Brownlow, Janeese A; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Boland, Elaine M; Brewster, Glenna S; Gehrman, Philip R
There has been a great deal of research on the comorbidity of insomnia and psychiatric disorders, but much of the existing data is based on small samples and does not assess the full diagnostic criteria for each disorder. Further, the exact nature of the relationship between these conditions and their impact on cognitive problems are under-researched in military samples. Data were collected from the All Army Study of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members (unweighted N = 21, 449; weighted N = 674,335; 18-61 years; 13.5% female). Participants completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire to assess for insomnia disorder and a self-administered version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales to assess for psychiatric disorders and cognitive problems. Military soldiers with current major depressive episode (MDE) had the highest prevalence of insomnia disorder (INS; 85.0%), followed by current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 82.6%) and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 69.7%), respectively. Significant interactions were found between insomnia and psychiatric disorders; specifically, MDE, PTSD, and GAD status influenced the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems. Cross-sectional nature of the assessment and the absence of a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Psychiatric disorders moderated the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems, suggesting that psychiatric disorders contribute unique variance to cognitive problems even though they are associated with insomnia disorder. Results highlight the importance of considering both insomnia and psychiatric disorders in the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits in military soldiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are at an increased risk for sleep disturbances, and studies indicate that between 50 and 80% of children with ASD experience sleep problems. These problems increase parental stress and adversely affect family quality of life. Studies have also suggested that sleep disturbances may increase behavioral problems in this clinical population. Although understanding the causes of sleep disorders in ASD is a clinical priority, the causal relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Given the complex nature of ASD, the etiology of sleep problems in this clinical population is probably multi-factorial. In this overview, we discuss in detail three possible etiological explanations of sleep problems in ASD that can all contribute to the high rate of these symptoms in ASD. Specifically, we examine how neurobiological alterations, genetic mutations, and disrupted sleep architecture can cause sleep problems in individuals with ASD. We also discuss how sleep problems may be a direct result of core symptoms of ASD. Finally, a detailed examination of the relationship between sleep problems and associated clinical features and psychiatric comorbidities in individuals with ASD is described.
Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G; Christodoulaki, A G; Karkanias, A P
, affect body image and cause feelings of embarrassment with severe consequences on the patient's sense of wellbeing, his or her daily activities, interpersonal relationships or sexuality. Depressive symptoms often occur in prodromal stages of pancreatic cancer. Depression is a common diagnosis in patients with prostate cancer. Prostatectomy negatively affects patient's self-esteem, because it might be experienced as a threat to his sexual life. Disfigurement is related to skin cancer because of both cancer and surgical procedures. Therefore, it is a challenge for modern psycho-oncology to identify those patients who are vulnerable in developing psychiatric symptoms, to early diagnose anxiety and depression and to use psychotherapeutic interventions targeting individual psychological and psychiatric problems in relation to the localization of disease in the human body.
Dale L. Smith
Full Text Available BackgroundNumerous studies over the past several decades have illustrated that children who suffer from sleep-disordered breathing (SDB are at greater risk for cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems. Although behavioral problems have been proposed as a potential mediator between SDB and cognitive functioning, these relationships have not been critically examined.MethodsThis analysis is based on a community-based cohort of 1,115 children who underwent overnight polysomnography, and cognitive and behavioral phenotyping. Structural model of the relationships between SDB, behavior, and cognition, and two recently developed mediation approaches based on propensity score weighting and resampling were used to assess the mediational role of parent-reported behavior and psychiatric problems in the relationship between SDB and cognitive functioning. Multiple models utilizing two different SDB definitions further explored direct effects of SDB on cognition as well as indirect effects through behavioral pathology. All models were adjusted for age, sex, race, BMI z-score, and asthma status.ResultsIndirect effects of SDB through behavior problems were significant in all mediation models, while direct effects of SDB on cognition were not. The findings were consistent across different mediation procedures and remained essentially unaltered when different criteria for SDB, behavior, and cognition were used.ConclusionPotential effects of SDB on cognitive functioning appear to occur through behavioral problems that are detectable in this pediatric population. Thus, early attentional or behavioral pathology may be implicated in the cognitive functioning deficits associated with SDB, and may present an early morbidity-related susceptibility biomarker.
Sannar, Elise M; Palka, Tamara; Beresford, Carol; Peura, Christine; Kaplan, Desmond; Verdi, Mary; Siegel, Matthew; Kaplan, Shir; Grados, Marco
We examined the relationship between sleep duration and awakenings to Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) scores in hospitalized youth with ASD and behavioral disturbance. Participants included 106 patients with a stay of at least 10 nights. Sleep in the hospital was recorded by staff observation. Higher scores on the ABC-C (irritability, stereotypy, and hyperactivity subscales) at admission were significantly associated with fewer minutes slept during the last five nights of hospitalization. There was no association between total awakenings and ABC-C scores or ADOS-2 comparison scores. Improved understanding of the relationship between sleep quality and maladaptive behavior in this challenging cohort of patients with ASD is vital to the definition and design of future effective interventions.
The therapeutic relationship is one of the most central and important factors in the treatment of mental health disorders. A better therapeutic relationship is associated with service engagement, medication adherence, and satisfaction with services. This study aimed to compare the demographic and clinical factors associated with the therapeutic relationship in voluntarily and involuntarily admitted psychiatric service users. We found that individuals who had been admitted involuntarily, who had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, and who reported higher levels of perceived pressures on admission were more likely to have a poorer therapeutic relationship with their consultant psychiatrist. Greater levels of insight and treatment satisfaction, together with higher levels of procedural justice experienced on admission, were associated with a better therapeutic relationship. We found that the level of perceived coercion on admission was not related to the therapeutic relationship. Targeted interventions to improve the therapeutic relationship, particularly for involuntarily admitted service users, are discussed.
Kendler, K S
Of all the human professions, psychiatry is most centrally concerned with the relationship of mind and brain. In many clinical interactions, psychiatrists need to consider both subjective mental experiences and objective aspects of brain function. This article attempts to summarize, in the form of a dialogue between a philosophically informed attending psychiatrist and three residents, the major philosophical positions on the mind-body problem. The positions reviewed include the following: substance dualism, property dualism, type identity, token identity, functionalism, eliminative materialism, and explanatory dualism. This essay seeks to provide a brief user-friendly introduction, from a psychiatric perspective, to current thinking about the mind-body problem.
Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.
Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…
Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V
Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...
Balmer, Nigel J; Pleasence, Pascoe; Buck, Alexy
Psychiatric morbidity has been shown to be associated with the increased reporting of a range of social problems involving legal rights ('rights problems'). Using a validated measure of psychiatric morbidity, this paper explores the relationship between psychiatric morbidity and rights problems and discusses the implications for the delivery of health and legal services. New representative national survey data from the English and Welsh Civil and Social Justice Survey (CSJS) surveyed 3040 adults in 2007 to explore the relationship between GHQ-12 scores and the self reported incidence of and behaviour surrounding, rights problems. It was found that the prevalence of rights problems increased with psychiatric morbidity, as did the experience of multiple problems. It was also found the likelihood of inaction in the face of problems increased with psychiatric morbidity, while the likelihood of choosing to resolve problems without help decreased. Where advice was obtained, psychiatric morbidity was associated with a greater tendency to obtain a combination of 'legal' and 'general' support, rather than 'legal' advice alone. The results suggest that integrated and 'outreach' services are of particular importance to the effective support of those facing mental illness. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219
The number of Iranian immigrants in Canada has been increasing since 1979. This study is the result of a review of 111 charts of Iranian patients who were referred for psychiatric treatment between 1985 and 1988. Ninety-eight percent of them arrived in Canada after the Iranian revolution, which started in 1979, and the Iran-Iraq war of 1980. Ten percent were experiencing trauma as a result of their involvement with the revolutionary government or the war. The symptoms were in accordance with the DSM-III-R criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Sixty percent met the criteria for adjustment disorder with depressed or anxious mood. Six percent had been subjected to physical and psychological torture and confinement. This is the first study that looks at the prevalence of psychiatric illness among Iranians and illustrates the effect of migration and displacement in the integrity of the psychic life of this population.
The present thesis investigates behaviour problems and their relationship to psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability living in the northern part of Norway, as well as the concordances between four of the most commonly used assessment instruments for psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability. A total of one hundred and eighty-one individuals with intellectual disability living in the counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark participated in the studies. ...
Strange, Robert E.; Brown, Dudley E., Jr.
Fifty patients who developed psychiatric problems after return from tours of Viet Nam combat duty were compared with a group of patients who had not had such duty. The Viet Nam returnees reported more conflicts in intimate relationships and had a higher incidence of depression and somatization than did the noncombat group. A study was made of…
Mazza, Elena T.
The professional literature on gatekeeping in social work education has grown; however, there remains a dearth in the literature regarding how educators truly work to engage students who are experiencing a psychiatric disability or other emotional problem. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 social work educators from 22 colleges…
Cumurcu, Tongabay; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Ozcan, Ozlem; Demirel, Soner; Duz, Cem; Porgalı, Esra; Doganay, Selim
To investigate the rate of social phobia, anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric problems in children with strabismus. Prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. Forty-two children with strabismus and 47 control subjects 8-13 years of age were enrolled in this study. After the ophthalmologist's examination, all cases were assessed by a psychiatrist based on the structured interview technique of Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) was administered to each subject to evaluate social phobia. All participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Age as well as sex and income were comparable between the strabismus patients and control groups. Social phobia was diagnosed in 8 (19.04%) of the 42 strabismic children and in 1 (2.12%) of the control subjects. The CDI and SCARED (total score, social phobia, separation anxiety) scores of strabismus patients were significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.0001, p = 0.05, respectively). A relationship between strabismus in children and social phobia, depression, and anxiety on a symptom basis was underlined by our data. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Galatzer-Levy, Robert M
The third edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III; 1974) not only revolutionized psychiatric diagnosis, it transformed and dominated American psychiatry. The nosology of psychiatry had been conceptually confusing, difficult to apply, and bound to widely questioned theories. Psychiatry and clinical psychology had been struggling with their scientific status. DSM attempted to solve psychiatry's problems by making psychiatry more like its authors' perception of general medicine. It tried to avoid theory, especially psychoanalytic theories, by discussing only observable manifestations of disorders. But DSM is actually highly theory-bound. It implicitly and powerfully includes an exclusively "medical" model of psychological disturbance, while excluding other psychiatric ideas. Its authors tried to meet what they saw as "scientific standards." To a surprising extent, DSM reflects its creators' personal distaste for psychoanalysis. The result is that DSM rests on a narrow philosophical perspective. The consequences of its adoption are widespread: it has profoundly affected drug development and other therapeutic studies, psychiatric education, attitudes toward patients, the public perception of psychiatry, and administrative and legal decisions. This article explores how DSM's most problematic features arise from its history in psychiatric controversies of the 1960s and its underlying positivistic philosophy.
Helland, Wenche Andersen
Several studies have pointed to an overlap between different developmental psychopathological conditions and language impairments, and difficulties with communication have been identified in children of various diagnostic backgrounds. This thesis is based on three empirical studies, and the purposes are to investigate communication difficulties as reported by parents, in children identified with psychiatric problems as well as to evaluate a Norwegian adaptation of the Children’...
Póos, Judit; Annus, Rita; Perczel Forintos, Dóra
According to our present knowledge depression and hopelessness play an important role in attempted suicide and the development of hopelessness seems to be closely associated with poor problem solving skills. In the present study we have used the internationally well-known MEPS (Means-Ends Problem Solving Test; a measure of social problem solving ability) in Hungary for the first time and combined with other tests. We intended to explore the cognitive risk factors that potentially play a role in the suicidal behavior in clinical population. In our study we compared a group of individuals who had attempted suicide to a nonsuicidal psychiatric control group and a normal control group (61 subjects in each group). Our results confirm the findings of others that psychiatric patients have difficulties in social problem solving compared to normal controls. Moreover, they generate less and poorer solutions. According to our data problem solving skills of the two clinical groups were similar. A strong positive correlation was found between poor problem solving skills, depression and hopelessness which may suggest that the development of problem solving skills could help to reduce negative mood.
Van Liew, Charles; Gluhm, Shea; Goldstein, Jody; Cronan, Terry A; Corey-Bloom, Jody
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric dysfunction. In HD, the inability to solve problems successfully affects not only disease coping, but also interpersonal relationships, judgment, and independent living. The aim of the present study was to examine social problem-solving (SPS) in well-characterized HD and at-risk (AR) individuals and to examine its unique and conjoint effects with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states on functional ratings. Sixty-three participants, 31 HD and 32 gene-positive AR, were included in the study. Participants completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Long (SPSI-R:L), a 52-item, reliable, standardized measure of SPS. Items are aggregated under five scales (Positive, Negative, and Rational Problem-Solving; Impulsivity/Carelessness and Avoidance Styles). Participants also completed the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale functional, behavioral, and cognitive assessments, as well as additional neuropsychological examinations and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R). A structural equation model was used to examine the effects of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and SPS states on functionality. The multifactor structural model fit well descriptively. Cognitive and motor states uniquely and significantly predicted function in HD; however, neither psychiatric nor SPS states did. SPS was, however, significantly related to motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states, suggesting that it may bridge the correlative gap between psychiatric and cognitive states in HD. SPS may be worth assessing in conjunction with the standard gamut of clinical assessments in HD. Suggestions for future research and implications for patients, families, caregivers, and clinicians are discussed.
Full Text Available Physicians who encounter patients in the emergency department with chest pain, palpitations, or shortness of breath may often find it difficult to differentiate diagnosis of panic attacks from acute coronary syndrome or Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. Redefining and understanding the pathophysiological relationship of psychiatric illness including anxiety, depression, or panic attacks and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy may help clinicians implement a more effective and beneficial model of care for this affliction that is being found to be increasingly more common in today’s age.
Peterson, Robin L.; Kirkwood, Michael W.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M.; Wade, Shari L.
Background A small body of previous research has demonstrated that pediatric traumatic brain injury increases risk for internalizing problems, but findings have varied regarding their predictors and correlates. Methods We examined the level and correlates of internalizing symptoms in 130 teens who had sustained a complicated mild to severe TBI within the past 1 to 6 months. Internalizing problems were measured via both maternal and paternal report Child Behavior Checklist. We also measured family functioning, parent psychiatric symptoms, and post-injury teen neurocognitive function. Results Mean parental ratings of internalizing problems were within the normal range. Depending on informant, 22–26% of the sample demonstrated clinically elevated internalizing problems. In multiple and binary logistic regression models, only parent psychiatric symptoms consistently provided unique prediction of teen internalizing symptoms. For maternal but not paternal report, female gender was associated with greater internalizing problems. Conclusion Parent and teen emotional problems are associated following adolescent TBI. Possible reasons for this relationship, including the effects of TBI on the family unit, are discussed. PMID:22935574
Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Goings, Trenette Clark
To examine the prevalence of self-reported criminal and violent behavior, substance use disorders, and mental disorders among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis the US born. Study findings are based on national data collected between 2012 and 2013. Binomial logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and behavioral/psychiatric outcomes. Mexican immigrants report substantially lower levels of criminal and violent behaviors, substance use disorders, and mental disorders compared to US-born individuals. While some immigrants from Mexico have serious behavioral and psychiatric problems, Mexican immigrants in general experience such problems at far lower rates than US-born individuals.
Deepak K Mishra
Full Text Available Background: The literature on insight has paid insufficient attention to the social experiences that are associated with receiving and endorsing a diagnosis of mental illness. The psychological and behavioral commitments associated with insight extend beyond agreeing with a diagnosis and accepting treatment to include taking on the identity of an individual diagnosed with mental illness. This study sought to examine the relationship between insight and stigma in psychiatric patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of insight and stigma was done using the system adopted by Kaplan and Sadock in their comprehensive textbook of psychiatry and Felt Stigma Scale in 100 psychiatric patients (40 patients suffering from Bipolar affective disorder, 30 Schizophrenics, 20 Substance dependents and 10 with Obsessive Compulsive disorder. Results: It was found that the level of stigma felt by patients with insight was significantly higher than that felt by patients without insight. Conclusion: Though there is a certain extent of stigma present in patients without insight, as is expected, the level of stigma increases as the patients develop insight.
Bras, Marijana; Dordević, Veljko; Gregurek, Rudolf; Bulajić, Masa
Pain is one of the most ubiquitous problems of today's world, its impact being far-reaching. Current conceptualizations of pain medicine adopt a bio-psycho-social perspective. In this model, pain is best described as an interactive, psycho-physiological behavioral pattern that cannot be divided into independent psycho-social and physical components. Neurophysiologic substrates of the pain experience can be broken down into the pain transmission elements emanating from peripheral, spinal, and supra-spinal processes. There are many complex mechanisms involved in pain processing within the central nervous system, being influenced by genetics, interaction of neurotransmitters and their receptors, and pain- augmenting and pain-inhibiting neural circuits. The patient's emotional experiences, beliefs and expectations may determine the outcome of treatment, and are fully emphasized in the focus of treatment interventions. There are several common psychiatric disorders accompanying and complicating the experience of pain that warrant clinical attention and that can be the focus of psychiatric treatment. These include depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, substance-related disorders and personality disorders. Complex and disabling pain conditions often require comprehensive pain treatment programs, involving interdisciplinary and multimodal treatment approaches. There are many roles that the psychiatrist can perform in the assessment and treatment of the patients with pain, individually tailored to meet the specific needs of the patient. Rational poly-pharmacy is of a high importance in the treatment of patients with chronic pain, with antidepressants and anticonvulsants contributing as the important adjuvant analgesic agents.
Full Text Available Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity. In this study, we aimed to investigate associations between emotion identification biases and five psychiatric problem domains, and to determine the domain-specificity of these biases. Data were collected as part of the ‘No Fun No Glory’ study and involved 2,577 young adults. The study participants completed a dynamic facial emotion identification task involving happy, sad, angry, and fearful faces, and filled in the Adult Self-Report Questionnaire, of which we used the scales depressive problems, anxiety problems, avoidance problems, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD problems and antisocial problems. Our results suggest that participants with antisocial problems were significantly less sensitive to happy facial emotions, participants with ADHD problems were less sensitive to angry emotions, and participants with avoidance problems were less sensitive to both angry and happy emotions. These effects could not be fully explained by co-occurring psychiatric problems. Whereas this seems to indicate domain-specificity, inspection of the overall pattern of effect sizes regardless of statistical significance reveals generic patterns as well, in that for all psychiatric problem domains the effect sizes for happy and angry emotions were larger than the effect sizes for sad and fearful emotions. As happy and angry emotions are strongly associated
Vrijen, Charlotte; Hartman, Catharina A.; Lodder, Gerine M. A.; Verhagen, Maaike; de Jonge, Peter; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity. In this study, we aimed to investigate associations between emotion identification biases and five psychiatric problem domains, and to determine the domain-specificity of these biases. Data were collected as part of the ‘No Fun No Glory’ study and involved 2,577 young adults. The study participants completed a dynamic facial emotion identification task involving happy, sad, angry, and fearful faces, and filled in the Adult Self-Report Questionnaire, of which we used the scales depressive problems, anxiety problems, avoidance problems, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) problems and antisocial problems. Our results suggest that participants with antisocial problems were significantly less sensitive to happy facial emotions, participants with ADHD problems were less sensitive to angry emotions, and participants with avoidance problems were less sensitive to both angry and happy emotions. These effects could not be fully explained by co-occurring psychiatric problems. Whereas this seems to indicate domain-specificity, inspection of the overall pattern of effect sizes regardless of statistical significance reveals generic patterns as well, in that for all psychiatric problem domains the effect sizes for happy and angry emotions were larger than the effect sizes for sad and fearful emotions. As happy and angry emotions are strongly associated with approach and
F.P. Velders (Fleur)
textabstractChildhood psychiatric disorders are common, show a high comorbidity and are associated with a long-term vulnerability for mental health problems, which underscores the importance of a better understanding of their etiology. Psychiatric symptoms of the parents place children at risk for
Carabellese, F; Urbano, M; Coluccia, A; Gualtieri, G
The dramatic case of murder of a psychiatrist during her service in her public office (Centro di Salute Mentale of Bari-Libertà) has led the authors to reflect on the safety of workplaces, in detail of public psychiatric services. It is in the light of current legislation, represented by the Legislative Decree of April 9th, 2008 no. 81, which states the implementing rules of Law 123/2007. In particular, the Authors analyzed the criticalities of the application of this Law, with the aim of safeguarding the health and safety of the workers in all psychiatric services (nursing departments, outpatient clinics, community centers, day care centers, etc.). The Authors suggest the need to set up an articulated specific organizational system of risk assessment of psychiatric services, that can prevent and protect the workers from identified risks, and finally to ensure their active participation in prevention and protection activities, in absence of which specific profiles of responsibility would be opened up to the employers.
Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Alfstad, Kristin Å; van Roy, Betty; Henning, Oliver; Lossius, Morten I
Sleep problems are common in pediatric epilepsy and may influence seizure control, daytime functioning, and overall quality of life. Knowledge of factors contributing to sleep problems is likely to improve treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychiatric comorbidity and parent-reported and self-reported sleep problems in a sample of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Participants were children and adolescents (N=94), aged 10-19years, with generalized or focal epilepsy who had been referred to a tertiary epilepsy treatment center in Norway. Participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment and 24h of EEG registration. Information on sleep problems was obtained from parents using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and from self-reporting using the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were established using the semistructured psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). Both the total and subdomain CSHQ and SSR scores were high in comparison with scores from population-based samples. Having one or more psychiatric disorder(s) was significantly associated with elevated scores on both the CSHQ and the SSR. With the exception of parent-reported parasomnias, associations between sleep problems and psychiatric disorders remained significant after adjusting for relevant epilepsy variables. Psychiatric comorbidity explained about one-third of the variance of the reported sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen
We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.
Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur with pathological gambling. The extent to which co-occurence extends to subsyndromal levels of gambling or differs between women and men is incompletely understood. To examine whether the association between psychiatric disorders and past-year gambling problems is stronger in women than men. Data from the national epidemiological survey of alcoholism and related disorders (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed. Increasing severity of past-year gambling problems was associated with increasing odds of most past-year Axis I and lifetime Axis II disorders, regardless of gender. Associations between gambling problems and major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, and nicotine dependence were statistically stronger in women than in men. A severity-related association exists between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders. The stronger associations in women suggest that gambling research, prevention and treatment efforts consider gender differences.
Full Text Available Objective: Premenstrual syndrome is a common disorder experienced by up to 50% of women during reproductive age. The prevalence of severe form of PMS (PMDD is 3 % to 8%. Psychiatric disorders in PMS patients have resulted in significant morbidity and in some cases caused resistance to the treatment process Material and Method: 390 participants (264 with PMS/PMDD, and 126 healthy students of University of Guilan who completed the demographic questionnaire, daily symptom rating (DSR and the checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R took part in this study. This study was conducted using a cross sectional method. Results: According to repeated measure variance, the mean scores of psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, Aggression, Interpersonal sensitivity in the PMS group were significantly higher than the healthy group (p< 0/05, and increase in severity of PMS from mild to severe was accompanied by increase in mean score of these subscales. There was a significant difference in mean score of depression, anxiety, aggression and interpersonal sensitivity between the 3rd and the 13th day of the cycle. Significant effect of the DSR grouping (PMS and Healthy group and time interaction emerged in interpersonal sensitivity and aggression, significant effect on the DSR grouping (Mild, Moderate, Severer and time interaction demonstrated in interpersonal sensitivity. Conclusion: Patients with prospective confirmed PMDD seemed to suffer from psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, recognizing co-morbid psychiatric symptoms in patients with PMDD is of prime importance. All healthcare providers should be sensitive to mental status of women with PMS.
Perwez, Syed Khalid; Khalique, Abdul; Ramaseshan, H; Swamy, T N V R; Mansoor, Mohammed
The present study aimed to examine the effect of nature of job (High risk/low risk) on psychiatric problems of 200 workers of Tata Motors Ltd. in Jamshedpur. The workers/participants were divided on the basis of the nature of their job (high/low risk) and their salary (high/low paid) resulting in four sub-groups with 50 participants respectively s. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (M.H.Q) constructed by Crown and Crisp (1966) and adapted in Hindi by Srivastava and Bhat in 1974 was administered on the participants. Results clearly indicated that nature of job (high and low risk) played a significant role in creating psychiatric problems in workers. Workers doing high risk jobs showed a greater amount of psychiatric problems compared to workers doing low risk jobs in both high paid and low paid categories. Psychiatric problems included free-floating anxiety, obsessional traits and symptoms, phobic anxiety, somatic concomitants of anxiety, neurotic depression, and hysterical personality traits were seen more in high risk job workers. High risk job workers had significantly higher psychiatric problems compared to low risk job workers.
Gould, Kate Rachel
Psychiatric disorders are commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, pre- and post-injury frequencies of disorders are variable, and their course, associated risk factors and relationship with psychosocial outcome are poorly understood due to methodological inconsistencies. No studies have prospectively examined the full range of Axis I psychiatric disorders using semi-structured clinical interview. Accordingly, the main aims of the current study were to (a) investigate t...
Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar; Maryam Falahatpisheh; Mojtaba Habibi Asgarabad; Musa Arvin; Ali Sarvestani
Background and Objective: Today, substance use problem is an important and critical problem in the world. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients (PASUPP).Materials and Methods: Research was descriptive and correlational. The study population consisted of all psychiatry patients with drug addiction in Tehran. The sample consisted of 381 patients (143 women and 238 men) were selected with a multi-stage cluster samp...
Williams, Carolyn L.; Westermeyer, Joseph
Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)
Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Beernink, Janny; Sools, Anna Maria
This article describes an innovative intervention based on narrative and life review therapy that is tailored to people with intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric problems. The current study provides a first evaluation of the intervention. A symptom checklist (SCL-90) was used in a pre- and
Westerhof, Gerben J.; Beernink, Janny; Sools, Anneke
This article describes an innovative intervention based on narrative and life review therapy that is tailored to people with intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric problems. The current study provides a first evaluation of the intervention. A symptom checklist (SCL-90) was used in a pre- and post-follow-up design, and a qualitative…
Choul, F H-C; Chou, P; Lin, C; Su, Tom T-P; Ou-Yang, W-C; Chien, I C; Su, C-Y; Lui, M-K; Chen, M-C
This purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life and psychiatric impairment in a Taiwanese community located near the epicenter of the 1999 earthquake, as assessed four to six months after the natural catastrophe. Trained assistants interviewed the 4223 respondents using the disaster-related psychological screening test (DRPST), an instrument specifically designed and validated by senior psychiatrists for assessment of psychiatric impairment after natural catastrophe. Additionally, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to evaluate quality of life. The collected results were analyzed using Windows SPSS 10.0 software. Psychiatric impairment rated moderate to severe was assessed for 1448 (34.3%) of the responding residents. The 4223 respondents were divided into 4 psychiatric-impairment groups based on DPRST score: healthy (n = 952); mild impairment (n = 1823); moderate impairment (n = 1126); and, severe impairment (n = 322). The four groups were compared for a number of salient factors, including gender, age, current marital status and psychiatric-impairment score, to determine impact on quality of life. Respondents assessed as psychiatrically impaired tended to be older, female, divorced/widowed, and less educated, and they were more likely to have experienced major familial financial loss as an immediate consequence of the earthquake. Further, the greater the severity of the psychiatric impairment, the lower the scores for quality of life, for both the physical and mental aspects of this important general indicator.
Chandarana, P; Jackson, T; Kohr, R; Iezzi, T
The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational disability, psychiatric illness, life stressors and sociodemographic factors. Information on a variety of variables was obtained from insurance files of 147 subjects who had submitted claims for monetary compensation on grounds of psychiatric symptoms. The majority of subjects received a diagnosis of mood disorder or anxiety disorder. Extended vocational disability was associated with longer duration of psychiatric illness, rating of poorer prognosis by the treating physician, and lower income and occupational levels. Individuals with recent onset of disability reported more stressors than those experiencing extended disability. Although longer duration of psychiatric illness was associated with vocational disability, other variables play an important role in accounting for extended vocational disability.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Studies of clinical and psychosocial outcome in adult patients with ASDs without concomitant intellectual disability are few. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical psychiatric presentation and important outcome measures of a large group of normal-intelligence adult patients with ASDs. Methods Autistic symptomatology according to the DSM-IV-criteria and the Gillberg & Gillberg research criteria, patterns of comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial outcome were assessed in 122 consecutively referred adults with normal intelligence ASDs. The subjects consisted of 5 patients with autistic disorder (AD, 67 with Asperger's disorder (AS and 50 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS. This study group consists of subjects pooled from two studies with highly similar protocols, all seen on an outpatient basis by one of three clinicians. Results Core autistic symptoms were highly prevalent in all ASD subgroups. Though AD subjects had the most pervasive problems, restrictions in non-verbal communication were common across all three subgroups and, contrary to current DSM criteria, so were verbal communication deficits. Lifetime psychiatric axis I comorbidity was very common, most notably mood and anxiety disorders, but also ADHD and psychotic disorders. The frequency of these diagnoses did not differ between the ASD subgroups or between males and females. Antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse were more common in the PDD NOS group. Of all subjects, few led an independent life and very few had ever had a long-term relationship. Female subjects more often reported having been bullied at school than male subjects. Conclusion ASDs are clinical syndromes characterized by impaired social interaction and non-verbal communication in adulthood as well as in childhood. They also
Kronfol, Ziad; Khalifa, Batoul; Khoury, Brigitte; Omar, Omar; Daouk, Sariah; deWitt, J P; ElAzab, Nourehan; Eisenberg, Daniel
Psychiatric problems among college students on USA campuses are common. Little is known about similar problems in developing countries, particularly the Arab region. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency of selected psychiatric problems among college students in two Arab countries: Qatar and Lebanon, and to compare them to the USA. The Healthy Minds Study, an online confidential survey of common psychiatric symptoms designed for college campuses was used. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to screen for major depression, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) to screen for generalized anxiety and the SCOFF questionnaire to screen for eating disorders. Comparisons were made using ANOVA, Chi-Square tests and logistic regressions. A total of 1841 students participated in the study. The rates of depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 12), generalized anxiety (GAD-7 ≥ 10) and eating disorders (SCOFF≥3) at the combined Arab universities were 34.6, 36.1 and 20.4% respectively. The corresponding rates in the USA were: 12.8, 15.9 and 6.8% (p problems on functioning in general and academic performance in particular was more severe in the Arab countries compared to the USA (p problems in general included location, female gender, financial difficulties and poor grades. Being religious had a protective association with mental health. The rates of depression, anxiety and eating disorders were significantly higher among college students in Qatar and Lebanon compared to the USA. Additional research is needed to determine whether these results reflect methodological limitations or true differences in psychopathology across these populations. If replicated, the results indicate that the psychiatric problems on college campuses in the USA are a microcosm of a global problem that needs global solutions.
Rose, Donald N; Peter, Elizabeth; Gallop, Ruth; Angus, Jan E; Liaschenko, Joan
The context of forensic psychiatric nursing is distinct from other psychiatric settings as, it involves placement of patients in secure environments with restrictions determined by the courts. Previous literature has identified that nurses morally struggle with respecting patients who have committed heinous offences, which can lead to the patient being depersonalized and dehumanized. Although respect is fundamental to ethical nursing practice, it has not been adequately explored conceptually or empirically. As a result, little knowledge exists that identifies how nurses develop, maintain, and express respect for patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of respect systematically, from a forensic psychiatric nurse's perspective using the qualitative methodology of focused ethnography. Forensic psychiatric nurses were recruited from two medium secure forensic rehabilitation units. In the first interview, 13 registered nurses (RNs) and two registered practical nurses (RPNs) participated, and although all informants were invited to the second interview, six RNs were lost to follow-up. Despite this loss, saturation was achieved and the data were interpreted through a feminist philosophical lens. Respect was influenced by factors categorized into four themes: (1) emotive-cognitive reactions, (2) nonjudgmental approach, (3) social identity and power, and (4) context. The data from the themes indicate that forensic psychiatric nurses strike a practical compromise, in their understanding and enactment of respect in therapeutic relationships with forensic psychiatric patients. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Differences in the Associations between Gambling Problem Severity and Psychiatric Disorders among Black and White Adults: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Barry, Declan T.; Stefanovics, Elina A.; Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.
We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal le...
Amayasu, Hideaki; Okubo, Momoe; Itai, Takahiro
Treating patients who have eating disorders in psychiatric hospitals is difficult for several reasons. The first reason is that there is a shortage of qualified psychiatrists. For each psychiatrist, there are approximately thirty hospitalized patients. In addition to this limited number of psychiatrists, funding in psychiatric hospitals only provides for a limited number of other medical staff when compared with funding available for general hospitals. The second reason is that there is a problem with the national medical treatment fee system. Specifically, in the current system, patients are not permitted to stay in hospitals long-term; outpatient treatment is preferred. The third reason is that psychiatric hospitals are not equipped to deal with patients who have physical illnesses. The following two case studies highlight the problems and limitations associated with treating patients who have eating disorders. Ways in which psychiatric hospitals can collaborate with other organizations, including low enforcement officials, are also considered. Although it is clear that an integrated and collaborative approach is necessary, implementation of such a system is still a long way from being realized, and greater effort is needed to provide patients suffering from eating disorders with the best possible treatment.
Mellman, T A; David, D; Kulick-Bell, R; Hebding, J; Nolan, B
Sleep disturbance is an important dimension of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but most of the limited available data were obtained years after the original traumatic event. This study provides information on sleep disturbance and its relationship to posttraumatic morbidity from evaluations done within a year after the trauma. Sleep and psychiatric symptoms of 54 victims (12 men and 42 women) of Hurricane Andrew who had no psychiatric illness in the 6 months before the hurricane were evaluated. A subset of hurricane victims with active psychiatric morbidity (N = 10) and nine comparison subjects who were unaffected by the hurricane were examined in a sleep laboratory. A broad range of sleep-related complaints were rated as being greater after the hurricane, and psychiatric morbidity (which was most commonly PTSD, followed by depression) had a significant effect on most of the subjective sleep measures. In addition, subjects with active morbidity endorsed greater frequencies of "bad dreams" and general sleep disturbances before the hurricane. Polysomnographic results for the hurricane victims revealed a greater number of arousals and entries into stage 1 sleep. REM density correlated positively with both the PTSD symptom of reexperiencing trauma and global distress. Subjects affected by Hurricane Andrew reported sleep disturbances, particularly those subjects with psychiatric morbidity. Tendencies to experience bad dreams and interrupted sleep before a trauma appear to mark vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity. Results of sleep laboratory evaluations suggested brief shifts toward higher arousal levels during sleep for PTSD subjects and a relationship of REM phasic activity and symptom severity.
Christensen, Richard C
Individuals who suffer from serious and persistent mental illnesses constitute nearly one-third of the homeless population in this country. Perhaps the most vulnerable people in the homeless population are those who are disabled from a mental illness and are also chronically unsheltered. Psychiatric street outreach to this particular segment of the homeless population is commonly justified based upon the need to engage the most severely impaired and most medically underserved individuals in our communities assertively. This brief paper describes the core objectives of fostering relationship, reconnection, and recovery through a transdisciplinary, psychiatric street outreach initiative in Jacksonville, Florida.
Barš, Marijana; Đorđević, Veljko; Gregurek, Rudolf; Bulajić, Maša
Pain is one of the most ubiquitious problems of today's world, its impact being far-reaching. Current conceptualizations of pain medicine adopt a bio-psycho-social perspective. In this model, pain is best described as an interactive, psycho-physiological behaviour pattern that cannot be divided into independet psycho-social and physical components. Neurophysiologic substrates of the pain experience can be broken down into the pain transmission elements emanating from peripheral, spinal, and s...
Anne M. Morse
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is commonplace among pediatric patients and has a complex, but intimate relationship with psychiatric disease and disordered sleep. Understanding the factors that influence the risk for the development of TBI in pediatrics is a critical component of beginning to address the consequences of TBI. Features that may increase risk for experiencing TBI sometimes overlap with factors that influence the development of post-concussive syndrome (PCS and recovery course. Post-concussive syndrome includes physical, psychological, cognitive and sleep–wake dysfunction. The comorbid presence of sleep–wake dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms can lead to a more protracted recovery and deleterious outcomes. Therefore, a multidisciplinary evaluation following TBI is necessary. Treatment is generally symptom specific and mainly based on adult studies. Further research is necessary to enhance diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, as well as improve the understanding of contributing pathophysiology for the shared development of psychiatric disease and sleep–wake dysfunction following TBI.
Polcin, Douglas L; Korcha, Rachael; Bond, Jason; Galloway, Gantt; Nayak, Madhabika
Few studies have examined how changes in psychiatric symptoms over time are associated with changes in drug use and severity of drug problems. No studies have examined these relationships among methamphetamine (MA)-dependent persons receiving motivational interviewing within the context of standard outpatient treatment. Two hundred seventeen individuals with MA dependence were randomly assigned to a standard single session of motivational interviewing (MI) or an intensive 9-session model of MI. Both groups received standard outpatient group treatment. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and timeline follow-back (TLFB) for MA use were administered at treatment entry and 2-, 4-, and 6-month follow-ups. Changes in ASI psychiatric severity between baseline and 2 months predicted changes in ASI drug severity during the same time period, but not changes on measures of MA use. Item analysis of the ASI drug scale showed that psychiatric severity predicted how troubled or bothered participants were by their drug us, how important they felt it was for them to get treatment, and the number of days they experienced drug problems. However, it did not predict the number days they used drugs in the past 30 days. These associations did not differ between study conditions, and they persisted when psychiatric severity and outcomes were compared across 4- and 6-month time periods. Results are among the first to track how changes in psychiatric severity over time are associated with changes in MA use and severity of drug problems. Treatment efforts targeting reduction of psychiatric symptoms among MA-dependent persons might be helpful in reducing the level of distress and problems associated with MA use but not how often it is used. There is a need for additional research describing the circumstances under which the experiences and perceptions of drug-related problems diverge from frequency of consumption.
McMillen, J Curtis; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Robinson, Debra; Havlicek, Judy; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Bertram, Julie; McNelly, David
Older youth in out-of-home care often live in restrictive settings and face psychiatric issues without sufficient family support. This paper reports on the development and piloting of a manualized treatment foster care program designed to step down older youth with high psychiatric needs from residential programs to treatment foster care homes. A team of researchers and agency partners set out to develop a treatment foster care model for older youth based on Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC). After matching youth by mental health condition and determining for whom randomization would be allowed, 14 youth were randomized to treatment as usual or a treatment foster home intervention. Stakeholders were interviewed qualitatively at multiple time points. Quantitative measures assessed mental health symptoms, days in locked facilities, employment and educational outcomes. Development efforts led to substantial variations from the MTFC model and a new model, Treatment Foster Care for Older Youth was piloted. Feasibility monitoring suggested that it was difficult, but possible to recruit and randomize youth from and out of residential homes and that foster parents could be recruited to serve them. Qualitative data pointed to some qualified clinical successes. Stakeholders viewed two team roles - that of psychiatric nurse and skills coaches - very highly. However, results also suggested that foster parents and some staff did not tolerate the intervention well and struggled to address the emotion dysregulation issues of the young people they served. Quantitative data demonstrated that the intervention was not keeping youth out of locked facilities. The intervention needed further refinement prior to a broader trial. Intervention development work continued until components were developed to help address emotion regulation problems among fostered youth. Psychiatric nurses and skills coaches who work with youth in community settings hold promise as important
Childbirth can trigger a variety of psychiatric disorders; however, no disorder is as profoundly affected by childbirth as bipolar disorder. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity especially anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and substance use disorders are quite high in individuals with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this scoping review is to ascertain the effect of childbirth on the relationship between the onset of bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. On June 27, 2017, a search of the Medline, PsycINFO, CINHAL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, and ISI-Web of Science (WOS) databases was performed using the terms mental disorders, mental disease, major depressive disorder, major depression, depression, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, comorbidity, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders, reactive attachment disorder, childbirth, parturition, puerperium, postpartum, postpartum period and postnatal period. Reference lists of identified papers were manually searched, and all relevant papers published in English were included. A total of eight relevant articles were identified and included in the review. There is some evidence to suggest that occurrence of certain psychiatric disorders in the postpartum period may predict later onset of bipolar disorder. It is unknown whether childbirth raises the risk of postpartum recurrence of comorbid disorders. Whether patients who have past histories of psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for onset of bipolar disorder in the postpartum period also remains unclear. Additional research is needed to increase our understanding of the impact of childbirth on bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. A better understanding of this issue could lead to more accurate and timely detection, improved treatment planning, and optimal delivery of care for these disorders.
Kong, Grace; Smith, Philip H; Pilver, Corey; Hoff, Rani; Potenza, Marc N
Little is known about the association between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska-Native (AI/AN) individuals. Thus, we examined these factors among a nationally representative sample of AI/AN and other American adults in the USA. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data, we conducted separate Wald tests and multinomial logistic regression analyses comparing AI/AN to black/African American, white/Caucasian, and all other racial/ethnic groups, respectively. Relative to other American adults, AI/AN adults were least likely to report non-/low-frequency gambling (NG: AI/AN 66.5%, white/Caucasian 70.5%, black/African American 72.8%, other racial/ethnic group 72.3%) and most likely to report low-risk gambling (LRG: AI/AN 30.1%, white/Caucasian 26.5%, black/African American 23.4%, other racial/ethnic group 24.7%). The association between at-risk/problem-gambling (ARPG) and any past-year Axis-I disorder was stronger among AI/AN versus other American adults. Although ARPG and LRG were associated with multiple past-year Axis-I and lifetime Axis-II psychiatric disorders in both AI/AN and other American adults, LRG was more strongly associated with both Axis-I disorders (particularly major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and nicotine dependence) and Cluster-B Axis-II (particularly antisocial personality disorder) disorders in AI/AN versus other American adults. A stronger association between problem-gambling severity and past-year psychiatric disorders among AI/AN relative to other American adults suggests the importance of enhancing mental health and problem-gambling prevention and treatment strategies that may help AI/AN individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kloos, Bret; Townley, Greg
The present study examined the relationships between how research participants experienced their neighborhood, their neighborhood social climate, and psychological well-being. Participants (n = 525) were residents of supported housing programs who used mental health services at one of 17 community mental health centers in South Carolina. Hierarchical regression and mediation analyses were employed to answer research questions. Results suggest that neighbor relations, perceptions of neighborhood safety, and neighborhood satisfaction were significantly associated with perceptions of neighborhood social climate; and neighborhood social climate accounted for a significant amount of the variance in psychiatric distress. Of particular interest, perceptions of neighborhood social climate fully mediated the relationship between the specific reported neighborhood experiences and psychiatric distress. These findings have implications for interventions and policy aimed at promoting integration of individuals with serious mental illness into community settings.
Class, Quetzal A; Rickert, Martin E; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M
It is unclear whether associations between fetal growth and psychiatric and socioeconomic problems are consistent with causal mechanisms. To estimate the extent to which associations are a result of unmeasured confounding factors using a sibling-comparison approach. We predicted outcomes from continuously measured birth weight in a Swedish population cohort (n = 3 291 773), while controlling for measured and unmeasured confounding. In the population, lower birth weight (⩽ 2500 g) increased the risk of all outcomes. Sibling-comparison models indicated that lower birth weight independently predicted increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (hazard ratio for low birth weight = 2.44, 95% CI 1.99-2.97) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although attenuated, associations remained for psychotic or bipolar disorder and educational problems. Associations with suicide attempt, substance use problems and social welfare receipt, however, were fully attenuated in sibling comparisons. Results suggest that fetal growth, and factors that influence it, contribute to psychiatric and socioeconomic problems. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today, substance use problem is an important and critical problem in the world. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients (PASUPP.Materials and Methods: Research was descriptive and correlational. The study population consisted of all psychiatry patients with drug addiction in Tehran. The sample consisted of 381 patients (143 women and 238 men were selected with a multi-stage cluster sampling of areas from drug rehabilitation centers in Tehran. The PASUPP, Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST and Relapse Prediction Scale (RPS were used as instrument. In order to assess the first order confirmatory factor, the weighted lowest squares (WLS and to assess the adequacy of the model to the data, the parameters of RMR, RMSEA, CFI, AGFI, GFI, c2، c2/ df & Dc2 were used.Results: The PASUPP was confirmed after the first time factor structure of using confirmatory factor analysis. The PASUPP had a good internal consistency (Cranach’s alpha, and the reliability of the test within a week, 88/0, 76/0. Also this scale had a positive correlation with Drug Abuse Screening Test and Relapse Prediction Scale which indicates its convergent validity.Conclusion: The overall results showed that the Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients in Iranian society is valid. It can be said that self-report scale tool is useful for research purposes and addiction.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: The study about effective management dimensions in hospital staff performance is important. This study was done to survey the relationship between job satisfaction and burnout in the rehabilitation personnel of Razi Psychiatric Hospital in Tehran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 77 subjects including psychometrics, general practitioners, specialists, nurses, social workers, occupational therapists and psychologists were selected randomly among rehabilitation staff in Razi Psychiatric Hospital in 2011. The data were collected using Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ.The data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation method. Results: Job satisfaction had an inverse relationship with "emotional exhaustion" and "depersonalization"(p<0.001, but there was not a significant relationship between "personal accomplishment" and "job satisfaction". The mean of emotional exhaustion was 68.18, depersonalization 68.4 and personal accomplishment 29.36. In addition, the results of this study showed that 36.6 percent of rehabilitation team employees in Razi Psychiatric Hospital were satisfied with their jobs. Conclusion: As the results show, it is necessary to perform further research to find the main reasons of intensifying job burnout and then reduce these critical factors leading to personnel dissatisfaction from their jobs and any probable consequence of this dissatisfaction.
Tural Hesapcioglu, Selma; Ercan, Filiz
The effect of cyberbullying accompanied by traditional bullying on mental health has been less studied. In this study, the frequency, co-occurrence, and the relationship to psychiatric symptoms of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among bullies and victims are examined. All of the high schools in the province of Mus, Turkey were stratified according to Placement Test for High Schools admission points for 2014-2015. By choosing schools using simple random sampling, 1276 students were reached. Students were given the Brief Symptom Inventory and three separate scale assessments: peer bullying rating, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying scales. High scores in all subscale scores of bullying and victimization were significantly related to higher depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, somatization, and hostility scores. For people who were exposed to cyberbullying in addition to traditional bullying, the severity of the psychiatric symptoms was significantly higher. For all psychiatric symptoms, major predictors were gender, total victimization score, and total cybervictimization score. Moreover, the bullying total score was among the predictors of low self-esteem and hostility. Cybervictimization and cyberbullying occur less often than traditional bullying and victimization, but people who were exposed to or performed cyberbullying were also exposed to or performed traditional bullying. The addition of cyberbullying to traditional bullying is associated with more intense psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Kılıçoğlu, Önder İsmet; Salduz, Ahmet; Birişik, Fevzi; Bilgili, Fuat; Polat, Gökhan; Kaya, İlyas; Süleyman, Funda; Coşkun, Murat
Spastic peroneal flatfoot (SPFF) is a rare hindfoot pathology usually seen in the adolescent age group that is characterized by painful spasms in the peroneal muscles. We have clinically observed that patients with SPFF also have some behavioral and emotional difficulties and problems in their academic achievements. Because of these observations, we investigated the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability among young subjects with SPFF. Our cohort consisted of 16 patients with SPFF. Their mean age at presentation was 21 (range 13 to 31) years. Only 6 patients had a tarsal coalition as an underlying condition. The psychometric evaluation was conducted using validated instruments (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-revised form, Stanford Binet intelligence quotient [IQ] test, and Cattell IQ test). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using a semistructured diagnostic instrument (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version). The testers and psychiatrists were unaware of the orthopedic condition and the preliminary psychiatric diagnoses. The ethical committee approved the study protocol. The mean follow-up period was 41 (range 12 to 97) months. The mean IQ score of the patients was 75.1 ± 17.9 (range 52 to 107). Compared with the general population, the rate of intellectual disability was significantly greater (p = .0001) and the rate of normal intelligence significantly lower (p = .0015) in our patient group. Furthermore, according to the community schooling ratio, our cohort also had lower junior high and secondary education rates compared with the general population. The rate of most psychiatric disorders diagnosed in the SPFF patients was greater than that in the normal population. The most commonly identified psychiatric disorders were social phobia and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (75%). Timely interventions of the psychosocial and
Seow, Lee Seng Esmond; Verma, Swapna Kamal; Mok, Yee Ming; Kumar, Sunita; Chang, Sherilyn; Satghare, Pratika; Hombali, Aditi; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Study Objectives: With the introduction of insomnia disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), greater emphasis has been placed on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorder even in the presence of a coexisting mental disorder. The current study seeks to explore the clinical picture of insomnia in the context of psychiatric disorders commonly associated with sleep complaints by assessing the prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 insomnia disorder, and examining the extent to which insomnia symptoms have been addressed in this population. Methods: Four hundred treatment-seeking outpatients suffering from depressive, bipolar affective, anxiety, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited. DSM-5 insomnia was established using the modified Brief Insomnia Questionnaire. Differences in sociodemographic factors, clinical status, impairment outcomes, and mental health services utilization were compared. Information on patients' help-seeking experiences for insomnia-related symptoms was collected to determine the treatment received and treatment effectiveness. Results: Almost one-third of our sample (31.8%) had DSM-5 insomnia disorder. Those with insomnia disorder had significantly higher impairment outcomes than their counterparts but no group difference was observed for mental health services utilization. Findings based on past treatment contact for sleep problems suggest that diagnosis and treatment of insomnia is lacking in this population. Conclusions: With the new calling from DSM-5, clinicians treating psychiatric patients should view insomnia less as a symptom of their mental illnesses and treat clinical insomnia as a primary disorder. Patients should also be educated on the importance of reporting and treating their sleep complaints. Nonmedical (cognitive and behavioral) interventions for insomnia need to be further explored given their proven clinical effectiveness. Citation: Seow LSE, Verma SK, Mok YM, Kumar
A 2005 report from the French Institute for Medical Research highlighted factors likely to prompt 'behavioural problems' in children and adolescents, and recommended early identification of at-risk families. A number of mental health professionals rose up against such medicalisation of social issues. This ethnographic study was conducted in this climate, in a psychiatric unit, located in a disadvantaged area in the outskirts of Paris, that specialises in adolescents with such problems. The research emphasised how professionals resist being instrumentalised by juvenile counselling services and the justice system, the observed practices bearing traces of critiques of psychiatric institutions since the 1960s. Psychiatrists thus try to justify and legitimate their interventions, which are co-constructed by relevant counselling and mental health professionals and, as much as possible, adolescents and their parents. Consequently, full understanding of institutionalisation, beyond its aspects of constraint and subjection, also requires consideration of its potential as a step in the socialisation process, especially for adolescents from working class backgrounds bereft of social and cultural capital. Contact with professionals may confer a kind of power, 'the power to speak'. At least, that is what the professionals try to give them using the 'pedagogy of reflexivity'.
Deux, Natalie; Schlarb, Angelika A; Martin, Franziska; Holtmann, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Legenbauer, Tanja
Adolescent psychiatric patients are vulnerable to weight problems and show an overrepresentation of overweight compared to the healthy population. One potential factor that can contribute to the etiology of overweight is higher impulsivity. As of yet, it is unclear whether it is a general impulse control deficit or weight-related aspects such as lower impulse control in response to food that have an impact on body weight. As this may have therapeutic implications, the current study investigated differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 98; aged 12-20) in relation to trait impulsivity and behavioral inhibition performance. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and two go/no-go paradigms with neutral and food-related stimulus materials were applied. Results indicated no significant differences concerning trait impulsivity, but revealed that overweight inpatients had significantly more difficulties in inhibition performance (i.e. they reacted more impulsively) in response to both food and neutral stimuli compared to non-overweight inpatients. Furthermore, no specific inhibition deficit for high-caloric vs. low-caloric food cues emerged in overweight inpatients, whereas non-overweight participants showed significantly lower inhibition skills in response to high-caloric than low-caloric food stimuli. The results highlight a rather general, non-food-specific reduced inhibition performance in an overweight adolescent psychiatric population. Further research is necessary to enhance the understanding of the role of impulsivity in terms of body weight status in this high-risk group of adolescent inpatients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Differences in the associations between gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among black and white adults: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.
Barry, Declan T; Stefanovics, Elina A; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling (PPG) and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal levels of gambling in black and white respondents indicate the importance of considering race-related factors in mental health prevention and treatment strategies. American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Guillon, M S; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Bailey, P E
To examine the relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Seventy-six adolescents (mean age: 16.02 years; range: 12-20) treated in an inpatient unit and presenting with DSM-IV psychotic disorder, depressive disorder, anxious disorder, anorexia nervosa, personality disorder, or conduct disorder were compared with a control group of 119 adolescents drawn from a normal population. All the subjects were assessed with the French translation of the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory (SEI). Self-esteem was significantly higher in the control than in the clinical population (P = 0.0001). Female patients showed significantly lower SEI scores than male patients. Self-esteem increased significantly after 12 weeks in patients with a first psychotic episode who responded successfully to antipsychotic drug treatment. In the clinical group, a history of suicide attempts and sexual abuse was associated with significantly lower SEI scores. Lack of boy- or girlfriend, dropping out of school, and social withdrawal were also associated with lower self-esteem. The presence of a psychiatric disorder in adolescents is associated with decreased self-esteem. This decrease in self-esteem varies according to the psychiatric disorder. Appropriate treatment can enhance self-esteem in adolescent patients.
Kim, Se-Eun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Hae Woo; Lee, Jongin; Byun, Junsu; Yim, Hyeon Woo
This study aimed to find the prevalence and occupational risk factors for major psychiatric disorders among subway drivers in South Korea. Of all 998 current subway drivers, 995 participated in this study. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI 2.1) was administered by trained interviewers to diagnose psychiatric disorders in all participants. The questions on socio-demographic characteristics and working conditions included some questions related to a person under train (PUT) experience and work-related problems. One-year prevalence and lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and panic disorder were diagnosed through the interview. The standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) of these three disorders were calculated in the sample of subway drivers using the 2011 Korean National Epidemiologic Survey data as a basis. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between work-related factors and the prevalence of the psychiatric disorders. The standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for a 1-year prevalence of MDD and PTSD among subway drivers were 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.7) and 5.6 (95% CI 3.1-8.8), respectively. Conflict with passengers was significantly associated with an increased risk for both MDD and PTSD in 1-year and in lifetime prevalence. Experiencing a sudden stop due to an emergency bell increased the risk of the lifetime prevalence of MDD (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.14-6.97) and PTSD (OR 7.53, 95% CI 1.77-32.02). The risk of PTSD significantly increased among drivers who once experienced a near accident in terms of both the 1-year prevalence (OR 8.81, 95% CI 1.96-39.3) and the lifetime prevalence (OR 6.36, 95% CI 2.40-16.90). PTSD and panic disorder were more prevalent among subway drivers than in the general population. We found that having a conflict with passengers, a near accident, and a breakdown while driving can be risk factors for psychiatric
Breeman, L D; van Lier, P A C; Wubbels, T; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T
In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children's behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream education cannot be generalized to special education. The present study investigated the developmental links between disobedience and positive as well as negative relationships with teachers and peers among boys in restrictive special educational settings. At three assessment waves across one school year, teacher-reports of teacher-child closeness and conflict, and peer-reports of peer acceptance, rejection and disobedience were collected among 340 boys (mean age = 10.1 years, SD = 1.58, range = 5-13) with psychiatric disorders receiving special education. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were fitted to explore the nature of these developmental links. The impact of boys' age was examined using multiple group analyses. Findings supported the importance of teacher-child conflict, but not closeness, and positive and negative peer relationships for the development of boys' disobedience, with a stronger effect of negative than positive relationships. However, teacher-child and peer relationships were not longitudinally related and the effect of boys' age was minimal. This study extends prior research by suggesting that, despite differences in educational setting and severity of behavior problems between children in mainstream and special education, reducing negative classroom interactional patterns is most important in preventing the development of problematic classroom behavior in boys with severe social-emotional and behavioral difficulties.
Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A
Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.
McDonald, Keltie C; Saunders, Kate EA; Geddes, John R
Objective Mood instability is common in the general population. Mood instability is a precursor to mental illness and associated with a range of negative health outcomes. Sleep disturbance appears to be closely linked with mood instability. This study assesses the association between mood instability and sleep disturbance and the link with suicidal ideation and behaviour in a general population sample in England. Method The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007 collected detailed information about mental health symptoms and correlates in a representative sample of adult household residents living in England (n = 7303). Mood instability was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-II. Sleep problems were defined as sleeping more than usual or less than usual during the past month. Other dependent variables included medication use and suicidal ideation and behaviour (response rate 57%). Generalized linear modelling was used to estimate the prevalence of mood instability and sleep problems. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. All estimates were weighted. Results The prevalence of mood instability was 14.7% (95% confidence interval [13.6%, 15.7%]). Sleep problems occurred in 69.8% (95% confidence interval: [66.6%, 73.1%]) of those with mood instability versus 37.6% (95% confidence interval: [36.2%, 39.1%]) of those without mood instability. The use of sedating and non-sedating medications did not influence the association. Sleep problems were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviour even after adjusting for mood instability. Conclusion Sleep problems are highly prevalent in the general population, particularly among those with mood instability. Sleep problems are strongly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviour. Treatments that target risk and maintenance factors that transcend diagnostic boundaries, such as therapies that target sleep disturbance, may be particularly valuable for preventing and
van der Jagt-Jelsma, W; de Vries-Schot, M; Scheepers, P; van Deurzen, P A M; Klip, H; Buitelaar, J K
This study used longitudinal data to examine the influence of the religiosity of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems on the course of mental health during adolescence. In the TRAILS clinical cohort of 543 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report at baseline, T2 (12-14 years), T3 (14-17 years), and T4 (17-21 years). The Youth Self Report (YSR) was used at baseline, T2, and T3, and the Adult Self Report (ASR) was used at T4. Religiosity was assessed at baseline using self-report and information from mothers and fathers, resulting in three categorical religiosity variables and six SOCON (Social Cultural Developments Questionnaire) religiosity scales that assess religiosity in greater detail. Repeated measure ANOVA analyses were performed for each independent religiosity variable with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior as dependent variables, gender as a factor and time (T1, T2, T3 and T4) as within factor. Results were adjusted for marital status of parents and socioeconomic status and corrected for multiple testing. There were main effects of the self-report SOCON scale "Humanistic beliefs" and gender and gender "by Humanistic beliefs" interaction effect on internalizing problems. Follow-up tests revealed that among females "high" scores on "Humanistic beliefs" were associated with increased internalizing problems. There were hardly any associations between religiosity and mental health in a clinical cohort of pre-adolescents up to adolescence. The exception being that among females strong humanistic beliefs were associated with internalizing problems. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation ... with serious emotional and behavioral problems need a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Comprehensive psychiatric evaluations usually require a ...
Full Text Available Stigmatization is a major hindrance in adult psychiatric patients with Axis-I diagnoses, as shown consistently in most studies. Significantly fewer studies on the emergence of psychiatric stigma in adult patients with personality disorders exist, although the resulting evidence is conclusive. Some authors consider patients with personality disorders at risk for severe stigmatization because of intense difficulties during interpersonal contact, even in a psychotherapeutic relationship. The aim of this study was primarily the assessment of pre-existing stigma in patients referred for intensive treatment for personality disorders. The study enrolled 214 patients admitted to the adult department of a highly specialized mental health care institute offering psychotherapy for patients with severe and complex personality pathology. All patients underwent a standard assessment with self-report questionnaires and a semi-structured interview to measure Axis II personality disorders. The Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ and the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Questionnaire (DDQ, both validated instruments, were used to measure perceived and actual experiences of stigma. Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean total stigma scores for patients both with and without a personality disorder. One-way ANOVA’s were performed to assess the differences between having a borderline personality disorder, another personality disorder, or no personality disorder diagnosis.Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted in order to explore the impact of the different personality disorder diagnosis on the level of stigma. The mean scores across all patient groups were consistent with rather low stigma. No differences were found for patients with or without a personality disorder diagnosis. Level of stigma in general was not associated with an accumulating number of personality disorders.
LaCroix, Jessica M; Colborn, Victoria A; Hassen, Helena O; Perera, Kanchana U; Weaver, Jennifer; Soumoff, Alyssa; Novak, Laura A; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan
Suicide among United States service members is a significant public health concern. Intimate partner relationship stress may contribute to suicide risk, as a failed or failing relationship is the most commonly documented stressor preceding military suicide attempts and deaths. However, little is known about the manner by which relationship stressors are associated with the experience of military suicidality. A sample of 190 psychiatrically hospitalized military personnel and adult dependents enrolled in an ongoing randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of an inpatient cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidality were included in this study. Analyses examined depression, hopelessness, and suicidality among participants with (n = 105) and without (n = 85) self-reported romantic relationship stress. Over half (55%) of the sample reported current romantic relationship stress. Compared to participants without current romantic relationship stress, results indicated that individuals reporting current romantic relationship stress were more hopeless (AOR = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01-1.12), p = 0.020), more likely to endorse multiple suicide attempts (AOR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.01-3.79), p = 0.046), had higher overall suicide risk (AOR = 2.49, (95% CI: 1.03-6.06), p = 0.044), and were more likely to report that the reason for their suicidality was at least in part to get a reaction from others. Findings suggest romantic relationship stress is associated with greater suicide risk, and have clinical implications for suicide prevention and intervention. Future research may examine mechanisms and pathways between romantic relationship stress, suicidality, and prevention and intervention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Seow, Lee Seng Esmond; Verma, Swapna Kamal; Mok, Yee Ming; Kumar, Sunita; Chang, Sherilyn; Satghare, Pratika; Hombali, Aditi; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
With the introduction of insomnia disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), greater emphasis has been placed on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorder even in the presence of a coexisting mental disorder. The current study seeks to explore the clinical picture of insomnia in the context of psychiatric disorders commonly associated with sleep complaints by assessing the prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 insomnia disorder, and examining the extent to which insomnia symptoms have been addressed in this population. Four hundred treatment-seeking outpatients suffering from depressive, bipolar affective, anxiety, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited. DSM-5 insomnia was established using the modified Brief Insomnia Questionnaire. Differences in sociodemographic factors, clinical status, impairment outcomes, and mental health services utilization were compared. Information on patients' help-seeking experiences for insomnia-related symptoms was collected to determine the treatment received and treatment effectiveness. Almost one-third of our sample (31.8%) had DSM-5 insomnia disorder. Those with insomnia disorder had significantly higher impairment outcomes than their counterparts but no group difference was observed for mental health services utilization. Findings based on past treatment contact for sleep problems suggest that diagnosis and treatment of insomnia is lacking in this population. With the new calling from DSM-5, clinicians treating psychiatric patients should view insomnia less as a symptom of their mental illnesses and treat clinical insomnia as a primary disorder. Patients should also be educated on the importance of reporting and treating their sleep complaints. Nonmedical (cognitive and behavioral) interventions for insomnia need to be further explored given their proven clinical effectiveness. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine
MacDonald, Kai; Berlow, Rustin; Thomas, Michael L
As the result of extensive translational and cross-disciplinary research, attachment theory is now a construct with significant neuropsychiatric traction. The correlation of attachment with other influential conceptual models (i.e. temperament and personality) is therefore of interest. Consequently, we explored how two attachment dimensions (attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) correlated with measures of temperament and personality in 357 psychiatric outpatients. We performed a retrospective review of four questionnaires (the Experiences in Close Relationship scale (ECR-R), Temperament and Character inventory (TCI), Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego questionnaire (TEMPS-A), and Personality Self-Portrait Questionnaire (PSQ)). Frequency measures and correlations were examined, as was the predictive value of attachment security for a personality disorder (PD). Significant, robust correlations were found between attachment anxiety and (1) several negative affective temperaments (dysthymic and cyclothymic); (2) several indices of personality pathology (low self-directedness (TCI), DSM-IV paranoid, borderline, histrionic, avoidant and dependent personality traits). Attachment avoidance had fewer large correlations. In an exploratory model, the negative predictive value of attachment security for a PD was 86%. Subjects were a relatively homogeneous subset of ambulatory psychiatric outpatients. PD diagnoses were via self-report. Clinically, these findings highlight the significant overlap between attachment, affective temperament, and personality and support the value of attachment as a screen for PDs. More broadly, given our growing understanding of the neurobiology of attachment (i.e. links with the oxytocin system), these results raise interesting questions about underlying biological systems and psychiatric treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zandstra, A.R.E.; Ormel, J.; Dietrich, A.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.
From the literature it is not clear whether low resting heart rate (HR) reflects low or high sensitivity to the detrimental effects of adverse environments on externalizing problems. We studied parental psychiatric history (PH), reflecting general vulnerability, as possible moderator explaining
Manzardo, Ann M; Poje, Albert B; Penick, Elizabeth C; Butler, Merlin G
Chronic alcohol use alters adaptive immunity and cytokine activity influencing immunological and hormone responses, inflammation, and wound healing. Brain cytokine disturbances may impact neurological function, mood, cognition and traits related to alcoholism including impulsiveness. We examined the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and self-rated psychiatric symptoms in 40 adult males (mean age 51 ± 6 years; range 33-58 years) with current alcohol dependence and 30 control males (mean age 48 ± 6 years; range 40-58 years) with no history of alcoholism using multiplex sandwich immunoassays with the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Log-transformed cytokine levels were analyzed for their relationship with the Symptom Checklist-90R (SCL-90R), Barratt Impulsivity Scales (BIS) and Alcoholism Severity Scale (ASS). Inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1); regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)) were significantly elevated in alcoholism compared to controls while bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cytokines and chemokines (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF); soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L); growth-related oncogene (GRO)) were significantly reduced. GRO and RANTES levels were positively correlated with BIS scales; and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels were positively correlated with SCL-90R scale scores (p alcoholism may influence brain function leading to increased impulsiveness and/or phobia. The novel association between RANTES and GRO and impulsivity phenotype in alcoholism should be further investigated in alcoholism and psychiatric conditions with core impulsivity and anxiety phenotypes lending support for therapeutic intervention.
Alway, Yvette; Ponsford, Jennie; McKay, Adam
Family expressed emotion (EE) is a strong predictor of outcome in a range of psychiatric and medical conditions. This study aimed to examine the relationship between family EE-criticism, patient perceived criticism and criticism sensitivity and psychiatric disorders following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 60 patients with TBI and their family members. Patients were assessed for psychiatric disorders using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and completed the Perceived Criticism Measure (PCM) to determine levels of perceived criticism and criticism sensitivity. Family members completed the Family Questionnaire (FQ) to assess patient directed EE-criticism. Patients were reassessed approximately 12-months post-baseline. After controlling for diagnostic status at baseline, high criticism sensitivity at baseline was associated with greater probability of psychiatric diagnosis at follow-up (odds ratio=3.99, 95% CI=1.15-13.71). Family EE-criticism and perceived criticism were not predictive of patient diagnostic status at follow-up, but patients with high EE-family members were more likely to have a concurrent psychiatric diagnosis at baseline. Findings suggest that sensitivity to interpersonal criticism may have a role in the development and course of psychiatric disorders following TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seyed Mehdi Saberi
Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be
Full Text Available Abstract Background While a number of studies have looked at life on service users' experiences of life on psychiatric wards, no research exists that have approached these experiences from the user perspective since the introduction of community care. Methods This user-led study uses a participatory approach to develop an understanding of the processes and themes which define the user experience of hospitalisation. Nineteen service users who had all had inpatient stays in psychiatric hospitals in London were interviewed in the community. Results Relationships formed the core of service users' experiences. Three further codes, treatment, freedom and environment defined the role of hospital and its physical aspects. Themes of communication, safety, trust, coercion, and cultural competency contributed to the concept of relationships. Conclusion Relationships with an individual which comprised effective communication, cultural sensitivity, and the absence of coercion resulted in that person being attributed with a sense of trust. This resulted in the patient experiencing the hospital as a place of safety in terms of risk from other patients and staff. Barriers to positive relationships included ineffective and negative communication, a lack of trust, a lack of safety in terms of staff as ineffective in preventing violence, and as perpetrators themselves, and the use of coercion by staff. This unique perspective both acts as a source of triangulation with previous studies and highlights the importance of the therapeutic relationship in providing a safe and therapeutic milieu for the treatment of people with acute mental health problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of literature shows that patients accept the use of computers in clinical care. Nonetheless, studies have shown that computers unequivocally change both verbal and non-verbal communication style and increase patients' concerns about the privacy of their records. We found no studies which evaluated the use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs specifically on psychiatric patient satisfaction, nor any that took place exclusively in a psychiatric treatment setting. Due to the special reliance on communication for psychiatric diagnosis and evaluation, and the emphasis on confidentiality of psychiatric records, the results of previous studies may not apply equally to psychiatric patients. Method We examined the association between EHR use and changes to the patient-psychiatrist relationship. A patient satisfaction survey was administered to psychiatric patient volunteers prior to and following implementation of an EHR. All subjects were adult outpatients with chronic mental illness. Results Survey responses were grouped into categories of "Overall," "Technical," "Interpersonal," "Communication & Education,," "Time," "Confidentiality," "Anxiety," and "Computer Use." Multiple, unpaired, two-tailed t-tests comparing pre- and post-implementation groups showed no significant differences (at the 0.05 level to any questionnaire category for all subjects combined or when subjects were stratified by primary diagnosis category. Conclusions While many barriers to the adoption of electronic health records do exist, concerns about disruption to the patient-psychiatrist relationship need not be a prominent focus. Attention to communication style, interpersonal manner, and computer proficiency may help maintain the quality of the patient-psychiatrist relationship following EHR implementation.
Moreno-Poyato, Antonio R; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Suárez-Pérez, Raquel; Leyva-Moral, Juan M; Aceña-Domínguez, Rosa; Carreras-Salvador, Regina; Roldán-Merino, Juan F; Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Montesó-Curto, Pilar
Psychiatric nurses are aware of the importance of the therapeutic relationship in psychiatric units. Nevertheless, a review of the scientific evidence indicates that theoretical knowledge alone is insufficient to establish an adequate therapeutic alliance. Therefore, strategies are required to promote changes to enhance the establishment of the working relationship. The aims of the study are to generate changes in how nurses establish the therapeutic relationship in acute psychiatric units, based on participative action research and to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of evidence through this method. The study will use a mixed method design. Qualitative methodology, through participative action research, will be employed to implement scientific evidence on the therapeutic relationship. A quasi-experimental, one-group, pre-test/post-test design will also be used to quantitatively measure the effectiveness of the implementation of the evidence. Participants will consist of nurses and patients from two psychiatric units in Barcelona. Nurses will be selected by theoretical sampling, and patients assigned to each nurses will be selected by consecutive sampling. Qualitative data will be gathered through discussion groups and field diaries. Quantitative data will be collected through the Working Alliance Inventory and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Qualitative data will be analysed through the technique of content analysis and quantitative data through descriptive and inferential statistics. This study will help to understand the process of change in a nursing team working in an inpatient psychiatric ward and will allow nurses to generate knowledge, identify difficulties, and establish strategies to implement change, as well as to assess whether the quality of the care they provide shows a qualitative improvement.
Lancon, Christophe; Martinelli, Marion; Michel, Pierre; Debals, Matthias; Auquier, Pascal; Guedj, Eric; Boyer, Laurent
The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the psychiatric comorbidities in adult individuals with high potential; 2) to assess self-esteem and quality of life in comparison with general population; 3) to study the relationships between intelligent quotient (IQ), self-esteem, psychiatric comorbidities and quality of life. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the psychiatric department of a public university hospital (Marseille, France). An outpatient hospital service has been specifically opened to test intelligence since 2012. During a period of six months, it was proposed to all the major individuals with high intellectual potential to receive a psychiatric evaluation using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and to complete self-report questionnaires assessing depression (Beck scale), anxiety (STAI), self-esteem (Rosenberg scale) and quality of life (SF-36). Relationships between IQ, self-esteem, psychiatric comorbidities and quality of life were analyzed using a Bayesian path analysis. Twenty-eight subjects were included, 8 had an IQ between 115 and 130, and 20 had an IQ>130. Fifty-seven percent of individuals had generalized anxiety, 21.4% a current major depressive episode, and 75% a past major depressive episode. Subjects had a low self-esteem and quality of life levels significantly lower than those in the French general population. Subjects with higher self-esteem levels had more depressive (β=0.726, Pself-esteem was defensive and inadequate. Our study found a high frequency of psychiatric disorders associated with low levels of self-esteem and quality of life. A psychological treatment focusing on self-esteem may have a beneficial effect on anxiety, depression and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lee, S.H.; Ripke, S.; Neale, B.; Faraone, S.V.; Purcell, S.M.; Perlis, R.H.; Mowry, B. J.; Thapar, A.; Goddard, M.E.; Witte, J.S.; Absher, D.; Agartz, I.; Akil, H.; Amin, F.; Andreassen, O.A.; Anjorin, A.; Anney, R.; Anttila, V.; Arking, D.E.; Asherson, P.; Azevedo, M.H.; Backlund, L.; Badner, J.A.; Bailey, A.J.; Banaschewski, T.; Barchas, J.D.; Barnes, M.R.; Barrett, T.B.; Bass, N.; Battaglia, A.; Bauer, M.; Bayés, M.; Bellivier, F.; Bergen, S.E.; Berrettini, W.; Betancur, C.; Bettecken, T.; Biederman, J; Binder, E.B.; Black, D.W.; Blackwood, D.H.; Bloss, C.S.; Boehnke, M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Breen, G.; Breuer, R.; Bruggeman, R.; Cormican, P.; Buccola, N.G.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Bunney, W.E.; Buxbaum, J.D.; Byerley, W. F.; Byrne, E.M.; Caesar, S.; Cahn, W.; Cantor, R.M.; Casas, M.; Chakravarti, A.; Chambert, K.; Choudhury, K.; Cichon, S.; Cloninger, C. R.; Collier, D.A.; Cook, E.H.; Coon, H.; Corman, B.; Corvin, A.; Coryell, W.H.; Craig, D.W.; Craig, I.W.; Crosbie, J.; Cuccaro, M.L.; Curtis, D.; Czamara, D.; Datta, S.; Dawson, G.; Day, R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Degenhardt, F.; Djurovic, S.; Donohoe, G.; Doyle, A.E.; Duan, J.; Dudbridge, F.; Duketis, E.; Ebstein, R.P.; Edenberg, H.J.; Elia, J.; Ennis, S.; Etain, B.; Fanous, A.; Farmer, A.E.; Ferrier, I.N.; Flickinger, M.; Fombonne, E.; Foroud, T.; Frank, J.; Franke, B.; Fraser, C.; Freedman, R.; Freimer, N.B.; Freitag, C.; Friedl, M.; Frisén, L.; Gallagher, L.; Gejman, P.V.; Georgieva, L.; Gershon, E.S.; Geschwind, D.H.; Giegling, I.; Gill, M.; Gordon, S.D.; Gordon-Smith, K.; Green, E.K.; Greenwood, T.A.; Grice, D.E.; Gross, M.; Grozeva, D.; Guan, W.; Gurling, H.; de Haan, L.; Haines, J.L.; Hakonarson, H.; Hallmayer, J.; Hamilton, S.P.; Hamshere, M.L.; Hansen, T.F.; Hartmann, A.M.; Hautzinger, M.; Heath, A.C.; Henders, A.K.; Herms, S.; Hickie, I.B.; Hipolito, M.; Hoefels, S.; Holmans, P.A.; Holsboer, F.; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Hultman, C. M.; Hus, V.; Ingason, A.; Ising, M.; Jamain, S.; Jones, E.G.; Jones, I.; Jones, L.; Tzeng, J.Y.; Kähler, A.K.; Kahn, R.S.; Kandaswamy, R.; Keller, M.C.; Kennedy, J.L.; Kenny, E.; Kent, L.; Kim, Y.; Kirov, G. K.; Klauck, S.M.; Klei, L.; Knowles, J.A.; Kohli, M.A.; Koller, D.L.; Konte, B.; Korszun, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Krasucki, R.; Kuntsi, J.; Kwan, P.; Landén, M.; Langstrom, N.; Lathrop, M.; Lawrence, J.; Lawson, W.B.; Leboyer, M.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Lee, P.H.; Lencz, T.; Lesch, K.P.; Levinson, D.F.; Lewis, C.M.; Li, J.; Lichtenstein, P.; Lieberman, J. A.; Lin, D.Y.; Linszen, D.H.; Liu, C.; Lohoff, F.W.; Loo, S.K.; Lord, C.; Lowe, J.K.; Lucae, S.; MacIntyre, D.J.; Madden, P.A.F.; Maestrini, E.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Mahon, P.B.; Maier, W.; Malhotra, A.K.; Mane, S.M.; Martin, C.L.; Martin, N.G.; Mattheisen, M.; Matthews, K.; Mattingsdal, M.; McCarroll, S.A.; McGhee, K.A.; McGough, J.J.; McGrath, P.J.; McGuffin, P.; McInnis, M.G.; McIntosh, A.; McKinney, R.; McLean, A.W.; McMahon, F.J.; McMahon, W.M.; McQuillin, A.; Medeiros, H.; Medland, S.E.; Meier, S.; Melle, I.; Meng, F.; Meyer, J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Middleton, L.; Milanova, V.; Miranda, A.; Monaco, A.P.; Montgomery, G.W.; Moran, J.L.; Moreno-De Luca, D.; Morken, G.; Morris, D.W.; Morrow, E.M.; Moskvina, V.; Muglia, P.; Mühleisen, T.W.; Muir, W.J.; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Murtha, M.; Myers, R.M.; Myin-Germeys, I.; Neale, M.C.; Nelson, S.F.; Nievergelt, C.M.; Nikolov, I.; Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Nolen, W.A.; Nöthen, M.M.; Nurnberger, J.I.; Nwulia, E.A.; Nyholt, DR; O'Dushlaine, C.; Oades, R.D.; Olincy, A.; Oliveira, G.; Olsen, L.; Ophoff, R.A.; Osby, U.; Owen, M.J.; Palotie, A.; Parr, J.R.; Paterson, A.D.; Pato, C.N.; Pato, M.T.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Pergadia, M.L.; Pericak-Vance, M.A.; Pickard, B.S.; Pimm, J.; Piven, J.; Posthuma, D.; Potash, J.B.; Poustka, F.; Propping, P.; Puri, V.; Quested, D.; Quinn, E.M.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Rasmussen, H.B.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Rehnström, K.; Reif, A.; Ribasés, M.; Rice, J.P.; Rietschel, M.; Roeder, K.; Roeyers, H.; Rossin, L.; Rothenberger, A.; Rouleau, G.; Ruderfer, D.; Rujescu, D.; Sanders, A.R.; Sanders, S.J.; Santangelo, S.; Sergeant, J.A.; Schachar, R.; Schalling, M.; Schatzberg, A.F.; Scheftner, W.A.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Scherer, S.W.; Schork, N.J.; Schulze, T.G.; Schumacher, J.; Schwarz, M.; Scolnick, E.; Scott, L.J.; Shi, J.; Shilling, P.D.; Shyn, S.I.; Silverman, J.M.; Slager, S.L.; Smalley, S.L.; Smit, J.H.; Smith, E.N.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.; St Clair, D.; State, M.; Steffens, M; Steinhausen, H.C.; Strauss, J.; Strohmaier, J.; Stroup, T.S.; Sutcliffe, J.; Szatmari, P.; Szelinger, S.; Thirumalai, S.; Thompson, R.C.; Todorov, A.A.; Tozzi, F.; Treutlein, J.; Uhr, M.; van den Oord, E.J.C.G.; Grootheest, G.; van Os, J.; Vicente, A.; Vieland, V.; Vincent, J.B.; Visscher, P.M.; Walsh, C.A.; Wassink, T.H.; Watson, S.J.; Weissman, M.M.; Werge, T.; Wienker, T.F.; Wijsman, E.M.; Willemsen, G.; Williams, N.; Willsey, A.J.; Witt, S.H.; Xu, W.; Young, A.H.; Yu, T.W.; Zammit, S.; Zandi, P.P.; Zhang, P.; Zitman, F.G.; Zöllner, S.; Devlin, B.; Kelsoe, J.; Sklar, P.; Daly, M.J.; O'Donovan, M.C.; Craddock, N.; Sullivan, P.F.; Smoller, J.W.; Kendler, K.S.; Wray, N.R.
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases
Friedmann, Peter D; Melnick, Gerald; Jiang, Lan; Hamilton, Zachary
This study examines the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and violent/disruptive behavior among 192 inmates who participated in prison-based substance abuse treatment. Participants came from two sites able to provide narrative reports of disciplinary actions in the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies' Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument study. In multivariate logistic models, a lifetime history of thought insertion/control ideation (OR, 11.6; 95% CI, 1.8-75.2), antisocial personality disorder (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-8.9), and disciplinary action related to possession of controlled substances or contraband (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.9-12.3) were associated with increased risk for violent or disruptive behavior while in prison, whereas lifetime phobic symptoms (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.54) and high school graduation (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-1.0) were associated with a decreased risk of violence and disruptive behavior in general. We conclude that, among inmates in substance abuse treatment, symptoms that increase risk for violence or disruptive behavior include thought control/insertion ideation and disciplinary infractions related to controlled substances, contraband, or failure to participate in assigned programs, as well a history of antisocial personality disorder.
Modestin, J; Stephan, P L; Erni, T; Umari, T
In 200 inpatients on regular neuroleptics, point prevalence of extrapyramidal syndromes, including Parkinson syndrome, akathisia and tardive dyskinesia (TD), was studied and found to be 20, 11 and 22%, respectively. A total of 46 patients have currently, and for a longer time, (average about 3years, median over 1year) been treated with clozapine, and 127 with typical neuroleptics (NLs). Comparing both groups, higher TD scores were found in the clozapine sample. Investigating the influence of a set of seven clinical variables on the TD score with the help of multiple regression analysis, the influence of the treatment modality disappeared, whereas the age proved to be the only significant variable. Studying the role of past clozapine therapy in patients currently on typical NLs and comparing 10 matched pairs of chronic patients with and without TD in whom a complete life-time cumulative dose of NLs was identified, a relationship between TD and length of current typical NL therapy and life-time typical NL dosage could be demonstrated. On the whole, long-term relatively extensive use of clozapine has not markedly reduced the prevalence of extrapyramidal syndromes in our psychiatric inpatient population. In particular, we failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of clozapine on prevalence of TD. There are certainly patients who suffer from TD in spite of a long-term intensive clozapine treatment.
Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Medoff, Deborah R; Park, Stephanie G; Brown, Clayton H; Fang, Lijuan; Dixon, Lisa B; Hack, Samantha M; Tapscott, Stephanie L; Walsh, Mary Brighid; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A
Although dissatisfaction is a primary reason for disengagement from outpatient psychiatric care among consumers with serious mental illnesses, little is known about predictors of their satisfaction with medication management visits. The primary purpose of this study was to explore how dimensions of consumer preferences for shared decision making (i.e., preferences for obtaining knowledge about one's mental illness, being offered and asked one's opinion about treatment options, and involvement in treatment decisions) and the therapeutic relationship (i.e., positive collaboration and type of clinician input) were related to visit satisfaction. Participants were 228 Veterans with serious mental illnesses who completed a 19-item self-report questionnaire assessing satisfaction with visits to prescribers (524 assessments) immediately after visits. In this correlational design, a 3-level mixed model with the restricted maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to examine shared decision-making preferences and therapeutic alliance as predictors of visit satisfaction. Preferences for involvement in treatment decisions was the unique component of shared decision making associated with satisfaction, such that the more consumers desired involvement, the less satisfied they were. Positive collaboration and prescriber input were associated with greater visit satisfaction. When consumers with serious mental illnesses express preferences to be involved in shared decision making, it may not be sufficient to only provide information and treatment options; prescribers should attend to consumers' interest in involvement in actual treatment decisions. Assessment and tailoring of treatment approaches to consumer preferences for shared decision making should occur within the context of a strong therapeutic relationship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Medoff, Deborah R.; Park, Stephanie G.; Brown, Clayton H.; Fang, Lijuan; Dixon, Lisa B.; Hack, Samantha M.; Tapscott, Stephanie L.; Walsh, Mary Brighid; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A.
Objective Although dissatisfaction is a primary reason for disengagement from outpatient psychiatric care among consumers with serious mental illnesses, little is known about predictors of their satisfaction with medication management visits. The primary purpose of the present study was to explore how dimensions of consumer preferences for shared decision-making (i.e., preferences for obtaining knowledge about one’s mental illness, being offered and asked one’s opinion about treatment options, and involvement in treatment decisions) and the therapeutic relationship (i.e., positive collaboration and type of clinician input) were related to visit satisfaction. Methods Participants were 228 Veterans with serious mental illnesses who completed a 19-item self-report questionnaire assessing satisfaction with visits to prescribers (n=524 assessments) immediately after visits. In this correlational design, a 3-level mixed model with the restricted maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to examine shared decision-making preferences and therapeutic alliance as predictors of visit satisfaction. Results Preferences for involvement in treatment decisions was the unique component of shared decision-making associated with satisfaction, such that the more consumers desired involvement, the less satisfied they were. Positive collaboration and prescriber input were associated with greater visit satisfaction. Conclusions and Implications for Practice When consumers with serious mental illnesses express preferences to be involved in shared decision-making, it may not be sufficient to only provide information and treatment options; prescribers should attend to consumers’ interest in involvement in actual treatment decisions. Assessment and tailoring of treatment approaches to consumer preferences for shared decision-making should occur within the context of a strong therapeutic relationship. PMID:25664755
Koekkoek, Bauke; van Meijel, Berno; Schene, Aart; Hutschemaekers, Giel
'difficult patients' may evoke strong feelings in health professionals. The ambivalent attitude of, especially, non-psychotic chronic patients towards psychiatric care may be frustrating and burdensome to professionals. Many of these patients are cared for in non-specialized services, where
Koekkoek, B.W.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Schene, A.H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
Aims - 'difficult patients' may evoke strong feelings in health professionals. The ambivalent attitude of, especially, non-psychotic chronic patients towards psychiatric care may be frustrating and burdensome to professionals. Many of these patients are cared for in non-specialized services, where
Starcevic, Vladan; Khazaal, Yasser
This article provides a narrative review of the relationships between several behavioural addictions [pathological gambling, problematic Internet use (PIU), problematic online gaming, compulsive sexual behaviour disorder, compulsive buying, and exercise addiction] and psychiatric disorders. Associations between most behavioural addictions and depressive and anxiety disorders are strong and seem relatively non-specific. Strong links with substance use disorders may support the notion that some people are more prone to addictive behaviours, regardless of whether these involve substances or problematic activities. Other associations seem relatively specific, for example, those between PIU/online gaming and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, between compulsive buying on the one hand and eating disorders and hoarding on the other hand and between exercise addiction and eating disorders. The quality of the research varies, but most studies suffer from methodological limitations, including a cross-sectional or correlational design, non-representative study populations, small sample sizes, reliance on self-report assessment instruments, diverse diagnostic criteria, and conceptual heterogeneity of most behavioural addictions. Due to these limitations, generalisability of the findings is questionable and the direction of causality, if any, is unknown in the relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. Regardless of the aetiological uncertainty, these relationships often call for a modified treatment approach. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the longitudinal relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. PMID:28439243
Starcevic, Vladan; Khazaal, Yasser
This article provides a narrative review of the relationships between several behavioural addictions [pathological gambling, problematic Internet use (PIU), problematic online gaming, compulsive sexual behaviour disorder, compulsive buying, and exercise addiction] and psychiatric disorders. Associations between most behavioural addictions and depressive and anxiety disorders are strong and seem relatively non-specific. Strong links with substance use disorders may support the notion that some people are more prone to addictive behaviours, regardless of whether these involve substances or problematic activities. Other associations seem relatively specific, for example, those between PIU/online gaming and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, between compulsive buying on the one hand and eating disorders and hoarding on the other hand and between exercise addiction and eating disorders. The quality of the research varies, but most studies suffer from methodological limitations, including a cross-sectional or correlational design, non-representative study populations, small sample sizes, reliance on self-report assessment instruments, diverse diagnostic criteria, and conceptual heterogeneity of most behavioural addictions. Due to these limitations, generalisability of the findings is questionable and the direction of causality, if any, is unknown in the relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. Regardless of the aetiological uncertainty, these relationships often call for a modified treatment approach. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the longitudinal relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders.
Leenarts, L E W; Dölitzsch, C; Schmeck, K; Fegert, J M; Grisso, T; Schmid, M
There is growing evidence that it is important to have well-standardized procedures for identifying the mental health needs of youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions. One of the most widely used tools for mental health screening in the juvenile justice system is the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version (MAYSI-2). To contribute to the body of research examining the utility of the MAYSI-2 as a mental health screening tool; the first objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between the MAYSI-2 and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) in a sample of Swiss youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions using a cross-sectional design. Secondly, as the sample was drawn from the French-, German- and Italian-speaking parts of Switzerland, the three languages were represented in the total sample and consequently differences between the language regions were analyzed as well. The third objective was to examine gender differences in this relationship. Participants were 297 boys and 149 girls (mean age = 16.2, SD = 2.5) recruited from 64 youth welfare and juvenile justice institutions in Switzerland. The MAYSI-2 was used to screen for mental health or behavioral problems that could require further evaluation. Psychiatric classification was based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to predict (cluster of) psychiatric disorders from MAYSI-2 scales. The regression analyses revealed that the MAYSI-2 scales generally related well to their corresponding homotypic (cluster of) psychiatric disorders. For example, the alcohol/drug use scale identified the presence of any substance use disorder and the suicide ideation scale identified youths reporting suicide ideation or suicide attempts. Several MAYSI-2
Hirschtritt, M.E.; Lee, P.C.; Pauls, D.L.; Dion, Y.; Grados, M.A.; Illmann, C.; King, R.A.; Sandor, P.; McMahon, W.M.; Lyon, G.J.; Cath, D.C.; Kurlan, R.; Robertson, M.M.; Osiecki, L.; Scharf, J.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Posthuma, D.; Singer, H.S.; Yu, D.; Cox, N.J.; Freimer, N.B.; Budman, C.L.; Chouinard, S.; Rouleau, G.; Barr, C.L.
Importance: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, fewstudies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively fewparticipants (< 200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each
Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Lee, Paul C; Pauls, David L; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M; Lyon, Gholson J; Cath, Danielle C; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A
IMPORTANCE: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each
Yoshizawa, Kaori; Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagam, Taku; Sasaki, Masahide; Nakamura, Kazuhiko
Psychiatric nursing is a stressful area of nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to examine occupational stress among psychiatric nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, 238 psychiatric nurses were recruited from 7 hospitals. Data regarding the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Health Practice Index (HPI) were obtained via self-report questionnaires. After adjusting for all the variables, CES-D scores were associated with job stress, but social support reduced the effect of stress on depression among psychiatric nurses. However, the interpretation of these results was hampered by the lack of data concerning important occupational factors, such as working position, personal income, and working hours. Further longitudinal investigation into the factors associated with depression may yield useful information for administrative and psychological interventions.
Faten N. AlZaben
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, subtypes of ADHD, and psychiatric, academic, and behavioral comorbidity in public primary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. A simple random sample of 6 primary government schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was identified (3 male, 3 female, and a random sample of classes in each of grades 1-6 were selected. Between July and November 2016, teachers in these classes were asked to complete the Vanderbilt ADHD scale on all students in their classes. Results: A total of 929 students were screened. The overall prevalence of ADHD was 5% (5.3% in girls, 4.7% in boys. The most prevalent subtype of ADHD was combined type (2.7%, followed by hyperactive type (1.2%, and inattentive type (1.1%. The highest prevalence of ADHD overall was in grade 3 (7.1% and the lowest prevalence in grade 6 (3.4%. Among students with ADHD, prevalence of comorbid psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems was widespread (56.5% oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder, 54.4% impaired academic performance, 44.4% classroom behavioral problems, 41.3% depression/anxiety. Comorbid problems were especially prevalent in combined ADHD subtype and in boys. Conclusions: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is common in primary school children in Jeddah, and is associated with widespread psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems, especially in boys. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this serious neurobehavioral disorder.
O'Donoghue, J M
In the Western World self-immolation is an uncommon but dramatic method of attempting suicide. In-patients who attempt suicide by fire-setting tend to be female with severe psychopathology. In a previous study from the South of Ireland, seven cases from a psychiatric and prison population were identified in a five year period from 1984 to 1989. This would represent an annual rate of 1.07 per cent of burns treated in the burns unit at Cork University Hospital. In this study 12 cases were identified for the years 1994 and 1995. This represents an increase of 3.5 per cent from 1.07 to 4.6 per cent of all burns treated at the same institution. Ten of these patients had a previous psychiatric history and eight of them were resident on a psychiatric ward when they committed the act. Seven of the patients were found to have a high degree of suicide intent of whom four died of their injuries, which gives a mortality rate for this group of 33 per cent. Effective prevention policies are necessary if this increasing problem is to be curtailed.
North, Carol S; Hong, Barry A; Alpers, David H
This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and literature providing direction for management is reviewed, and new directions are provided from findings in the literature. IBS is a heterogeneous syndrome with various potential mechanisms responsible for its clinical presentations. IBS is typically complicated with psychiatric issues, unexplained symptoms, and functional syndromes in other organ systems. Most IBS patients have multiple complaints without demonstrated cause, and that these symptoms can involve systems other than the intestine, e.g. bones and joints (fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint syndrome), heart (non-cardiac chest pain), vascular (post-menopausal syndrome), and brain (anxiety, depression). Most IBS patients do not have psychiatric illness per se, but a range of psychoform (psychological complaints in the absence of psychiatric disorder) symptoms that accompany their somatoform (physical symptoms in the absence of medical disorder) complaints. It is not correct to label IBS patients as psychiatric patients (except those more difficult patients with true somatization disorder). One mode of treatment is unlikely to be universally effective or to resolve most symptoms. The techniques of psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy can allow IBS patients to cope more readily with their illness. Specific episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders can be managed as appropriate for those conditions. Medications designed to improve anxiety or depression are not uniformly useful for psychiatric complaints in
Carol S North; Barry A Hong; David H Alpers
This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and literature providing direction for management is reviewed, and new directions are provided from findings in the literature. IBS is a heterogeneous syndrome with various potential mechanisms responsible for its clinical presentations. IBS is typically complicated with psychiatric issues, unexplained symptoms, and functional syndromes in other organ systems. Most IBS patients have multiple complaints without demonstrated cause, and that these symptoms can involve systems other than the intestine, e.g. Bones and joints (fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint syndrome), heart (non-cardiac chest pain), vascular (post-menopausal syndrome), and brain (anxiety, depression). Most IBS patients do not have psychiatric illness per se, but a range of psychoform (psychological complaints in the absence of psychiatric disorder) symptoms that accompany their somatoform (physical symptoms in the absence of medical disorder) complaints. It is not correct to label IBS patients as psychiatric patients (except those more difficult patients with true somatization disorder).One mode of treatment is unlikely to be universally effective or to resolve most symptoms. The techniques of psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy can allow IBS patients to cope more readily with their illness.Specific episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders can be managed as appropriate for those conditions.Medications designed to improve anxiety or depression are not uniformly useful for psychiatric complaints in IBS
Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185
Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke
The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breeman, L.D.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Wubbels, T.; Verhulst, F.C.; van der Ende, J.; Maras, A.; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, N.T.
In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children’s behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream
L.D. Breeman; P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); T. Wubbels; F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. van der Ende (Jan); A. Maras (Athanasios); J.A.B. Hopman; N.T. Tick (Nouchka Tamar)
textabstractIn mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children’s behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from
Breeman, L.D.; Van Lier, Pol; Wubbels, T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, Nouchka
In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children’s behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream
Grant, Jon E; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Nicotine dependence frequently co-occurs with subsyndromal and pathological levels of gambling. The relationship of nicotine dependence, levels of gambling pathology, and other psychiatric disorders, however, is incompletely understood. To use nationally representative data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions to examine the influence of DSM-IV nicotine dependence on the association between pathological gambling severities and other psychiatric disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 43,093 adults living in households and group-quarters in the United States. The main outcome measure was the co-occurrence of current nicotine dependence and Axis I and II disorders and severity of gambling based on the 10 inclusionary diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. The study was conducted from 2001 to 2002. Among non-nicotine-dependent respondents, increasing gambling severity was associated with greater psychopathology for the majority of Axis I and II disorders. This pattern was not uniformly observed among nicotine-dependent subjects. Significant nicotine-by-gambling-group interactions were observed for multiple Axis I and II disorders. All significant interactions involved stronger associations between gambling and psychopathology in the non-nicotine-dependent group. In a large national sample, nicotine dependence influences the associations between gambling and multiple psychiatric disorders. Subsyndromal levels of gambling are associated with significant psychopathology. Nicotine dependence accounts for some of the elevated risks for psychopathology associated with subsyndromal and problem/pathological levels of gambling. Additional research is needed to examine specific prevention and treatment for individuals with problem/pathological gambling with and without nicotine dependence. ©Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke
This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.
Iskandar, Shelly; van Crevel, Reinout; Hidayat, Teddy; Siregar, Ike M P; Achmad, Tri H; van der Ven, Andre J; De Jong, Cor A
The goal of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is to reduce the harm and to improve patients' quality of life (Qol). However, the Qol is also influenced by other co-occurring disorders. Data regarding the Qol and the co-occurrence of these disorders is lacking in low-middle income countries. We therefore describe the prevalence of physical, psychiatric, and drug abuse co-occurring disorders among MMT patients in Indonesia and determine the association between the severity of the co-occurring disorders and the Qol. Data were collected in 112 injection drug abusers (IDUs) attending a MMT program in West Java, Indonesia, using validated questionnaires, medical records and laboratory testing. For comparison, 154 IDUs not enrolled in MMT were recruited by respondent driven sampling. The most frequent co-occurring disorders were hepatitis C (92%), HIV (77%), benzodiazepine abuse (56%), and anxiety disorders (32%). IDUs in MMT had one (26%), two (47%), or three (27%) co-occurring disorders. Higher severity in psychiatric and physical problems was associated with poorer Qol. IDUs not enrolled in MMT had similar co-occurring problems. The prevalence of co-occurring disorders in IDUs in Indonesia is high and they influence their Qol. Therefore, comprehensive treatment, especially focusing on the common co-occurring disorders should be provided in MMT to improve the Qol. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Hamerlynck, S M J J; Doreleijers, Th A H; Vermeiren, R R J M; Cohen-Kettenis, P T
As from 2008, juveniles sentenced under civil law and juveniles sentenced under criminal law can no longer be assigned to the same juvenile detention centres. The reasoning runs as follows: the centres are unlikely to provide adequate treatment for the 'civil' group, and the 'criminal' group may exert a negative influence on the 'civil' group. Hitherto, there has been no research into the question of whether the problems and treatment requirements of girls in the two categories call for detention in the same detention centres or in different ones. The aim of this study is to investigate differences between the two groups of girls with regard to offence history, sociodemographic characteristics, contact with the social services, psychiatric disorders and trauma. Investigation of a representative sample of 211 female minors in three juvenile detention centres using standard instruments. results 82% of the girls were detained under civil law, 18% under criminal law. There were strong similarities between the groups. However, the 'criminal' group more often had a violent history of delinquency and a non-Dutch background, whereas the 'civil' group more often had a background of residential placements, oppositional-defiant disorder, suicidality and self-harm. Girls detained under civil and under criminal law differed in characteristics such as criminal record, but there were striking similarities in the girls' behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders. It is argued that assignment to a particular type of detention centre should depend on treatment requirements rather than on measures imposed by civil or criminal law.
Nolfe, Giovanni; Mancini, Paola; Mancusi, Riccardo; Zontini, Gemma; Nolfe, Giuseppe
The link between work distress and negative mental health outcome is an emergent topic in the scientific literature. The studies that evaluated the risk of work-related psychopathologies in the different job sectors have obtained so far controversial and inconclusive results. The identification, by means of standardized evaluation tools, of the work activities at higher risk of poor mental health is a relevant target for the occupational psychiatry and medicine. To evaluate the relationship between the psychosocial work conditions and work related psychiatric disturbances and to verify the relationship between the higher pathogenic effect of work and specific job activities. A six-month diagnostic trial was conducted on 234 patients (35.4% women and 64.6% men). Psychiatric diagnoses were according to DSM-IV criteria; anxious and depressive dimensions were studied by means of Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression; psychosocial work environments and bio-psycho-social features were measured by Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress. Groups with higher and lower work-related pathogenesis were compared and their distribution among specific job activities was evaluated. Mood disorders were strongly linked to negative work environment. Patients with severe bullying obtained higher scores on Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression than those with lower work-pathogenesis. The highest scores on Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress were related to mood disorders, to poorer bio-psycho-social functioning and to higher work etiology. No significant relationship between work activities and work-related psychopathologies was found. Workplace bullying is predictive of work-related psychiatric disturbances with more severe clinical features and bio-psycho-social consequences. No significant differences were found about the relationship between work-related psychopathologies and work activities.
Prins, Bram P; Abbasi, Ali; Wong, Anson
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with immune, cardiometabolic, and psychiatric traits and diseases. Yet it is inconclusive whether these associations are causal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using two genetic risk scores (GRSs) as inst...
Simpson, A.; Bowers, L.; Allan, T.; Haglund, K.; Muir-Cochrane, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Merwe, M. van der
Aim. In this paper we report on the rates of drug/alcohol use on acute psychiatric wards in relation to levels and intensity of exit security measures. Background. Many inpatient wards have become permanently locked, with staff concerned about the risk of patients leaving the ward and harming
This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving ability and career maturity of secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 230 final year secondary school students completed self-report measures of problem solving and career maturity. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data ...
Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis
We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…
Kraus, M R; Schäfer, A; Csef, H; Faller, H; Mörk, H; Scheurlen, M
Tolerance of interferon-a therapy for hepatitis C is often poor and medication is expensive. Compliance with diagnostic procedures and, even more important, with medical treatment is obviously critical to minimize the rate of dropouts and to maximize cost efficiency. Moreover, a good concordance with scheduled follow-ups is important for early recognition and treatment of interferon-associated side effects. Therefore, we investigated psychiatric symptoms, interpersonal problems, different modes of acquisition, and sociodemographic factors in HCV-infected patients as possible predictor variables of good versus poor compliance. In a longitudinal study, 74 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) who fulfilled the criteria for treatment with interferon (IFN)-alpha-2b with or without ribavirin were investigated prospectively to identify those at risk for poor compliance during IFN medication. To assess predictive factors, we used both IIP-C (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems) and SCL-90-R (Symptom Check List 90 Items Revised) as psychometric instruments. Sociodemographic and somatic variables as well as compliance during IFN therapy were also evaluated. Poor compliance before or during medication was demonstrated by 23% (N = 17) of HCV patients. Sociodemographic factors and mode of acquisition, particularly former intravenous drug (IVD) abuse were not significantly linked with compliance. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the subgroup of patients with compliance problems was best identified by both pretherapeutic psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems. Predictive value was best and significant for anger-hostility (P = 0.009), intrusive (P = 0.014), depression (P = 0.015), and phobic anxiety (P = 0.049). Adopting this statistical prediction model, sensitivity was 47.1%, but specificity reached 98.3%. In total, 86.5% of cases were classified correctly. In situations of unclear indication for IFN therapy, psychological variables assessment of before
Zellner, Margaret R; Watt, Douglas F; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak
The affective foundations of depression and addictions are discussed from a cross-species - animal to human - perspective of translational psychiatric research. Depression is hypothesized to arise from an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to terminate protracted activation of separation-distress (PANIC/GRIEF) systems of the brain, a shutdown mechanism which may be in part mediated by down-regulation of dopamine based reward-SEEKING resources. This shutdown of the brain's core motivational machinery is organized by shifts in multiple peptide systems, particularly increased dynorphin (kappa opioids). Addictions are conceived to be primarily mediated by obsessive behaviors sustained by reward-SEEKING circuits in the case of psychostimulant abuse, and also powerful consummatory-PLEASURE responses in the case of opioid abuse, which in turn capture SEEKING circuits. Both forms of addiction, as well as others, eventually deplete reward-SEEKING resources, leading to a state of dysphoria which can only temporarily be reversed by drugs of abuse, thereby promoting a negative affect that sustains addictive cycles. In other words, the opponent affective process - the dysphoria of diminished SEEKING resources - that can be aroused by sustained over-arousal of separation-distress (PANIC/GRIEF) as well as direct pharmacological over-stimulation and depletion of SEEKING resources, may be a common denominator for the genesis of both depression and addiction. Envisioning the foundation of such psychiatric problems as being in imbalances of the basic mammalian emotional systems that engender prototype affective states may provide more robust translational research strategies, coordinated with, rather than simply focusing on, the underlying molecular dynamics. Emotional vocalizations might be one of the best ways to monitor the underlying affective dynamics in commonly used rodent models of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lepley, C J
The author describes how to use two management tools, an affinity map and a relationship diagram, to define and analyze aspects of a complex problem in a system. The affinity map identifies the key influencing elements of the problem, whereas the relationship diagram helps to identify the area that is the most important element of the issue. Managers can use the tools to draw a map of problem drivers, graphically display the drivers in a diagram, and use the diagram to develop a cause-and-effect relationship.
Rosmarin, David H; Bigda-Peyton, Joseph S; Kertz, Sarah J; Smith, Nasya; Rauch, Scott L; Björgvinsson, Thröstur
Belief in God is very common and tied to mental health/illness in the general population, yet its relevance to psychiatric patients has not been adequately studied. We examined relationships between belief in God and treatment outcomes, and identified mediating mechanisms. We conducted a prospective study with n=159 patients in a day-treatment program at an academic psychiatric hospital. Belief in God, treatment credibility/expectancy, emotion regulation and congregational support were assessed prior to treatment. Primary outcomes were treatment response as well as degree of reduction in depression over treatment. Secondary outcomes were improvements in psychological well-being and reduction in self-harm. Belief in God was significantly higher among treatment responders than non-responders F(1,114)=4.81, pGod and reductions in depression. No variables mediated relationships to other outcomes. Religious affiliation was also associated with treatment credibility/expectancy but not treatment outcomes. Belief in God, but not religious affiliation, was associated with better treatment outcomes. With respect to depression, this relationship was mediated by belief in the credibility of treatment and expectations for treatment gains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Ormel, Johan; Dietrich, Andrea; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A
From the literature it is not clear whether low resting heart rate (HR) reflects low or high sensitivity to the detrimental effects of adverse environments on externalizing problems. We studied parental psychiatric history (PH), reflecting general vulnerability, as possible moderator explaining these inconsistencies. Using Linear Mixed Models, we analyzed data from 1914 subjects, obtained in three measurement waves (mean age 11, 13.5, and 16 years) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey population-based cohort and the parallel clinic-referred cohort. As hypothesized, more chronic stressors predicted more externalizing problems in vulnerable individuals with high resting HR but not in those with low resting HR, suggesting high vs. low sensitivity, respectively, to adverse environmental influences. Low sensitivity to adverse environmental influences in vulnerable individuals exposed to high stressor levels was additionally confirmed by high heart rate variability (Root Mean Squared Successive Difference; RMSSD). In adolescents with low vulnerability, in contrast, the association between chronic stressors and externalizing problems did not substantially differ by resting HR and RMSSD. Future research may demonstrate whether our findings extend to other adverse, or beneficial, influences. Notwithstanding their theoretical interest, the effects were small, only pertained to parent-reported externalizing problems, refer to a small subset of respondents in our sample, and are in need of replication. We conclude that HR and RMSSD are unlikely to be strong moderators of the association between stressors and externalizing problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, S Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases...... and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17......-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD...
Yastrebov, V S; Mitikhin, V G; Solokhina, T A; Mitikhina, I A
ОBJECTIVE: a system analysis and modeling for important areas of research of the organization of psychiatric services in Russia in the study mental health of the population, identification of factors affecting the formation of the contingent of persons with mental disorders, organizational and functional structure of mental health services and mental health care. The authors analyzed scientific publications on the problems of psychiatric care organization as well as the results of own research over the last 25 years using system analysis. The approach that allows a creation of a range of population models to monitor the status of mental health based on medical, demographic and social factors (more than 60 factors) of life was suggested. The basic models and approaches for the evaluation of activity of divisions of mental health services at the macro and micro-social levels, taking into account expert information and individual characteristics of patients and relatives, were demonstrated. To improve treatment quality, the models of identification of the factors, which positively or negatively influenced the commitment to psychopharmacotherapy of patients with schizophrenia and their families, were developed.
Voinescu, Bogdan I
A wide range of health problems was investigated, aiming to identify the presence and severity of a set of self-reported and common sleep, psychiatric, and somatic health problems among working professionals in four different shift schedules (morning, evening, rotating, and day) in several cities in Romania. A heterogeneous sample of 488 workers of different professions completed online a battery of tests, namely the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, the Parasomnia Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire, designed to identity symptoms of insomnia, sleepiness, snoring, parasomnia, as well as of depression, anxiety, eating, somatoform, and alcohol use disorders, respectively. The timing and the duration of the sleep, along with the presence of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes mellitus were also inquired. The prevalence of the different health problems in relation to the type of shift schedule was evaluated with the Pearson Chi-square test. ANOVA was used to calculate the significance of the difference between the means, while associations with different health problems were estimated by binary logistic regression. The most common mental health problems were depression (26%), insomnia (20%), alcohol misuse (18%), and anxiety (17%). No significant differences based on the type of shift in terms of health problems were found, except for high blood pressure and symptoms of panic disorder that were more frequently reported by the workers in early morning shifts. Together with the workers in rotating shifts, they also reported increased sleepiness, poorer sleep quality, and shorter sleep duration. In contrast, the workers in evening shifts reported less severe health problems and longer sleep duration. Working in early morning shifts was found to be associated with poorer health outcomes, while working in rotating and early morning shifts with more severe sleep-related problems.
Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.
Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…
Grant, Alec; Zeeman, Laetitia; Aranda, Kay
We critique EB mental healthcare’s relationship with psychiatric diagnosis from a queer paradigm position. We sketch out some initial principles that will hopefully stimulate and contribute to the advancement of mental health nurse educational curricula internationally. This will help bring mental health nurse education more in-line with contemporary developments in narrative psychiatry and formulation as an emerging alternative to psychiatric diagnosis in UK clinical psychology.
Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Doran, Jeffrey W.; Newell, Stephanie B.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Barbetti, Victor; Robbins, Brent Dean
This study examined relationships among eight teacher-reported problem behavior syndromes and standardized measures of academic achievement among 58 adolescents in an alternative school. Analysis suggested association between attention problems and academic achievement was primarily due to inattention component of the syndrome rather than the…
Karadayi, Husna; Arisoy, Ozden; Altunrende, Burcu; Boztas, Mehmet Hamid; Sercan, Mustafa
Cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) can develop any time. CI is associated with the degree of neuronal loss, but disease duration, fatigue, comorbid affective disorder, and drug dose may also affect cognition. Our aim was to assess which cognitive domain was disturbed primarily in mild MS patients and to see whether CI was related with clinical and psychiatric features. Neurological and psychiatric evaluation of 31 MS patients and 31 age, sex, and education-matched healthy controls were made with Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Depression, anxiety, functionality, fatigue, and disability scoring were determined with Hamilton Depression-Anxiety scales, Global Assessment of Functionality, Fatigue Severity and Expanded Disability Status Scales. Cognitive functions were assessed using Mini Mental, Serial Digit Learning, Verbal and Nonverbal Cancellation, Stroop and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning tests. Retrieval from long-term memory and psychomotor speed were significantly worse in MS group. CI was correlated with disease duration, number of attacks, and physical disability but not with depression and anxiety severity. Disease duration predicted disturbances in recall and psychomotor speed, whereas fatigue and disability predicted depression. Psychomotor speed and memory were primarily impaired in MS patients, and CI was closely associated with clinical aspects of MS rather than with depression and anxiety.
An, Feng-Rong; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Qing-E; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Ping-Ping; Jin, Xin; Li, Lu; Lok, Grace K I; Xiang, Yu-Tao
Little is known about the pattern of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use in the clinical population in China. This study examined the percentage of ECT use and its association with clinical characteristics and quality of life (QOL) in a psychiatric center in China that caters for a population of 20 million. A total sample of 1364 inpatients was consecutively recruited for the study. Demographic and clinical data including the use of ECT were collected. Psychopathology, activity of daily living and QOL were measured using standardized instruments. The percentage of ECT use was 52.1% in the whole sample; 53.4% in major depression, 57.8% in bipolar disorder, 57.0% in schizophrenia and 32.4% in other diagnoses. There was no significant difference between the ECT and non-ECT groups in any domain of QOL. Multivariate analyses revealed that ECT was independently associated with the diagnoses of major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, physical restraint, severe aggression, better activity of daily living skills, more frequent use of antipsychotics and less frequent use of benzodiazepines. The percentage of ECT use was much greater in a major psychiatric center in China than those reported from other parts of the world. Use of ECT had no influence on the short-term QOL. Further investigations are warranted to explore the reasons for the high percentage of ECT use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fabby, Carol; Koenig, Kathleen
Recent research suggests students with more formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners. However, little research has been done to establish a relationship between scientific reasoning and problem solving abilities by novices. In this exploratory study, we compared scientific reasoning abilities of students enrolled in a college level…
Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle
The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…
Kopp, Lisa M.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.
Comorbid conduct problems (CPs) and depression are observed far more often than expected by chance, which is perplexing given minimal symptom overlap. In this study, relations between parental psychopathology and children's diagnostic status were evaluated to test competing theories of comorbidity. Participants included 180 families with an…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing the Beck Depression Inventory score, the Beck Hopelessness Scale score and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem score and the relationships among the psychiatric, demographic and socio-economic variables with Bayesian network modeling. The data of 823 university students consist of 21 continuous and discrete relevant psychiatric, demographic and socio-economic variables. After the discretization of the continuous variables by two approaches, two Bayesian networks models are constructed using the b n l e a r n package in R, and the results are presented via figures and probabilities. One of the most significant results is that in the first Bayesian network model, the gender of the students influences the level of depression, with female students being more depressive. In the second model, social activity directly influences the level of depression. In each model, depression influences both the level of hopelessness and self-esteem in students; additionally, as the level of depression increases, the level of hopelessness increases, but the level of self-esteem drops.
Stivanin, Luciene; Oliveira, Christian C de; Santos, Fernanda P Dos; Santos, Bernardo Dos; Scivoletto, Sandra
To study the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders (PD) and communication disorders (CD) and their relationship with global functioning in maltreated children and adolescents. The sample comprised 143 maltreated children and adolescents (55.8% male). All underwent clinical communication and psychiatric evaluations, as well as global functioning assessment using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Four groups emerged from evaluation: Group 1 (n=7, 4.9%) did not exhibit any disorders; Group 2 (n=26, 18.2%) exhibited PD; Group 3 (n=34, 23.8%) exhibited CD; and Group 4 (n=76, 53.1%) exhibited both PD and CD on evaluation. Significant differences in global functioning scores were found between G1 and G2, G1 and G4, G2 and G4, and G3 and G4, with the highest C-GAS scores found in G1 and the lowest in G4. Rates of PD and CD are high in this maltreated population. The presence of PD has a major impact on C-GAS score, and the simultaneous presence of CD increases the already impaired function of PD. Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population.
Maas, Lillian; Ezeobele, I Ezebuiro; Tetteroo, Marieke
The purpose of this article is to discuss the challenges and rewards of developing and nurturing an international clinical psychiatric mental health advanced nursing practice exchange between the Netherlands and the United States. Since 1997, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands has been participating in international clinical experiences for their psychiatric mental health (PMH) advanced practice nursing students. The international experience is mandatory prior to graduation and is the first of its kind in Europe to mandate such a unique experience. This study sample included eight Dutch PMH advanced practice nursing students enrolled in a full-time master's in advanced nursing practice program. The descriptive study included reflective reports and one-on-one discussions over a 3-year period. With proper planning, an international nursing experience provides a unique opportunity for nurses to think beyond their own culture and healthcare system. Solving problems together through different perspectives creates opportunities for creative solutions. International partnerships within PMH advanced practice nursing promotes sharing of knowledge and solutions as patients and diseases have no border. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schäfer, Valérie; Bader, Klaus
The present study aimed to investigate whether stress experienced early in life is associated with actigraphic and subjective sleep measures in a sample of adult psychiatric outpatients. A total of 48 psychiatric outpatients completed self-report questionnaires assessing current depression, current anxiety symptoms and stress load during childhood (before the age of 13 years), adolescence (between the age of 13 and 18 years) and adulthood (between the age of 19 and current age). Sleep-related activity was measured using 24-h wrist actigraphy over a 7-day period at home, during which participants also kept a sleep diary. High stress load in childhood, but not in adolescence, was associated with shortened actigraphically assessed total sleep time, prolonged sleep onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency and an increased number of body movements in sleep, even after accounting for the effects of later occurring stress and psychopathological symptoms such as depression and anxiety scores. Unexpectedly, no significant associations between early-life stress load and subjective sleep measures were found. Results are consistent with findings from previous studies indicating an association between childhood adversities and higher levels of nocturnal activity. The findings suggest that high stress load during childhood might be a vulnerability factor for sleep continuity problems in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan
Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…
Jasper, Stefanie; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; de Zwaan, Martina
Due to progress in burn treatment, more patients even with severe burn injuries survive. Despite this positive development, however, there are still negative somatic and mental consequences. These include the life-long care of scars and pain. In addition, posttraumatic-stress disorder and depression are common consequences. Also distress due to disfigurement and body image problems have to be considered, since this is likely to result in social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and reduction of quality of life. Overall, the impact of mental strain on burn victims is quite high. Therefore, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches should be integrated into the care of patients with burns. This might be helpful for both coping and compliance with long-term treatment. This paper provides a review of the mental co-morbidity of burn victims and of psychotherapeutic treatment approaches focusing on changes in body image and the respective social consequences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mausbach, Brent T; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Grant, Igor
Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer disease is a highly stressful experience that is associated with significant depressive symptoms. Previous studies indicate a positive association between problem behaviors in patients with Alzheimer disease (e.g., repeating questions, restlessness, and agitation) and depressive symptoms in their caregivers. Moreover, the extant literature indicates a robust negative relationship between escape-avoidance coping (i.e., avoiding people, wishing the situation would go away) and psychiatric well-being. The purpose of this study was to test a mediational model of the associations between patient problem behaviors, escape-avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer caregivers. Ninety-five spousal caregivers (mean age: 72 years) completed measures assessing their loved ones' frequency of problem behaviors, escape-avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was tested to determine if escape-avoidant coping partially mediated the relationship between patient problem behaviors and caregiver depressive symptoms. Patient problem behaviors were positively associated with escape-avoidance coping (beta = 0.38, p avoidance coping was positively associated with depressive symptoms (beta = 0.33, p avoidance coping. Sobel's test confirmed that escape-avoidance coping significantly mediated the relationship between problem behaviors and depressive symptoms (z = 2.07, p avoidance coping partially mediates the association between patient problem behaviors and depressive symptoms among elderly caregivers of spouses with dementia. This finding provides a specific target for psychosocial interventions for caregivers.
Yürümez, Esra; Kılıç, Birim Günay
The purpose of this study is to assess the sleep behaviors, sleep problems and frequency, and relationship with psychiatric comorbidities in ADHD Combined type and to evaluate the effect of sleep problems on quality of life. Forty-six boys, aged 7 to 13 years, with ADHD-combined type and 31 healthy boys were included. ADHD children were never treated for sleep or psychiatric disorders. Intelligence quotient (IQ) test scores were minimum 80, body mass index were normal and did not have medical disorders. Parents completed Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Conners' Parent Rating Scale and The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and participants were asked about sleep behaviors and were administered PedsQL and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The frequency of sleep problems in ADHD is 84.8%, higher than the control group (p = .002). Evaluating PedsQL scores, the quality of life is worse in physical, psychosocial health, and total life quality (p children with ADHD compared with healthy control participants. As the ADHD group have more night wakings than the control group through the night, it is thought that night wakings that cause a partitioned sleep may be important signs seen in ADHD. That could be suggested by two hypotheses. First one is that, daytime sleepiness is more common in ADHD and those children present excessive hyperactivity during the day to stay awake and the second one is the improvement of ADHD signs when the drugs for sleepiness are used. Usage of standardized and valid diagnostic criteria, exclusion of adolescence, gender, socioeconomic level, primary sleep problems, medical disorders and low IQ level, making allowances for effect of comorbidities and having compared with the control group are the important methodological features of this study. The most important limitation of this study is small sample size that makes the findings less generalizable to other groups of children with ADHD, and another one is not
Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; McGurrin, Patrick; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron
Whilst a growing body of research has examined dissociation and other psychiatric symptoms in severe dissociative disorders (DDs), there has been no systematic examination of shame and sense of self in relationships in DDs. Chronic child abuse often associated with severe DDs, like dissociative identity disorder, is likely to heighten shame and relationship concerns. This study investigated complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline and Schneiderian symptoms, dissociation, shame, child abuse, and various markers of self in relationships (e.g., relationship esteem, relationship depression, fear of relationships). Participants were assessed via clinical interview with psychometrically sound questionnaires. They fell into three diagnostic groups, dissociative disorder (n=39; primarily dissociative identity disorder), chronic PTSD (Chr-PTSD; n=13) or mixed psychiatric presentations (MP; n=21; primarily mood and anxiety disorders). All participants had a history of child abuse and/or neglect, and the groups did not differ on age and gender. The DD group was higher on nearly all measured variables than the MP group, and had more severe dissociative, borderline and Schneiderian symptoms than the Chr-PTSD sample. Shame and complex PTSD symptoms fell marginally short of predicting reductions in relationship esteem, pathological dissociative symptoms predicted increased relationship depression, and complex PTSD symptoms predicted fear of relationships. The representativeness of the samples was unknown. Severe psychiatric symptoms differentiate DDs from chronic PTSD, while dissociation and shame have a meaningful impact on specific markers of relationship functioning in psychiatric patients with a history of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available Problem gambling is complex and often comorbid with other mental health problems. Unfortunately, gambling studies on comorbid psychiatric disorders among Chinese communities are extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to (a determine the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers; (b compare the demographic profiles and clinical features of pathological gamblers with and without comorbid psychiatric disorders; (c explore the associations between pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders and their temporal relationship. Participants (N=201 who sought gambling counseling were examined by making Axis-I diagnoses including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and adjustment disorder. Results showed that 63.7% of participants had lifetime comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common comorbid psychiatric mental disorders were mood disorders, adjustment disorder, and substance use disorders. Pathological gamblers with psychiatric comorbidities were significantly more severe in psychopathology, psychosocial functioning impairment, and gambling problems than those without the disorders.
Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S
In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common
S.T. Lo (Sinddie)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis includes studies about developmental, behavioral and psychiatric characteristics in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Endocrinologists Prader, Labhart, and Willi were the first describing the combination of neonatal hypotonia, short
Akroyd, Mike; Jordan, Gary; Rowlands, Paul
People with serious mental illness have reduced life expectancy compared with a control population, much of which is accounted for by significant physical comorbidity. Frontline clinical staff in mental health often lack confidence in recognition, assessment and management of such 'medical' problems. Simulation provides one way for staff to practise these skills in a safe setting. We produced a multidisciplinary simulation course around recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings. We describe an audit of strategic and design aspects of the recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings course, using the Department of Health's 'Framework for Technology Enhanced Learning' as our audit standards. At the same time as highlighting areas where recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings adheres to these identified principles, such as the strategic underpinning of the approach, and the means by which information is collected, reviewed and shared, it also helps us to identify areas where we can improve. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between organizationalproblem formulation and social responsibility. Thepurpose of the article is to illuminate how organizationalproblem formulations (1 determine the manner in whichthe organization attempts to solve the problem and (2involve the ascription of significance to a group of stakeholdersseen as relevant for the organization. This has implicationsfor the degree to which they assume responsibilityfor those stakeholders. We discuss three dimensions ofresponsible decision making – rationality in goal attainment,reverence for ethical norms, and respect for stakeholders.Thereby, we arrive at an understanding of how differentorganizations in the same sector conceive of, andattempt to solve fundamental problems in the sector, aswell as how their assumed responsibility is reflected therein.We present and discuss a case that discusses keysimilarities and differences between two organizations inthe drug sector – a pharmaceutical company that producesmedicine for the treatment of drug addiction and a foundationworking with drug rehabilitation. We illuminatehow the two organizations base their activities on divergentformulations of the drug problem and how this ismanifested in their approach to the problem. We argue that this ultimately translates into differences in the inclusion of various stakeholdersin their problem space, and thereby the degree to which they assumeresponsibility for key stakeholders. This contributes to the corporate socialresponsibility literature by providing an in depth account of how problem formulationsshape organizational activities and determine the practical inclusionof stakeholders’ interests in the decisions and activities of organizations.
Zimmerman, Mark; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy; Galione, Janine N
Measurement-based care refers to the use of standardized scales to measure the outcome of psychiatric treatment. Diagnostic heterogeneity poses a challenge toward the adoption of a measurement-based care approach toward outcome evaluation in clinical practice. In the present article, we propose adopting the concept of psychiatric vital signs to facilitate measurement-based care. Medical vital signs are measures of basic physiologic functions that are routinely determined in medical settings. Vital signs are often a primary outcome measure, and they are also often adjunctive measurements. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we examined the frequency of depression and anxiety in a diagnostically heterogeneous group of psychiatric outpatients to determine the appropriateness of considering their measurement as psychiatric vital signs. Three thousand psychiatric outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV supplemented with items from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. We determined the frequency of depression and anxiety evaluated according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia items. In the entire sample of 3000 patients, 79.3% (n = 2378) reported clinically significant depression of at least mild severity, 64.4% (n = 1932) reported anxiety of at least mild severity, and 87.4% (n = 2621) reported either anxiety or depression. In all 10 diagnostic categories examined, most patients had clinically significant anxiety or depression of at least mild severity. These findings support the routine assessment of anxiety and depression in clinical practice because almost all patients will have these problems as part of their initial presentation. Even for those patients without depression or anxiety, the case could be made that the measurement of depression and anxiety is relevant and analogous to measuring certain physiologic
Berlinguer, G; Falzi, G; Figa-Talamanca, I
Throughout history, the relationship between employers and workers has been subject to the equilibrium of power, to legislative norms, to ethical considerations, and more recently to scientific knowledge. The authors examine the ethical conflicts that arise from the application of scientific knowledge to preventive health policies in the workplace. In particular, they discuss the ethical conflicts in the application of screening practices, in the setting of "allowable limits" of harmful work exposures, and in the right of workers to be informed about work hazards. Ethical problems are also created by conflicting interests in the protection of the environment, the health of the general public, and the health of the working population, and by conflicting interests among workers, and even within the individual worker, as in the case of "fetal protection" policies. The authors emphasize the positive use of scientific information and respect for human dignity in resolving these conflicts.
As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.
Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an
Cooper, Mark; Chapman, Scott C; Podlich, Dean W; Hammer, Graeme L
In this paper we refer to the gene-to-phenotype modeling challenge as the GP problem. Integrating information across levels of organization within a genotype-environment system is a major challenge in computational biology. However, resolving the GP problem is a fundamental requirement if we are to understand and predict phenotypes given knowledge of the genome and model dynamic properties of biological systems. Organisms are consequences of this integration, and it is a major property of biological systems that underlies the responses we observe. We discuss the E(NK) model as a framework for investigation of the GP problem and the prediction of system properties at different levels of organization. We apply this quantitative framework to an investigation of the processes involved in genetic improvement of plants for agriculture. In our analysis, N genes determine the genetic variation for a set of traits that are responsible for plant adaptation to E environment-types within a target population of environments. The N genes can interact in epistatic NK gene-networks through the way that they influence plant growth and development processes within a dynamic crop growth model. We use a sorghum crop growth model, available within the APSIM agricultural production systems simulation model, to integrate the gene-environment interactions that occur during growth and development and to predict genotype-to-phenotype relationships for a given E(NK) model. Directional selection is then applied to the population of genotypes, based on their predicted phenotypes, to simulate the dynamic aspects of genetic improvement by a plant-breeding program. The outcomes of the simulated breeding are evaluated across cycles of selection in terms of the changes in allele frequencies for the N genes and the genotypic and phenotypic values of the populations of genotypes.
Picco, Louisa; Lau, Ying Wen; Pang, Shirlene; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Objectives To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Participants 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD. Methods Data were collect...
Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa
Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Florkowski, Antoni; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Nowacka, Agata; Strójwas, Krzysztof; Flinik-Jankowska, Magdalena; Konopa, Aleksandra; Łacisz, Joanna; Wierzbiński, Piotr
In the current penal code, compared to previous regulations, there have been alterations concerning medical security measures. These amendments have been prompted by socio-politic circumstances in Poland as well as implementation of Mental Health Act. According to the current law the court, on the request of expert psychiatrists, can pronounce a sentence of obligatory stay in psychiatric institution for perpetrator of criminal act who has been deemed not sane due to 31 subsection 1 of penal code and who is predictably able of recidivism. In legal-medical practice those less experienced expert psychiatrists may encounter difficulties producing expertise for the court, especially evaluating probability of recurrence of committing a criminal act and resulting request for psychiatric detention. In order to make this issue more acquainted we present a review of literature concerning it.
This study describes characteristics of a group of 64 adolescent mothers and their infants who participated in a program for teenage mothers run by a local health department. A majority of the girls for whom California Achievement Test (CAT) scores were available scored one or more years below grade level in reading and in language skills. Relative delays in infant development (language and social domains) were also documented. High levels of self-esteem as well as general social acceptance (by adults and peers) of early out-of-wedlock parenting suggest that early motherhood may represent an alternative avenue to experiencing success for girls who are having academic difficulties. These findings, which suggest the likelihood of a high incidence of undetected learning problems in this population, indicate that these difficulties may have a significant relationship to the high rate of school dropout associated with adolescent motherhood. The findings bring into question the notion of "unintended pregnancies" and the wisdom of current federal policies for preventing adolescent parenthood that rely on the promotion of abstinence.
McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula
Interpersonal functioning is a key determinant of psychological well-being, and interpersonal problems (IPs) are common among individuals with psychiatric disorders. However, IPs are rarely formally assessed in clinical practice or within cognitive behavior therapy research trials as predictors of treatment attrition and outcome. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IPs, depressogenic cognitions, and treatment outcome in a large clinical sample receiving cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for depression in a community clinic. Patients (N=144) referred for treatment completed measures of IPs, negative cognitions, depression symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) before and at the completion of a 12-week manualized CBGT protocol. Two IPs at pre-treatment, 'finding it hard to be supportive of others' and 'not being open about problems,' were associated with higher attrition. Pre-treatment IPs also predicted higher post-treatment depression symptoms (but not QoL) after controlling for pre-treatment symptoms, negative cognitions, demographics, and comorbidity. In particular, 'difficulty being assertive' and a 'tendency to subjugate one's needs' were associated with higher post-treatment depression symptoms. Changes in IPs did not predict post-treatment depression symptoms or QoL when controlling for changes in negative cognitions, pre-treatment symptoms, demographics, and comorbidity. In contrast, changes in negative cognitions predicted both post-treatment depression and QoL, even after controlling for changes in IPs and the other covariates. Correlational design, potential attrition bias, generalizability to other disorders and treatments needs to be evaluated. Pre-treatment IPs may increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes, but changes in negative cognitions during treatment were most strongly associated with improvement in symptoms and QoL during CBGT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…
Nursing is an occupation that deals with humans and relies upon human relationships. Nursing care, which is an important component of these relationships, involves protection, forbearance, attention, and worry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ethical beliefs of psychiatric nurses and ethical problems encountered. The study design was descriptive and cross-sectional. RESEARCH CONTEXT: Methods comprised of a questionnaire administered to psychiatric nurses (n=202) from five psychiatric hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey, instruction in psychiatric nursing ethics, discussion of reported ethical problems by nursing focus groups, and analysis of questionnaires and reports by academicians with clinical experience. PARTICIPANTS consist of the nurses who volunteered to take part in the study from the five psychiatric hospitals (n=202), which were selected with cluster sampling method. Ethical considerations: Written informed consent of each participant was taken prior to the study. The results indicated that nurses needed additional education in psychiatric ethics. Insufficient personnel, excessive workload, working conditions, lack of supervision, and in-service training were identified as leading to unethical behaviors. Ethical code or nursing care -related problems included (a) neglect, (b) rude/careless behavior, (c) disrespect of patient rights and human dignity, (d) bystander apathy, (e) lack of proper communication, (f) stigmatization, (g) authoritarian attitude/intimidation, (h) physical interventions during restraint, (i) manipulation by reactive emotions, (j) not asking for permission, (k) disrespect of privacy, (l) dishonesty or lack of clarity, (m) exposure to unhealthy physical conditions, and (n) violation of confidence. The results indicate that ethical codes of nursing in psychiatric inpatient units are inadequate and standards of care are poor. In order to address those issues, large-scale research needs to be conducted in psychiatric nursing with a
Schmitt, J; Romanos, M; Pfennig, A; Leopold, K; Meurer, M
Atopic eczema (AE) is a common dermatological condition that causes significant problems in everyday life and high levels of illness-related stress in substantial proportions of patients. The extent to which adult AE is associated with clinically relevant psychiatric morbidity is unclear. To investigate the association between adult AE and major psychiatric/psychosomatic disorders. Case-control study utilizing the GKV database Saxony, an interdisciplinary administrative outpatient database from Germany. All patients documented as having AE at least twice within the study period (2003-2004) (n = 3769, mean age 44 years) were individually matched by age and sex to 3769 controls without AE. Logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the relationship of AE with affective, stress-related, behaviour and schizophrenic disorders, considering sociodemographic characteristics, consulting behaviour and allergic comorbidities as potential confounding factors. Eczema was independently associated with affective [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.79], stress-related (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.35-1.77), behaviour (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.23) and schizophrenic disorders (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.22-3.71). For each psychiatric condition the likelihood of being affected significantly increased with each physician visit due to AE, suggesting that the risk of psychiatric comorbidity increases with the severity of AE. This study indicates psychiatric comorbidity of adults with AE. Collaboration between dermatologists and mental health specialists may optimize medical care for a significant subgroup of patients with AE.
Lax Pericall, Maria Teresa; Taylor, Eric
The psychological and psychiatric outcome of children with acquired brain injury is influenced by many variables. A review was undertaken to clarify the contribution of family function, how it relates to injury severity, and what particular aspects of family function influence psychological outcome in this group. A systematized review of the literature of studies published between 1970 and 2012 from OvidMedline, PsychoInfo, PsycARTICLES, and Cochrane was undertaken focusing on family function, injury severity, and psychiatric outcome. Thirty-six papers met the inclusion criteria. Injury severity was linked to the development of organic personality change. Family function before injury, measured by the Family Assessment Device or the Clinical Rating Scale, had a statistically significant effect on general psychological functioning in six out of eight studies. Family function had a significant effect for oppositional defiant disorder and secondary attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The effects of family function may differ depending on the age of the child and the severity of the injury. Some styles of parenting moderated recovery. After injury, family function was related to the child's contemporaneous psychiatric symptoms. The level of evidence for these papers was 3 or 4 (Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria). Screening for some aspects of family functioning before injury and family function during the rehabilitation phase may identify children at risk of psychiatric disorders. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
Henriksen, Ingvild Oxås; Ranøyen, Ingunn; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø; Stenseng, Frode
Self-esteem is fundamentally linked to mental health, but its' role in trajectories of psychiatric problems is unclear. In particular, few studies have addressed the role of self-esteem in the development of attention problems. Hence, we examined the role of global self-esteem in the development of symptoms of anxiety/depression and attention problems, simultaneously, in a clinical sample of adolescents while accounting for gender, therapy, and medication. Longitudinal data were obtained from a sample of 201 adolescents-aged 13-18-referred to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Trondheim, Norway. In the baseline study, self-esteem, and symptoms of anxiety/depression and attention problems were measured by means of self-report. Participants were reassessed 3 years later, with a participation rate of 77% in the clinical sample. Analyses showed that high self-esteem at baseline predicted fewer symptoms of both anxiety/depression and attention problems 3 years later after controlling for prior symptom levels, gender, therapy (or not), and medication. Results highlight the relevance of global self-esteem in the clinical practice, not only with regard to emotional problems, but also to attention problems. Implications for clinicians, parents, and others are discussed.
Joyce, Aaron W.; Ross, Michael J.; Vander Wal, Jillon S.; Austin, Chammie C.
The present study examined differences in college students' preferences for processes of change across four kinds of problems: academic, relationship, depression, and anxiety. Two hundred eighteen undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete either an academic problems, relationship problems, depression, or anxiety Processes of Change…
Chartier, Gabrielle; Cawthorpe, David
This study outlines the rationale and provides evidence in support of including psychiatric disorders in the World Health Organization's classification of preventable diseases. The methods used represent a novel approach to describe clinical pathways, highlighting the importance of considering the full range of comorbid disorders within an integrated population-based data repository. Review of literature focused on comorbidity in relation to the four preventable diseases identified by the World Health Organization. This revealed that only 29 publications over the last 5 years focus on populations and tend only to consider one or two comorbid disorders simultaneously in regard to any main preventable disease class. This article draws attention to the importance of physical and psychiatric comorbidity and illustrates the complexity related to describing clinical pathways in terms of understanding the etiological and prognostic clinical profile for patients. Developing a consistent and standardized approach to describe these features of disease has the potential to dramatically shift the format of both clinical practice and medical education when taking into account the complex relationships between and among diseases, such as psychiatric and physical disease, that, hitherto, have been largely unrelated in research.
Early positive relationships between children and adults are critical in the acquisition of children's problem-solving skills. The early teacher-child relationship has an important role in how a child negotiates the conflicts and manages relationships with peers. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of the teacher-child relationship at…
Wampler, Wendi N.
Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. "Matter and Interactions"…
The thesis aims to explore subjective experiences of everyday occupation, social interaction and the view of the worker role among people with psychiatric disabilities(PD), while also addressing the importance of day centre attendance. The thesis consists of one qualitative study, exploring which characteristics in everyday occupation provide meaning to people with PD, and three quantitative studies based on questionnaires to both day centre attendees and non-attendees. Study I showed that fe...
Brown, Maria Teresa
Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…
The present work tries to make an analysis of the current aspects of the interaction between the nuclear field, environment and society. One starts from the general conception of sustainable development. The analysis focusses mainly the social side of the sustainable development and the environmental protection issues. As prominent appears the sensitive problem of radioactive waste management. The papers analyses the current public perception, the mutations expected in the public opinion as well as the problems which the nuclear industry and decision makers confront to harmonize the requirements in the nuclear power sector and those imposed by society. Particularly focused is the situation in Romania
P.W.L. Vlaar (Paul); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)
textabstractResearch into the management of interorganizational relationships has hitherto primarily focused on problems of coordination, control and to a lesser extent, legitimacy. In this article, we assert that partners cooperating in such relationships are also confronted with ‘problems of
Rosen, Raymond C; Heiman, Julia R; Long, J Scott; Fisher, William A; Sand, Michael S
Epidemiologic studies of sexual function problems in men have focused on the individual male and related sociodemographic characteristics, individual risk factors and lifestyle concomitants, or medical comorbidities. Insufficient attention has been given to the role of sexual and relationship satisfaction and, more particularly, to the perspective of the couple as causes or correlates of sexual problems in men or women. Previously, we reported results of the first large, multi-national study of sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in 1,009 midlife and older couples in five countries (Brazil, Germany, Japan, Spain, U.S.). For the present study, we examined, within each problem, the association of four major sexual problems in men (loss of sexual desire, erectile problems, premature ejaculation, delayed/absent orgasm) and multiple problems, with male and female partners' assessments of physical intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and relationship happiness, as well as associations with well-known health and psychosocial correlates of sexual problems in men. Sexual problem rates of men in our survey were generally similar to rates observed in past surveys in the general population, and similar risk factors (age, relationship duration, overall health) were associated with lack of desire, anorgasmia, or erection difficulties in our sample. As in previous surveys, there were few correlates of premature ejaculation. As predicted, men with one or more sexual problems reported decreased relationship happiness as well as decreased sexual satisfaction compared to men without sexual problems. Moreover, female partners of men with sexual problems had reduced relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction, although these latter outcomes were less affected in the women than the men. The association of men's sexual problems with men's and women's satisfaction and relationship happiness were modest, as these couples in long-term, committed relationships were notable for their
Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida
Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…
Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…
Heitman, J. L.; Vepraskas, M. J.
Mass-volume relationships are a useful tool emphasized for problem solving in many geo-science and engineering applications. These relationships also have useful applications in soil science. Developing soils students' ability to utilize mass-volume relationships through schematic diagrams of soil phases (i.e., air, water, and solid) can help to…
Lustig, Daniel C.; Zanskas, Stephen
Although research supports a relationship between work and psychological factors, one area not studied is the relationship between preferred career value and psychological factors. This study investigated the relationship between preferred career values and psychological problems for individuals with disabilities. Career values have been shown to…
Obasi, Ezemenari M; Brooks, Jessica J; Cavanagh, Lucia
Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M-age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kumar, Vinod; Daria, Usha
Background: Prisoners are having high percentage of psychiatric disorders. Majority of studies done so far on prisoners are from Western countries and very limited studies from India. Aim: Study socio-demographic profile of prisoners of a central jail and to find out current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in them. Materials and Methods: 118 prisoners were selected by random sampling and interviewed to obtain socio-demographic data and assessed on Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule (IPIS) with additional required questions to diagnose psychiatric disorders in prisoners. Results: Mean age of prisoners was 33.7 years with 97.5% males, 57.6% from rural areas and 65.3% were married. Average education in studied years was 6.6 years and 50.8% were unskilled workers. 47.4% were murderers while 20.3% of drugs related crimes. 47.5% were convicted and history of criminal behavior in family was in 32.2% prisoners. Current prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 33%. Psychotic, depressive, and anxiety disorders were seen in 6.7%, 16.1%, and 8.5% prisoners respectively. 58.8% had history of drug abuse/dependence prior to imprisonment. Conclusion: One prison of Hadoti region of Rajasthan is full of people with mental-health problems who collectively generate significant levels of unmet psychiatric treatment need. Prisons are detrimental to mental-health. Beginning of reforms is the immediate need. PMID:24459308
Buist, Kirsten L; Paalman, Carmen H; Branje, Susan J T; Deković, Maja; Reitz, Ellen; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Meeus, Wim H J; Koot, Hans M; Hale, William W
The aim of the present study was to examine whether adolescents of Moroccan and Dutch origin differ concerning sibling relationship quality and to examine whether the associations between quality of the sibling relationship and level and change in externalizing and internalizing problem behavior are comparable for Moroccan and Dutch adolescents. Five annual waves of questionnaire data on sibling support and conflict as well as externalizing problems, anxiety and depression were collected from 159 ethnic Moroccan adolescents (Mage = 13.3 years) and from 159 ethnic Dutch adolescents (Mage = 13.0 years). Our findings demonstrated significant mean level differences between the Moroccan and Dutch sample in sibling relationship quality, externalizing problems, and depression, with Moroccan adolescents reporting higher sibling relationship quality and less problem behavior. However, effects of sibling relationship quality on externalizing problems, anxiety, and depression were similar for the Moroccan and Dutch samples. Sibling support was not related to level of externalizing problems, nor to changes in externalizing problems, anxiety, and depression. Additionally, more sibling conflict was related to a higher starting level of and faster decreases in problem behaviors. Our results support the ethnic equivalence model, which holds that the influence of family relationships is similar for different ethnic groups. Moreover, sibling support and conflict affect both the level and the fluctuations in problem behavior over time in specific ethnic groups similarly. Implications for future studies and interventions are subsequently discussed.
In the present paper, using a replica analysis, we examine the portfolio optimization problem handled in previous work and discuss the minimization of investment risk under constraints of budget and expected return for the case that the distribution of the hyperparameters of the mean and variance of the return rate of each asset are not limited to a specific probability family. Findings derived using our proposed method are compared with those in previous work to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method. Further, we derive a Pythagorean theorem of the Sharpe ratio and macroscopic relations of opportunity loss. Using numerical experiments, the effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated for a specific situation.
Sullivan, Tami P; McPartland, Tara; Price, Carolina; Cruza-Guet, Maria Cristina; Swan, Suzanne C
Research examining predictors or correlates of mental health problems among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships typically assesses factors that confer risk. Such research has primarily examined intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization or aggression frequency or severity as central risk factors for mental health problems. In the general population, one factor demonstrating a protective effect on mental health problems is self-efficacy. Research on self-efficacy among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships is nearly absent. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-efficacy specific to a woman's ability to manage various relationship problems (i.e., relationship self-efficacy [RSE]) played a protective role against the severity of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among 354 community-residing women who were victimized and used aggression (bidirectional IPV). Regression analyses found that RSE uniquely predicted each mental health outcome above and beyond what was accounted for by the frequency of physical, sexual, and psychological victimization and aggression. Further, RSE fully mediated the relationships between psychological victimization and each mental health outcome. If replicated, and in circumstances where it is determined safe to do so, findings suggest RSE as a promising avenue for future research to improve the health and well-being of women in bidirectionally aggressive relationships.
Takenoshita, Miho; Sato, Tomoko; Kato, Yuichi; Katagiri, Ayano; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Sato, Yusuke; Matsushima, Eisuke; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Toyofuku, Akira
Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and atypical odontalgia (AO) are two conditions involving chronic oral pain in the absence of any organic cause. Psychiatrically they can both be considered as “somatoform disorder”. From the dental point of view, however, the two disorders are quite distinct. BMS is a burning or stinging sensation in the mouth in association with a normal mucosa whereas AO is most frequently associated with a continuous pain in the teeth or in a tooth socket after extraction in the absence of any identifiable cause. Because of the absence of organic causes, BMS and AO are often regarded as psychogenic conditions, although the relationship between oral pain and psychologic factors is still unclear. Some studies have analyzed the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with chronic oral pain who have been referred from dental facilities to psychiatric facilities. No study to date has investigated patients referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities. Objective To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses of chronic oral pain patients, diagnosed with BMS and AO, and referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities. Study design Psychiatric diagnoses and disease conditions of BMS or AO were investigated in 162 patients by reviewing patients’ medical records and referral forms. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision. Results The proportion of F4 classification (neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders) in AO patients was significantly higher than in BMS patients. BMS patients were more frequently given a F3 classification (mood/affective disorders). However, 50.8% of BMS patients and 33.3% of AO patients had no specific psychiatric diagnoses. Conclusion Although BMS and AO are both chronic pain disorders occurring in the absence of any organic cause, the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with BMS and AO differ
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at determing psychopathology and personal and relationship problems in violent husband. Materials & Methods: In this cross – sectional study 230 male were selected through a multi clustral sampling from four different regions of Tehran. Then they completed Conflict Tactics Scales-2, personal and relationship Profile and Symptoms Check list-90-Revised. Based on their response to Conflict Tactics Scales-2, they were devided in to two groups. Then the psychopathological profile and personal and Relationship problems were compaired. Results: Psychopathology, personal and relationshoip Profile were drawn. It showed that violence is associated with Psychopathology and excessive personal and relationship problems in violent husband (P&le0/05. Conclusion: Violent husband in compare with nonviolent husband have more severe psychological symptomathology and more personal and relationship problems.
Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Nastaran; Kamali, Koorosh; Khaleghi, Ali; Ahmadi, Ameneh
Objective: We aimed at designing a cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents (IRCAP) and to determine its relationship with social capital, life style, and parents' personality disorders. Method: This cross sectional study was a national project implemented in all provinces of Iran. In this community-based study, using multistage cluster sampling method, we selected 1000 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in each province. The total sample size reached to 31 000. We randomly collected 170 blocks. Then, of each cluster head, we selected 6 cases including 3 cases of each gender in different age groups (6- 9 years, 10- 14 years, and 15- 18 years). The clinical psychologists instructed the participants to complete the Persian version of Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). In addition, demographic data (gender, age, education, parent education, and economic situation) and information on lifestyle, social capital, and parents' personality disorders were obtained from the participants. Discussion: IRCAP study presents a protocol for an epidemiological survey on the first estimates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents across the country. This large body of data, on a range of individual behavioural and emotional items and scores, allows us to compare the rates and patterns of deviance between urban and rural places of residence in 31 provinces of Iran with non Iranian samples surveyed with the same measures.
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
Full Text Available Objective: We aimed at designing a cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents and to determine its relationship with social capital, life style, and parents' personality disorders.Method: This cross sectional study was a national project implemented in all provinces of Iran. In this community-based study, using multistage cluster sampling method, we selected 1000 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in each province. The total sample size reached to 31 000. We randomly collected 170 blocks. Then, of each cluster head, we selected 6 cases including 3 cases of each gender in different age groups (6- 9 years, 10- 14 years, and 15- 18 years. The clinical psychologists instructed the participants to complete the Persian version of Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. In addition, demographic data (gender, age, education, parent education, and economic situation and information on lifestyle, social capital, and parents' personality disorders were obtained from the participants.Discussion: This study presents a protocol for an epidemiological survey on the first estimates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents across the country. This large body of data, on a range of individual behavioural and emotional items and scores, allows us to compare the rates and patterns of deviance between urban and rural places of residence in 31 provinces of Iran with non Iranian samples surveyed with the same measures.
Chung, Man Cheung; AlQarni, Nowf; Al Muhairi, Shamsa; Mitchell, Britt
This study examined the inter-relationship between trauma centrality, self-efficacy, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among a group of Syrian refugees living in Turkey, and whether gender would moderate the mediational effect of self-efficacy on the impact of trauma centrality on distress. Seven hundred and ninety-two Syrian refugees completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire-28, Centrality of Event Scale and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that 52% met the cutoff for PTSD. Trauma centrality was positively correlated with PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was negatively correlated with PTSD only. Gender did not moderate the mediational effect of self-efficacy on the path between trauma centrality and distress outcomes. To conclude, following exposure to traumatic events, more than half reported PTSD. Perception of the future and identity construction was affected. Signs of psychological distress were evident, alongside resilience, regardless of gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Picco, Louisa; Lau, Ying Wen; Pang, Shirlene; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Objectives To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Participants 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD. Methods Data were collected in relation to self-stigma, perceived stigma, self-esteem, functioning and quality of life. In order to examine the mediating role of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes, bootstrapping mediation analyses were used. Results Mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes was subject to the effects of self-stigma among the overall sample. Separate mediation analyses were conducted by diagnoses and showed differences in the mediating effects of self-stigma. Among the whole sample and the subsample with OCD, self-stigma mediated the relationship between perceived stigma and all psychosocial outcomes. For those with anxiety, depression and schizophrenia, the mediating effects of self-stigma were present in all relationships except (1) perceived stigma with physical health in the anxiety sample, (2) perceived stigma with social relationships in the depression sample and (3) perceived stigma with physical health in the schizophrenia sample. Conclusions The mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and various psychosocial outcomes are evident and differ across diagnoses. Interventions to address and reduce the effects of self-stigma along with targeted treatments and psychoeducation to assist people with mental illness overcome or better manage self-stigma while providing them the skills to counteract public stigma are needed. PMID:28851803
Rebello, Carina M.
This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well…
Hopwood, C J; Ansell, E B; Fehon, D C; Grilo, C M
Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear, and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited.
Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…
Ghubash, R; Hamdi, E; Bebbington, P
Dubai, an Emirate in the Gulf region, has experienced spectacular social change as a result of the exploitation of its oil reserves. The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey was designed to study the effects of this social change on the mental health of female nationals. In this paper, we approach the problem by quantifying social change in two main ways: the first focused on social change at the individual level as measured by the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire (Bebbington et al. 1993). The second examined the effect of social change at the community level by identifying areas of residence at different levels of development. We hypothesized that attitudes and behaviours markedly at odds with traditional prescriptions would be associated with high rates of psychiatric morbidity. On the individual level, the association between psychiatric morbidity and the amount of social change reflected in the behaviours and views of the subjects was not significant. However, there was a significant association between morbidity and between social attitudes and behaviours. At the community level, in contrast, the relationship between psychiatric morbidity and social change was significant: there was more psychiatric morbidity in areas at the extremes of the social change continuum. The hypothesis put forward in this study must be modified accordingly.
Ljungqvist, Ingemar; Topor, Alain; Forssell, Henrik; Svensson, Idor; Davidson, Larry
Several studies have indicated a co-occurrence between mental problems, a bad economy, and social isolation. Medical treatments focus on reducing the extent of psychiatric problems. Recent research, however, has highlighted the possible effects of social initiatives. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between severe mental illness, economic status, and social relations. a financial contribution per month was granted to 100 individuals with severe mental illnesses for a 9-month period. Assessments of the subjects were made before the start of the intervention and after 7 months' duration. A comparison group including treatment as usual only was followed using the same instruments. Significant improvements were found for depression and anxiety, social networks, and sense of self. No differences in functional level were found. Social initiatives may have treatment and other beneficial effects and should be integrated into working contextually with persons with severe mental illnesses.
Full Text Available Nicola Poloni, Daniele Zizolfi, Marta Ielmini, Roberto Pagani, Ivano Caselli, Marcello Diurni, Anna Milano, Camilla Callegari Department of Medicine and Surgery, Division of Psychiatry, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy Objective: Resilience is a multidimensional process of adaptation aimed to overcome stressful or traumatic life experiences; only in the last few years it has been considered as a personal resource in psychosis and schizophrenia. This study aimed to assess the relationship between intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience factors and schizophrenia, particularly whether and how resilience can improve the course of psychotic illness. Patients and methods: In this observational study, all patients recruited had to fulfill the following inclusion criteria: diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5; aged between 18 and 65 years; provided written informed consent; to be clinically stable (Clinical Global Impression Scale <3; history of illness ≥5 years; to be compliant with antipsychotic therapy over the last year; and regular submission to periodic monthly psychiatric visits. Patients were evaluated through the following scales: Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA for resilience; Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Anchored version (BPRS-A, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS for psychotic symptomatology; and Life Skills Profile (LSP for psychosocial functioning. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS. Partial correlations were evaluated to assess the relationship between RSA total scores and subscores and BPRS-A, SANS, SAPS, and LSP total scores, removing the common variance among variables. Then, a series of hierarchical multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association between resilience, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning. Results: A statistically significant
Pamela Wicker; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos; Christoph Breuer
According to the resource dependence theory, organisations draw upon interorganisational relationships to address the need for additional resources. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether sport clubs with serious resource problems regarding members, human resources (volunteers and
Kahler, Christopher W; Leventhal, Adam M; Daughters, Stacey B; Clark, Melissa A; Colby, Suzanne M; Ramsey, Susan E; Boergers, Julie; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond; Buka, Stephen L
Individual differences in psychopathology and personality may associate with dependence on smoking for specific motivational reasons. However, the associations among psychopathology, personality, and smoking dependence and motives have not been examined simultaneously in studies to date, leaving it unclear whether specific patterns of affective and behavioral functioning are associated with specific aspects of smoking dependence. The present study examined these associations in 296 current smokers aged 35-43 years. Smoking dependence and motives were assessed with structured interview, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives. Regardless of the measure of smoking dependence tested, a lifetime history of major depression and high levels of trait stress reaction were consistently related to greater current smoking dependence severity. Substance dependence showed significant associations with some measures of smoking dependence but had relatively few effects when entered in models along with depression history and trait stress reaction. In multivariate models, alcohol dependence and conduct disorder history did not show unique significant associations with smoking dependence nor did trait aggression, alienation, control, or harm avoidance. Results indicate little specificity in the associations of particular psychiatric diagnoses or personality traits with specific self-reported facets of smoking dependence. It appears that a general vulnerability to depression and negative emotions is the most robust indicator of vulnerability to high levels of self-reported smoking dependence, regardless of which dimensions of smoking dependence are analyzed.
D. Agus Harjito
Full Text Available This study investigates the substitution relationship (substitutability between debt policy, insider ownership, and dividend policy as the agency problem control mechanism in Malaysia. If the substitution relationship exists between the agency control mechanisms, the agency problem can be reduced through this relationship. Reducing the agency problem as a result can increase the firm value proxied by Tobin’s Q. This study employs 396 firms sample listed on Malaysian Bourse from 2001 to 2004. To achieves the objectives, this study uses two-stage least square method. The results of this study indicate that the substitutability between debt policy, insider ownership, and dividend policy as agency problem control mechanism does not fully exist in Malaysia. Apparently the substitutability only exists for debt policy and dividend. There is no substitution between debt policy and insider ownership as well as between dividend policy and insider ownership. Key words: debt policy, insider ownership, dividend policy, agency problem, firm value
Breeman, L.D.; Van Lier, Pol; Wubbels, T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Struiksma, Chris; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, Nouchka
Teaching children with psychiatric disorders can be a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in children with psychiatric disorders, and their teachers, in special education. Teachers were trained by licensed school consultants to
Breeman, Linda D.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Wubbels, Theo; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Struiksma, A. J. Chris; Hopman, Juliette A. B.; Tick, Nouchka T.
Teaching children with psychiatric disorders can be a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in children with psychiatric disorders, and their teachers, in special education. Teachers were trained by licensed school consultants to implement positive behavior support strategies to…
Buist, K.L.; Paalman, C.H.; Branje, S.T.J.; Dekovic, M.; Reitz, E.; Verhoeven, M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, H.M.; Hale III, W.W.
The aim of the present study was to examine whether adolescents of Moroccan and Dutch origin differ concerning sibling relationship quality and to examine whether the associations between quality of the sibling relationship and level and change in externalizing and internalizing problem behavior are
Buist, K.L.; Paalman, C.H.; Branje, S.J.T.; Dekovic, M.; Reitz, E.; Verhoeven, M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, H.M.; Hale, W.W.
The aim of the present study was to examine whether adolescents of Moroccan and Dutch origin differ concerning sibling relationship quality and to examine whether the associations between quality of the sibling relationship and level and change in externalizing and internalizing problem behavior are
Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.
This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were
Bosacki, Sandra; Dane, Andrew; Marini, Zopito
This study examined whether self-esteem mediated the association between peer relationships and internalizing problems (i.e., depression and social anxiety). A total of 7290 (3756 girls) adolescents (ages 13-18 years) completed self-report measures of peer relationships, including direct and indirect victimization, social isolation, friendship…
Norberg, Melissa M; Ham, Lindsay S; Olivier, Jake; Zamboanga, Byron L; Melkonian, Alexander; Fugitt, Jessica L
Pregaming is a high-risk drinking behavior associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Quantity of alcohol consumed does not fully explain the level of problems associated with pregaming; yet, limited research has examined factors that may interact with pregaming behavior to contribute to the experience of alcohol-related problems. The current study examined whether use of two emotion regulation strategies influence pregaming's contribution to alcohol-related problems. Undergraduates (N = 1857) aged 18-25 years attending 19 different colleges completed an online survey in 2008-2009. Linear mixed models were used to test whether emotion regulation strategies moderate the association between pregaming status (pregamers vs. non/infrequent pregamers) and alcohol-related problems, when controlling for alcohol consumption, demographic covariates, and site as a random effect. Greater use of cognitive reappraisal was associated with decreased alcohol problems. Expressive suppression interacted with pregaming status. There was no relationship between pregaming status and alcohol problems for students who rarely used expression suppression; however, the relationship between pregaming status and alcohol problems was statistically significant for students who occasionally to frequently used expression suppression. Findings suggest that the relationship between pregaming and alcohol-related problems is complex. Accordingly, future studies should utilize event-level methodology to understand how emotion regulation strategies influence alcohol-related problems. Further, clinicians should tailor alcohol treatments to help students increase their use of cognitive reappraisal and decrease their use of suppression.
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the relationship between maximum principle and dynamic programming for stochastic recursive optimal control problems. Under certain differentiability conditions, relations among the adjoint processes, the generalized Hamiltonian function, and the value function are given. A linear quadratic recursive utility portfolio optimization problem in the financial engineering is discussed as an explicitly illustrated example of the main result.
Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.
Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…
Neyen, Julia; Volpe, Carolyn Ann; Selby, Edwin C.; Houtz, John C.
Two independent studies were conducted to examine the relationship of problem solving styles to parenting styles. Both studies used VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style and the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Study 1 included 173 adults recruited using Mechanical Turk and Study 2 included 131 adults recruited using Qualtrics. Data…
Glaser, Beate; Shelton, Katherine H; van den Bree, Marianne B M
Conduct problems and peer effects are among the strongest risk factors for adolescent substance use and problem use. However, it is unclear to what extent the effects of conduct problems and peer behavior interact, and whether adolescents' capacity to refuse the offer of substances may moderate such links. This study was conducted to examine relationships between conduct problems, close friends' substance use, and refusal assertiveness with adolescents' alcohol use problems, tobacco, and marijuana use. We studied a population-based sample of 1,237 individuals from the Cardiff Study of All Wales and North West of England Twins aged 11-18 years. Adolescent and mother-reported information was obtained. Statistical analyses included cross-sectional and prospective logistic regression models and family-based permutations. Conduct problems and close friends' substance use were associated with increased adolescents' substance use, whereas refusal assertiveness was associated with lower use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Peer substance use moderated the relationship between conduct problems and alcohol use problems, such that conduct problems were only related to increased risk for alcohol use problems in the presence of substance-using friends. This effect was found in both cross-sectional and prospective analyses and confirmed using the permutation approach. Reduced opportunities for interaction with alcohol-using peers may lower the risk of alcohol use problems in adolescents with conduct problems. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Glaser, Beate; Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.
Purpose Conduct problems and peer effects are among the strongest risk factors for adolescent substance use and problem use. However, it is unclear to what extent the effects of conduct problems and peer behavior interact, and whether adolescents' capacity to refuse the offer of substances may moderate such links. This study was conducted to examine relationships between conduct problems, close friends' substance use, and refusal assertiveness with adolescents' alcohol use problems, tobacco, and marijuana use. Methods We studied a population-based sample of 1,237 individuals from the Cardiff Study of All Wales and North West of England Twins aged 11–18 years. Adolescent and mother-reported information was obtained. Statistical analyses included cross-sectional and prospective logistic regression models and family-based permutations. Results Conduct problems and close friends' substance use were associated with increased adolescents' substance use, whereas refusal assertiveness was associated with lower use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Peer substance use moderated the relationship between conduct problems and alcohol use problems, such that conduct problems were only related to increased risk for alcohol use problems in the presence of substance-using friends. This effect was found in both cross-sectional and prospective analyses and confirmed using the permutation approach. Conclusions Reduced opportunities for interaction with alcohol-using peers may lower the risk of alcohol use problems in adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:20547290
Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O
Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score sexual problem), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale; score ≥ 15 indicates clinically significant distress), sexual satisfaction (Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction), and relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ronzitti, Silvia; Kraus, Shane W; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which stress moderated the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychopathologies. We analyzed Wave-1 data from 41,869 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression showed that as compared to a non-gambling (NG) group, individuals at-risk gambling (ARG) and problem gambling (PPG) demonstrated higher odds of multiple Axis-I and Axis-II disorders in both high- and low-stress groups. Interactions odds ratios were statistically significant for stress moderating the relationships between at-risk gambling (versus non-gambling) and Any Axis-I and Any Axis-II disorder, with substance-use and Cluster-A and Cluster-B disorders contributing significantly. Some similar patterns were observed for pathological gambling (versus non-gambling), with stress moderating relationships with Cluster-B disorders. In all cases, a stronger relationship was observed between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in the low-stress versus high-stress groups. The findings suggest that perceived stress accounts for some of the variance in the relationship between problem-gambling severity and specific forms of psychopathology, particularly with respect to lower intensity, subsyndromal levels of gambling. Findings suggest that stress may be particularly important to consider in the relationships between problem-gambling severity and substance use and Cluster-B disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hanson, Linda L Magnusson; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Näswall, Katharina; Leineweber, Constanze; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo
Sleep problems are experienced by a large part of the population. Work characteristics are potential determinants, but limited longitudinal evidence is available to date, and reverse causation is a plausible alternative. This study examines longitudinal, bidirectional relationships between work characteristics and sleep problems. Prospective cohort/two-wave panel. Sweden. 3065 working men and women approximately representative of the Swedish workforce who responded to the 2006 and 2008 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). N/A. Bidirectional relationships between, on the one hand, workplace demands, decision authority, and support, and, on the other hand, sleep disturbances (reflecting lack of sleep continuity) and awakening problems (reflecting feelings of being insufficiently restored), were investigated by structural equation modeling. All factors were modeled as latent variables and adjusted for gender, age, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and job change. Concerning sleep disturbances, the best fitting models were the "forward" causal model for demands and the "reverse" causal model for support. Regarding awakening problems, reciprocal models fitted the data best. Cross-lagged analyses indicates a weak relationship between demands at Time 1 and sleep disturbances at Time 2, a "reverse" relationship from support T1 to sleep disturbances T2, and bidirectional associations between work characteristics and awakening problems. In contrast to an earlier study on demands, control, sleep quality, and fatigue, this study suggests reverse and reciprocal in addition to the commonly hypothesized causal relationships between work characteristics and sleep problems based on a 2-year time lag.
Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A
Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children's representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children's represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children's represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm.
Poloni, Nicola; Zizolfi, Daniele; Ielmini, Marta; Pagani, Roberto; Caselli, Ivano; Diurni, Marcello; Milano, Anna; Callegari, Camilla
Resilience is a multidimensional process of adaptation aimed to overcome stressful or traumatic life experiences; only in the last few years it has been considered as a personal resource in psychosis and schizophrenia. This study aimed to assess the relationship between intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience factors and schizophrenia, particularly whether and how resilience can improve the course of psychotic illness. In this observational study, all patients recruited had to fulfill the following inclusion criteria: diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 ); aged between 18 and 65 years; provided written informed consent; to be clinically stable (Clinical Global Impression Scale SPSS. Partial correlations were evaluated to assess the relationship between RSA total scores and subscores and BPRS-A, SANS, SAPS, and LSP total scores, removing the common variance among variables. Then, a series of hierarchical multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association between resilience, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning. A statistically significant negative correlation among intrapersonal resilience factors and BPRS-A total score emerged, predicting psychiatric symptoms severity and explaining approximately 31% of the BPRS-A variance; otherwise, only the interpersonal resilience factors associated with social support were statistically and positively correlated with LSP total score, predicting psychosocial functioning and explaining the 11% of LSP variance. The specific contribution that resilience factors may have in predicting the severity of symptoms and the extent of psychosocial functioning emphasizes the importance of personalizing treatment for patients affected by schizophrenia, promoting personal resources, and translating them into better outcomes.
Rebello, Carina M.
This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well as approaches and strategies for solving argumentative physics problems across multiple physics topics. Participants were assigned via stratified sampling to one of three conditions (control, guided construct, or guided evaluate) based on gender and pre-test scores on a conceptual instrument. The guided construct and guided evaluate groups received tasks and prompts drawn from literature to facilitate argument construction or evaluation. Using a multiple case study design, with each condition serving as a case, interviews were conducted consisting of a think-aloud problem solving session paired with a semi-structured interview. The analysis of problem solving strategies was guided by the theoretical framework on epistemic games adapted by Tuminaro and Redish (2007). This study provides empirical evidence that integration of written argumentation into physics problems can potentially improve the conceptual quality of solutions, expand their repertoire of problem solving strategies and show promise for addressing the gender gap in physics. The study suggests further avenues for research in this area and implications for designing and implementing argumentation tasks in introductory college physics.
Buist, Kirsten L; Vermande, Marjolijn
The present study is the first to examine patterns in sibling relationship quality and the associations of these patterns with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior, as well as self-perceived competence, in middle childhood. Self-report questionnaires (e.g., Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, Self-Perception Profile for Children, Youth Self Report) were administered among 1,670 Dutch children (Mage = 11.40 years, SD = .83) attending 51 different Dutch schools. Three sibling relationship clusters were found: a conflictual cluster (low on warmth, high on conflict), an affect-intense cluster (above average on warmth and conflict), and a harmonious cluster (high on warmth, low on conflict). Sister pairs were underrepresented in the conflictual cluster and overrepresented in the harmonious cluster. Children with conflictual sibling relationships reported significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems, and lower academic and social competence and global self-worth, than children with harmonious sibling relationships. Children with affect-intense sibling relationships reported less aggression and better social competence than children with conflictual sibling relationships. Our findings indicate that it is fruitful to combine indices of sibling warmth and conflict to examine sibling relationship types. Relationship types differed significantly concerning internalizing and externalizing problems, but also concerning self-perceived competence. These findings extend our knowledge about sibling relationship types and their impact on different aspects of child adjustment. Whereas harmonious sibling relationships are the most beneficial for adjustment, sibling conflict mainly has a negative effect on adjustment in combination with lack of sibling warmth. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Kramer, Ueli; Stulz, Niklaus; Berthoud, Laurent; Caspar, Franz; Marquet, Pierre; Kolly, Stéphane; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas
There is little research on short-term treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD). While the core changes may occur only in long-term treatments, short-term treatments may enable the study of early generic processes of engagement in therapy and thus inform about effective treatment components. It was shown that a 10-session version of a psychiatric treatment was effective in reducing borderline symptoms at the end of this treatment [Kramer, U., Kolly, S., Berthoud, L., Keller, S., Preisig, M., Caspar, F., … Despland, J.-N. (2014). Effects of motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in a ten-session general psychiatric treatment for borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83, 176-186.]. Also, it was demonstrated in a randomized design that adding the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR), following an individualized case formulation based on Plan Analysis, further increased general outcome after session 10 and had a positive effect on the early changes in self-esteem and alliance. The present study focuses on the follow-up period after this initial treatment, examining treatment density and outcomes after 6 months and service utilization after 12 months. Outcome was measured using the OQ-45. Results on a sub-sample of N = 40 patients with available OQ-45 data at follow-up (n = 21 for MOTR-treatment, n = 19 for comparison treatment) showed maintenance of gains over the follow-up period, which did not differ between both conditions. It appeared for this sample that MOTR treatments, while using the same number of sessions, lasted more weeks (i.e., lower treatment density, defined as the number of sessions per week), when compared to the treatments without MOTR. Density marginally predicted symptom reduction at follow-up. Patients in MOTR treatments had a greater likelihood of entering structured psychotherapy after the initial sessions than patients in the comparison
Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N
This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se.
Parent-Boursier, Claudel; Hébert, Martine
While the influence of mother-child relationships on children's recovery following sexual abuse has been documented, less is known about the possible contribution of father-child relationships on outcomes. The present study explored the contribution of children's perception of security in their relationship to the father on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, while controlling for sociodemographic variables and variables associated with the mother-child relationship. Participants were 142 children who disclosed sexual abuse involving a perpetrator other than the biological father. Regression analyses indicated that children's perception of security to fathers contributed to the prediction of parental reports of children's behavior problems, even after controlling for maternal psychological distress and perception of security to mothers.
McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is efficacious, but there remains individual variability in outcomes. Patient's interpersonal problems may affect treatment outcomes, either directly or through a relationship mediated by helping alliance. Interpersonal problems may affect alliance and outcomes differentially in individual and group (CBGT) treatments. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between interpersonal problems, alliance, dropout and outcomes for a clinical sample receiving either individual or group CBT for anxiety or depression in a community clinic. Patients receiving individual CBT (N=84) or CBGT (N=115) completed measures of interpersonal problems, alliance, and disorder specific symptoms at the commencement and completion of CBT. In CBGT higher pre-treatment interpersonal problems were associated with increased risk of dropout and poorer outcomes. This relationship was not mediated by alliance. In individual CBT those who reported higher alliance were more likely to complete treatment, although alliance was not associated with symptom change, and interpersonal problems were not related to attrition or outcome. Allocation to group and individual therapy was non-random, so selection bias may have influenced these results. Some analyses were only powered to detect large effects. Helping alliance ratings were high, so range restriction may have obscured the relationship between helping alliance, attrition and outcomes. Pre-treatment interpersonal problems increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes in CBGT, but not in individual CBT, and this relationship is not mediated by helping alliance. Stronger alliance is associated with treatment completion in individual, but not group CBT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Miller-Lewis, Lauren R; Sawyer, Alyssa CP; Searle, Amelia K; Mittinty, Murthy N; Sawyer, Michael G; Lynch, John W
Background This longitudinal study classified groups of children experiencing different trajectories of student-teacher relationship quality over the transition from preschool into school, and determined the strength of the association between different student-teacher relationship trajectories and childhood mental health problems in the second year of primary school. Methods A community sample of 460 Australian children were assessed in preschool (age 4), the first school year (age 5), and s...
Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore; Di Fratello, Carla; Giordano, Cecilia; Kivlighan, Dennis M
Groups are more effective when positive bonds are established and interpersonal conflicts resolved in early sessions and work is accomplished in later sessions. Previous research has provided mixed support for this group development model. We performed a test of this theoretical perspective using group members' (actors) and aggregated group members' (partners) perceptions of positive bonding, positive working, and negative group relationships measured early and late in interpersonal growth groups. Participants were 325 Italian graduate students randomly (within semester) assigned to 1 of 16 interpersonal growth groups. Groups met for 9 weeks with experienced psychologists using Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) interpersonal process model. Outcome was assessed pre- and posttreatment using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and group relationships were measured at Sessions 3 and 6 using the Group Questionnaire. As hypothesized, early measures of positive bonding and late measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were positively related to improved interpersonal problems. Also as hypothesized, late measures of positive bonding and early measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were negatively related to improved interpersonal problems. We also found that early actor and partner positive bonding and negative relationships interacted to predict changes in interpersonal problems. The findings are consistent with group development theory and suggest that group therapists focus on group-as-a-whole positive bonding relationships in early group sessions and on group-as-a-whole positive working relationships in later group sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
This study analyses the relationship between low self-esteem and problem behaviour, social competence and academic achievement among students in lower secondary schools in Norway. 2164 students in 11 lower secondary schools filled in a self-evaluation scale on self-esteem (Harter 1999). Teachers evaluated the same students using the problem-behaviour-scale, social competence scale and academic achievement scale developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990). Correlations were computed between each f...
McCormack, Abby; Shorter, Gillian W; Griffiths, Mark D
Background and aims Online gambling participation is increasing rapidly, with relatively little research about the possible effects of different gambling activities on problem gambling behaviour. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the participation in online gambling activities and the relationship with problem gambling among an international sample of online gamblers. Methods An online gambling survey was posted on 32 international gambling websites and resulted in 1,119 respondents over a four-month period. Results Poker was the most popular gambling activity online. A number of online activities were associated with problem gambling, including: roulette, poker, horse race betting, sports betting, spread betting and fruit (slot) machines. Not surprisingly, those that gambled on these activities regularly (except poker) were more likely to be a problem gambler, however, what is interesting is that the reverse is true for poker players; those that gambled regularly on poker were less likely to be a problem gambler compared to the non-regular poker players. The majority of the players also gambled offline, but there was no relationship between problem gambling and whether or not a person also gambled offline. Discussion Problem gambling is associated more with certain online gambling activities than others, and those gambling on two or more activities online were more likely to be a problem gambler. Conclusion This paper can help explain the impact different online gambling activities may have on gambling behaviour. Consideration needs to be given to the gambling activity when developing and implementing treatment programmes.
Hinton, Devon E; Kredlow, M Alexandra; Pich, Vuth; Bui, Eric; Hofmann, Stefan G
This article describes a culturally sensitive questionnaire for the assessment of the effects of trauma in the Cambodian refugee population, the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI), and gives the results of a survey with the instrument. The survey examined the relationship of the CSSI, the two CSSI subscales, and the CSSI items to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and self-perceived functioning. A total of 226 traumatized Cambodian refugees were assessed at a psychiatric clinic in Lowell, MA, USA. There was a high correlation of the CSSI, the CSSI somatic and syndrome scales, and all the CSSI items to the PTSD Checklist (PCL), a measure of PTSD severity. All the CSSI items varied greatly across three levels of PTSD severity, and patients with higher levels of PTSD had very high scores on certain CSSI-assessed somatic items such as dizziness, orthostatic dizziness (upon standing), and headache, and on certain CSSI-assessed cultural syndromes such as khyâl attacks, "fear of fainting and dying upon standing up," and "thinking a lot." The CSSI was more highly correlated than the PCL to self-perceived disability assessed by the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12). The study demonstrates that the somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes described by the CSSI form a central part of the Cambodian refugee trauma ontology. The survey indicates that locally salient somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes need be profiled to adequately assess the effects of trauma.
Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Kang; Wang, Tzong-Shi; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Huang, San-Yuan
The relationship between military absenteeism and mental health problems has been noted; however, factors affecting military absenteeism by enlisted personnel have not been studied systematically. In a medical center in Taiwan, we performed a chart review of 26 forensic psychiatric evaluations of enlisted personnel who were absent without leave (AWOL) or deserted their service from 1994 to 2014. The findings showed that many of these recruits had a lower level of education (50.00% had just nine years of education), intellectual disability (46.15%), depressive disorders (30.76%), and suicidal ideation (53.85%). Depressive disorder was overrepresented in comparison with findings in a previous study. Further study is needed to confirm whether psychiatric screening before service enlistment and early psychiatric intervention for service members with mental illness or emotional disturbance could help in the prevention of desertion or going AWOL. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Stephens, Cristina; Westmaas, J Lee; Kim, Jihye; Cannady, Rachel; Stein, Kevin
Research suggests that a cancer diagnosis predicts marital dissolution more strongly for women survivors than men, but there is a paucity of research on potential processes underlying this vulnerability. The present cross-sectional study examined whether specific cancer-related problems were associated with the odds of relationship breakup following diagnosis and whether these relationships differed between male and female cancer survivors. A national cross-sectional quality of life study assessed self-reported cancer-related problems and relationship change among survivors who were either 2, 6, or 10 years post-diagnosis (n = 6099). Bivariate analyses indicated that cancer-related problems (e.g., emotional distress) were greater for divorced/separated survivors compared to those with intact relationships and were greater for women versus men. Logistic regressions indicated that for both male and female survivors, lower income, younger age, and longer time since diagnosis were associated with greater odds of divorce or separation after diagnosis (ORs > 2.14, p emotional distress (OR = 1.14, p divorce or separation. For men only, fear of cancer recurrence was associated with greater odds of divorce or separation (OR = 1.32, p emotional or financial/employment problems attributed to the cancer diagnosis were associated with the likelihood of reporting relationship dissolution. Although directions of causality could not be ascertained, results suggest the possibility that helping male and female cancer survivors cope with specific cancer-related problems may benefit the quality and stability of their relationships with significant others following diagnosis.
Cobanoglu Aktan, Derya
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' qualitative problem solving and conceptual understanding of electricity. For the analysis data were collected from observations of group problem solving, from their homework artifacts, and from semi-structured interviews. The data for six undergraduate students were analyzed by qualitative research methods. The students in the study were found to use tools (such as computer simulations and formulas) differently from one another, and they made different levels of interpretations for the electricity representations. Consequently each student had different problem solving strategies. The students exhibited a wide range of levels of understanding of the electricity concepts. It was found that students' conceptual understandings and their problem solving strategies were closely linked with one another. The students who tended to use multiple tools to make high level interpretations for representations to arrive at a single solution exhibited a higher level of understanding than the students who tended to use tools to make low level interpretations to reach a solution. This study demonstrates a relationship between conceptual understanding and problem solving strategies. Similar to the results of the existing research on students' quantitative problem solving, it was found that students were able to give correct answers to some problems without fully understanding the concepts behind the problem. However, some problems required a conceptual understanding in order for a student to arrive at a correct answer. An implication of this study is that careful selection of qualitative questions is necessary for capturing high levels of conceptual understanding. Additionally, conceptual understanding among some types of problem solvers can be improved by activities or tasks that can help them reflect on their problem solving strategies and the tools they use.
Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems.
Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li
Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. Results According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). Conclusion The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors. PMID:23730484
Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li; Kim, Yeon Pyo
The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors.
This study aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and problem solving. The sample set of the research was taken from the Faculty of Education of Mugla University by the random sampling method. The participants were 386 students--prospective teachers--(224 females; 182 males) who took part in the study voluntarily.…
Özbek, E.; Bongers, I.L.; Lobbestael, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball
Mutlu Gö?men, Nejla; Güle?, Selma
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between classroom teachers' perception of mobbing phenomenon and their problem solving skills. The sample of the study is composed of 208 classroom teachers working in the primary schools in the Osmangazi district of Bursa during the 2013-2014 educational year. The data required for the…
van der Giessen, D.
Adolescence is a developmental phase that is marked by profound transformations in parent-adolescent relationships and it is a rather sensitive period for the development of psychosocial problems. The purpose of the current dissertation was to understand longitudinal associations between
Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna; Watkin, Peter; Worsfold, Sarah; Kennedy, Colin
Background: There are well-replicated findings that link poor development on a range of communication skills with increased behavioural problems. This paper examines this relationship in children with hearing loss. Method: One hundred and twenty children with hearing loss (67 boys, 53 girls) and 63 hearing children (37 boys, 26 girls) with a mean…
Koklukaya, Ayse Nesibe; Guven Yildirim, Ezgi; Selvi, Mahmut
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the awareness level of preservice science teachers' conscious use of technological devices, which cause electromagnetic pollution, and their awareness level of related environmental problems. Research Methods: In this study, a mixed design method was used. A relational…
Aim: To assess the influence of a graduate-entry PBL (problem-based learning) curriculum on individual learning style; and to investigate the relationship between learning style, academic achievement and clinical reasoning skill. Method: Subjects were first-year medical students completed the Study Process Questionnaire at the commencement, and…
Cormier, Damien C.; Yeo, Seungsoo; Christ, Theodore J.; Offrey, Laura D.; Pratt, Katherine
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship of mathematics calculation rate (curriculum-based measurement of mathematics; CBM-M), reading rate (curriculum-based measurement of reading; CBM-R), and mathematics application and problem solving skills (mathematics screener) among students at four levels of proficiency on a statewide…
Spirito, Anthony; Erickson, Marilyn T.
Rational-Emotive Therapy states that maladaptive behaviors and emotional problems are the result of certain irrational beliefs that people hold and a number of empirical investigations with adult subjects have supported this claim. To determine whether the relationship between irrationality and psychological adjustment holds for adolescents, one…
Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Sterns, Harvey L.
One hundred and sixty-two subjects of three age levels were tested to examine the relationship between crystallized and fluid abilities and three problem solving tasks varying in the abstractness/concreteness of their stimuli and emphasis on past experience. These dimensions have been used by Davis to distinguish between Type "O" and Type "C"…
Mumford, Michael D; Waples, Ethan P; Antes, Alison L; Brown, Ryan P; Connelly, Shane; Murphy, Stephen T; Devenport, Lynn D
Students of creativity have long been interested in the relationship between creativity and deviant behaviors such as criminality, mental disease, and unethical behavior. In the present study we wished to examine the relationship between creative thinking skills and ethical decision-making among scientists. Accordingly, 258 doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to complete a measure of creative processing skills (e.g., problem definition, conceptual combination, idea generation) and a measure of ethical decision-making examining four domains, data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. It was found that ethical decision-making in all four of these areas was related to creative problem-solving processes with late cycle processes (e.g., idea generation and solution monitoring) proving particularly important. The implications of these findings for understanding the relationship between creative and deviant thought are discussed.
Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S
According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. . Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr.  interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.
Boyer, Nicole R S; Boyd, Kathleen A; Turner-Halliday, Fiona; Watson, Nicholas; Minnis, Helen
Children with maltreatment associated psychiatric problems are at increased risk of developing behavioural or mental health disorders. Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy (DDP) was proposed as treatment for children with maltreatment histories in the USA, however, being new to the UK little is known of its effectiveness or cost-effectiveness. As part of an exploratory study, this paper explores the feasibility of undertaking economic analysis of DDP in the UK. Feasibility for economic analysis was determined by ensuring such analysis could meet key criteria for economic evaluation. Phone interviews were conducted with professionals (therapists trained and accredited or in the process of becoming accredited DDP practitioners). Three models were developed to represent alternative methods of DDP service delivery. Once appropriate comparators were determined, economic scenarios were constructed. Cost analyses were undertaken from a societal perspective. Finally, appropriate outcome measurement was explored through clinical opinion, literature and further discussions with clinical experts. Three DDP models were constructed: DDP Full-Basic, DDP Home-Based and DDP Long-Term. Two potential comparator interventions were identified and defined as Consultation with Carers and Individual Psychotherapy. Costs of intervention completion per case were estimated to be: £6,700 (DDP Full-Basic), £7,100 (Consultations with Carers), £7,200 (DDP Home-Based), £11,400 (Individual Psychotherapy) and £14,500 (DDP Long-Term). None of the models of service delivery were found to currently measure effectiveness consistently. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was deemed an appropriate primary outcome measure, however, it does not cover all disorders DDP intends to treat and the SDQ is not a direct measure of health gain. Inclusion of quality of life measurement is required for comprehensive economic analysis. Economic analysis of DDP in the UK is feasible if vital next
Stotland, Nada L
Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.
An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy
Myers, Sonya S; Pianta, Robert C
Understanding factors associated with children's early behavioral difficulties is of vital importance to children's school success, and to the prevention of future behavior problems. Although biological factors can influence the expression of certain behaviors, the probability of children exhibiting classroom behavior problems is intensified when they are exposed to multiple risk factors, particularly negative student-teacher interactions. Children who exhibit behavior problems during early childhood and the transition to kindergarten, without intervention, can be placed on a developmental trajectory for serious behavior problems in later grades. Using a developmental systems model, this commentary provides a conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of individual and contextual factors to the development of early student-teacher relationships. Parent, teacher, and student characteristics are discussed as they are related to shaping student-teacher interactions and children's adjustment to school.
Hardy, Lyons T
Encopresis is an elimination disorder that involves symptoms of fecal incontinence in children. It affects an estimated 1.5% to 7.5% of children ages 6 to 12 and accounts for approximately 3% to 6% of psychiatric referrals. The etiology of encopresis is thought to be related to physiologic problems such as constipation; however, it is also a psychiatric diagnosis and anecdotally may have some association with psychiatric problems. Publications on this association and publications directed toward psychiatric nurses are limited. Encopresis is typically treated with nutritional and medical management along with behavioral modification. Psychiatric nurses working with patients who have encopresis in inpatient settings will have unique concerns and challenges. This article gives an overview of published literature from the past 10 years on the etiology and treatment of encopresis. Specific suggestions for inpatient psychiatric nurses based on published literature and the author's professional experience are provided.
Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja
For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to
Full Text Available Muge Bozkurt,1 Cuneyt Evren,1 Gokhan Umut,1 Bilge Evren2 1Research, Treatment and Training Center for Alcohol and Substance Dependence, Bakirkoy Prof Dr Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2Department of Psychiatry, Baltalimani State Hospital for Muskuloskeletal Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods: Participants (n=190 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results: Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients
Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li; Kim, Yeon Pyo
Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We us...
Pilarz, Alejandra Ros; Hill, Heather D
Child care instability is associated with more behavior problems in young children, but the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Theoretically, this relationship is likely to emerge, at least in part, because care instability leads to increased parenting stress. Moreover, low socioeconomic status and single-mother families may be more vulnerable to the effects of instability. This study tested these hypotheses using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (n=1,675) and structural equation modeling. Three types of child care instability were examined: long-term instability, multiplicity, and needing to use back-up arrangements. Overall, findings showed little evidence that parenting stress mediated the associations between care instability and child behavior problems among the full sample. Among single-mother and low-income families, however, needing to use back-up arrangements had small positive associations with parenting stress, which partially mediated the relationship between that type of care instability and child externalizing behavior problems.
Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke
The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Osório, Ana A C; Rossi, Natália F; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Sampaio, Adriana; Giacheti, Célia M
Several studies have documented the high prevalence of psychopathology and behavior problems in Williams syndrome (WS). However, the links between cognitive development and such symptoms need further clarification. Our study aims to expand current knowledge on levels of behavior problems and its links to cognition in a sample of Brazilian individuals with WS. A total of 25 children and adolescents with WS and their parents participated in this study. The participants' IQs were assessed with the Wechsler Scales of Intelligence (for children or adults) and parental reports of psychopathology/behavior problems were collected using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The presence of clinically significant attention problems was a main feature in our sample of children and adolescents with WS. In the children, higher IQ scores were found to be significantly associated with less externalizing problems, while in the adolescents cognitive abilities were found to be associated with less internalizing symptoms. These results provide further insight into the links between psychopathology and behavior problems and cognitive abilities in WS, and suggest the need to take age into consideration when analyzing such relationships.
Lee, Yangchool; Jeoung, Bogja
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the motor skills and the behavior problems of students with intellectual disabilities. The study participants were 117 students with intellectual disabilities who were between 7 and 25 years old (male, n=79; female, n=38) and attending special education schools in South Korea. Motor skill abilities were assessed by using the second version of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, which includes subtests in fine motor control, manual coordination, body coordination, strength, and agility. Data were analyzed with SPSS IBM 21 by using correlation and regression analyses, and the significance level was set at P Manual dexterity showed a statistically significant influence on somatic complaint and anxiety/depression, and bilateral coordination had a statistically significant influence on social problems, attention problem, and aggressive behavior. Our results showed that balance had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior, and speed and agility had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior. Upper limb coordination and strength had a statistically significant influence on social problems.
Ries, Richard K; Yuodelis-Flores, Christine; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Nilssen, Odd; Russo, Joan
This study aims to evaluate the relationship of alcohol/drug use and effect severities to the degree of suicidality in acutely admitted psychiatric patients. Both degree of substance dependency and degree of substance-induced syndrome were analyzed. In addition, length of stay, involuntary status, and against medical advice discharge status were determined as they related to these variables. Structured clinical admissions and discharge ratings were gathered from 10,667 consecutive, single-case individual records, from an urban acute care county psychiatric hospital. Data indicate that of the most severely suicidal group, 56% had substance abuse or dependence, 40% were rated as having half or more of their admission syndrome substance induced, and most had nonpsychotic diagnoses. There was an inverse relationship between degree of substance problem and length of stay. Although these patients more commonly left against medical advice, and were readmitted more frequently, they were less likely to be involuntarily committed. A large, potentially lethal, and highly expensive subgroup of patients has been characterized, which might be called the "New Revolving Door acute psychiatric inpatient." This group, which uses the most expensive level of care in the mental health system but is substantially addiction related, poses special challenges for inpatient psychiatric units, addiction treatment providers, and health care planners.
Full Text Available Miho Takenoshita1, Tomoko Sato1, Yuichi Kato1, Ayano Katagiri1, Tatsuya Yoshikawa1, Yusuke Sato2, Eisuke Matsushima3, Yoshiyuki Sasaki4, Akira Toyofuku11Psychosomatic Dentistry, 2Complete Denture Prosthodontics, 3Liaison Psychiatry and Palliative Medicine, 4Center for Education and Research in Oral Health Care, Faculty of Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS and atypical odontalgia (AO are two conditions involving chronic oral pain in the absence of any organic cause. Psychiatrically they can both be considered as “somatoform disorder”. From the dental point of view, however, the two disorders are quite distinct. BMS is a burning or stinging sensation in the mouth in association with a normal mucosa whereas AO is most frequently associated with a continuous pain in the teeth or in a tooth socket after extraction in the absence of any identifiable cause. Because of the absence of organic causes, BMS and AO are often regarded as psychogenic conditions, although the relationship between oral pain and psychologic factors is still unclear. Some studies have analyzed the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with chronic oral pain who have been referred from dental facilities to psychiatric facilities. No study to date has investigated patients referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities.Objective: To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses of chronic oral pain patients, diagnosed with BMS and AO, and referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities.Study design: Psychiatric diagnoses and disease conditions of BMS or AO were investigated in 162 patients by reviewing patients’ medical records and referral forms. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision.Results: The proportion of F4 classification (neurotic, stress
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence is frequent towards nurses in forensic mental health hospitals. Implications of this high risk environment have not been systematically explored. This paper explores occurrence of symptoms on post traumatic stress and their relationship to professional quality of life. Methods Self report questionnaires assessing symptoms of post traumatic stress and professional quality of life were distributed among psychiatric nurses in a high security forensic psychiatric unit with high frequency of violent behaviour. Relationships between post traumatic stress symptoms, forensic nursing experience, type of ward and compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue were explored. Results The prevalence of post traumatic stress symptoms was low. Low scores were found on compassion satisfaction. Length of psychiatric nursing experience and low scores on compassion satisfaction were correlated to increased post traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusion Although high violence frequency, low rate of post traumatic stress symptoms and low compassion satisfaction scores was found. High staff/patient ratio and emotional distance between staff and patients are discussed as protective factors.
Lauvrud, Christian; Nonstad, Kåre; Palmstierna, Tom
Background Violence is frequent towards nurses in forensic mental health hospitals. Implications of this high risk environment have not been systematically explored. This paper explores occurrence of symptoms on post traumatic stress and their relationship to professional quality of life. Methods Self report questionnaires assessing symptoms of post traumatic stress and professional quality of life were distributed among psychiatric nurses in a high security forensic psychiatric unit with high frequency of violent behaviour. Relationships between post traumatic stress symptoms, forensic nursing experience, type of ward and compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue were explored. Results The prevalence of post traumatic stress symptoms was low. Low scores were found on compassion satisfaction. Length of psychiatric nursing experience and low scores on compassion satisfaction were correlated to increased post traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusion Although high violence frequency, low rate of post traumatic stress symptoms and low compassion satisfaction scores was found. High staff/patient ratio and emotional distance between staff and patients are discussed as protective factors. PMID:19371413
In this thesis we explored the relationship between poor educational achievement and psychopathology. Examining the association between educational achievement and mental health problems and development of psychiatric disorders is important to investigate the potential value of educational
Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem and is associated with many complications. However little is known about the psychiatric sequelae of TBI in Nigeria. This study described the pattern and determinants of psychiatric sequelae among subjects with TBI. Materials and Methods: The study is a ...
Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M-C; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Dagens, Véronique; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Debourg, Alain; Amzallag, Corinne; Cazas, Odile; Cammas, Rafaële; Klopfert, Marie-Emmanuelle; Rainelli, Christine; Tielemans, Pascale; Mertens, Claudine; Maron, Michel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Poinso, François
Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with mother-child separation at discharge, after joint hospitalization in psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) in France and Belgium. Because parents with postpartum psychiatric disorders are at risk of disturbed parent-infant interactions, their infants have an increased risk of an unstable early foundation. They may be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and have a higher risk of developing some psychiatric disorders in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study of 1,018 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, jointly admitted with their infant to 16 French and Belgian psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs), used multifactorial logistic regression models to assess the risk factors for mother-child separation at discharge from MBUs. Those factors include some infant characteristics associated with personal vulnerability, parents' pathology and psychosocial context. Most children were discharged with their mothers, but 151 (15 %) were separated from their mothers at discharge. Risk factors independently associated with separation were: (1) neonatal or infant medical problems or complications; (2) maternal psychiatric disorder; (3) paternal psychiatric disorder; (4) maternal lack of good relationship with others; (5) mother receipt of disability benefits; (6) low social class. This study highlights the existence of factors other than maternal pathology that lead to decisions to separate mother and child for the child's protection in a population of mentally ill mothers jointly hospitalized with the baby in the postpartum period.
Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M.-C.; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Dagens, Véronique; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Debourg, Alain; Amzallag, Corinne; Cazas, Odile; Cammas, Rafaële; Klopfert, Marie-Emmanuelle; Rainelli, Christine; Tielemans, Pascale; Mertens, Claudine; Maron, Michel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Poinso, François
Purpose Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with mother-child separation at discharge, after joint hospitalization in psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) in France and Belgium. Because parents with postpartum psychiatric disorders are at risk of disturbed parent-infant interactions, their infants have an increased risk of an unstable early foundation. They may be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and have a higher risk of developing some psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: This prospective longitudinal study of 1018 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, jointly admitted with their infant, to 16 French and Belgian psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs), used multifactorial logistic regression models to assess the risk factors for mother-child separation at discharge from MBUs. Those factors include some infant characteristics associated with personal vulnerability, parents’ pathology and psychosocial context. Results Most children were discharged with their mothers, but 151 (15%) were separated from their mothers at discharge. Risk factors independently associated with separation were: i) neonatal or infant medical problems or complications; ii) maternal psychiatric disorder; iii) paternal psychiatric disorder; iv) maternal lack of good relationships with others; v) mother receipt of disability benefits; vi) low social class. Conclusions This study highlights the existence of factors other than maternal pathology that lead to decisions to separate mother and child for the child’s protection in a population of mentally ill mothers jointly hospitalized with the baby in the postpartum period. PMID:22706788
Bram P Prins
Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is associated with immune, cardiometabolic, and psychiatric traits and diseases. Yet it is inconclusive whether these associations are causal.We performed Mendelian randomization (MR analyses using two genetic risk scores (GRSs as instrumental variables (IVs. The first GRS consisted of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CRP gene (GRSCRP, and the second consisted of 18 SNPs that were significantly associated with CRP levels in the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS to date (GRSGWAS. To optimize power, we used summary statistics from GWAS consortia and tested the association of these two GRSs with 32 complex somatic and psychiatric outcomes, with up to 123,865 participants per outcome from populations of European ancestry. We performed heterogeneity tests to disentangle the pleiotropic effect of IVs. A Bonferroni-corrected significance level of less than 0.0016 was considered statistically significant. An observed p-value equal to or less than 0.05 was considered nominally significant evidence for a potential causal association, yet to be confirmed. The strengths (F-statistics of the IVs were 31.92-3,761.29 and 82.32-9,403.21 for GRSCRP and GRSGWAS, respectively. CRP GRSGWAS showed a statistically significant protective relationship of a 10% genetically elevated CRP level with the risk of schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR] 0.86 [95% CI 0.79-0.94]; p < 0.001. We validated this finding with individual-level genotype data from the schizophrenia GWAS (OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.94-0.98]; p < 1.72 × 10-6. Further, we found that a standardized CRP polygenic risk score (CRPPRS at p-value thresholds of 1 × 10-4, 0.001, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 using individual-level data also showed a protective effect (OR < 1.00 against schizophrenia; the first CRPPRS (built of SNPs with p < 1 × 10-4 showed a statistically significant (p < 2.45 × 10-4 protective effect with an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99. The CRP GRSGWAS showed that a
Pan, Lisa A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Rooks, Brian T.; Hickey, Mary; Fan, Jie Yu; Merranko, John; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim S.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Hafeman, Daniella; Iyengar, Satish; Goldstein, Benjamin; Kupfer, David J.; Axelson, David; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris
Background Previous studies have explored the role of stressful life events in the development of mood disorders. We examined the frequency and nature of stressful life events as measured by the Stressful Life Events Scale(SLES) among three groups of adolescent offspring of probands: with bipolar(BD), with non-BD psychiatric disorders, and healthy control(HC). Furthermore, we examined the relationship between stressful life events and presence of DSM-IV Axis I disorders in these offspring. Stressful life events were characterized as dependent, independent, or uncertain (neither dependent or independent), and positive, negative, and neutral (neither positive or negative). Method Offspring of probands with BD aged 13–18 years(N=269), demographically-matched offspring of probands with non-BD Axis I disorders(N=88), and HC probands(N=81) from the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study were assessed from 2002–2007 with standardized instruments at intake. Probands completed the SLES for their offspring for life events within the prior year. Life events were evaluated with regard to current offspring Axis I diagnoses after adjusting for confounds. Results After adjusting for demographic and clinical between-group differences(in probands and offspring), offspring of BD probands had greater independent and neutral life events compared with HC offspring and greater number of more severe stressful life events than HC offspring, but not non-BD offspring. Offspring of BD probands with comorbid substance use disorder reported more independent stressful life events. Greater frequency and severity of stressful life events were associated with current Axis I disorder in offspring of both BD and non-BD affected probands regardless of dependency or valence. Greater frequency and severity of stressful life events were associated with greater current Axis I disorder in all offspring. Conclusions Offspring of BD probands have greater exposure to independent and neutral life events than
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between gender and the temperamental characteristics of children between the ages of five and six, as well as to assess their behavioural problems. The sample included 128 children selected by simple random sampling from 5-6 year old children, receiving preschool education in the city centre of Izmir province in Turkey. Of the children, 65 were girls (50.8% and 63 (49.2% were boys. The data collection instruments were the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales and the Short Temperament Scale for Children, respectively. The results of this study reveal that there is no significiant difference between gender and the child temperament subscales of approach/withdrawal; persistence and rhythmicity; and a child's behavioural problems, respectively. However, the gender of the children was found to be significantly related to the reactivity sub-dimension of their temperament (p < 0.05. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the temperament subscale of reactivity and externalising problems subscale of behavioural problems (p < 0.05. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between the persistence temperament dimension and the behavioural problem dimension of self-centredness (p < 0.05. In the opinion of the researcher, it is important to know the children's personality features, monitor their behaviour, and take respective measures when necessary. These research results contributed positively to this end.
Flouri, E; Narayanan, M K; Midouhas, E
Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross-lagged relationship between father absence (non-residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2-4). The sample was 15,293 families in which both biological parents were co-resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut-offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut-off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross-lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Narayanan, M. K.; Midouhas, E.
Abstract Background Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross‐lagged relationship between father absence (non‐residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. Methods We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2–4). The sample was 15 293 families in which both biological parents were co‐resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut‐offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Results Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut‐off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross‐lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Conclusions Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. PMID:25708874
Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Bloomfield, Kim; Tolstrup, Janne
AIMS: To test the hypothesis that young people with perceived parental alcohol problems have poorer parent-child relationships and more emotional symptoms, low self-esteem, loneliness, and depression than young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... internalizing problems such as emotional symptoms, depression, self-esteem, loneliness and aspects of the parent-child relationship. The main predictor variable was perceived parental alcohol problems, including the severity of the perceived problems and living with a parent with alcohol problems. Control...... using data from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. SETTING: DENMARK: PARTICIPANTS: 71.988 high school and vocational school students (aged 12-25, nested in 119 schools and 3.186 school classes) recruited throughout 2014. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome variables included...
Okutan, Nur; Buyuksahin Sunal, Ayda; Sakalli Ugurlu, Nuray
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men/lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect [EVLN] responses) and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized homophobia was associated with EVLN responses and perceived partner's EVLN responses for gay men and lesbians. Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale-Accommodation Instrument, Internalized Homophobia, and Demographics Information were administered to 187 participants (44 lesbians, 44 gay men, 53 heterosexual women, 46 heterosexual men).The MANCOVA results showed that men reported higher loyalty than women, whereas women presented more exit responses than men. Further, the interactions between gender and sexual orientation on the participants' EVLN responses and on the perceived partner's EVLN responses were significant. With respect to heterosexual women, heterosexual men displayed more loyalty responses. Lesbians had higher scores on loyalty than did heterosexual women. Lesbians also had higher scores on perceived partner's exit response than did heterosexual women and gay men. On the contrary, heterosexual women reported more perceived partner's voice response than lesbians. In addition, lesbians reported higher perceived partner's neglect responses than heterosexual women. Compared to heterosexual women, heterosexual men reported higher perceived partner's exit response. Finally, internalized homophobia was associated with destructive responses for both lesbians and gay men.
Zhai, Zu Wei; Yip, Sarah W; Steinberg, Marvin A; Wampler, Jeremy; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N
The study systematically examined the relative relationships between perceived family and peer gambling and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. It also determined the likelihood of at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking as a function of the number of different social groups with perceived gambling. A multi-site high-school survey assessed gambling, alcohol use, presence of perceived excessive peer gambling (peer excess-PE), and family gambling prompting concern (family concern-FC) in 2750 high-school students. Adolescents were separately stratified into: (1) low-risk, at-risk, and problem/pathological gambling groups; and, (2) non-binge-drinking, low-frequency-binge-drinking, and high-frequency-binge-drinking groups. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to each other, FC and PE were associated with greater likelihoods of at-risk and problem/pathological gambling. However, only FC was associated with binge-drinking. Logistic regression revealed that adolescents who endorsed either FC or PE alone, compared to no endorsement, were more likely to have at-risk and problem/pathological gambling, relative to low-risk gambling. Adolescents who endorsed both FC and PE, compared to PE alone, were more likely to have problem/pathological gambling relative to low-risk and at-risk gambling. Relative to non-binge-drinking adolescents, those who endorsed both FC and PE were more likely to have low- and high-frequency-binge-drinking compared to FC alone or PE alone, respectively. Family and peer gambling individually contribute to adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. Strategies that target adolescents as well as their closely affiliated family and peer members may be an important step towards prevention of harm-associated levels of gambling and alcohol use in youths.
Feinberg, Mark E; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Hostetler, Michelle; McHale, Susan M
Siblings play a significant but neglected role in family socialization dynamics, and focusing on the sibling relationship is a non-stigmatizing point of entry into the family for prevention programming. Siblings are Special (SAS) was designed as a universal program that targets both sibling relationship and parenting mediating processes in middle childhood to prevent behavior problems in adolescence. We describe the theoretical framework underlying SAS, the SAS curriculum, and the feasibility of the program based on a study of 128 middle-childhood aged sibling dyads. Data on the quality of program implementation, program fidelity, siblings' engagement, and ratings of impact indicated the SAS program was acceptable to families and schools, that the curriculum could be implemented with high fidelity, that siblings and parents participated at high levels and were highly engaged, and that, from the perspective of group leaders, school administrators and parents, the program had a positive impact on the siblings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Ma, Julie; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge
This study investigated the role of discrepancies between parent and youth reports of perceived parental monitoring in adolescent problem behaviors with a Chilean sample (N= 850). Higher levels of discordance concerning parental monitoring predicted greater levels of maladaptive youth behaviors. A positive association between parent-youth discordance and externalizing problems indicated that large adult-youth disagreement in parental monitoring may impose a great risk, despite protective efforts of parental monitoring. Although the direct relationship between parental monitoring and youth internalizing behaviors was not significant, parent-youth incongruence in monitoring was associated with greater levels of internalizing behaviors. Therefore, differing assessments of parental behaviors, as an indicator of less optimal family functioning, may provide important information about youth maladjustment and may potentially provide a beginning point for family-focused intervention. PMID:23097593
Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R
Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.
Kumah-Crystal, Yaa A; Hood, Korey K; Ho, Yu-Xian; Lybarger, Cindy K; O'Connor, Brendan H; Rothman, Russell L; Mulvaney, Shelagh A
This study examines technology use for problem solving in diabetes and its relationship to hemoglobin A1C (A1C). A sample of 112 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed measures assessing use of technologies for diabetes problem solving, including mobile applications, social technologies, and glucose software. Hierarchical regression was performed to identify the contribution of a new nine-item Technology Use for Problem Solving in Type 1 Diabetes (TUPS) scale to A1C, considering known clinical contributors to A1C. Mean age for the sample was 14.5 (SD 1.7) years, mean A1C was 8.9% (SD 1.8%), 50% were female, and diabetes duration was 5.5 (SD 3.5) years. Cronbach's α reliability for TUPS was 0.78. In regression analyses, variables significantly associated with A1C were the socioeconomic status (β = -0.26, P Problem Solving Questionnaire (β = -0.26, P = 0.01), and TUPS (β = 0.26, P = 0.01). Aside from the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory--Revised, each block added significantly to the model R(2). The final model R(2) was 0.22 for modeling A1C (P problem solving and higher A1C. Adolescents with poorer glycemic control may use technology in a reactive, as opposed to preventive, manner. Better understanding of the nature of technology use for self-management over time is needed to guide the development of technology-mediated problem solving tools for youth with type 1 diabetes.
A large body of literature documents that children of depressed mothers have impaired cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes throughout the life course, though much less is known about the mechanisms linking maternal depression to children's outcomes. In this paper, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to estimate and explain the consequences of maternal depression for 5-year-old children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Ordinary least squared (OLS) regression models and propensity score models show that children exposed to both chronic and intermittent maternal depression have more problem behaviors than their counterparts with never depressed mothers. Results also show that economic resources and maternal parenting behaviors mediate much of the association between maternal depression and children's problem behaviors, but that relationships with romantic partners and social support do little to explain this association. This research extends past literature by illuminating some mechanisms through which maternal depression matters for children; by utilizing longitudinal measures of depression; by employing rigorous statistical techniques to lend confidence to the findings; and by using a large, diverse, and non-clinical sample of children most susceptible to maternal depression. Given that early childhood problem behaviors lay a crucial foundation for short- and long-term life trajectories, the social consequences of maternal depression may be far-reaching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo
The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.
Brunt, D; Rask, M
A questionnaire to measure the verbal and social interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities has been developed. It is an adaptation of a questionnaire originally used in a forensic psychiatric setting. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the construct validity and the reliability of this new version of the Verbal and Social Interactions questionnaire for use in supported housing facilities (VSI-SH). Two hundred and twenty-three carers from municipal and privately run housing facilities completed the questionnaire. A factor analysis was performed, which resulted in six factors. The number of items was reduced from the original 47 to 30 in order to minimize factorial complexity and multiple loadings. The reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha and good internal consistency for the questionnaire and five of the six factors was found. The resulting six factors and the items were compared to the conceptual model and four of the six factors corresponded well with the categories in this original theoretical model. The questionnaire can be a useful contribution to the study of interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients
Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.
The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…
McCann, Marie; Bayliss, Donna M; Anderson, Mike; Campbell, Catherine; French, Noel; McMichael, Judy; Reid, Corinne; Bucks, Romola S
In two studies, the relationship between sleep and working memory performance was investigated in children born very preterm (i.e., gestation less than 32 weeks) and the possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. In Study 1, parent-reported measures of snoring, night-time sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were collected on 89 children born very preterm aged 6 to 7 years. The children completed a verbal working memory task, as well as measures of processing speed and verbal storage capacity. Night-time sleep quality was found to be associated with verbal working memory performance over and above the variance associated with individual differences in processing speed and storage capacity, suggesting that poor sleep may have an impact on the executive component of working memory. Snoring and daytime sleepiness were not found to be associated with working memory performance. Study 2 introduced a direct measure of executive functioning and examined whether sleep problems would differentially impact the executive functioning of children born very preterm relative to children born to term. Parent-reported sleep problems were collected on 43 children born very preterm and 48 children born to term (aged 6 to 9 years). Problematic sleep was found to adversely impact executive functioning in the very preterm group, while no effect of sleep was found in the control group. These findings implicate executive dysfunction as a possible mechanism by which problematic sleep adversely impacts upon cognition in children born very preterm, and suggest that sleep problems can increase the cognitive vulnerability already experienced by many of these children.
Silvana, Salerno; Laura, Forcella; Ursula, Di Fabio; Irene, Figà Talamanca; Paolo, Boscolo
Patient's aggressive behavior is one of the major problem in the psychiatric ward. Here we present the preliminary results of a psychiatric ward case-study, of a public hospital in the Chieti province, in order to plan ergonomic improvement. We applied the Method of Organizational Congruencies in the psychiatric ward in order to study the relationship between organized hospital work and nurses wellbeing in a 24 hour shifts. We observed 58 main phases in the three work shifts. The technical actions are mainly those of any hospital wards (shift briefing, preparing and administering drugs, recording data on clinical charts, etc.). We found important differences mainly due to the nurses overcontrol activities on the patients behavior (preventing suicides or self destructive behavior), the occurrence of restraint procedure towards patients, the pollution due to patient's cigarette smoke. The fear of patient's self destructive behavior or other aggressive behaviour are the main cognitive and social aspects of this hospital ward. Nurses working in this psychiatric ward have to accept: locked doors, poor and polluted environment, restraint procedure with high risk of aggression and no availability of mental health care programs. A new interdisciplinary concept for ergonomics in psychiatry setting may represent a challenge for both nurses and patients and the community.
Buckner, Julia D; Matthews, Russell A
Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to experiencing alcohol-related problems; yet we know little about factors that may account for this relationship. One possibility is that socially anxious individuals hold beliefs about the impressions they make on others while drinking and these beliefs play an important role in their drinking behaviors. The present study used exploratory factor analysis among participants with clinically elevated social anxiety (n=166) to develop a measure, the Social Impressions while Drinking Scale (SIDS), to assess beliefs regarding others' impressions of drinking behaviors that may be particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals. A valuations scale was also developed to assess the importance of each belief. Empirically-derived subscales were identified with adequate reliability. Among socially anxious participants, the Gregarious and Sexual Facilitation subscales were uniquely related to drinking problems and frequency respectively. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety achieved higher scores on all SIDS subscales compared to those with lower social anxiety (n=166). Several SIDS scales mediated the relations between social anxiety group status and drinking problems (Interaction Fears, Observation Fears, Aggression, Gregariousness). Results highlight the importance of examining beliefs specific to high-risk populations in assessing their alcohol-related behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bauer, Anna E; Maegbaek, Merete L; Liu, Xiaoqin
OBJECTIVE: Postpartum psychiatric disorders are common and morbid complications of pregnancy. The authors sought to evaluate how family history of psychiatric disorders is associated with postpartum psychiatric disorders in proband mothers with and without a prior psychiatric history by assessing...
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Stinchfield, Randy; Golberstein, Ezra
This study sought to examine the impact of tobacco use on gambling treatment. Pathological gambling (PG) is a psychiatric condition associated with significant financial, emotional, and psychosocial consequences. Elevated rates of nicotine dependence have been associated with increased gambling s....... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)....
LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M
The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component.
Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M
The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...
Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Jennum, Poul Jørgen
, the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, and the ADHD Rating Scale. RESULTS: We found a moderate, positive correlation between sleep problems and impaired functioning in both children with ADHD and in typically developed children. ADHD presentations did not differ significantly with respect to sleep......OBJECTIVE: Little systematic information is available regarding how sleep problems influence daytime functioning in children with ADHD, as the role of ADHD presentations and comorbidity is unclear. METHOD: In total, 397 children were assessed with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire...... problem profile, but having a comorbid internalizing or autistic disorder lead to higher sleep problem score. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems and impaired daily functioning were more common in children with ADHD, but the overall association between sleep problems and impaired daily functioning was similar...
N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)
textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem
Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A
There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hinchliff, Gemma L M; Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Patton, George C; Williams, Joanne
This study examined the association of risky dieting amongst adolescent girls with depressed mood, family conflict, and parent-child emotional closeness. Grade 6 and 8 females (aged 11-14years, N=4031) were recruited from 231 schools in 30 communities, across three Australian States (Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia). Key measures were based on the Adolescent Dieting Scale, Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and widely used short measures of family relationship quality. Controls included age, early pubertal onset, and socioeconomic status. Risky dieting was significantly related to family conflict and depressed mood, depressed mood mediated the association of family conflict and risky dieting, and these associations remained significant with controls in the model. Family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are associated with risky dieting. Prevention programs may benefit from a broadening of behavioural targets to include depressed mood and family problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kostova, Tatiana; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hoenen, Anne Kristin
This paper proposes an agency model for headquarters-subsidiary relationships in multinational organizations with headquarters as the principal and the subsidiary as the agent. As a departure from classical agency theory, our model is developed for the unit level of analysis and considers two root...... causes of the agency problem—self-interest and bounded rationality. We argue that in the organizational setting, one cannot assume absolute self-interest and perfect rationality of agents (subsidiaries) but should allow them to vary. We explain subsidiary-level variation through a set of internal...... organizational and external social conditions in which the headquarters-subsidiary agency dyad is embedded. We then discuss several agency scenarios reflecting various levels of self-interest and rationality that lead to different manifestations of the agency problem. The proposed framework can inform more...
Peluso, Silvio; De Rosa, Anna; De Lucia, Natascia; Antenora, Antonella; Illario, Maddalena; Esposito, Marcello; De Michele, Giuseppe
Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) includes a set of nonpharmacological interventions aimed at improving human health through the use of trained or untrained animals. In recent decades, AAT has been trialed for different neurological and psychiatric disorders. In patients with dementia, interaction with animals seems to have a positive influence on aggressiveness and anxiety and to ameliorate quality of life and relationship skills. In psychiatric patients, AAT seems to increase motivation and self-esteem, improve prosocial conduct, and decrease behavioral problems. The aim of this study is to review the literature on AAT for elderly people with dementia and psychiatric disorders. Other fields of possible application for AAT are suggested.
Purpose-Since the reform and opening-up policy,the long-term problem of loans became more and more serious when China's economy maintained rapid growth.The purpose of this paper is to explore the profound causes of the medium-and long-term problem of loans and the relationship between it and economic growth.Design/methodology/approach-Using panel data for 28 provinces and cities of China during 1994-2005,this paper investigates the determinants on the maturity of bank credit using threshold panel data of Hansen.In addition,using dynamics panel data,this paper investigates the effects of the maturity structure of bank credit on economic growth.Findings-The drop of bank industry concentration tends to increase the supply of long-term loans.The raise of economic growth and the increase of industrialization degree promote the demand of long-term loans,significantly.Furthermore,the threshold effects of inflation exist.When the initial inflation is lower than 3.9 percent,the raise of inflation can increase the supply of long-term loans.When the initial inflation is higher than 3.9 percent,the raise of inflation can decrease the supply of long-term loans.The increase in the supply of long-term loans can promote the economic growth.Originality/value-The paper has two innovations:first,when studying the determinants on the maturity of bank credit,using the threshold panel approach takes account of the nonlinear adjustment of inflation;second,including the maturity of bank credit into the realm of financial development studies the relationship between this and economic growth.
Rice, Michael J
This article is the first in a new column focusing on evidence-based practice (EBP) in psychiatric mental health nursing. The EBP movement was strongly influenced by a British epidemiologist, Dr. Cochrane, who advocated care based on randomized clinical controlled trials in the late 1900s. Although the majority of the EBP movement is directed toward developing clinical guidelines, the critical element focuses on the therapeutic relationship and clinical judgment associated with providing care. This column will address a clinical problem, define PICO questions, report knowledge base searches, and present existing evidence. Recommendations will be offered for potential interventions and suggestions for evaluating clinical outcomes. Nurses can no longer view clinical studies as academic exercises discarded on graduation and not applied to the clinical setting. Conscientiously applying what is known about treatments and interventions of ethical, if not legal, value is consistent with the professional definition of care. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2008; 14(2), 107-111. DOI: 10.1177/1078390308315798.
Liljequist, Laura; Renk, Kimberly
This study examined the relationships among teachers' perceptions of students' behavioural problems and their own efficacy and psychological symptoms. Findings suggested that teachers were more bothered by externalising (i.e., acting out) than internalising (i.e., withdrawal, depression) behavioural problems in their students, and believed that…
Kwon, Jeong Yoon
The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…
Henderson, A. Davis; Sayger, Thomas V.; Horne, Arthur M.
Assesses the interacting relationship between child behavior problems, marital satisfaction, maternal depression, and family cohesion in 43 mothers and school-aged boys. Results suggest that mothers with depressive symptoms report lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of child behavior problems. Findings also suggest that maternal…
Cansoy, Ramazan; Türkoglu, Muhammet Emin
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the pre-service teachers' critical thinking disposition, problem-solving skills and self-efficacy beliefs. The participants of the study were 519 pre-service teachers from Afyon Kocatepe University, Education Faculty. Critical Thinking Disposition, Problem Solving Inventory, and…
Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D; Piek, Jan P
Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.
Cristiane Schumann Silva
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A saúde mental de gestantes é bastante discutida na literatura científica. Nesse período, a mulher passa por alterações físicas, hormonais, psicológicas e sociais e torna-se mais suscetível a problemas psíquicos. Há carência de estudos abordando a relação entre saúde mental e religiosidade nessa população. OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre prática religiosa, prevalência de diagnósticos psiquiátricos e consumo alcoólico em gestantes de Juiz de Fora. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 260 gestantes acompanhadas em Centros de Atendimentos a gestantes de Juiz de Fora, utilizando-se um questionário sociodemográfico (incluindo filiação e prática religiosa, o Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview e o Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. RESULTADOS: A maioria das gestantes era praticante de religião (60,8%. As gestantes praticantes apresentavam menor frequência (p BACKGROUND: Mental health of pregnant and postpartum women is a topic widely discussed in scientific literature. During this period, women are going through major changes in physical, hormonal, psychological and social aspects, and thus become more susceptible to psychic problems. The relationship between health and religiousness is also evident in the literature, however there are no studies examining this relationship among pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between religious practice, prevalence of psychiatric disorders, and alcohol use in pregnant women users of The Brazilian National Health System in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving 260 pregnant women of Juiz de Fora. Data collection was performed in care centers for pregnant women of the city, using a sociodemographic questionnaire (which included religious practice and religious filiation, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, and Alcohol Use Disorders
Majer, John M.; Komer, Anne C.; Jason, and Leonard A.
Objective The relationship between mental illness and human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-risk sexual behavior among persons with substance use disorders is not well established because of differences in assessing psychiatric factors (types, symptoms, severity), substance use (diagnosis, survey responses, past substance use) and HIV-risk sexual behaviors (individual measures, combination of sex/drug use risk behaviors) across studies. This study utilized a more global and dimensional aspect of psychiatric issues (problem severity), to examine the relationship with HIV-risk sexual behaviors and substance use among persons with substance use disorders. Methods Participants included 224 men and 46 women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD = 9.5). The most common substances were heroin/opiates, with 41.4% reporting use of these substances (n = 110, 110/266), while 27.8% reported using cocaine (n = 74, 74/266) and 12.8% reported using alcohol (n = 34, 34/266). Of all participants, 39 (14.4%) were identified as having high psychiatric severity (defined using the psychiatric severity score from the Addiction Severity Index), which was used as an indication of probable comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. Among these participants likely to have comorbid disorders, hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine HIV-risk sexual behaviors (number of partners and unprotected sexual behaviors in the past 30 days) in relation to psychiatric severity, substance use, and gender. Results Gender (women) and psychiatric severity (higher) were significantly related to greater HIV-risk sexual behaviors. After entering gender and substance use into the regression model, psychiatric severity accounted for another 21.9% of the variance in number of partners and 14.1% of the variance in unprotected sexual behaviors. Overall, the models accounted for 55.5% and 15.6% of the variance, respectively. A significant interaction was found for number of partners (but not
Dixon, Ramsay W; Youssef, George J; Hasking, Penelope; Yücel, Murat; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A
Several factors are associated with an increased risk of adolescent problem gambling, including positive gambling attitudes, higher levels of gambling involvement, ineffective coping strategies and unhelpful parenting practices. It is less clear, however, how these factors interact or influence each other in the development of problem gambling behavior during adolescence. The aim of the current study was to simultaneously explore these predictors, with a particular focus on the extent to which coping skills and parenting styles may moderate the expected association between gambling involvement and gambling problems. Participants were 612 high school students. The data were analyzed using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model, controlling for gender. Although several variables predicted the number of symptoms associated with problem gambling, none of them predicted the probability of displaying any problem gambling. Gambling involvement fully mediated the relationship between positive gambling attitudes and gambling problem severity. There was a significant relationship between gambling involvement and problems at any level of problem focused coping, reference to others and inconsistent discipline. However, adaptive coping styles employed by adolescents and consistent disciplinary practices by parents were buffers of gambling problems at low levels of adolescent gambling involvement, but failed to protect adolescents when their gambling involvement was high. These findings indicate that research exploring the development of gambling problems is required and imply that coping and parenting interventions may have particular utility for adolescents who are at risk of development gambling problems but who are not gambling frequently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Charrier, Annaëlle; Olliac, Bertrand; Roubertoux, Pierre; Tordjman, Sylvie
In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators) controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause-effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep-wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders). First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep-wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause–effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep–wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders. First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep–wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders.
Rakesh N Patil
Full Text Available Aim: Study of the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in children aged 5 to 14 years in a health post area of an urban slum. Objectives: (1 To study frequency of specific psychiatric disorders in the study population, (2 To study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and psychiatric morbidity. Settings and Design: The present study was conducted in one of the five health posts of an urban slum, which is a field practice area of the teaching medical institute. It was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Sample size was estimated by using 20% as a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity which was obtained from previous studies done in developing countries. Household was used as a sampling unit and systematic random sampling method was used for selecting household. Total 257 children aged 5 to 14 years were included in the study. A pre-designed, semi-structured diagnostic interview schedule based on DSM-IV criteria was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests of significance used were Chi-square and Logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in this study was 14.8%. Non-organic enuresis, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Conduct disorder, and Mental retardation were identified as the common mental health problems. Conclusions: Factors like nuclear family, parents not living together, large family size, and positive family history of psychiatric disorder were associated with psychiatric morbidity in children.
Adya Shanker Srivastava
Full Text Available Aims and objectives: Postpartum psychiatric disturbances pose a significant mental health problem in community because of their impact on parent-infant and couple relationship. This study was carried out with the aim to find out psychiatric morbidities in postpartum females during puerperium so that a proper assessment of mental health and comprehensive management can be planned. Methodology: Hundred females who had delivered in maternity ward of obstetrics and gynaecology department of Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi were evaluated for mental status on day one (i.e. day of delivery, and followed-up till four weeks postpartum period. Psychiatric evaluation was done on the basis of structured proforma containing socio-demographic details and the text revision of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for diagnosis. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS were used to assess the severity of the respective conditions. Result: Psychiatric evaluation during postpartum puerperal stage revealed that 16 (16% females had developed psychiatric morbidity. Twelve (12% cases fulfilled the criteria for major depressive disorder and four (four per cent patients had features of anxiety disorder. In 84 (84% cases, postpartum period was uneventful and no psychiatric disturbance was found.Seventy five per cent females had joint family and good family support. Conclusion: Major depressive disorder is the most common psychiatric morbidity observed in postpartum females during puerperium. The careful observation of females during postpartum puerperal stage may help in identification and proper management of mental state of such females, and also proper care of newborn.perspective.
Carpenter, Lindsey M; Hubbard, Grace B
The purpose of this article is to inform and educate psychiatric nurse practitioners about the pervasiveness of the rapidly increasing problem of cyberbullying. As more children and adolescents obtain access to the Internet, mobile devices, and social networking sites, the exposure to bullying in the virtual format increases. Cyberbullying is a growing public health concern and can affect mental health and school performance. Cyberbullying often results in a range of psychiatric symptoms and has been linked to suicide attempts and completions. The psychiatric nurse practitioner is uniquely prepared to provide a range of interventions for patients, families, and communities who have experienced cyberbullying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Prevalence of psychiatric disorders is on the rise and causing massive global health burden which myths and misconceptions about psychiatric disorders and their available treatment abound in our society. Stigma attached with these disorders is phenomenal. This leads to avoidance of the patients in seeking prompt and appropriate treatment. This demands an instant realization of the gravity of the problems related with mental health and adoption of appropriate measures to increase awareness, in both masses and the health professionals of psychiatric disorders and their scientific treatment. (author)
Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)
Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Background Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long-lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent-child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25. Method The sample included 1,382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 (M = 17.8 years, SD = 0.69) and 25 (M = 25.0 years, SD = 0.90). Perceptions of parent-child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drug dependence. Results We detected a gene-environment interaction at age 18, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent-child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association. Conclusions Gene-environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent-child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene-environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent-child relationship problems at age 18 and EXT at age 25. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene-environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. PMID:25066478
Julie, Hongki; Sanjaya, Febi; Yudhi Anggoro, Ant.
One of purposes of this study was to describe the solution profile of the junior high school students for the PISA adaptation test. The procedures conducted by researchers to achieve this objective were (1) adapting the PISA test, (2) validating the adapting PISA test, (3) asking junior high school students to do the adapting PISA test, and (4) making the students’ solution profile. The PISA problems for mathematics could be classified into four areas, namely quantity, space and shape, change and relationship, and uncertainty. The research results that would be presented in this paper were the result test for quantity, and change and relationship problems. In the adapting PISA test, there were fifteen questions that consist of two questions for the quantity group, six questions for space and shape group, three questions for the change and relationship group, and four questions for uncertainty. Subjects in this study were 18 students from 11 junior high schools in Yogyakarta, Central Java, and Banten. The type of research that used by the researchers was a qualitative research. For the first quantity problem, there were 38.89 % students who achieved level 3. For the second quantity problem, there were 88.89 % students who achieved level 2. For part a of the first change and relationship problem, there were 55.56 % students who achieved level 5. For part b of the first change and relationship problem, there were 77.78 % students who achieved level 2. For the second change and relationship problem, there were 38.89 % students who achieved level 2.
Alvergne, Alexandra; Lummaa, Virpi
The negative wealth-fertility relationship brought about by market integration remains a puzzle to classic evolutionary models. Evolutionary ecologists have argued that this phenomenon results from both stronger trade-offs between reproductive and socioeconomic success in the highest social classes and the comparison of groups rather than individuals. Indeed, studies in contemporary low fertility settings have typically used aggregated samples that may mask positive wealth-fertility relationships. Furthermore, while much evidence attests to trade-offs between reproductive and socioeconomic success, few studies have explicitly tested the idea that such constraints are intensified by market integration. Using data from Mongolia, a post-socialist nation that underwent mass privatization, we examine wealth-fertility relationships over time and across a rural-urban gradient. Among post-reproductive women, reproductive fitness is the lowest in urban areas, but increases with wealth in all regions. After liberalization, a demographic-economic paradox emerges in urban areas: while educational attainment negatively impacts female fertility in all regions, education uniquely provides socioeconomic benefits in urban contexts. As market integration progresses, socio-economic returns to education increase and women who limit their reproduction to pursue education get wealthier. The results support the view that selection favoured mechanisms that respond to opportunities for status enhancement rather than fertility maximization. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Vincent Oreste Mancini
Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.
Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Dudek, Bohdan; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Dudek, Wojciech; Garnczarek, Adrianna; Turczyn, Katarzyna
In this paper, the relation between psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in patients with skin diseases is discussed. On the one hand psychological factors (stress, negative emotions) can influence the generation and aggravation of skin disorders (urticaria, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo), on the other hand psychological disorders can result in some skin diseases (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis). In the majority of cases the quality of life is poorly estimated by patients with skin problems. Psychodermatology is divided into three categories according to the relationship between skin diseases and mental disorders: 1) psychophysiologic disorders caused by skin diseases triggering different emotional states (stress), but not directly combined with mental disorders (psoriasis, eczema); 2) primary psychiatric disorders responsible for self-induced skin disorders (trichotillomania); and 3) secondary psychiatric disorders caused by disfiguring skin (ichthyosis, acne conglobata, vitiligo), which can lead to states of fear, depression or suicidal thoughts.
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Allen, Joseph P; Evans, Meredyth A; Hare, Amanda L
This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13-14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20-22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13-14 years and at ages 20-22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20-22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Rozanov, Alexei V.
The paper is devoted to the investigation of the relationship between different methods used to derive weighting functions required to solve numerous inverse problems related to the remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere by means of scattered solar light observations. The first method commonly referred to as the forward-adjoint approach is based on a joint solution of the forward and adjoint radiative transfer equations and the second one requires the linearized forward radiative transfer equation to be solved. In the framework of the forward-adjoint method we consider two approaches commonly used to derive the weighting functions. These approaches are referenced as the 'response function' and the 'formal solution' techniques, respectively. We demonstrate here that the weighting functions derived employing the formal solution technique can also be obtained substituting the analytical representations for the direct forward and direct adjoint intensities into corresponding expressions obtained in the framework of the response function technique. The advantages and disadvantages of different techniques are discussed
DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton
Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka
This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)
Kokai, Masahiro; Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka
This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)
Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of life skills training on the mother-child relationship in mothers of children with hearing problems. The study’s procedure was experimental with pretest-posttest design employing a control group. The participants include 36 mothers of children with hearing problems in Shiraz who were selected by an available sampling method and assigned into experimental and control group, randomly; hence, each group included 18 mothers. Both groups had undergone a pre-test. The experimental group received life skills training in 12 sessions while the control group did not. After the intervention period the post-test was administered for both groups. The Roth mother-child relationship strategies scale (1961 was employed to assess the mother-child relationship strategies. The data analyses by ANCOVA showed that there was a significant effect in the mean score of mother-child relationship in mothers of children with hearing problems in the experimental group (p<0/0001 and increased the acceptance of child and reduced the overprotection, the overindulgence and the child rejection among the mothers of experimental group. Therefore, life skills training program construction and employment are highly recommendable to improve mother-child relationship strategies among mothers of children with hearing problems.
Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Loh, Pek Ru; Kane, Robert; Licari, Melissa; Hands, Beth; Oliveira, Jorge A; Piek, Jan
This study investigated the relationship between motor performance; attentional, hyperactive, and impulsive symptoms; and social problems. Correlations between parents' versus teachers' ratings of social problems and ADHD symptomatology were also examined. A total of 129 children aged 9 to 12 years were included. ADHD symptoms and social problems were identified based on Conners' Rating Scales-Revised: L, and the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development was used to assess motor skills. After controlling for ADHD symptomatology, motor skills remained a significant predictor of social problems in the teacher model but not in the parent model. After controlling for motor skills, inattentive (not hyperactive-impulsive) symptoms were a significant predictor of social problems in the parent model, whereas hyperactive-impulsive (not inattentive) symptoms were a significant predictor of social problems in the teacher model. The findings suggested that intervention strategies should consider the interaction between symptoms and environmental contexts.
Morgan, Judith K; Shaw, Daniel S; Olino, Thomas M
Whereas socialization influences in early childhood have been linked to children's emerging internalizing problems and prosocial behavior, relatively few studies have examined how NE might moderate such associations in both advantageous and maladaptive ways. Furthermore, more research is needed to evaluate the impact of sibling relationships as an influential socialization influence on these child outcomes. In the current study we examined how NE might differentially moderate the associations between quality of relationships with siblings and both internalizing problems and social skills at school entry. NE moderated the effects of positive and destructive sibling relationship quality on child internalizing problems. Specifically, for boys high on NE, more positive sibling relationship quality predicted fewer internalizing problems, but more destructive sibling conflict predicted more internalizing problems. NE also moderated the effects of destructive sibling conflict on child social skills. For boys high on NE, destructive sibling conflict predicted fewer social skills. Boys high on NE appear to show greater susceptibility to the effects of sibling socialization on child outcomes, relative to boys low on NE. The implications of these interactions are discussed with respect to differential susceptibility theory.
The aim of this study is to analyze problem solving skills of university students according to their personal characteristics. We try to find out if there is a difference in problem solving skills considering sex, class and personality harmony characteristics. Personal data form, Problem Solving Scale and Hacettepe Personality Scale are used as measurement tools. The results of the study indicate that there is no difference between male and female students in problem solving skills. Problem s...
Çiğdem Özcan, Zeynep
Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving skills. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematical problem-solving skills and the three dimensions of self-regulated learning (motivation, metacognition, and behaviour), and whether this relationship is of a predictive nature. The sample of this study consists of 323 students from two public secondary schools in Istanbul. In this study, the mathematics homework behaviour scale was administered to measure students' homework behaviours. For metacognition measurements, the mathematics metacognition skills test for students was administered to measure offline mathematical metacognitive skills, and the metacognitive experience scale was used to measure the online mathematical metacognitive experience. The internal and external motivational scales used in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test were administered to measure motivation. A hierarchic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in the study. Based on the findings, a model was formed in which 24% of the total variance in students' mathematical problem-solving skills is explained by the three sub-dimensions of the self-regulated learning model: internal motivation (13%), willingness to do homework (7%), and post-problem retrospective metacognitive experience (4%).
Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi
This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wang, A G
A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...
Wunsch, Hannah; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Johansen, Martin B
IMPORTANCE: The relationship between critical illness and psychiatric illness is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study in Denmark of critically ill patien...
Gonzalez, Vivian M; Neander, Lucía L
This study examined whether three facets of impulsivity previously shown to be associated with suicidal ideation and attempts (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance) help to account for the established association between problem solving deficits and suicidal ideation. Emerging adult college student drinkers with a history of at least passive suicidal ideation (N = 387) completed measures of problem solving, impulsivity, and suicidal ideation. A path analysis was conducted to examine the mediating role of impulsivity variables in the association between problem solving (rational problem solving, positive and negative problem orientation, and avoidance style) and suicidal ideation. Direct and indirect associations through impulsivity, particularly negative urgency, were found between problem solving and severity of suicidal ideation. Interventions aimed at teaching problem solving skills, as well as self-efficacy and optimism for solving life problems, may help to reduce impulsivity and suicidal ideation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gates, Daniel R; Yoder, E. C; Coughlan, Peter J
.... This report describes the principal-agent theory, identifies principal-agent problems in the current DoD contracting environment, discusses how the TRIM addresses these problems more effectively...
The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.
Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses are very common in prevalence. But not everyone who has a mental illness gets a psychiatric consultation. The causes are many. First, many time people don’t recognise and accept mental illnesses in them as a result of lack of insight and awareness. Secondly, even if they know they have a mental illness, they don’t feel comfortable in disclosing it. Third, after knowing that they have some problems which require help from a doctor, they don’t know whom to consult, where to consult, and how to consult. Fourth, in spite of all possible awareness, there may not be psychiatric facilities nearby. Thus, it becomes utmost necessary to discuss those factors which stop people with psychiatric illnesses to get adequate help so that remedial steps could be taken.
Morgan, Judith K.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Olino, Thomas M.
Whereas socialization influences in early childhood have been linked to children's emerging internalizing problems and prosocial behavior, relatively few studies have examined how NE might moderate such associations in both advantageous and maladaptive ways. Furthermore, more research is needed to evaluate the impact of sibling relationships as an…
Leary, Heather; Walker, Andrew; Shelton, Brett E.; Fitt, M. Harrison
Despite years of primary research on problem-based learning and literature reviews, no systematic effort has been made to analyze the relationship between tutor characteristics and student learning outcomes. In an effort to fill that gap the following meta-analysis coded 223 outcomes from 94 studies with small but positive gains for PBL students…
Agaç, Gülay; MASAL, Ercan
Related literature emphasizes that affective factors are impactful on cognitive factors. For this reason, this study aims at revealing the relationship between problem solving, which is one of metacognitive characteristics, beliefs about mathematics and learned hopelessness, which are two affective characteristics. Therefore, addressing emotional aspects together with cognitive abilities will give rise to understanding of the students’ current situation and predicting ab...
Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.
This cross-sectional study examined the relationships (using structural equation modeling) between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of complex PTSD, and other mental health problems. The participants were 92 girls recruited from
Jellesma, F.C.; Zee, M.; Koomen, H.M.Y.
In this study, we aimed to examine the associations between child-perceived teacher-child relationships, children's appraisals of interactions with their teacher, and internalizing problems. Five hundred third- to sixth-graders reported about their experiences of closeness, conflict, and negative
Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.
This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…
Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony
Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…
Davis, Eric S.; Clark, Mary Ann
In this qualitative study, eight school counselors participated in a series of reality play counseling trainings introducing techniques appropriate for counseling upper-grade elementary school students to enhance positive relationship building and problem solving skills. Participants were interviewed and their transcripts were analyzed using…
Johnson, Kaprea; Hannon, Michael D.
This study investigates the relationship between academic achievement and reports of student problem behavior from teachers, parents, and child self-reports. Participants included 108 teachers, 113 parents/caregivers, and 129 students from an urban school in the Northeast region of the United States. Results suggest parent and child reports were…
Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.
We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…
Graziano, Paulo A.; Garb, Leanna R.; Ros, Rosmary; Hart, Katie; Garcia, Alexis
Research Findings: The objective of this study was to examine the student-teacher relationship as a potential moderator of the link between executive functioning (EF) and children's early school readiness among a clinical sample of preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for the study included 139 preschool children…
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kremer, Peter J; Toumbourou, John W
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting a link between sport participation and violent behavior outside of the sporting context. However, there have been few studies that have investigated the basis of this relationship. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between sport participation, problem alcohol use, and various violent behaviors, and whether sport participation moderates relationships between problem alcohol use and violence. The sample comprised 2,262 young adults (55% female, age range at Time 1 = 17-24 years) from Victoria, Australia, surveyed in 2010 and 2012. When controlling for common risk factors, substance use, and past violence, sport participation was not associated with any violent behaviors 2 years later. However, sport participation moderated the relationship between problem alcohol use and fighting, whereby problem alcohol use was associated with engaging in fights 2 years later for sport participants, but not for nonparticipants. These findings suggest that it is not sport participation per se that influences later violence but the drinking norms or culture embedded within certain sporting contexts. Prevention approaches that address the drinking culture and social approval of excessive alcohol consumption within sporting contexts may reduce the incidence of violent behavior in the community. © The Author(s) 2015.
McCormick, Meghan P.; Turbeville, Ashley R.; Barnes, Sophie P.; McClowry, Sandee G.
Research Findings: Racial/ethnic minority low-income children with temperaments high in negative reactivity are at heightened risk for developing disruptive behavior problems. Teacher-child relationships characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict may protect against the development of disruptive behaviors in school. The…
Emery, Clifton R.
This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…
Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Ryan, Meghan M.
This study examined the relationship between attention problems and expressive language and academic readiness skills in preschool-aged children from middle-class families. Forty-three children (44% female) were assessed individually for expressive language skills and knowledge of basic academic concepts (e.g. colours, letters and numbers). The…
Bullock, Audrey N.
Problem solving in mathematics has been a goal for students for decades. In the reviewed literature, problem solving was most often treated as the dependent variable and was defined very broadly; however, few studies were found that included problem solving as a treatment or independent variable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…
Schou Andreassen, Cecilie; Billieux, Joël; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pallesen, Ståle
Over the last decade, research into "addictive technological behaviors" has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games. Correlations between symptoms of addictive technology use and mental disorder symptoms were all positive and significant, including the weak interrelationship between the two addictive technological behaviors. Age appeared to be inversely related to the addictive use of these technologies. Being male was significantly associated with addictive use of video games, whereas being female was significantly associated with addictive use of social media. Being single was positively related to both addictive social networking and video gaming. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that demographic factors explained between 11 and 12% of the variance in addictive technology use. The mental health variables explained between 7 and 15% of the variance. The study significantly adds to our understanding of mental health symptoms and their role in addictive use of modern technology, and suggests that the concept of Internet use disorder (i.e., "Internet addiction") as a unified construct is not warranted. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
سید عباس ساطوریان
Full Text Available This research was aimed to predict and investigate the relationship between parenting dimensions and child-parent relationship with internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems; and designed with descriptive-correlative method. The sample group included 413 single-child and multi-childe elementary school students in Yazd (141 single-child, 121 two-child, 101 three-child, 50 four-child and more with their parents, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Alabama Parenting Dimensions Questionnaire (APQ, Parent ـChild Relationship Scale (PCRS and also a researcher-made form for demography information, were used for data collecting. Results of a stepwise linear regression showed that among parenting skills, dimensions of “poor control”, and “physical punishment” were better predictors for internalized behavioral problems, and dimensions of “participation” and “physical punishment” were better predictors for externalized behavioral problems in children. Among subscales of PCRS, the “dependence” in boys and the “conflict” in girls were better predictors for internalizing problems, and the subscale of “conflict” in both boys and girls was a better predictor for externalizing problems.
Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin
This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Collishaw, Stephan; Gardner, Frances; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Jacqueline; Pickles, Andrew
The coincidence of historical trends in youth antisocial behavior and change in family demographics has led to speculation of a causal link, possibly mediated by declining quality of parenting and parent-child relationships. No study to date has directly assessed whether and how parenting and parent-child relationships have changed. Two national…
In this article I discuss the emergence of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) within American psychiatry and beyond in the postwar period, setting out what I believe to be important and suggestive questions neglected in existing scholarship. Tracing the nomenclature within successive editions of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), I consider the reification of the term ‘FSD’, and the activism and scholarship that the rise of the category has occasioned. I suggest that analysis of FSD benefits from scrutiny of a wider range of sources (especially since the popular and scientific cross-pollinate). I explore the multiplicity of FSD that emerges when one examines this wider range, but I also underscore a reinscribing of anxieties about psychogenic aetiologies. I then argue that what makes the FSD case additionally interesting, over and above other conditions with a contested status, is the historically complex relationship between psychiatry and feminism that is at work in contemporary debates. I suggest that existing literature on FSD has not yet posed some of the most important and salient questions at stake in writing about women’s sexual problems in this period, and can only do this when the relationship between ‘second-wave’ feminism, ‘post-feminism’, psychiatry and psychoanalysis becomes part of the terrain to be analysed, rather than the medium through which analysis is conducted. PMID:23355764
Recent receptor studies of psychiatric disorders using PET have been focused on the change in the number of D 2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. One study confirmed an increase in D 2 receptors, while another study denied it. Although there were some differences in the approaches of the two groups, the reason for the discrepancy is not clear yet. Looking to psychiatric disorders other than schizophrenia, our recent study revealed a possible role of dopamine D 1 receptors in bipolar mood disorders. However, some problems must be resolved for further receptor studies with PET. For example, our recent study shows that desipamine decreases the in vivo binding of dopramine D 1 and D 2 receptors whereas these is no effect on dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors in vitro. Additionally significant methodological problems lie in the method of evaluation of the non-specific binding and the effect of endogenous neurotransmitters. Moreover, difficulties in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and ethical problems in psychiatric research are critical factors in receptor studies with PET in psychiatric disorders. (author)
Sharpe, Helen; Patalay, Praveetha; Fink, Elian; Vostanis, Panos; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda
Quality of life is typically reduced in children with mental health problems. Understanding the relationship between quality of life and mental health problems and the factors that moderate this association is a pressing priority. This was a cross-sectional study involving 45,398 children aged 8-13 years from 880 schools in England. Self-reported quality of life was assessed using nine items from the KIDSCREEN-10 and mental health was assessed using the Me and My School Questionnaire. Demographic information (gender, age, ethnicity, socio-economic status) was also recorded. Quality of life was highest in children with no problems and lowest in children with both internalising and externalising problems. There was indication that quality of life may be reduced in children with internalising problems compared with externalising problems. Approximately 12 % children with mental health problems reported high quality of life. The link between mental health and quality of life was moderated by gender and age but not by socio-economic status or ethnicity. This study supports previous work showing mental health and quality of life are related but not synonymous. The findings have implications for measuring quality of life in child mental health settings and the need for approaches to support children with mental health problems that are at particular risk of poor quality of life.
Gokce Nur Say
Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113
Rees, Joanna; Langdon, Peter E
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between depression, hopelessness, problem-solving ability and self-harming behaviours amongst people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Thirty-six people with mild IDs (77.9% women, Mage = 31.77, SD = 10.73, MIQ = 62.65, SD = 5.74) who had a history of self-harm were recruited. Participants were asked to complete measures of depression, hopelessness and problem-solving ability. Cutting was most frequently observed, and depression was prevalent amongst the sample. There was a significant positive relationship between depression and hopelessness, while there was no significant relationship between self-harm and depression or hopelessness. Problem-solving ability explained 15% of the variance in self-harm scores. Problem-solving ability appears to be associated with self-harming behaviours in people with mild IDs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Carpinacci, J A
This paper attempts to follow the evolution of some general ideas on Psychiatric Interconsulting. It is the result of six years' work at Ramos Mejía Hospital, Buenos Aires. Progressive transformations were imposed by daily practice on our team's theoretical and technical conceptions. We started with an individualistic-phenomenical approach, and we were forced to switch to a dynamical-situational one. The general working model we use at present is briefly summarized, emphasizing the important role played by Psychiatric Interconsulting in the change of the medical cultural patterns prevailing at present in our milieu. Two main factors for the role of privilege played by the Interconsulting team are set forth: one is conceptual, the other is pragmatic. From a conceptual standpoint, the theoretical basis of Psychiatric Interconsulting is much broader than those of other specialities, like clinical practice or surgery, for it includes, besides Biology, the Psychological and Socio-Historical determinants of the disturbance the diseases man suffers. From a pragmatic standpoint, the boundaries of human and physical fields within which Psychiatric Interconsulting is operating, go beyond the scope of daily medical practice. Their place could be located in between formal traditional wefts, relating to institutional structures as well as to specific medical practice. Professionals working at Interconsulting are usually required at general wards, at consulting offices, at emergency wards, in corridors, or even at the bar. They are interested not only in specific medical problems; they encompass the whole range of personal and institutional framework, and consider the whole situation in a comprehensive approach. Knowledge acquired in this widened professional field, together with actual experience in dealing with people in distress, are the main sources for theoretical conceptualization of new activities, as well as for building pragmatic tools to modify the official medical
Nimnuan, Chaichana; Asawavichienjinda, Thanin; Srikiatkhachorn, Anan
Psychiatric comorbidities are common among patients with headache. These can compromise the quality of life of patients and may affect the result of treatment. No available systematic study concerning this problem has been conducted in Thailand. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of psychiatric disorders in patients with headache in tertiary care facility. The study was conducted at the Headache Clinic, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled. Diagnosis of headache was made based on International Classification of Headache Disorders II system. Mental disorders were assessed using Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Other possible risk factors were extracted using significant physical symptoms count and accumulated risk for mental disorder. Of the 113 samples analyzed, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorder was found to be 29.2%, 9.7%, and 27.4%, respectively. No definite relationship between headache types and mental disorders was observed. High number of significant physical complaints and health concerns significantly increased the risk for depression (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6 to 13.5) while the level of possible risk for mental disorder was associated with an increased risk for somatoform disorder (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.2). The study confirmed high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in patients with headache. The results of this study will raise the awareness of physicians to possible underlying mental disorders in patients with headache and facilitate appropriate treatment or psychiatric referral. © 2011 American Headache Society.
Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati
Objective The study investigated the degree to which selected sociodemographic variables and social values were related to work-attendance problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public- and private-sector employees and the nature of this relationship. Materials and methods This quantitative study used the field-survey approach to administer research instruments directly to participants. This enabled the researchers to help participants who needed assistance in completing the measures properly, so as to increase the number of usable returns. Results Two sociodemographic variables (seeking help from a counselor/psychologist and marital status) correlated significantly with work attendance. Private-sector employees were more likely to have work-attendance problems than government workers. Both single and married employees and the chief wage earner in the household were more likely to have work-attendance issues to deal with compared to their counterparts. However, employees who sought help from a counselor/psychologist were far less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to those who did not get such help. The most significant social-value correlates with work-attendance problems were interpersonal communication, employer–employee relationship, work-stress problems, self-presentation, self-regulation, self-direction, and interpersonal trust. Self-regulation, self-direction, and satisfaction with work-related achievements significantly predicted work-attendance problems positively, while interpersonal communication problems and work-stress problems predicted work-attendance problems negatively. Low scorers on self-regulation and self-direction, as well as on satisfaction with work-related achievements, were more likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high scorers. However, low scorers on interpersonal communication and work-stress problems were less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high-scoring peers. Conclusion Ample
Gal, Eynat; Hardal-Nasser, Reem; Engel-Yeger, Batya
Nutrition, essential in the daily living functions promoting life quality of persons with intellectual developmental deficits (IDD), is adversely affected by the highly prevalent eating problems in these persons. The current study explores the characteristics of eating problems in population of children with intellectual developmental disorders.…
Evan T. Curtis
Full Text Available Eye-tracking methods have only rarely been used to examine the online cognitive processing that occurs during mental arithmetic on simple arithmetic problems, that is, addition and multiplication problems with single-digit operands (e.g., operands 2 through 9; 2 + 3, 6 x 8 and the inverse subtraction and division problems (e.g., 5 – 3; 48 ÷ 6. Participants (N = 109 solved arithmetic problems from one of the four operations while their eye movements were recorded. We found three unique fixation patterns. During addition and multiplication, participants allocated half of their fixations to the operator and one-quarter to each operand, independent of problem size. The pattern was similar on small subtraction and division problems. However, on large subtraction problems, fixations were distributed approximately evenly across the three stimulus components. On large division problems, over half of the fixations occurred on the left operand, with the rest distributed between the operation sign and the right operand. We discuss the relations between these eye tracking patterns and other research on the differences in processing across arithmetic operations.
Sikora, Darryn; Moran, Erin; Orlich, Felice; Hall, Trevor A.; Kovacs, Erica A.; Delahaye, Jennifer; Clemons, Traci E.; Kuhlthau, Karen
Although it is well known that families of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for increased stress and other problems, little is known about what child characteristics may mediate that risk. To address the impact of child behavior problems on family health, we examined data collected from 136 families raising children with…
This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…
Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill
Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Statistical relationships between coefficients of light attenuation, scattering and backscattering at wavelength 550 nm derived from series of optical measurements performed in Baltic Sea waters are presented. The relationships were derived primarily to support data analysis from underwater imaging systems. Comparison of these relations with analogous empirical data from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans shows that the two sets of relationships are similar, despite the different water types and the various experimental procedures and instrumentation applied. The apparently universal character of the relationships enables an approximate calculation of other optical properties and subsequently of the contrast, signal/noise ratio, visibility range and spatial resolution of underwater imaging systems based on attenuation coefficients at wavelength 550 nm only.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Opioid dependence is a major public health problem in Kerala. Presence of psychiatric disorder among opioid dependent patients worsens the scenario. To date no attempts have been made to analyse the magnitude and pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders in the state. MATERIALS AND METHODS We assessed 30 patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of opioid dependence syndrome for the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders using structured clinical interview for DSM IV Axis 1 disorder (SCID-1. Patients with opioid withdrawal state, delirium and acute medical emergencies were excluded. RESULTS 56.7% of our subjects had a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Major depressive disorder was the most common one (n=7, 23.3%. Prevalence of other disorders were generalised anxiety disorder (n=6, 20%, bipolar affective disorder (n=3, 10% and schizophrenia (n=1, 3.3%. CONCLUSION Comorbid Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent in opioid dependence. There is a need for further large sample studies in the areas of comorbidities and in the integrated strategies for the identification and management of both opioid dependence and comorbid psychiatric disorders.
Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn
Ayahuasca is believed to be harmless for those (including adolescents) drinking it within a religious setting. Nevertheless controlled studies on the mental/ psychiatric status of ritual hallucinogenic ayahuasca concoction consumers are still lacking. In this study, 40 adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 40 controls matched on sex, age, and educational background for psychiatric symptomatology. Screening scales for depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption patterns (abuse), attentional problems, and body dysmorphic disorders were used. It was found that, compared to controls, considerable lower frequencies of positive scoring for anxiety, body dismorphism, and attentional problems were detected among ayahuasca-using adolescents despite overall similar psychopathological profiles displayed by both study groups. Low frequencies of psychiatric symptoms detected among adolescents consuming ayahuasca within a religious context may reflect a protective effect due to their religious affiliation. However further studies on the possible interference of other variables in the outcome are necessary.
Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E
This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Child emotional and behaviour problems and parental worries about the child were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist at both time points. Parents' level of acute subjective distress was assessed within the first month after the burn event with the Impact of Event Scale. Mothers and fathers held comparable views of their child's emotional and behaviour problems, which were generally within the normal limits. Parents' own acute stress reactions were significantly related to parent-rated child behaviour problems at 3 and 12 months postburn. A substantial part of mothers' and fathers' worries about the child concerned physical and emotional aspects of the burn trauma, and potential future social problems. Parents with high acute stress scores more often reported burn-related concerns about their child at 3 and 12 months postburn. Health-care professionals should be informed that parents' distress in the subacute phase of their child's burn event may be related to subsequent worries about their child and to (parent-observed) child emotional and behaviour problems. The authors recommend a family perspective, with particular attention for the interplay between parents' distress and parent-reported child behaviour problems and worries, in each phase of paediatric burn care.
Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena
Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L; Syed, Ehsan; Mahr, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Farhat
Studies of the relationship between bullying and suicide behavior yield mixed results. This is the first study comparing frequencies of suicide behavior in four bullying groups (bully, victim, bully/victim, and neither) in two large psychiatric and community samples of young children and adolescents. Maternal ratings of bullying and suicide ideation and attempts were analyzed for 1,291 children with psychiatric disorders and 658 children in the general population 6-18 years old. For both the psychiatric and community samples, suicide ideation and attempt scores for bully/victims were significantly higher than for victims only and for neither bullies nor victims. Differences between victims only and neither victims nor bullies were nonsignificant. Controlling for sadness and conduct problems, suicide behavior did not differ between the four bullying groups. All children with suicide attempts had a comorbid psychiatric disorder, as did all but two children with suicide ideation. Although the contribution of bullying per se to suicide behavior independent of sadness and conduct problems is small, bullying has obvious negative psychological consequences that make intervention imperative. Interventions need to focus on the psychopathology associated with being a victim and/or perpetrator of bullying in order to reduce suicide behavior.
Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind
Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....
Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Huurre, Taina
Poor childhood family conditions have a long-term effect on adult mental health, but the mechanisms behind this association are unclear. Our aim was to study the pathways from problematic family relationships in adolescence to midlife psychological distress via disadvantages in early adulthood. Participants of a Finnish cohort study at the age of 16 years old in 1983 were followed up at ages 22, 32 and 42 years old (N = 1334). Problems in family relationships were measured with poor relationship with mother and father, lack of parental support in adolescent's individuation process and poor home atmosphere, and mental health was assessed using Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale (K10). We analyzed the indirect effects of adolescent family relations on mental health at age 42 years old via various disadvantages (somatic and psychological symptoms, relationship/marital status, low education/unemployment and heavy drinking) at ages 22 and 32 years old. Problematic adolescent family relationships were associated with midlife psychological distress in women (0.19; 95% CI 0.11, 0.26) and men (0.13; 95% CI 0.04, 0.21). However, after adjustment for adolescent psychological symptoms, the association was only significant for women (0.12; 95% CI 0.04, 0.20). Poor family relationships were associated with various disadvantages in early adulthood. The association from poor family relationships (16 years old) to psychological distress (42 years old) was in part mediated via psychological symptoms in women (0.03; 95% CI 0.01, 0.04) and men (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.04) and in women also via heavy drinking in early adulthood (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.03). Adolescent family relationships have a role in determining adult mental health. Targeted support addressing psychological well-being and hazardous drinking for adolescents with problematic family relationships might prevent disadvantages in early adulthood, and further prevent poor midlife mental health.
Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas
Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…
Anne Marie Morse
Full Text Available Narcolepsy and psychiatric disorders have a significant but unrecognized relationship, which is an area of evolving interest, but unfortunately, the association is poorly understood. It is not uncommon for the two to occur co-morbidly. However, narcolepsy is frequently misdiagnosed initially as a psychiatric condition, contributing to the protracted time to accurate diagnosis and treatment. Narcolepsy is a disabling neurodegenerative condition that carries a high risk for development of social and occupational dysfunction. Deterioration in function may lead to the secondary development of psychiatric symptoms. Inversely, the development of psychiatric symptoms can lead to the deterioration in function and quality of life. The overlap in pharmaceutical intervention may further enhance the difficulty to distinguish between diagnoses. Comprehensive care for patients with narcolepsy should include surveillance for psychiatric illness and appropriate treatment when necessary. Further research is necessary to better understand the underlying pathophysiology between psychiatric disease and narcolepsy.
Burton, Catherine L; Strauss, Esther; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether inconsistency in reaction time (RT) is predictive of older adults' ability to solve everyday problems. A sample of 304 community dwelling non-demented older adults, ranging in age from 62 to 92, completed a measure of everyday problem solving, the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). Inconsistency in latencies across trials was assessed on four RT tasks. Performance on the EPT was found to vary according to age and cognitive status. Both mean latencies and inconsistency were significantly associated with EPT performance, such that slower and more inconsistent RTs were associated with poorer everyday problem solving abilities. Even after accounting for age, education, and mean level of performance, inconsistency in reaction time continued to account for a significant proportion of the variance in EPT scores. These findings suggest that indicators of inconsistency in RT may be of functional relevance.
Method: This paper utilized the framework of relevant case series and a focused review of the relevant literature to describe and annotate the psychiatric problems of the victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in southeast Nigeria. Results: The major barriers to detection of the psychiatric disorders occurring in ...
Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie; Mustafa, Ruman
This article is the ninth of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). It focuses on the process of diagnosing TBI and psychiatric disorders. Diagnosing traumatic brain injury can be challenging. It can be difficult differentiating TBI and psychiatric symptoms, as both have similar symptoms (e.g., memory problems, emotional outbursts,…
Harada, Kazuhiro; Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai; Kaburagi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Yoshio
Although a foot care program for long-term care prevention has been launched in Japan, few studies have examined its effectiveness. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association of foot problems with fall experience and fear of falling among Japanese community-dwelling elderly people. The participants were 10,581 community-dwelling elderly people (75.2 +/- 5.6 years) and the study design was cross-sectional using a questionnaire. Self-reported tinea pedis, skin problems (inflammation, swelling, or discoloration), nail problems (thickening or deformities), impairment (in function or blood flow), regular foot care, and wearing of appropriate shoes were selected as parameters of foot problems and their care. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether these were related to fall experience (in the past 1 year) and fear of falling adjusted for age, the Tokyo Metropolitan institute of gerontology index of competence, medical conditions, and lower limb functions. Forty-six percents of males and 39.0% of females reported at least one foot problem. After adjusting for covariates, tinea pedis (male: adjusted odds ratio = 1.37[95% confidence interval= 1.15-1.63], female: 1.29[1.08-1.53]), skin problems (male: 1.66[1.32-2.101, female: 1.37[1.13-1.66]), nail problems (male: 1.72[1.45-2.051, female: 1.48[1.26-1.74]), and functional impairment (male: 2.42[1.91-3.05], female: 1.66[1.36-2.04]) were significantly associated with fall experience. Also, each problem was negatively associated with fear of falling (tinea pedis[male: 1.37 [1.15-1.62], female: 1.25[1.07-1.47
Linn, Braden K; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William
Driving under the influence remains a pervasive problem. Approximately 30% of those arrested for impaired driving offenses each year are repeat offenders, suggesting that current rehabilitative efforts are not sufficiently effective for reducing driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism. Aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency have been noted in the population of impaired drivers, but study of these variables on recidivism has been limited. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency on DWI recidivism among first time offenders. In 1992, 6436 individuals in impaired driver programs in New York State were surveyed. A total of 3511 individuals provided names so that state driver abstracts could be reviewed in the future. A total of 2043 matches were found and 1770 remained after excluding those with previous DWI convictions. Driver records were reviewed in 2010 and 2012, providing between 18 and 20 years of follow-up. During the follow-up period, 16.5% of individuals were arrested for an impaired driving offense. Multivariate analysis suggested that recidivism was a function of several problems, including: alcohol problem severity, aggression, negative affect, drug problem severity, criminal history, and childhood delinquency. Impaired driving programs should assess for childhood delinquency, aggressive tendencies, and negative affect as these constructs, along with substance use, are evident among impaired drivers who recidivate. Interventions addressing aggression and negative affect may ultimately prove useful in reducing recidivism.
O'Connor, Erin E; Collins, Brian A; Supplee, Lauren
The purposes of the current study were: (1) to examine the roles of early maternal attachment relationships and teacher-child relationships during childhood for externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood, and (2) to investigate teacher-child relationships, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood as possible mechanisms linking early maternal attachment relationships to behavior problems in late childhood. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1140 mothers and children) were used in this investigation. There were three main findings. First, insecure/other maternal attachment relationships in early childhood (i.e., 36 months) were associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood (Grade 5). Second, elevated levels of teacher-child conflict during childhood were associated with externalizing behaviors in late childhood whereas low levels of teacher-child closeness were associated with internalizing behaviors. Third, the effects of insecure/other attachment on externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood were mediated through teacher-child relationships during childhood and early externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.
Sibeoni, Jordan; Orri, Massimiliano; Podlipski, Marc-Antoine; Labey, Mathilde; Campredon, Sophie; Gerardin, Priscille; Revah-Levy, Anne
Anxiety-based school refusal in adolescence is a complex, sometimes difficult to treat disorder that can have serious academic and psychiatric consequences. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how teens with this problem and their parents experience the psychiatric care received. This qualitative multicenter study took place in France, where we conducted semi-structured interviews with adolescents receiving psychiatric care for anxiety-based school refusal and with their parents. Data collection by purposive sampling continued until we reached theoretical sufficiency. Data analysis was thematic. This study included 20 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and 21 parents. Two themes emerged from the analysis: (1) the goals of psychiatric care with two sub-themes, " self-transformation " and problem solving ; and, (2) the therapeutic levers identified as effective with two sub-themes: time and space and relationships . Our results show a divergence between parents and teens in their representations of care and especially of its goals. Therapeutic and research implications about the terms of return to school within psychiatric care and also the temporality of care are discussed.
Rees, Joanna; Langdon, Peter E.
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between depression, hopelessness, problem-solving ability and self-harming behaviours amongst people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods Thirty-six people with mild IDs (77.9% women, M[subscript age] = 31.77, SD = 10.73, M[subscript IQ] = 62.65, SD = 5.74) who…
de Jager, J; Wolters, H A; Pijnenborg, G H M
Research has shown that young adults with psychotic disorders frequently have problems relating to sexuality, intimacy and relationships. Such problems are often neglected in clinical practice. To perform a study that explores, on the basis of focus groups, how issues such as sexuality, intimacy and relationships can be addressed as part of the treatment of adolescents suffering from a psychotic disorder. We created eight focus groups consisting of clients attending the department of psychotic disorders and caregivers who worked there. The meetings of each focus group were fully transcribed and analysed by means of Nvivo. Clients indicated they wanted to address the topics of sexuality, intimacy and relationships in a group setting. They expressed the wish to have mixed gender groups and decided that in the group discussions the main focus should be on the exchange of personal experiences. In our view, it is desirable that psychiatry should pay more attention to the subject of sexuality. By giving adolescents suffering from psychotic disorders the opportunity to discuss their experiences, problems and feelings of insecurity in a group setting and in a low-threshold environment, psychiatrists can greatly improve the quality of care that they provide for their patients.
Blain, Leah M; Galovski, Tara E; Peterson, Zoë D
This study assessed the relationship between sexual self-schema and posttraumatic functioning in a clinical sample of 112 female sexual assault survivors. Contrary to hypotheses, posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptom severity were unrelated to the valence of sexual self-schema. Yet, negative posttraumatic cognitions were related to sexual self-schemas. Specifically, less positive self-views were associated with more negative schema (r = -.35). In a multivariate analysis, the measure of negative views of the world and others was associated with more positive schema. Results indicate that intervening to improve survivors' postassault appraisals of the self may help to reduce the impact of interpersonal trauma on women's sexual functioning. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Yeh, Shin-Ting; Ng, Yee-Yung; Wu, Shiao-Chi
Suicide in the older people is a serious problem worldwide; however the effect of psychiatric contact on the risk of suicide has not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychiatric contact and suicide in the older people in Taiwan. A population-based database was used in this national case-control study. Propensity score matching was used to match older people who did and did not commit suicide from 2010 to 2012 by calendar year, gender, age, and area of residence. The level of psychiatric contact in the preceding year was classified as "no psychiatric contact," "only outpatient psychiatric contact," "psychiatric emergency room contact," or "psychiatric hospital admission". Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between variables and the risk of suicide. A total of 2528 older people committed suicide from 2010 to 2012, with a crude suicide mortality rate of 3.37/10,000. Compared to those who had no psychiatric contact in the preceding year, the adjusted odds ratios of suicide were 10.15 (95% CI=5.8-17.7) for those who had psychiatric emergency room contact, 6.57 (95% CI=3.7-11.6) for those who had psychiatric hospital admissions, and 3.64 (95% CI=3.0-4.4) for those with only outpatient psychiatric contact. The risk of suicide was higher in those who had depression (OR=3.49, 95% CI=2.2-5.4) and bipolar disorder (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.1-3.6). Patients with cancer were associated with suicide (OR=8.96, 95% CI=5.6-14.4). The positive association with suicide and the level of psychiatric contact in the preceding year in older people indicated that the health personnel need to do a better job in determining possible risk for older people who had psychiatric contact, especially in emergency visit or psychiatric admission. A systematic approach to quality improvement in these settings is both available and necessary. Careful discharge planning and safe transitions of care to outpatient
Fosco, Gregory M.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Winter, Charlotte E.
The middle school years are a period of increased risk for youths' engagement in antisocial behaviors, substance use, and affiliation with deviant peers (Dishion & Patterson, 2006). This study examined the specific role of parental monitoring and of family relationships (mother, father, and sibling) that are all critical to the deterrence of…
Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Cendales, Boris; Useche, Sergio; Bocarejo, Juan P
The aim of this study was to estimate accident risk rates and mental health of bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers based on psychosocial risk factors at work leading to increased stress and health problems. A cross-sectional research design utilized a self-report questionnaire completed by 524 BRT drivers. Some working conditions of BRT drivers (lack of social support from supervisors and perceived potential for risk) may partially explain Bogota's BRT drivers' involvement in road accidents. Drivers' mental health problems were associated with higher job strain, less support from co-workers, fewer rewards and greater signal conflict while driving. To prevent bus accidents, supervisory support may need to be increased. To prevent mental health problems, other interventions may be needed such as reducing demands, increasing job control, reducing amount of incoming information, simplifying current signals, making signals less contradictory, and revising rewards. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Huprich, Steven K; Lengu, Ketrin; Evich, Carly
DSM-5 Section III recommends that level of personality functioning be assessed. This requires an assessment of self and other representations. Malignant self-regard (MSR) is a way of assessing the level of functioning of those with a masochistic, self-defeating, depressive, or vulnerably narcissistic personality. In Study 1, 840 undergraduates were assessed for MSR, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anaclitic and introjective depression, and interpersonal problems. MSR, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anaclitic and introjective depression were correlated with multiple dimensions of interpersonal problems, and MSR predicted the most variance in interpersonal scales measuring social inhibition, nonassertion, over-accommodation, and excessive self-sacrifice. MSR, anaclitic, and introjective depression predicted unique variance in six of the eight domains of interpersonal problems assessed. In Study 2, 68 undergraduates were provided positive or negative feedback. Consistent with theory, MSR predicted unique variance in state anxiety but not state anger. Results support the validity of the MSR construct.
Piotrowski, Caroline C; Tailor, Ketan; Cormier, Damien C
Although the majority of families that experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have more than one child, most research to date has focused upon a single child within these families. A significant body of research has indicated siblings play an important role in children's adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, the three main goals of the present study were to compare the adjustment of older and younger siblings exposed to IPV, to describe and compare the quality of these sibling relationships from multiple perspectives, and to investigate how sibling adjustment and relationship quality influence children's adjustment. Forty-seven sibling pairs and their mothers were recruited from the community. Mothers self-reported on their violent experiences using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and also estimated the length of time their children were exposed to IPV. Mothers and children completed assessments of child adjustment and the quality of sibling relationships. Observers also assessed the quality of sibling interaction. Results indicated that adjustment between siblings was highly inter-related. On average, mothers reported sibling relationships as less positive but also as less hostile than did siblings themselves. Higher levels of sibling hostility, lower levels of sibling warmth and higher levels of disengagement each significantly predicted child adjustment; however, these effects were predicated upon the adjustment of the other sibling. The sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV made a difference in their individual adjustment, and their adjustment issues influenced how they feel about and interacted with their sibling. Sibling hostility played a stronger role in adjustment issues than sibling warmth. The nature of sibling influences and the direction of future research were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oct 24, 2014 ... No statistically significant relationship was found between substance use ... Access this article online ... Medication compliance in psychiatric patients in Nigeria. 372 ... had seen their physician until the sample size of 208 was.
Buist, Kirsten L.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hoksbergen, René; ter Laak, Jan; Watve, Sujala; Paranjpe, Analpa
The aims of the present study were (a) to examine whether Dutch and Indian early adolescents differ concerning sibling and parent-child relationship quality and externalizing and internalizing problems, and (b) to compare the associations between sibling and parent-child relationship quality and externalizing and internalizing problems for Indian…
Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.
Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…
Sales, Esther; Greeno, Catherine; Shear, M. Katherine; Anderson, Carol
This study examined whether the general stress--caregiver strain--mental health outcome model may be as appropriate for caregivers of minor-age children as it has been for caregivers of adults with chronic illness. The authors examined whether children's behavioral problems are related to mothers' caregiving strains, which then is related to…
Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E
This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study.
Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil
Two 9- to 10-month-Iong studies (N = 137) examined the interaction between parenting stress and behavior problems in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Study 1 focused on very young children, and Study 2 employed a wider range of child ages; both studies assessed these factors at 2 points in time. The researchers noted a strong…
Wong, Kristyn; Stacks, Ann M.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Muzik, Maria
This study assessed the links between infant negative affect, parental reflective functioning (RF), and toddler behavior problems in a sample of 84 women and their infants. Mothers provided self-report demographic data and completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised during a home visit when the infant was 7 months old. They also completed…
Alshamali, Mahmoud A.; Daher, Wajeeh M.
This study aimed at identifying the levels of scientific reasoning of upper primary stage (grades 4-7) science teachers based on their use of a problem-solving strategy. The study sample (N = 138; 32 % male and 68 % female) was randomly selected using stratified sampling from an original population of 437 upper primary school teachers. The…
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Eyjolfsdottir, Gudrun Agusta; Smari, Jakob; Young, Susan
Objective: To ascertain whether ADHD symptoms, and associated problems, are negatively related to subjective well-being. Method: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was completed by 369 university students, along with the Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) ADHD Training Evaluation (RATE), the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…
Background: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). Method: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was com...
Abstract This thesis contains three related studies in the general field of educational psychology and in the specific area of behaviour, educational achievement and educational needs in mainstream schooling. The work investigated relationships between behaviour and achievement in the educational context of Kuwait, where poor behaviour has been argued to be a primary cause of low education achievement levels. Using a systemic approach, the first study sought to establish patterns of behav...
Pekurinen, Virve; Willman, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Välimäki, Maritta
health and work ability than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, while their psychiatric wellbeing is better and they have less sleep problems compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses maintain better psychiatric wellbeing and experience fewer sleep problems than non-psychiatric nurses after events of exposure to patient aggression. This suggest that more attention should be given to non-psychiatric settings for maintaining the wellbeing of nurses after exposure to patient aggression.
Reynolds, Stacey; Kreider, Consuelo M; Meeley, Lauren E; Bendixen, Roxanna M
Feeding problems are common in boys with Barth syndrome and may contribute to the population's propensity for growth delay and muscle weakness. The purpose of this study was to quantify and describe these feeding issues and examine altered taste perception and sensory sensitivity as contributing factors. A cross-sectional, two-group comparison design was used to examine feeding preferences and behaviors, chemical taste perception, and sensory sensitivities in fifty boys with (n=24) and without (n=26) Barth ages 4-17 years. Taste perception was measured using chemical test strips saturated with phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and sodium benzoate (NaB). Feeding problems were documented by parents using a Food Inventory, while sensory sensitivities were recorded using a Short Sensory Profile. Boys with Barth differed significantly from typical peers with regards to problem feeding behaviors. For boys with Barth, food refusal and food selectivity were identified as being present in 50% the sample, while 70% of had identified problems related to gagging or swallowing foods. About half of all Barth families noted that their child's eating habits did not match the family's and that separate meals were often prepared. As demonstrated in previous research, about 50% of boys with Barth demonstrated probable or definite differences in taste/smell sensitivity, which was significantly higher than controls. On tests of chemical taste perception, boys with Barth were significantly more likely to be supertasters to PTC and non-tasters to NaB. Taster-status did not directly relate to the presence of feeding problems, however, taste/smell sensitivity did significantly relate to food selectivity by type and texture. Results indicate feeding problems in at least 50-70% of boys with Barth syndrome, and suggest that behaviors are often present before 6 months of age. Differences in taste perception may influence dietary choices in boys with Barth, particularly their craving of salty foods
Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Joyce, Anthony S; Steinberg, Paul I; Piper, William E
Pathological narcissism is associated with maladaptive interpersonal behavior, although less is known regarding the internal relational representations of narcissistic patients. The authors examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and two constructs that reflect internal representations of relational patterns: quality of object relations and attachment style. Patients attending a psychiatric day treatment program (N = 218) completed measures of narcissism, general psychiatric distress, and attachment style in terms of attachment avoidance and anxiety. A semistructured interview was used to assess quality of object relations. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, controlling for general psychiatric distress. Pathological narcissism was associated with anxious attachment, but not with avoidant attachment. Narcissism was also associated with lower levels of quality of object relations. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of internal representations of self-other relations.
Yau, Yvonne H.C.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. PMID:24140304
Carswell, Kenneth; Blackburn, Pennie; Barker, Chris
There is growing evidence of the impact of post-migration factors on the mental health of refugees. To date, few UK studies have been conducted. The study investigated the relationship between trauma, post-migration problems, social support and the mental health of refugees and asylum seekers. Refugees and asylum seekers (n = 47) were recruited mainly from clinical settings. Self-report measures of post-migration problems, mental health problems and social support were completed in an interview. Bivariate associations were identified between increased symptoms and number of traumas, adaptation difficulties, loss of culture and support and confidant support. In multivariate analyses post-migration problems were significantly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and emotional distress. There was no significant association of symptoms and number of traumas or social support. The results suggest that clinical services should provide holistic interventions within a phased approach when working with refugees and asylum seekers. At a policy level, the results suggest the need for asylum policies that reduce post-migration problems and provide support for refugees and asylum seekers.
Full Text Available In recent years, the rising competitive environment with shorter product life cycles and high customization forces industries to increase their flexibility, speed up their response, and enhance concurrent engineering designs. To integrate these prospects, supply chain collaboration becomes a pertinent strategy for industries to strengthen their competitiveness. The network design problem is used to implement supply chain collaboration. In the buying and selling process, sharing information between buyer and supplier are important to obtain a transaction decision. The optimimum supply chain profit can be identified by mathematical model of network design problem. The Mathematical Model takes into consideration the uncertainity in negotiation of supply chain, transportation problems, and locationallocation of products from supplier to buyer in the planning based on the time value of money. The results show that the model can be used to optimize the supply chain profit. The supplier gets a profit because income were received in the initial contract, while the buyer profit comes from lower pay.
Baek, Ji Hye; Kim, Young Sun; Yi, Kwan Hyung
To investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and comorbid health problems, including depression/anxiety disorder, insomnia/sleep disorder, fatigue, and injury by accident, and to determine whether certain physical and psychological factors reduce comorbid health problems. In total, 29,711 employees were selected from respondents of the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey and categorized into two groups: Musculoskeletal Complaints or Musculoskeletal Sickness Absence. Four self-reported health indicators (overall fatigue, depression/anxiety, insomnia/sleep disorder, and injury by accident) were selected as outcomes, based on their high prevalence in Korea. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the relationship between comorbid health problems, musculoskeletal complaints, and sickness absence. The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and musculoskeletal sickness absence due to muscular pain was 32.26% and 0.59%, respectively. Compared to the reference group, depression/anxiety disorder and overall fatigue were 5.2-6.1 times more prevalent in the Musculoskeletal Complaints Group and insomnia/sleep disorder and injury by accident were 7.6-11.0 times more prevalent in the Sickness Absence Group. When adjusted for individual and work-related physical factors, prevalence of all four comorbid health problems were slightly decreased in both groups. Increases in overall fatigue and depression/anxiety disorder were observed in the Musculoskeletal Complaints Group, while increases in insomnia/sleep disorder and injury by accident were observed in the Sickness Absence Group. For management of musculoskeletal complaints and sickness absence in the workplace, differences in health problems between employees with musculoskeletal complaints and those with sickness absence as well as the physical and psychological risk factors should be considered.
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Narayanan, Martina K
This study investigated the cross-lagged relationship between father involvement and child problem behaviour across early-to-middle childhood, and tested whether temperament modulated any cross-lagged child behaviour effects on father involvement. It used data from the first four waves of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, when children (50.3 % male) were aged 9 months, and 3, 5 and 7 years. The sample was 8302 families where both biological parents were co-resident across the four waves. Father involvement (participation in play and physical and educational activities with the child) was measured at ages 3, 5 and 7, as was child problem behaviour (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Key child and family covariates related to father involvement and child problem behaviour were controlled. Little evidence was found that more father involvement predicted less child problem behaviour two years later, with the exception of father involvement at child's age 5 having a significant, but small, effect on peer problems at age 7. There were two child effects. More hyperactive children at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5, and children with more conduct problems at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5. Child temperament did not moderate any child behaviour effects on father involvement. Thus, in young, intact UK families, child adjustment appears to predict, rather than be predicted by, father involvement in early childhood. When children showed more problematic behaviours, fathers did not become less involved. In fact, early hyperactivity and conduct problems in children seemed to elicit more involvement from fathers. At school age, father involvement appeared to affect children's social adjustment rather than vice versa.
Wong Paul WC
Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been focused on the study of suicides among those who have received help from healthcare providers. However, little is known about the profiles of suicide deceased who had psychiatric illnesses but made no contact with psychiatric services prior to their death. Behavioural model of health service use is applied to identify factors associated with the utilization of psychiatric service among the suicide deceased. Methods With respect to completed suicide cases, who were diagnosed with a mental disorder, a comparison study was made between those who had (contact group; n = 52; 43.7% and those who had not made any contact (non-contact group; n = 67; 56.3% with a psychiatrist during the final six months prior to death. A sample of 119 deceased cases aged between 15 and 59 with at least one psychiatric diagnosis assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID I were selected from a psychological autopsy study in Hong Kong. Results The contact and non-contact group could be well distinguished from each other by "predisposing" variables: age group & gender, and most of the "enabling", and "need" variables tested in this study. Multiple logistic regression analysis has found four factors are statistically significantly associated with non-contact suicide deceased: (i having non-psychotic disorders (OR = 13.5, 95% CI:2.9-62.9, (ii unmanageable debts (OR = 10.5, CI:2.4-45.3, (iii being full/partially/self employed at the time of death (OR = 10.0, CI:1.6-64.1 and (iv having higher levels of social problem-solving ability (SPSI (OR = 2.0, CI:1.1-3.6. Conclusion The non-contact group was clearly different from the contact group and actually comprised a larger proportion of the suicide population that they could hardly be reached by usual individual-based suicide prevention efforts. For this reason, both universal and strategic suicide prevention measures need to be developed specifically in non
JULIANA ROJAS CORREDOR
Full Text Available Relation between Mozart effect and problem solving test Missionaries and Cannibals was explored in female studentswith ages between 17 and 20 years old. This relation was measured with the interactive task Missionaries and Cannibalsand the Mozart’s Sonata para dos pianos K448. Statistical analysis with 0.05 significance level showed differences betweencontrol and experimental group; also when significance level was increased to 0.01 (confidence of 99% the testcontinue showing an association between test solution Missionaries and Cannibals and Mozart effect.
Arroyave P, Carlos E; Herrera B, Francisco J; Delgado L, Juan; Cuervo T, Joaquin
As a part of a broad study on the corrosion problems in the Colombian industry, it was included an assessment of the effect of the main corrosive environments (atmosphere, soil, salad and drinking water, and chemicals), on materials stability. On the other hand, the impact of the corrosion processes on the environmental constituents (live species, atmosphere, soil, materials, and water) was also assessed. Main conclusions are: Atmosphere is the more extensively corrosive environment, and, all the environmental constituents are affected by corrosion without significant differences
Yuksel, Ibrahim; Ates, Salih
The purpose of this study is to determine relationship between scientific reasoning and mechanics problem solving skills of students in science education program. Scientific Reasoning Skills Test (SRST) and Basic Mechanics Knowledge Test (BMKT) were applied to 90 second, third and fourth grade students who took Scientific Reasoning Skills course at science teaching program of Gazi Faculty of Education for three successive fall semesters of 2014, 2015 and 2016 academic years. It was found a statistically significant positive (p = 0.038 <0.05) but a low correlation (r = 0.219) between SRST and BMKT. There were no significant relationship among Conservation Laws, Proportional Thinking, Combinational Thinking, Correlational Thinking, Probabilistic Thinking subskills of reasoning and BMKT. There were significant and positive correlation among Hypothetical Thinking and Identifying and Controlling Variables subskills of reasoning and BMKT. The findings of the study were compared with other studies in the field and discussed.
Moncrieff, J; Cohen, D; Porter, S
The psychoactive effects of psychiatric medications have been obscured by the presumption that these medications have disease-specific actions. Exploiting the parallels with the psychoactive effects and uses of recreational substances helps to highlight the psychoactive properties of psychiatric medications and their impact on people with psychiatric problems. We discuss how psychoactive effects produced by different drugs prescribed in psychiatric practice might modify various disturbing and...
Porters, N; Polis, I; Moons, C P H; Van de Maele, I; Ducatelle, R; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; de Rooster, H
Prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) is promoted as a way of managing overpopulation in cats, but concerns about PPG and potential health issues still exist. The objective of the present study was to evaluate short-term and long-term health problems in cats subjected to PPG in comparison to gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). In a prospective clinical trial, 800 shelter kittens aged between approximately 8 weeks and 12 weeks were recruited before adoption and randomly assigned to either the PPG group (gonadectomy performed immediately) or the TAG group (gonadectomy delayed until six months to eight months of age). Short-term health issues included mortality between when kittens arrived at the clinic and up to seven days after they returned to the shelter, as well as the occurrence of various other health issues arising in the first month following adoption. Kittens were followed-up until 24 months of age specifically for feline lower urinary tract disease, urethral obstruction (male cats), lameness, fractures and hypersensitivity disorders with dermatological presentation. In the short term, there were no significant differences between health problems in PPG and TAG kittens. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between treatment groups in terms of the type or number of health issues in the long term. In conclusion, there are no health-related contraindications to advocating PPG strategies in shelter cats. Ideally, PPG should be performed at the shelter facility itself as long as excellent infectious disease control and postoperative clinical observation before adoption are guaranteed. British Veterinary Association.
Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J
Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.
Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.
Nurasikin, M S; Khatijah, L A; Aini, A; Ramli, M; Aida, S A; Zainal, N Z; Ng, C G
Patients having psychiatric diagnoses often experience high level of distress. Religiousness is often used by them as part of their coping mechanism and problem-solving strategies. To determine the level of religious commitment and coping methods in psychiatric patients and its relationship with distress level. Religious commitment and coping patterns were measured with the Duke University Religious Index (DUREL) and Brief RCOPE, respectively. Psychopathology was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and distress level was assessed with the Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Social support and experiences of recent threatening events were measured with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Life Threatening Events (LTE). A total of 228 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 40.2 years. The majority were male, Malay, Muslim, single and with psychotic disorder. The subjects had a high level of religious commitment and had used more positive coping methods. Negative religious coping, psychiatric symptoms and diagnosis of anxiety disorder or major depression were significantly associated with high distress level. Higher religious commitment was significantly associated with lower distress (p depression were associated with higher distress.
Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiraku; Terakawa, Shinako; Seki, Ayumi; Anme, Tokie
The present study examines gender differences in the correlations between intelligence and developmental problems as well as social competence in first graders. Ninety parent-child dyads participated in this study. The children comprised 7-year-olds recruited from the first grade of an elementary school. All the children were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), Parent-child Interaction Rating Scale (IRS), and the parent report version of Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The findings clarified that the processing speed of boys significantly correlated with their peer relationship. On the other hand, the emotional symptoms exhibited by girls had a more common association with their intellectual abilities. The correlations between parenting and intellectual abilities differed in boys and girls. Children's gender should be taken into account when assessing the diversity in their intellectual abilities and developmental problems. Moreover, parenting also influences the development of children in various ways.
For oil-importing countries, the uninterrupted flow of energy sources lies at the heart of their national security. The crises of 1973-74 and 1979-80 have demonstrated the vulnerability of their economies to oil shortages, and the need to maintain a certain level of stocks to absorb unexpected losses in normal supply. On the other hand, oil producers have perceived a large inventory accumulation as a destabilizing factor to the oil market. This paper introduces fresh evidence on the dynamic nature of the relationship between OECD countries on the one hand and the public and private sectors on the other. The aims of the paper are, thus, twofold. The first is to highlight the underlying determinants of the inventory policies in major OECD countries. Of particular interest to this inquiry is the question of the free-rider phenomenon. The second is to study the interaction between public and private inventories in the framework of a dynamic model. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Online psychiatric texts are natural language texts expressing depressive problems, published by Internet users via community-based web services such as web forums, message boards and blogs. Understanding the cause-effect relations embedded in these psychiatric texts can provide insight into the authors’ problems, thus increasing the effectiveness of online psychiatric services. Methods Previous studies have proposed the use of word pairs extracted from a set of sentence pairs to identify cause-effect relations between sentences. A word pair is made up of two words, with one coming from the cause text span and the other from the effect text span. Analysis of the relationship between these words can be used to capture individual word associations between cause and effect sentences. For instance, (broke up, life and (boyfriend, meaningless are two word pairs extracted from the sentence pair: “I broke up with my boyfriend. Life is now meaningless to me”. The major limitation of word pairs is that individual words in sentences usually cannot reflect the exact meaning of the cause and effect events, and thus may produce semantically incomplete word pairs, as the previous examples show. Therefore, this study proposes the use of inter-sentential language patterns such as ≪broke up, boyfriend>, Results Performance was evaluated on a corpus of texts collected from PsychPark (http://www.psychpark.org, a virtual psychiatric clinic maintained by a group of volunteer professionals from the Taiwan Association of Mental Health Informatics. Experimental results show that the use of inter-sentential language patterns outperformed the use of word pairs proposed in previous studies. Conclusions This study demonstrates the acquisition of inter-sentential language patterns for causality detection from online psychiatric texts. Such semantically more complete and precise features can improve causality detection performance.
Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil
Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...
Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben
INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...
This report provides an anthology of psychiatric eponyms. Clinically, many of these described syndromes represent valid diagnostic constructs and may accommodate the atypical cases that defy the official diagnostic designation in the current classificatory systems in psychiatry. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J.
Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father’s education level, mother’s education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother’s education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%–75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance. PMID:28316252
... News Legal Issues Search for: About PADs A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is a legal document that ... decisions during a mental health crisis. Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...
Cronin, Katherine A.; Pieper, Bridget A.; van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B. M.
In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors. PMID:24695486
Katherine A Cronin
Full Text Available In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors.
Berzenski, Sara R
Efforts to differentiate between the developmental sequelae of childhood emotional abuse and childhood emotional neglect are critical to both research and practice efforts. As an oft-identified mechanism of the effects of child maltreatment on later adjustment, emotion dysregulation represents a key potential pathway. The present study explored a higher order factor model of specific emotion regulation skills, and the extent to which these skill sets would indicate distinct developmental pathways from unique emotional maltreatment experiences to multidomain adjustment. A sample of 500 ethnoracially diverse college students reported on their experiences. A two-factor model of emotion regulation skills based on subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was revealed. Significant indirect effects of childhood emotional abuse on psychopathology and problems in social relationships were found through response-focused difficulties in emotion regulation, whereas a significant indirect effect of childhood emotional neglect on problems in social relationships was found through antecedent-focused difficulties in emotion regulation. These results are consistent with theoretical models and empirical evidence suggesting differential effects of childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect, and provide an important indication for developing targeted interventions focusing on specific higher order emotion dysregulation skill clusters.
Juszczak, Dariusz; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Czupryńska, Katarzyna; Furs, Maciej
The relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood in this group of offenders. The aim of this paper was to attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing sexual offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 180 forensic psychiatric- sexology assessments issued by experts from Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic in 10 Military Hospital Clinic in Bydgoszcz between 2004 to 2012. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Sexual Activity" has been used. Relevant statistical dependences were observed. The obtained results show that, a alcohol abuse has a sexual criminogenic effect especially in the coincidence that there are sustainable personality abnormalities and organic CNS damage. The conducted study prove that the sexual perpetrators who abuse alcohol have a poor level of social functioning and brought up in dysfunction families having alcoholic problems. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Wang, Jen-Pang; Wu, Chia-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Tsu-Hui; Liu, Tzong-Hsien; Chou, Pesus
The police are the frontline workers in crisis situations involving patients with severe mental illness and act as a primary referral source for psychiatric emergency services (PES) in the community. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution and characteristics of police referral among psychiatric patients in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of patients who visited the PES of Taipei City Psychiatric Center from January 2009 to December 2010. The associations between the factors of demographics, clinical characteristics, and psychiatric service utilization and police referral were evaluated. Among the 7656 psychiatric emergency visits, 3029 (39.6%) were referred by the police. These patients referred by police were more likely to be male and aged between 30 to 49 years. Clinical factors related to police referrals including a higher triage assessment level, chief problems included violence, disturbance, substance use, less anxiety, and a diagnosis of unspecified psychosis. The triage assessment level and chief problems assessed by nurses were major predictors. These patients tended to be referred from the catchment area and during the nighttime shift, were discharged during the daytime shift, and stayed longer in the PES. Disposition arrangements such as discharge against medical advice and involuntary admission were also associated with police referrals. Patients referred by the police to the PES were those with more severe psychiatric problems and illnesses assessed by psychiatric nurses and psychiatrists. They tended to have more complex service utilization at the PES. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Cuypers, Stefaan E
Parallel to psychiatry, "philosophy of mind" investigates the relationship between mind (mental domain) and body/brain (physical domain). Unlike older forms of philosophy of mind, contemporary analytical philosophy is not exclusively based on introspection and conceptual analysis, but also draws upon the empirical methods and findings of the sciences. This article outlines the conceptual framework of the "mind-body problem" as formulated in contemporary analytical philosophy and argues that this philosophical debate has potentially far-reaching implications for psychiatry as a clinical-scientific discipline, especially for its own autonomy and its relationship to neurology/neuroscience. This point is illustrated by a conceptual analysis of the five principles formulated in Kandel's 1998 article "A New Intellectual Framework for Psychiatry." Kandel's position in the philosophical mind-body debate is ambiguous, ranging from reductive physicalism (psychophysical identity theory) to non-reductive physicalism (in which the mental "supervenes" on the physical) to epiphenomenalist dualism or even emergent dualism. We illustrate how these diverging interpretations result in radically different views on the identity of psychiatry and its relationship with the rapidly expanding domain of neurology/neuroscience.
Zhou, Cailiang; Baïz, Nour; Banerjee, Soutrik; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Fréderic; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella
This study examined the hypothesis that emotion and conduct problems (ECPs) may modify the relationships between ambient air pollutants and childhood asthma and eczema. In the cross-sectional study, 4209 French schoolchildren (aged 10e12 years) were investigated between March 1999 and October 2000. Ambient air pollutants exposures were estimated with dispersion modeling. Health outcomes and ECPs were evaluated by validated questionnaires, completed by the parents. Marginal models were used to analyze the relationships of exposures to ambient air pollutants and/or ECPs to asthma phenotypes and current eczema, adjusting for potential confounders. In our population, interactions were found between ECPs and exposures to ambient air pollutants (benzene, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 10 mm, volatile organic compounds) (P eczema (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.61e3.02). Children with ECPs had 1.17e1.51 times higher aORs for the associations between ambient air pollutants and asthma phenotypes and current eczema than those without ECPs. ECPs may modify the relationships between ambient air pollutants and childhood asthma and eczema. 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marchica, Loredana; Zhao, Yaxi; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Ivoska, William
Fantasy sports is a growing industry with a reported 56.8 million individuals participating in the United States and Canada alone in 2015. Whereas this activity has attracted considerable public attention, little research has examined its impact on adolescents in spite of their high rates of gambling. The current study examined the relationship between regular participation (more than once a month) in sport-relevant gambling activities among adolescents and those identified as being at-risk for a gambling problem. Questionnaire responses were collected from high school students (N = 6818; 49 % male) in Wood County, Ohio, United States. Statistical analyses revealed that regular involvement in sports betting, fantasy sports betting, and daily fantasy sports betting among adolescents was associated with a higher risk of gambling problems. Further, although males participate more frequently in these activities, females who participate have a stronger likelihood of being at-risk. Students aged 16-19 years old are at a higher risk for developing a gambling problem compared to younger adolescents when regularly engaging in sports-related gambling. Moreover, regularly participating in daily fantasy sports is the strongest predictor of at-risk gambling behavior in 13-15 year old students. A hierarchical logistic regression supports that controlling for gender and age, all forms of sport-relevant gambling activities are significant predictors of at-risk gambling. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of sports betting and fantasy sports on adolescents and establishes an initial step for future studies to further investigate these relationships.
Wriedt, Elke; Wiberg, Anja; Sakar, Vehbi; Noterdaeme, Michele
This article gives an overview of the consultant child and adolescent psychiatric services in the region of Upper Bavaria (Germany). The data of 257 children and adolescents with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders were evaluated. About 14% of the children with ID in special schools or day care centers, and 40% of the children with ID in residential care showed a definite psychiatric disorder. The most frequently diagnosed disorders were adjustment disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and conduct disorders, as well as emotional problems and pervasive developmental disorders. Children with severe intellectual disability had more additional somatic disorders and were more impaired in their psychosocial functions. The results show the need for psychiatric services for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. The development and implementation of integrative and interdisciplinary models is necessary to allow for adequate medical care for these patients.
Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah
Participation in fantasy sports increases annually. Wagering on fantasy sports is a form of gambling and researchers have found that fantasy sports participants are more likely to engage in other forms of sports betting than non-fantasy players; however, no published studies have examined whether there is a relationship between fantasy sports participation and gambling-related problems. Our study examined whether fantasy sports participation is associated with gambling-related problems among college students. We assessed fantasy sports participation and endorsement of DSM-5 gambling disorder (GD) criteria among a large convenience sample (N=1556) of college students via an online health survey. We found that 11.5% of respondents participated in fantasy sports in the past year, the majority of which were males. Logistic regression analyses indicated that males who play fantasy sports for money and females who play fantasy sports (for money or not) were more likely to experience gambling-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Henderson, Claire; Robinson, Emily; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham
Background Anti-stigma programmes should aim to increase disclosure to those who can support someone with a mental health problem and appropriate professional help-seeking. Aims We investigated associations among public awareness of England's Time to Change anti-stigma campaign and: (a) comfort envisaged in disclosing a mental health problem to family and friends; (b) comfort in disclosing to an employer; and (c) intended professional help-seeking from a general practitioner, i.e. a physician working in primary care. Method Using data from a survey of a nationally representative sample of adults, we created separate logistic regression models to test for campaign awareness and other variables as predictors of comfort in disclosure and intended help-seeking. Results We found positive relationships between campaign awareness and comfort in disclosing to family and friends (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% CI 1.14-1.43) and to a current or prospective employer (OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.35); and likelihood of help-seeking (OR=1.18 95% CI 1.03-1.36). Conclusions Awareness of an anti-stigma campaign was associated with greater comfort in disclosing a mental health problem and intended help-seeking. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Zeller, Scott; Calma, Nicole; Stone, Ashley
Mental health patients boarding for long hours, even days, in United States emergency departments (EDs) awaiting transfer for psychiatric services has become a considerable and widespread problem. Past studies have shown average boarding times ranging from 6.8 hours to 34 hours. Most proposed solutions to this issue have focused solely on increasing available inpatient psychiatric hospital beds, rather than considering alternative emergency care designs that could provide prompt access to treatment and might reduce the need for many hospitalizations. One suggested option has been the "regional dedicated emergency psychiatric facility," which serves to evaluate and treat all mental health patients for a given area, and can accept direct transfers from other EDs. This study sought to assess the effects of a regional dedicated emergency psychiatric facility design known at the "Alameda Model" on boarding times and hospitalization rates for psychiatric patients in area EDs. Over a 30-day period beginning in January 2013, 5 community hospitals in Alameda County, California, tracked all ED patients on involuntary mental health holds to determine boarding time, defined as the difference between when they were deemed stable for psychiatric disposition and the time they were discharged from the ED for transfer to the regional psychiatric emergency service. Patients were also followed to determine the percentage admitted to inpatient psychiatric units after evaluation and treatment in the psychiatric emergency service. In a total sample of 144 patients, the average boarding time was approximately 1 hour and 48 minutes. Only 24.8% were admitted for inpatient psychiatric hospitalization from the psychiatric emergency service. The results of this study indicate that the Alameda Model of transferring patients from general hospital EDs to a regional psychiatric emergency service reduced the length of boarding times for patients awaiting psychiatric care by over 80% versus
Tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon characterized by the sensation of sounds without objectively identifiable sound sources. To date, its causes are not well understood. The perceived severity of tinnitus correlates more closely to psychological and general health factors than to audiometric parameters. Together with limbic structures in the ventral striatum, the prefrontal cortex forms an internal "noise cancelling system", which normally helps to block out unpleasant sounds, including the tinnitus signal. If this pathway is compromised, chronic tinnitus results. Patients with chronic tinnitus show increased functional connectivity in corticolimbic pathways. Psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients who seek help for tinnitus or hyperacusis. Clinicians need valid screening tools in order to identify patients with psychiatric disorders and to tailor treatment in a multidisciplinary setting.
Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef
interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third......There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...
Baysan Arabacı, Leyla; Çam, M Olcay
To determine the attitudes nurses working at psychiatric hospitals in Turkey have towards forensic psychiatric patients and the associated factors. This cross-sectional study included 620 nurses working at 8 psychiatric hospitals in Turkey that completed ≥80% of the Nurses' Attitudes Towards Forensic Psychiatric Patients Scale (NAFPPS). Data were evaluated based on number-percentage distribution, and the relationship between variables was examined via t-test, variance analysis, and correlation analysis. Mean age of the nurses was 34.37 ± 7.48 years and 79.4% were female. Mean NAFPPS total and subscale scores were as follows: Xtotal = 69.07 ± 12.46 (max: 125); Xfeelingthreatened = 15.98 ± 3.61 (max: 30); Xtrust = 20.49 ± 5.24 (max: 20); Xsocialdistance = 10.45 ± 3.33 (max: 20); Xwillingnesstoprovidecare = 22.31 ± 4.25 (max: 40). Gender, place of employment, method of obtaining current position, employment status, level of satisfaction working as a psychiatric nurse, history of providing treatment to forensic psychiatric patients, having knowledge of Turkish laws regarding the treatment of forensic psychiatric patients, and thinking that nurses should treat forensic psychiatric patients were correlated with the nurses' attitudes towards forensic psychiatric patients, whereas age, marital status, place of longest residence, level of education, duration of working in the profession, and duration at current hospital were not. Despite the fact that the nurses working at 8 psychiatric hospitals in Turkey considered forensic psychiatric patients threatening, didn't trust them, and had a tendency to be socially distant with them, they had a moderate level of willingness to provide them proper care.
Miles, Margaret Shandor
This review identified nurse researchers and research teams that have current programs of research focused on parents and parenting of children with chronic health problems. Researchers were included if they had at least five publications since 1990, with at least three of these articles first-authored. These programs of research were critiqued from a developmental science perspective. Multiple methods were used for the search, including examination of previous review articles, hand search of journals, online computer searches, and review of the curriculum vitae of authors. Seven programs of research were identified. Two programs of research focused on childhood cancer--Ida M. Martinson et al. and Marsha H. Cohen. Three programs of research used a noncategorical approach encompassing a variety of childhood chronic conditions--Katherine A. Knafl and Janet A. Deatrick, Sharon O. Burke, and Ann Garwick. One program focused primarily on parents of children with Down syndrome and disabilities--Marsha Van Riper--and another on parents of infants with a variety of chronic health problems--Margaret S. Miles and Diane Holditch-Davis. Diverse theories and conceptual frameworks were used, and most had some focus on ecological systems that might affect parents and parenting. Many used a family perspective and included fathers. Still broader aspects of the family and community ecology and the health care were not generally included. Few examined the bidirectionality of the relationship between the child and aspects of the child's illness and parental responses. There was variability in the extent to which ethnicity and socioeconomic status were considered. Studies provide important insight into the responses of parents and their parenting of children with chronic health problems. The studies provide a sound base for continuing to build a developmentally sensitive body of knowledge related to parents and parenting of the child with chronic health problems.
Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.
This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…
Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan
Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*
Buist, K. L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241099218; Verhoeven, Marjolein|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349747; Hoksbergen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068229127; Ter Laak, J.; Watve, S.; Paranjpe, A.
The aims of the present study were (a) to examine whether Dutch and Indian early adolescents differ concerning sibling and parent-child relationship quality and externalizing and internalizing problems, and (b) to compare the associations between sibling and parent-child relationship quality and
You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom; Fu, Kei
The present study explored the reciprocal relations between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), negative emotions and relationship problems in a community sample of 2,435 (57.6% females) Chinese adolescents. Participants completed measures assessing 12 NSSI behaviors, three negative emotions (depression, anxiety and tension), and relationship problems…
Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M
The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years......-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...... increased odds ratios were lower when subjects with an alcohol diagnosis at inpatient care during 1980-84 were excluded in the analyses. On the whole, our findings are not conclusive. The strong, but imprecise associations between stressful working conditions and severe alcohol problems, are however...
Frijters, Paul; Johnston, David W; Lordan, Grace; Shields, Michael A
There is considerable policy interest in the impact of macroeconomic conditions on health-related behaviours and outcomes. This paper sheds new light on this issue by exploring the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and an indicator of problem drinking derived from state-level data on alcoholism-related Google searches conducted in the US over the period 2004-2011. We find the current recessionary period coincided with an almost 20% increase in alcoholism-related searches. Controlling for state and time-effects, a 5% rise in unemployment is followed in the next 12 months by an approximate 15% increase in searches. The use of Internet searches to inform on health-related behaviours and outcomes is in its infancy; but we suggest that the data provides important real-time information for policy-makers and can help to overcome the under-reporting in surveys of sensitive information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jea-Geun; Choi, Joon Hyouk; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Ki-Seok; Joo, Seung-Jae
Background and Objectives A cardiologist's evaluation of psychiatric symptoms in patients with chest pain is rare. This study aimed to determine the psychiatric characteristics of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) and explore their relationship with the intensity of chest pain. Subjects and Methods Out of 139 consecutive patients referred to the cardiology outpatient department, 31 with atypical chest pain (heartburn, acid regurgitation, dyspnea, and palpitation) were ex...
Matali, José Luis; Andión, Oscar; Pardo, Marta; Iniesta, Raquel; Serrano, Eduard; San, Luis
In recent years, both the prevalence of drug use and related child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have risen sharply. There are few studies about the impact on child and adolescent emergency services. This study has a twofold aim. The first is to describe the prevalence of substance use disorders, mental disorders and dual diagnosis (substance use problems plus mental disorder) in adolescents in psychiatric emergency service. The second is to analyze clinical and healthcare differences between patients with dual diagnosis and patients with a mental disorder without substance use disorder.We retrospectively reviewed 4012 discharge forms for emergencies treated at the psychiatric emergency department during the period 2007-2009. We obtained a sample of 1795 visits. This sample was divided into two groups: the dual diagnosis group (n = 477) and the psychiatric disorder group (n = 1318).The dual diagnosis group accounted for 26.5% of psychiatric emergencies analyzed. Compared to the psychiatric disorder group,the dual diagnosis group had significantly more conduct disorders, social problems, involuntariness in the visit, less hospital admissions and less connection with the healthcare network.Adolescents with a dual diagnosis account for a high percentage of visits at child and adolescent psychiatric emergency services. This patient group requires specialized care both at emergency services and in specific units. Accordingly, these units should play a triple role when handling dual diagnosis: detection, brief treatment and referral to a specialised unit.
Morant, Nicola; Kaminskiy, Emma; Ramon, Shulamit
Mental health care has lagged behind other health-care domains in developing and applying shared decision making (SDM) for treatment decisions. This is despite compatibilities with ideals of modern mental health care such as self-management and recovery-oriented practice, and growing policy-level interest. Psychiatric medication is a mainstay of mental health treatment, but there are known problems with prescribing practices, and service users report feeling uninvolved in medication decisions and concerned about adverse effects. SDM has potential to produce better tailoring of psychiatric medication to individuals' needs. This conceptual review argues that several aspects of mental health care that differ from other health-care contexts (e.g. forms of coercion, questions about service users' insight and disempowerment) may impact on processes and possibilities for SDM. It is therefore problematic to uncritically import models of SDM developed in other health-care contexts. We argue that decision making for psychiatric medication is better understood in a broader way that moves beyond the micro-social focus of a medical consultation. Contextualizing specific medication-related consultations within longer term relationships, and broader service systems enables recognition of the multiple processes, actors and agendas that shape how psychiatric medication is prescribed, managed and used, and which may facilitate or impede SDM. A broad conceptualization of decision making for psychiatric medication that moves beyond the micro-social can account for why SDM in this domain remains a rarity. It has both conceptual and practical utility for evaluating research evidence, identifying future research priorities and highlighting fruitful ways of developing and implementing SDM in mental health care. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tor, Phern-Chern; Goh, Lee-Gan; Ang, Yong-Guan; Lim, Leslie; Winslow, Rasaiah-Munidasa; Ng, Beng-Yeong; Wong, Sze-Tai; Ng, Tse-Pin; Kia, Ee-Heok
Psychiatric mentors are an important part of the new, seamless training program in Singapore. There is a need to assess the qualities of a good psychiatric mentor vis-à-vis those of a good psychiatrist. An anonymous survey was sent out to all psychiatry trainees and psychiatrists in Singapore to assess quantitatively the relative importance of 40 qualities for a good psychiatrist and a good mentor. The response rate was 48.7% (74/152). Factor analysis showed four themes among the qualities assessed (professional, personal values, relationship, academic-executive). A good mentor is defined by professional, relationship, and personal-values qualities. Mentors have significantly higher scores than psychiatrists for two themes (relationship and academic-executive). Being a good mentor, in Asia, means being a good psychiatrist first and foremost but also requires additional relationship and academic-executive skills. Mentors should be formally trained in these additional skills that were not part of the psychiatric curriculum.
54% of the students believed that parents inattention to their children and 46.3% believed that physical punishment by parents or school staff could effect on occurrence of psychiatric disorders . 90% of the students interested in receiving education by psychiatrist or psychologist in their schools . Conclusion: Results of this study show that high school students, attitude in Khorramabad city to psychiatric disorders is negative . It seems that with exact perception of this problem and proper planning we can develop a positive change in students, attitude to psychiatric disorders and take effective steps to improve mental health of the adolescents .
Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J
When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.
Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.
Koekkoek, Bauke; van Baarsen, Carlijn; Steenbeek, Mirella
To determine the effects of multidisciplinary, nurse-led psychiatric consultation on behavioral problems of nursing home residents. Residents often suffer from psychiatric symptoms, while staff psychiatric expertise varies. A pre-post study was conducted in seven homes using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home version (NPI-NH). In 71 consultations during 18 months, 56-75% of residents suffered from agitation/aggression, depression, anxiety, and disinhibition. Post-intervention (n = 54), frequency, and severity of psychiatric symptoms were significantly and clinically meaningfully reduced. Also, staff suffered from less work stress. Nurse-led psychiatric consultation is valuable to both nursing home residents and staff. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Forsberg, Karl A; Björkman, Tommy; Sandman, Per O; Sandlund, Mikael
The aim of this study was to investigate how a lifestyle intervention programme influences psychiatric and psychosocial factors among persons with psychiatric disabilities. Persons with psychiatric disabilities often suffer from a simultaneous physical health problem, where circulatory disorder, hyperlipideamia, digestive disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity are prevalent. Studies have also shown a relationship between physical activity and mental health. But few randomised controlled trails have been aimed specifically at lifestyle interventions and their effect on psychiatric health and quality of life among persons with psychiatric disabilities. A cluster randomised controlled trail. Forty-one persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis in eight supported housing facilities and two housing support programmes and their carers were on cluster level randomly assigned to a 12-month health intervention programme in the form of study circles with diet sessions and physical activities or a control programme. The changes in the mean of quality of life, level of functioning, psychiatric symptoms and sense of coherence was investigated and its relationship to physical health and attendance. A significant increase in the sense of coherence was seen in both programmes but also significant improvements in the intervention group compared to controls at the follow-up. Structured activities in the form of lifestyle intervention programmes with a sufficient level of challenge that encourage persons with psychiatric disabilities to participate in activities in a social context may contribute to a significant increase in the sense of coherence. Improving physical health with lifestyle programmes in the form of study circles and when involving their cares will in addition to increased physical health end in improved sense of coherence.
Corona, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Bandini, Elisa; Mannucci, Edoardo; Petrone, Luisa; Fisher, Alessandra D; Lotti, Francesco; Balercia, Giancarlo; Faravelli, Carlo; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with a wide array of psychiatric symptoms, although few studies systematically address their specific association with ED determinants. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between ED (as assessed by SIEDY Structured Interview, a 13-item tool which identifies and quantifies the contribution of organic, relational, and intrapsychic domains of ED) and different psychopathological symptoms (as assessed by the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, a self-reported test for the screening of mental disorders in a nonpsychiatric setting). A consecutive series of 1,388 (mean age 51 +/- 13 years) male patients with ED was studied. Several hormonal and biochemical parameters were investigated, along with SIEDY Interview and the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms resulted differentially associated with SIEDY domains. Depressive and phobic-anxiety symptoms were associated with the relational domain, somatization with the organic one, while free-floating anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic symptoms were significantly related with higher intrapsychic SIEDY scores. In addition, relevant depressive symptomatology was associated with hypogonadism, the presence of low frequency of intercourse, hypoactive sexual desire (HSD), and conflictual relationships within the couple and the family. Patients with high free-floating anxiety symptoms were younger, and complained of an unsatisfactory work and a conflictual relationship within family. Conversely, subjects with higher phobic anxious symptoms displayed a more robust relational functioning. Similar results were observed in subjects with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, who also reported a lower prevalence of HSD. Finally, subjects with somatization symptoms showed the worst erectile function. The main value of this study is that it alters various clinicians' belief that many psychiatric symptoms can be found among ED patients. Systematic testing of
Background: There is a welter of evidence for an inverse relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and mental health. The relationship is grossly under researched in the developing countries. Objective: To ascertain rates of gross psychiatric morbidity and some demographic correlations in two communities with ...
Self- and other-directed forms of violence and their relationship with lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).
Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Kerridge, Bradley T; Grant, Bridget F
A combined history of violence toward self and others has been reported in clinical and incarcerated populations. Psychiatric disorders have been implicated as risk factors. This study examines the lifetime prevalence of this combined violence in the general population and its associations with DSM-5 psychiatric disorders in comparison with other- and self-directed violence. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) were analyzed, including 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older. Violent behavior was defined by suicide attempts; recurrent suicidal behavior; gestures, threats, or self-mutilating behavior (self-directed); and multiple items of violence toward others (other-directed) in four categories: none, self-directed only, other-directed only, and combined self-/other-directed. Multinomial logistic regression examined these violence categories in association with sociodemographics and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders. Results show that approximately 18.1% of adults reported violent behavior, including self-directed only (4.4%), other-directed only (10.9%), and combined self- and other-directed violence (2.8%). DSM-5 psychiatric disorders significantly associated with the violence typology include alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drug use disorders; mood disorders; posttraumatic stress disorder; and schizotypal, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Findings extend the clinical literature regarding the co-occurrence of self- and other-directed violent behaviors to the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kyoung-Eun Kim, PhD
Conclusion: The findings from this study demonstrate the fundamental importance of infant health as linked to the mother's mental health, and marital relationship and increasing the quality of marital relationship may be the key to infant abuse prevention.
Mason, T; Coyle, D; Lovell, A
This study reports on research undertaken to identify the skills and competencies of forensic psychiatric nurses working in secure psychiatric services in the UK. The rationale for this research is the lack of clarity in the role definition of nurses working in these environments and the specific content that may underscore the curriculum for training forensic nurses. Over 3300 questionnaires were distributed to forensic psychiatric nurses, non-forensic psychiatric nurses and other disciplines and information obtained on (1) the perceived clinical problems that give forensic nurses the most difficulty; (2) the skills best suited to overcome those problems; and (3) the priority aspects of clinical nursing care that needs to be developed. A 35% response rate was obtained with 1019 forensic psychiatric nurses, 110 non-forensic psychiatric nurses and 43 other disciplines. The results highlighted a 'top ten' list of main problems with possible solutions and main areas for development. The conclusions drawn include a focus on skills and competencies regarding the management of personality disorders and the management of violence and aggression.
Full Text Available Introduction: Evidence suggests that stressful situations are frequent in the field of psychiatry and that professionals working in this speciality are more prone to stress. Stressful situations may be compounded by ignoring the principles and strategies of therapeutic communication in all interactions with patients. The purpose of the research was to determine the presence of stress among the nursing team members. Methods: The research is based on a quantitative methodology; the data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The sample consisted of 73 nurses working in a special social welfare institution (n = 37 and in a psychiatric hospital (n = 36. The survey was conducted in the first half of the year 2016. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used. Results: The list of stress factors most frequently reported by the participants include low pay (n = 40, 55 %, poor interpersonal relationships in the workplace (n = 23, 32 %, and the sense of insecurity due to unpredictable behaviour of patients (n = 32, 44 %. One fifth of the respondents are regularly subjected to patient physical violence and psychological abuse in the workplace (n = 14, 19 % and a large majority (n = 53, 72.5 % are frequently exposed to dangerous situations. The respondents are not fully aware of the crucial importance of therapeutic communication with the patients (n = 38, 52 %. Discussion and conclusion: It is impossible to completely avoid stressful situations in psychiatric settings. Psychiatric nurses should possess good communication skills and the ability to develop good interpersonal relationships.
T A Lisitsyna
Full Text Available Objective. To analyze prevalence and structure of psychiatric disorders in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE examining in the Institute of rheumatology of RAMS. Material and methods. 115 pts with SLE with median age 34 [24; 45] years and median disease duration 8 [4; 17] years were included. SLE activity was assessed with SLEDAI. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist according to ICD-10 using some psychiatric and psychological scales. Results. Psychiatric disorders were revealed in 76 from 115 (66% pts. Anxiety-depressive spectrum disorders prevailed (83%: depressive episode (40%, adjustment disorders (24%, generalized anxiety disorder (10%, dysthymia (9%. Severe cognitive dysfunction was revealed in 7% of pts. Pts with and without psychiatric disorders did not significantly differ in age, sex, duration and activity of the disease, duration of treatment and cumulative dose of prednisolone and cytotoxic drugs. Conclusion. Psychiatric disorders are frequent in pts with SLE (66%. Anxiety-depressive disorders prevail among them (83%. Relationship between SLE and psychiatric disorders requires further examination.
Identificação de casos psiquiátricos em estudos epidemiológicos multifásicos: métodos, problemas e aplicabilidade Psychiatric cases identification by multi steps epidemiological studies: methods, problems and applicability
Sérgio B Andreoli
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir aspectos metodológicos da estratégia de identificação de casos psiquiátricos, em duas etapas, em estudos epidemiológicos. MÉTODOS: Analisa-se a metodologia utilizada no Estudo Multicêntrico de Morbidade Psiquiátrica do Adulto realizado em três cidades brasileiras, entre 1990-1991. Na primeira etapa do citado estudo, uma amostra aleatória (6.740 indivíduos da população foi selecionada e submetida a um rastreamento com o Questionário de Morbidade Psiquiátrica do Adulto -- QMPA. Na segunda etapa, uma subamostra (775 indivíduos foi selecionada e submetida ao Inventário de Sintomas do DSM-III (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, aplicado por psiquiatras e psicólogos treinados, para confirmação-diagnóstica. RESULTADOS: São descritos os procedimentos empregados para a estimativa das prevalências, mostrando que o fraco desempenho da escala de rastreamento não compromete o método. CONCLUSÃO: A vantagem da metodologia é a de corrigir as distorções apresentadas pelos instrumentos atuais de identificação de casos psiquiátricos.OBJECTIVE: To discuss methodological aspects of the two stages in the identification of psychiatric cases in epidemiological studies. METHODS: Analyze the methodology used in the Multicentric Psychiatric Morbidity Study, which was conducted in three Brazilian cities (São Paulo, Brasília and Porto Alegre. In the first stage of that study, a random sample (6,740 individuals of the population was drawn and all the participants were screened with the Questionnaire of Psychiatric Morbidity of the Adult (QMPA. In the second stage, a sample (775 individuals of this population was drawn and these individuals were submitted to the Inventory of Symptoms of DSM-III, carried out by psychiatrists and trained psychologists. RESULTS: The study procedure for estimating the prevalence is described in details, showing that though the screening scales are a weak tool, they don
João Campos Mendes
Full Text Available Introduction: The tension‑type headaches (Ctt are the most frequent headaches in the general population and those with higher socio‑economic impact, given the high degree of disability they cause. Objective: The authors propose to conduct a review of the available literature on the subject, from a psychiatric perspective. Discussion: Several studies have identified a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, personality traits and ineffective coping mechanisms in patients with Ctt, so it is essential to understand this relationship and the impact of these psychopathological factors on this kind of headaches. Conclusion: Their clinical and therapeutic approach is hampered by these and other factors and multiple strategies of pharmacological and psycho‑behavioral treatment have been used on them, however, scientific evidence is still scarce.
Full Text Available introduction and objective. Psychiatric disorders (and their high rates of prevalence in primary care have been widely analyzed, but the problem of underdiagnosis remains unresolved. This becomes increasingly more important in rural health centres in the face of lack of epidemiological data from these centres. The aim of this study is focused on the relationship between general health, psychiatric symptomatology and personality characteristics in the context of an adequate diagnosis. materials and methods. 518 primary care patients in 6 Polish urban clinical centres were studied using (in order of administration: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R. results. The investigated sample was representative for urban primary care patients. The findings confirmed a significant association between neuroticism and general health. The strongest relation with current functioning and mental distress of the patients (GHQ general score was observed in case of symptoms of anxiety and insomnia. The symptoms of depression may be the most difficult to identify (psychiatric symptoms assessed using GHQ sub-scales. conclusions. According to the GHQ assumptions and confirmed by the presented study, sub-threshold psychiatric symptomatology affects the functioning of primary care patients and their general health. This correlates with personality factors. Improving adequacy of diagnosis becomes extremely important, as it may often be the only chance for appropriate therapy of mental problems for people living in rural areas due to lower availability of specialistic mental services. Further epidemiological studies concerning rural primary care and prevalence of the spectrum of mental disorders need to be conducted.
Weinberger, Andrea H; Franco, Christine A; Hoff, Rani A; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N
Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Analyses utilized survey data from 1591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617
Demirören, Meral; Turan, Sevgi; Öztuna, Derya
Problem-based learning (PBL) is most commonly used in medical education to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. Self-efficacy beliefs affect students' motivation through self-regulatory processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical students' self-reported SRL skills and their self-efficacy in PBL. A cross-sectional study was conducted with second (286; 83.1%) and third (275; 80.2%) year students at the Ankara University School of Medicine. The SRL perception (SRLP) scale and self-efficacy for problem-based learning (SPBL) scale were used in the study. The SRLP subscales were positively correlated with the SPBL subscales. There was a weak but meaningful correlation between the subscales of SRLP (with the exception of the lack of self-directedness scale) and the subscales of SPBL and the students' views on benefiting from PBL. The female students' mean score was higher for the 'planning and goal setting' subscale of SRLP (p=0.017), and the second-year students' mean score was higher than that of the third-year students for the 'lack of self-directedness' subscale of SRLP (p=0.001) with small effect sizes (Cohen's d is 0.17 and 0.27). There was no statistically significant difference between the year and subscales of SPBL. With regard to gender, the female students had higher scores than the male students on the 'responsibility' subscale of SPBL (p=0.003; Cohen's d=0.26). The study showed that medical students used SRL skills and believed in their ability to learn effectively in the PBL context and demonstrated the relationship between SRL skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Monitoring students' development in these skills and giving them feedback could be beneficial for the cognitive achievement of students with learning difficulties and insufficient study skills. Further studies need to be undertaken to investigate issues such as the curriculum, learning environment, individual differences, and how these can affect the
Demirören, Meral; Turan, Sevgi; Öztuna, Derya
Background Problem-based learning (PBL) is most commonly used in medical education to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. Self-efficacy beliefs affect students’ motivation through self-regulatory processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical students’ self-reported SRL skills and their self-efficacy in PBL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with second (286; 83.1%) and third (275; 80.2%) year students at the Ankara University School of Medicine. The SRL perception (SRLP) scale and self-efficacy for problem-based learning (SPBL) scale were used in the study. Results The SRLP subscales were positively correlated with the SPBL subscales. There was a weak but meaningful correlation between the subscales of SRLP (with the exception of the lack of self-directedness scale) and the subscales of SPBL and the students’ views on benefiting from PBL. The female students’ mean score was higher for the ‘planning and goal setting’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.017), and the second-year students’ mean score was higher than that of the third-year students for the ‘lack of self-directedness’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.001) with small effect sizes (Cohen's d is 0.17 and 0.27). There was no statistically significant difference between the year and subscales of SPBL. With regard to gender, the female students had higher scores than the male students on the ‘responsibility’ subscale of SPBL (p=0.003; Cohen's d=0.26). Conclusions The study showed that medical students used SRL skills and believed in their ability to learn effectively in the PBL context and demonstrated the relationship between SRL skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Monitoring students’ development in these skills and giving them feedback could be beneficial for the cognitive achievement of students with learning difficulties and insufficient study skills. Further studies need to be undertaken to investigate issues such as the curriculum, learning
Full Text Available Background: Problem-based learning (PBL is most commonly used in medical education to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL skills. Self-efficacy beliefs affect students’ motivation through self-regulatory processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical students’ self-reported SRL skills and their self-efficacy in PBL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with second (286; 83.1% and third (275; 80.2% year students at the Ankara University School of Medicine. The SRL perception (SRLP scale and self-efficacy for problem-based learning (SPBL scale were used in the study. Results: The SRLP subscales were positively correlated with the SPBL subscales. There was a weak but meaningful correlation between the subscales of SRLP (with the exception of the lack of self-directedness scale and the subscales of SPBL and the students’ views on benefiting from PBL. The female students’ mean score was higher for the ‘planning and goal setting’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.017, and the second-year students’ mean score was higher than that of the third-year students for the ‘lack of self-directedness’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.001 with small effect sizes (Cohen's d is 0.17 and 0.27. There was no statistically significant difference between the year and subscales of SPBL. With regard to gender, the female students had higher scores than the male students on the ‘responsibility’ subscale of SPBL (p=0.003; Cohen's d=0.26. Conclusions: The study showed that medical students used SRL skills and believed in their ability to learn effectively in the PBL context and demonstrated the relationship between SRL skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Monitoring students’ development in these skills and giving them feedback could be beneficial for the cognitive achievement of students with learning difficulties and insufficient study skills. Further studies need to be undertaken to investigate issues such as the curriculum
Weiner, Enid; Weiner, Judith
A study using individual interviews with 24 university students with psychiatric disabilities identified five areas of concern: problems with focusing attention and organization, low self-esteem, problems with trust, stigma, and high stress levels. Findings point to need for comprehensive services, including peer support group, one-to-one…
Walker, Sandra; Kennedy, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne
Social network processes impact on the genesis and management of mental health problems. There is currently less understanding of the way people negotiate networked relationships in times of crisis compared to how they manage at other times. This paper explores the patterns and nature of personal network involvement at times of crises and how these may differ from day-to-day networks of recovery and maintenance. Semi-structured interviews with 25 participants with a diagnosis of long-term mental health (MH) problems drawn from recovery settings in the south of England. Interviews centred on personal network mapping of members and resources providing support. The mapping interviews explored the work of network members and changes in times of crisis. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using a framework analysis. Three key themes were identified: the fluidity of network relationality between crisis and recovery; isolation as a means of crises management; leaning towards peer support. Personal network input retreated at times of crisis often as result of "ejection" from the network by participants who used self-isolation as a personal management strategy in an attempt to deal with crises. Peer support is considered useful during a crisis, whilst the role of services was viewed with some ambiguity. Social networks membership, and type and depth of involvement, is subject to change between times of crisis and everyday support. This has implications for managing mental health in terms of engaging with network support differently in times of crises versus recovery and everyday living. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nasrazadani, Ehteram; Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Mahrabi, Tayebeh
Dormitory students encounter multiple social factors which cause pressure, such as new social relationships, fear of the future, and separation from family, which could cause serious problems such as tendency toward drug abuse. This research was conducted with the goal to determine social problem-solving skills, dysfunctional attitudes, and risk of drug abuse among dormitory students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. This was a descriptive-analytical, correlational, and cross-sectional research. The research sample consisted of 211 students living in dormitories. The participants were selected using randomized quota sampling method. The data collection tools included the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), and Identifying People at Risk of Addiction Questionnaire. The results indicated an inverse relationship between social problem-solving skills and risk of drug abuse ( P = 0.0002), a direct relationship between dysfunctional attitude and risk of drug abuse ( P = 0.030), and an inverse relationship between social problem-solving skills and dysfunctional attitude among students ( P = 0.0004). Social problem-solving skills have a correlation with dysfunctional attitudes. As a result, teaching these skills and the way to create efficient attitudes should be considered in dormitory students.
Yada, Hironori; Kobayashi, Mako; Odachi, Ryo; Yamane, Toshie
This study aimed to clarify the factors related to self-efficacy experienced by psychiatric nurses. Analysis of qualitative descriptive data from a free self-description questionnaire administered to 16 psychiatric nurses working in psychiatric hospitals revealed 24 codes across the following 8 categories as factors that increase self-efficacy: A1. possibility of practical use in nursing, A2. nursing judgment, A3. improvement of psychiatric symptoms, A4. the patients presenting a positive attitude, A5. building a relationship of trust with the patients, A6. building a relationship of trust with other nurses, A7. work progressing according to plan and A8. team medical practice. Twenty-five codes across the following 10 categories were identified as factors that decrease self-efficacy: B1. lack of communication, B2. uncertainty in caregiving, B3. recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, B4. feeling overpowered by a patient, B5. sense of being too busy to work adequately, B6. difficulty in bringing about self-improvement, B7. sense of loss regarding one's role as a nurse, B8. lack of physical strength, B9. mechanical performance of nursing and B10. fluctuating view of nursing due to mistakes. These factors require intervention for psychiatric nurses' self-efficacy.
Martínez-Ortega, José María; Jurado, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Gurpegui, Manuel
The purpose of this study was to examine the association of smoking and nicotine dependence with psychiatric morbidity, controlling for the potential confounding effect of smoking on the relationship between the use of other substances and psychiatric morbidity. A sample of 290 adults were interviewed at a primary health centre (patients, 58%; patients' relatives, 34%; staff, 8%) to inquire about their tobacco, caffeine, alcohol, and illegal drug consumption. Psychiatric morbidity, defined by a score >6 on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), showed a strong direct association with nicotine dependence. The use of illegal drugs, but not of alcohol, was also strongly associated with psychiatric morbidity, after controlling for smoking. Both smoking and high nicotine dependence were also associated with use of caffeine, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine. High nicotine dependence may be considered as an expression of individual psychopathologic vulnerability. Tobacco may have a central facilitating role in the use of caffeine, alcohol, and illegal drug.
Li, Longfeng; Lin, Xiuyun; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fang, Xiaoyi; Du, Hongfei; Wang, Zhonghui
Maltreatment has negative effects on the parent-child relationship and the emotional and behavioral development of children. The current study aimed to examine the associations among maltreatment, parent-child relationship, and emotional and behavioral problems in Chinese children with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Participants in the study included 259 children with ODD and their 269 non-ODD counterparts from northern, eastern, and southwestern China. We also collected data from their teachers and fathers or mothers. The results showed that ODD children suffered more maltreatment and had more emotional and behavioral problems than their non-ODD peers. For all children (both ODD and non-ODD children), emotional abuse predicted emotional problems but not behavioral problems. Physical abuse predicted behavioral problems but not emotional problems. Parent-child relationship mediated the effects of emotional abuse and physical abuse on emotional problems among ODD children but not among non-ODD children. Implications for prevention of emotional and physical abuse and ODD in the Chinese cultural context are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Wiedemann, Ashley A; Saules, Karen K
Weight problem perception (WPP) refers to the belief that one is overweight. Previous research suggests that WPP, even in the absence of actual overweight status, is associated with disordered eating, binge eating, and body image dissatisfaction. However, the relationship between emotional eating, BMI, and WPP has not yet been explored. This investigation recruited a total of 409 college students who completed a web-based survey. An additional 76 participants were recruited to complete an identical survey with the addition of a depression measure to evaluate the contribution of this potentially important covariate. As hypothesized, WPP was associated with emotional eating, while actual BMI was not. In the second sample, WPP remained significantly associated with emotional eating, even after depression was included as a covariate. Results suggest that non-overweight young adults who express the belief that they are overweight may be at risk for emotional eating, which, over the long term, could indeed adversely impact BMI. Cognitive approaches to address disordered eating may benefit from addressing WPP. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wade, Shari L.; Cassedy, Amy; Walz, Nicolay C.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen
Parenting behaviors play a critical role in the child's behavioral development, particularly for children with neurological deficits. This study examined the relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to changes in behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children relative to an age-matched cohort of children with orthopedic injuries (OI). It was hypothesized that responsive parenting would buffer the adverse effects of TBI on child behavior, whereas parental negativity would exacerbate these effects. Children, ages 3–7 years, hospitalized for TBI (n = 80) or OI (n = 113), were seen acutely and again 6 months later. Parent–child dyads were videotaped during free play. Parents completed behavior ratings (Child Behavior Checklist; T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) at both visits, with baseline ratings reflecting preinjury behavior. Hypotheses were tested using multiple regression, with preinjury behavior ratings, race, income, child IQ, family functioning, and acute parental distress serving as covariates. Parental responsiveness and negativity had stronger associations with emerging externalizing behaviors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms among children with severe TBI. Findings suggest that parenting quality may facilitate or impede behavioral recovery following early TBI. Interventions that increase positive parenting may partially ameliorate emerging behavior problems. PMID:21244154
Minen, Mia Tova; Begasse De Dhaem, Olivia; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley; Powers, Scott; Schwedt, Todd J; Lipton, Richard; Silbersweig, David
Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling neurological disorder associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the link between migraine and several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We present data on psychiatric risk factors for migraine chronification. We discuss the evidence, theories and methods, such as brain functional imaging, to explain the pathophysiological links between migraine and psychiatric disorders. Finally, we provide an overview of the treatment considerations for treating migraine with psychiatric comorbidities. In conclusion, a review of the literature demonstrates the wide variety of psychiatric comorbidities with migraine. However, more research is needed to elucidate the neurocircuitry underlying the association between migraine and the comorbid psychiatric conditions and to determine the most effective treatment for migraine with psychiatric comorbidity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Singh, Delar K.
This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…
van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes
The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus
Baer, Susan; Bogusz, Elliot; Green, David A.
Objective: Computer and gaming-station use has become entrenched in the culture of our youth. Parents of children with psychiatric disorders report concerns about overuse, but research in this area is limited. The goal of this study is to evaluate computer/gaming-station use in adolescents in a psychiatric clinic population and to examine the relationship between use and functional impairment. Method: 102 adolescents, ages 11–17, from out-patient psychiatric clinics participated. Amount of computer/gaming-station use, type of use (gaming or non-gaming), and presence of addictive features were ascertained along with emotional/functional impairment. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine correlations between patterns of use and impairment. Results: Mean screen time was 6.7±4.2 hrs/day. Presence of addictive features was positively correlated with emotional/functional impairment. Time spent on computer/gaming-station use was not correlated overall with impairment after controlling for addictive features, but non-gaming time was positively correlated with risky behavior in boys. Conclusions: Youth with psychiatric disorders are spending much of their leisure time on the computer/gaming-station and a substantial subset show addictive features of use which is associated with impairment. Further research to develop measures and to evaluate risk is needed to identify the impact of this problem. PMID:21541096
Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Karlsson, Karin; Lindell, Lisbeth; Fors, Uno
Psychiatric and mental health nursing is built on a trusted nurse and patient relationship. Therefore communication and clinical reasoning are two important issues. Our experiences as teachers in psychiatric educational programmes are that the students feel anxiety and fear before they start their clinical practices in psychiatry. Therefore there is a need for bridging over the fear. Technology enhanced learning might support such activities so we used Virtual patients (VPs), an interactive computer simulations of real-life clinical scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate 4th term nursing students' opinions on the use of Virtual Patients for assessment in a Mental Health and Ill-health course module. We asked 24 volunteering students to practise with five different VP cases during almost 10 weeks before the exam. The participants were gathered together for participating in a written and an oral evaluation. The students were positive to the use of VPs in psychiatry and were very positive to use VPs in their continued nursing education. It seems that Virtual Patients can be an activity producing pedagogic model promoting students' independent knowledge development, critical thinking, reflection and problem solving ability for nurse students in psychiatric care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Roumen Kirov21Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, BulgariaThe authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Restoring sleep is strongly associated with a better physical, cognitive, and psychological well-being. By contrast, poor or disordered sleep is related to impairment of cognitive and psychological functioning and worsened physical health. These associations are well documented not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Importantly, adolescence is hallmarked by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its neurobiological regulation, hormonal status, and many psychosocial and physical processes. Thus, the role of sleep in mental and physical health during adolescence and in adolescent patients is complex. However, it has so far received little attention. This review first presents contemporary views about the complex neurobiology of sleep and its functions with important implications for adolescence. Second, existing complex relationships between common adolescent somatic/organic, sleep-related, and psychiatric disorders and certain sleep alterations are discussed. It is concluded that poor or altered sleep in adolescent patients may trigger and maintain many psychiatric and physical disorders or combinations of these conditions, which presumably hinder recovery and may cross into later stages of life. Therefore, timely diagnosis and management of sleep problems appear critical for growth and development in adolescent patients.Keywords: cognitive, psychological, neurobiology, growth, development, sleep physiology, rapid eye movement, non-REM sleep, behavioral disorders, adolescents
Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Huurre, Taina
Poor childhood family conditions have a long-term effect on adult mental health, but the mechanisms behind this association are unclear. Our aim was to study the pathways from problematic family relationships in adolescence to midlife psychological distress via disadvantages in early adulthood. Participants of a Finnish cohort study at the age of 16 years old in 1983 were followed up at ages 22, 32 and 42 years old (N = 1334). Problems in family relationships were measured with poor relations...
... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is the creative problem-solving capacity of the organization with leadership behaviors of human resources managers and employees to examine the relationship between career satisfaction and is tested empirically. Research within the scope of the required data structured questionnaire method, operating in the province of Aydin was obtained from 130 employees working in five star hotels. Democratic leadership style according to the factor analysis, easygoing, participants converter, and releasing autocratic leadership dimensions were determined. According to the analysis, the dependent variable with a significant level of research and positive leadership style has been determined that no relationships. Regression analysis revealed that the leadership of the relationship with the creative problem-solving capacity of democratic leadership in style when found to be stronger than other leadership styles, while the variable describing the career of the employee satisfaction level of the maximum it was concluded that the creative problem-solving capacity of the organization. Research in the context of human resources on the very important for organizations, leadership behavior, creative problem-solving capacity and career satisfaction studies analyzing the relationships between variables it seems to be quite limited. The discovery by analyzing the relationship between the aforementioned variables, can make significant contributions to knowledge in the literature and are expected to form the basis for future research.
Pilver, Corey E; Libby, Daniel J; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated gender-related differences in the associations between problem-gambling severity and substance-use disorders; however, these associations have not been examined longitudinally. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between problem-gambling severity and incident substance-use disorders in women versus men. Analyses were conducted using Wave-1 and Wave-2 NESARC data focusing on psychiatric diagnoses from 34,006 non-institutionalized US adults. Inclusionary criteria for pathological gambling were used to categorize Wave-1 participants as at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG) and non-ARPG (i.e. non-gambling/low-frequency gambling/low-risk gambling). Dependent variables included the three-year incidence of any substance-use disorder, alcohol-use disorders, nicotine dependence, drug-use disorders, prescription drug-use disorders, and illicit drug-use disorders. Significant gender-by-ARPG status interactions were observed with respect to the three-year incidence of nicotine dependence and prescription drug-use disorders, and approached significance with respect to incident alcohol-use disorders. ARPG (relative to non-ARPG) was positively associated with nicotine dependence among women (OR=2.00; 95% CI=1.24-3.00). ARPG was negatively associated with incident prescription drug-use disorders among men (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.10-0.88)). Finally, ARPG was positively associated with incident alcohol-use disorders among men (OR=2.20; 95% CI=1.39-3.48). Gambling problems were associated with an increased 3-year incidence of nicotine dependence in women and alcohol dependence in men. These findings highlight the importance of considering gender in prevention and treatment initiatives for adults who are experiencing gambling problems. Moreover, the specific factors underlying the differential progressions of specific substance-use disorders in women and men with ARPG warrant identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights
Petersson, Lena; Erlingsdóttir, Gudbjörg
When the Swedish version of Open Notes, an electronic health record (EHR) service that allows patients online access, was introduced in hospitals, primary care, and specialized care in 2012, psychiatric care was exempt. This was because psychiatric notes were considered too sensitive for patient access. However, as the first region in Sweden, Region Skåne added adult psychiatry to its Open Notes service in 2015. This made it possible to carry out a unique baseline study to investigate how different health care professionals (HCPs) in adult psychiatric care in the region expect Open Notes to impact their patients and their practice. This is the first of two papers about the implementation of Open Notes in adult psychiatric care in Region Skåne. The objective of this study was to describe, compare, and discuss how different HCPs in adult psychiatric care in Region Skåne expect Open Notes to impact their patients and their own practice. A full population Web-based questionnaire was distributed to psychiatric care professionals in Region Skåne in late 2015. The response rate was 28.86% (871/3017). Analyses show that the respondents were representative of the staff as a whole. A statistical analysis examined the relationships between different professionals and attitudes to the Open Notes service. The results show that the psychiatric HCPs are generally of the opinion that the service would affect their own practice and their patients negatively. The most striking result was that more than 60% of both doctors (80/132, 60.6%) and psychologists (55/90, 61%) were concerned that they would be less candid in their documentation in the future. Open Notes can increase the transparency between patients and psychiatric HCPs because patients are able to access their EHRs online without delay and thus, can read notes that have not yet been approved by the responsible HCP. This may be one explanation as to why HCPs are concerned that the service will affect both their own work
Full Text Available Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data
Full Text Available Background: A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives: 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method: Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results: Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions: These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: In general, nurses who work in department of psychiatric are in fact interacting with emotional disorders of patients once providing their care services. higher levels of job motivation and satisfaction can markedly foster service improvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anger and job motivation in nurses of a psychiatric hospital. Instrument & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive research in 2014, all 50 psychiatry nurses working at Kargarnejad Hospital of Kashan City, Iran, were entirely studied. A demographical questionnaire, the Anger Multiple Scale and the Job Motivation Scale were used for data gathering. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Pearson correlation coefficient. Findings: The mean score of anger was 3.01±0.36 and of job motivation was 1.70±0.86. There was a significant relationship between job motivation and the number of family members and conditions of employment of nurses (p=0.001. There was a significant inverse relationship between scores of anger and job motivation of psychiatry nurses of the hospital (r=-0.712; p=0.001. Conclusion: There is a relationship between anger and job motivation in nurses of Kashan Psychiatric hospital.
Ilia N Karatsoreos
Full Text Available Determining the cause of psychiatric disorders is a goal of modern neuroscience, and will hopefully lead to the discovery of treatments to either prevent or alleviate the suffering caused by these diseases. One roadblock to attaining this goal is the realization that neuropsychiatric diseases are rarely due to a single gene polymorphism, environmental exposure, or developmental insult. Rather, it is a complex interaction between these various influences that likely leads to the development of clinically relevant syndromes. Our lab is exploring the links between environmental exposures and neurobehavioral function by investigating how disruption of the circadian (daily clock alters the structure and function of neural circuits, with the hypothesis that disrupting this crucial homeostatic system can directly contribute to altered vulnerability of the organism to other factors that interact to produce psychiatric illness. This review explores some historical and more recent findings that link disrupted circadian clocks to neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, mania, and schizophrenia. We take a comparative approach by exploring the effects observed in human populations, as well as some experimental models used in the laboratory to unravel mechanistic and causal relationships between disruption of the circadian clock and behavioral abnormalities. This is a rich area of research that we predict will contribute greatly to our understanding of how genes, environment, and development interact to modulate an individual’s vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.
McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others
Compared self-poisoning patients with psychiatric patients and nonpatient controls on problem-solving skills and locus of control. The psychiatric and self-poisoning groups showed deficits on interpersonal problem solving compared with nonpatient controls. The self-poisoning group performed below or at the level of the psychiatric group. Locus of…
Biswajit L Jagtap
Full Text Available Background: Women in the perimenopausal period are reported to be vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. Aim: To assess the psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women aged 45–55 years. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical college. The study sample consisted of consecutive women in perimenopause as diagnosed by a gynecologist and written informed consent for inclusion in the study. Women with a previous history of psychiatric illnesses, with a major medical illness, or who had undergone surgical menopause were excluded from the study. All women were evaluated with a brief questionnaire for collecting demographic and clinical information and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for assessing psychiatric disorders. Results: Of the 108 women in perimenopause included in the study, 31% had depressive disorder, 7% had anxiety, while 5% had depressive disorder with anxiety features. Psychiatric morbidity was significantly more in women having lesser education, from rural background, with a history of psychiatric illness in the family, a later age of menarche, and in the late stage of perimenopause. Conclusions: Women in the perimenopause affected by psychiatric morbidity were most commonly diagnosed with depression. As perimenopause is a time of vulnerability in women, attention to signs and symptoms of depression may be required so that they may lead a more productive life.
Seng, Elizabeth K; Seng, Cynthia D
This article describes recent trends in our understanding of the role of psychiatric disorders in the experience and treatment of migraine, and the role of migraine in the experience and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the majority of studies evaluating psychiatric comorbidity in migraine have focused on depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorders are highly associated with migraine and relevant for prognosis and treatment planning. Comorbid psychiatric disorders may be associated with poorer treatment response for some acute pharmacotherapies; however, people with comorbid migraine and mood or anxiety disorders can achieve large responses to preventive pharmacologic and behavioral therapies. Emerging research is developing and evaluating behavioral treatments designed to manage cooccurring migraine and mood or anxiety disorders. Stigma related to psychiatric disorders has been well characterized, and could exacerbate extant migraine-related stigma. Anxiety and mood disorders are prevalent in people with migraine, although not ubiquitous. Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with greater migraine symptoms and disability; however, people with comorbid depression or anxiety are amenable to preventive migraine treatment. Research regarding migraine treatment strategies optimized for people with comorbid psychiatric disorders is critical to advancing care and reducing stigma for this important subpopulation of people with migraine.
Full Text Available "n "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.
Markwort, Ilka; Schmitz-Buhl, Mario; Christiansen, Hanna; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne
Offsprings of psychiatric patients are burdened and they are at risk of developing a mental disorder themselves. All admissions in a psychiatric hospital within a period of 6 months were screened for parenthood of underaged children. They were given standardized questionnaires for child behavior (SDQ), parenting behavior and subjective need for help in parenting. 21.5 % (N = 439) of the patients had underaged children, 194 patients participated in the study. They considered their children as having more psychological/behavioral problems than a control group (N = 97). Patients with personality or affective disorders and patients with a high level of psychiatric comorbidity rated their children most problematic. Although patients did not differ from controls in the evaluation of their parenting style, they expressed a higher need for help in parenting. Parenting and education issues need to be considered in the treatment of mentally ill patients. Effective support could be a relief for families and help to prevent mental disorders in offsprings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Worley, Julie; Johnson, Mary; Karnik, Niranjan
Doctor shopping is a primary method of prescription medication diversion. After opioids, benzodiazepines and stimulants are the next most common prescription medications used nonmedically. Studies have shown that patients who engage in doctor shopping find it fun, exciting, and easy to do. There is a lack of research on the prescriber's perspective on the phenomenon of doctor shopping. This study investigates the experiences of prescribers in psychiatry with patients who engage in doctor shopping. Fifteen prescribers including psychiatrists and psychiatric nurse practitioners working in outpatient psychiatry were interviewed to elicit detailed information about their experiences with patients who engage in doctor shopping. Themes found throughout the interview were that psychiatric prescribers' experience with patients who engage in doctor shopping includes (a) detecting red flags, (b) negative emotional responding, (c) addressing the patient and the problem, and (d) inconsistently implementing precautions. When red flags were detected when prescribing controlled drugs, prescribers in psychiatry experienced both their own negative emotional responses such as disappointment and resentment as well as the negative emotions of the patients such as anger and other extreme emotional responses. Psychiatric prescribers responded to patient's doctor shopping in a variety of ways such as changing their practice, discharging the patients or taking steps to not accept certain patients identified as being at risk for doctor shopping, as well as by talking to the patient and trying to offer them help. Despite experiencing doctor shopping, the prescribers inconsistently implemented precautionary measures such as checking prescription drug monitoring programs. © The Author(s) 2015.
MMA Shalahuddin Qusar
Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a tragic and serious but preventable public health problem all over the world including Bangladesh. Committing suicide has become a burning issue and mortality rate increases especially in young females. Psychiatric evaluation is needed in suicide attempted patients for better management plan to reduce such unnatural mortality, as well as the impairment related to suicidal thought and psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To assess the psychiatric disorders and conditions that needed sufficient clinical attention among the suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a private hospital of Dhaka City from July 2008 to December 2008. Total forty four subjects of attempted suicide were included in the study and psychiatric diagnosis was made by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV by psychiatrists after initial physical problems subsided. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis was Major Depressive Disorder. Female suffered more and among them attention-seeking behaviors were frequent. Thirty-four patients (77.3% had previous history of psychiatric disorder. Chemicals (like; organophosphorous, kerosene, harpic and other medicine overdose ingestion was the most frequently used method by the suicide attempters. Conclusion: This study may be helpful for further research regarding suicide attempters and its' association with mental problems. In primary health care setting, the physicians may get a clue to design a system for preventing, early recognition and managing suicidal ideas, thoughts and attempts. Psychiatric consultation should be made mandatory for all patients admitted following attempted suicide. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4761 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 73-77
Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.