available evidence base, and stimulate further research in this area. In this mini-review, only 21 studies that have conducted post-hoc analyses to explore the influence of psychiatric disorders or problem gambling subtypes on gambling outcomes from different types of treatment were identified. The findings of these studies suggest that most gambling treatments are not contraindicated by psychiatric disorders. Moreover, only 6 randomized studies comparing the efficacy of interventions targeted towards specific comorbidity subgroups with a control/comparison group were identified. The results of these studies provide preliminary evidence for modified dialectical behavior therapy for comorbid substance use, the addition of naltrexone to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid alcohol use problems, and the addition of N-acetylcysteine to tobacco support programs and imaginal desensitisation/motivational interviewing for comorbid nicotine dependence. They also suggest that lithium for comorbid bipolar disorder, escitalopram for comorbid anxiety disorders, and the addition of CBT to standard drug treatment for comorbid schizophrenia may be effective. Future research evaluating interventions sequenced according to disorder severity or the functional relationship between the gambling behavior and comorbid symptomatology, identifying psychiatric disorders as moderators of the efficacy of problem gambling interventions, and evaluating interventions matched to client comorbidity could advance this immature field of study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weich, Scott; Patterson, Jacoby; Shaw, Richard; Stewart-Brown, Sarah
Most evidence for associations between childhood adversity and adult mental illness is retrospective. To evaluate prospective evidence of associations between poor parent-child relationships and common psychiatric disorders in later life. Systematic review of studies published between 1970 and 2008 including: (a) more than 100 participants; (b) measures of relationships in the home during childhood; (c) at least 10 years between assessment of exposures; and (d) measures of anxiety, depression, suicide, suicidal ideation or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Analysis was by narrative synthesis. Twenty-three papers were identified reporting data from 16 cohorts. Abusive relationships predicted depression, anxiety and PTSD. Maternal emotional unavailability in early life predicted suicide attempts in adolescence. Results of studies investigating less severe relationship problems were suggestive but not conclusive of causal association, due partly to methodological heterogeneity. Given the prevalence and disabling nature of common psychiatric problems, these studies highlight the need to minimise harm associated with dysfunctional parent-child relationships.
Full Text Available Physicians who encounter patients in the emergency department with chest pain, palpitations, or shortness of breath may often find it difficult to differentiate diagnosis of panic attacks from acute coronary syndrome or Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. Redefining and understanding the pathophysiological relationship of psychiatric illness including anxiety, depression, or panic attacks and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy may help clinicians implement a more effective and beneficial model of care for this affliction that is being found to be increasingly more common in today’s age.
Pickles, A; Rowe, R; Simonoff, E; Foley, D; Rutter, M; Silberg, J
Relatively little is known about the relationships between psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis and psychosocial impairment. To examine these contemporaneous relationships and prognostic significance in a large general population sample. Symptoms of major depression, conduct and oppositional defiant disorders were assessed by interview in two waves of the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent behavioural Development (2800 children aged 8-16 years). Many children below the DSM-III-R diagnostic threshold, especially for depression, had symptom-related impairment, whereas many children reaching the symptom threshold for conduct and oppositional defiant disorders were little impaired. Impairment score was linearly related to symptom count, with no evidence of any additional impairment at the diagnostic threshold. For depression, only symptoms predicted later symptoms and diagnosis. For conduct and oppositional defiant disorders, impairment was additionally predictive of later symptoms and diagnosis. Impairment, in addition to symptoms, is important for both nosology and prognosis.
Vrijen, Charlotte; Hartman, Catharina A.; Lodder, Gerine M. A.; Verhagen, Maaike; de Jonge, Peter; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity. In this study, we aimed to investigate associations between emotion identification biases and five psychiatric problem domains, and to determine the domain-specificity of these biases. Data were collected as part of the ‘No Fun No Glory’ study and involved 2,577 young adults. The study participants completed a dynamic facial emotion identification task involving happy, sad, angry, and fearful faces, and filled in the Adult Self-Report Questionnaire, of which we used the scales depressive problems, anxiety problems, avoidance problems, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) problems and antisocial problems. Our results suggest that participants with antisocial problems were significantly less sensitive to happy facial emotions, participants with ADHD problems were less sensitive to angry emotions, and participants with avoidance problems were less sensitive to both angry and happy emotions. These effects could not be fully explained by co-occurring psychiatric problems. Whereas this seems to indicate domain-specificity, inspection of the overall pattern of effect sizes regardless of statistical significance reveals generic patterns as well, in that for all psychiatric problem domains the effect sizes for happy and angry emotions were larger than the effect sizes for sad and fearful emotions. As happy and angry emotions are strongly associated with approach and
Full Text Available Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity. In this study, we aimed to investigate associations between emotion identification biases and five psychiatric problem domains, and to determine the domain-specificity of these biases. Data were collected as part of the ‘No Fun No Glory’ study and involved 2,577 young adults. The study participants completed a dynamic facial emotion identification task involving happy, sad, angry, and fearful faces, and filled in the Adult Self-Report Questionnaire, of which we used the scales depressive problems, anxiety problems, avoidance problems, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD problems and antisocial problems. Our results suggest that participants with antisocial problems were significantly less sensitive to happy facial emotions, participants with ADHD problems were less sensitive to angry emotions, and participants with avoidance problems were less sensitive to both angry and happy emotions. These effects could not be fully explained by co-occurring psychiatric problems. Whereas this seems to indicate domain-specificity, inspection of the overall pattern of effect sizes regardless of statistical significance reveals generic patterns as well, in that for all psychiatric problem domains the effect sizes for happy and angry emotions were larger than the effect sizes for sad and fearful emotions. As happy and angry emotions are strongly associated
F.P. Velders (Fleur)
textabstractChildhood psychiatric disorders are common, show a high comorbidity and are associated with a long-term vulnerability for mental health problems, which underscores the importance of a better understanding of their etiology. Psychiatric symptoms of the parents place children at risk for
Wang, Shu Mi; Lai, Chien Yu; Chang, Yong-Yuan; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Yu, Ching-Yun
Psychiatric nurses are exposed to highly stressful work environments that can lead to depression over time. This study aimed to explore the relationships among work stress, resourcefulness, and depression levels of psychiatric nurses. A cross-sectional design with randomized sampling was used; 154 psychiatric nurses were recruited from six medical centers in Taiwan. Psychiatric nurses' work stress was found positively correlated with their depression level, and negatively related to resourcefulness. Work stress significantly predicted depression level. These results suggest that the hospital administrative units may develop training courses about resourcefulness skills to reduce psychiatric nurses' work stress, and improve their mental health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Garcez, Anderson; Henn, Ruth Liane; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal
The aim of this study was to explore the association between sleep-related problems with the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders in shift workers of southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 1202 workers (785 females) aged 18-50 years was carried out. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), and four sleep problems were collected and analyzed: sleep deprivation (≤ 5h), difficulty falling asleep, waking up during sleep, and sleep medication use. Results show that the overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 26.8%, but it was more prevalent among females than males (30.2% vs. 20.4%). Nightshift work was significantly associated with the occurrence of sleep-related problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, the number of sleep-related problems showed a positive linear trend with psychiatric disorders in both sexes. Having two or more sleep-related problems was associated with increased probability of psychiatric disorders approximately three-fold among males and two-fold among females, when compared with those without sleep problems. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that sleep-related problems have a strong and independent association with psychiatric disorders among shift workers. Furthermore, the prevalence of both conditions was higher among females than males; however, the strength of these associations was higher in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Krystal, Andrew D.
SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143
Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Alfstad, Kristin Å; van Roy, Betty; Henning, Oliver; Lossius, Morten I
Sleep problems are common in pediatric epilepsy and may influence seizure control, daytime functioning, and overall quality of life. Knowledge of factors contributing to sleep problems is likely to improve treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychiatric comorbidity and parent-reported and self-reported sleep problems in a sample of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Participants were children and adolescents (N=94), aged 10-19years, with generalized or focal epilepsy who had been referred to a tertiary epilepsy treatment center in Norway. Participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment and 24h of EEG registration. Information on sleep problems was obtained from parents using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and from self-reporting using the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were established using the semistructured psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). Both the total and subdomain CSHQ and SSR scores were high in comparison with scores from population-based samples. Having one or more psychiatric disorder(s) was significantly associated with elevated scores on both the CSHQ and the SSR. With the exception of parent-reported parasomnias, associations between sleep problems and psychiatric disorders remained significant after adjusting for relevant epilepsy variables. Psychiatric comorbidity explained about one-third of the variance of the reported sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil
Human beings are social species which require safe and secure social surroundings to survive. Satisfying social relationships are essential for mental and physical well beings. Impaired social relationship can lead to loneliness. Since the time of dawn, loneliness is perceived as a global human phenomenon. Loneliness can lead to various psychiatric disorders like depression, alcohol abuse, child abuse, sleep problems, personality disorders and Alzheimer’s disease. It also leads to various physical disorders like diabetes, autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease, hypertension (HTN), obesity, physiological aging, cancer, poor hearing and poor health. Left untended, loneliness can have serious consequences for mental and physical health of people. Therefore it is important to intervene at the right time to prevent loneliness, so that physical and mental health of patients is maintained. PMID:25386507
Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil
Human beings are social species which require safe and secure social surroundings to survive. Satisfying social relationships are essential for mental and physical well beings. Impaired social relationship can lead to loneliness. Since the time of dawn, loneliness is perceived as a global human phenomenon. Loneliness can lead to various psychiatric disorders like depression, alcohol abuse, child abuse, sleep problems, personality disorders and Alzheimer's disease. It also leads to various physical disorders like diabetes, autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease, hypertension (HTN), obesity, physiological aging, cancer, poor hearing and poor health. Left untended, loneliness can have serious consequences for mental and physical health of people. Therefore it is important to intervene at the right time to prevent loneliness, so that physical and mental health of patients is maintained.
Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen
We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.
Full Text Available We retrospectively collected data on the rate and type of psychiatric illness and behavioural problems on 143 adults with learning disability and epilepsy. 55% behavioural problems. 19% verbal aggression and temper tantrums, and 13% injurious behaviour. The overall rates of behavioural problems and different types of behaviours found in the current study cohort are similar to what was found before in learning disabled adults in general, as well as in epileptic and non-epileptic learning disabled adults. Psychiatric diagnosis was made in 12.6% combined diagnosis of schizophrenia, delusional disorder and schizo-affective disorder was most common (5% diagnosis of depressive episode (3% bipolar affective disorder.
Full Text Available Objective: Premenstrual syndrome is a common disorder experienced by up to 50% of women during reproductive age. The prevalence of severe form of PMS (PMDD is 3 % to 8%. Psychiatric disorders in PMS patients have resulted in significant morbidity and in some cases caused resistance to the treatment process Material and Method: 390 participants (264 with PMS/PMDD, and 126 healthy students of University of Guilan who completed the demographic questionnaire, daily symptom rating (DSR and the checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R took part in this study. This study was conducted using a cross sectional method. Results: According to repeated measure variance, the mean scores of psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, Aggression, Interpersonal sensitivity in the PMS group were significantly higher than the healthy group (p< 0/05, and increase in severity of PMS from mild to severe was accompanied by increase in mean score of these subscales. There was a significant difference in mean score of depression, anxiety, aggression and interpersonal sensitivity between the 3rd and the 13th day of the cycle. Significant effect of the DSR grouping (PMS and Healthy group and time interaction emerged in interpersonal sensitivity and aggression, significant effect on the DSR grouping (Mild, Moderate, Severer and time interaction demonstrated in interpersonal sensitivity. Conclusion: Patients with prospective confirmed PMDD seemed to suffer from psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, recognizing co-morbid psychiatric symptoms in patients with PMDD is of prime importance. All healthcare providers should be sensitive to mental status of women with PMS.
R K Chaudhary
Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems account for 12% of global disease burden and non-psychiatrist medical practitioners deal with a large proportion of this burden. This study was planned to assess the knowledge, attitude and treatment practices of non-psychiatrist medical practitioners regarding mental health problems. Materials and Methods: One hundred Allopathic and 25 each of Homeopathic and Ayurvedic medical practitioners were interviewed and assessed using a semi-structured performa. Results: Majority (95% of them were aware regarding etiology, increasing incidence and treatment facilities available for mental health problems. Treatment modalities include counseling and medication but 69.9% of them had not received any formal training in administering them. Conclusions: 98.5% practitioners providing mental health services at the primary level feel the need to be properly trained and oriented in the management of these patients to improve quality of healthcare.
Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Ndetei, David Musyimi; Mathai, Muthoni; Harder, Valerie
Studies on mental health problems during childhood and youth development phases have reported that families of children diagnosed with a depressive disorder tend to be dysfunctional. These dysfunctions have been shown to be mediating factors for children to develop psychiatric disorders in the future. This study was designed to investigate whether perceived parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders have any relationship with youth presenting with major depressive disorder. The study sample had a total number of 250 purposely selected youth attending the Youth Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. This study found associations between major depressive disorders (MDD) in the youth and co-morbid psychiatric disorders among the youth: conduct disorder (OR = 2.93, 95% CI 1.04 to 8.26, p = 0.035), any anxiety disorder (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.20 to 4.87, p = 0.012), drug abuse (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 2.01 to 5.76, p alcohol use (OR = 3.29, 95% CI 1.94 to 5.57, p depressive disorder than the youth below 16 years or above 18 years of age (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.40 to 5.05, p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis shows that both rejecting maternal behavior (AOR = 2.165, 95% CI 1.060 to 4.422, p = 0.003) and maternal MDD (AOR = 5.27, 95% CI 1.10 to 14.76, p depressive disorder are associated with major depressive disorder in children.
E.J.M. Vegt, van der (Esther); J. van der Ende (Jan); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractThe aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984
Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents ("n" = 3,614; "M" age = 14.5 years, "SD" = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White,…
Social work educators have an ethical responsibility to graduate students who are academically, behaviorally, and professionally prepared to enter the social work profession. Although a student's suitability to the profession is not necessarily hindered because of the effects of a psychiatric disability or an emotional problem, sometimes it is.…
Westerhof, Gerben J.; Beernink, Janny; Sools, Anneke
This article describes an innovative intervention based on narrative and life review therapy that is tailored to people with intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric problems. The current study provides a first evaluation of the intervention. A symptom checklist (SCL-90) was used in a pre- and post-follow-up design, and a qualitative…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Studies of clinical and psychosocial outcome in adult patients with ASDs without concomitant intellectual disability are few. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical psychiatric presentation and important outcome measures of a large group of normal-intelligence adult patients with ASDs. Methods Autistic symptomatology according to the DSM-IV-criteria and the Gillberg & Gillberg research criteria, patterns of comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial outcome were assessed in 122 consecutively referred adults with normal intelligence ASDs. The subjects consisted of 5 patients with autistic disorder (AD, 67 with Asperger's disorder (AS and 50 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS. This study group consists of subjects pooled from two studies with highly similar protocols, all seen on an outpatient basis by one of three clinicians. Results Core autistic symptoms were highly prevalent in all ASD subgroups. Though AD subjects had the most pervasive problems, restrictions in non-verbal communication were common across all three subgroups and, contrary to current DSM criteria, so were verbal communication deficits. Lifetime psychiatric axis I comorbidity was very common, most notably mood and anxiety disorders, but also ADHD and psychotic disorders. The frequency of these diagnoses did not differ between the ASD subgroups or between males and females. Antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse were more common in the PDD NOS group. Of all subjects, few led an independent life and very few had ever had a long-term relationship. Female subjects more often reported having been bullied at school than male subjects. Conclusion ASDs are clinical syndromes characterized by impaired social interaction and non-verbal communication in adulthood as well as in childhood. They also
Brooks, Alta R.
This article recommends strategies to speech-language pathologists for modifying behavior problems pertaining to authority relationships within the clinical setting and which interfere with the speech/language-impaired child's progress in therapy. (Author/DB)
Full Text Available Obesity and its related emotional and physical consequences are a worldwide problem. Obese individuals are usually stigmatized. This study is proposed to assess the correlation between body mass index, gender and age with psychiatric symptoms among Iranian students. A number of 9172 students aged 10-18 years (53.5% girls and 46.5% boys from all provinces of Iran participated in this study. Data was collected using the global school based health survey questionnaire of the World Health Organization (GSHS-WHO. Overall, prevalence of predictors of having emotional problems, depression and anxiety were 27.8%, 29.7% and 11.5% respectively. Girls had significantly higher prevalence of predictors of psychiatric symptoms. Overall obesity was a protective factor against emotional problems OR (CI95%:0.79(0.65-0.98, but it was attributable to obese boys OR (CI95%:0.72(0.55-0.95. Depression and anxiety symptoms were higher in intermediate school girls and high school girls and boys. More attention should be paid to girls' psychological problems. Besides, obesity had an indirect relation with predictors of having psychiatric problems in Iranian boys and it might be due to: (1 parents beliefs about heaviness as a predictor of healthiness, (2 boys lower vulnerability to psychological consequences of obesity and (3 lower pressure from parents on their obese sons to lose weight.
Rose, Donald N; Peter, Elizabeth; Gallop, Ruth; Angus, Jan E; Liaschenko, Joan
The context of forensic psychiatric nursing is distinct from other psychiatric settings as, it involves placement of patients in secure environments with restrictions determined by the courts. Previous literature has identified that nurses morally struggle with respecting patients who have committed heinous offences, which can lead to the patient being depersonalized and dehumanized. Although respect is fundamental to ethical nursing practice, it has not been adequately explored conceptually or empirically. As a result, little knowledge exists that identifies how nurses develop, maintain, and express respect for patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of respect systematically, from a forensic psychiatric nurse's perspective using the qualitative methodology of focused ethnography. Forensic psychiatric nurses were recruited from two medium secure forensic rehabilitation units. In the first interview, 13 registered nurses (RNs) and two registered practical nurses (RPNs) participated, and although all informants were invited to the second interview, six RNs were lost to follow-up. Despite this loss, saturation was achieved and the data were interpreted through a feminist philosophical lens. Respect was influenced by factors categorized into four themes: (1) emotive-cognitive reactions, (2) nonjudgmental approach, (3) social identity and power, and (4) context. The data from the themes indicate that forensic psychiatric nurses strike a practical compromise, in their understanding and enactment of respect in therapeutic relationships with forensic psychiatric patients. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Chung, Man Cheung; Symons, Christine; Gilliam, Jane; Kaminski, Edward R
Several studies have highlighted the link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and physical illnesses. No empirical studies, however, have investigated the relationship between PTSD and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). The role of personality traits in this relationship was also unknown. This study aimed to investigate (1) the extent to which patients with CIU fulfilled the PTSD diagnosis resulting from past traumas and (2) whether they developed psychiatric comorbidity, and (3) the relationship between CIU patients' personality traits, PTSD diagnosis, severity of CIU, and psychiatric comorbidity. One hundred patients with CIU and 60 patients with allergy (control) participated in the study. Patients' CIU severity was assessed. Both groups completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Thirty-four percent of patients with CIU and 18% of allergy patients met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Patients with CIU were 1.89 times more likely to have a current diagnosis of PTSD than the control group. Controlling for life event stress and perceived stress, significant differences were found between groups (CIU PTSD, CIU no PTSD, allergy PTSD, allergy no PTSD) in somatic problems, anxiety, and social dysfunction. Controlling for life event stress and perceived stress, regression analyses showed no significant associations between personality traits, PTSD diagnosis, and the severity of CIU. Posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis and neuroticism were, however, associated with psychiatric comorbidity. Patients with CIU have been shown to have concurrent PTSD resulting from past traumas and developed psychiatric comorbidity. Chronic idiopathic urticaria patients' comorbidity was related to the patients' PTSD diagnosis and their neurotic personality trait.
Mellman, T A; David, D; Kulick-Bell, R; Hebding, J; Nolan, B
Sleep disturbance is an important dimension of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but most of the limited available data were obtained years after the original traumatic event. This study provides information on sleep disturbance and its relationship to posttraumatic morbidity from evaluations done within a year after the trauma. Sleep and psychiatric symptoms of 54 victims (12 men and 42 women) of Hurricane Andrew who had no psychiatric illness in the 6 months before the hurricane were evaluated. A subset of hurricane victims with active psychiatric morbidity (N = 10) and nine comparison subjects who were unaffected by the hurricane were examined in a sleep laboratory. A broad range of sleep-related complaints were rated as being greater after the hurricane, and psychiatric morbidity (which was most commonly PTSD, followed by depression) had a significant effect on most of the subjective sleep measures. In addition, subjects with active morbidity endorsed greater frequencies of "bad dreams" and general sleep disturbances before the hurricane. Polysomnographic results for the hurricane victims revealed a greater number of arousals and entries into stage 1 sleep. REM density correlated positively with both the PTSD symptom of reexperiencing trauma and global distress. Subjects affected by Hurricane Andrew reported sleep disturbances, particularly those subjects with psychiatric morbidity. Tendencies to experience bad dreams and interrupted sleep before a trauma appear to mark vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity. Results of sleep laboratory evaluations suggested brief shifts toward higher arousal levels during sleep for PTSD subjects and a relationship of REM phasic activity and symptom severity.
Research into the character of social relationships in psychiatric inpatient facilities has focused on face-to-face interaction between individuals and within groups in the communal areas of wards. Using theories developed in material culture and media studies, this article argues that patients'
McMillen, J Curtis; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Robinson, Debra; Havlicek, Judy; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Bertram, Julie; McNelly, David
Older youth in out-of-home care often live in restrictive settings and face psychiatric issues without sufficient family support. This paper reports on the development and piloting of a manualized treatment foster care program designed to step down older youth with high psychiatric needs from residential programs to treatment foster care homes. A team of researchers and agency partners set out to develop a treatment foster care model for older youth based on Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC). After matching youth by mental health condition and determining for whom randomization would be allowed, 14 youth were randomized to treatment as usual or a treatment foster home intervention. Stakeholders were interviewed qualitatively at multiple time points. Quantitative measures assessed mental health symptoms, days in locked facilities, employment and educational outcomes. Development efforts led to substantial variations from the MTFC model and a new model, Treatment Foster Care for Older Youth was piloted. Feasibility monitoring suggested that it was difficult, but possible to recruit and randomize youth from and out of residential homes and that foster parents could be recruited to serve them. Qualitative data pointed to some qualified clinical successes. Stakeholders viewed two team roles - that of psychiatric nurse and skills coaches - very highly. However, results also suggested that foster parents and some staff did not tolerate the intervention well and struggled to address the emotion dysregulation issues of the young people they served. Quantitative data demonstrated that the intervention was not keeping youth out of locked facilities. The intervention needed further refinement prior to a broader trial. Intervention development work continued until components were developed to help address emotion regulation problems among fostered youth. Psychiatric nurses and skills coaches who work with youth in community settings hold promise as important
İlknur Kıvanç Altunay
Full Text Available Background and Design: Functional itch disorder is assessed among somatization disorders. Suppressed anger may play a role in the development of somatization and, thus, functional itch disorder. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship of severity of itching with anger, expression of anger and psychiatric disorders in patients with functional itch disorder. Materials and Methods: Forty patients who were diagnosed with functional itch disorder were enrolled into the study. Functional itch disorder was diagnosed according to the suggested diagnostic criteria from the French psychodermatology group. Pruritus severity was evaluated using the five-point Likert scale. The State-Trait Anger Expression Index was used to assess state anger, trait anger and anger expression and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I Plus 5.0.0 was used for determining psychiatric status. Results: A total of 40 patients (30 (75% females, 10 (25% males with a mean age 46.55±13.20 years were enrolled in the study. According to the results of the M.I.N.I., psychiatric comorbidities at the time of itching were existent in 29 (72.5% patients, whereas 13 (27.5% patients did not have any other psychiatric symptom. Pruritus duration was correlated with anger trait and anger-in subscale scores in all patients. (r=0.349, p=0.027, r=0.417, p=0.007, respectively. Trait anger and anger-out subscale scores were statistically higher in patients with psychiatric disorders (p<0.05. Anger control scores were also lower in this group. Pruritus duration was correlated with trait-anger and anger-in subscale scores in patients with psychiatric disorder. Conclusions: Functional pruritus (FP as a somatoform psychodermatologic disorder seems to be related with anger levels and anger management styles; and psychiatric disorders are frequently accompanied by functional pruritus
Latas, Milan; Starcević, Vladan; Trajković, Goran
Besides numerous studies that examined various aspects of comorbidity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and numerous studies that examined efficacy of different treatment modalities in these patients, there was no study that examined relationship of overall psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The objective of the study was to establish the effect of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment efficiency of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The sample of the study consisted of 119 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder and agoraphobia. The therapy of patients was based on the use of individual integrative model of treatment, which incorporated psycho-pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines and antidepressants) and cognitive-behavior therapy. Symptom severity was estimated by Panic and Agoraphobia Scale before and after the completion of treatment. Patients with comorbidity and patients without any comorbidity were compared by MANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures. The results of the study showed that 91% of patients met diagnostic criteria of comorbid psychiatric disorder and these patients had more severe clinical picture than patients without any comorbid disorder before the treatment. The results also showed that, after the completion of treatment, there was a significant reduction of all analyzed symptoms, that the effects of treatment were significantly better in patients with psychiatric comorbidity and that comorbid psychiatric disorders had no negative effect on the main goals of the treatment. Based on these results, it may be concluded that: in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and comorbid psychiatric disorders, the pharmacotherapy must be based on simultaneous use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines, while standard cognitive-behavior therapy of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia must be modified in case of the existing comorbid psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available Introduction. Besides numerous studies that examined various aspects of comorbidity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and numerous studies that examined efficacy of different treatment modalities in these patients, there was no study that examined relationship of overall psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Objective. The objective of the study was to establish the effect of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment efficiency of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Method. The sample of the study consisted of 119 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder and agoraphobia. The therapy of patients was based on the use of individual integrative model of treatment, which incorporated psycho-pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines and antidepressants and cognitive- behavior therapy. Symptom severity was estimated by Panic and Agoraphobia Scale before and after the completion of treatment. Patients with comorbidity and patients without any comorbidity were compared by MANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures. Results. The results of the study showed that 91% of patients met diagnostic criteria of comorbid psychiatric disorder and these patients had more severe clinical picture than patients without any comorbid disorder before the treatment. The results also showed that, after the completion of treatment, there was a significant reduction of all analyzed symptoms, that the effects of treatment were significantly better in patients with psychiatric comorbidity and that comorbid psychiatric disorders had no negative effect on the main goals of the treatment. Conclusion. Based on these results, it may be concluded that: in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and comorbid psychiatric disorders, the pharmacotherapy must be based on simultaneous use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines, while standard cognitive-behavior therapy of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia must
Cookson, Amy; Daffern, Michael; Foley, Fiona
Aggression during psychiatric hospitalization is frequent, problematic, and a major challenge for nurses and mental health services more generally. The strength of the therapeutic alliance between nursing staff and patients has been posited as an important protective factor that can limit the likelihood of aggression. This study examined the relationship between interpersonal style, perceived coercion, and psychiatric symptoms on the therapeutic alliance between patients and staff, and how each, in turn, is related to aggression. Participants in this study were 79 patients admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Each participant was interviewed to determine perceived coercion, symptoms of psychiatric illness, interpersonal style, and therapeutic alliance. Incidents of aggression were recorded at discharge through a review of incident forms, file review, and interviews with unit nursing staff. The results showed that a hostile-dominant interpersonal style and symptoms of paranoia predicted poor therapeutic alliance, contributing 14% of the variance in therapeutic alliance scores. A dominant interpersonal style predicted aggression towards staff. Therapeutic alliance, perceived coercion, and symptoms of psychiatric illness did not predict aggression. Implications for engagement in treatment and the prevention of aggression are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available The etiology of these dermatological diseases is entirely psychiatric origin. These patients show overconcern to their skin or self inflicted dermatoses unconsciously instead of facing with their real problems. In this group, delusions, dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder can be seen. They use denial as defence mechanism to their real psychiatric problems and prefer to apply dermatology instead of psychiatry. Dermatologist should be very careful before asking psychiatric consultation. Denial mechanism help patients to overcome agressive impulses like suicide or prevent further psychiatric damage like psychosis. Dermatologist should see these patients with short and frequent intervals with a good empathic approach. This will help to progress a powerful patient doctor relationship which will lead to a psychiatric evaluation.
Kong, Grace; Smith, Philip H; Pilver, Corey; Hoff, Rani; Potenza, Marc N
Little is known about the association between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska-Native (AI/AN) individuals. Thus, we examined these factors among a nationally representative sample of AI/AN and other American adults in the USA. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data, we conducted separate Wald tests and multinomial logistic regression analyses comparing AI/AN to black/African American, white/Caucasian, and all other racial/ethnic groups, respectively. Relative to other American adults, AI/AN adults were least likely to report non-/low-frequency gambling (NG: AI/AN 66.5%, white/Caucasian 70.5%, black/African American 72.8%, other racial/ethnic group 72.3%) and most likely to report low-risk gambling (LRG: AI/AN 30.1%, white/Caucasian 26.5%, black/African American 23.4%, other racial/ethnic group 24.7%). The association between at-risk/problem-gambling (ARPG) and any past-year Axis-I disorder was stronger among AI/AN versus other American adults. Although ARPG and LRG were associated with multiple past-year Axis-I and lifetime Axis-II psychiatric disorders in both AI/AN and other American adults, LRG was more strongly associated with both Axis-I disorders (particularly major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and nicotine dependence) and Cluster-B Axis-II (particularly antisocial personality disorder) disorders in AI/AN versus other American adults. A stronger association between problem-gambling severity and past-year psychiatric disorders among AI/AN relative to other American adults suggests the importance of enhancing mental health and problem-gambling prevention and treatment strategies that may help AI/AN individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of psychiatric problems in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD. METHODS: The Child Behavior Checklist for ages 4-18 years (CBCL/4-18, Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS, Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R, and The Turgay DSM-IV Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale, clinician and parent forms (T-DSM-IV-S were given to the caregivers and teachers of 31 children with SCD aged between 7-18 years and the caregivers and teachers of 34 age matched controls with irondeficiency anemia. RESULTS: The SCD patients had higher scores on all 4 of scales. Among the subscales, internalizing problems, and attention problems were more prominent in the SCD patients. CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents with SCD appear to have an increased risk for psychiatric problems. Regular psychological evaluation and referral to child and adolescent psychiatry clinics may facilitate timely diagnosis and effective treatment of at-risk children and adolescents.
Childbirth can trigger a variety of psychiatric disorders; however, no disorder is as profoundly affected by childbirth as bipolar disorder. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity especially anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and substance use disorders are quite high in individuals with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this scoping review is to ascertain the effect of childbirth on the relationship between the onset of bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. On June 27, 2017, a search of the Medline, PsycINFO, CINHAL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, and ISI-Web of Science (WOS) databases was performed using the terms mental disorders, mental disease, major depressive disorder, major depression, depression, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, comorbidity, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders, reactive attachment disorder, childbirth, parturition, puerperium, postpartum, postpartum period and postnatal period. Reference lists of identified papers were manually searched, and all relevant papers published in English were included. A total of eight relevant articles were identified and included in the review. There is some evidence to suggest that occurrence of certain psychiatric disorders in the postpartum period may predict later onset of bipolar disorder. It is unknown whether childbirth raises the risk of postpartum recurrence of comorbid disorders. Whether patients who have past histories of psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for onset of bipolar disorder in the postpartum period also remains unclear. Additional research is needed to increase our understanding of the impact of childbirth on bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. A better understanding of this issue could lead to more accurate and timely detection, improved treatment planning, and optimal delivery of care for these disorders.
Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James Rp; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E
There is a growing body of research investigating the relationship between child sexual abuse and a range of adverse outcomes. However, very little is known about the long-term co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems among this vulnerable population, or the interaction between characteristics of the abuse, such as the nature and timing of the child sexual abuse, and the extent of subsequent adversities. This study aimed to determine the rate and co-occurrence of mental health morbidity, criminal justice system contact, and fatal self-harm among medically confirmed victims of child sexual abuse, and to identify abuse variables associated with a greater likelihood of cumulative adverse experiences. The forensic medical records of 2759 cases of child sexual abuse assessed between 1964 and 1995 were linked with public psychiatric, criminal justice and coronial administrative databases between 13 and 44 years following abuse. Cases were compared to 2677 matched comparisons from the general population. Abuse victims were more likely (odds ratio = 7.2, 95% confidence interval = [4.9, 10.4], p mental illness. Relative to comparisons, female victims demonstrated the largest increase in odds for cumulative outcomes (odds ratio = 9.8, 95% confidence interval = [5.8, 16.8], p Sexual abuse, particularly during adolescence (ages 12-16 years), appears to be a risk factor for co-occurring adverse experiences. This study identifies particular groups of child sexual abuse victims as at-risk and requiring targeted intervention.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: The study about effective management dimensions in hospital staff performance is important. This study was done to survey the relationship between job satisfaction and burnout in the rehabilitation personnel of Razi Psychiatric Hospital in Tehran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 77 subjects including psychometrics, general practitioners, specialists, nurses, social workers, occupational therapists and psychologists were selected randomly among rehabilitation staff in Razi Psychiatric Hospital in 2011. The data were collected using Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ.The data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation method. Results: Job satisfaction had an inverse relationship with "emotional exhaustion" and "depersonalization"(p<0.001, but there was not a significant relationship between "personal accomplishment" and "job satisfaction". The mean of emotional exhaustion was 68.18, depersonalization 68.4 and personal accomplishment 29.36. In addition, the results of this study showed that 36.6 percent of rehabilitation team employees in Razi Psychiatric Hospital were satisfied with their jobs. Conclusion: As the results show, it is necessary to perform further research to find the main reasons of intensifying job burnout and then reduce these critical factors leading to personnel dissatisfaction from their jobs and any probable consequence of this dissatisfaction.
Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Johnson, Jeffrey G; Kasen, Stephanie
To investigate normative patterns of peer relationships from ages 17 to 27, and to examine the impact of adolescent psychiatric disorders on peer relationships. Psychiatric disorders were measured at a mean age 16 years. At mean age 29, 200 participants completed detailed narrative interviews about their transition to adulthood. Monthly contact and conflict with peers were described in narratives covering ages 17-27. Adolescent psychiatric disorders did not predict the frequency of peer contact in the young adult period. However, adolescent disruptive disorders predicted greater peer conflict regardless of contact frequency. Adolescents with major depressive or substance abuse disorders and subsequent high frequency of peer contact reported elevated peer conflict during the transition to adulthood. In contrast, among study participants with frequent peer contact during this period, those with adolescent anxiety disorders reported less peer conflict than did those without such a diagnostic history. Adolescents with major depressive, disruptive, and substance abuse disorders may be at risk for long-term negative peer relationships, whereas those with anxiety disorders may subsequently avoid peer conflict.
Sanacora, Rachel L; Whiting, Seth W; Pilver, Corey E; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Background and aims Problem and pathological gambling have been associated with elevated rates of both Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders. Although both problem gambling and psychiatric disorders have been reported as being more prevalent among lower income vs. middle/higher income groups, how income might moderate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology is incompletely understood. To examine the associations between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in lower income and middle/higher income groups. Methods Data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed in adjusted logistic regression models to investigate the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders within and across income groups. Results Greater problem-gambling severity was associated with increased odds of multiple psychiatric disorders for both lower income and middle/higher income groups. Income moderated the association between problem/pathological gambling and alcohol abuse/dependence, with a stronger association seen among middle/higher income respondents than among lower income respondents. Discussion and conclusions The findings that problem-gambling severity is related to psychopathology across income groups suggest a need for public health initiatives across social strata to reduce the impact that problem/pathological gambling may have in relation to psychopathology. Middle/higher income populations, perhaps owing to the availability of more "disposable income," may be at greater risk for co-occurring gambling and alcohol-use psychopathology and may benefit preferentially from interventions targeting both gambling and alcohol use.
Tural Hesapcioglu, Selma; Ercan, Filiz
The effect of cyberbullying accompanied by traditional bullying on mental health has been less studied. In this study, the frequency, co-occurrence, and the relationship to psychiatric symptoms of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among bullies and victims are examined. All of the high schools in the province of Mus, Turkey were stratified according to Placement Test for High Schools admission points for 2014-2015. By choosing schools using simple random sampling, 1276 students were reached. Students were given the Brief Symptom Inventory and three separate scale assessments: peer bullying rating, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying scales. High scores in all subscale scores of bullying and victimization were significantly related to higher depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, somatization, and hostility scores. For people who were exposed to cyberbullying in addition to traditional bullying, the severity of the psychiatric symptoms was significantly higher. For all psychiatric symptoms, major predictors were gender, total victimization score, and total cybervictimization score. Moreover, the bullying total score was among the predictors of low self-esteem and hostility. Cybervictimization and cyberbullying occur less often than traditional bullying and victimization, but people who were exposed to or performed cyberbullying were also exposed to or performed traditional bullying. The addition of cyberbullying to traditional bullying is associated with more intense psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Silverstone, Peter H; Salsali, Mahnaz
Background The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of lowered self-esteem across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. There were 957 psychiatric patients, 182 cases with conditions not attributable to a mental disorder, and 51 control subjects. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, individuals completed two questionnaires to measure self-esteem, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. Statistical analyses were performed on the scores of the two self-esteem scales. Results The results of the present study demonstrate that all psychiatric patients suffer some degree of lowered self-esteem. Furthermore, the degree to which self-esteem was lowered differed among various diagnostic groups. Self-esteem was lowest in patients with major depressive disorder, eating disorders, and substance abuse. Also, there is evidence of cumulative effects of psychiatric disorders on self-esteem. Patients who had comorbid diagnoses, particularly when one of the diagnoses was depressive disorders, tended to show lower self-esteem. Conclusions Based on both the previous literature, and the results from the current study, we propose that there is a vicious cycle between low self-esteem and onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, low self-esteem increases the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders, and the presence of a psychiatric disorder, in turn, lowers self-esteem. Our findings suggest that this effect is more pronounced with certain psychiatric disorders, such as major depression and eating disorders. PMID:12620127
Silverstone, Peter H; Salsali, Mahnaz
BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of lowered self-esteem across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. There were 957 psychiatric patients, 182 cases with conditions not attributable to a mental disorder, and 51 control subjects. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, individuals completed two questionnaires to measure self-esteem, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. Statistical analyses were performed on the scores of the two self-esteem scales. RESULTS: The results of the present study demonstrate that all psychiatric patients suffer some degree of lowered self-esteem. Furthermore, the degree to which self-esteem was lowered differed among various diagnostic groups. Self-esteem was lowest in patients with major depressive disorder, eating disorders, and substance abuse. Also, there is evidence of cumulative effects of psychiatric disorders on self-esteem. Patients who had comorbid diagnoses, particularly when one of the diagnoses was depressive disorders, tended to show lower self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Based on both the previous literature, and the results from the current study, we propose that there is a vicious cycle between low self-esteem and onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, low self-esteem increases the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders, and the presence of a psychiatric disorder, in turn, lowers self-esteem. Our findings suggest that this effect is more pronounced with certain psychiatric disorders, such as major depression and eating disorders.
Brandt, Laura; Fischer, Gabriele
The aim of this study is as follows: (a) exploring retrospective childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology in treatment-seeking gamblers, (b) providing detailed characteristics of the association between pathological gambling (PG) and ADHD, and (c) identifying risk factors for a history of ADHD. Eighty problem gamblers (20% female) were examined using a standardized interview (PG: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.; DSM-IV] criteria, Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey; ADHD: Wender Utah Rating Scale- deutsche Kurzform, Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale; comorbidities: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). Forty-three percentage of patients screened positive for childhood ADHD, and in 11%, ADHD persisted in adulthood. Patients with adult ADHD had more severe gambling problems ( p = .009, d = 1.03) and a higher number of psychiatric comorbidities ( p gamblers.
Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth
Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Deux, Natalie; Schlarb, Angelika A; Martin, Franziska; Holtmann, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Legenbauer, Tanja
Adolescent psychiatric patients are vulnerable to weight problems and show an overrepresentation of overweight compared to the healthy population. One potential factor that can contribute to the etiology of overweight is higher impulsivity. As of yet, it is unclear whether it is a general impulse control deficit or weight-related aspects such as lower impulse control in response to food that have an impact on body weight. As this may have therapeutic implications, the current study investigated differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 98; aged 12-20) in relation to trait impulsivity and behavioral inhibition performance. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and two go/no-go paradigms with neutral and food-related stimulus materials were applied. Results indicated no significant differences concerning trait impulsivity, but revealed that overweight inpatients had significantly more difficulties in inhibition performance (i.e. they reacted more impulsively) in response to both food and neutral stimuli compared to non-overweight inpatients. Furthermore, no specific inhibition deficit for high-caloric vs. low-caloric food cues emerged in overweight inpatients, whereas non-overweight participants showed significantly lower inhibition skills in response to high-caloric than low-caloric food stimuli. The results highlight a rather general, non-food-specific reduced inhibition performance in an overweight adolescent psychiatric population. Further research is necessary to enhance the understanding of the role of impulsivity in terms of body weight status in this high-risk group of adolescent inpatients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Offord, D R; Boyle, M H
This paper focuses on problems that can be encountered in conceptualizing, executing and writing up large-scale psychiatric epidemiological studies. It makes no attempt to cover fundamental issues of design and analysis, rather it centers on problems associated with projects of considerable size. In the conceptual area, it discusses the prerequisites to be considered before deciding to launch such a study. It notes the administrative and scientific uses of epidemiological studies and considers the strengths and weaknesses of large-scale studies to address those concerns. Issues in carrying out such studies are discussed including decisions about study design, sampling method and instrumentation. All are dependent on the central purpose of the study but trade-offs between feasibility and scientific rigor are always present. Data collection and analysis problems highlighted in large-scale studies are examined. They include the difficulty, in the former, of adequately motivating and supervising field personnel and, in the latter, of dealing with problems that accompany missing data and complicated sampling strategies. Potential problems in data access and use and writing up the results are seen as arising from the presence of a large investigative team with diverse interests. Lastly, the comparative worth of these studies is considered.
Jagt-Jelsma, W. van der; Vries-Schot, M.R. de; Jong, R. de; Hartman, C.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Klip, H.; Deurzen, P.A. van; Buitelaar, J.K.
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. METHOD: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were
van der Jagt-Jelsma, W.; de Vries-Schot, M. R.; de Jong, Rint; Hartman, C. A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Klip, H.; van Deurzen, P. A. M.; Buitelaar, J. K.
Background: This study investigated the association between the religiosity of parents and pre-adolescents, and pre-adolescents' psychiatric problems. Method: In a clinic-referred cohort of 543 pre-adolescents at least once referred to a mental health outpatient clinic mental health problems were
Cuijpers, P; Langendoen, Y; Bijl, R V
(1) To confirm the increased risk of psychiatric disorders in Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs); (2) to test if the age of onset of the disorders differs for ACOAs versus non-ACOAs; (3) to estimate the weight of being an ACOA compared to other risk factors including childhood traumas, other parental problem behaviours and current risk factors. A random sample of the Dutch population (N = 7147) was interviewed (response rate: 69.7%). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the CIDI. Parental problem drinking, other parental problem behaviours and childhood traumas were assessed using self-report measures. (1) ACOAs had a significantly higher life-time, 12-month and 1-month prevalence of mood, anxiety and abuse/dependence disorders. Sons of problem drinkers also had a higher prevalence of eating disorders and schizophrenia. The prevalence rates were particularly high for the children of fathers with drinking problems. (2) The first onset of the mood and anxiety disorders took place at a younger age in ACOAs than in non-ACOAs. (3) Relative to other parental problem behaviours and childhood traumas, parental problem drinking is a strong predictor of psychiatric disorders, in particular abuse/dependence disorders. Children of fathers with a drinking problem are a high-risk group for psychiatric disorder. From a public health perspective it is an important target to break through this continuing circle. The further development of prevention and early treatment interventions at schools, youth care and addiction treatment centres is an important issue.
Boisvert, Marie-Michele; Wright, John; Tremblay, Nadine; McDuff, Pierre
Understanding couples' relationship problems is fundamental to couple therapy. Although research has documented common relationship problems, no study has used open-ended questions to explore problems in couples seeking therapy in naturalistic settings. The present study used a reliable coding system to explore the relationship problems reported…
Parrott, Fiona R
Research into the character of social relationships in psychiatric inpatient facilities has focused on face-to-face interaction between individuals and within groups in the communal areas of wards. Using theories developed in material culture and media studies, this article argues that patients' relationships to goods, namely, photographs, cards and gifts from family or friends, televisions and radios, are important mediators and constituents of sociability. In an ethnographic study of a medium-secure psychiatric unit, I show how these goods are put to use in private space in ways that reflect and mitigate the constraints of incarceration and stigmatization. The data were derived from 3 months of participant observation on a male and a female ward at a unit in the south of England, including a series of anthropological interviews with 19 patients. This article highlights two important findings. First, potentially isolating activities are perceived by patients as sociable, in that watching television and looking at photographs in their room helps to counter feelings of loneliness and isolation. Second, potentially sociable activities, exchanging goods or watching the communal television, are often practiced in such a way as to maintain distance between patients in acknowledgment of the constrained and volatile nature of these relationships. This suggests that patients aspire to retain a sense of the artificiality of their situation, preferring to confine their notion of 'real' relationships to those that exist outside the institution.
Moreno-Poyato, Antonio R; Montesó-Curto, Pilar; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Suárez-Pérez, Raquel; Aceña-Domínguez, Rosa; Carreras-Salvador, Regina; Leyva-Moral, Juan M; Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Roldán-Merino, Juan F
To study the significance of 'therapeutic relationship' between nurses and patients within the context of a psychiatric hospital. Narrative literature review. Content analysis. The significance of the therapeutic relationship is quite similar for both nurses and patients in psychiatric hospital units. Nevertheless, several factors may separate the two positions: the time available for the relationship, the negative perceptions on the part of both parties, and the insecurity of the setting. Increased knowledge and understanding of the significance of the therapeutic relationship from the perspective of nurses and patients would allow the strengthening of areas of mutual interest. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Keeffe, Donal; Turner, Niall; Foley, Sharon; Lawlor, Elizabeth; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Clarke, Mary
There is an unclear relationship between mental health literacy (MHL) and psychiatric stigma. MHL is associated with both positive and negative attitudes to mental illness. To our knowledge, no published peer reviewed study has examined this relationship in the Republic of Ireland. This study was conducted to assess MHL regarding schizophrenia and the degree of psychiatric stigma displayed by the general public in the Republic of Ireland. A face-to-face in-home omnibus survey was conducted with a representative sample of residents of the Republic of Ireland. Participants (N = 1001) were presented with a vignette depicting schizophrenia and were asked questions to determine their ability to recognise the condition and to ascertain their attitudes towards schizophrenia and mental illness. Among the participants, 34.1% correctly identified schizophrenia. Higher age, higher socioeconomic status, and an urban geographic location predicted identification. Those who did not correctly identify schizophrenia were significantly more optimistic about recovery and perceived people with schizophrenia as less dangerous. However, only the relationship with perceived dangerousness was considered robust. Participants with higher MHL displayed more negative attitudes to mental illness. Findings have implications internationally for MHL and anti-stigma campaigns.
Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A
Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.
Breeman, L D; van Lier, P A C; Wubbels, T; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T
In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children's behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream education cannot be generalized to special education. The present study investigated the developmental links between disobedience and positive as well as negative relationships with teachers and peers among boys in restrictive special educational settings. At three assessment waves across one school year, teacher-reports of teacher-child closeness and conflict, and peer-reports of peer acceptance, rejection and disobedience were collected among 340 boys (mean age = 10.1 years, SD = 1.58, range = 5-13) with psychiatric disorders receiving special education. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were fitted to explore the nature of these developmental links. The impact of boys' age was examined using multiple group analyses. Findings supported the importance of teacher-child conflict, but not closeness, and positive and negative peer relationships for the development of boys' disobedience, with a stronger effect of negative than positive relationships. However, teacher-child and peer relationships were not longitudinally related and the effect of boys' age was minimal. This study extends prior research by suggesting that, despite differences in educational setting and severity of behavior problems between children in mainstream and special education, reducing negative classroom interactional patterns is most important in preventing the development of problematic classroom behavior in boys with severe social-emotional and behavioral difficulties.
Bailey, S Kathleen; Mushquash, Christopher J; Haggarty, John M
The relationship between male sex and employment as barriers to accessing mental health care is unclear. The aim of this research was to examine (1) whether the clinical features of men referred to a shared mental health care (SMHC) service through primary care differed when symptoms were affecting them in the work domain; and (2) empirically re-evaluate the effectiveness of a SMHC model for work-related disability using a pre-post chart review of N = 3960 referrals to SMHC. ANOVA and logistic regression were performed to examine symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2) at entry and discharge. Men were RR (relative risk) = 1.8 (95% C.I.: 1.60-2.05) times more likely to be referred to SMHC with work problems than women. Having greater disability and more severe somatic symptoms increased the likelihood of a work-related referral. There were no significant differences after treatment. Problems in the work domain may play an important role in men's treatment seeking and clinicians' recognition of a mental health care need. This study is relevant because men are underrepresented in mental health (MH) treatment and primary care is the main gateway to accessing MH care. Asking men about functioning in the work domain may increase access to helpful psychiatric services.
Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Scaramuzzi, Francesca; Palumbo, Claudia; Tyropani, Margarita; Pace, Valeria; Quagliarella, Luca; Brescia, Francesco; Natilla, Lilia Carmen; Loverro, Giuseppe; Todarello, Orlando
Several studies indicate increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among patients with psychiatric disorders as well as among individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) treated by cross-sex hormonal treatment. However, the MetS prevalence among hormone treated GD individuals suffering from psychiatric problems has not been detected. From a sample of 146 GD patients we selected 122 metabolically healthy individuals in order to investigate the prevalence of MetS after the beginning of the cross-sex hormonal treatment in a 2 year follow-up assessment. Furthermore, we assessed differences in MetS prevalence between hormone treated GD patients with and without concomitant psychiatric problems. When treated with hormone therapy, GD patients reported changes in several parameters which are clustered in MetS, with statistically significant differences compared to baseline. Glyco-insulinemic alterations were more pronounced in male to female patients (MtFs). However, weight gain, waist circumference increases, blood pressure increases, and lipid alterations were similar in MtFs and female to male patients (FtMs). 14.8% of the sample at year 1 and 17.2% at year 2 developed MetS. Among patients with concomitant psychiatric problems, 50% at year 1 and 55% at year 2 developed MetS against 8% at year 1 and 10% at year 2 of patients without concomitant psychiatric problems. This study indicates that sex hormones induce MetS in a relatively low proportion of healthy GD individuals and especially during the first year of hormonal treatment. Most importantly, concomitant psychiatric problems are associated with considerably greater MetS prevalence in hormone treated GD individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huurre, Taina; Santalahti, Päivi; Kiviruusu, Olli; Solantaus, Tytti
The study investigated whether cuts to school resources made during economic recession contribute to children's psychiatric and economic problems in early adulthood. The cohort consisted of 817 Finnish children. Data was gathered from teachers during a recession (child age 12) and from national registers on children's post-recession use of…
Freedman, Jacob L; Gutheil, Thomas G
Suddenly encountering a patient who happens to be a person with whom a therapist has had a previous nonclinical relationship poses special problems for both the therapist and patient. The problems--including countertransference issues, dual relationships, and other concerns surrounding subsequent therapy--are discussed in this column through the use of examples. The authors conclude that the potential disadvantages of treating such patients outweigh any advantages that might come from previous relationships. The consequent recommendation is that such patients be referred to other clinicians.
Werch, Chudley E.; And Others
Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…
Saberi, Seyed Mehdi; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Ghorbani, Mazaher; Nasrabadi, Zaynab Nasri; Meysamie, Ali Pasha
Objective In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers. Method In a prospective study 45 malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran. Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher's exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%). Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032) and a higher level of education (P=0.008) than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040). With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048) for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034), mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000) and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039) for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants. Conclusion This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be useful in detection of malingering,; however
Seyed Mehdi Saberi
Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be
Knisely, J E; Northouse, L
A descriptive exploratory design was used to examine the relationship between the level of social support, the level of psychological distress, and the extent of help-seeking behavior in a nonprobability sample of 53 hospitalized adult psychiatric patients. The subjects completed the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and a researcher-designed Help-Seeking Behavior Questionnaire. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficients and t test were used to analyze the data. No significant correlation was found between the level of psychological distress and either the level of social support or the extent of help seeking. Social support and help seeking were highly correlated. These results have an implication for nursing practice pertaining to the focus of patient treatment both during hospitalization and in postdischarge planning.
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Stinchfield, Randy; Golberstein, Ezra
This study sought to examine the impact of tobacco use on gambling treatment. Pathological gambling (PG) is a psychiatric condition associated with significant financial, emotional, and psychosocial consequences. Elevated rates of nicotine dependence have been associated with increased gambling...... severity and more frequent psychiatric problems. A total of 385 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers enrolled in one of 11 gambling treatment providers in Minnesota were assessed. Linear regression modeling was used to examine demographic and clinical variables at treatment entry and the relationship...... between those variables and the number of days gambled at a 6-month posttreatment. Logistic regression was utilized to assess predictors of treatment completion. Daily tobacco use was reported in 244 (63.4%) subjects. Tobacco users presented with significantly more severe gambling and mental health...
McMillen, J Curtis; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Robinson, Debra; Havlicek, Judy; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Bertram, Julie; McNelly, David
.... This paper reports on the development and piloting of a manualized treatment foster care program designed to step down older youth with high psychiatric needs from residential programs to treatment foster care homes...
Barrett Sean P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ongoing psychiatric symptoms and substance use are common difficulties experienced by clients enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT. However, little research to date has evaluated if specific types of current substance use are related to specific types of current psychiatric symptoms. The present study investigated these relationships with a sample of clients enrolled in a low-threshold MMT program (i.e., clients are not expelled if they continue to use substances. Some clients enrolled in low-threshold programs may never achieve complete abstinence from all substances. Thus, understanding the possibly perpetuating relationships between concurrent substance use and psychiatric symptoms is important. Understanding such relationships may aid in developing possible target areas of treatment to reduce substance use and/or related harms in this population. Methods Seventy-seven individuals were interviewed regarding methadone usage and current and past substance use. Current psychiatric symptoms were assessed using a modified version of the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ. Relationships between types of substances used in the past 30 days and the types and number of psychiatric symptoms experienced in the same timeframe were examined. Results The majority of participants (87.0% reported using alcohol, illicit substances, non-prescribed prescription opioids, or non-prescribed benzodiazepines in the past 30 days and 77.9% of participants reported currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms at levels that would likely warrant diagnosis. Current non-prescribed benzodiazepine use was a predictor for increased severity (i.e., symptom count of almost all anxiety and mood disorders assessed. Conversely, number and presence of generalized anxiety symptoms and presence of social phobia symptoms predicted current non-prescribed benzodiazepine and alcohol use, respectively. Conclusions Individuals enrolled in
Full Text Available Abstract Background While a number of studies have looked at life on service users' experiences of life on psychiatric wards, no research exists that have approached these experiences from the user perspective since the introduction of community care. Methods This user-led study uses a participatory approach to develop an understanding of the processes and themes which define the user experience of hospitalisation. Nineteen service users who had all had inpatient stays in psychiatric hospitals in London were interviewed in the community. Results Relationships formed the core of service users' experiences. Three further codes, treatment, freedom and environment defined the role of hospital and its physical aspects. Themes of communication, safety, trust, coercion, and cultural competency contributed to the concept of relationships. Conclusion Relationships with an individual which comprised effective communication, cultural sensitivity, and the absence of coercion resulted in that person being attributed with a sense of trust. This resulted in the patient experiencing the hospital as a place of safety in terms of risk from other patients and staff. Barriers to positive relationships included ineffective and negative communication, a lack of trust, a lack of safety in terms of staff as ineffective in preventing violence, and as perpetrators themselves, and the use of coercion by staff. This unique perspective both acts as a source of triangulation with previous studies and highlights the importance of the therapeutic relationship in providing a safe and therapeutic milieu for the treatment of people with acute mental health problems.
Kramer, Ueli; Kolly, Stéphane; Berthoud, Laurent; Keller, Sabine; Preisig, Martin; Caspar, Franz; Berger, Thomas; de Roten, Yves; Marquet, Pierre; Despland, Jean-Nicolas
Motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR) was postulated to be a particularly helpful therapeutic ingredient in the early treatment phase of patients with personality disorders, in particular with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present randomized controlled study using an add-on design is the first study to test this assumption in a 10-session general psychiatric treatment with patients presenting with BPD on symptom reduction and therapeutic alliance. A total of 85 patients were randomized. They were either allocated to a manual-based short variant of the general psychiatric management (GPM) treatment (in 10 sessions) or to the same treatment where MOTR was deliberately added to the treatment. Treatment attrition and integrity analyses yielded satisfactory results. The results of the intent-to-treat analyses suggested a global efficacy of MOTR, in the sense of an additional reduction of general problems, i.e. symptoms, interpersonal and social problems (F1, 73 = 7.25, p < 0.05). However, they also showed that MOTR did not yield an additional reduction of specific borderline symptoms. It was also shown that a stronger therapeutic alliance, as assessed by the therapist, developed in MOTR treatments compared to GPM (Z55 = 0.99, p < 0.04). These results suggest that adding MOTR to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments of BPD is promising. Moreover, the findings shed additional light on the perspective of shortening treatments for patients presenting with BPD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Simpson, Alan; Bowers, Len; Haglund, Kristina; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Nijman, Henk; Van der Merwe, Marie
In this paper we report on the rates of drug/alcohol use on acute psychiatric wards in relation to levels and intensity of exit security measures. Many inpatient wards have become permanently locked, with staff concerned about the risk of patients leaving the ward and harming themselves or others, and of people bringing illicit substances into the therapeutic environment. In 2004/2005, a cross sectional survey on 136 acute psychiatric wards across three areas of England was undertaken. A comprehensive range of data including door locking and drug/alcohol use were collected over 6 months on each ward. In 2006, supplementary data on door locking and exit security were collected. Door locking, additional exit security measures and substance misuse rates of the 136 wards were analysed and the associations between these were investigated. No consistent relationships were found with exit security features, intensity of drug/alcohol monitoring procedures, or the locking of the ward door. There were indications that use of breath testing for alcohol might reduce usage and that the use of 'sniffer' dogs was associated with greater alcohol use. Greater exit security or locking of the ward door had no influence on rates of use of alcohol or illicit drugs by inpatients and thus cannot form part of any strategy to control substance use by inpatients. There are some grounds to believe that a greater use of screening might help reduce the frequency of alcohol/substance use on wards and may lead to a reduction in verbal abuse. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Stålenheim, E G
The relationship between suicide attempts and different vulnerability factors was investigated in 61 male subjects during forensic psychiatric examination. Personality traits and psychopathy were determined by means of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Clinical diagnoses were determined by the use of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). Platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was investigated in 58 subjects. Suicide attempters had extremely low socialization and high impulsive aggression. This was independent of a history of repeatedly criminal violence or not. They had higher PCL-R scores and lower levels of platelet MAO activity than non-attempters. No relationship was found between suicide attempts and repeated violent criminality. However, among the subjects with repeated criminal violence there was a highly significant difference between suicide attempters and non-attempters, indicating different personality profiles in violent offenders with and without suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior was significantly associated with borderline personality disorder, but not with any other single DSM-III-R disorder. The results show a far more severe personality disturbance in suicide attempters than in other violent patients in this type of population. Suicidal behavior should therefore be evaluated and treated per se.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of literature shows that patients accept the use of computers in clinical care. Nonetheless, studies have shown that computers unequivocally change both verbal and non-verbal communication style and increase patients' concerns about the privacy of their records. We found no studies which evaluated the use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs specifically on psychiatric patient satisfaction, nor any that took place exclusively in a psychiatric treatment setting. Due to the special reliance on communication for psychiatric diagnosis and evaluation, and the emphasis on confidentiality of psychiatric records, the results of previous studies may not apply equally to psychiatric patients. Method We examined the association between EHR use and changes to the patient-psychiatrist relationship. A patient satisfaction survey was administered to psychiatric patient volunteers prior to and following implementation of an EHR. All subjects were adult outpatients with chronic mental illness. Results Survey responses were grouped into categories of "Overall," "Technical," "Interpersonal," "Communication & Education,," "Time," "Confidentiality," "Anxiety," and "Computer Use." Multiple, unpaired, two-tailed t-tests comparing pre- and post-implementation groups showed no significant differences (at the 0.05 level to any questionnaire category for all subjects combined or when subjects were stratified by primary diagnosis category. Conclusions While many barriers to the adoption of electronic health records do exist, concerns about disruption to the patient-psychiatrist relationship need not be a prominent focus. Attention to communication style, interpersonal manner, and computer proficiency may help maintain the quality of the patient-psychiatrist relationship following EHR implementation.
Jacobson, Nicholas C.
This study sought to evaluate the current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychopathology by examining whether these disorders impact the quantity of offspring or the quality of the parent-child relationship across the lifespan. Using the National Comorbidity Survey, this study examined whether DSM-III-R anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depressive, bipolar, substance use, antisocial, and psychosis disorders predicted later fertility and the quality of parent-child relationships across the lifespan...
Bloom, Erika Litvin; Abrantes, Ana M; Fokas, Kathryn F; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A
Physical activity has been identified as a protective factor with regard to tobacco use, such that physically active adolescents are less likely to initiate smoking, and smokers are less physically active than non-smokers. These findings, along with the well-documented benefits of exercise on mood and well-being in adults, have stimulated interest in exercise-based smoking cessation interventions. However, little research has explored the relationship between physical activity and smoking characteristics within adolescent smokers. Also, gender differences in adolescents' motives for smoking and exercise may have implications for intervention development, especially in clinical populations. The current study explored the relationship between physical activity and smoking in a sample of adolescent smokers (N = 191) and non-smokers (N = 48) receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment (61% female, mean age 15.3 years). Results indicated that smokers were less likely to be physically active than non-smokers. Additionally, there was a consistent pattern of gender differences in the relationship between smoking and physical activity within smokers. Specifically, physically active male smokers were less nicotine dependent and less prone to withdrawal, and had a trend toward greater motivation to quit, than their non-active counterparts. In contrast, physically active female smokers did not differ in dependence or withdrawal and were less motivated to quit than non-active female smokers. Taken together, these results suggest that within clinical populations of adolescent females, smoking and exercise may be used jointly as weight control strategies. Exercise-based interventions for smoking cessation for adolescent females, especially clinical populations, should address weight and body image concerns.
Lancon, Christophe; Martinelli, Marion; Michel, Pierre; Debals, Matthias; Auquier, Pascal; Guedj, Eric; Boyer, Laurent
The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the psychiatric comorbidities in adult individuals with high potential; 2) to assess self-esteem and quality of life in comparison with general population; 3) to study the relationships between intelligent quotient (IQ), self-esteem, psychiatric comorbidities and quality of life. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the psychiatric department of a public university hospital (Marseille, France). An outpatient hospital service has been specifically opened to test intelligence since 2012. During a period of six months, it was proposed to all the major individuals with high intellectual potential to receive a psychiatric evaluation using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and to complete self-report questionnaires assessing depression (Beck scale), anxiety (STAI), self-esteem (Rosenberg scale) and quality of life (SF-36). Relationships between IQ, self-esteem, psychiatric comorbidities and quality of life were analyzed using a Bayesian path analysis. Twenty-eight subjects were included, 8 had an IQ between 115 and 130, and 20 had an IQ>130. Fifty-seven percent of individuals had generalized anxiety, 21.4% a current major depressive episode, and 75% a past major depressive episode. Subjects had a low self-esteem and quality of life levels significantly lower than those in the French general population. Subjects with higher self-esteem levels had more depressive (β=0.726, Pself-esteem was defensive and inadequate. Our study found a high frequency of psychiatric disorders associated with low levels of self-esteem and quality of life. A psychological treatment focusing on self-esteem may have a beneficial effect on anxiety, depression and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Harris, G T
This study examined the relationship between neuroleptic medication dose and performance in a token economy program on two maximum security psychiatric wards. Patients receiving higher than average doses exhibited poorer than average program performance but there was a small but statistically significant positive relationship between neuroleptic drug dose (measured in CPZ units/kg) and program performance. However, this positive relationship existed only for the first few weeks of patients' hospital stays, and there was a delay (approximately 2 weeks) between the administration of the drug and the maximal positive effect on program performance. Only a very small minority of medication changes were ever followed by improvements in program performance. The results are discussed in terms of what is a rational strategy for the provision of psychiatric medication and other forms of treatment in institutional settings.
Ruane, Jean; Hayter, Mark
The issue of relationships between patients in long-term care settings can present nurses with numerous challenges. However, addressing this element of patient care is recognised as an important element of nursing in this sphere of practice. What nurses think about patient sexual relationships and the difficulties of incorporating these into care is closely linked to the care they provide. However, the issue of patients sexual relationships within high security psychiatric hospitals is a relatively poorly researched area of clinical practice. To explore the attitudes towards patients' sexual relationships held by nurses working in high security psychiatric hospitals in England. A qualitative methodology was employed with data collected from 10 in-depth interviews with nurses working within secure psychiatric hospitals in England. Interview data were subjected to thematic analysis. Practitioners reject permissive policy in relation to patients' sexual relationships on account of perceived perpetuation of abuse and exploitation. Practices and attitudes are dominated by personal (lay) values that seek to restrict patient experience and undermine professional mores whilst also seeming to uphold a professional duty of care. Lay understandings are constructed as moral rights and priorities that are of higher order concern than professional values or the rights of the individual. This constitutes a clash of values and the minimisation of professional mores within the clinical context raises questions about the role of professional teaching, knowledge and policy in relation to professional socialisation.
Lee, S Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cas...
Lee, S. Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Perlis, Roy H.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E.; Witte, John S.; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayes, Monica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, Rene; Bruggeman, Richard; Cormican, Paul; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Byrne, Enda M.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; De Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisen, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andres; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stephane; Jones, Edward G.; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Kaehler, Anna K.; Kahn, Rene S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landen, Mikael; Langstrom, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Muir, Walter J.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Michael C.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Noethen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Josep; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnstroem, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribases, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; Van Grootheest, Gerard; Van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zoellner, Sebastian; Devlin, Bernie; Kelsoe, John R.; Sklar, Pamela; Daly, Mark J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nicholas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Wray, Naomi R.
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases
Lee, S. Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Perlis, Roy H.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E.; Witte, John S.; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Cormican, Paul; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Byrne, Enda M.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; de Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; de Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Edward G.; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landén, Mikael; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-de-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Muir, Walter J.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Michael C.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnström, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; van Grootheest, Gerard; van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zöllner, Sebastian; Devlin, Bernie; Kelsoe, John R.; Sklar, Pamela; Daly, Mark J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nicholas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Wray, Naomi R.
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases
Jacobson, Nicholas C
This study sought to evaluate the current evolutionary adaptiveness of psychopathology by examining whether these disorders impact the quantity of offspring or the quality of the parent-child relationship across the life span. Using the National Comorbidity Survey, this study examined whether DSM-III-R anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depressive, bipolar, substance use, antisocial, and psychosis disorders predicted later fertility and the quality of parent-child relationships across the life span in a national sample (N = 8,098). Using latent variable and varying coefficient models, the results suggested that anxiety in males and bipolar pathology in males and females were associated with increased fertility at younger ages. The results suggested almost all other psychopathology was associated with decreased fertility in middle to late adulthood. The results further suggested that all types of psychopathology had negative impacts on the parent-child relationship quality (except for antisocial pathology in males). Nevertheless, for all disorders, the impact of psychopathology on both fertility and the parent-child relationship quality was affected by the age of the participant. The results also showed that anxiety pathology is associated with a high-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy followed by a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy. Further, the results suggest that bipolar pathology is associated with an early high-quantity and a continued low-quality parenting strategy. Posttraumatic stress, depression, substance use, antisocial personality, and psychosis pathology are each associated with a low-quantity, low-quality parenting strategy, particularly in mid to late adulthood. These findings suggest that the evolutionary impact of psychopathology depends on the developmental context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Alvaro, Pasquale K; Roberts, Rachel M; Harris, Jodie K; Bruni, Oliviero
This study assessed the direction of the relationship between symptoms of insomnia disorder, depression, various anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in adolescents after controlling for age, gender, chronotype, and outcome variable at baseline. Data was collected in eight high schools in Adelaide, South Australia, at two time-points approximately 6 months apart. The study was completed by 318 and 255 high school students at baseline and follow-up, respectively, aged 12-18 (M=14.96, SD=1.34) in grades 7-11 at baseline. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess each relationship, the first model controlling for age, gender and chronotype, and the second controlling for outcome variable at baseline. Insomnia symptoms predicted and were predicted by symptoms of each psychiatric disorder in model 1. In model 2, insomnia symptoms predicted symptoms of depression, and vice-versa. Symptoms of insomnia also predicted symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) once SAD, but not vice-versa, in model 2. Symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia (SP) predicted symptoms of insomnia disorder in model 2, but not vice-versa. Insomnia symptoms were no longer related to symptoms of other anxiety disorders in model 2. The use of self-report measures, and potential predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating or preventative factors were not assessed. Symptoms of insomnia disorder are bidirectionally related to depressive symptoms independent from baseline symptoms, and unidirectionally related to symptoms of OCD and SP where OCD and SP are independent risk-factors of the development of insomnia symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Medoff, Deborah R; Park, Stephanie G; Brown, Clayton H; Fang, Lijuan; Dixon, Lisa B; Hack, Samantha M; Tapscott, Stephanie L; Walsh, Mary Brighid; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A
Although dissatisfaction is a primary reason for disengagement from outpatient psychiatric care among consumers with serious mental illnesses, little is known about predictors of their satisfaction with medication management visits. The primary purpose of this study was to explore how dimensions of consumer preferences for shared decision making (i.e., preferences for obtaining knowledge about one's mental illness, being offered and asked one's opinion about treatment options, and involvement in treatment decisions) and the therapeutic relationship (i.e., positive collaboration and type of clinician input) were related to visit satisfaction. Participants were 228 Veterans with serious mental illnesses who completed a 19-item self-report questionnaire assessing satisfaction with visits to prescribers (524 assessments) immediately after visits. In this correlational design, a 3-level mixed model with the restricted maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to examine shared decision-making preferences and therapeutic alliance as predictors of visit satisfaction. Preferences for involvement in treatment decisions was the unique component of shared decision making associated with satisfaction, such that the more consumers desired involvement, the less satisfied they were. Positive collaboration and prescriber input were associated with greater visit satisfaction. When consumers with serious mental illnesses express preferences to be involved in shared decision making, it may not be sufficient to only provide information and treatment options; prescribers should attend to consumers' interest in involvement in actual treatment decisions. Assessment and tailoring of treatment approaches to consumer preferences for shared decision making should occur within the context of a strong therapeutic relationship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Starcevic, Vladan; Khazaal, Yasser
This article provides a narrative review of the relationships between several behavioural addictions [pathological gambling, problematic Internet use (PIU), problematic online gaming, compulsive sexual behaviour disorder, compulsive buying, and exercise addiction] and psychiatric disorders. Associations between most behavioural addictions and depressive and anxiety disorders are strong and seem relatively non-specific. Strong links with substance use disorders may support the notion that some people are more prone to addictive behaviours, regardless of whether these involve substances or problematic activities. Other associations seem relatively specific, for example, those between PIU/online gaming and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, between compulsive buying on the one hand and eating disorders and hoarding on the other hand and between exercise addiction and eating disorders. The quality of the research varies, but most studies suffer from methodological limitations, including a cross-sectional or correlational design, non-representative study populations, small sample sizes, reliance on self-report assessment instruments, diverse diagnostic criteria, and conceptual heterogeneity of most behavioural addictions. Due to these limitations, generalisability of the findings is questionable and the direction of causality, if any, is unknown in the relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. Regardless of the aetiological uncertainty, these relationships often call for a modified treatment approach. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the longitudinal relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. PMID:28439243
Durmus, Dilek; Safaz, Ismail; Adıgüzel, Emre; Uran, Ayça; Sarısoy, Gökhan; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan
The purpose of this study was to identify psychiatric symptoms by comparing male patients with traumatic leg amputations (LAs) with healthy controls and to determine the association between these psychiatric symptoms and phantom pain and prosthesis use characteristics. One hundred four volunteers, 51 LA patients (group 1) and 53 healthy controls (group 2) were included. Demographic data including age, height, weight, time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use, and Satisfaction with Prosthesis Questionnaire scores were recorded. Phantom pain was measured a visual analog scale (VAS). Psychiatric symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-R, Beck Depression Inventory, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Correlations were determined between time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use and satisfaction with prosthesis questionnaire scores and psychiatric scale scores. Amputee patients had higher phobic anxiety, state anxiety, trait anxiety and sleep disturbance scores (p0.05). There were significant negative correlations between time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use, duration of daily prosthesis use, and satisfaction with prosthesis questionnaire scores and psychiatric symptoms. Apart from anxiety (state, trait or phobic) and disturbed sleep, other psychiatric symptoms in amputee patients undergoing lengthy prosthetic rehabilitation may not differ from those of healthy controls. The presence and severity of phantom pain appear to be unrelated to general psychiatric symptomatology. Length of time since amputation, length of prosthesis use, daily length of prosthesis use and prosthesis satisfaction are negatively correlated with general psychiatric symptoms. These characteristics must be borne in mind in psychiatric and prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Donoghue, J M
In the Western World self-immolation is an uncommon but dramatic method of attempting suicide. In-patients who attempt suicide by fire-setting tend to be female with severe psychopathology. In a previous study from the South of Ireland, seven cases from a psychiatric and prison population were identified in a five year period from 1984 to 1989. This would represent an annual rate of 1.07 per cent of burns treated in the burns unit at Cork University Hospital. In this study 12 cases were identified for the years 1994 and 1995. This represents an increase of 3.5 per cent from 1.07 to 4.6 per cent of all burns treated at the same institution. Ten of these patients had a previous psychiatric history and eight of them were resident on a psychiatric ward when they committed the act. Seven of the patients were found to have a high degree of suicide intent of whom four died of their injuries, which gives a mortality rate for this group of 33 per cent. Effective prevention policies are necessary if this increasing problem is to be curtailed.
Steven Vos; Christoph Breuer; Jeroen Scheerder; Pamela Wicker
According to the resource dependence theory, organisations draw upon interorganisational relationships to address the need for additional resources. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether sport clubs with serious resource problems regarding members, human resources (volunteers and
Yoshizawa, Kaori; Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagam, Taku; Sasaki, Masahide; Nakamura, Kazuhiko
Psychiatric nursing is a stressful area of nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to examine occupational stress among psychiatric nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, 238 psychiatric nurses were recruited from 7 hospitals. Data regarding the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Health Practice Index (HPI) were obtained via self-report questionnaires. After adjusting for all the variables, CES-D scores were associated with job stress, but social support reduced the effect of stress on depression among psychiatric nurses. However, the interpretation of these results was hampered by the lack of data concerning important occupational factors, such as working position, personal income, and working hours. Further longitudinal investigation into the factors associated with depression may yield useful information for administrative and psychological interventions.
Evers, L J M; De Die-Smulders, C E M; Smeets, E E J; Clerkx, M G M; Curfs, L M G
The velo-cardio-facial syndrome: the spectrum of psychiatric problems and cognitive deterioration at adult age: Deletion 22q11.2 syndrome, or the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), is a syndrome with a known but varied clinical and behavioral phenotype. We report 7 patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and an intellectual disability. Aside from the described behavioral phenotype in literature, a moderate, severe or profound intellectual disability may be present. Special attention should be given to cognitive deterioration.
Maes, M.; de Meyer, F.; Peeters, D.; Meltzer, H.; Schotte, C.; Scharpe, S.; Cosyns, P.
Recently, some investigators have established a seasonal pattern in normal human psychology, physiology and behaviour, and in the incidence of psychiatric psychopathology. In an attempt to elucidate the chronopsy and meteotropism in the latter, we have examined the chronograms of, and the biometeorological relationships to bed occupancy of the psychiatric ward of the Antwerp University Hospital during three consecutive calendar years (1987 1989). Weather data for the vicinity were provided by a local meteorological station and comprise mean atmospheric pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and minutes of sunlight and precipitation/day. The number of psychiatric beds occupied during the study period exhibited a significant seasonal variation. Peaks in bed occupancy were observed in March and November, with lows in August. An important part of the variability in the number of beds occupied could be explained by the composite effects of weather variables of the preceding weeks. Our results suggest that short-term fluctuations in atmospheric activity may dictate some of the periodicities in psychiatric psychopathology.
Baldur-Felskov, B; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V; Steding-Jessen, M; Kjaer, T; Johansen, C; Dalton, S O; Jensen, A
Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do? The results indicated that being unsuccessful in giving birth after an infertility evaluation could be an important risk factor for psychiatric disorders. Several studies have investigated the association between fertility treatment and psychological distress, but the results from these studies show substantial variation and lack of homogeneity that may be due to methodological limitations. A retrospective cohort study was designed using data from a cohort of 98 320 Danish women evaluated for fertility problems during 1973-2008 and linked to several Danish population-based registries. All women were followed from the date of first infertility evaluation until date of hospitalization for the psychiatric disorder in question, date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 2008, whichever occurred first. Owing to the precise linkage between the infertility cohort and the Danish population-based registries, using the unique Danish personal identification number, virtually no women were lost to follow-up. Information on reproductive status for all women in the infertility cohort was obtained by linkage to the Danish Medical Birth Registry. A total of 53 547 (54.5%) women gave birth after the initial infertility evaluation, whereas 44 773 (45.5%) women did not gave birth after the evaluation. To determine psychiatric disorders diagnosed in the women after enrolment in the infertility cohort, the cohort was linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. A total of 4633 women were hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between parity status after the initial infertility evaluation and risk of hospitalization for various groups of psychiatric disorders, including
This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving ability and career maturity of secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 230 final year secondary school students completed self-report measures of problem solving and career maturity. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data ...
Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185
J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke
This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.
Breeman, L.D.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Wubbels, T.; Verhulst, F.C.; van der Ende, J.; Maras, A.; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, N.T.
In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children’s behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream
Breeman, L.D.; Van Lier, Pol; Wubbels, T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, Nouchka
In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children’s behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream
L.D. Breeman; P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); T. Wubbels; F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. van der Ende (Jan); A. Maras (Athanasios); J.A.B. Hopman; N.T. Tick (Nouchka Tamar)
textabstractIn mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children’s behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from
Hamerlynck, S M J J; Doreleijers, Th A H; Vermeiren, R R J M; Cohen-Kettenis, P T
As from 2008, juveniles sentenced under civil law and juveniles sentenced under criminal law can no longer be assigned to the same juvenile detention centres. The reasoning runs as follows: the centres are unlikely to provide adequate treatment for the 'civil' group, and the 'criminal' group may exert a negative influence on the 'civil' group. Hitherto, there has been no research into the question of whether the problems and treatment requirements of girls in the two categories call for detention in the same detention centres or in different ones. The aim of this study is to investigate differences between the two groups of girls with regard to offence history, sociodemographic characteristics, contact with the social services, psychiatric disorders and trauma. Investigation of a representative sample of 211 female minors in three juvenile detention centres using standard instruments. results 82% of the girls were detained under civil law, 18% under criminal law. There were strong similarities between the groups. However, the 'criminal' group more often had a violent history of delinquency and a non-Dutch background, whereas the 'civil' group more often had a background of residential placements, oppositional-defiant disorder, suicidality and self-harm. Girls detained under civil and under criminal law differed in characteristics such as criminal record, but there were striking similarities in the girls' behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders. It is argued that assignment to a particular type of detention centre should depend on treatment requirements rather than on measures imposed by civil or criminal law.
Cecilie Schou Andreassen
Full Text Available Despite the many number of studies examining workaholism, large-scale studies have been lacking. The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16-75 years. Participants were administered the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Obsession-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Bergen Work Addiction Scale, along with additional questions examining demographic and work-related variables. Correlations between workaholism and all psychiatric disorder symptoms were positive and significant. Workaholism comprised the dependent variable in a three-step linear multiple hierarchical regression analysis. Basic demographics (age, gender, relationship status, and education explained 1.2% of the variance in workaholism, whereas work demographics (work status, position, sector, and annual income explained an additional 5.4% of the variance. Age (inversely and managerial positions (positively were of most importance. The psychiatric symptoms (ADHD, OCD, anxiety, and depression explained 17.0% of the variance. ADHD and anxiety contributed considerably. The prevalence rate of workaholism status was 7.8% of the present sample. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis, all psychiatric symptoms were positively associated with being a workaholic. The independent variables explained between 6.1% and 14.4% in total of the variance in workaholism cases. Although most effect sizes were relatively small, the study's findings expand our understanding of possible psychiatric predictors of workaholism, and particularly shed new insight into the reality of adult ADHD in work life. The study's implications, strengths, and shortcomings are also discussed.
Metts, Sandra; Cupach, William R.
Investigates the association among dysfunctional relationship beliefs, problem-solving responses, and satisfaction in close relationships. Finds that persons who believe that disagreement is destructive and that partners cannot change are likely to leave or neglect a troubled relationship, to avoid voicing their concerns, and to report lower…
Waluk, O R; Youssef, G J; Dowling, N A
Recent studies indicate that treatment-seeking problem gamblers display elevated rates of ADHD and that adolescents who screen positive for ADHD are more likely to engage in gambling, develop gambling problems, and experience a greater severity in gambling problems. This study aimed to (a) compare the prevalence of ADHD in treatment-seeking problem gamblers to the general population; (b) investigate the relationships between ADHD and problem gambling severity, cluster B personality disorders, motor impulsivity, alcohol use, substance use, gender, and age; and (c) investigate the degree to which these factors moderate the relationship between ADHD and problem gambling severity. Participants included 214 adults (154 males, 58 females, 2 unspecified) who sought treatment for their gambling problems at a specialist gambling agency in Melbourne, Australia. Almost one-quarter (24.9 %) of treatment-seeking problem gamblers screened positively for ADHD, which was significantly higher than the 14 % prevalence in a community sample. ADHD was significantly positively correlated with problem gambling severity, motor impulsivity, and cluster B personality disorders, but was not associated with alcohol and substance use, gender or age. None of the factors significantly moderated the relationship between ADHD and problem gambling severity. These findings suggest that a considerable proportion of treatment-seeking problem gamblers report ADHD and that their clinical profile is complicated by the presence of high impulsivity and cluster B personality disorders. They highlight the need for specialist gambling agencies to develop screening, assessment, and management protocols for co-occurring ADHD to enhance the effectiveness of treatment.
Full Text Available Gambling has become one of the most frequently reported addictive behaviors among young people. Understanding risk factors associated with the onset or maintenance of gambling problems in adolescence has implications for its prevention and treatment. The main aim of the present study was to examine the potential relationships between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. Participants were 874 high school students (average age: 15 years old who were surveyed to provide data on gambling and impulsivity. Self-reported gambling behavior was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen – Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA and impulsivity was measured using the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Questionnaire (ZKPQ, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11-A, and a delay discounting task. The data were analyzed using both a prospective-longitudinal and a cross-sectional design. In the longitudinal analyses, results showed that the impulsivity subscale of the ZKPQ increased the risk of problem gambling (p =.003. In the cross-sectional analyses, all the impulsivity measures were higher in at-risk/problem gamblers than in non-problem gamblers (p = .04; .03 and .01 respectively. These findings further support the relationship between impulsivity and gambling in adolescence. Moreover, our findings suggest a bidirectional relationship between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. These results have consequences for the development of prevention and treatment programs for adolescents with gambling problems.
Zellner, Margaret R; Watt, Douglas F; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak
The affective foundations of depression and addictions are discussed from a cross-species - animal to human - perspective of translational psychiatric research. Depression is hypothesized to arise from an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to terminate protracted activation of separation-distress (PANIC/GRIEF) systems of the brain, a shutdown mechanism which may be in part mediated by down-regulation of dopamine based reward-SEEKING resources. This shutdown of the brain's core motivational machinery is organized by shifts in multiple peptide systems, particularly increased dynorphin (kappa opioids). Addictions are conceived to be primarily mediated by obsessive behaviors sustained by reward-SEEKING circuits in the case of psychostimulant abuse, and also powerful consummatory-PLEASURE responses in the case of opioid abuse, which in turn capture SEEKING circuits. Both forms of addiction, as well as others, eventually deplete reward-SEEKING resources, leading to a state of dysphoria which can only temporarily be reversed by drugs of abuse, thereby promoting a negative affect that sustains addictive cycles. In other words, the opponent affective process - the dysphoria of diminished SEEKING resources - that can be aroused by sustained over-arousal of separation-distress (PANIC/GRIEF) as well as direct pharmacological over-stimulation and depletion of SEEKING resources, may be a common denominator for the genesis of both depression and addiction. Envisioning the foundation of such psychiatric problems as being in imbalances of the basic mammalian emotional systems that engender prototype affective states may provide more robust translational research strategies, coordinated with, rather than simply focusing on, the underlying molecular dynamics. Emotional vocalizations might be one of the best ways to monitor the underlying affective dynamics in commonly used rodent models of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lapid, Maria; Moutier, Christine; Dunn, Laura; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss
Objective: Awareness of the privileges and limits of one's role as physician, as well as recognition and respect for the patient as a human being, are central to ethical medical practice. The authors were particularly interested in examining the attitudes and perceived needs of psychiatric residents toward education on professional boundaries and…
Kearney, Joan A.; Britner, Preston A.; Farrell, Anne F.; Robinson, JoAnn L.
Maternal resolution of a child's diagnosis relates to sensitive caregiving and healthy attachment. Failure to resolve is associated with maternal distress, high caregiving burden, and the quality of marital and social support. This study examined maternal resolution of diagnosis in a child psychiatric population utilizing the Reaction to Diagnosis…
Simpson, A.; Bowers, L.; Allan, T.; Haglund, K.; Muir-Cochrane, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Merwe, M. van der
Aim. In this paper we report on the rates of drug/alcohol use on acute psychiatric wards in relation to levels and intensity of exit security measures. Background. Many inpatient wards have become permanently locked, with staff concerned about the risk of patients leaving the ward and harming
Hammer, Joseph H.; Springer, Justin; Beck, Niels C.; Menditto, Anthony; Coleman, James
Seclusion and restraint (S/R) is a controversial topic in the field of psychiatry, due in part to the high rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse found among psychiatric inpatients. The trauma-informed care perspective suggests that the use of S/R with previously abused inpatients may result in retraumatization due to mental associations…
Pieters, S.; Burk, W.J.; Vorst, H. van der; Dahl, R.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
While research has shown that sleep problems and substance use are reciprocally associated in adults, much less is known about this association in early adolescence. The main aim of the current longitudinal study was to explore bidirectional relationships between sleep problems, substance use,
Pieters, S.; Burk, W.J.; van der Vorst, H.; Dahl, R.E.; Wiers, R.W.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
While research has shown that sleep problems and substance use are reciprocally associated in adults, much less is known about this association in early adolescence. The main aim of the current longitudinal study was to explore bidirectional relationships between sleep problems, substance use,
Carey, Kathleen; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Rosen, Amy K; Christiansen, Cindy L; Loveland, Susan; Ettner, Susan L
To examine how service accessibility measured by geographic distance affects service sector choices for veterans who are dually eligible for veterans affairs (VA) and Medicare services and who are diagnosed with mental health and/or substance abuse (MH/SA) disorders. Primary VA data sources were the Patient Treatment (acute care), Extended Care (long-term care), and Outpatient Clinic files. VA cost data were obtained from (1) inpatient and outpatient cost files developed by the VA Health Economics and Resource Center and (2) outpatient VA Decision Support System files. Medicare data sources were the denominator, Medicare Provider Analysis Review (MEDPAR), Provider-of-Service, Outpatient Standard Analytic and Physician/Supplier Standard Analytic files. Additional sources included the Area Resource File and Census Bureau data. We identified dually eligible veterans who had either an inpatient or outpatient MH/SA diagnosis in the VA system during fiscal year (FY)'99. We then estimated one- and two-part regression models to explain the effects of geographic distance on both VA and Medicare total and MH/SA costs. Results provide evidence for substitution between the VA and Medicare, demonstrating that poorer geographic access to VA inpatient and outpatient clinics decreased VA expenditures but increased Medicare expenditures, while poorer access to Medicare-certified general and psychiatric hospitals decreased Medicare expenditures but increased VA expenditures. As geographic distance to VA medical facility increases, Medicare plays an increasingly important role in providing mental health services to veterans.
Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.
Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…
Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L; Bressi, Sara K
Persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) are known to be at an increased risk of committing elder abuse, with much of this abuse occurring toward women. However, there is no evidence available speaking to the extent of this problem. The objective of the present study is to explore rates of abuse committed against older women by a relative with PD. In conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania, 217 women residing across the United States who are at least 55 years of age and who have a relative with PD completed an online survey. Analyses found that in the past 6 months 15% of survey respondents experienced physical abuse committed by their relative with PD, 20% experienced financial abuse, and 42% experienced psychological abuse. Given these high rates of abuse it is imperative that research into factors predicting abuse be conducted, as such information would help target and determine the nature of interventions.
Stone, Judith R.
Systems concepts from general systems theory and family therapy literature are presented as analytical tools to help professionals understand and change interactions with their clients having communication disorders. Two case examples that illustrate relationship problems are presented, and approaches taken to their resolution are described.…
Bedford, A; McIver, D
Previous research examined "general instability" and "psychopathy" scales, derived from the 16PF, in terms of Foulds' criteria of content, group differentiation, change over time, and score distributions. When the external criterion of a newly validated measure of psychiatric mood state (the DSSI/sAD) was used, it was confirmed in both a patient and a normal group that the "general instability" scale is related significantly to symptomatology, while the "psychopathy" scale is relatively independent of present state.
Ketola, J; Stein, J V
Psychiatric nursing teaches students how to engage and communicate with patients who have severe emotional distress. Nurses need this knowledge as the majority of patients encountered in hospitals are distressed. This study explores the impact of a psychiatric clinical course in helping students learn to relate to distressed patients. The study used a mixed research methodology to survey 67 baccalaureate students about their experiences in the placement portion of the psychiatric nursing course. The pre-clinical questions focused on students' anticipation regarding individuals with mental illness and how the clinical experience would affect them as nurses and as individuals. The post-clinical questions asked how the clinical experience affected them. The students stated that their time with patients had changed them. Ninety-nine per cent were no longer frightened of the patients. Students realized the patients were distressed and were glad to help them. This work sensitized them to the individual rather than the generic patient. It initiated a process in self-awareness, in sensitivity to the feelings of another person and in communication skills. These are steps in the development of an empathetic presence. The students recognized the need for these skills in all nursing. The authors recommend strategies to assist students in developing an empathetic presence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Rodriguez, Erin M.; Nichols, Sara; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.
Disruptive behavior problems (DBP) represent a growing concern for young women (e.g., Snyder & Sickmund, 2006), but gender-specific investigations have been traditionally underrepresented in this area. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations among gender-relevant risk factors for DBP among 217 African American girls in psychiatric care. African American girls, 12–16 years old (M=14.6; SD=1.2), and their primary female caregivers (N=254) were recruited from outpatient mental health clinics and reported on girls’ DBP, heterosexual dating experiences (romantic and sexual), peer relationships, pubertal development, and self-silencing at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. Structural Equation Modeling examined evidence for full versus mediated (via self-silencing) models and the structural relationships (direct and indirect) among key study variables. Results suggest that the full model was a significantly better fit than the mediated model as indicated by a Chi-squared difference test (p girls. Indirect effects analyses suggested that girls’ suppression of relational needs, assessed through a measure of self-silencing, explained the association between peer relationships and DBP. Findings highlight the importance of the relational context for girls’ DBP, with treatment implications supporting relationship-based models of care, early intervention, and skill building around negotiating needs with peers and partners. PMID:24748499
Blissett, J; Meyer, C; Haycraft, E
Previous research has established that childhood feeding and eating problems are often related to other behavioural difficulties. Parenting practices have been implicated in both eating behaviour and broader behaviour problems. The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between eating and behaviour problems could be explained in part by parenting style and practices. Seventy-seven mothers of 3- to 8-year-old children completed measures of children's eating behaviours, behaviour problems, parenting style and feeding practices. Eating behaviours (food responsiveness, emotional under-eating, fussiness) and behaviour problems (conduct problems, hyperactivity, total difficulties) were significantly correlated, but when parenting style and feeding practices were controlled for, significant associations disappeared. Although the findings are limited because of a relatively low response rate, in non-clinical groups, the perceived commonality between eating and behaviour problems may be explained by parenting. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Cowlishaw, Sean; Jackson, Alun C; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Francis, Kate L; Christensen, Darren R
Objective: The aim of this paper was to systematically review and meta-analyse the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV Axis I disorders) among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for peer-reviewed studies that provided prevalence estimates of Axis I psychiatric disorders in individuals seeking psychological or pharmacological treatment for problem gambling (including pathological gambling). Meta-analytic techniques were performed to estimate the weighted mean effect size and heterogeneity across studies. Results: Results from 36 studies identified high rates of co-morbid current (74.8%, 95% CI 36.5–93.9) and lifetime (75.5%, 95% CI 46.5–91.8) Axis I disorders. There were high rates of current mood disorders (23.1%, 95% CI 14.9–34.0), alcohol use disorders (21.2%, 95% CI 15.6–28.1), anxiety disorders (17.6%, 95% CI 10.8–27.3) and substance (non-alcohol) use disorders (7.0%, 95% CI 1.7–24.9). Specifically, the highest mean prevalence of current psychiatric disorders was for nicotine dependence (56.4%, 95% CI 35.7–75.2) and major depressive disorder (29.9%, 95% CI 20.5–41.3), with smaller estimates for alcohol abuse (18.2%, 95% CI 13.4–24.2), alcohol dependence (15.2%, 95% CI 10.2–22.0), social phobia (14.9%, 95% CI 2.0–59.8), generalised anxiety disorder (14.4%, 95% CI 3.9–40.8), panic disorder (13.7%, 95% CI 6.7–26.0), post-traumatic stress disorder (12.3%, 95% CI 3.4–35.7), cannabis use disorder (11.5%, 95% CI 4.8–25.0), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (9.3%, 95% CI 4.1–19.6), adjustment disorder (9.2%, 95% CI 4.8–17.2), bipolar disorder (8.8%, 95% CI 4.4–17.1) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (8.2%, 95% CI 3.4–18.6). There were no consistent patterns according to gambling problem severity, type of treatment facility and study jurisdiction. Although these estimates were robust to the inclusion of studies with non-representative sampling biases, they should
Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Lee, Paul C; Pauls, David L; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M; Lyon, Gholson J; Cath, Danielle C; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A
Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (Tourette syndrome was associated with increased risk of anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9; P = .04) and decreased risk of substance use disorders (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = .02) independent from comorbid OCD and ADHD; however, high rates of mood disorders among participants with TS (29.8%) may be accounted for by comorbid OCD (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9-4.8; P < .001). Parental history of ADHD was associated with a higher burden of non-OCD, non-ADHD comorbid psychiatric disorders (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.61; P < .001). Genetic correlations between TS and mood (RhoG, 0.47), anxiety (RhoG, 0.35), and disruptive behavior disorders (RhoG, 0.48), may be accounted for by ADHD and, for mood disorders, by OCD. This study is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive of its kind. It confirms the belief that psychiatric comorbidities are common among individuals with TS, demonstrates that most comorbidities begin early in life, and indicates that certain comorbidities may be mediated by the presence of comorbid OCD or ADHD. In addition, genetic analyses suggest that some comorbidities may be more biologically related to OCD and/or ADHD rather than to TS.
Five years after an elected government took over from a military regime, Chile has enjoyed booming economic growth and some measure of political stability but the scars of the legacy left by the regime of Augusto Pinochet run deep. Alcohol and drug abuse, family violence, depression and other mental-health problems are reported by a large proportion of the population. Fear is one of the permanent consequences of the military regime, says one sociologist.
Pressman, Leah J; Loo, Sandra K; Carpenter, Erika M; Asarnow, Joan R; Lynn, Deborah; McCracken, James T; McGough, James J; Lubke, Gitta H; Yang, May H; Smalley, Susan L
Family environmental factors as well as parental attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) status have shown associations with variability in ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to examine the links among family environment, parental psychiatric diagnosis, and child impairment within a sample of ADHD-affected sibling pairs (ASPs) ages 5 to 18 years. Parents in 220 ASP families completed a measure of family functioning, the Family Environment Scale. Children's impairment was measured by clinical ratings of global functioning and by maternal ratings of behavior. Parents of children with ADHD rate their families as higher in conflict and lower in achievement and organization than normative samples. High family conflict is significantly associated with impairment in ADHD ASPs accounting for approximately 40% of the sibling similarity in impairment. Parental psychiatric diagnosis revealed no significant direct link to sibling impairment, but rather a significant indirect link to impairment mediated by family conflict. Direct associations with parental diagnosis depend on birth order of the ASP members despite the comparable mean impairment scores for older and younger ADHD siblings. There are strong links between impairment in children with ADHD and family environment. Different processes and mechanisms may contribute to impairment in different children in the same family.
Appelbaum, Paul S; Gold, Azgad
Psychiatrists' relationships with the pharmaceutical and device industries have been a growing focus of attention, with questions raised about the impact of those relationships on prescribing practices, diagnostic criteria, practice guidelines, continuing education, conduct and reporting of research, and patients' and public trust. Indeed, these concerns exist for the medical profession as a whole, with various remedial measures proposed. We suggest that such relationships can be understood as giving rise to a "principal-agent problem," which occurs when an agent (here, a physician) is engaged to advance the interests of another party, the principal (typically a patient), but also faces incentives to promote other interests. Studies suggest that at least some relationships--which include attending industry-sponsored presentations, meeting with marketing representatives, and accepting samples--can alter psychiatrists' and other physicians' behavior in ways that can compromise patients' interests, and that industry-funded research may create bias in the medical literature. These effects are difficult to detect in specific cases, however, because of asymmetries of information and may not be apparent even to physicians themselves. Principal-agent analysis suggests that the possible responses to such problems, including appeals to ethical principles, monitoring behavior, and managing risk-inducing situations, should include consideration of aligning agents' incentives with principals' interests. This type of analysis underscores the similarity of the issues raised by physicians' relationships with industry to problems that arise more generally in society, thus reducing physicians' potential affective responses to these issues and efforts to address them. Finally, such analysis directs attention to the benefits and costs of each alternative, thereby encouraging reliance on evidence as a basis for policy.
Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov
Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit…
Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan
Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…
Jensen, Todd M; Lippold, Melissa A; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Fosco, Gregory M
The stepfamily literature is replete with between-group analyses by which youth residing in stepfamilies are compared to youth in other family structures across indicators of adjustment and well-being. Few longitudinal studies examine variation in stepfamily functioning to identify factors that promote the positive adjustment of stepchildren over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 191 stepchildren (56% female, mean age = 11.3 years), the current study examines the association between the relationship quality of three central stepfamily dyads (stepparent-child, parent-child, and stepcouple) and children's internalizing and externalizing problems concurrently and over time. Results from path analyses indicate that higher levels of parent-child affective quality are associated with lower levels of children's concurrent internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 1. Higher levels of stepparent-child affective quality are associated with decreases in children's internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 2 (6 months beyond baseline), even after controlling for children's internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 1 and other covariates. The stepcouple relationship was not directly linked to youth outcomes. Our findings provide implications for future research and practice. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Jasper, Stefanie; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; de Zwaan, Martina
Due to progress in burn treatment, more patients even with severe burn injuries survive. Despite this positive development, however, there are still negative somatic and mental consequences. These include the life-long care of scars and pain. In addition, posttraumatic-stress disorder and depression are common consequences. Also distress due to disfigurement and body image problems have to be considered, since this is likely to result in social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and reduction of quality of life. Overall, the impact of mental strain on burn victims is quite high. Therefore, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches should be integrated into the care of patients with burns. This might be helpful for both coping and compliance with long-term treatment. This paper provides a review of the mental co-morbidity of burn victims and of psychotherapeutic treatment approaches focusing on changes in body image and the respective social consequences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Yürümez, Esra; Kılıç, Birim Günay
The purpose of this study is to assess the sleep behaviors, sleep problems and frequency, and relationship with psychiatric comorbidities in ADHD Combined type and to evaluate the effect of sleep problems on quality of life. Forty-six boys, aged 7 to 13 years, with ADHD-combined type and 31 healthy boys were included. ADHD children were never treated for sleep or psychiatric disorders. Intelligence quotient (IQ) test scores were minimum 80, body mass index were normal and did not have medical disorders. Parents completed Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Conners' Parent Rating Scale and The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and participants were asked about sleep behaviors and were administered PedsQL and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The frequency of sleep problems in ADHD is 84.8%, higher than the control group (p = .002). Evaluating PedsQL scores, the quality of life is worse in physical, psychosocial health, and total life quality (p children with ADHD compared with healthy control participants. As the ADHD group have more night wakings than the control group through the night, it is thought that night wakings that cause a partitioned sleep may be important signs seen in ADHD. That could be suggested by two hypotheses. First one is that, daytime sleepiness is more common in ADHD and those children present excessive hyperactivity during the day to stay awake and the second one is the improvement of ADHD signs when the drugs for sleepiness are used. Usage of standardized and valid diagnostic criteria, exclusion of adolescence, gender, socioeconomic level, primary sleep problems, medical disorders and low IQ level, making allowances for effect of comorbidities and having compared with the control group are the important methodological features of this study. The most important limitation of this study is small sample size that makes the findings less generalizable to other groups of children with ADHD, and another one is not
Krabbendam, L; Bakker, E; Hornstra, G; van Os, J
Animal studies have demonstrated behavioural effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) deficiencies and in humans, several psychiatric disorders have been linked to abnormal essential fatty acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LC-PUFA status at birth and the later development of problem behaviour. In a sample of 393 children, higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at birth were associated with lower levels of internalising problem behaviour at age 7 years. The association was markedly present in the infants fed with artificial formula (n=215, Beta=-0.32, P=0.000), but absent in the infants fed with human milk (n=170, Beta=0.11, P=0.325). The associations between arachidonic acid and internalising or externalising behaviour were neither large nor significant. The results suggest that perinatal DHA status may have long-term behavioural consequences. Therefore, we suggest to include measures of problem behaviour in future trials of LC-PUFA supplementation of mothers and/or infants.
Bullying is a complex phenomenon moderated not only by the personal characteristics and behavioral traits of the individual but also by family rearing practices, as well as by situational factors such as the frequency and type of bullying. The phenomenon is also affected by group processes among the individuals present during the event. Bullying is a distressing experience that is often continuous over years and predicts both concurrent and future psychiatric symptoms and disorders, even in adulthood. At young ages, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and depression, as well as anxiety, are prevalent concurrently with bullying among the children involved. Later in young adulthood, male victims are at risk for anxiety, male bullies for personality disorders, and male bully-victims for both personality disorders and anxiety, and the risk is especially increased if the child is disturbed when involved in bullying at school age. Rarely does any single behavior predict future problems as clearly as bullying does, and additional assessment of psychiatric problems is always warranted, if the child is involved in bullying as a bully, victim or bully-victim. Based on our current knowledge, school-based interventions regulating the behavior of the child, increasing pro-social skills and promoting peer relationships are recommended for those without concurrent psychiatric disturbance, but those displaying psychiatric symptoms and disorders should be referred for psychiatric consultation and intervention.
Stivanin, Luciene; Oliveira, Christian C de; Santos, Fernanda P Dos; Santos, Bernardo Dos; Scivoletto, Sandra
To study the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders (PD) and communication disorders (CD) and their relationship with global functioning in maltreated children and adolescents. The sample comprised 143 maltreated children and adolescents (55.8% male). All underwent clinical communication and psychiatric evaluations, as well as global functioning assessment using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Four groups emerged from evaluation: Group 1 (n=7, 4.9%) did not exhibit any disorders; Group 2 (n=26, 18.2%) exhibited PD; Group 3 (n=34, 23.8%) exhibited CD; and Group 4 (n=76, 53.1%) exhibited both PD and CD on evaluation. Significant differences in global functioning scores were found between G1 and G2, G1 and G4, G2 and G4, and G3 and G4, with the highest C-GAS scores found in G1 and the lowest in G4. Rates of PD and CD are high in this maltreated population. The presence of PD has a major impact on C-GAS score, and the simultaneous presence of CD increases the already impaired function of PD. Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population.
Heylens, Gunter; Elaut, Els; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C.; Paap, Muirne; Cerwenka, Susanne; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; Haraldsen, Ira R.; De Cuypere, Griet
Background Research into the relationship between gender identity disorder and psychiatric problems has shown contradictory results. Aims To investigate psychiatric problems in adults fulfilling DSM-IV-TR criteria for a diagnosis of gender identity disorder. Method Data were collected within the
Heylens, G.; Elaut, E.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Paap, M.C.S.; Cerwenka, S.; Richter-Appelt, H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Haraldsen, I.R.; De Cuypere, G.
Background: Research into the relationship between gender identity disorder and psychiatric problems has shown contradictory results. Aims: To investigate psychiatric problems in adults fulfilling DSM-IV-TR criteria for a diagnosis of gender identity disorder. Method: Data were collected within the
Javdani, Shabnam; Rodriguez, Erin M; Nichols, Sara R; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R
Disruptive behavior problems (DBP) represent a growing concern for young women (e.g., Snyder and Sickmund, 2006), but gender-specific investigations have been traditionally underrepresented in this area. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations among gender-relevant risk factors for DBP among 217 African American girls in psychiatric care. African American girls, 12-16 years old (M = 14.6; SD = 1.2), and their primary female caregivers (N = 254) were recruited from outpatient mental health clinics and reported on girls' DBP, heterosexual dating experiences (romantic and sexual), peer relationships, pubertal development, and self-silencing at baseline, 6-, and 12 months. Structural Equation Modeling examined evidence for full versus mediated (via self-silencing) models and the structural relationships (direct and indirect) among key study variables. Results suggest that the full model was a significantly better fit than the mediated model as indicated by a Chi-squared difference test (p relationships at baseline predicted DBP at 12 months. Sexual dating experiences were more strongly linked with DBP at 12 months for early maturing compared to average or later maturing girls. Indirect effects analyses suggested that girls' suppression of relational needs, assessed through a measure of self-silencing, explained the association between peer relationships and DBP. Findings highlight the importance of the relational context for girls' DBP, with treatment implications supporting relationship-based models of care, early intervention, and skill building around negotiating needs with peers and partners.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available Problem gambling is complex and often comorbid with other mental health problems. Unfortunately, gambling studies on comorbid psychiatric disorders among Chinese communities are extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to (a determine the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers; (b compare the demographic profiles and clinical features of pathological gamblers with and without comorbid psychiatric disorders; (c explore the associations between pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders and their temporal relationship. Participants (N=201 who sought gambling counseling were examined by making Axis-I diagnoses including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and adjustment disorder. Results showed that 63.7% of participants had lifetime comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common comorbid psychiatric mental disorders were mood disorders, adjustment disorder, and substance use disorders. Pathological gamblers with psychiatric comorbidities were significantly more severe in psychopathology, psychosocial functioning impairment, and gambling problems than those without the disorders.
Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.
Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as evidence for the role of early sleep problems as a risk factor for the development of psychopathology. Based on these cumulative data, possible mechanis...
Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; McGurrin, Patrick; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron
Whilst a growing body of research has examined dissociation and other psychiatric symptoms in severe dissociative disorders (DDs), there has been no systematic examination of shame and sense of self in relationships in DDs. Chronic child abuse often associated with severe DDs, like dissociative identity disorder, is likely to heighten shame and relationship concerns. This study investigated complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline and Schneiderian symptoms, dissociation, shame, child abuse, and various markers of self in relationships (e.g., relationship esteem, relationship depression, fear of relationships). Participants were assessed via clinical interview with psychometrically sound questionnaires. They fell into three diagnostic groups, dissociative disorder (n=39; primarily dissociative identity disorder), chronic PTSD (Chr-PTSD; n=13) or mixed psychiatric presentations (MP; n=21; primarily mood and anxiety disorders). All participants had a history of child abuse and/or neglect, and the groups did not differ on age and gender. The DD group was higher on nearly all measured variables than the MP group, and had more severe dissociative, borderline and Schneiderian symptoms than the Chr-PTSD sample. Shame and complex PTSD symptoms fell marginally short of predicting reductions in relationship esteem, pathological dissociative symptoms predicted increased relationship depression, and complex PTSD symptoms predicted fear of relationships. The representativeness of the samples was unknown. Severe psychiatric symptoms differentiate DDs from chronic PTSD, while dissociation and shame have a meaningful impact on specific markers of relationship functioning in psychiatric patients with a history of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Bos, Klaus; Jascenoka, Julia; Jekauc, Darko; Petermann, Franz
The aim of this study was to gain insights into the relationship between developmental coordination disorder, peer problems, and behavioral problems in school-aged children where both internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were considered. We assumed that the relationship between developmental coordination disorder and…
S.T. Lo (Sinddie)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis includes studies about developmental, behavioral and psychiatric characteristics in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Endocrinologists Prader, Labhart, and Willi were the first describing the combination of neonatal hypotonia, short
Heyer, Geoffrey L
Little is known about somatic and psychiatric symptoms and perceived peer relationships of patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse. This study aimed to compare somatic and psychiatric symptoms and other elements potentially related to functional neurological symptom disorders between youth with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse and those with neurally mediated syncope. Before testing, patients completed a structured interview and questionnaire addressing current symptoms, previous psychiatric diagnoses, referrals, diagnostic testing, prescribed medications, and patient self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and perceived peer relationships. Compared with patients with syncope (n = 60), patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse (n = 60) had higher ratings for lightheadedness and vertigo, more abdominal pain, more chronic headaches, more fatigue, more sleep disturbances, more prescriptions for antidepressant medicines, more encephalograms performed, more referrals to psychiatry, and more psychiatric diagnoses including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, previous nonfainting conversion disorders, and eating disorders (all p peer relationships (37 ± 12.3 versus 47.6 ± 7.9, p Peer relationships remained significantly lower (p = 0.001) when analyzed with anxiety and depression. Patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse have more symptom complaints and perceptions of poorer peer social interactions than patients with syncope. These results broaden our understanding of the biopsychosocial profile that increases an individual's vulnerability to psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse specifically and to functional neurological symptom disorders in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eliana Aguiar Petri Nahas
. Thus, since the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with hyperprolactinemia was detected, it was concluded that further studies are necessary to investigate the basis of a potential relationship between both hyperprolactinemic and psychiatric conditions.
Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C
A limited number of measures exist to assess alcohol problems during adolescence. Item response theory modeling was used to scale a measure of adolescent alcohol problems, including drinking and driving, and then related to alcohol and other psychiatric disorders that occurred over a 15-year period. High school students (N = 832) completed the 13-item Alcohol Problems Index (API) at age 18 years as part of a long-term longitudinal study of predictors of alcohol use and alcohol disorders. Frequency of drinking and driving was also measured during adolescence. Lifetime psychiatric disorders, including alcohol disorders, were measured during young adulthood. Rasch modeling was used to scale the severity of alcohol problems, and the scaled total score was used to prospectively predict alcohol disorders. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also computed between the adolescent alcohol problems and alcohol and other psychiatric disorders across a 15-year period. The prevalence of alcohol disorders was 38.7% (for alcohol dependence, it was 27.7%). Rasch modeling indicated that the API assessed a range of severity of alcohol problems and that drinking and driving were among the less severe indicators. Age 18 API scores significantly correlated with an alcohol diagnosis (0.34), and ROC curve analysis indicated that for adolescent alcohol problem scores, the diagnostic accuracy (or area under the curve) for an alcohol diagnosis by age 33 was 0.70. Our findings supported the unidimensionality and reliability of the API, and statistically significant prospective prediction of young adult alcohol disorders. The measurement of alcohol problems during adolescence, in addition to drinking and driving, may be beneficial in understanding adverse consequences of drinking during adolescence as well as transitions in alcohol use and alcohol disorders across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S
In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common
As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.
Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an
Prins, Bram P; Abbasi, Ali; Wong, Anson
.17 [95% CI 1.01-1.36]; p disorder (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.05-1.40]; p blood pressure, 0.45 (95% CI 0.06-0.84; p blood pressure, 0.01 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI 0.003-0.02; p ... relationship of elevated CRP levels with psoriatic osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, knee osteoarthritis, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum albumin, and bipolar disorder. These associations remain yet to be confirmed. We cannot verify any causal effect of CRP level on any.......0016) on any of these outcomes, including coronary artery disease, nor on the other 20 complex outcomes studied. Our study has two potential limitations: the limited variance explained by our genetic instruments modeling CRP levels in blood and the unobserved bias introduced by the use of summary statistics...
R. David Hayward
Full Text Available Psychiatric patients (age 59+ were assessed before study treatment for major depressive disorder, and again after 3 months. Measures taken before study treatment included facets of religiousness (subjective religiosity, private prayer, worship attendance, and religious media use, social support, and perceived stress. Clinician-rated depression severity was assessed both before and after treatment using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Structural equation modeling was used to test a path model of direct and indirect effects of religious factors via psychosocial pathways. Subjective religiousness was directly related to worse initial MADRS, but indirectly related to better posttreatment MADRS via the pathway of more private prayer. Worship attendance was directly related to better initial MADRS, and indirectly related to better post-treatment MADRS via pathways of lower stress, more social support, and more private prayer. Private prayer was directly related to better post-treatment MADRS. Religious media use was related to more private prayer, but had no direct relationship with MADRS.
Hayward, R David; Owen, Amy D; Koenig, Harold G; Steffens, David C; Payne, Martha E
Psychiatric patients (age 59+) were assessed before study treatment for major depressive disorder, and again after 3 months. Measures taken before study treatment included facets of religiousness (subjective religiosity, private prayer, worship attendance, and religious media use), social support, and perceived stress. Clinician-rated depression severity was assessed both before and after treatment using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Structural equation modeling was used to test a path model of direct and indirect effects of religious factors via psychosocial pathways. Subjective religiousness was directly related to worse initial MADRS, but indirectly related to better posttreatment MADRS via the pathway of more private prayer. Worship attendance was directly related to better initial MADRS, and indirectly related to better post-treatment MADRS via pathways of lower stress, more social support, and more private prayer. Private prayer was directly related to better post-treatment MADRS. Religious media use was related to more private prayer, but had no direct relationship with MADRS.
Curley, Aoife; Agada, Emmanuel; Emechebe, Afam; Anamdi, Chike; Ng, Xiao Ting; Duffy, Richard; Kelly, Brendan D
Involuntary admission and treatment are features of psychiatric care in many countries, but the relationship between involuntary status and gender (among other factors) is not clear. We examined demographic and diagnostic factors associated with involuntary admission in a general adult psychiatry service in a deprived area of Dublin's north inner-city over a 7-year period (2008 to 2014 inclusive). Over this period, there were 1099 admissions, yielding an annual admission rate of 504.8 admissions per 100,000 population per year. When adjusted for deprivation, this rate (387.7) was lower than the national rate (413.9). Consistent with other inner-city areas in Dublin, 14.1% of admissions were involuntary, yielding an involuntary admission rate of 71.2 per 100,000 population per year (deprivation-adjusted rate: 54.8), which is higher than the national rate (39.4). After controlling for age, occupation, marital status and diagnosis, the only independent predictors of admission status were place of origin (pnational differences are likely related to differing legal traditions and different criteria for involuntary admission, possibly related to varying emphases placed on "dangerousness" as a mandatory criterion for involuntary hospitalization. This merits further, cross-national study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bowersox, Nicholas W; Bohnert, Amy S B; Ganoczy, Dara; Pfeiffer, Paul N
This study used factor analysis of a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) survey to identify factors that measure satisfaction with inpatient treatment and to examine the factors' utility in evaluating treatment participation following discharge. The Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (inpatient version) (I-SHEP) was mailed to 34,237 veterans who were discharged from inpatient to outpatient care in the VHA during fiscal year 2009 and was completed by 7,408 patients. A factor analysis of survey responses identified underlying I-SHEP factors and evaluated relationships between the factors, patient characteristics, and attendance at VHA mental health appointments within seven and 30 days of discharge. The factor analysis identified three domains of satisfaction: respect and caring by nurses-overall hospital impression; involvement and information about care; and respect and caring by doctors. These factors demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α=.93, .90, and .94, respectively) and accounted for a moderate amount of variance in patient responses (r2=.167). Only the care involvement and information factor was associated with participation in follow-up care: increased satisfaction (one standard deviation change in scale score) was associated with improved odds of a mental health visit within seven and 30 days of discharge (odds ratio=1.14 and 1.17, respectively, p<.01). After discharge, persons may not generalize satisfaction about the respect and caring shown by inpatient treatment teams toward their decision to attend outpatient care. Providing patients with information about treatment and involving them in care decisions during inpatient care may help facilitate the transition to outpatient settings.
Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa
Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This study describes characteristics of a group of 64 adolescent mothers and their infants who participated in a program for teenage mothers run by a local health department. A majority of the girls for whom California Achievement Test (CAT) scores were available scored one or more years below grade level in reading and in language skills. Relative delays in infant development (language and social domains) were also documented. High levels of self-esteem as well as general social acceptance (by adults and peers) of early out-of-wedlock parenting suggest that early motherhood may represent an alternative avenue to experiencing success for girls who are having academic difficulties. These findings, which suggest the likelihood of a high incidence of undetected learning problems in this population, indicate that these difficulties may have a significant relationship to the high rate of school dropout associated with adolescent motherhood. The findings bring into question the notion of "unintended pregnancies" and the wisdom of current federal policies for preventing adolescent parenthood that rely on the promotion of abstinence.
McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula
Interpersonal functioning is a key determinant of psychological well-being, and interpersonal problems (IPs) are common among individuals with psychiatric disorders. However, IPs are rarely formally assessed in clinical practice or within cognitive behavior therapy research trials as predictors of treatment attrition and outcome. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IPs, depressogenic cognitions, and treatment outcome in a large clinical sample receiving cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for depression in a community clinic. Patients (N=144) referred for treatment completed measures of IPs, negative cognitions, depression symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) before and at the completion of a 12-week manualized CBGT protocol. Two IPs at pre-treatment, 'finding it hard to be supportive of others' and 'not being open about problems,' were associated with higher attrition. Pre-treatment IPs also predicted higher post-treatment depression symptoms (but not QoL) after controlling for pre-treatment symptoms, negative cognitions, demographics, and comorbidity. In particular, 'difficulty being assertive' and a 'tendency to subjugate one's needs' were associated with higher post-treatment depression symptoms. Changes in IPs did not predict post-treatment depression symptoms or QoL when controlling for changes in negative cognitions, pre-treatment symptoms, demographics, and comorbidity. In contrast, changes in negative cognitions predicted both post-treatment depression and QoL, even after controlling for changes in IPs and the other covariates. Correlational design, potential attrition bias, generalizability to other disorders and treatments needs to be evaluated. Pre-treatment IPs may increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes, but changes in negative cognitions during treatment were most strongly associated with improvement in symptoms and QoL during CBGT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Han, Pi Guo; Wu, Yun Peng; Yu, Tian; Xia, Xu Min; Gao, Feng Qiang
The current study explored the role of teacher-child relationship plays on the relationship between preschooler's shyness level and externalizing problem. The sample consisted of 463 children from 6 preschools of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers reported the shyness level, aggressive behavior, and attention problem of their children,…
Picco, Louisa; Lau, Ying Wen; Pang, Shirlene; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Objectives To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Participants 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD. Methods Data were collect...
Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinha, Rajita; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle
.... The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16-75 years...
The present study of a Japanese sample used a prospective approach to examine the relationship between self-rated social problem-solving ability and quality of interpersonal relationships. The Japanese versions of the Problem-Solving self-efficacy scale, problem-solving skills scale, and the interpersonal relationship inventory short form were administered to 139 female and 148 male Japanese college students, who participated in two sessions separated by 6 wk. (time 1 and time 2). Partial correlations controlling for scores on the interpersonal relationship scales at Time 1 indicated that self-ratings of social problem-solving ability were correlated with aspects of interpersonal relationships assessed at time 2, and this relationship was stronger for men (five of six correlations were significant) than for women (two of six correlations were significant).
van As, N. M. C.; Janssens, J. M. A. M.
Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbalanced parent- child relationship, a lack of…
Saeed Shoja shafti
Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric problems and stresses may deteriorate the prognosis of patients with IHD. So evaluating their frequency possibly will promote our perspective regarding their vital importance in the field of consultation-liaison psychiatry. Method and Materials. One hundred and one (101 patients with IHD were interviewed in CCU of a general hospital by a psychiatrist to find whether there was any relationship between cardiac events and psychiatric problems or stresses. Results. Cardiac events were significantly more prevalent among patients with both psychiatric problems and biological risk factors (P<0.05. Also, the number of patients suffering from psychiatric problems was significantly more than cases without that (P<0.05. There was a significant difference between male and female patients regarding the type of stress (P<0.01. 79% of total stresses were experienced by patients who had as well psychiatric problems (P<0.0001. In addition, there was significantly more dysthymic disorder in the acute group of patients in comparison with major or minor depressive disorder in the chronic group (P<0.001. Conclusion. The high prevalence of psychiatric problems and psychosocial stresses among patients with IHD deserves sufficient attention by clinicians for detection, monitoring, and management of them.
Joyce, Aaron W.; Ross, Michael J.; Vander Wal, Jillon S.; Austin, Chammie C.
The present study examined differences in college students' preferences for processes of change across four kinds of problems: academic, relationship, depression, and anxiety. Two hundred eighteen undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete either an academic problems, relationship problems, depression, or anxiety Processes of Change…
Érika Bergamini Mastandréa
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL may be worsened in sickle cell patients due to the presence of psychiatric disorders. The aims of this study were to describe the psychiatric symptoms in Brazilian sickle cell patients and to evaluate the relationship of these symptoms to the genotype of the disease and the subject's HRQoL. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at the hematology outpatient clinic, Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: Adult patients with sickle cell disease completed the Medical Outcome Study - Short Form 36 and the Patients' Health Questionnaire. Clinical data were gathered from their medical files. Linear regression models were developed to study the dependency of HRQoL domains on the genotype controlling for psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS: In the study period, 110 patients were evaluated. The most frequent psychiatric symptom was depression (30%, followed by anxiety (12.7% and alcohol abuse (9.1%. Patients with the more severe genotype (SS and Sβthal0 showed lower scores for the "general health" and "role-physical" HRQoL domains, without interference from psychiatric symptoms. In the "role-physical" domain, the more severe genotype operated as a protective factor for HRQoL (β = 0.255; P = 0.007. CONCLUSION: The more severe genotypes worsened HRQoL in two domains of physical health (general health and role-physical, but they did not have any influence on mental health, thus suggesting that physicians should be more attentive to aspects of HRQoL relating to the functionality of sickle cell disease patients, so as to be aware of the limitations that these patient live with.
Henriksen, Ingvild Oxås; Ranøyen, Ingunn; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø; Stenseng, Frode
Self-esteem is fundamentally linked to mental health, but its' role in trajectories of psychiatric problems is unclear. In particular, few studies have addressed the role of self-esteem in the development of attention problems. Hence, we examined the role of global self-esteem in the development of symptoms of anxiety/depression and attention problems, simultaneously, in a clinical sample of adolescents while accounting for gender, therapy, and medication. Longitudinal data were obtained from a sample of 201 adolescents-aged 13-18-referred to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Trondheim, Norway. In the baseline study, self-esteem, and symptoms of anxiety/depression and attention problems were measured by means of self-report. Participants were reassessed 3 years later, with a participation rate of 77% in the clinical sample. Analyses showed that high self-esteem at baseline predicted fewer symptoms of both anxiety/depression and attention problems 3 years later after controlling for prior symptom levels, gender, therapy (or not), and medication. Results highlight the relevance of global self-esteem in the clinical practice, not only with regard to emotional problems, but also to attention problems. Implications for clinicians, parents, and others are discussed.
Early positive relationships between children and adults are critical in the acquisition of children's problem-solving skills. The early teacher-child relationship has an important role in how a child negotiates the conflicts and manages relationships with peers. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of the teacher-child relationship at…
Nursing is an occupation that deals with humans and relies upon human relationships. Nursing care, which is an important component of these relationships, involves protection, forbearance, attention, and worry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ethical beliefs of psychiatric nurses and ethical problems encountered. The study design was descriptive and cross-sectional. RESEARCH CONTEXT: Methods comprised of a questionnaire administered to psychiatric nurses (n=202) from five psychiatric hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey, instruction in psychiatric nursing ethics, discussion of reported ethical problems by nursing focus groups, and analysis of questionnaires and reports by academicians with clinical experience. PARTICIPANTS consist of the nurses who volunteered to take part in the study from the five psychiatric hospitals (n=202), which were selected with cluster sampling method. Ethical considerations: Written informed consent of each participant was taken prior to the study. The results indicated that nurses needed additional education in psychiatric ethics. Insufficient personnel, excessive workload, working conditions, lack of supervision, and in-service training were identified as leading to unethical behaviors. Ethical code or nursing care -related problems included (a) neglect, (b) rude/careless behavior, (c) disrespect of patient rights and human dignity, (d) bystander apathy, (e) lack of proper communication, (f) stigmatization, (g) authoritarian attitude/intimidation, (h) physical interventions during restraint, (i) manipulation by reactive emotions, (j) not asking for permission, (k) disrespect of privacy, (l) dishonesty or lack of clarity, (m) exposure to unhealthy physical conditions, and (n) violation of confidence. The results indicate that ethical codes of nursing in psychiatric inpatient units are inadequate and standards of care are poor. In order to address those issues, large-scale research needs to be conducted in psychiatric nursing with a
Aman, Michael G.; Vinks, Alexander A.; Remmerie, Bart; Mannaert, Erik; Ramadan, Yaser; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald L.; Malone, Krista
Background Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic agent widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in adults. Risperidone is probably the most frequently used atypical antipsychotic in the pediatric population. Objectives The goals of this study were to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters of risperidone and its enantiomers in a pediatric population and explore relationships between saliva and plasma concentrations. Methods Eligible patients, between 4 and 15 years of age, included those taking a stable dose of oral risperidone ranging from 0.01 to 0.07 mg/kg BID for ≥4 weeks to treat psychiatric or neurodevelopmental conditions. A trough blood level and predose saliva sample were collected at study initiation; the regular risperidone dose was administered; and paired samples of blood and saliva were collected at 1, 2, 4, and 7 hours postdose. Plasma/saliva concentrations of risperidone and enantiomers of its principal active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-risperidone), were measured using a chiral liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry assay. Standard pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotypes of *3,*4,*5 deletion and duplication were determined. Results The study included 19 patients (age range, 4 years 2 months to 15 years 11 months). Mean (SD) values for Cmax, t1/2, and AUC 0 to 12 hours for risperidone in plasma were 15.9 (22.2) ng/mL, 3.0 (2.3) h, and 92.1 (200.6) ng · h/mL, respectively. Corresponding values in saliva were 12.0 (21.0) ng/mL, 3.4 (3.2) h, and 27.8 (38.7) ng · h/mL, respectively. Mean (SD) plasma enantiomer values for Cmax and AUC calculated up to the last observation were: (+)-9-OH-risperidone, 13.6 (10.0) ng/mL and 73.6 (52.3) ng · h/mL; (−)-9-OH-risperidone, 4.9 (3.1) ng/mL and 29.3 (19.1) ng · h/mL. Corresponding enantiomer values in saliva were: (+)-9-OH-risperidone, 5.2 (8.8) ng/mL and 15.6 (8.9) ng · h/mL; (−)-9-OH-risperidone, 5
Hocking, Elise C; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Freeman, Harry
Evidence suggests that for young adults, intimate partners influence each other's drinking patterns. Therefore, exploration of variables related to intimate partner relationships (such as attachment style) could broaden the current understanding of risk factors for alcohol problems in this demographic. The current study examined the role of drinking context in the relationships among insecure attachment, alcohol problems, and relationship satisfaction. A path model was hypothesized where the relationship between insecure attachment and alcohol problems would be explained via two distinct drinking contexts (i.e., drinking with one's partner and drinking away from one's partner). It was also hypothesized that the relationship between insecure attachment and relationship satisfaction would be explained via these same two drinking contexts. Participants were 194 undergraduate students ages 18-25 who reported being in a monogamous intimate partner relationship for at least 90 days and had also consumed alcohol in the past 90 days. The sample was comprised of 76% women and 24% men. The hypothesized direct relationship from anxious attachment to alcohol problems was significant; there were also significant direct paths from both anxious and avoidant attachment to relationship satisfaction. The hypotheses regarding indirect relationships were not supported. The results of this study contribute to the existing literature, in that they suggest that drinking in the context of an intimate relationship may not directly affect relationship satisfaction in this population. However, relationship functioning still appears to be an important variable to consider in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related problems affecting college students.
Lax Pericall, Maria Teresa; Taylor, Eric
The psychological and psychiatric outcome of children with acquired brain injury is influenced by many variables. A review was undertaken to clarify the contribution of family function, how it relates to injury severity, and what particular aspects of family function influence psychological outcome in this group. A systematized review of the literature of studies published between 1970 and 2012 from OvidMedline, PsychoInfo, PsycARTICLES, and Cochrane was undertaken focusing on family function, injury severity, and psychiatric outcome. Thirty-six papers met the inclusion criteria. Injury severity was linked to the development of organic personality change. Family function before injury, measured by the Family Assessment Device or the Clinical Rating Scale, had a statistically significant effect on general psychological functioning in six out of eight studies. Family function had a significant effect for oppositional defiant disorder and secondary attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The effects of family function may differ depending on the age of the child and the severity of the injury. Some styles of parenting moderated recovery. After injury, family function was related to the child's contemporaneous psychiatric symptoms. The level of evidence for these papers was 3 or 4 (Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria). Screening for some aspects of family functioning before injury and family function during the rehabilitation phase may identify children at risk of psychiatric disorders. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
Bear, George G.; Yang, Chunyan; Glutting, Joseph; Huang, Xishan; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Dandan
Several previous studies have found that Chinese students perceive teacher-student relationships and student-student relationships more favorably than American students. In this study we examined if the same holds true with respect to teachers' perceptions. Also examined were both students' and teachers' perceptions of conduct problems. The sample…
McKinney, Christy M.; Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul; Harris, T. Robert
The authors examined the relationship of alcohol outlet density (AOD) and neighborhood poverty with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among drinkers in married and cohabitating relationships and assessed whether these associations differed across sex. A U.S. national population couples survey was linked to U.S. Census data on AOD and…
Podubinski, Tegan; Lee, Stuart; Hollander, Yitzchak; Daffern, Michael
The relevance of interpersonal hostile-dominance (HD) to post-discharge aggression in mental health patients is unclear. This study assessed whether (1) HD is stable over time; (2) the relationship between HD and positive, negative, disorganized, and excited symptoms is consistent over time; and (3) HD is related to aggression post-discharge. Two hundred psychiatric inpatients were recruited on admission to hospital; 41 were available for follow-up at 6 months post-discharge, including 29 men and 12 women, with an age range of 19-63 (M = 39.63 years, SD = 12.69 years). Psychiatric symptomatology and interpersonal style were assessed at recruitment and follow-up; aggression in the community post-discharge was measured at follow-up. Results showed that (1) HD was stable over time despite an overall reduction in psychiatric symptoms, (2) HD was positively correlated with symptom severity at both time points, and (3) higher HD, excited symptoms, and positive symptoms measured in the community, and more severe positive symptoms measured in hospital, were associated with aggressive behavior post-discharge. These results suggest that HD is a risk factor for more severe psychopathology. Furthermore, HD, positive symptoms, and excited symptoms measured in the community act as risk factors for aggressive behavior post-discharge. As such, treatment planning and risk assessment should consider HD. Aggr. Behav. 42:324-332, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fischer, Judith L.; Forthun, Larry F.; Pidcock, Boyd W.; Dowd, Duane A.
This study tested associations between problems in parent-youth relationships and problems with alcohol use among college students (N = 1592) using structural equation modeling. Hypotheses were that relationships between both substance-specific parenting factors (parental drinking) and non-substance-specific parenting factors (parental intrusive…
This review integrates and evaluates research conducted on possible contributing factors to peer relationship problems of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). Substantial evidence suggests that children with AD/HD have serious problems in multiple aspects of their relationships with peers. Difficulties resulting from…
Brown, Maria Teresa
Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…
Rosen, Raymond C; Heiman, Julia R; Long, J Scott; Fisher, William A; Sand, Michael S
Epidemiologic studies of sexual function problems in men have focused on the individual male and related sociodemographic characteristics, individual risk factors and lifestyle concomitants, or medical comorbidities. Insufficient attention has been given to the role of sexual and relationship satisfaction and, more particularly, to the perspective of the couple as causes or correlates of sexual problems in men or women. Previously, we reported results of the first large, multi-national study of sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in 1,009 midlife and older couples in five countries (Brazil, Germany, Japan, Spain, U.S.). For the present study, we examined, within each problem, the association of four major sexual problems in men (loss of sexual desire, erectile problems, premature ejaculation, delayed/absent orgasm) and multiple problems, with male and female partners' assessments of physical intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and relationship happiness, as well as associations with well-known health and psychosocial correlates of sexual problems in men. Sexual problem rates of men in our survey were generally similar to rates observed in past surveys in the general population, and similar risk factors (age, relationship duration, overall health) were associated with lack of desire, anorgasmia, or erection difficulties in our sample. As in previous surveys, there were few correlates of premature ejaculation. As predicted, men with one or more sexual problems reported decreased relationship happiness as well as decreased sexual satisfaction compared to men without sexual problems. Moreover, female partners of men with sexual problems had reduced relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction, although these latter outcomes were less affected in the women than the men. The association of men's sexual problems with men's and women's satisfaction and relationship happiness were modest, as these couples in long-term, committed relationships were notable for their
Bastiaansen, A.; Koot, H.M.; Ferdinand, R.F.; Verhulst, F.C.
Objective: To study the relationship between child psychiatric disorders and quality of life (QoL). Method: In a sample of 310 children (ages 6-18 years) referred for psychiatric problems, children, parents, and clinicians reported on psychopathology and subjective and objective QoL indicators.
Limin, Chen; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven
The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between pupils' problem posing and problem solving abilities, their beliefs about problem posing and problem solving, and their general mathematics abilities, in a Chinese context. Five instruments, i.e., a problem posing test, a problem solving test, a problem posing questionnaire,…
Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida
Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…
Kilian, Reinhold; Lauber, Christoph; Kalkan, Rana; Dorn, Wulf; Rössler, Wulf; Wiersma, Durk; van Buschbach, Jooske T; Fioritti, Angelo; Tomov, Toma; Catty, Jocelyn; Burns, Tom; Becker, Thomas
Positive relationships between employment and clinical status have been found in several studies. However, an unequivocal interpretation of these relationships is difficult on the basis of common statistical methods. In this analysis, a structural equation model approach for longitudinal data was applied to identify the direction of statistical relationships between hours worked, clinical status and days in psychiatric hospital in 312 persons with schizophrenia who participated in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) with conventional vocational services in six study settings across Europe. Data were analysed by an autoregressive cross-lagged effects model, an autoregressive cross-lagged model with random intercepts and an autoregressive latent trajectory model. Comparison of model fit parameters suggested the autoregressive cross-lagged effects model to be the best approach for the given data structure. All models indicated that patients who received an IPS intervention spent more hours in competitive employment and, due to indirect positive effects of employment on clinical status, spent fewer days in psychiatric hospitals than patients who received conventional vocational training. Results support the hypothesis that the IPS intervention has positive effects not only on vocational but also on clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.
Durazzo, Timothy C; Rothlind, Johannes C; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J
Co-morbidities that commonly accompany those afflicted with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may promote variability in the pattern and magnitude of neurocognitive abnormalities demonstrated. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of several common co-morbid medical conditions (primarily hypertension and hepatitis C), psychiatric (primarily unipolar mood and anxiety disorders), and substance use (primarily psychostimulant and cannabis) disorders, and chronic cigarette smoking on the neurocognitive functioning in short-term abstinent, treatment-seeking individuals with AUD. Seventy-five alcohol-dependent participants (ALC; 51+/-9 years of age; three females) completed comprehensive neurocognitive testing after approximately 1 month of abstinence. Multivariate multiple linear regression evaluated the relationships among neurocognitive variables and medical conditions, psychiatric, and substance-use disorders, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Sixty-four percent of ALC had at least one medical, psychiatric, or substance-abuse co-morbidity (excluding smoking). Smoking status (smoker or nonsmoker) and age were significant independent predictors of cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, postural stability, processing speed, and visuospatial memory after age-normed adjustment and control for estimated pre-morbid verbal intelligence, education, alcohol consumption, and medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities. Results indicated that chronic smoking accounted for a significant portion of the variance in the neurocognitive performance of this middle-aged AUD cohort. The age-related findings for ALC suggest that alcohol dependence, per se, was associated with diminished neurocognitive functioning with increasing age. The study of participants who demonstrate common co-morbidities observed in AUD is necessary to fully understand how AUD, as a clinical syndrome, affects neurocognition, brain neurobiology, and their changes with
Heitman, J. L.; Vepraskas, M. J.
Mass-volume relationships are a useful tool emphasized for problem solving in many geo-science and engineering applications. These relationships also have useful applications in soil science. Developing soils students' ability to utilize mass-volume relationships through schematic diagrams of soil phases (i.e., air, water, and solid) can help to…
Guven, Bulent; Aydin-Guc, Funda; Medine Ozmen, Zeynep
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the problems teachers preferred in mathematics lessons and student achievement in different types of problems. In accordance with this purpose, nine mathematics teachers were interviewed, and corresponding problems were prepared and administered to 225 eighth-grade students. The findings indicate that problem types are dependent on teacher preferences. It was found that curriculum-dependent and routine problems were dominant for teacher preferences. Students are more successful at with missing data, problems that are visual and do not require the use of different strategies. They have lower success at long problems, those that contain irrelevant data, problems that require the use of different strategies and difficult problem types. It was found that problem types at which students were successful and which teachers preferred were related. These results relay information about problems used in the learning environment and effect of problem-solving experiences on students' success.
Obasi, Ezemenari M; Brooks, Jessica J; Cavanagh, Lucia
Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M-age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lampard, Amy M; Byrne, Susan M; McLean, Neil
It has been proposed that interpersonal problems play a role in the maintenance of disordered eating because of an adverse effect on self-esteem, which in turn encourages the pursuit of achievement in the valued domain of weight and shape. This study aimed to identify the types of interpersonal problems that are associated with disordered eating and to determine whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between interpersonal problems and eating disorder symptoms. Female university students (n = 227) completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Regression analysis identified two forms of interpersonal problems that were associated with disordered eating: difficulties being sociable and being too dependent on the opinion of others. Self-esteem mediated the relationship between interpersonal problems and overevaluation of weight and shape but did not mediate the relationship between interpersonal problems and dietary restraint.
Mumford, Michael D.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.; Peterson, David R.; Day, Eric A.; Hougen, Dean F.; Barrett, Jamie D.
Knowledge, or expertise, has been held to contribute to creative problem-solving. In this effort, the relationship of one form of knowledge, mental models, to creative problem-solving was assessed. Undergraduates were asked to solve either a marketing or an education problem calling for creative thought. Prior to generating solutions to these…
Galaif, E R; Newcomb, M D; Carmona, J V
The prospective relationships between drug problems and work adjustment (e.g., job instability, job satisfaction) were examined in a community sample of 470 adults. Polydrug problems (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine problem drug use) were both predictors and consequences of work adjustment. In partial support of the impaired functioning theory, polydrug problems predicted reduced job satisfaction 4 years later. Supporting the work-related strain theory, early job instability predicted polydrug problems 4 years later. In support of the theory of general deviance, low social conformity predicted later job instability. Finally, supporting social support theory, early support for drug problems reduced polydrug problems and increased job satisfaction 4 years later.
Sullivan, Tami P; McPartland, Tara; Price, Carolina; Cruza-Guet, Maria Cristina; Swan, Suzanne C
Research examining predictors or correlates of mental health problems among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships typically assesses factors that confer risk. Such research has primarily examined intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization or aggression frequency or severity as central risk factors for mental health problems. In the general population, one factor demonstrating a protective effect on mental health problems is self-efficacy. Research on self-efficacy among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships is nearly absent. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-efficacy specific to a woman's ability to manage various relationship problems (i.e., relationship self-efficacy [RSE]) played a protective role against the severity of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among 354 community-residing women who were victimized and used aggression (bidirectional IPV). Regression analyses found that RSE uniquely predicted each mental health outcome above and beyond what was accounted for by the frequency of physical, sexual, and psychological victimization and aggression. Further, RSE fully mediated the relationships between psychological victimization and each mental health outcome. If replicated, and in circumstances where it is determined safe to do so, findings suggest RSE as a promising avenue for future research to improve the health and well-being of women in bidirectionally aggressive relationships.
Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O
Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suzi Roseli Kerber
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação entre transtornos mentais pós-parto e fatores demográficos e psicossociais, pré e perinatais. MÉTODOS: Todas as familias com crianças de quatro meses da Vila Jardim - Porto Alegre (RS - nascidos entre novembro de 1998 e dezembro de 1999 foram avaliadas. Utilizou-se o Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20 e entrevistas clínicas semiestruturadas individuais e do casal para fundamentar uma hipótese diagnóstica segundo os critérios do da quarta edição do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais (DSM-IV. Realizou-se a avaliação da relação conjugal e do relacionamento da mãe com as famílias de origem e a rede social utilizando-se a Escala de Avaliação Global do Funcionamento Relacional (GARF. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 148 mães e os 116 pais que coabitavam. Segundo o SRQ, 34,4% das mães e 25,4% dos pais apresentaram suspeita de transtorno psiquiátrico. Clinicamente os percentuais foram maiores. Coabitar ou não com companheiro não esteve associado com transtorno mental materno. Na análise da totalidade do grupo de mulheres, estiveram associados: baixa renda familiar (OR=0,8; pPURPOSE: To study the association between postpartum psychiatric disorder and demographic and psychosocial, pre- and perinatal factors. METHODS: All families having 4-month-old infants in Vila Jardim, a district of Porto Alegre, Brazil, born at a public hospital from November 1998 through December 1999 were assessed. The Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20 and semi-structured interviews were used for the psychiatric assessment that included a possible diagnosis using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM- IV criteria. Relational functioning between couples, the relationship with mother's family of origin and social network were assessed using the DSM-IV Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale (GARF. RESULTS: A total of 148 mothers and 116 cohabiting fathers were assessed
Salvatore, Jessica E; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M
Objective: We examined the associations between romantic relationship status and alcohol use and problems in a large sample of first-year college students. Method: Participants (n = 2,056) came from a longitudinal study of college students who answered questions about relationship status (single, in an exclusive relationship, or dating several people), alcohol use, and alcohol problems at two time points across their first year. Results: After we controlled for a number of covariates (parental alcohol problems, high school conduct problems, peer deviance, and extraversion), we found that dating several people was associated with higher alcohol use and problems, compared with being single or being in an exclusive relationship, at the follow-up assessment only, with modest effect sizes. Being in an exclusive relationship was not associated with lower alcohol use or problems compared with being single. Relationship dissolution was associated with a modest longitudinal increase in alcohol problems. Conclusions: It is important to consider alternative relationship statuses (e.g., dating several people) for understanding the association of romantic status with alcohol use and problems in college-aged samples. Involvement in an exclusive romantic relationship (vs. being single) in this age group is not associated with the behavioral health benefits documented in older-adult samples. College students dating several people may be at risk for high levels of alcohol use or problems and may benefit from targeted interventions. Those who have recently experienced a breakup also may be at risk for increases in alcohol problems, although the clinical relevance of this finding should be tempered by the small observed effect size. PMID:24988257
Salvatore, Jessica E; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M
We examined the associations between romantic relationship status and alcohol use and problems in a large sample of first-year college students. Participants (n = 2,056) came from a longitudinal study of college students who answered questions about relationship status (single, in an exclusive relationship, or dating several people), alcohol use, and alcohol problems at two time points across their first year. After we controlled for a number of covariates (parental alcohol problems, high school conduct problems, peer deviance, and extraversion), we found that dating several people was associated with higher alcohol use and problems, compared with being single or being in an exclusive relationship, at the follow-up assessment only, with modest effect sizes. Being in an exclusive relationship was not associated with lower alcohol use or problems compared with being single. Relationship dissolution was associated with a modest longitudinal increase in alcohol problems. It is important to consider alternative relationship statuses (e.g., dating several people) for understanding the association of romantic status with alcohol use and problems in college-aged samples. Involvement in an exclusive romantic relationship (vs. being single) in this age group is not associated with the behavioral health benefits documented in older-adult samples. College students dating several people may be at risk for high levels of alcohol use or problems and may benefit from targeted interventions. Those who have recently experienced a breakup also may be at risk for increases in alcohol problems, although the clinical relevance of this finding should be tempered by the small observed effect size.
Dorahy, Martin J; Corry, Mary; Black, Rebecca; Matheson, Laura; Coles, Holly; Curran, David; Seager, Lenaire; Middleton, Warwick; Dyer, Kevin F W
Elevated shame and dissociation are common in dissociative identity disorder (DID) and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are part of the constellation of symptoms defined as complex PTSD. Previous work examined the relationship between shame, dissociation, and complex PTSD and whether they are associated with intimate relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. This study investigated these variables in traumatized clinical samples and a nonclinical community group. Participants were drawn from the DID (n = 20), conflict-related chronic PTSD (n = 65), and nonclinical (n = 125) populations and completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest. A model examining the direct impact of shame and dissociation on relationship functioning, and their indirect effect via complex PTSD symptoms, was tested through path analysis. The DID sample reported significantly higher dissociation, shame, complex PTSD symptom severity, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships than the other two samples. Support was found for the proposed model, with shame directly affecting relationship anxiety and fear of relationships, and pathological dissociation directly affecting relationship anxiety and relationship depression. The indirect effect of shame and dissociation via complex PTSD symptom severity was evident on all relationship variables. Shame and pathological dissociation are important for not only the effect they have on the development of other complex PTSD symptoms, but also their direct and indirect effects on distress associated with relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.
Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were typically developing and 93 who were identified as developmentally delayed. Behavior problems and parenting stress covaried significantly across time for both groups of children. Cross-lagged panel analyses generally supported a bidirectional relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems for mothers and fathers. PMID:22264112
Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth
Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). M...
Ly, Jennifer; Zhou, Qing
The goal of the study was to test the bidirectional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and behavior problems in an elementary school age sample of Chinese American immigrant children. A socioeconomically diverse sample (N = 258) of first- and second-generation Chinese American children (M ages = 7.4 and 9.2 years at Wave 1 and Wave 2, respectively; 48% girls) was recruited from schools and communities and followed for 1 to 2 years. Two waves of data on dimensions of teacher-child relationship quality (i.e., warmth, closeness, and conflict) and children's externalizing and internalizing problems were collected through parents', teachers', and children's report. Path analyses were conducted to test the bidirectional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and behavior problems, controlling for prior levels, child demographic characteristics, and teacher ethnicity. Transactional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior problems were found for externalizing problems. That is, teacher-rated externalizing problems negatively predicted child-rated closeness, and teacher-rated conflict positively predicted parent-rated externalizing problems. On the other hand, teacher-child relationship quality did not predict subsequent internalizing problems. However, parent-rated internalizing problems negatively predicted teacher-rated warmth, and teacher-rated internalizing problems negatively predicted teacher-rated conflict. Using a multiple informant approach and a diverse sample of Chinese American immigrant children, this study extends our knowledge of the reciprocal associations between teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior problems. Based on the results of this study, the authors provide recommendations for educators and future research with this understudied population.
Takenoshita, Miho; Sato, Tomoko; Kato, Yuichi; Katagiri, Ayano; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Sato, Yusuke; Matsushima, Eisuke; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Toyofuku, Akira
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and atypical odontalgia (AO) are two conditions involving chronic oral pain in the absence of any organic cause. Psychiatrically they can both be considered as "somatoform disorder". From the dental point of view, however, the two disorders are quite distinct. BMS is a burning or stinging sensation in the mouth in association with a normal mucosa whereas AO is most frequently associated with a continuous pain in the teeth or in a tooth socket after extraction in the absence of any identifiable cause. Because of the absence of organic causes, BMS and AO are often regarded as psychogenic conditions, although the relationship between oral pain and psychologic factors is still unclear. Some studies have analyzed the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with chronic oral pain who have been referred from dental facilities to psychiatric facilities. No study to date has investigated patients referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities. To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses of chronic oral pain patients, diagnosed with BMS and AO, and referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities. Psychiatric diagnoses and disease conditions of BMS or AO were investigated in 162 patients by reviewing patients' medical records and referral forms. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision. The proportion of F4 classification (neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders) in AO patients was significantly higher than in BMS patients. BMS patients were more frequently given a F3 classification (mood/affective disorders). However, 50.8% of BMS patients and 33.3% of AO patients had no specific psychiatric diagnoses. Although BMS and AO are both chronic pain disorders occurring in the absence of any organic cause, the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with BMS and AO differ substantially.
Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…
Bellatorre, Anna; Choi, Kelvin; Lewin, Daniel; Haynie, Denise; Simons-Morton, Bruce
The relationship between sleeping and smoking during adolescence remains unclear and is likely complex. We aim to evaluate the longitudinal reciprocal associations between sleep problems, sleep duration, and smoking among non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) youth. Prospective cohort study. NEXT Generation Health Study. A national sample (N = 1394) of NHB and NHW 10th graders were surveyed annually between 2009 (Wave 1) and 2012 (Wave 3). N/A. Past 30-day smoking, chronic difficulty falling asleep, recent difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and weekday and weekend sleep duration were measured at each wave. Using structural equation models, we observed significant autocorrelations over time for sleep problems and sleep duration. We found significant reciprocal, prospective relationships between smoking and sleep problems. The strengths of the relationships differed by race, with a stronger association between sleep problems and subsequent smoking for NHB than NHW youth. Conversely, a stronger association between smoking and subsequent sleep problems for NHW than NHB youth was observed. These association were independent of demographics, snoring or sleep apnea, body mass index, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and soda consumption. Reciprocal and prospective relationships exist for youth smoking and sleep problems and duration in both NHW and NHB youth. Further research is needed to unravel the complex relationship between the direct effects of nicotine, lifestyle choices that may link smoking and sleep problems, and racial differences.
Emine Çığıl Fettahoğlu
Full Text Available Scalp hair has greater social and psychological importance than its' biological significance. In the hair disorder consultation services there are lots of patients who are often considered as "difficult" or "problematic", because of their biopsychosocial problems. When it’s considered that the hair loss patients refer to the dermatology clinics in the first step, we can understand the importance of the awareness of the clinicians about the causal and/or consequential relationship between hair diseases and the psychological problems. In this paper, hair loss diseases that are related to primary psychiatric disorders are reviewed.
Norberg, Melissa M; Ham, Lindsay S; Olivier, Jake; Zamboanga, Byron L; Melkonian, Alexander; Fugitt, Jessica L
Pregaming is a high-risk drinking behavior associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Quantity of alcohol consumed does not fully explain the level of problems associated with pregaming; yet, limited research has examined factors that may interact with pregaming behavior to contribute to the experience of alcohol-related problems. The current study examined whether use of two emotion regulation strategies influence pregaming's contribution to alcohol-related problems. Undergraduates (N = 1857) aged 18-25 years attending 19 different colleges completed an online survey in 2008-2009. Linear mixed models were used to test whether emotion regulation strategies moderate the association between pregaming status (pregamers vs. non/infrequent pregamers) and alcohol-related problems, when controlling for alcohol consumption, demographic covariates, and site as a random effect. Greater use of cognitive reappraisal was associated with decreased alcohol problems. Expressive suppression interacted with pregaming status. There was no relationship between pregaming status and alcohol problems for students who rarely used expression suppression; however, the relationship between pregaming status and alcohol problems was statistically significant for students who occasionally to frequently used expression suppression. Findings suggest that the relationship between pregaming and alcohol-related problems is complex. Accordingly, future studies should utilize event-level methodology to understand how emotion regulation strategies influence alcohol-related problems. Further, clinicians should tailor alcohol treatments to help students increase their use of cognitive reappraisal and decrease their use of suppression.
Buist, K.L.; Paalman, C.H.; Branje, S.T.J.; Dekovic, M.; Reitz, E.; Verhoeven, M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, H.M.; Hale III, W.W.
The aim of the present study was to examine whether adolescents of Moroccan and Dutch origin differ concerning sibling relationship quality and to examine whether the associations between quality of the sibling relationship and level and change in externalizing and internalizing problem behavior are
Buist, K.L.; Paalman, C.H.; Branje, S.J.T.; Dekovic, M.; Reitz, E.; Verhoeven, M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, H.M.; Hale, W.W.
The aim of the present study was to examine whether adolescents of Moroccan and Dutch origin differ concerning sibling relationship quality and to examine whether the associations between quality of the sibling relationship and level and change in externalizing and internalizing problem behavior are
Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.
This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were
Chung, Man Cheung; AlQarni, Nowf; Al Muhairi, Shamsa; Mitchell, Britt
This study examined the inter-relationship between trauma centrality, self-efficacy, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among a group of Syrian refugees living in Turkey, and whether gender would moderate the mediational effect of self-efficacy on the impact of trauma centrality on distress. Seven hundred and ninety-two Syrian refugees completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire-28, Centrality of Event Scale and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that 52% met the cutoff for PTSD. Trauma centrality was positively correlated with PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was negatively correlated with PTSD only. Gender did not moderate the mediational effect of self-efficacy on the path between trauma centrality and distress outcomes. To conclude, following exposure to traumatic events, more than half reported PTSD. Perception of the future and identity construction was affected. Signs of psychological distress were evident, alongside resilience, regardless of gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.
Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…
Miller-Lewis, Lauren R; Sawyer, Alyssa Cp; Searle, Amelia K; Mittinty, Murthy N; Sawyer, Michael G; Lynch, John W
This longitudinal study classified groups of children experiencing different trajectories of student-teacher relationship quality over the transition from preschool into school, and determined the strength of the association between different student-teacher relationship trajectories and childhood mental health problems in the second year of primary school. A community sample of 460 Australian children were assessed in preschool (age 4), the first school year (age 5), and second school year (age 6). Teachers at all three assessments reported on student-teacher relationship quality with the Student Teacher Relationship Scale. When the children were at preschool and in their second school year, parents and teachers rated children's mental health problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Latent-class growth modelling identified two trajectories of student-teacher relationship quality: (1) a stable-high student-teacher relationship quality and (2) a moderate/declining student-teacher relationship quality trajectory. Generalised linear models found that after adjusting for family demographic characteristics, having a stable high quality student-teacher relationship trajectory was associated with fewer parent-rated and teacher-rated total mental health problems, and fewer conduct, hyperactivity, and peer problems, and greater prosocial behaviour at age 6. A stable high quality trajectory was also associated with fewer teacher-rated, but not parent-rated emotional symptoms. These effects remained after adjustment for levels of mental health problems at age 4. Findings suggest that early intervention and prevention strategies that focus on building stable high quality student-teacher relationships during preschool and children's transition into formal schooling, may help reduce rates of childhood mental health problems during the early school years.
Picco, Louisa; Lau, Ying Wen; Pang, Shirlene; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Objectives To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Participants 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD. Methods Data were collected in relation to self-stigma, perceived stigma, self-esteem, functioning and quality of life. In order to examine the mediating role of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes, bootstrapping mediation analyses were used. Results Mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes was subject to the effects of self-stigma among the overall sample. Separate mediation analyses were conducted by diagnoses and showed differences in the mediating effects of self-stigma. Among the whole sample and the subsample with OCD, self-stigma mediated the relationship between perceived stigma and all psychosocial outcomes. For those with anxiety, depression and schizophrenia, the mediating effects of self-stigma were present in all relationships except (1) perceived stigma with physical health in the anxiety sample, (2) perceived stigma with social relationships in the depression sample and (3) perceived stigma with physical health in the schizophrenia sample. Conclusions The mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and various psychosocial outcomes are evident and differ across diagnoses. Interventions to address and reduce the effects of self-stigma along with targeted treatments and psychoeducation to assist people with mental illness overcome or better manage self-stigma while providing them the skills to counteract public stigma are needed. PMID:28851803
Byrne, Molly; Murphy, Patrick; D'Eath, Maureen; Doherty, Sally; Jaarsma, Tiny
Relationship satisfaction is generally positively correlated with sexual satisfaction, but this relation has been poorly examined in people with cardiovascular disease who are at increased risk of sexual problems compared with the general population. To document reported changes to sex after a diagnosis of cardiac disease and determine whether there is an association between sexual function and relationship satisfaction. Semistructured telephone interviews focused on relationship satisfaction and sexual problems were conducted with 201 people with cardiovascular disease who were currently in a sexual relationship with one main partner and were recruited from six hospital cardiac rehabilitation centers in Ireland. Comparisons between groups were conducted using t-tests and multivariate analysis of variance for continuous variables and χ(2) tests for categorical variables. Predictors of relationship satisfaction were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Data were gathered on demographic and clinical variables, sexual problems, and relationship satisfaction, including satisfaction with the physical, emotional, affection, and communication aspects of relationships. Just less than one third of participants (n = 61, 30.3%) reported that sex had changed for the worse since their cardiac event or diagnosis, with approximately half of these stating that this was a serious problem for them. Satisfaction with relationships was high among patients surveyed; more than 70% of the sample reported being very or extremely satisfied with the physical and emotional aspects and showing affection during sex. Satisfaction with communication about sex was lower, with only 58% reporting being very or extremely satisfied. We did not find significant associations between reporting of sexual problems or deterioration of sex as a result of disease and relationship satisfaction. Cardiac rehabilitation programs should address these sexual problems, potentially by enhancing
Ronzitti, Silvia; Kraus, Shane W; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which stress moderated the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychopathologies. We analyzed Wave-1 data from 41,869 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression showed that as compared to a non-gambling (NG) group, individuals at-risk gambling (ARG) and problem gambling (PPG) demonstrated higher odds of multiple Axis-I and Axis-II disorders in both high- and low-stress groups. Interactions odds ratios were statistically significant for stress moderating the relationships between at-risk gambling (versus non-gambling) and Any Axis-I and Any Axis-II disorder, with substance-use and Cluster-A and Cluster-B disorders contributing significantly. Some similar patterns were observed for pathological gambling (versus non-gambling), with stress moderating relationships with Cluster-B disorders. In all cases, a stronger relationship was observed between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in the low-stress versus high-stress groups. The findings suggest that perceived stress accounts for some of the variance in the relationship between problem-gambling severity and specific forms of psychopathology, particularly with respect to lower intensity, subsyndromal levels of gambling. Findings suggest that stress may be particularly important to consider in the relationships between problem-gambling severity and substance use and Cluster-B disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Poirier-Arbour, Alisson; Trudel, Gilles; Boyer, Richard; Harvey, Pascale; Goldfarb, Maria Rocio
Problem and pathological gamblers (PPG) often suffer from depressive symptoms. Gambling problems have negative consequences on multiple aspects of gamblers' lives, including family and marital relationships. The objectives of the current study were to (1) replicate the results of studies that have suggested a stronger and more significant relationship between gambling and depression in PPG than in non-problem gamblers (NPG) and (2) explore specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG in couple relationships. Variables demonstrated to be significantly correlated with depressive symptoms in the general population were selected. It was hypothesized that gender, age, gambler's mean annual income, perceived poverty, employment status, clinical status (i.e., problem or pathological gambler versus non-problem gambler), trait anxiety, alcoholism, problem-solving skills, and dyadic adjustment would be significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven PPG were recruited, primarily from an addiction treatment center; 40 NPG were recruited, primarily through the media. Results revealed that PPG reported significantly greater depressive symptoms than did NPG. Further, elevated trait anxiety and poor dyadic adjustment were demonstrated to be significant and specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG. These findings contribute to the literature on depressive symptomatology in PPG in relationships, and highlight the importance of the influence of the couple relationship on PPG.
Hopwood, C J; Ansell, E B; Fehon, D C; Grilo, C M
Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear, and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited.
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Ansell, Emily B.; Fehon, Dwain C.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Method Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Results Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited. PMID:21727786
Natoli, Adam P; Nelson, Sharon M; Lengu, Ketrin J; Huprich, Steven K
Both state- and trait-like manifestations of depression have been associated with poor interpersonal functioning. One mechanism by which this could occur is through individuals' sensitivity to criticism. In the present study, 414 undergraduates were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck et al. 1996) and Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (Huprich et al. 1996) as representative measures of state and trait depression respectively. They also were assessed with self-report measures of sensitivity to criticism and interpersonal problems. Sensitivity to criticism significantly mediated the relationship between state and trait depression within five dimensions of interpersonal problems. However, sensitivity to criticism was more strongly related to the trait depression-interpersonal problems relationship than the state depression-interpersonal problems relationship, when controlling for state depression and trait depression respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A.
Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children’s representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children’s represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children’s represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm. PMID:24580068
Breeman, Linda D.; van Lier, Pol A C; Wubbels, Theo; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Struiksma, A. J Chris; Hopman, Juliette A B; Tick, Nouchka T.
Teaching children with psychiatric disorders can be a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in children with psychiatric disorders, and their teachers, in special education. Teachers were trained by licensed school consultants to
Breeman, L.D.; Van Lier, Pol; Wubbels, T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Struiksma, Chris; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, Nouchka
Teaching children with psychiatric disorders can be a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in children with psychiatric disorders, and their teachers, in special education. Teachers were trained by licensed school consultants to
Breeman, Linda D.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Wubbels, Theo; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Struiksma, A. J. Chris; Hopman, Juliette A. B.; Tick, Nouchka T.
Teaching children with psychiatric disorders can be a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in children with psychiatric disorders, and their teachers, in special education. Teachers were trained by licensed school consultants to implement positive behavior support strategies to…
Gaudiano, Brandon A; Zimmerman, Mark
Attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) is being proposed for inclusion in Section III of DSM-5 for those impaired by subthreshold psychotic symptoms that are not better accounted for by another diagnosis and not meeting criteria for a psychotic disorder. The rationale is to identify patients who are at high risk for transition to a psychotic disorder in the near future. However, the potential impact of using this new diagnosis in routine clinical practice settings has not been carefully examined. As part of the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, a treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatient sample (n = 1,257) recruited from June 1997 to June 2002 completed a self-report measure of psychiatric symptoms and afterward were administered structured clinical interviews. For the current post hoc study, we investigated the prevalence rate of endorsing attenuated psychotic experiences to identify patients who could potentially meet criteria for APS. After the exclusion of those with lifetime DSM-IV psychotic disorders, psychotic experiences remained highly prevalent in the sample (28% reported at least 1 psychotic experience during the past 2 weeks), and rates were similar across all major DSM-IV diagnostic categories. Only 1 patient (0.08%) reported psychotic experiences but did not meet criteria for another current DSM disorder; however, this individual endorsed other nonpsychotic symptoms of greater severity. Psychotic experience endorsement was positively correlated with nearly all other nonpsychotic symptom domains, and multivariate analysis showed that general clinical severity predicted endorsement of psychotic experiences (P values < .001). We could not identify any patients who clearly met criteria for APS alone in our sample. Psychotic experiences appear to be common in outpatients and represent nonspecific indicators of psychopathology. Diagnosing APS in the community could result in high rates of false-positives or high
Hsieh, Hsiu-Fen; Chang, Shu-Chen; Wang, Hsiu-Hung
The aim of the authors in this study was to identify factors associated with resilience that helped abused nurses face and cope with violent events. The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from June 2013 to December 2013; 272 participants were recruited from emergency rooms and psychiatric wards in four hospitals in central Taiwan. Among these participants, 230 (84.6%) met the inclusion criterion and completed all questionnaires; 69 (30%) of them reported having experienced only verbal violence; 46 (20%) reported having experienced only physical violence, and 115 (50%) reported having experienced a combination of verbal and physical violence. The following were positively associated with resilience score: having a college education or greater (exp((β)()) = 1.045, p = .018), extraversion (exp((β)()) = 1.012 per unit increase in the score, p support (exp((β)()) = 1.004 per unit increase in the score, p = .031), peer support (exp((β)()) = 1.008 per unit increase in the score, p = .006), and lower level of neuroticism (exp((β)()) = 0.983 per unit increase in the score, p resilience was explained by the variables assessed. Adequate support and advanced education are important for abused nurses to enhance their resilience.
Lauvrud, Christian; Nonstad, Kåre; Palmstierna, Tom
Violence is frequent towards nurses in forensic mental health hospitals. Implications of this high risk environment have not been systematically explored. This paper explores occurrence of symptoms on post traumatic stress and their relationship to professional quality of life. Self report questionnaires assessing symptoms of post traumatic stress and professional quality of life were distributed among psychiatric nurses in a high security forensic psychiatric unit with high frequency of violent behaviour. Relationships between post traumatic stress symptoms, forensic nursing experience, type of ward and compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue were explored. The prevalence of post traumatic stress symptoms was low. Low scores were found on compassion satisfaction. Length of psychiatric nursing experience and low scores on compassion satisfaction were correlated to increased post traumatic stress symptoms. Although high violence frequency, low rate of post traumatic stress symptoms and low compassion satisfaction scores was found. High staff/patient ratio and emotional distance between staff and patients are discussed as protective factors.
Campos Pavone Zoboli, Elma Lourdes
to identify ethical problems in primary care according to nurses' and doctors' perceptions. to know ethical issues of patient-professional relationships in primary care. Synthesis to integrate and reinterpret primary results of qualitative studies. Primary healthcare centers, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS AND/OR CONTEXT: Incidental sample of 34 nurses and 36 medical doctors working in primary healthcare centers selected by convenience. Individual, semi-structured interviews to identity situations considered as sources of ethical problems. The sample is socially representative of primary care health centers and professionals. Data collection assured discourse saturation. Hermeneutic-dialectical discourse analysis was used to study the results. Patient-professional relationships and team work were the main sources of ethical problems. The most important problems were patient information, privacy, confidentiality, interpersonal relationship, linkage and patient autonomy. These issues reflect the recent changes in clinical relation ships and show the peculiarities of primary care with its continuous care which lasts a long time. Healthcare involves multiprofessional team work in the midst of the patient claims for autonomy. Good care of patients needs requires a relationship based on communication and cooperation, and includes feelings and values, with communication skills. Ethical problems in primary care are common situations. For quality and humane primary care the relationship should consist of dialogue, trust and cooperation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD.
Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M
into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can...... then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691...
Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M
To examine the association between psychological problems and weight status in children aged 3.5 to 4 years and test whether obesogenic eating behaviors mediate this relationship. This study is a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from first-time mothers (N = 194) in the control arm of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. At child age 3.5 to 4 years, maternal-reported child eating behaviors and psychological problems were collected via valid tools, and child weight and height data were collected by trained study staff. Pearson's correlations and linear regressions examined associations between eating behaviors, psychological problems, and BMI z score. Multiple mediation models were tested by assessing indirect effects of psychological problems on BMI z score via obesogenic eating behaviors. Peer problems were associated with both higher food responsiveness and emotional overeating and directly with higher BMI z score. This relationship was partially mediated by emotional overeating. Both emotional overeating and food responsiveness fully mediated the association between emotional problems and BMI z score, and food responsiveness fully mediated the association between conduct problems and BMI z score. The findings suggest that children with psychological problems may also display obesogenic eating behaviors, which may result in higher BMI. This needs to be considered in the clinical management of both pediatric overweight/obesity and psychological problems. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).
Avasthi, Ajit; Sarkar, Siddharth; Grover, Sandeep
Psychiatric nosology is required for communication among clinicians and researchers, understanding etiology, testing treatment efficacy, knowing the prevalence of the problems and disorders, health...
Herr, Nathaniel R; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Geiger, Paul J; Erikson, Karen
Problems with interpersonal functioning and difficulties with emotion regulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Little is known, however, about the interrelationship between these areas of dysfunction in accounting for BPD symptom severity. The present study examines a model of the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and interpersonal dysfunction in a community sample of adults (n = 124) with the full range of BPD symptoms. Results showed that difficulties with emotion regulation fully mediated the relationship between BPD symptom severity and interpersonal dysfunction. An alternative model indicated that interpersonal problems partially mediated the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and BPD symptom severity. These findings support existing theories of BPD, which propose that difficulties with emotion regulation may account for the types of interpersonal problems experienced by individuals with BPD and suggest further examination of the possibility that interpersonal dysfunction may worsen these individuals' difficulties with emotion regulation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is efficacious, but there remains individual variability in outcomes. Patient's interpersonal problems may affect treatment outcomes, either directly or through a relationship mediated by helping alliance. Interpersonal problems may affect alliance and outcomes differentially in individual and group (CBGT) treatments. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between interpersonal problems, alliance, dropout and outcomes for a clinical sample receiving either individual or group CBT for anxiety or depression in a community clinic. Patients receiving individual CBT (N=84) or CBGT (N=115) completed measures of interpersonal problems, alliance, and disorder specific symptoms at the commencement and completion of CBT. In CBGT higher pre-treatment interpersonal problems were associated with increased risk of dropout and poorer outcomes. This relationship was not mediated by alliance. In individual CBT those who reported higher alliance were more likely to complete treatment, although alliance was not associated with symptom change, and interpersonal problems were not related to attrition or outcome. Allocation to group and individual therapy was non-random, so selection bias may have influenced these results. Some analyses were only powered to detect large effects. Helping alliance ratings were high, so range restriction may have obscured the relationship between helping alliance, attrition and outcomes. Pre-treatment interpersonal problems increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes in CBGT, but not in individual CBT, and this relationship is not mediated by helping alliance. Stronger alliance is associated with treatment completion in individual, but not group CBT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhu, Chunyan; Chen, Li; Ou, Liming; Geng, Qingshan; Jiang, Wei
Psychosocial problems and stress-related diseases account for a high proportion of health problems. This study aimed to assess stress status and mental health, and their relationships with each other among civil servants in China. In a cross-sectional study of 600 randomly selected civil servants in 2007, we assessed mental health via the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), and stress status via a Self-Rated Stress Scale. Canonical correlation analysis was performed to assess the interrelationships among mental health symptoms and the various stressors. The participants scored higher in the total score and the seven domains of the SCL-90 (except for interpersonal sensitivity and hostility), compared with the norms documented in China. Canonical correlation analysis demonstrated positive and direct relationship in the first canonical function indicating that the nine mental health problems and various stressors were related (Canonical correlation = 0.715). Among the civil servants, mental health problems are highly associated with various stressors.
De Las Cuevas, Carlos; Peñate, Wenceslao; Sanz, Emilio J
Although non-adherence to antidepressant medications is a significant barrier to the successful treatment of depression in clinical practice, few potentially modifiable predictors of poor adherence to antidepressant treatment are known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of psychological reactance, health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy on adherence to treatment regimen among psychiatric outpatients with depression. One hundred and forty-five consecutive psychiatric outpatients suffering from depressive disorders were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study and 119 accepted. Patients completed a series of self-reported questionnaires assessing psychological reactance, health locus of control, self-efficacy, and adherence to prescribed medication in addition to socio-demographic and clinical variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors better correlate to treatment adherence. Age was found to be the best correlate of adherence to prescribed treatment. As regards psychological dimension studied, medication adherence was negatively associated with both cognitive and affective psychological reactance; patients with higher psychological reactance were more likely to be noncompliant than patients showing a low level of psychological reactance. Regarding health locus of control, only the external dimension of doctor-attributed health locus of control was positively associated with medications adherence. No effect on adherence was observed for the self-efficacy scale. Psychological reactance is an important correlate of adherence to treatment in patients with depressive disorders and this needs to be considered when giving clinical advice in order to avoid inducing reactance and thus non-adherence to prescribed treatments. Mental health professionals need to learn about communication techniques and counseling skills that enable them to deal with the psychological reactance of their patients.
Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore; Di Fratello, Carla; Giordano, Cecilia; Kivlighan, Dennis M
Groups are more effective when positive bonds are established and interpersonal conflicts resolved in early sessions and work is accomplished in later sessions. Previous research has provided mixed support for this group development model. We performed a test of this theoretical perspective using group members' (actors) and aggregated group members' (partners) perceptions of positive bonding, positive working, and negative group relationships measured early and late in interpersonal growth groups. Participants were 325 Italian graduate students randomly (within semester) assigned to 1 of 16 interpersonal growth groups. Groups met for 9 weeks with experienced psychologists using Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) interpersonal process model. Outcome was assessed pre- and posttreatment using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and group relationships were measured at Sessions 3 and 6 using the Group Questionnaire. As hypothesized, early measures of positive bonding and late measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were positively related to improved interpersonal problems. Also as hypothesized, late measures of positive bonding and early measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were negatively related to improved interpersonal problems. We also found that early actor and partner positive bonding and negative relationships interacted to predict changes in interpersonal problems. The findings are consistent with group development theory and suggest that group therapists focus on group-as-a-whole positive bonding relationships in early group sessions and on group-as-a-whole positive working relationships in later group sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Zemp, Martina; Milek, Anne; Davies, Patrick T; Bodenmann, Guy
Although a large body of literature indicates that interparental discord is a primary risk factor for child maladjustment, less research has examined children's behavior as a predictor of the parents' relationship quality. The goal of this randomized trial intervention study was to examine the effects of improved problem behavior in children on the parents' relationship quality 1 year later in a community sample. One hundred couples were randomly assigned to (a) a parenting training (Triple P) or (b) an untreated control group. Interparental relationship quality, parenting behavior, and child problem behavior were assessed by means of questionnaires completed by the parents before and 2 weeks after completion of the treatment and at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. Mother-report of improved child problem behavior and father-report of improved parenting skills predicted both partners' relationship quality at the 1-year follow-up for the Triple P group only. The findings suggest that programs aimed at reducing child problem behavior hold promise to also enhance the couple's relationship quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Waldron, Jonathan Cook
The current study aimed to test the long-term impact of abuse on immune functioning and to test the mediating role of interpersonal problems in the relationship between early child abuse experiences and immune functioning. A sample of 89 undergraduate adult women (M age = 19.24) completed reports of child abuse histories, interpersonal problems, and negative life events, and provided saliva samples to measure Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and antibody level for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1...
This study examined the prospective associations between behavior problems and teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N = 258). Externalizing and internalizing problems were assessed using parents' and teachers' ratings. Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions of Warmth and Conflict and children completed a questionnaire measuring Closeness. Path analyses ...
Lu, Wei-Hsin; Lee, Kun-Hua; Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsiao, Ray C.; HU, HUEI-FAN; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Aim To examine the relationship between borderline personality symptoms and Internet addiction as well as the mediating role of mental health problems between them. Methods A total of 500 college students from Taiwan were recruited and assessed for symptoms of Internet addiction using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, borderline personality symptoms using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List and mental health problems using four subscales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised...
Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Bloomfield, Kim; Tolstrup, Janne
AIMS: To test the hypothesis that young people with perceived parental alcohol problems have poorer parent-child relationships and more emotional symptoms, low self-esteem, loneliness, and depression than young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... internalizing problems such as emotional symptoms, depression, self-esteem, loneliness and aspects of the parent-child relationship. The main predictor variable was perceived parental alcohol problems, including the severity of the perceived problems and living with a parent with alcohol problems. Control...
Stephens, Cristina; Westmaas, J Lee; Kim, Jihye; Cannady, Rachel; Stein, Kevin
Research suggests that a cancer diagnosis predicts marital dissolution more strongly for women survivors than men, but there is a paucity of research on potential processes underlying this vulnerability. The present cross-sectional study examined whether specific cancer-related problems were associated with the odds of relationship breakup following diagnosis and whether these relationships differed between male and female cancer survivors. A national cross-sectional quality of life study assessed self-reported cancer-related problems and relationship change among survivors who were either 2, 6, or 10 years post-diagnosis (n = 6099). Bivariate analyses indicated that cancer-related problems (e.g., emotional distress) were greater for divorced/separated survivors compared to those with intact relationships and were greater for women versus men. Logistic regressions indicated that for both male and female survivors, lower income, younger age, and longer time since diagnosis were associated with greater odds of divorce or separation after diagnosis (ORs > 2.14, p emotional distress (OR = 1.14, p separation. For men only, fear of cancer recurrence was associated with greater odds of divorce or separation (OR = 1.32, p emotional or financial/employment problems attributed to the cancer diagnosis were associated with the likelihood of reporting relationship dissolution. Although directions of causality could not be ascertained, results suggest the possibility that helping male and female cancer survivors cope with specific cancer-related problems may benefit the quality and stability of their relationships with significant others following diagnosis.
Stein, Murray B; Belik, Shay-Lee; Jacobi, Frank; Sareen, Jitender
To explore the extent to which associations between sleep problems and functional impairment are attributable to comorbid mental and physical health problems. Sleep problems are being increasingly recognized as a source of morbidity and role impairment. Little is known, however, about the extent to which associations between sleep problems and functional impairment are attributable to comorbid mental and physical health problems. We utilized data from the German Health Survey (n = 4181; response rate: 87.6%; ages 18-65 years) to examine the relationships between sleep problems (assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI)), mental and physical health comorbidity, and disability and health-related quality of life (assessed by the Medical Outcomes Scale Short Form-36 (SF-36)). A total of 1595 (35.2%) respondents reported current sleep problems (PSQI score of >5). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, we found the presence of sleep problems was associated with having one or more physical health problems (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.21, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.01-1.45) and one or more mental disorders (AOR = 3.58, 95% CI = 2.95-4.35). Among persons with one or more physical health problems, the co-occurrence of a sleep problem was associated with poorer physical component scores on the SF-36 (45.7 versus 48.6, p or=1 disability days in the past 30 days due to physical problems (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.20-1.98), even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidity with other mental and physical health conditions. More than one third of adults in the community report sleep problems. These often co-occur with other physical and mental health problems, and when they do they are generally associated with an increased burden of role disability and functional impairment.
Alvarenga, Pedro G; do Rosario, Maria C; Cesar, Raony C; Manfro, Gisele G; Moriyama, Tais S; Bloch, Michael H; Shavitt, Roseli G; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Miguel, Euripedes C
Pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is underdiagnosed, and many affected children are untreated. The present study seeks to evaluate the presence and the clinical impact of OCD and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large sample of school-age children. In Phase I, we performed an initial screening using the Family History Screen (FHS). In Phase II, we identified an "at-risk" sample, as well as a randomly selected group of children. A total of 2,512 children (6-12 years old) were assessed using the FHS, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Data analyses included descriptive and multivariate analytical techniques. 2,512 children (mean age: 8.86 ± 1.84 years; 55.0% male) were categorized into one of the three diagnostic groups: OCD (n = 77), OCS (n = 488), and unaffected controls (n = 1,947). There were no significant socio-demographic differences (age, gender, socioeconomic status) across groups. The OCS group resembled the OCD on overall impairment, including school problems and delinquent behaviors. However, the OCD group did have significantly higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, and major depressive disorder, than OCS or unaffected controls. Moreover, the OCD group also scored higher than the SDQ, as well as on each of CBCL items rated by the parent. Our findings suggest that there is a psychopathological continuum between OCS and OCD in school-aged children. The presence of OCS is associated with functional impairment, which needs further investigation in longitudinal studies.
Chou, Wei-Po; Lee, Kun-Hua; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsiao, Ray C; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Internet addiction became a major mental health problem in college student. Our objective was to examine the relationship between psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance (PIEA) and Internet addiction (IA) and the mediating effects of mental health problem indicators. 500 college students (238 men and 262 women) participated in this study. The level of PIEA was examined using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. The severity of IA was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. The levels of depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility were evaluated using the Symptom Checklist-90 item-Revised Scale. The relationship among PIEA, mental health problems, and IA was examined using structural equation modeling. The severity of PIEA was positively associated with the severity of IA as well as positively associated with the severity of mental health problems. In addition, the severity of mental health problem indicators was positively associated with the severity of IA. These results provide the severity of PIEA is directly related to the severity of IA and indirectly related to the severity of IA through increasing the severity of mental health problems. The PIEA should be one of the target objectives when administer cognitive-behavioral therapy to college students with IA and mental health problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aroian, Karen J; Templin, Thomas N; Hough, Edythe S
This longitudinal study examines reciprocal and dynamic relations among daily hassles, the mother-child relationship, and adolescent behavior problems and whether the relations differed by sociodemographic variables. Three waves of data about adolescent daily hassles, quality of the mother-child relationship, and adolescent behavior problems were collected from 454 Arab Muslim adolescents and their immigrant mothers over a 3-year period. Cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine reciprocal relations among the study variables. Relations between the mother-child relationship and adolescent behavior problems were reciprocal, with a poor mother-child relationship contributing to greater behavior problems and behavior problems contributing to a decline in the quality of the mother-child relationship. Relations involving daily hassles were unidirectional: A better mother-child relationship contributed to fewer daily hassles and behavior problems contributed to more daily hassles but daily hassles did not contribute to more behavior problems. Father's education was the only sociodemographic variable that was significant: Adolescents with more highly educated fathers had a better mother-child relationship and fewer behavioral problems. Findings suggest that Arab American Muslim adolescents with behavior problems are differentially exposed to daily hassles but daily hassles are not the best point of intervention. Bidirectional relations between the mother-child relationship and adolescent behavior problems suggest intervening to improve the mother-child relationship and manage symptoms of adolescent behavior problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Neall, Michael Timothy
Client-centered and consultee-centered consultation models are predominately used in K-12 schools to meet the needs of at-risk learners and ensure equitable access to educational services. Although the efficacy of both models has significant support in the literature, studies regarding relationships formed during problem solving in consultation…
This study aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and problem solving. The sample set of the research was taken from the Faculty of Education of Mugla University by the random sampling method. The participants were 386 students--prospective teachers--(224 females; 182 males) who took part in the study voluntarily.…
Koklukaya, Ayse Nesibe; Guven Yildirim, Ezgi; Selvi, Mahmut
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the awareness level of preservice science teachers' conscious use of technological devices, which cause electromagnetic pollution, and their awareness level of related environmental problems. Research Methods: In this study, a mixed design method was used. A relational…
Mutlu Gö?men, Nejla; Güle?, Selma
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between classroom teachers' perception of mobbing phenomenon and their problem solving skills. The sample of the study is composed of 208 classroom teachers working in the primary schools in the Osmangazi district of Bursa during the 2013-2014 educational year. The data required for the…
Ramsay, Janet; Cowell, Naina; Gersch, Irvine
This exploratory study adopted a mixed methods methodology, a critical realist ontological stance and a constructionist epistemological position to consider how special educational needs coordinators and pastoral managers in mainstream high schools understand the relationship between problem behaviours and language development. Semi-structured…
Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.; Jaccard, James
Despite the considerable amount of research demonstrating the relationship between parental depressive symptoms and child behavior problems, few studies have examined the direction of the relationship between these variables. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine transactional effects between parental depressive symptoms and child behavior problems. Participants were 209 parent-child dyads drawn from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project who completed at least 2 of 4 annual questionnaire assessments between the child’s age of 4 and 7 years. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the autoregressive paths from one year to the next year within each construct, as well as cross-lagged paths from one year to the next year between constructs. Findings indicated that parental depressive symptoms at each year predicted child behavior problems at the subsequent year and vice versa. No support was found for differential gender effects. These findings highlight the reciprocal relationship between parental depressive symptoms and child behavior problems and suggest intervention programs for young children should assess for and target parental depression when appropriate. Future research should examine these relationships across a broader developmental spectrum and in more diverse, heterogeneous samples. PMID:22963145
O'Connell, Ann Aileen
The relationships among types of errors observed during probability problem solving were studied. Subjects were 50 graduate students in an introductory probability and statistics course. Errors were classified as text comprehension, conceptual, procedural, and arithmetic. Canonical correlation analysis was conducted on the frequencies of specific…
Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.
This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…
Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna; Watkin, Peter; Worsfold, Sarah; Kennedy, Colin
Background: There are well-replicated findings that link poor development on a range of communication skills with increased behavioural problems. This paper examines this relationship in children with hearing loss. Method: One hundred and twenty children with hearing loss (67 boys, 53 girls) and 63 hearing children (37 boys, 26 girls) with a mean…
Kramer, Ueli; Stulz, Niklaus; Berthoud, Laurent; Caspar, Franz; Marquet, Pierre; Kolly, Stéphane; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas
There is little research on short-term treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD). While the core changes may occur only in long-term treatments, short-term treatments may enable the study of early generic processes of engagement in therapy and thus inform about effective treatment components. It was shown that a 10-session version of a psychiatric treatment was effective in reducing borderline symptoms at the end of this treatment [Kramer, U., Kolly, S., Berthoud, L., Keller, S., Preisig, M., Caspar, F., … Despland, J.-N. (2014). Effects of motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in a ten-session general psychiatric treatment for borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83, 176-186.]. Also, it was demonstrated in a randomized design that adding the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR), following an individualized case formulation based on Plan Analysis, further increased general outcome after session 10 and had a positive effect on the early changes in self-esteem and alliance. The present study focuses on the follow-up period after this initial treatment, examining treatment density and outcomes after 6 months and service utilization after 12 months. Outcome was measured using the OQ-45. Results on a sub-sample of N = 40 patients with available OQ-45 data at follow-up (n = 21 for MOTR-treatment, n = 19 for comparison treatment) showed maintenance of gains over the follow-up period, which did not differ between both conditions. It appeared for this sample that MOTR treatments, while using the same number of sessions, lasted more weeks (i.e., lower treatment density, defined as the number of sessions per week), when compared to the treatments without MOTR. Density marginally predicted symptom reduction at follow-up. Patients in MOTR treatments had a greater likelihood of entering structured psychotherapy after the initial sessions than patients in the comparison
Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide
This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.
Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Sun-Young; Yu, Jeong Jin; Chae, Jeong-Ho
Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders than
Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. Methods A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Result Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Conclusion Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with
Talebi Joybari, Masoud
The aim of the present research was to determine whether depression and interpersonal problems had relationships with alexithymia and coping styles in adolescents. The study population was randomly selected from all of the adolescent students in the schools of Sari in Iran; 441 adolescents (228 boys and 213 girls) were included in the study. The participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and was expressed in means, standard deviations, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Alexithymia was related to depression and interpersonal problems; the adolescents who defined themselves as more alexithymic obtained higher scores in depression and interpersonal problems than the adolescents who classified themselves as less- and non-alexithymic. Furthermore, coping styles were related to depression and interpersonal problems. Regression analyses showed that both alexithymia and coping styles accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in depression and interpersonal problems in adolescents. These findings support the positive correlation of alexithymia and maladaptive coping styles with depression and interpersonal problems.
Full Text Available Muge Bozkurt,1 Cuneyt Evren,1 Gokhan Umut,1 Bilge Evren2 1Research, Treatment and Training Center for Alcohol and Substance Dependence, Bakirkoy Prof Dr Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2Department of Psychiatry, Baltalimani State Hospital for Muskuloskeletal Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods: Participants (n=190 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results: Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients
Pisinger, Veronica S C; Bloomfield, Kim; Tolstrup, Janne S
To test the hypothesis that young people with perceived parental alcohol problems have poorer parent-child relationships and more emotional symptoms, low self-esteem, loneliness and depression than young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. Cross-sectional analysis using data from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. Denmark. A total of 71.988 high school and vocational school students (aged 12-25, nested in 119 schools and 3.186 school classes) recruited throughout 2014. Outcome variables included internalizing problems such as emotional symptoms, depression, self-esteem, loneliness and aspects of the parent-child relationship. The main predictor variable was perceived parental alcohol problems, including the severity of the perceived problems and living with a parent with alcohol problems. Control variables included age, sex, education, ethnicity, parents' separation and economic problems in the family. Boys and girls with perceived parental alcohol problems had statistically significant higher odds of reporting internalizing problems (e.g. frequent emotional symptoms: odds ratio (OR)= 1.58 for boys; 1.49 for girls) and poor parent-child relationships (e.g. lack of parental interest: OR = 1.92 for boys; 2.33 for girls) compared with young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. The associations were not significantly stronger for mother's alcohol problems or if the young person lived with the parent with perceived alcohol problems. Boys and girls in secondary education in Denmark who report perceived parental alcohol problems have significantly higher odds of internalizing problems and poorer parent-child relationships compared with young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Wiersma, Jacquelyn D; Fischer, Judith L
Objective: This study examines the association between young adult drinking partnerships (ages 18–26 years) and later alcohol-related problems and consequences, alcohol use, relationship quality, and relationship dissolution in adult relationships (ages 26–35). Method: Data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Waves III and IV) with 1,347 young adults and their partners at Wave III, including dating, cohabiting, and married couples, and individual adult behaviors at Wave IV, 6 years later. Drinking partnerships were based on alcohol use frequency, quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and getting drunk. Results: Four clusters included (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b) discrepant male heavy and frequent, (c) discrepant female heavy and frequent, and (d) congruent heavy and frequent drinkers. Young adult discrepant partnerships reported more alcohol-related problems and consequences 6 years later. Young adults in the congruent heavy drinking partnership indicated more separation/divorce and alcohol use as adults. Young adult married men who drank discrepantly and higher compared to their wives reported higher rates of adult drinking and problems than other men. There were a number of negative effects from congruent heavy drinking, especially for women. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that there are multiple types of young adult drinking partnerships based on couples’ alcohol use behaviors. Men may be at risk for serious alcohol-related problems later in adulthood, especially when paired with discrepant drinking partners and congruent heavy drinking partners. Women are at risk when in congruent, heavy and frequent drinking partnerships. Studying romantic relationships and drinking has implications for broad aspects of young adult and adult development. PMID:24988269
Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.H.; Mulder, J.; Furer, J.W.
BACKGROUND: Decades of psychiatric epidemiology have shown a wide variation in prevalence rates, but a consistent relationship between psychiatric disorder and sociodemographic variables. In this repeated cross-sectional survey, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their distribution in the
Stotland, Nada L
Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.
Zuckerman, June T.
Expert/novice studies of conceptually rich problem solving have demonstrated a relationship between the correctness of a solution and the extent and organization of the solver's conceptual knowledge. This study examines meaningful problem solving and the relationship between the correctness of a solution and the extent of the solver's scientific…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy, being a chronic infectious disease with profound social stigma, remains associated with high psychological mortidity. PURPOSES: To find out the pattern of psychiatric morbidity in leprosy patients and the relationship of various factors with the morbidity. METHODS: Ninty patients attending leprosy clinic were randomly chosen for the study group alongwith 40 patients suffering from acute skin problem other than leprosy as control group. The socio-demographic data were recorded in semi-structural proforma; all patients were given Goldbery Health Questioneaire (GHQ. Patients having GHQ score> 2 was assessed by Disability Assessent Questionaire (DAQ. The psychiatric diagnoses was made according to ICD-10 by W ho0 and physical deformity by W ho 0 Disability Scale. FINDINGS: The mean GHQ score of the study grant was 3.44 and that of control group was 1.62. The mean DAQ score was 45.13. Psychiatric disorder was seen in 44.4% and 7.5% of study group and control group respectively. The psychiatric illness was generalised anoxidy disorder (GAD (27.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosis highly associated with psychiatric mobidity. LIMITATIONS: The findings can not be generalised due to small sample size and clinic-based data.
Miller, Adam B; Esposito-Smythers, Chrstianne
The present study, informed by the cognitive-behavioral theory of suicide, is among the first studies to examine cognitive distortions and substance related problems as potential mediators and moderators of the relation between child maltreatment (CM) and suicidal ideation (SI) in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The sample included 185 adolescents (71.4% female; 84% White) admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Participants completed self-report measures assessing cognitive errors, negative cognitive triad, substance related problems, and SI. Participants and their parents completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview assessing CM history. In this clinical sample, we found that child maltreatment was associated with suicidal ideation only for youth with current substance abuse problems, indicating moderation. Contrary to predictions, substance related problems did not mediate the association between child maltreatment and adolescent SI. Further, cognitive errors and negative cognitive triad did not mediate or moderate the association between CM and SI. However, there were significant unique effects for both cognitive errors and negative cognitive triad on SI, suggesting that adolescents with more severe cognitive distortions report greater SI, regardless of CM history. Clinically, results suggest that practitioners should carefully screen for and address any substance misuse among victims of maltreatment to prevent clinically significant SI. Study results also suggest that interventions that incorporate cognitive restructuring may help decrease risk for severe SI in adolescent clinical samples in general.
Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I; Schmidt, Henk G
This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity, (3) the extent to which the problem stimulated group discussion, (4) self-study, and (5) identification of learning goals. The results showed that problem clarity led to more group discussion, identification of learning goals, and self-study than problem familiarity. On the other hand, problem familiarity had a stronger and direct impact on academic achievement.
Burt, S A; Wildey, M N; Klump, K L
Although there is a clear phenotypic relationship between the quality of the interparental or marital relationship and child conduct problems (CP), the etiology of this association is as yet unclear. One possibility is that this association takes the form of a genotype-environment interaction (G × E), whereby the quality of the interparental relationship acts to moderate the etiology of child CP. The current study sought to evaluate this possibility. We examined multiple measures and informant reports of the quality of the interparental relationship in a sample of more than 700 child twin families from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Analyses consisted of a series of latent G × E models. The 'no moderation' model provided the best fit to the data in nearly all cases, findings that collectively provide strong evidence against the possibility that the etiology of CP is moderated by the quality of the interparental relationship. Our findings suggest that, contrary to implicit (and sometimes explicit) assumptions in the field, it is not the case that every environmental risk (or protective) factor exacerbates (or suppresses) genetic influences on CP. Future research should seek to delineate the specific environmental experiences that do serve as etiologic moderators of CP, and to clarify how this G × E interplay might change over the course of development.
Friede, Curtis R.; Irani, Tracy A.; Rhoades, Emily B.; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Gallo, Maria
This study was conducted to examine the statistical relationship between problem solving and critical thinking to guide future teaching and research for agricultural educators using the problem-solving approach. Students enrolled in an undergraduate genetics course in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida were…
Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Bloomfield, Kim; Tolstrup, Janne
AIMS: To test the hypothesis that young people with perceived parental alcohol problems have poorer parent-child relationships and more emotional symptoms, low self-esteem, loneliness, and depression than young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... using data from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. SETTING: DENMARK: PARTICIPANTS: 71.988 high school and vocational school students (aged 12-25, nested in 119 schools and 3.186 school classes) recruited throughout 2014. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome variables included...... internalizing problems such as emotional symptoms, depression, self-esteem, loneliness and aspects of the parent-child relationship. The main predictor variable was perceived parental alcohol problems, including the severity of the perceived problems and living with a parent with alcohol problems. Control...
Wayte, Sarah; McCaughey, Elizabeth; Holley, Simone; Annaz, Dagmara; Hill, Catherine M
To compare sleep problems in children with cerebral palsy to typically developing children. To study the relationship between sleep problems in children with cerebral palsy and maternal sleep quality and depression. Fifty-seven children with cerebral palsy aged 4-12 years were identified from a UK disability database. Maternal sleep disturbance and mood were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Major Depression Inventory. Child sleep problems, assessed with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, but not maternal variables, were compared to 102 typically developing children. Forty children (70%) were recruited with a mean age of 7.8 (SD 2.4). Sleep anxiety, night wakings, parasomnias and sleep-disordered breathing sub-scales indicated significantly more difficulties than in typically developing children. 40% of mothers of children with cerebral palsy had poor sleep quality of whom 44% had depressed mood. Child and maternal sleep disturbance were significantly correlated. Maternal sleep quality predicted 50% of the variance in maternal depression. Children with cerebral palsy have more sleep problems than typically developing peers. Their mothers also have disturbed sleep that correlates with maternal depression. Childhood sleep problems can be treated and should be identified in routine clinical practice. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Hernandez, Lynn; Spirito, Anthony
Parental monitoring has been identified as a protective factor for adolescent drinking, whereas depressed mood, peer substance use, and peer tolerance of substance use have been identified as risk factors. The purpose of this study was to test the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems in adolescents, and to test whether parental monitoring and peer substance use/tolerance of use moderate the strength of this relationship. Participants included 227 adolescents (Mage = 15.36; 51.5% female) recruited from a hospital emergency department and surrounding community who completed self-report assessments. Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated that depressed mood was associated with more alcohol-related problems. A significant interaction between depressed mood and parental monitoring indicated a moderating effect, with high levels of depressed mood being associated with alcohol-related problems when parental monitoring was low; at low levels of depressed mood, parental monitoring was not related to alcohol-related problems. This study highlights the protective role that parental monitoring may play in the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems and suggests that parenting practices, in addition to individual counseling, should be addressed in treatment of depressed adolescents who drink.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between gender and the temperamental characteristics of children between the ages of five and six, as well as to assess their behavioural problems. The sample included 128 children selected by simple random sampling from 5-6 year old children, receiving preschool education in the city centre of Izmir province in Turkey. Of the children, 65 were girls (50.8% and 63 (49.2% were boys. The data collection instruments were the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales and the Short Temperament Scale for Children, respectively. The results of this study reveal that there is no significiant difference between gender and the child temperament subscales of approach/withdrawal; persistence and rhythmicity; and a child's behavioural problems, respectively. However, the gender of the children was found to be significantly related to the reactivity sub-dimension of their temperament (p < 0.05. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the temperament subscale of reactivity and externalising problems subscale of behavioural problems (p < 0.05. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between the persistence temperament dimension and the behavioural problem dimension of self-centredness (p < 0.05. In the opinion of the researcher, it is important to know the children's personality features, monitor their behaviour, and take respective measures when necessary. These research results contributed positively to this end.
Lu, Wei-Hsin; Lee, Kun-Hua; Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsiao, Ray C; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Aim To examine the relationship between borderline personality symptoms and Internet addiction as well as the mediating role of mental health problems between them. Methods A total of 500 college students from Taiwan were recruited and assessed for symptoms of Internet addiction using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, borderline personality symptoms using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List and mental health problems using four subscales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and hostility). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test our hypothesis that borderline personality symptoms are associated with the severity of Internet addiction directly and also through the mediation of mental health problems. Results SEM analysis revealed that all paths in the hypothesized model were significant, indicating that borderline personality symptoms were directly related to the severity of Internet addiction as well as indirectly related to the severity of Internet addiction by increasing the severity of mental health problems. Conclusion Borderline personality symptoms and mental health problems should be taken into consideration when designing intervention programs for Internet addiction.
Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke
The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Gonzalez, Vivian M; Reynolds, Brady; Skewes, Monica C
Depression is common among college students and higher levels of depression are associated with greater alcohol-related problems. However, depression is frequently not found to be directly associated with more alcohol use. This study examined whether various aspects of impulsivity (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, and delay discounting) and drinking to cope with negative affect help to account for the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers who reported at least a minimal level of depressive symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 143 emerging adult (between 18 and 25 years old) female (69.9%, n = 100) and male (30.1%, n = 43) college drinkers with at least minimal depressive symptoms completed measures of depression, alcohol use and problems, drinking to cope, and impulsivity. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that only negative urgency and drinking to cope partially mediated the depression-alcohol problems relationship. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that impulsivity-related constructs did not significantly interact with drinking to cope to increase alcohol problems. It appears that alcohol use is particularly problematic for students with elevated depression, and this is partly attributable to depression's association with negative urgency, in addition to its association with drinking to cope. Our findings suggest that students who suffer from depression may engage in problematic drinking behavior in part because negative affect is detrimental to their short-term impulse control and decision making, independent of maladaptive attempts to regulate affect through drinking to cope. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Narayanan, M. K.; Midouhas, E.
Abstract Background Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross‐lagged relationship between father absence (non‐residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. Methods We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2–4). The sample was 15 293 families in which both biological parents were co‐resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut‐offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Results Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut‐off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross‐lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Conclusions Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. PMID:25708874
Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E.
Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one’s partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first 9 years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one’s partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439
Rodas, Naomi V; Chavira, Denise A; Baker, Bruce L
Mothers' and fathers' emotion socialization (ES) practices have been widely associated with child socioemotional outcomes. To extend this research, we examined the bidirectional relationship between parent ES practices (supportive and non-supportive parenting) and internalizing behavior problems in children of Anglo and Latino parents. Participants were 182 mothers and 162 fathers and their children with or without intellectual disability (ID). We compared the stability of mother and father ES practices across child ages 4-8. We utilized cross-lagged panel modeling to examine the bidirectional relationship between parents' ES and child internalizing behavior problems. Emotion socialization practices differed across time by parent gender, with mothers displaying higher levels of supportive parenting and lower levels of non-supportive parenting than fathers. Cross-lagged panel models revealed differential relationships between child internalizing behaviors and emotion socialization practices by parent gender and by ethnicity. Implications for intervening with culturally diverse families of children with ID are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhai, Zu Wei; Yip, Sarah W; Steinberg, Marvin A; Wampler, Jeremy; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N
The study systematically examined the relative relationships between perceived family and peer gambling and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. It also determined the likelihood of at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking as a function of the number of different social groups with perceived gambling. A multi-site high-school survey assessed gambling, alcohol use, presence of perceived excessive peer gambling (peer excess-PE), and family gambling prompting concern (family concern-FC) in 2750 high-school students. Adolescents were separately stratified into: (1) low-risk, at-risk, and problem/pathological gambling groups; and, (2) non-binge-drinking, low-frequency-binge-drinking, and high-frequency-binge-drinking groups. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to each other, FC and PE were associated with greater likelihoods of at-risk and problem/pathological gambling. However, only FC was associated with binge-drinking. Logistic regression revealed that adolescents who endorsed either FC or PE alone, compared to no endorsement, were more likely to have at-risk and problem/pathological gambling, relative to low-risk gambling. Adolescents who endorsed both FC and PE, compared to PE alone, were more likely to have problem/pathological gambling relative to low-risk and at-risk gambling. Relative to non-binge-drinking adolescents, those who endorsed both FC and PE were more likely to have low- and high-frequency-binge-drinking compared to FC alone or PE alone, respectively. Family and peer gambling individually contribute to adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. Strategies that target adolescents as well as their closely affiliated family and peer members may be an important step towards prevention of harm-associated levels of gambling and alcohol use in youths.
Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome; Schmidt, Henk
textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity, (3) the extent to which the problem stimulated group discussion, (4) self-study, and (5) identification of learning goals. The results sh...
Spendelow, Jason S; Simonds, Laura M; Avery, Rachel E
Co-rumination refers to the process of engaging in repeated discussion of personal problems in dyadic relationships. The current systematic review and meta-analysis provided an evaluation of the relationship between co-rumination and internalizing problems in children, adolescents and young adults, along with an investigation of potential moderator variables. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they quantitatively assessed the relationship between co-rumination and depression, anxiety and/or internalizing problems using validated measures. An electronic search was conducted in PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Medline, Scopus and the Cochrane Library database of systematic reviews for studies published since 2002. In addition, unpublished studies were located by contacting authors in the field and by online searches of dissertation databases. Thirty-eight studies were deemed eligible for inclusion comprising a total of 12 829 community-based participants. A random-effects model was employed in the analysis, and effect sizes were obtained exclusively from cross-sectional data. Small to moderate effect sizes were found across four outcomes representing internalizing problems (mean corrected correlation range 0.14 to 0.26), with no significant variability across these variables. Female participants were found to score significantly higher on measures of co-rumination compared with males (d = -0.55). Moderator analyses revealed mixed findings. No significant effects were found for age, gender or publication status. A significant effect was found for co-rumination questionnaire version used (p = 0.05), and a marginal effect found for co-rumination partner (same-sex best friend versus other confidants; p = 0.08). These findings indicate that co-rumination may have a modest but significant association with internalizing problems. The implications of these findings and directions for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Co
Okutan, Nur; Buyuksahin Sunal, Ayda; Sakalli Ugurlu, Nuray
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men/lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect [EVLN] responses) and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized homophobia was associated with EVLN responses and perceived partner's EVLN responses for gay men and lesbians. Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale-Accommodation Instrument, Internalized Homophobia, and Demographics Information were administered to 187 participants (44 lesbians, 44 gay men, 53 heterosexual women, 46 heterosexual men).The MANCOVA results showed that men reported higher loyalty than women, whereas women presented more exit responses than men. Further, the interactions between gender and sexual orientation on the participants' EVLN responses and on the perceived partner's EVLN responses were significant. With respect to heterosexual women, heterosexual men displayed more loyalty responses. Lesbians had higher scores on loyalty than did heterosexual women. Lesbians also had higher scores on perceived partner's exit response than did heterosexual women and gay men. On the contrary, heterosexual women reported more perceived partner's voice response than lesbians. In addition, lesbians reported higher perceived partner's neglect responses than heterosexual women. Compared to heterosexual women, heterosexual men reported higher perceived partner's exit response. Finally, internalized homophobia was associated with destructive responses for both lesbians and gay men.
Mar 13, 2012 ... recommendations for nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice, with the aim of reducing the readmission of ... impairment of memory, concentration, motivation, self- esteem, relationships with others and ..... at increasing nursing students' and psychiatric nurses' insight about psychiatric ...
Full Text Available Miho Takenoshita1, Tomoko Sato1, Yuichi Kato1, Ayano Katagiri1, Tatsuya Yoshikawa1, Yusuke Sato2, Eisuke Matsushima3, Yoshiyuki Sasaki4, Akira Toyofuku11Psychosomatic Dentistry, 2Complete Denture Prosthodontics, 3Liaison Psychiatry and Palliative Medicine, 4Center for Education and Research in Oral Health Care, Faculty of Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS and atypical odontalgia (AO are two conditions involving chronic oral pain in the absence of any organic cause. Psychiatrically they can both be considered as “somatoform disorder”. From the dental point of view, however, the two disorders are quite distinct. BMS is a burning or stinging sensation in the mouth in association with a normal mucosa whereas AO is most frequently associated with a continuous pain in the teeth or in a tooth socket after extraction in the absence of any identifiable cause. Because of the absence of organic causes, BMS and AO are often regarded as psychogenic conditions, although the relationship between oral pain and psychologic factors is still unclear. Some studies have analyzed the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with chronic oral pain who have been referred from dental facilities to psychiatric facilities. No study to date has investigated patients referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities.Objective: To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses of chronic oral pain patients, diagnosed with BMS and AO, and referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities.Study design: Psychiatric diagnoses and disease conditions of BMS or AO were investigated in 162 patients by reviewing patients’ medical records and referral forms. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision.Results: The proportion of F4 classification (neurotic, stress
Trenz, Rebecca C; Harrell, Paul; Scherer, Michael; Mancha, Brent E; Latimer, William W
The current study uses structural equation modeling to investigate factors associated with alcohol initiation and injection heroin use. Baseline data from the NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study in Baltimore, Maryland, were used. Participants were 404 injection heroin users (M(age) = 32.72) with a history of regular injection in their lifetime. Latent variables were created for self-reported school problems and academic failure. The final model indicated that greater school problems were associated with earlier alcohol initiation (ß = -0.22, p failure was directly related to greater frequency of recent heroin injection (ß = 0.15, p < .01). The results expand research investigating the relationship between adolescent behavior and illicit drug use in adulthood.
Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R
Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.
Lyubov Sabirdzyanovna Krestyanova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems and trends of the development of interethnic relationships at the regional level. The assumption that migration process has direct influence upon them is proved. The hypothesis of the research is that the interethnic relationships of “traditional” ethnic communities for the region fundamentally differ from the interethnic relationships of the ethnic communities formed by the new migrants. For the first ethnic communities, ethnicity is not so important while the civil identity is more relevant and over-ethnic integrated images are developed. That results in the reduction of interethnic tension. For the other ethnic communities, ethnic and cultural barriers are strong, ethnicity is relevant for them. Furthermore, the language curtain and social distance strengthen interethnic tension for these ethnic communities. In our opinion, the basic threat is that the efforts of public authorities for the harmonization of interethnic relationships are mainly bending to the first ethnic communities. The public authorities attempt to save and develop the ethnic culture to form tolerance. Meanwhile, the major interethnic tension is associated with the migration process, a negative perception of migrants and a number of sociopsychological problems. Main factors having the influence on the negative perception of migrants and interethnic tension are analyzed. The conclusions are based on the research conducted by the author in 2011, relying on the questionnaire and expert survey, on the research conducted from 2008 till 2015, on the analysis of national population census and analytical reviews about migration situation. The results of the study can be used by the public authorities of the region developing ethnic policy, migration policy in formulation forecast of socio-economic development and social tension.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence is frequent towards nurses in forensic mental health hospitals. Implications of this high risk environment have not been systematically explored. This paper explores occurrence of symptoms on post traumatic stress and their relationship to professional quality of life. Methods Self report questionnaires assessing symptoms of post traumatic stress and professional quality of life were distributed among psychiatric nurses in a high security forensic psychiatric unit with high frequency of violent behaviour. Relationships between post traumatic stress symptoms, forensic nursing experience, type of ward and compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue were explored. Results The prevalence of post traumatic stress symptoms was low. Low scores were found on compassion satisfaction. Length of psychiatric nursing experience and low scores on compassion satisfaction were correlated to increased post traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusion Although high violence frequency, low rate of post traumatic stress symptoms and low compassion satisfaction scores was found. High staff/patient ratio and emotional distance between staff and patients are discussed as protective factors.
Kumah-Crystal, Yaa A; Hood, Korey K; Ho, Yu-Xian; Lybarger, Cindy K; O'Connor, Brendan H; Rothman, Russell L; Mulvaney, Shelagh A
This study examines technology use for problem solving in diabetes and its relationship to hemoglobin A1C (A1C). A sample of 112 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed measures assessing use of technologies for diabetes problem solving, including mobile applications, social technologies, and glucose software. Hierarchical regression was performed to identify the contribution of a new nine-item Technology Use for Problem Solving in Type 1 Diabetes (TUPS) scale to A1C, considering known clinical contributors to A1C. Mean age for the sample was 14.5 (SD 1.7) years, mean A1C was 8.9% (SD 1.8%), 50% were female, and diabetes duration was 5.5 (SD 3.5) years. Cronbach's α reliability for TUPS was 0.78. In regression analyses, variables significantly associated with A1C were the socioeconomic status (β = -0.26, P Problem Solving Questionnaire (β = -0.26, P = 0.01), and TUPS (β = 0.26, P = 0.01). Aside from the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory--Revised, each block added significantly to the model R(2). The final model R(2) was 0.22 for modeling A1C (P problem solving and higher A1C. Adolescents with poorer glycemic control may use technology in a reactive, as opposed to preventive, manner. Better understanding of the nature of technology use for self-management over time is needed to guide the development of technology-mediated problem solving tools for youth with type 1 diabetes.
Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo
The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Roos, Jeanette; Steen, Rainer; Resch, Franz
So far there are contradictory findings concerning the degree of negative influence of attention deficit disorders, external or socio-emotional disorders on academic development of a child. Therefore the present epidemiologic study analyses the relationship between clinically relevant problems and academic achievement of fourth graders (measured by recommendation for secondary school: A-level, B-level or C-level). Children (N = 3910) were rated by their parents by anonymised questionnaires (Child Behavior Checklist CBCL) at the end of primary school. Especially in the field of attention deficit, somatic and anxiety/depression disorders, many children were in a clinically relevant range compared to German norm data. It became obvious that future C-level pupils are particularly strong, multiply problem troubled, with constantly higher problems at all subscales. Mainly attention deficit disorders proved to be relevant for academic achievement, but also delinquent behaviour and social problems, which enhance the relative risk of recommendation for B- or C-level considerably. Early applied preventive interventions supporting social and cognitive development seem therefore of central importance for the school career of primary school children.
Full Text Available In this study, the predictive roles of perseverance and openness to problem solving on success in the lower and upper quartiles of score distribution are analyzed in scientific, mathematical, and reading domains of PISA 2012 Turkey sample. Since their index values can’t be calculated due to missing values, some students are excluded from the sample. The study sample is comprised of 3,190 students. Regression models in which perseverance and openness to problem solving are predictive variables and success is response variable are formed for the lower and upper quartiles of score distribution of each domain. Models are analyzed by quantile regression analysis. It is found that there is a positive, medium level, significant relationship between perseverance and openness to problem solving. The results of quantile regression analysis show that perseverance predicts success better in the lower quartile of score distribution while openness to problem solving predicts success better in the upper quartile of score distribution in all domains. Based on these results, suggestions regarding classroom activities, assessment processes and feedback given to students are discussed respectively.
Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M-C; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Dagens, Véronique; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Debourg, Alain; Amzallag, Corinne; Cazas, Odile; Cammas, Rafaële; Klopfert, Marie-Emmanuelle; Rainelli, Christine; Tielemans, Pascale; Mertens, Claudine; Maron, Michel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Poinso, François
Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with mother-child separation at discharge, after joint hospitalization in psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) in France and Belgium. Because parents with postpartum psychiatric disorders are at risk of disturbed parent-infant interactions, their infants have an increased risk of an unstable early foundation. They may be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and have a higher risk of developing some psychiatric disorders in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study of 1,018 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, jointly admitted with their infant to 16 French and Belgian psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs), used multifactorial logistic regression models to assess the risk factors for mother-child separation at discharge from MBUs. Those factors include some infant characteristics associated with personal vulnerability, parents' pathology and psychosocial context. Most children were discharged with their mothers, but 151 (15 %) were separated from their mothers at discharge. Risk factors independently associated with separation were: (1) neonatal or infant medical problems or complications; (2) maternal psychiatric disorder; (3) paternal psychiatric disorder; (4) maternal lack of good relationship with others; (5) mother receipt of disability benefits; (6) low social class. This study highlights the existence of factors other than maternal pathology that lead to decisions to separate mother and child for the child's protection in a population of mentally ill mothers jointly hospitalized with the baby in the postpartum period.
Dec 23, 2011 ... Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem and is associated with many complications. However little is known about the psychiatric sequelae of TBI in Nigeria. This study described the pattern and determinants of psychiatric sequelae among subjects with TBI. Materials and Methods: ...
de Niet, G. J. (Gerrit); Tiemens, B. G. (Bea); Lendemeijer, H. H. G. M. (Bert); Hutschemaekers, G. J. M. (Giel)
This paper aims at acquiring knowledge about the quality of sleep of adult and elderly psychiatric patients who receive clinical or outpatient nursing care, and identifying key factors in perceiving a sleep problem. To do so, a sample of 1699 psychiatric patients were asked whether they perceived a
Full Text Available In this research; how the changes in reactions which university students give integral volume problems before solution and after solution affect the solution processes is inspected. In the study adopting qualitative paradigm’s interpretive approach, case study is used as study design. Participants of the research are the 142 students which had been chosen from four different faculties of two universities in Istanbul, using nonprobability sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two students randomly chosen from every department and Integral Volume Pre Solution Test and Integral Volume Solution and After Solution Test were used as data collection tools. The data have been analyzed using descriptive analysis and presented by frequency and percentage tables. As a result of the research, it is concluded that the reactions of the students in the faculty, their familiarity to the mathematical statement and their attitude towards the problem and faculty based institutional differences such as professors, professional expectation causes the evolution of the socio-psycho-mathematical relationship between university students and problems and that affects the solution processes.
Andersson, Claes; Johnsson, Kent O; Berglund, Mats; Öjehagen, Agneta
.... The secondary aim was to investigate whether the results were related to a likelihood of students being in serious relationships and/or had a first-degree relative with alcohol problems. Methods...
Zhan, Xiao; Sun, Jin
To examine the reciprocal relations between teacher-child relationships and children's behavior problems, the authors analyzed cross-lagged longitudinal data on teacher-child relationships and children's internalizing and externalizing problems using a structural equation modeling approach. The homeroom teachers of 105 first-year preschoolers aged 2-3 years filled in the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3, first at 3 months after the children's preschool entrance and then at the end of the first preschool year. Results showed significant cross-wave reciprocal relations between externalizing problems and teacher-child conflict and significant cross-wave relation from early internalizing problems to later teacher-child conflict. However, the cross-wave associations between internalizing and externalizing problems and teacher-child closeness were not significant.
N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)
textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem
Eapen, Valsamma; Al-Sabosy, Moza; Saeed, Mohammed; Sabri, Sufyan
Physical and psychiatric comorbidity is relatively common in general practice but there have been few systematic studies using clinical interviews of children attending the primary care services in the Arab population, and none from the Gulf countries. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and nature of child psychiatric morbidity in primary care in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Systematic psychiatric evaluations were carried out on consecutive children aged 6 to 18 years visiting their primary care doctors in Al Ain. The sample consisted of 141 (50.7%) boys and 137 (49.3%) girls. Forty-three percent of the 278 children received a DSM-IV diagnosis. Of these, 46 (38%) were males and 74 (62%) were females. However, only 1.1% (3/120) of the patients consulted general practitioners for a primary psychiatric symptom. The most common diagnosis was anxiety disorder followed by depression. Obsessive compulsive disorder was present in 11%, conduct disorder in 7%, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in 3% of those with a diagnosis. A statistically significant association was found between DSM-IV caseness and female gender, higher number of children in the household, relationship problems in the family, physical illness and family history of psychiatric disorder. Other factors that did not show any significant association were age, nationality, socioeconomic status, parental education or occupation, scholastic performance or developmental delay in the child, or parental consanguinity. Our findings suggest that psychiatric disorders are common among young people of Arab origin attending primary care facilities, and that doctors need to be vigilant about this possibility.
Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A
There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bell, G; Reinstein, D Z; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R
One hundred medical and surgical patients admitted to an accident and emergency ward were screened for psychiatric disorder. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 37 patients, 32 of whom were correctly identified by the GHQ. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with being single, lower social class, unemployment, homelessness and living in Bloomsbury Health District or north-east London. It was also associated with not being registered with a GP. The 14 overdose patients were no more likely to receive a psychiatric diagnosis than other patients, yet constituted most of the psychiatric referrals. Few patients were asked by medical staff about emotional worries or problems. A desire to be asked such questions and a past psychiatric history were associated with a psychiatric diagnosis. Routine screening of psychiatric morbidity in both medical and surgical patients and appropriate psychiatric referral of identified patients is recommended. A system of facilitating GP registration is necessary, as much of the morbidity identified could be contained within primary care.
Morris, Amanda Sheffield
This study used the Parenting Puppet Interview, an age-appropriate measure of the child's perspective of the mother-child relationship, as well as maternal report of the relationship, to predict teacher reports of behavioral and emotional problems. Forty-three children, ages 4 through 6 years, and their mothers and teachers participated in this…
Guffanti, Guia; Gaudi, Simona; Fallon, James H; Sobell, Janet; Potkin, Steven G; Pato, Carlos; Macciardi, Fabio
Transposable Elements (TEs) or transposons are low-complexity elements (e.g., LINEs, SINEs, SVAs, and HERVs) that make up to two-thirds of the human genome. There is mounting evidence that TEs play an essential role in genomic architecture and regulation related to both normal function and disease states. Recently, the identification of active TEs in several different human brain regions suggests that TEs play a role in normal brain development and adult physiology and quite possibly in psychiatric disorders. TEs have been implicated in hemophilia, neurofibromatosis, and cancer. With the advent of next-generation whole-genome sequencing approaches, our understanding of the relationship between TEs and psychiatric disorders will greatly improve. We will review the biology of TEs and early evidence for TE involvement in psychiatric disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lei, Hao; Cui, Yunhuo; Chiu, Ming Ming
This meta-analysis of 57 primary studies with 73,933 students shows strong links between affective teacher—student relationships (TSRs) and students' externalizing behavior problems (EBPs). Moreover, students' culture, age, gender, and the report types of EBPs moderated these effects. The negative correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs was stronger (a) among Western students than Eastern ones, (b) for students in the lower grades of primary school than for other students, (c) when rated by teachers or parents than by students or peers, and (d) among females than among males. In contrast, the positive correlation between negative indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs was stronger (a) among Eastern students than Western ones, (b) for students in the higher grades of primary school than for other students, and (c) when rated by students or peers than by teachers or parents. PMID:27625624
Full Text Available This meta-analysis of 57 primary studies with 73,933 students shows strong links between affective teacherstudent relationships (TSRs and students’ externalizing behavior problems (EBPs. Moreover, students’ culture, age, gender, and the report types of EBPs moderated these effects. The negative correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students’ EBPs was stronger (a among Western students than Eastern ones, (b for students in the lower grades of primary school than for other students, (c when rated by teachers or parents than by students or peers, and (d among females than among males. In contrast, the positive correlation between negative indicators of affective TSRs and students’ EBPs was stronger (a among Eastern students than Western ones, (b for students in the higher grades of primary school than for other students, and (c when rated by students or peers than by teachers or parents.
Hinchliff, Gemma L M; Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Patton, George C; Williams, Joanne
This study examined the association of risky dieting amongst adolescent girls with depressed mood, family conflict, and parent-child emotional closeness. Grade 6 and 8 females (aged 11-14years, N=4031) were recruited from 231 schools in 30 communities, across three Australian States (Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia). Key measures were based on the Adolescent Dieting Scale, Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and widely used short measures of family relationship quality. Controls included age, early pubertal onset, and socioeconomic status. Risky dieting was significantly related to family conflict and depressed mood, depressed mood mediated the association of family conflict and risky dieting, and these associations remained significant with controls in the model. Family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are associated with risky dieting. Prevention programs may benefit from a broadening of behavioural targets to include depressed mood and family problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kostova, Tatiana; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hoenen, Anne Kristin
causes of the agency problem—self-interest and bounded rationality. We argue that in the organizational setting, one cannot assume absolute self-interest and perfect rationality of agents (subsidiaries) but should allow them to vary. We explain subsidiary-level variation through a set of internal...... organizational and external social conditions in which the headquarters-subsidiary agency dyad is embedded. We then discuss several agency scenarios reflecting various levels of self-interest and rationality that lead to different manifestations of the agency problem. The proposed framework can inform more......This paper proposes an agency model for headquarters-subsidiary relationships in multinational organizations with headquarters as the principal and the subsidiary as the agent. As a departure from classical agency theory, our model is developed for the unit level of analysis and considers two root...
Lei, Hao; Cui, Yunhuo; Chiu, Ming Ming
This meta-analysis of 57 primary studies with 73,933 students shows strong links between affective teacher-student relationships (TSRs) and students' externalizing behavior problems (EBPs). Moreover, students' culture, age, gender, and the report types of EBPs moderated these effects. The negative correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs was stronger (a) among Western students than Eastern ones, (b) for students in the lower grades of primary school than for other students, (c) when rated by teachers or parents than by students or peers, and (d) among females than among males. In contrast, the positive correlation between negative indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs was stronger (a) among Eastern students than Western ones, (b) for students in the higher grades of primary school than for other students, and (c) when rated by students or peers than by teachers or parents.
Henderson, A. Davis; Sayger, Thomas V.; Horne, Arthur M.
Assesses the interacting relationship between child behavior problems, marital satisfaction, maternal depression, and family cohesion in 43 mothers and school-aged boys. Results suggest that mothers with depressive symptoms report lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of child behavior problems. Findings also suggest that maternal…
Kwon, Jeong Yoon
The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…
Gurpegui, Manuel; Jurado, Dolores
The psychiatric consequences of induced abortion continue to be the object of controversy. The reactions of women when they became aware of conception are very variable. Pregnancy, whether initially intended or unintended, may provoke stress; and miscarriage may bring about feelings of loss and grief reaction. Therefore, induced abortion, with its emotional implications (of relief, shame and guilt) not surprisingly is a stressful adverse life event. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: There is agreement among researchers on the need to compare the mental health outcomes (or the psychiatric complications) with appropriate groups, including women with unintended pregnancies ending in live births and women with miscarriages. There is also agreement on the need to control for the potential confounding effects of multiple variables: demographic, contextual, personal development, previous or current traumatic experiences, and mental health prior to the obstetric event. Any psychiatric outcome is multi-factorial in origin and the impact of life events depend on how they are perceived, the psychological defence mechanisms (unconscious to a great extent) and the coping style. The fact of voluntarily aborting has an undeniable ethical dimension in which facts and values are interwoven. No research study has found that induced abortion is associated with a better mental health outcome, although the results of some studies are interpreted as or Some general population studies point out significant associations with alcohol or illegal drug dependence, mood disorders (including depression) and some anxiety disorders. Some of these associations have been confirmed, and nuanced, by longitudinal prospective studies which support causal relationships. With the available data, it is advisable to devote efforts to the mental health care of women who have had an induced abortion. Reasons of the woman's mental health by no means can be invoked, on empirical bases, for inducing an abortion.
Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients
Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.
The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…
Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L; Horovitz, Max; Shoemaker, Mary
To examine the relationship between ASD diagnosis (i.e. Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and atypical developing control) and tantrum/conduct symptoms in infants and toddlers. Then examine the moderating role of communication. Analysis of Covariance was conducted for study 1 followed by hierarchical regression analyses for study 2. The Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits, Part 2 was administered to the caregivers of 774 infants and toddlers. Those with autism exhibited the greatest tantrum/conduct symptoms followed by those with PDD-NOS and then atypical controls, F(3, 771) =94.42, p=0.003. Communication was not a significant moderator. Those with Autistic Disorder exhibited greater symptoms of tantrum/conduct problems, which is consistent with previous research. It seems that the relationship with communication as a moderator may differ in young children as their language skills are still in the early stages of development.
Van Dyk, Tori R; Thompson, Ronald W; Nelson, Timothy D
The present study examined the daily, bidirectional relationships between sleep and mental health symptoms in youth presenting to mental health treatment. Youth aged 6 to 11 (36% female, 44% European American) presenting to outpatient behavioral health treatment (N = 25) were recruited to participate in the study. Children and parents completed daily questionnaires regarding the child's sleep, mood, and behavior for a 14-day period, while youth wore an actigraph watch to objectively measure sleep. Examining between- and within-person variance using multilevel models, results indicate that youth had poor sleep duration and quality and that sleep and mental health symptoms were highly related at the daily level. Between-person effects were found to be most important and significant bidirectional relationships exist. Identifying and addressing sleep problems in the context of mental health treatment is important, as poor sleep is associated with increased symptomology and may contribute to worsened mental health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.
Silvana, Salerno; Laura, Forcella; Ursula, Di Fabio; Irene, Figà Talamanca; Paolo, Boscolo
Patient's aggressive behavior is one of the major problem in the psychiatric ward. Here we present the preliminary results of a psychiatric ward case-study, of a public hospital in the Chieti province, in order to plan ergonomic improvement. We applied the Method of Organizational Congruencies in the psychiatric ward in order to study the relationship between organized hospital work and nurses wellbeing in a 24 hour shifts. We observed 58 main phases in the three work shifts. The technical actions are mainly those of any hospital wards (shift briefing, preparing and administering drugs, recording data on clinical charts, etc.). We found important differences mainly due to the nurses overcontrol activities on the patients behavior (preventing suicides or self destructive behavior), the occurrence of restraint procedure towards patients, the pollution due to patient's cigarette smoke. The fear of patient's self destructive behavior or other aggressive behaviour are the main cognitive and social aspects of this hospital ward. Nurses working in this psychiatric ward have to accept: locked doors, poor and polluted environment, restraint procedure with high risk of aggression and no availability of mental health care programs. A new interdisciplinary concept for ergonomics in psychiatry setting may represent a challenge for both nurses and patients and the community.
Berey, Benjamin L; Leeman, Robert F; Pittman, Brian; O'Malley, Stephanie S
Impulsivity and subjective response to alcohol are predictors of alcohol use disorder. The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend prior research examining relationships between impulsivity and subjective response patterns. In addition, impulsivity and initial subjective response patterns were examined in relation to current heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Data were cross-sectional, retrospective self-reports, obtained from baseline assessments from five studies affiliated with the Yale Center for the Translational Neuroscience of Alcoholism. Analyses were conducted in a sample restricted to nondependent, young adults (n = 186) and in a larger, more heterogeneous sample (n = 363). Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression in three separate types of models. In the young adult, nondependent sample, impulsivity was a statistically significant predictor of lower recent sedative subjective response. Impulsivity and initial sedative subjective response patterns were statistically significant predictors of past-year heavy drinking. Impulsivity, but not initial subjective response patterns, was a statistically significant predictor of past-year alcohol-related problems. Findings in the larger sample were similar. More-impulsive individuals may perceive less sedation from alcohol, which is associated with increased heavy drinking. However, higher levels of impulsivity may be more responsible than diminished subjective response for poor decision making that results in negative drinking consequences. These results suggest that high impulsivity and certain subjective response patterns are worthy intervention targets.
Schou Andreassen, C; Billieux, J; Griffiths, MD; Kuss, DJ; Demetrovics, Z; Mazzoni, E.; Pallesen, S
Over the last decade, research into ‘addictive technological behaviors’ has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)...
Brunt, D; Rask, M
A questionnaire to measure the verbal and social interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities has been developed. It is an adaptation of a questionnaire originally used in a forensic psychiatric setting. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the construct validity and the reliability of this new version of the Verbal and Social Interactions questionnaire for use in supported housing facilities (VSI-SH). Two hundred and twenty-three carers from municipal and privately run housing facilities completed the questionnaire. A factor analysis was performed, which resulted in six factors. The number of items was reduced from the original 47 to 30 in order to minimize factorial complexity and multiple loadings. The reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha and good internal consistency for the questionnaire and five of the six factors was found. The resulting six factors and the items were compared to the conceptual model and four of the six factors corresponded well with the categories in this original theoretical model. The questionnaire can be a useful contribution to the study of interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Dixon, Ramsay W; Youssef, George J; Hasking, Penelope; Yücel, Murat; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A
Several factors are associated with an increased risk of adolescent problem gambling, including positive gambling attitudes, higher levels of gambling involvement, ineffective coping strategies and unhelpful parenting practices. It is less clear, however, how these factors interact or influence each other in the development of problem gambling behavior during adolescence. The aim of the current study was to simultaneously explore these predictors, with a particular focus on the extent to which coping skills and parenting styles may moderate the expected association between gambling involvement and gambling problems. Participants were 612 high school students. The data were analyzed using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model, controlling for gender. Although several variables predicted the number of symptoms associated with problem gambling, none of them predicted the probability of displaying any problem gambling. Gambling involvement fully mediated the relationship between positive gambling attitudes and gambling problem severity. There was a significant relationship between gambling involvement and problems at any level of problem focused coping, reference to others and inconsistent discipline. However, adaptive coping styles employed by adolescents and consistent disciplinary practices by parents were buffers of gambling problems at low levels of adolescent gambling involvement, but failed to protect adolescents when their gambling involvement was high. These findings indicate that research exploring the development of gambling problems is required and imply that coping and parenting interventions may have particular utility for adolescents who are at risk of development gambling problems but who are not gambling frequently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LaMotte, Adam D; Taft, Casey T; Weatherill, Robin P; Casement, Melynda D; Creech, Suzannah K; Milberg, William P; Fortier, Catherine B; McGlinchey, Regina E
This study investigated sleep problems and physical pain as moderators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and aggression among returning veterans. Prior research has demonstrated associations between PTSD symptoms and aggression, but little work has sought to identify moderators of this relationship. Sleep problems and physical pain are both common clinical problems among veterans and have theoretical links to aggression. Participants were 103 returning service members and veterans recruited from the greater Boston area and enrolled in the VA Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Stress Disorders (TRACTS). Aggression outcomes included physical and psychological intimate partner aggression (IPA), as well as physical and psychological general aggression (GA). Variables were measured via self-report questionnaires, with the exception of PTSD symptoms, which were assessed via clinician interview. Bivariate correlations revealed significant associations between PTSD symptoms, sleep problems, physical pain, and aggression outcomes. Both sleep problems and physical pain significantly moderated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and physical GA, such that this relationship became stronger at higher levels of these moderator variables. However, moderation was not found for the other aggression outcomes. Findings suggest that sleep problems and physical pain strengthen the relationship between veterans' PTSD symptoms and physical aggression toward others. Although further replication and elucidation is needed, these factors may disinhibit aggression among those at higher risk due to their PTSD symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Schröder, Lisa; Seehagen, Sabine; Zmyj, Norbert; Hebebrand, Johannes
Supporting other human beings is a fundamental aspect of human societies. Such so-called prosocial behavior is expressed in helping others, cooperating and sharing with them. This article gives an overview both of the development of prosocial behavior across childhood and of the relationship between prosociality and externalizing and internalizing problems. Especially externalizing problems are negatively associated with prosocial behavior, whereas the relationships with prosocial behavior are more heterogeneous for internalizing problems. Studies investigating developmental trajectories demonstrate that prosocial behavior and externalizing problems are not opposite ends of a continuum. Rather, they are two independent dimensions that may also co-occur in development. The same applies to internalizing problems, which can co-occur with pronounced prosociality as well as with low prosociality.
Oi, N; Ohi, K
We investigated the association of psychosocial problems, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, and trends of smoking and use of cosmetics in our previous study. In this follow-up study, we researched psychiatric disorders and psychosocial problems in menopausal women. We designed a cohort study with 577 Japanese women aged 30-64 years. Subjects were selected randomly from among women who visited the department of gender-specific medicine at Tokyo Women's Medical University East Medical Center between June 2010 and September 2011. We analysed trends such as smoking, using cosmetics, and menopausal symptoms and their association with the first lifetime episode of severe depression and anxiety using structured clinical interviews for the DSM-IV (structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, outpatient version [SCID]), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Significant associations were observed between hot flushes, smoking and the frequency of using cosmetics. Furthermore, the trends in cosmetic use and smoking affected not only psychosocial problems, but also physical problems. Younger women suffered from psychosocial problems more than twice the rate of post-menopausal women. Those who reported their first severe depression episode were also affected by severe anxiety disorders and physical problems. By self-checking the frequency of using cosmetics is up to date knowledge of psychosocial mood problems and improving women's quality of life. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M
The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...
Samek, D R; Hicks, B M; Keyes, M A; Bailey, J; McGue, M; Iacono, W G
Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent-child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25 years. The sample included 1382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 years (mean = 17.8, s.d. = 0.69 years) and 25 years (mean = 25.0, s.d. = 0.90 years). Perceptions of parent-child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol and illicit drug dependence. We detected a gene-environment interaction at age 18 years, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent-child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25 years, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 years moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25 years. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association. Gene-environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent-child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene-environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent-child relationship problems at age 18 years and EXT at age 25 years. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene-environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood.
Nurasikin, M S; Khatijah, L A; Aini, A; Ramli, M; Aida, S A; Zainal, N Z; Ng, C G
Patients having psychiatric diagnoses often experience high level of distress. Religiousness is often used by them as part of their coping mechanism and problem-solving strategies. To determine the level of religious commitment and coping methods in psychiatric patients and its relationship with distress level. Religious commitment and coping patterns were measured with the Duke University Religious Index (DUREL) and Brief RCOPE, respectively. Psychopathology was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and distress level was assessed with the Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Social support and experiences of recent threatening events were measured with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Life Threatening Events (LTE). A total of 228 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 40.2 years. The majority were male, Malay, Muslim, single and with psychotic disorder. The subjects had a high level of religious commitment and had used more positive coping methods. Negative religious coping, psychiatric symptoms and diagnosis of anxiety disorder or major depression were significantly associated with high distress level. Higher religious commitment was significantly associated with lower distress (p < .05). Psychiatric patients were religiously committed and used more positive religious coping methods. Practices of negative religious coping, severe psychiatric symptoms and anxiety/depression were associated with higher distress.
Julie, Hongki; Sanjaya, Febi; Yudhi Anggoro, Ant.
One of purposes of this study was to describe the solution profile of the junior high school students for the PISA adaptation test. The procedures conducted by researchers to achieve this objective were (1) adapting the PISA test, (2) validating the adapting PISA test, (3) asking junior high school students to do the adapting PISA test, and (4) making the students’ solution profile. The PISA problems for mathematics could be classified into four areas, namely quantity, space and shape, change and relationship, and uncertainty. The research results that would be presented in this paper were the result test for quantity, and change and relationship problems. In the adapting PISA test, there were fifteen questions that consist of two questions for the quantity group, six questions for space and shape group, three questions for the change and relationship group, and four questions for uncertainty. Subjects in this study were 18 students from 11 junior high schools in Yogyakarta, Central Java, and Banten. The type of research that used by the researchers was a qualitative research. For the first quantity problem, there were 38.89 % students who achieved level 3. For the second quantity problem, there were 88.89 % students who achieved level 2. For part a of the first change and relationship problem, there were 55.56 % students who achieved level 5. For part b of the first change and relationship problem, there were 77.78 % students who achieved level 2. For the second change and relationship problem, there were 38.89 % students who achieved level 2.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lin, I-Mei; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Cheng, Chung-Ping
This study aimed to examine the mediating effects of depression and anxiety on the relationships of bullying victimization and perpetration with pain among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 4976 students of junior and senior high schools completed the questionnaires. Bullying victimization and perpetration, pain problems, depression, and anxiety were assessed. The mediating effects of depression and anxiety on the relationship between bullying involvement and pain problems and the moderating effects of sex on the medicating roles of depression and anxiety were examined by structural equation model. Both depression and anxiety were significant mediators of the relationship between bullying victimization and pain problems among adolescents. Depression was also a significant mediator of the relationship between bullying perpetration and pain problems among adolescents. Sex had no moderating effect on the mediating role of depression/anxiety on the association between bullying involvement and pain problems. Medical and educational professionals should survey and intervene in depression and anxiety when managing pain problems among adolescents involved in bullying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aubin, Henri-Jean; Rollema, Hans; Svensson, Torgny H; Winterer, Georg
Tobacco smoking among patients with psychiatric disease is more common than in the general population, due to complex neurobiological, psychological, and pharmacotherapeutic mechanisms. Nicotine dependence exposes smokers with co-occurring mental illness to increased risks of smoking-related morbidity, mortality, and to detrimental impacts on their quality of life. The neurobiological and psychosocial links to smoking appear stronger in certain comorbidities, notably depression and schizophrenia. Through its action on the cholinergic system, nicotine may have certain beneficial effects across a range of mental health domains in these patients, including improved concentration and cognition, relief of stress and depressive affect, and feeling pleasurable sensations. Despite the availability of effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies and psychosocial interventions, as well as increasing evidence that individuals with psychiatric disorders are motivated to quit, nicotine dependence remains an undertreated and under-recognized problem within this patient population. Evidence suggests that provision of flexible and individualized treatment programs may be successful. Furthermore, the complicated relationship observed between nicotine dependence, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and mental illness necessitates integration of close monitoring in any successful smoking cessation program. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taylor Salisbury, T; Killaspy, H; King, M
The process of deinstitutionalization (community-based care) has been shown to be associated with better quality of life for those with longer-term mental health problems compared to long stay hospitals. This project aimed to investigate the relationship between national progress towards deinstitutionalization and (1) quality of longer-term mental health care (2) service users' ratings of that care in nine European countries. Quality of care was assessed in 193 longer-term hospital- and community-based facilities in Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the UK. Data on users' ratings of care were collected from 1579 users of these services. Country level variables were compiled from publicly available data. Multilevel models were fit to assess associations with quality of care and service user experiences of care. Significant positive associations were found between deinstitutionalization and (1) five of seven quality of care domains; and (2) service user autonomy. A 10% increase in expenditure was associated with projected clinically important improvements in quality of care. Greater deinstitutionalization of mental health mental health services is associated with higher quality of care and better service user autonomy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Vincent Oreste Mancini
Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.
Jonas Gonçalves Coelho
Full Text Available Abstract: Interpreting results of contemporary neuroscientif studies, I present a non-reductive physicalist account of mind-brain relationship from which the criticism of unintelligibility ascribed to the notion of mental causation is considered. Assuming that a paradigmatic criticism addressed to the notion of mental causation is that presented by Jaegwon Kim’s analysis on the theory of mind-body supervenience, I present his argument arguing that it encompasses a formulation of the problem of mental causation, which leads to difficulties by him pointed. To ask "how mental events, being a non-physical property of the brain, could act causally on brain structure and functioning?", is not to treat the mind as a property of the brain, but as a Cartesian substance. I argue that, rather than asking "how does mind could act causally on the brain?", as if the mind were something apart and independent of the brain, it would be more in line with a non-reductive physicalist view to ask "how the brain, guided by its mind, could act causally on itself?". To justify this last formulation of the problem of mental causation, I propose a "double face view", which consists in considering the consciousness as the essential property of the mind, and mind and brain as inseparable, dependent and irreducible faces. It means, in general terms, that the conscious mind is the result of brain structure and activity - "conscious mind as brain" - and that the brain, using its conscious mind as a guide to its actions, interacts with its body, and with the physical and sociocultural environment, constructing and being constructed by both - "brain as conscious mind".
Family relationships can be studied in different ways, and with different methods. In the current dissertation we present several ways to examine family relationships in five different studies: we use a dyadic approach of studying family relationships, we study family relationships considering the
Cristiane Schumann Silva
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A saúde mental de gestantes é bastante discutida na literatura científica. Nesse período, a mulher passa por alterações físicas, hormonais, psicológicas e sociais e torna-se mais suscetível a problemas psíquicos. Há carência de estudos abordando a relação entre saúde mental e religiosidade nessa população. OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre prática religiosa, prevalência de diagnósticos psiquiátricos e consumo alcoólico em gestantes de Juiz de Fora. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 260 gestantes acompanhadas em Centros de Atendimentos a gestantes de Juiz de Fora, utilizando-se um questionário sociodemográfico (incluindo filiação e prática religiosa, o Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview e o Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. RESULTADOS: A maioria das gestantes era praticante de religião (60,8%. As gestantes praticantes apresentavam menor frequência (p BACKGROUND: Mental health of pregnant and postpartum women is a topic widely discussed in scientific literature. During this period, women are going through major changes in physical, hormonal, psychological and social aspects, and thus become more susceptible to psychic problems. The relationship between health and religiousness is also evident in the literature, however there are no studies examining this relationship among pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between religious practice, prevalence of psychiatric disorders, and alcohol use in pregnant women users of The Brazilian National Health System in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving 260 pregnant women of Juiz de Fora. Data collection was performed in care centers for pregnant women of the city, using a sociodemographic questionnaire (which included religious practice and religious filiation, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, and Alcohol Use Disorders
Whitley, Elise; Batty, G. David; Mulheran, Paul A.; Gale, Catharine R.; Osborn, David P.; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn
Background Associations between psychiatric disorders and cancer incidence are inconsistent, with studies reporting cancer rates in psychiatric patients that are higher, similar, or lower than the general population. Exploration of these associations is complicated by difficulties in establishing the timing of onset of psychiatric disorders and cancer, and the associated possibility of reverse causality. Some studies have dealt with this problem by excluding patients with cancers pre-dating their psychiatric illness; others have not considered the issue. Methods We examined associations between psychiatric hospitalization and cancer incidence in a cohort of 1,165,039 Swedish men, and explored the impact of different analytical strategies on these associations using real and simulated data. Results Relative to men without psychiatric hospitalization, we observed consistent increases in smoking-related cancers in those with psychiatric hospitalizations, regardless of analytical approach (for example, hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.73 (1.52, 1.96)). However, associations with nonsmoking-related cancers were highly dependent on analytical strategy. In analyses based on the full cohort, we observed no association or a modest increase in cancer incidence in those with psychiatric hospitalizations (1.14 (1.07, 1.22)). In contrast, analyses excluding men whose cancer predated their psychiatric hospitalizations, resulted in a reduction in future cancer incidence in psychiatric patients (0.72; 0.67, 0.78). Results from simulated data suggest that even modest exclusions of this type can lead to strong artefactual associations. Conclusions Psychiatric disorder-cancer incidence associations are complex and influenced by analytical strategy. A greater understanding of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorder and cancer incidence is required. PMID:22488410
Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati
The study investigated the degree to which selected sociodemographic variables and social values were related to work-attendance problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public- and private-sector employees and the nature of this relationship. This quantitative study used the field-survey approach to administer research instruments directly to participants. This enabled the researchers to help participants who needed assistance in completing the measures properly, so as to increase the number of usable returns. Two sociodemographic variables (seeking help from a counselor/psychologist and marital status) correlated significantly with work attendance. Private-sector employees were more likely to have work-attendance problems than government workers. Both single and married employees and the chief wage earner in the household were more likely to have work-attendance issues to deal with compared to their counterparts. However, employees who sought help from a counselor/psychologist were far less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to those who did not get such help. The most significant social-value correlates with work-attendance problems were interpersonal communication, employer-employee relationship, work-stress problems, self-presentation, self-regulation, self-direction, and interpersonal trust. Self-regulation, self-direction, and satisfaction with work-related achievements significantly predicted work-attendance problems positively, while interpersonal communication problems and work-stress problems predicted work-attendance problems negatively. Low scorers on self-regulation and self-direction, as well as on satisfaction with work-related achievements, were more likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high scorers. However, low scorers on interpersonal communication and work-stress problems were less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high-scoring peers. Ample evidence from this study showed that sociodemographic
Majer, John M; Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A
The relationship between mental illness and human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-risk sexual behavior among persons with substance use disorders is not well-established because of differences in assessing psychiatric factors (types, symptoms, severity), substance use (diagnosis, survey responses, past substance use), and HIV-risk sexual behaviors (individual measures, combination of sex/drug use risk behaviors) across studies. This study utilized a more global and dimensional aspect of psychiatric issues (problem severity) to examine the relationship with HIV-risk sexual behaviors and substance use among persons with substance use disorders. Participants included 224 men and 46 women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD = 9.5). The most common substances were heroin/opiates, with 41.4% reporting use of these substances (n = 110), while 27.8% reported using cocaine (n = 74) and 12.8% reported using alcohol (n = 34). Of all participants, 39 (14.4%) were identified as having high psychiatric severity (defined using the psychiatric severity score from the Addiction Severity Index), which was used as an indication of probable comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. Among these participants likely to have comorbid disorders, hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine HIV-risk sexual behaviors (number of partners and unprotected sexual behaviors in the past 30 days) in relation to psychiatric severity, substance use, and gender. Gender (women) and psychiatric severity (higher) were significantly related to greater HIV-risk sexual behaviors. After entering gender and substance use into the regression model, psychiatric severity accounted for another 21.9% of the variance in number of partners and 14.1% of the variance in unprotected sexual behaviors. Overall, the models accounted for 55.5% and 15.6% of the variance, respectively. A significant interaction was found for number of partners (but not frequency of unprotected behavior), such that those higher
Zhang, Jin-song; Jin, Xing-ming; Shen, Xiao-ming
To study the development of self-regulation competence and its relationship with behavioral problems in Chinese children with the method of questionnaire assessment. The subjects of the study consisted of 18 to 36 months old toddlers and 3 to 6 years old children. Self-regulation competence in this study included effortful control and self-regulation development. Effortful control is the concept described in Rothbart theory. Attentional focus and inhibitory control were two components in effortful control, which mainly reflect the positive control of emotion and behavior. The Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) and Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) were adopted to assess the attentional focus and inhibitory control of effortful control and impulsivity in children at different ages. Achenbach's Children Behavioral Checklist was used to measure behavioral problems in three to five years old children. Totally 114 18 to 36 months old toddlers and 443 3 to 6 years old children were enrolled in data analysis. (1) The internal consistency of attentional focus in ECBQ and CBQ, alpha (Cronbach) value was respectively 0.89 and 0.75. The internal consistency of inhibitory control, alpha value was respectively 0.84 and 0.78. The alpha value of self-regulation development was respectively 0.84 and 0.94. (2) In 18 to 36 months old toddlers, there was no significant difference between genders in effortful control and self-regulation development. In 3 to 6 years old children, the score of girls' effortful control was higher than the score of boys' effortful control, the scores of girls' self-regulation development factor except regulation motion were significantly higher than boys (t = 4.27 and 11.14, P old children (F = 2.9-10.16, P skills. The development of regulation competence and regulation skill was not on the same step. Some were fast and some were slow. (4) The scores of attention focus and inhibitory control had significantly positive correlation with the
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.
This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13–14 years and again at ages 20–22 years. At ages 20–22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13–14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20–22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13–14 years and at ages 20–22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20–22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. PMID:20053005
DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton
Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause–effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep–wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders. First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep–wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders.
Heppner, P. Paul
The problem-solving process within counseling was analyzed by extending a problem-solving model proposed by D'Zurilla and Goldfried. The counseling process is a problem-solving event, a perspective that may lead researchers into new research problems and greater specificity. Research from psychological, industrial, and counseling fields delineated…
Ramtekkar, Ujjwal; Ivanenko, Anna
Sleep disturbances are common in pediatric psychiatric disorders and constitute key elements in diagnostic symptomatology of various primary psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety disorder. Although sleep is not included in key defining criteria of some impairing illnesses such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, these disorders present with a very high prevalence of sleep disturbances. The interaction between sleep and psychopathology is very complex with significant interrelationship in development, severity, and prognosis of psychiatric disorders and comorbid sleep disturbances. The research ranging from small intervention case series to large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the role of specific sleep complaints in specific psychiatric diagnoses. However, the research using objective instruments such as polysomnography and actigraphy remains limited in youth with psychiatric disorders. The intervention studies using pharmaceutical treatment specifically focusing on sleep disturbances in psychiatric disorders are also sparse in the pediatric literature. Early identification of sleep disturbances and behavioral management using cognitive behavior therapy-based tools appear to be the most effective approach for treatment. The use of psychotropic medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of primary psychiatric disorder often alleviate the psychological barriers for sleep but may lead to emergence of other sleep issues such as restless leg syndrome. The safety and efficacy data of hypnotics for primary sleep disorders are limited in pediatrics and should be avoided or used with extreme caution in children with comorbid sleep and psychiatric problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simons, Jeffrey S; Gaher, Raluca M
This study examined prospective relations between attitudes toward alcohol use and drug-free experience and alcohol consumption and problems in 231 undergraduate students (73% women). Attitude toward drug-free experience was hypothesized to moderate the alcohol attitude--behavior relationship. Participants were assessed twice, separated by a 30-day interval. Attitude toward alcohol use at Time 1 was associated with alcohol consumption at Time 2. Time 1 attitude toward alcohol use and the interaction between the attitude variables were associated with problems at Time 2, indicating that attitude toward alcohol use was less associated with alcohol problems among participants with more positive attitudes toward drug-free experience. Attitude toward drug-free experience acted as a protective factor, reducing the relationship between alcohol attitude and alcohol-related problems.
DiBello, Angelo M; Preddy, Teresa M; Øverup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton
The purpose of this study was to examine links across romantic partner relational victimization, depressive symptoms, and drinking problems during young adulthood. We were interested in evaluating depression as a mediator of the association between relational victimization by one's romantic partner, drinking problems, and the conditional indirect effects of relationship satisfaction. 269 individuals aged 18 to 26 years (68% female, Mage = 22.78 years, SD = 4.70) participated in the study. They completed self-report measures online. Mediation results indicated that depression significantly mediated the association between relational victimization and alcohol-related problems. Furthermore, tests of conditional indirect effects suggest that depression mediated the association between romantic partner relational victimization and alcohol-related problems among those who were lower in relationship satisfaction, but not among those who were higher in relationship satisfaction. Findings are discussed with attention to the developmental significance of romantic relationships during the transition to young adulthood. Specifically, the current findings add to the existing literature, which has suggested that both relationship aggression and depression are associated with problematic drinking.
Shaw, Daniel S.; Olino, Thomas M.
Whereas socialization influences in early childhood have been linked to children’s emerging internalizing problems and prosocial behavior, relatively few studies have examined how NE might moderate such associations in both advantageous and maladaptive ways. Furthermore, more research is needed to evaluate the impact of sibling relationships as an influential socialization influence on these child outcomes. In the current study we examined how NE might differentially moderate the associations between quality of relationships with siblings and both internalizing problems and social skills at school entry. NE moderated the effects of positive and destructive sibling relationship quality on child internalizing problems. Specifically, for boys high on NE, more positive sibling relationship quality predicted fewer internalizing problems, but more destructive sibling conflict predicted more internalizing problems. NE also moderated the effects of destructive sibling conflict on child social skills. For boys high on NE, destructive sibling conflict predicted fewer social skills. Boys high on NE appear to show greater susceptibility to the effects of sibling socialization on child outcomes, relative to boys low on NE. The implications of these interactions are discussed with respect to differential susceptibility theory. PMID:22366882
Jain, Abhishek; Lolak, Sermsak
Chronic lung diseases continue to be common and cause significant morbidity and mortality. There is a complex interplay between psychiatric issues and pulmonary diseases. This review aims to summarize the recent literature and advances involving psychiatric aspects of lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, restrictive lung disease, and cystic fibrosis. The authors include the latest findings in epidemiology, impact, etiology, screening, and management of psychiatric and pulmonary comorbidity. The relationship between mental health and lung disease, as it is between mental health and other physical illnesses, is multifactorial. Further studies continue to clarify issues and treatment guidelines for this comorbidity.
Adya Shanker Srivastava
Full Text Available Aims and objectives: Postpartum psychiatric disturbances pose a significant mental health problem in community because of their impact on parent-infant and couple relationship. This study was carried out with the aim to find out psychiatric morbidities in postpartum females during puerperium so that a proper assessment of mental health and comprehensive management can be planned. Methodology: Hundred females who had delivered in maternity ward of obstetrics and gynaecology department of Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi were evaluated for mental status on day one (i.e. day of delivery, and followed-up till four weeks postpartum period. Psychiatric evaluation was done on the basis of structured proforma containing socio-demographic details and the text revision of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for diagnosis. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS were used to assess the severity of the respective conditions. Result: Psychiatric evaluation during postpartum puerperal stage revealed that 16 (16% females had developed psychiatric morbidity. Twelve (12% cases fulfilled the criteria for major depressive disorder and four (four per cent patients had features of anxiety disorder. In 84 (84% cases, postpartum period was uneventful and no psychiatric disturbance was found.Seventy five per cent females had joint family and good family support. Conclusion: Major depressive disorder is the most common psychiatric morbidity observed in postpartum females during puerperium. The careful observation of females during postpartum puerperal stage may help in identification and proper management of mental state of such females, and also proper care of newborn.perspective.
Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N
American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.
Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi
This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Çiğdem Özcan, Zeynep
Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving skills. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematical problem-solving skills and the three dimensions of self-regulated learning (motivation, metacognition, and behaviour), and whether this relationship is of a predictive nature. The sample of this study consists of 323 students from two public secondary schools in Istanbul. In this study, the mathematics homework behaviour scale was administered to measure students' homework behaviours. For metacognition measurements, the mathematics metacognition skills test for students was administered to measure offline mathematical metacognitive skills, and the metacognitive experience scale was used to measure the online mathematical metacognitive experience. The internal and external motivational scales used in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test were administered to measure motivation. A hierarchic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in the study. Based on the findings, a model was formed in which 24% of the total variance in students' mathematical problem-solving skills is explained by the three sub-dimensions of the self-regulated learning model: internal motivation (13%), willingness to do homework (7%), and post-problem retrospective metacognitive experience (4%).
Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)
Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Carpenter, Lindsey M; Hubbard, Grace B
The purpose of this article is to inform and educate psychiatric nurse practitioners about the pervasiveness of the rapidly increasing problem of cyberbullying. As more children and adolescents obtain access to the Internet, mobile devices, and social networking sites, the exposure to bullying in the virtual format increases. Cyberbullying is a growing public health concern and can affect mental health and school performance. Cyberbullying often results in a range of psychiatric symptoms and has been linked to suicide attempts and completions. The psychiatric nurse practitioner is uniquely prepared to provide a range of interventions for patients, families, and communities who have experienced cyberbullying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chaturvedi, P. K.; Agarwal, A. K; Gupta, S. C.
SUMMARY Sixty-two inmates of a children's home were examined by using a symptom check list and Hindi adaptation of Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale—Form LM (1960). A high proportion (69.4%) of the inmates had one or other psychiatric problem. Mild mental retardation (I. Q. 50—70) was most common (40.3%), 11.3% were diagnosed as having unsocialized disturbance of conduct. Four most common psychiatric symptoms were stealing, quarrelsome behaviour, destructive behaviour and bed wetting. No significant correlation was found between psychiatric illnesses and present age, duration of stay and age at entry into the home. PMID:22058478
Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677
Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677
Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, W.H.J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677
Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Dudek, Bohdan; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Dudek, Wojciech; Garnczarek, Adrianna; Turczyn, Katarzyna
In this paper, the relation between psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in patients with skin diseases is discussed. On the one hand psychological factors (stress, negative emotions) can influence the generation and aggravation of skin disorders (urticaria, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo), on the other hand psychological disorders can result in some skin diseases (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis). In the majority of cases the quality of life is poorly estimated by patients with skin problems. Psychodermatology is divided into three categories according to the relationship between skin diseases and mental disorders: 1) psychophysiologic disorders caused by skin diseases triggering different emotional states (stress), but not directly combined with mental disorders (psoriasis, eczema); 2) primary psychiatric disorders responsible for self-induced skin disorders (trichotillomania); and 3) secondary psychiatric disorders caused by disfiguring skin (ichthyosis, acne conglobata, vitiligo), which can lead to states of fear, depression or suicidal thoughts.
Chang, Ling-Yin; Wu, Wen-Chi; Wu, Chi-Chen; Lin, Linen Nymphas; Yen, Lee-Lan; Chang, Hsing-Yi
Peer victimization in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Growing evidence exists for negative consequences of peer victimization, but research has mostly been short term and little is known about the mechanisms that moderate and mediate the impacts of peer victimization on subsequent antisocial behavior. The current study intended to examine the longitudinal relationship between peer victimization in adolescence and antisocial behavior in young adulthood and to determine whether sleep problems influence this relationship. In total, 2006 adolescents participated in a prospective study from 2009 to 2013. The moderating role of sleep problems was examined by testing the significance of the interaction between peer victimization and sleep problems. The mediating role of sleep problems was tested by using bootstrapping mediational analyses. All analyses were conducted using SAS 9.3 software. We found that peer victimization during adolescence was positively and significantly associated with antisocial behavior in young adulthood (β = 0.10, p peer victimization first increased levels of sleep problems, which in turn elevated the risk of antisocial behavior (indirect effect: 0.01, 95% bootstrap confidence interval: 0.004, 0.021). These findings imply that sleep problems may operate as a potential mechanism through which peer victimization during adolescence leads to increases in antisocial behavior in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention programs that target sleep problems may yield benefits for decreasing antisocial behavior in adolescents who have been victimized by peers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher
Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. A putative causal relationship is contaminated by assorted influences, including childhood disadvantage, the early onset of most disorders, and the criminalization of substance use. Using the National Comorbidity…
Morgan, Judith K.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Olino, Thomas M.
Whereas socialization influences in early childhood have been linked to children's emerging internalizing problems and prosocial behavior, relatively few studies have examined how NE might moderate such associations in both advantageous and maladaptive ways. Furthermore, more research is needed to evaluate the impact of sibling relationships as an…
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kremer, Peter J; Toumbourou, John W
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting a link between sport participation and violent behavior outside of the sporting context. However, there have been few studies that have investigated the basis of this relationship. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between sport participation, problem alcohol use, and various violent behaviors, and whether sport participation moderates relationships between problem alcohol use and violence. The sample comprised 2,262 young adults (55% female, age range at Time 1 = 17-24 years) from Victoria, Australia, surveyed in 2010 and 2012. When controlling for common risk factors, substance use, and past violence, sport participation was not associated with any violent behaviors 2 years later. However, sport participation moderated the relationship between problem alcohol use and fighting, whereby problem alcohol use was associated with engaging in fights 2 years later for sport participants, but not for nonparticipants. These findings suggest that it is not sport participation per se that influences later violence but the drinking norms or culture embedded within certain sporting contexts. Prevention approaches that address the drinking culture and social approval of excessive alcohol consumption within sporting contexts may reduce the incidence of violent behavior in the community. © The Author(s) 2015.
Johnson, Kaprea; Hannon, Michael D.
This study investigates the relationship between academic achievement and reports of student problem behavior from teachers, parents, and child self-reports. Participants included 108 teachers, 113 parents/caregivers, and 129 students from an urban school in the Northeast region of the United States. Results suggest parent and child reports were…
Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.
This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…
Graziano, Paulo A.; Garb, Leanna R.; Ros, Rosmary; Hart, Katie; Garcia, Alexis
Research Findings: The objective of this study was to examine the student-teacher relationship as a potential moderator of the link between executive functioning (EF) and children's early school readiness among a clinical sample of preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for the study included 139 preschool children…
Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony
Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…
Emery, Clifton R.
This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…
McCormick, Meghan P.; Turbeville, Ashley R.; Barnes, Sophie P.; McClowry, Sandee G.
Research Findings: Racial/ethnic minority low-income children with temperaments high in negative reactivity are at heightened risk for developing disruptive behavior problems. Teacher-child relationships characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict may protect against the development of disruptive behaviors in school. The…
Jellesma, F.C.; Zee, M.; Koomen, H.M.Y.
In this study, we aimed to examine the associations between child-perceived teacher-child relationships, children's appraisals of interactions with their teacher, and internalizing problems. Five hundred third- to sixth-graders reported about their experiences of closeness, conflict, and negative
Kochel, Karen P.; Miller, Cindy Faith; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Ladd, Gary W.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky
An accruing body of evidence supports associations between self-perceived gender typicality and peer relationship difficulties; however, researchers have yet to evaluate peers' perceptions of problem behaviors to gain insight into the social correlates of gender typicality. A short-term longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate associations…
Doll, Beth; Murphy, Patrick; Song, Samuel Y.
Investigates the nature of children's self-reported recess problems and the degree to which these were correlated with children's peer acceptance and mutual friendships. Modest relations were reported between inclusion recess problems and children's mutual friendships and peer acceptance. Results suggest that self-reported recess problems are a…
Foster, Juliet L H
Continuing debates regarding advertising and the pharmaceutical industry, and others detailing the continued stigmatization of mental health problems. To establish whether there are any differences in advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication aimed at health professionals. Quantitative (t-tests, Chi-squared) and qualitative analysis of all unique advertisements for medication that appeared in two professional journals (the British Medical Journal and the British Journal of Psychiatry) between October 2005 and September 2006 was undertaken. Close attention was paid to both images and text used in the advertisements. Significant differences were found between advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication in both quantitative and qualitative analysis: advertisements for psychiatric medication contain less text and are less likely to include specific information about the actual drug than non-psychiatric medication advertisements; images used in advertisements for psychiatric medication are more negative than those used for non-psychiatric medication, and are less likely to portray people in everyday situations. A distinction between mental health problems and other forms of ill health is clearly being maintained in medication advertisements; this has potentially stigmatizing consequences, both for professional and public perceptions. There are also troubling implications in light of the debates surrounding Direct to Consumer Advertising.
سید عباس ساطوریان
Full Text Available This research was aimed to predict and investigate the relationship between parenting dimensions and child-parent relationship with internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems; and designed with descriptive-correlative method. The sample group included 413 single-child and multi-childe elementary school students in Yazd (141 single-child, 121 two-child, 101 three-child, 50 four-child and more with their parents, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Alabama Parenting Dimensions Questionnaire (APQ, Parent ـChild Relationship Scale (PCRS and also a researcher-made form for demography information, were used for data collecting. Results of a stepwise linear regression showed that among parenting skills, dimensions of “poor control”, and “physical punishment” were better predictors for internalized behavioral problems, and dimensions of “participation” and “physical punishment” were better predictors for externalized behavioral problems in children. Among subscales of PCRS, the “dependence” in boys and the “conflict” in girls were better predictors for internalizing problems, and the subscale of “conflict” in both boys and girls was a better predictor for externalizing problems.
Fite, Paula J; Rubens, Sonia L; Preddy, Teresa M; Raine, Adrian; Pardini, Dustin A
The current study examined whether reactive and/or proactive aggression in adolescent males prospectively predicted increased levels of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety) in late adolescence. It was postulated that reactive aggression would be robustly related to later internalizing problems, but only among adolescent males who had problematic family or peer social relationships. Participants were a racially diverse group of 289 adolescent males (Mean age = 16). Measures of reactive and proactive aggression, peer rejection, and poor parent-adolescent communication were examined as predictors of both depression and anxiety symptoms assessed approximately 3 years later. The interactive effects between the two facets of aggression and measures of peer rejection and poor parent-adolescent communication in predicting internalizing problems was also examined. Adolescents with high levels of reactive aggression were more likely to exhibit elevated internalizing problems during late adolescence, even when controlling for pre-existing levels of anxiety/depression. However, this association only emerged for adolescents who had high levels of peer rejection and/or poor communication with their parent. Consistent with expectations, proactive aggression was unrelated to internalizing symptoms regardless of social relationship quality. Adolescent reactive, but not proactive, aggression is a risk factor for the development of internalizing problems. However, the findings suggest that interventions designed to foster positive social relationships among reactively aggressive youth may help protect them from developing significant internalizing problems over time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wiggins, Tamera L; Sofronoff, Kate; Sanders, Matthew R
This study examined the effects of Pathways Triple P (PTP), an early intervention program designed to promote positive parent-child relationships. Sixty parents met the inclusion criteria of borderline to clinically significant relationship disturbance and child emotional and behavioral problems. They were randomly allocated into PTP or a wait-list (WL) control group. PTP was delivered in a group format for 9 weeks and consisted of parent skills training and cognitive behavior therapy targeting negative attributions for child behavior. Significant intervention effects were found for improving parent-child relationships and reducing behavior problems with gains maintained at 3-month follow-up. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed.
Levin, Michael E; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony
This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in their first year in college between December 2009 and April 2010. Participants completed a diagnostic interview and online self-report survey. Students with a history of alcohol abuse or dependence had significantly higher levels of experiential avoidance relative to students with no alcohol use disorder diagnosis. A hierarchical linear regression analysis found that experiential avoidance significantly predicted alcohol-related problems, even after controlling for gender and psychological distress. Furthermore, experiential avoidance mediated the relationship of psychological distress to alcohol-related problems. These findings suggest that experiential avoidance may play a role in problematic alcohol use among college students.
Webster, P S; Herzog, A R
We examined adult child-parent relations by childhood family structure and memories of family problems. Relative to those who grew up in two-parent families, adult children of divorce perceive both relationships with mothers and fathers to be of lower quality, although the magnitude of effects is generally two or three times greater for fathers. We find these effects to be significant for positive features of father-child relations, whereby adult children of divorce report feeling significantly less loved and less listened to by their fathers. While in most cases part of the effect of parental divorce on relationship quality can be explained by memories of parental marital conflict or other family problems, there is one exception. Even controlling for memories of family problems, we find adult children of divorce have significantly less contact with their parents than adults from two-parent families. We also examine data about parental surrogates.
Kilian, Reinhold; Lauber, Christoph; Kalkan, Rana; Dorn, Wulf; Roessler, Wulf; Wiersma, Durk; van Buschbach, Jooske T.; Fioritti, Angelo; Tomov, Toma; Catty, Jocelyn; Burns, Tom; Becker, Thomas; Rossler, W.
Positive relationships between employment and clinical status have been found in several studies. However, an unequivocal interpretation of these relationships is difficult on the basis of common statistical methods. In this analysis, a structural equation model approach for longitudinal data was
Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka
This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)
Biswas, Asit B; Furniss, Frederick
The behavioural phenotype of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, frequently includes intellectual disability (ID) together with high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. Candidate cognitive endophenotypes include problems with retrieval of contextual information from memory and in executive control and focussing of attention. 22q11DS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of psychiatric disorder. This paper reviews research on the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and the development of psychiatric disorders in 22q11DS. Aspects of cognitive function including verbal I.Q., visual memory, and executive function, are associated with mental health outcome in people with 22q11DS. This relationship may result from a common neurobiological basis for the cognitive difficulties and psychiatric disorders. Some of the cognitive difficulties experienced by people with 22q11DS, especially in attention, memory retrieval, and face processing, may, however, in themselves constitute risk factors for development of hallucinations and paranoid delusions. Future research into factors leading to psychiatric disorder in people with 22q11DS should include assessment of social and psychological factors including life events, symptoms associated with trauma, attachment, and self-esteem, which together with cognitive risk factors may mediate mental health outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Salwa Mahalle, Rohani Matzin, Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria, Nor Zaiham Midawati AbdullahPsychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiObjective: The study investigated the degree to which selected sociodemographic variables and social values were related to work-attendance problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public- and private-sector employees and the nature of this relationship.Materials and methods: This quantitative study used the field-survey approach to administer research instruments directly to participants. This enabled the researchers to help participants who needed assistance in completing the measures properly, so as to increase the number of usable returns.Results: Two sociodemographic variables (seeking help from a counselor/psychologist and marital status correlated significantly with work attendance. Private-sector employees were more likely to have work-attendance problems than government workers. Both single and married employees and the chief wage earner in the household were more likely to have work-attendance issues to deal with compared to their counterparts. However, employees who sought help from a counselor/psychologist were far less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to those who did not get such help. The most significant social-value correlates with work-attendance problems were interpersonal communication, employer–employee relationship, work-stress problems, self-presentation, self-regulation, self-direction, and interpersonal trust. Self-regulation, self-direction, and satisfaction with work-related achievements significantly predicted work-attendance problems positively, while interpersonal communication problems and work-stress problems predicted work-attendance problems negatively. Low scorers on self-regulation and self-direction, as well as on satisfaction
David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N
The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.
Sharpe, Helen; Patalay, Praveetha; Fink, Elian; Vostanis, Panos; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda
Quality of life is typically reduced in children with mental health problems. Understanding the relationship between quality of life and mental health problems and the factors that moderate this association is a pressing priority. This was a cross-sectional study involving 45,398 children aged 8-13 years from 880 schools in England. Self-reported quality of life was assessed using nine items from the KIDSCREEN-10 and mental health was assessed using the Me and My School Questionnaire. Demographic information (gender, age, ethnicity, socio-economic status) was also recorded. Quality of life was highest in children with no problems and lowest in children with both internalising and externalising problems. There was indication that quality of life may be reduced in children with internalising problems compared with externalising problems. Approximately 12 % children with mental health problems reported high quality of life. The link between mental health and quality of life was moderated by gender and age but not by socio-economic status or ethnicity. This study supports previous work showing mental health and quality of life are related but not synonymous. The findings have implications for measuring quality of life in child mental health settings and the need for approaches to support children with mental health problems that are at particular risk of poor quality of life.
Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati
Objective The study investigated the degree to which selected sociodemographic variables and social values were related to work-attendance problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public- and private-sector employees and the nature of this relationship. Materials and methods This quantitative study used the field-survey approach to administer research instruments directly to participants. This enabled the researchers to help participants who needed assistance in completing the measures properly, so as to increase the number of usable returns. Results Two sociodemographic variables (seeking help from a counselor/psychologist and marital status) correlated significantly with work attendance. Private-sector employees were more likely to have work-attendance problems than government workers. Both single and married employees and the chief wage earner in the household were more likely to have work-attendance issues to deal with compared to their counterparts. However, employees who sought help from a counselor/psychologist were far less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to those who did not get such help. The most significant social-value correlates with work-attendance problems were interpersonal communication, employer–employee relationship, work-stress problems, self-presentation, self-regulation, self-direction, and interpersonal trust. Self-regulation, self-direction, and satisfaction with work-related achievements significantly predicted work-attendance problems positively, while interpersonal communication problems and work-stress problems predicted work-attendance problems negatively. Low scorers on self-regulation and self-direction, as well as on satisfaction with work-related achievements, were more likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high scorers. However, low scorers on interpersonal communication and work-stress problems were less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high-scoring peers. Conclusion Ample
Van Harpen, Xianwei Y.; Presmeg, Norma C.
The importance of students' problem-posing abilities in mathematics has been emphasized in the K-12 curricula in the USA and China. There are claims that problem-posing activities are helpful in developing creative approaches to mathematics. At the same time, there are also claims that students' mathematical content knowledge could be highly…
Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Dempsey, Timothy
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), are characterized by adherence to routines and ritualistic behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated multiple feeding problems with children with ASD such as food selectivity. While the extent of these problem behaviors is well documented in the literature, efforts have not been made to assess these behaviors…
Gal, Eynat; Hardal-Nasser, Reem; Engel-Yeger, Batya
Nutrition, essential in the daily living functions promoting life quality of persons with intellectual developmental deficits (IDD), is adversely affected by the highly prevalent eating problems in these persons. The current study explores the characteristics of eating problems in population of children with intellectual developmental disorders.…
Sivaci, Sadik Yüksel
The ability of reflecting thinking and problem solving are two qualities that are thought effective in education of qualitative teachers and regulations of their educational status. In this study, our aim is to examine the pre-service teachers' levels of reflective thinking and problem solving and to determine if there is a significant…
The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.
Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank
A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures.
Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses are very common in prevalence. But not everyone who has a mental illness gets a psychiatric consultation. The causes are many. First, many time people don’t recognise and accept mental illnesses in them as a result of lack of insight and awareness. Secondly, even if they know they have a mental illness, they don’t feel comfortable in disclosing it. Third, after knowing that they have some problems which require help from a doctor, they don’t know whom to consult, where to consult, and how to consult. Fourth, in spite of all possible awareness, there may not be psychiatric facilities nearby. Thus, it becomes utmost necessary to discuss those factors which stop people with psychiatric illnesses to get adequate help so that remedial steps could be taken.
The paper describes the current provision of psychiatric services in Algeria - in particular, in-patient and out-patient facilities, child psychiatry and human resources. Education, training, associations and research in the field of mental health are also briefly presented. The challenges that must dealt with to improve psychiatric care and to comply with international standards are listed, by way of conclusion.
Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E
This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Child emotional and behaviour problems and parental worries about the child were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist at both time points. Parents' level of acute subjective distress was assessed within the first month after the burn event with the Impact of Event Scale. Mothers and fathers held comparable views of their child's emotional and behaviour problems, which were generally within the normal limits. Parents' own acute stress reactions were significantly related to parent-rated child behaviour problems at 3 and 12 months postburn. A substantial part of mothers' and fathers' worries about the child concerned physical and emotional aspects of the burn trauma, and potential future social problems. Parents with high acute stress scores more often reported burn-related concerns about their child at 3 and 12 months postburn. Health-care professionals should be informed that parents' distress in the subacute phase of their child's burn event may be related to subsequent worries about their child and to (parent-observed) child emotional and behaviour problems. The authors recommend a family perspective, with particular attention for the interplay between parents' distress and parent-reported child behaviour problems and worries, in each phase of paediatric burn care.
Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J
Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677 adolescents, four profiles were identified: High Quality, Low Quality, Low Quality Victimized, and Deviant Peers. Multinomial logistic regressions showed that negative parent-child relationships in preadolescence reduced the likelihood of High Quality peer relations in mid-adolescence but only partly differentiated between the other three profiles. Moderation by gender was partly found with girls showing greater sensitivity to parent-child relationship quality with respect to peer experiences. Results underline the multifaceted nature of peer experiences, and practical and theoretical implications are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Full Text Available Statistical relationships between coefficients of light attenuation, scattering and backscattering at wavelength 550 nm derived from series of optical measurements performed in Baltic Sea waters are presented. The relationships were derived primarily to support data analysis from underwater imaging systems. Comparison of these relations with analogous empirical data from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans shows that the two sets of relationships are similar, despite the different water types and the various experimental procedures and instrumentation applied. The apparently universal character of the relationships enables an approximate calculation of other optical properties and subsequently of the contrast, signal/noise ratio, visibility range and spatial resolution of underwater imaging systems based on attenuation coefficients at wavelength 550 nm only.
Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena
Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.
Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M
and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...
Schou Andreassen, Cecilie; Billieux, Joël; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pallesen, Ståle
Over the last decade, research into "addictive technological behaviors" has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games. Correlations between symptoms of addictive technology use and mental disorder symptoms were all positive and significant, including the weak interrelationship between the two addictive technological behaviors. Age appeared to be inversely related to the addictive use of these technologies. Being male was significantly associated with addictive use of video games, whereas being female was significantly associated with addictive use of social media. Being single was positively related to both addictive social networking and video gaming. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that demographic factors explained between 11 and 12% of the variance in addictive technology use. The mental health variables explained between 7 and 15% of the variance. The study significantly adds to our understanding of mental health symptoms and their role in addictive use of modern technology, and suggests that the concept of Internet use disorder (i.e., "Internet addiction") as a unified construct is not warranted. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Padoin Cintia V
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children whose parents have psychiatric disorders experience an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and have higher rates of developmental problems and mortality. Assessing the size of this population is important for planning of preventive strategies which target these children. Methods National survey data (CCHS 1.2 was used to estimate the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders. Disorders were diagnosed using the World Psychiatric Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (12 month prevalence. Data on the number of children below 12 years of age in the home, and the relationship of the respondents with the children, was used to estimate exposure. Parent-child relations were identified, as was single parenthood. Using a design-based analysis, the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders was calculated. Results Almost 570,000 children under 12 live in households where the survey respondent met criteria for one or more mood, anxiety or substance use disorders in the previous 12 months, corresponding to 12.1% of Canadian children under the age of 12. Almost 3/4 of these children have parents that report receiving no mental health care in the 12 months preceding the survey. For 17% of all Canadian children under age 12, the individual experiencing a psychiatric disorder is the only parent in the household. Conclusion The high number of children exposed causes major concern and has important implications. Although these children will not necessarily experience adversities, they possess an elevated risk of accidents, mortality, and of developing psychiatric disorders. We expect these estimates will promote further research and stimulate discussion at both health policy and planning tables.
Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Huurre, Taina
Poor childhood family conditions have a long-term effect on adult mental health, but the mechanisms behind this association are unclear. Our aim was to study the pathways from problematic family relationships in adolescence to midlife psychological distress via disadvantages in early adulthood. Participants of a Finnish cohort study at the age of 16 years old in 1983 were followed up at ages 22, 32 and 42 years old (N = 1334). Problems in family relationships were measured with poor relationship with mother and father, lack of parental support in adolescent's individuation process and poor home atmosphere, and mental health was assessed using Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale (K10). We analyzed the indirect effects of adolescent family relations on mental health at age 42 years old via various disadvantages (somatic and psychological symptoms, relationship/marital status, low education/unemployment and heavy drinking) at ages 22 and 32 years old. Problematic adolescent family relationships were associated with midlife psychological distress in women (0.19; 95% CI 0.11, 0.26) and men (0.13; 95% CI 0.04, 0.21). However, after adjustment for adolescent psychological symptoms, the association was only significant for women (0.12; 95% CI 0.04, 0.20). Poor family relationships were associated with various disadvantages in early adulthood. The association from poor family relationships (16 years old) to psychological distress (42 years old) was in part mediated via psychological symptoms in women (0.03; 95% CI 0.01, 0.04) and men (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.04) and in women also via heavy drinking in early adulthood (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.03). Adolescent family relationships have a role in determining adult mental health. Targeted support addressing psychological well-being and hazardous drinking for adolescents with problematic family relationships might prevent disadvantages in early adulthood, and further prevent poor midlife mental health.
Sutopo, Wahyudi; Erliza, Ayu; Heryansyah, Arien
.... The network design problem is used to implement supply chain collaboration. In the buying and selling process, sharing information between buyer and supplier are important to obtain a transaction decision...
Montesó-Curto, Pilar; García-Martinez, Montserrat; Romaguera, Sara; Mateu, María Luisa; Cubí-Guillén, María Teresa; Sarrió-Colas, Lidia; Llàdser, Anna Núria; Bradley, Stephen; Panisello-Chavarria, María Luisa
The aim of this study was to identify the main biological, psychological and sociological problems and potential solutions for patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia by use of Group Problem-Solving Therapy. Group Problem-Solving Therapy is a technique for identifying and solving problems, increasing assertiveness, self-esteem and eliminating negative thoughts. Qualitative phenomenological interpretive design: Group Problem-Solving Therapy sessions conducted with patients suffering fibromyalgia were studied; participants recruited via the Rheumatology Department at a general hospital and associations in Catalonia, Spain with sessions conducted in nearby university setting. The study included 44 people diagnosed with fibromyalgia (43 female, 1 male) from 6 Group Problem-Solving Therapy sessions. Data collected from March-June 2013. A total of 24 sessions were audio recorded, all with prior informed consent. Data were transcribed and then analysed in accordance with established methods of inductive thematic analysis, via a process of reduction to manage and classify data. Five themes were identified: (1) Current problems are often related to historical trauma; (2) There are no "one size fits all" solutions; (3) Fibromyalgia is life-changing; (4) Fibromyalgia is widely misunderstood; (5) Statistically Significant impacts on physical, psychological and social are described. The majority of patients' problems were associated with their previous history and the onset of fibromyalgia; which may be related to trauma in adolescence, early adulthood or later. The solutions provided during the groups appeared to be accepted by the participants. These findings can improve the self-management of fibromyalgia patients by helping to enhance adaptive behaviours and incorporating the female gender approach. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Linn, Braden K; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William
Driving under the influence remains a pervasive problem. Approximately 30% of those arrested for impaired driving offenses each year are repeat offenders, suggesting that current rehabilitative efforts are not sufficiently effective for reducing driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism. Aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency have been noted in the population of impaired drivers, but study of these variables on recidivism has been limited. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency on DWI recidivism among first time offenders. In 1992, 6436 individuals in impaired driver programs in New York State were surveyed. A total of 3511 individuals provided names so that state driver abstracts could be reviewed in the future. A total of 2043 matches were found and 1770 remained after excluding those with previous DWI convictions. Driver records were reviewed in 2010 and 2012, providing between 18 and 20 years of follow-up. During the follow-up period, 16.5% of individuals were arrested for an impaired driving offense. Multivariate analysis suggested that recidivism was a function of several problems, including: alcohol problem severity, aggression, negative affect, drug problem severity, criminal history, and childhood delinquency. Impaired driving programs should assess for childhood delinquency, aggressive tendencies, and negative affect as these constructs, along with substance use, are evident among impaired drivers who recidivate. Interventions addressing aggression and negative affect may ultimately prove useful in reducing recidivism.
Rees, Joanna; Langdon, Peter E.
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between depression, hopelessness, problem-solving ability and self-harming behaviours amongst people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods Thirty-six people with mild IDs (77.9% women, M[subscript age] = 31.77, SD = 10.73, M[subscript IQ] = 62.65, SD = 5.74) who…
O'Connor, Erin E; Collins, Brian A; Supplee, Lauren
The purposes of the current study were: (1) to examine the roles of early maternal attachment relationships and teacher-child relationships during childhood for externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood, and (2) to investigate teacher-child relationships, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood as possible mechanisms linking early maternal attachment relationships to behavior problems in late childhood. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1140 mothers and children) were used in this investigation. There were three main findings. First, insecure/other maternal attachment relationships in early childhood (i.e., 36 months) were associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood (Grade 5). Second, elevated levels of teacher-child conflict during childhood were associated with externalizing behaviors in late childhood whereas low levels of teacher-child closeness were associated with internalizing behaviors. Third, the effects of insecure/other attachment on externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood were mediated through teacher-child relationships during childhood and early externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.
Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin
This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
In this article I discuss the emergence of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) within American psychiatry and beyond in the postwar period, setting out what I believe to be important and suggestive questions neglected in existing scholarship. Tracing the nomenclature within successive editions of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), I consider the reification of the term ‘FSD’, and the activism and scholarship that the rise of the category has occasioned. I suggest that analysis of FSD benefits from scrutiny of a wider range of sources (especially since the popular and scientific cross-pollinate). I explore the multiplicity of FSD that emerges when one examines this wider range, but I also underscore a reinscribing of anxieties about psychogenic aetiologies. I then argue that what makes the FSD case additionally interesting, over and above other conditions with a contested status, is the historically complex relationship between psychiatry and feminism that is at work in contemporary debates. I suggest that existing literature on FSD has not yet posed some of the most important and salient questions at stake in writing about women’s sexual problems in this period, and can only do this when the relationship between ‘second-wave’ feminism, ‘post-feminism’, psychiatry and psychoanalysis becomes part of the terrain to be analysed, rather than the medium through which analysis is conducted. PMID:23355764
van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike
Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online versus real-life victimization. More specifically, the bidirectional relationship between online and real-life victimization on the one hand and psychosocial problems (i.e., loneliness and social anxiety) on the other was examined. In addition, the moderating role of online aggression in the relationship between online victimization and subsequent psychosocial problems was studied. This prospective study, consisting of three annual measurements, was conducted among a sample of 831 adolescents (50.3 % girls) aged 11-15, of which most (80.2 %) had a Dutch ethnic background. The results indicate a unidirectional relationship whereby loneliness and social anxiety predict an increase in latter online victimization rather than the reverse. A bidirectional relationship was found for real-life victimization: loneliness (but not social anxiety) predicted an increase in latter real-life victimization, which in turn predicted an increase in subsequent social anxiety (but not loneliness). No moderating effects of online aggression were found. The findings of the present study suggest that negative online and in real life peer interactions have a differential meaning for, and impact on adolescents' well-being.
Park, Carlie J; Yelland, Gregory W; Taffe, John R; Gray, Kylie M
This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically developing children (n = 20). The participants were administered standardised tests of structural language skills, and parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Results indicated that for children with autism, communication skills, and in particular receptive communication skills, were associated with social and daily living skills, and behavior problems. Receptive structural language skills were associated with expressive communication skills. There were no associations found between structural language skills and social or daily living skills, nor behavior problems. The results of this study suggest that communication skills are more closely linked to functional and behavioral outcomes in autism than structural language skills.
Huprich, Steven K; Lengu, Ketrin; Evich, Carly
DSM-5 Section III recommends that level of personality functioning be assessed. This requires an assessment of self and other representations. Malignant self-regard (MSR) is a way of assessing the level of functioning of those with a masochistic, self-defeating, depressive, or vulnerably narcissistic personality. In Study 1, 840 undergraduates were assessed for MSR, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anaclitic and introjective depression, and interpersonal problems. MSR, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anaclitic and introjective depression were correlated with multiple dimensions of interpersonal problems, and MSR predicted the most variance in interpersonal scales measuring social inhibition, nonassertion, over-accommodation, and excessive self-sacrifice. MSR, anaclitic, and introjective depression predicted unique variance in six of the eight domains of interpersonal problems assessed. In Study 2, 68 undergraduates were provided positive or negative feedback. Consistent with theory, MSR predicted unique variance in state anxiety but not state anger. Results support the validity of the MSR construct.
Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan
Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric and substance use problems are commonly found to be contributing factors to frequent Emergency Department (ED use, yet little research has focused on the association between substance use and psychiatric comorbidity. This study assesses the association of a psychiatric comorbidity on (ED use among patients with substance use disorders (SUDs. Methods The study focuses on 6,865 patients who were diagnosed with SUDs in the ED of a large urban hospital in the southern United States from January 1994 – June 1998. Patients were grouped by type of substance use disorder. After examining frequency of visits by diagnosis, the sample was assigned to the following groups–alcohol dependence (ICD9 = 303, alcohol abuse (ICD9 = 305.0, cocaine dependence/abuse (ICD9 = 304.2, 305.6, and polysubstance/mixed use (ICD9 = 305.9. A patient was classified with psychiatric comorbidity if a psychiatric diagnosis appeared during any of the patient's visits. The following psychiatric diagnoses were included–schizophrenia/psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, and dementia (ICD-9 codes available upon request. Results Patients with SUDs and psychiatric comorbidity had significantly higher mean number of ER visits (mean = 5.2 SD = 8.7 than SUD patients without psychiatric comorbidity (mean = 2.5, SD = 3.7. In logistic regressions predicting several categorizations of heavier use of the ED (either 4+, 8+, 12+, 16+, or 20+ visits over the span of the study SUD patients with psychiatric comorbidity had adjusted odds ratios of 3.0 to 5.6 (reference group = patients with SUDs but no psychiatric comorbidity. This association was found across all substance use diagnostic categories studied, with the strongest relationship observed among patients with cocaine disorders or alcohol dependence. Conclusion The results provide further support for the notion that the ED could and should serve as an important identification site for cost
Moran, Galia; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David; Berman, Yael; Shalev, Anat; Kaplan, Zeev; Garber Epstein, Paula
Professional helping relationships established with mental health consumers are vital in mental health recovery processes. However, little is known about how the constructs of alliance building and providers' recovery promoting strategies relate to each other and play a role in supporting recovery. To this end, we examined associations between consumer-reported working alliance, perceived providers' recovery competencies, and personal recovery. In a cross-sectional study design, 72 mental health consumers who established relationships with providers through a psycho-educational intervention over a period of 10 months in hourly weekly sessions were examined as part of a larger study conducted in mental health community settings in Israel. Participants filled in the Working Alliance Inventory (Tracey and Kokotovic, 1989), the Recovery Promoting Relationships Scale (Russinova et al., 2013), and Recovery Assessment Scale (Corrigan et al., 2004). Pearson correlations and linear regression analysis showed positive correlations between relational variables and recovery. A mediating model was identified whereby providers' recovery strategies positively impact the working alliance, which, in turn, positively impact consumers' recovery. Implications of the current study for future research and clinical practice are discussed, emphasizing the importance of examining recovery strategies and the working alliance with regard to the process of mental health recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gokce Nur Say
Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113
Piotrowski, Caroline C; Tailor, Ketan; Cormier, Damien C
Although the majority of families that experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have more than one child, most research to date has focused upon a single child within these families. A significant body of research has indicated siblings play an important role in children's adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, the three main goals of the present study were to compare the adjustment of older and younger siblings exposed to IPV, to describe and compare the quality of these sibling relationships from multiple perspectives, and to investigate how sibling adjustment and relationship quality influence children's adjustment. Forty-seven sibling pairs and their mothers were recruited from the community. Mothers self-reported on their violent experiences using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and also estimated the length of time their children were exposed to IPV. Mothers and children completed assessments of child adjustment and the quality of sibling relationships. Observers also assessed the quality of sibling interaction. Results indicated that adjustment between siblings was highly inter-related. On average, mothers reported sibling relationships as less positive but also as less hostile than did siblings themselves. Higher levels of sibling hostility, lower levels of sibling warmth and higher levels of disengagement each significantly predicted child adjustment; however, these effects were predicated upon the adjustment of the other sibling. The sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV made a difference in their individual adjustment, and their adjustment issues influenced how they feel about and interacted with their sibling. Sibling hostility played a stronger role in adjustment issues than sibling warmth. The nature of sibling influences and the direction of future research were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L; Syed, Ehsan; Mahr, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Farhat
Studies of the relationship between bullying and suicide behavior yield mixed results. This is the first study comparing frequencies of suicide behavior in four bullying groups (bully, victim, bully/victim, and neither) in two large psychiatric and community samples of young children and adolescents. Maternal ratings of bullying and suicide ideation and attempts were analyzed for 1,291 children with psychiatric disorders and 658 children in the general population 6-18 years old. For both the psychiatric and community samples, suicide ideation and attempt scores for bully/victims were significantly higher than for victims only and for neither bullies nor victims. Differences between victims only and neither victims nor bullies were nonsignificant. Controlling for sadness and conduct problems, suicide behavior did not differ between the four bullying groups. All children with suicide attempts had a comorbid psychiatric disorder, as did all but two children with suicide ideation. Although the contribution of bullying per se to suicide behavior independent of sadness and conduct problems is small, bullying has obvious negative psychological consequences that make intervention imperative. Interventions need to focus on the psychopathology associated with being a victim and/or perpetrator of bullying in order to reduce suicide behavior.
Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E
This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study.
Gipson, Michael; Abraham, Michael R.
Seventy-one college general biology students were taught a unit in Mendelian genetics by the traditional lecture method. Emphasis was placed on meiotic formation of gametes, dominance, segregation, and independent assortment. The Punnett square model was used for all practice problems. While using this model, students were asked to: (1) identify…
Mehdinezhad, Vali; Bamari, Zeinab
The purpose of this study was to investigate the test anxiety, epistemological beliefs and problem solving among students. The target population of the current research was all the students of University of Sistan and Baluchestan in the academic year 2013-2014 and the number of the sample was 375. They were selected using a classified and simple…
Alshamali, Mahmoud A.; Daher, Wajeeh M.
This study aimed at identifying the levels of scientific reasoning of upper primary stage (grades 4-7) science teachers based on their use of a problem-solving strategy. The study sample (N = 138; 32 % male and 68 % female) was randomly selected using stratified sampling from an original population of 437 upper primary school teachers. The…
Background: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). Method: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was com...
Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.
Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…
Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn
Ayahuasca is believed to be harmless for those (including adolescents) drinking it within a religious setting. Nevertheless controlled studies on the mental/ psychiatric status of ritual hallucinogenic ayahuasca concoction consumers are still lacking. In this study, 40 adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 40 controls matched on sex, age, and educational background for psychiatric symptomatology. Screening scales for depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption patterns (abuse), attentional problems, and body dysmorphic disorders were used. It was found that, compared to controls, considerable lower frequencies of positive scoring for anxiety, body dismorphism, and attentional problems were detected among ayahuasca-using adolescents despite overall similar psychopathological profiles displayed by both study groups. Low frequencies of psychiatric symptoms detected among adolescents consuming ayahuasca within a religious context may reflect a protective effect due to their religious affiliation. However further studies on the possible interference of other variables in the outcome are necessary.
Fabrega Jr, Horacio
Psychiatric conditions and the institutions and practices that modern society has evolved to handle them originated during the nineteenth century in Anglo European societies. They are products of a historically contingent and culture specific formulation of a class of social problems of behavior that came to the fore in relation to intellectual and political economic changes of those societies. However, such problems have a long ancestry. They are intrinsic to human species and the social and cultural systems that its members have evolved since their emergence. This article reviews intellectual quandaries raised by evolutionary study of psychiatric conditions, those of crossing the human/animal divide and crossing historically contingent cultures; and of framing history of psychiatry in terms of social and cultural evolution. The biological architecture underlying psychiatric conditions and the breakthroughs that indigenous psychiatry of different types of societies underwent in formulating signs and symptoms are discussed. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sibeoni, Jordan; Orri, Massimiliano; Podlipski, Marc-Antoine; Labey, Mathilde; Campredon, Sophie; Gerardin, Priscille; Revah-Levy, Anne
Anxiety-based school refusal in adolescence is a complex, sometimes difficult to treat disorder that can have serious academic and psychiatric consequences. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how teens with this problem and their parents experience the psychiatric care received. This qualitative multicenter study took place in France, where we conducted semi-structured interviews with adolescents receiving psychiatric care for anxiety-based school refusal and with their parents. Data collection by purposive sampling continued until we reached theoretical sufficiency. Data analysis was thematic. This study included 20 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and 21 parents. Two themes emerged from the analysis: (1) the goals of psychiatric care with two sub-themes, " self-transformation " and problem solving ; and, (2) the therapeutic levers identified as effective with two sub-themes: time and space and relationships . Our results show a divergence between parents and teens in their representations of care and especially of its goals. Therapeutic and research implications about the terms of return to school within psychiatric care and also the temporality of care are discussed.
Psychiatric evaluation of intellectually disabled offenders referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex, 1993 - 2003. ... Increased crime is a problem in South Africa and complications arise when the accused is intellectually disabled. The accountability and fitness to stand trial of such individuals is an important facet that ...
Background: Even though intimate partner violence represents a major public health problem in Nigeria, much of its associated burden of psychiatric morbidity presenting in the clinical setting goes unrecognized and untreated. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the psychiatric perspectives on intimate partner ...
The biopsychosocial model, the current method in psychiatric assessments, is reviewed and critiqued. The history and original intents leading to the conception of the biopsychosocial model are briefly discussed. Five inherent problems with the use of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatric assessments and training programs are presented. Two alternative approaches are discussed and promoted for clinical, educational, and research practices in medicine. PMID:19724745
Ingman, Kathleen A.
In spite of the high prevalence of internalizing and externalizing disorders in children, little research has been conducted to directly assess risk factors associated with the development of these disorders. Among other influences, it has been suggested that the expression of childhood psychopathology may be related to family socialization practices. This study uses Olson's circumplex model of marital and family systems to test the relationship between family environment and t...
Yang, Eunbae B; Jeon, Wootack; Ryue, Sook-Hee
In Korea, students should have the consciousness of 'I' and 'we' to adapt well in society. Medical students in Korea must develop interpersonal and intrapersonal characteristics that are in accordance with Korean culture. This study intends to determine the relationship between the level of I-consciousness/we-consciousness and interpersonal problems in medical students. The I-consciousness/we-consciousness Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems were used for 212 first year medical students and 191 second year medical students at Yonsei University College of Medicine in 2008. The levels of I-consciousness/we-consciousness and interpersonal problems in medical students were higher than those of other general college students. There was a significant inverse correlation between the level of I-consciousness/we-consciousness and interpersonal problems for 118 of 130 factors. The higher the level of I-consciousness/we-consciousness in medical students is, the fewer interpersonal problems there are. Educational programs that take into account the consciousness of 'I' and 'we' are useful for the development of medical students' personalities.
Yau, Yvonne H.C.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. PMID:24140304
... Guide - Table of Contents Facts For Families Guide - View by Topic Chinese Facts for Families Guide ... Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate for any child or adolescent ...
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are prevalent among psychiatric patients. This is most probable due to a close relationship between functional disturbances of the internal clock, sleep regulation and mental health. Mechanisms on molecular level of the circadian clock and neurotransmitter signalling are involved in the development of both disorders. Moreover, circadian disorders and psychiatric diseases favour each other by accessory symptoms such as stress or social isolation. Actimetry to objectively quantify the rest-activity cycle and salivary melatonin profiles as marker for the circadian phase help to diagnose circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric patients. Chronotherapeutics such as bright light therapy, dark therapy, melatonin administration, and wake therapy are used to synchronise and consolidate circadian rhythms and help in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders, but are still neglected in medicine. More molecular to behavioural research is needed for the understanding of the development of circadian disorders and their relationship to psychiatric illnesses. This will help to boost the awareness and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatry.
Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas
Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…
The paper is focused on the research into the problems of education regarding the relations between students (bullying, competiveness and cooperation) and the decreasing teacher's authority in schools and society. We found that relations between pupils and students of elementary and secondary schools show several negative tendencies including harming each other, reduced rate of mutual sensitivity and preference of rivality to cooperation. Authority of teachers is permanently decreasing not only with pupils and students, but with parents and society, too. Society, parents and students much less value study results and wisdom, and these issues consequently influence the decreasing teacher's status. On the other hand, this behavior leads to decreasing the interest in semantic learning. The roots of these problems can be found in the postmodern crisis of Western culture, associated with severe deficiencies of the political system and market economy as well as one-sided rational orientation of Western society at the expense of the spiritual needs of man.
Research examining children with sexual behavior problems (SBP) almost exclusively relies on caregiver reports. The current study, involving a sample of 1112 children drawn from a prospective study, utilizes child self-reports and teacher reports, as well caregiver-reports. First, analyses examined children displaying any SBP; a second set of analyses specifically examined children displaying interpersonal forms of SBP. Caregivers reported greater internalizing, externalizing, and social problems for children with general SBP and/or interpersonal SBP when compared to children without SBP. Caregiver concerns were rarely corroborated by teacher and child reports. Protective services records indicated that SBP was linked to childhood sexual abuse, but sexual abuse occurred in the minority of these cases. Physical abuse was more common among children with interpersonal forms of SBP. The data in the current study suggest the need for multiple reporters when assessing children presenting with SBP and that conventional views of these children may be misleading.
Wegmann, Lena; Bühler, Anneke; Strunk, Mareike; Lang, Peter; Nowak, Dennis
This study examines whether individual differences in impulsivity and emotional problems in adolescent smokers are related to initial smoking characteristics of participants, acceptance, retention and outcome of a school-based smoking cessation program. The data was obtained from a feasibility study of a youth-specific, cognitive-behavioral and motivation enhancing program at 22 schools with 139 participating teenage smokers in Germany. A one-group-pre-posttest design was realized. Impulsivity levels were assessed by use of the impulsivity scale of the IVE ("Inventar zur Erfassung von Impulsivität, Risikoverhalten und Empathie", Stadler, Janke, & Schmeck, 2004). To evaluate the extent of emotional problems, the corresponding 5-items scale of the SDQ-Deu ("Strength and difficulties questionnaire", Klasen et al., 2000) was applied. Smoking behavior and acceptance of the program were assessed by students' self-reports. Acceptance and retention did not differ with regard to impulsivity and emotional problems, but initial smoking status did. Cessation rates varied with level of impulsivity: compared to non-impulsive participants, impulsive adolescents succeeded in quitting smoking less often. Emotional problems were not related to the rate of quitting. Impulsive adolescents were similarly compliant to the offered cessation intervention as less impulsive smokers. In spite of their general positive evaluation, impulsive adolescents seem to benefit less from a smoking cessation program than their non-impulsive counterparts. Specific elements supporting impulsive teenage smokers in their goal to quit should be incorporated into youth-specific cessation programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Albores-Gallo, Lilia; Sauceda-García, Juan Manuel; Ruiz-Velasco, Silvia; Roque-Santiago, Eduardo
To study the relationship between bullying behavior and psychopathology. A total of 1 092 students identified their peers' bullying status based on the Bull-S questionnaire. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to determine psychopathology levels. The bullying group had associations with anxiety, somatic symptoms, oppositionalism and behavior problems; the bully-victims group had associations with attention, oppositionalism and behavior problems; victims had higher anxiety scores.These differences were significant compared with the control group. Bullying is associated with psychopathology, which requires timely psychiatric attention.
Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan
Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopat...
Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind
Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....
Full Text Available In recent years, the rising competitive environment with shorter product life cycles and high customization forces industries to increase their flexibility, speed up their response, and enhance concurrent engineering designs. To integrate these prospects, supply chain collaboration becomes a pertinent strategy for industries to strengthen their competitiveness. The network design problem is used to implement supply chain collaboration. In the buying and selling process, sharing information between buyer and supplier are important to obtain a transaction decision. The optimimum supply chain profit can be identified by mathematical model of network design problem. The Mathematical Model takes into consideration the uncertainity in negotiation of supply chain, transportation problems, and locationallocation of products from supplier to buyer in the planning based on the time value of money. The results show that the model can be used to optimize the supply chain profit. The supplier gets a profit because income were received in the initial contract, while the buyer profit comes from lower pay.
Panourgia, Constantina; Comoretto, Amanda
Research has shown that children exposed to life adversity are at higher risk of negative developmental outcomes than those enduring lower stress levels. Life adversity can lead, among other things, to emotional and behavioural problems. Several factors have been studied to explain this relationship, with several investigators underlining the role of thought structures such as cognitive distortions, which refer to negatively biased information-processing of external events. This can help explain why some individuals characterised by adverse personal life stories interpret ambiguous events in a negatively biased way. This study was aimed at assessing the mediating role of cognitive distortions in the longitudinal relationship between life adversity and two dimensions of psychopathology, namely, emotional and behavioural problems in 247 secondary school children attending three state secondary schools in one county in the South East of England. An increase in life adversity was associated with an increase in cognitive distortions, which was in turn related to a higher number of symptoms reflecting behavioural issues. In terms of practical applications, an effort to protect children from further exposure to adverse life events could represent a step forward to prevent the development of future behavioural problems in at-risk children. © 2017 The Authors. Stress and Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Beek, J. van; Vuijk, P.J.; Harte, J.M.; Smit, B.L.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Scherder, E.J.A.
Severe behavioral problems, aggression, unlawful behavior, and uncooperativeness make the forensic psychiatric population both hard to treat and study. To fine-tune treatment and evaluate results, valid measurement is vital. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Extended (BPRS-E) is a widely used scale
van Beek, J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Harte, J.M.; Smit, B.L.; Nijman, H.; Scherder, E.J.A.
Severe behavioral problems, aggression, unlawful behavior, and uncooperativeness make the forensic psychiatric population both hard to treat and study. To fine-tune treatment and evaluate results, valid measurement is vital. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Extended (BPRS-E) is a widely used scale
Garber, J; Zeman, J; Walker, L S
Approximately 12% of children report recurrent episodes of abdominal pain. In only about 10% of these cases, however, can an organic etiology be identified, and therefore it often is assumed that these children have emotional problems. To test this hypothesis, children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) with no identifiable organic cause were compared to children with an organic diagnosis for their abdominal pain, children with psychiatric disorders, and healthy controls. Both groups of children with abdominal pain had significantly more psychiatric disorders (predominantly anxiety and depression) than did the healthy group. Both RAP and psychiatric children had significantly higher Child Behavior Checklist internalizing scores; psychiatric children were rated as significantly more maladjusted on the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Mothers of RAP children were significantly more anxious than mothers of organic pain and healthy children. Psychiatric children were significantly more likely than the other three groups to underreport their psychiatric symptoms relative to their mothers.
Sutton, Eliza L
Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kostova, Tatiana; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hoenen, Anne Kristin
causes of the agency problem—self-interest and bounded rationality. We argue that in the organizational setting, one cannot assume absolute self-interest and perfect rationality of agents (subsidiaries) but should allow them to vary. We explain subsidiary-level variation through a set of internal...... organizational and external social conditions in which the headquarters-subsidiary agency dyad is embedded. We then discuss several agency scenarios reflecting various levels of self-interest and rationality that lead to different manifestations of the agency problem. The proposed framework can inform more...... relevant applications of the agency perspective in organizational studies and motivate future research....
JULIANA ROJAS CORREDOR
Full Text Available Relation between Mozart effect and problem solving test Missionaries and Cannibals was explored in female studentswith ages between 17 and 20 years old. This relation was measured with the interactive task Missionaries and Cannibalsand the Mozart’s Sonata para dos pianos K448. Statistical analysis with 0.05 significance level showed differences betweencontrol and experimental group; also when significance level was increased to 0.01 (confidence of 99% the testcontinue showing an association between test solution Missionaries and Cannibals and Mozart effect.
Ly, J; Zhou, Q
Copyright © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLCThe goal of the study was to test the bidirectional associations between teacher–child relationship quality and behavior problems in an elementary school age sample of Chinese American immigrant children. A socioeconomically diverse sample (N = 258) of first- and second-generation Chinese American children (M ages = 7.4 and 9.2 years at Wave 1 and Wave 2, respectively; 48% girls) was recruited from schools and communities and followed for 1 to 2 yea...
Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J
Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.
Welte, John W; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O; Hoffman, Joseph H; Wieczorek, William F
In this article we examine the relationship between extent of gambling for U.S. adults and the distance from their residence to the nearest casino or track. We employ data from a telephone survey of U.S. adults conducted in 2011-2013. The chances that the respondents gambled in the past year, were frequent gamblers, or were problem gamblers were greater if they lived close to a casino. The chances that the respondents gambled in the past year or were frequent gamblers were greater if they lived close to a horse or dog track. The effects of closeness to a casino on the likelihood of past-year gambling, frequent gambling, and problem gambling, as well as the effect of closeness to a track on past-year gambling, extended to about 30 miles from the respondent's home. In addition, the concentration of casinos within 30 miles of the respondent's home was positively related to the respondents' chance of being a frequent or problem gambler. If a respondent had no casinos within 30 miles, he or she had a 2.7 % chance of being a problem gambler; if one casino, a 3.9 % chance; if six or more, a 6.2 % chance. The authors estimate that at least part of this effect is causal.
Song, Yeonsu; Washington, Donna L; Yano, Elizabeth M; McCurry, Susan M; Fung, Constance H; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; Jouldjian, Stella; Mitchell, Michael N; Alessi, Cathy A; Martin, Jennifer L
To identify caregiving-related sleep problems and their relationship to mental health and daytime function in female Veterans. Female Veterans (N = 1,477) from cross-sectional, nationwide, postal survey data. The survey respondent characteristics included demographics, comorbidity, physical activity, health, use of sleep medications, and history of sleep apnea. They self-identified caregiving- related sleep problems (i.e., those who had trouble sleeping because of caring for a sick adult, an infant/child, or other respondents). Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) was used to assess mental health, and daytime function was measured using 11 items of International Classification of Sleep Disorders-2 (ICSD-2). Female Veterans with self-identified sleep problems due to caring for a sick adult (n = 59) experienced significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety (p sleep problems due to caring for an infant or child (n = 95) or all other respondents (n = 1,323) after controlling for the respondent characteristics. Healthcare providers should pay attention to assessing sleep characteristics of female Veterans with caregiving responsibilities, particularly those caregiving for a sick adult.
Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Mulder, J.; Furer, J.W.
Background: Decades of psychiatric epidemiology have shown a wide variation in prevalence rates. but a consistent relationship U between psychiatric disorder and sociodemographic variables. In this repeated cross-sectional survey. the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their distribution in the
Vandergast, Amy; Weissman, David B; Wood, Dustin; Rentz, David C F; Bazelet, Corinna S; Ueshima, Norihiro
The relationships among and within the families that comprise the orthopteran superfamily Stenopelmatoidea (suborder Ensifera) remain poorly understood. We developed a phylogenetic hypothesis based on Bayesian analysis of two nuclear ribosomal and one mitochondrial gene for 118 individuals (84 de novo and 34 from GenBank). These included Gryllacrididae from North, Central, and South America, South Africa and Madagascar, Australia and Papua New Guinea; Stenopelmatidae from North and Central America and South Africa; Anostostomatidae from North and Central America, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa; members of the Australian endemic Cooloola (three species); and a representative of Lezina from the Middle East. We also included representatives of all other major ensiferan families: Prophalangopsidae, Rhaphidophoridae, Schizodactylidae, Tettigoniidae, Gryllidae, Gryllotalpidae and Myrmecophilidae and representatives of the suborder Caelifera as outgroups. Bayesian analyses of concatenated sequence data supported a clade of Stenopelmatoidea inclusive of all analyzed members of Gryllacrididae, Stenopelmatidae, Anostostomatidae, Lezina and Cooloola. We found Gryllacrididae worldwide to be monophyletic, while we did not recover a monophyletic Stenopelmatidae nor Anostostomatidae. Australian Cooloola clustered in a clade composed of Australian, New Zealand, and some (but not all) North American Anostostomatidae. Lezina was included in a clade of New World Anostostomatidae. Finally, we compiled and compared karyotypes and sound production characteristics for each supported group. Chromosome number, centromere position, drumming, and stridulation differed among some groups, but also show variation within groups. This preliminary trait information may contribute toward future studies of trait evolution. Despite greater taxon sampling within Stenopelmatoidea than previous efforts, some relationships among the families examined continue to remain elusive.
Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J.
Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father’s education level, mother’s education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother’s education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%–75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance. PMID:28316252
worse subjective health and work ability than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, while their psychiatric wellbeing is better and they have less sleep problems compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses maintain better psychiatric wellbeing and experience fewer sleep problems than non-psychiatric nurses after events of exposure to patient aggression. This suggest that more attention should be given to non-psychiatric settings for maintaining the wellbeing of nurses after exposure to patient aggression.
Cronin, Katherine A; Pieper, Bridget A; van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B M
In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors.
Katherine A Cronin
Full Text Available In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors.
Cronin, Katherine A.; Pieper, Bridget A.; van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B. M.
In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors. PMID:24695486
Whaley, Arthur L
Although African Americans are overrepresented among schizophrenia diagnoses, assessments of memory deficits in schizophrenia often do not consider issues of race, ethnicity, and culture. Digit span testing (DST) is often used to assess memory problems associated with schizophrenia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of psychiatric symptoms and demographic background on the DST performances of 128 African American schizophrenic patients. It was hypothesized that level of cultural mistrust would moderate the relationship of psychiatric and demographic variables to memory deficits. The study involved the secondary analysis of data from the Culturally-Sensitive Diagnostic Interview Research Project. Different models of the relationship among predictor variables in their impact on DST performance were tested via structural equation modeling (SEM); and the moderating effects of level of cultural mistrust were evaluated with the best SEM model. The results supported the hypothesis that level of cultural mistrust moderates the relationship among variables in the SEM model. Specifically, psychiatric symptoms negatively impacted DST performance in the low cultural mistrust group, but they had no significant association to the memory deficits of the high cultural mistrust group. The pattern of findings for the effects of psychiatric symptoms on DST performance is consistent with the view of cultural mistrust as an adaptive mechanism in African Americans. One implication is that cultural factors should be taken into account when assessing memory deficits in African Americans with schizophrenia.
Alfstad, Kristin Å; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Van Roy, Betty; Mowinckel, Petter; Gjerstad, Leif; Lossius, Morten I
In this population-based study we wanted to assess the prevalence and impact of psychiatric symptoms in children with epilepsy compared to controls, and investigate possible age and gender differences. Data were collected using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Parent report (SDQ-P) as part of a more extensive questionnaire. A total of 14,699 parents of children aged 8-13 years (response rate 78%) participated. Associations between SDQ scores and epilepsy, other chronic disease, age, gender, and socioeconomic factors were explored using logistic regression analysis. Children with epilepsy (CWE) (n=110) had a significantly higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms (37.8% vs. 17.0% in controls, pGender differences were found in several subscales of the SDQ; girls had more emotional problems, whereas boys had higher scores regarding peer relationship and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Male gender, low socioeconomic status (family income below poverty limit and living in a single parent home), and other chronic disease (asthma/diabetes) were independent risk factors of developing psychiatric symptoms, along with epilepsy. Having or having had epilepsy was, however, a much stronger risk factor for developing psychiatric symptoms in girls than in boys [odds ratio (OR) 4.2 vs. OR 2.3]. A minor effect of age was seen only in girls with epilepsy, with an increased risk of psychiatric symptoms in age group 10-13 years (OR 1.28 for scoring borderline/abnormal on SDQ-total difficulties). Borderline/abnormal impact scores were found in 31.8% of CWE compared with 13.0% of controls (p<0.001). Multiple risk factors contribute to the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in CWE, perhaps differently in boys and girls. Awareness of this complex interaction may help target intervention toward high risk groups and thus prevent more serious problems from arising. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.
Yau, Yvonne H C; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N
With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Min-Jin; Park, Kyung-Pyo; Seo, Deog-Gyu; Ihm, Jung-Joon
The study aimed to determine the personality types of the graduate students in Seoul National University School of Dentistry (SNU SD) and analyze the specific personal types that were linked to their performance in problem-based learning (PBL). A total of 263 graduate students in SNU SD from 2011 to 2013, participated in PBL and completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) GS form, which was analyzed statistically to determine whether their MBTI personality types were independent of their PBL performance. In particular, MBTI types were regressed on evaluation subcategories, including tutor evaluation and oral test. ESTJ (20.9%) and ISTJ (18.6%) were the most common MBTI personality types in dental graduate students. Compared with males, female students performed significantly better on the PBL. Judging was the most notable type in PBL performance, with its J-P index being statistically significant. PBL is implemented, based on the perspective of student-centered education. Accordingly, the types of personality that usually matriculate in dental school should be monitored, and a student-centered approach to dental education should be adopted.
Das, M; Mpofu, D; Dunn, E; Lanphear, J H
It is now recognized that acquiring specific skills in self-evaluation helps students in a more general appraisal of their overall performance. Self- and peer-evaluation skills are essential prerequisites for the success of every doctor in maintaining professional competence. In the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS) of the United Arab Emirates, problem-based learning (PBL) is instituted in the first year. Self-evaluation by students and tutor rating of students' performances are an integral part of the PBL tutorials. This has provided the opportunity to conduct a systematic study of the role of self-evaluation by students as distinct from the tutor evaluation of students in the PBL tutorials for five themes. The study sample included all preparatory year (first-year) students who joined the FMHS in 1994 and 1995. A total number of 64 students participated, of whom 17 (26%) were male and 47 (74%) female. Mean self-evaluation scores were high throughout the module and did not follow any trend from theme one to theme five. While self and tutor scores were similar, male student self-evaluation scores were higher than for female students on overall scores. The sharing of assessment reports between students and tutors has been perceived to be a useful tool for the students' development of the skills of analysis, differentiation and critical appraisal.
Fang, Lin; McNeil, Sandra
The study investigated the relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and heavy and binge drinking, stratified by gender. Population-based cross-sectional study. Data were retrieved from 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Over 39,000 individuals from five states were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze the weighted data to determine factors associated with heavy and binge drinking for men and women. Each model included ACEs and controlled for sociodemographic variables, depression and smoking status. Bonferroni method was used to correct multiple comparisons. Only a few relationships between ACEs and problem drinking were observed. Among men, living with a drug abuser as a child was significantly associated with both heavy and binge drinking compared to men who did not reside with a drug abuser as a child. Childhood verbal abuse was linked with men's binge drinking compared to men who were not verbally abused as children. Among women, none of the nine ACEs examined in the study were associated with their heavy drinking. Only one ACE, verbal abuse, was found to be correlated with binge drinking, compared to women who did not experience childhood verbal abuse. In addition, we did not find the hypothesized, step-wise, graded relationship between the number of ACEs and heavy and binge drinking. However, the risk of heavy drinking was greater if the individual was exposed to four or more childhood adversities among both men and women. Study hypotheses were only partially supported. Future studies should unpack the interplay among gender, socio-economic status, ACEs, and problem alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Cailiang; Baïz, Nour; Banerjee, Soutrik; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Fréderic; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella
This study examined the hypothesis that emotion and conduct problems (ECPs) may modify the relationships between ambient air pollutants and childhood asthma and eczema. In the cross-sectional study, 4209 French schoolchildren (aged 10e12 years) were investigated between March 1999 and October 2000. Ambient air pollutants exposures were estimated with dispersion modeling. Health outcomes and ECPs were evaluated by validated questionnaires, completed by the parents. Marginal models were used to analyze the relationships of exposures to ambient air pollutants and/or ECPs to asthma phenotypes and current eczema, adjusting for potential confounders. In our population, interactions were found between ECPs and exposures to ambient air pollutants (benzene, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 10 mm, volatile organic compounds) (P eczema (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.61e3.02). Children with ECPs had 1.17e1.51 times higher aORs for the associations between ambient air pollutants and asthma phenotypes and current eczema than those without ECPs. ECPs may modify the relationships between ambient air pollutants and childhood asthma and eczema. 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hur, Yoon-Mi; Hwang, Sunyung; Chung, Un-Sun
Age difference in the etiology of the relationship between childhood negative emotionality (NE) and conduct problems (CP) has not been previously investigated. Mothers of 662 pairs of twins completed questions on the emotionality (NE) scale of the EAS temperament survey and the CP scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) via a telephone interview. Twin data were analyzed separately in younger (ages 3 to 7 years; mostly pre-schoolers) and older children (ages 8 to 13 years; mostly elementary school children). The phenotypic correlation between NE and CP increased from 0.33 among younger twins to 0.43 among older twins. Bivariate model-fitting analysis was performed to determine age difference in the etiology of the relationship between NE and CP. Among younger twins, the correlation between NE and CP was entirely explained by additive genetic factors common to NE and CP. Among older children, however, a small but significant amount of unique environmental correlation emerged to account for about 47% of the phenotypic correlation between NE and CP. The remaining 53% of the phenotypic correlation was due to shared additive genetic factors. We speculate that environmental factors associated with school adjustment may exert influences on the relationship between NE and CP among elementary school children.
Joginder Pal Attri
Full Text Available Many patients with psychiatric illnesses are prescribed long-term drug treatment, and the anaesthesiologist must be aware of potential interactions with anaesthetic agents. Psychotropic drugs often given in combination with each other or with other non-psychiatric drugs generally exert profound effects on the central and peripheral neurotransmitter and ionic mechanisms. Hence, prior intake of these drugs is an important consideration in the management of the patient about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. This article highlights the effects of anaesthetics on patients taking antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and lithium carbonate. The risk that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of surgery, the patient′s physical state, anaesthesia, the direct and indirect effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms and risk of psychiatric recurrence and relapse.
Marchica, Loredana; Zhao, Yaxi; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Ivoska, William
Fantasy sports is a growing industry with a reported 56.8 million individuals participating in the United States and Canada alone in 2015. Whereas this activity has attracted considerable public attention, little research has examined its impact on adolescents in spite of their high rates of gambling. The current study examined the relationship between regular participation (more than once a month) in sport-relevant gambling activities among adolescents and those identified as being at-risk for a gambling problem. Questionnaire responses were collected from high school students (N = 6818; 49 % male) in Wood County, Ohio, United States. Statistical analyses revealed that regular involvement in sports betting, fantasy sports betting, and daily fantasy sports betting among adolescents was associated with a higher risk of gambling problems. Further, although males participate more frequently in these activities, females who participate have a stronger likelihood of being at-risk. Students aged 16-19 years old are at a higher risk for developing a gambling problem compared to younger adolescents when regularly engaging in sports-related gambling. Moreover, regularly participating in daily fantasy sports is the strongest predictor of at-risk gambling behavior in 13-15 year old students. A hierarchical logistic regression supports that controlling for gender and age, all forms of sport-relevant gambling activities are significant predictors of at-risk gambling. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of sports betting and fantasy sports on adolescents and establishes an initial step for future studies to further investigate these relationships.
Santen, Sally A; Petrusa, Emil; Gruppen, Larry D
Studies have found unprofessional behavior in medical school was associated with disciplinary action by state medical boards. For medical schools, promotions committees are responsible for identifying which students do not demonstrate academic performance and professional behavior acceptable for promotion and graduation. The objective of this study was to determine if student identification by promotions committees during medical school was associated with disciplinary actions by state medical boards later in practice. We reviewed 20 years of promotions committees' records from a single institution and noted students identified by promotions committees for performance or behavioral issues. These were compared with disciplinary action reports from the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) for graduates. Over the two decades, 2,131 students matriculated and 2,078 of these graduated. The promotions committees identified 140 students for poor academic performance or behavioral problems (140/2,078, 6.7 %). Of these, 108 students graduated. FSMB records showed 29 of the 2,078 graduates had sanctions by state boards (29/2,078, 1.4 %). Only four students that had actions by state medical boards were among the 108 graduated students identified by medical school promotions committees (4/108, 3.7 %). Of the students not identified by promotions committees, 25 eventually had disciplinary actions (25/1,970, 1.3 %). The odds of having state medical board action if identified by promotions committees was 3.0 (CI 1.02-8.8, p school promotions committees was later associated with state medical board actions. However, most graduates with state medical board actions were not identified by medical school promotions committees.
Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah
Participation in fantasy sports increases annually. Wagering on fantasy sports is a form of gambling and researchers have found that fantasy sports participants are more likely to engage in other forms of sports betting than non-fantasy players; however, no published studies have examined whether there is a relationship between fantasy sports participation and gambling-related problems. Our study examined whether fantasy sports participation is associated with gambling-related problems among college students. We assessed fantasy sports participation and endorsement of DSM-5 gambling disorder (GD) criteria among a large convenience sample (N=1556) of college students via an online health survey. We found that 11.5% of respondents participated in fantasy sports in the past year, the majority of which were males. Logistic regression analyses indicated that males who play fantasy sports for money and females who play fantasy sports (for money or not) were more likely to experience gambling-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, A G
A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service......, and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics...
Wang, A G
, and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics......A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Online psychiatric texts are natural language texts expressing depressive problems, published by Internet users via community-based web services such as web forums, message boards and blogs. Understanding the cause-effect relations embedded in these psychiatric texts can provide insight into the authors’ problems, thus increasing the effectiveness of online psychiatric services. Methods Previous studies have proposed the use of word pairs extracted from a set of sentence pairs to identify cause-effect relations between sentences. A word pair is made up of two words, with one coming from the cause text span and the other from the effect text span. Analysis of the relationship between these words can be used to capture individual word associations between cause and effect sentences. For instance, (broke up, life and (boyfriend, meaningless are two word pairs extracted from the sentence pair: “I broke up with my boyfriend. Life is now meaningless to me”. The major limitation of word pairs is that individual words in sentences usually cannot reflect the exact meaning of the cause and effect events, and thus may produce semantically incomplete word pairs, as the previous examples show. Therefore, this study proposes the use of inter-sentential language patterns such as ≪broke up, boyfriend>, Results Performance was evaluated on a corpus of texts collected from PsychPark (http://www.psychpark.org, a virtual psychiatric clinic maintained by a group of volunteer professionals from the Taiwan Association of Mental Health Informatics. Experimental results show that the use of inter-sentential language patterns outperformed the use of word pairs proposed in previous studies. Conclusions This study demonstrates the acquisition of inter-sentential language patterns for causality detection from online psychiatric texts. Such semantically more complete and precise features can improve causality detection performance.
Nivard, Michel G; Gage, Suzanne H; Hottenga, Jouke J; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Abdellaoui, A.; Bartels, Meike; Baselmans, Bart M L; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Pourcain, Beate St; Boomsma, Dorret I; Munafò, Marcus R; Middeldorp, Christel M
BACKGROUND: Several nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence can precede the onset of schizophrenia, but the etiology of this relationship remains unclear. We investigated to what extent the association between schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders in childhood is explained
Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.
Poirier, Marie-France; Canceil, Olivier; Baylé, Franck; Millet, Bruno; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Moatti, Cécile; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Attar-Lévy, Dominique
Compelling evidence that tobacco-smoking is a form of drug addiction exists. The aim of this study is to determine the following: (1) prevalence of tobacco-smoking and of nicotine dependence in French psychiatric patients; (2) rates and patterns of tobacco smoking and of nicotine dependence according to diagnosis; (3) relationship between current smoking status and antipsychotic medications; and (4) relationship between cigarette smoking and neurological side effects induced by neuroleptics. A population of 711 psychiatric in- and outpatients was assessed using: (1) a detailed smoking self-questionnaire for smoking history and nicotine dependence; and (2) a questionnaire for staff covering treatments and DSMIII-R diagnoses. Data were analyzed using chi2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests (one factor) for quantitative comparisons between groups of patients, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test with age covariate was performed for age-dependent variables. Prevalence of smoking in the population of psychiatric patients was significantly higher than in the French general population. Diagnoses among current smokers were mainly substance-related disorder and schizophrenia. The authors established correlations between prevalence of smoking and age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, alcohol use, coffee consumption and other psychoactive substance use or abuse. The authors did not find relationship between smoking prevalence and institutionalization. Neuroleptic neurological side effects were significantly fewer among smokers compared to nonsmokers. However, the rate of smokers was significantly higher in psychiatric patients receiving neuroleptic drugs. Nicotine abuse in psychiatric patients, and especially in schizophrenic patients, could support the hypothesis that smoking is consistent with self-medication.
Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.
This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…
Kolly, Stéphane; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; de Roten, Yves; Marquet, Pierre; Kramer, Ueli
Therapist adherence describes the quality of interventions according to the imperatives of a treatment model. We examined the relationship between therapist adherence and symptom change in the context of a short-term treatment with respect good psychiatric management (GPM) principles. Based on a parent trial, borderline personality disorder patients (N = 40) benefited from a 10-session intervention. Adherence to GPM was assessed using a GPM Adherence Scale (GPMAS). The psychometric properties of the GPMAS were excellent, and the adherence to GPM explained 16% of the general symptom improvement (t(1) = 2.38, β = 0.40, p = 0.02) and 23% of the borderline symptom improvement (t(1) = 2.46, β = 0.48, p = 0.02). Because GPM adherence predicts the outcome after only 10 sessions, GPMAS is a valuable measure early on in psychiatric practice as part of an initial step to longer-term treatment, to quickly detect problems and correct them.
Juszczak, Dariusz; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Czupryńska, Katarzyna; Furs, Maciej
The relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood in this group of offenders. The aim of this paper was to attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing sexual offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 180 forensic psychiatric- sexology assessments issued by experts from Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic in 10 Military Hospital Clinic in Bydgoszcz between 2004 to 2012. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Sexual Activity" has been used. Relevant statistical dependences were observed. The obtained results show that, a alcohol abuse has a sexual criminogenic effect especially in the coincidence that there are sustainable personality abnormalities and organic CNS damage. The conducted study prove that the sexual perpetrators who abuse alcohol have a poor level of social functioning and brought up in dysfunction families having alcoholic problems. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Al-Omari, Wesal; Miqdadi, Ruba
The purpose of this paper was to examine the perception pre-service teachers hold to the nature of the relationship between physics and mathematics. The study examined this relationship in reference to their performance in problem solving and strategies they used. The results of this empirical study suggested that most participants hold a naïve…
Dec 3, 2002 ... Impairment and disability assessment on psychiatric grounds has always been subjective, controversial ... informed medical advisors doing their disability assessments. Many of these advisors have expressed ..... that will empower the affected employee and that is non- stigma- tising. In order to do so it is ...
Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil
Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated wh...
their caregivers in South Africa. The heritability of the majority of the psychiatric disorders is ... linkage analyses in a cohort of Bantu-speaking black South. Africans.17-22 Areas of implied linkage to schizophrenia ... one of the studies of a Bantu-speaking schizophrenia cohort. Table I. Glossary of genetic terminology. Allele.
Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda,Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski,Andrea Parolin
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...
Frijters, Paul; Johnston, David W; Lordan, Grace; Shields, Michael A
There is considerable policy interest in the impact of macroeconomic conditions on health-related behaviours and outcomes. This paper sheds ne