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Sample records for psychiatric morbidity survey

  1. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  2. Parricide: Psychiatric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunjić Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Parricide is defined as a murder of parents by their children; the patricide is murder of father, while matricide is murder of mother. This entity is classified as homicide, but it differs in the fact that victims are parents and the killers are their children. Mostly, it is associated with psychiatric morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of parricide committers and to analyze circumstances of parricide and psychiatric morbidity in order to achieve better recognition and prevention of risks. METHOD This retrospective study included all homicide autopsy records (1991-2005 performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Belgrade. For further analyses, all parricide records were selected out. The study analyzed all available parameters, which concerned parricide committers, victims and the act itself. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS Between 1991 and 2005, there were 948 cases of homicide; of these, 3.5% were parricides. The committers of parricide were on average 31.2±11.9 years old, 87.8% were males, 60.6% with psychiatric symptoms most commonly with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, personality disorder etc. Victims were on average 63.7±11.9 years old, 54.5% males, and 21.2% had a diagnosed mental illness. CONCLUSION Parricide is a rare kind of homicide accounting for 3% of all homicides. Committers are mostly unemployed males in early adulthood who have mental disorder. The phenomenon of parricide deserves a detailed analysis of the committer (individual bio-psycho-social profile and the environ- mental factors (family, closely related circumstances to enable a precise prediction of the act and prevention of the fatal outcome, which logically imposes the need of further studies.

  3. Chronic fatigue and affective disorders in older adults: evidence from the 2007 British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2013-03-05

    Although chronic fatigue is common in old age, the association between chronic fatigue and common affective disorders is largely unknown. To fill this research gap, the present study aims to determine the relationship between chronic fatigue and common psychiatric disorders among older adults aged 65 and older. A national representative sample of 1793 England community-dwelling respondents aged 65 and above was assessed in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) using the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule to measure chronic fatigue and common psychiatric disorders. Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, and four health-related variables based on the Short Form 12 were also measured. The prevalence of chronic fatigue was 18.6%. Bivariate analyses revealed that chronic fatigue was more common among women and non-white ethnicities. In addition, chronic fatigue was significantly related to depression, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder after adjusting for demographic variables, medical conditions, and four other health-related variables. The prevalence rate of chronic fatigue in our sample is higher than a previous study. The psychiatric comorbidity of chronic fatigue supports the notion that chronic fatigue has a strong impact on quality of life in old age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N

    1996-07-01

    The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.

  5. Personality disorders, common mental disorders and receipt of disability benefits: evidence from the British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, A K; Skogen, J C; Harvey, S B; Stewart, R; Hotopf, M; Moran, P

    2012-12-01

    Common mental disorders (CMDs) are associated with occupational impairment and the receipt of disability benefits (DBs). Little is known about the relationship between personality disorders (PDs) and work disability, and whether the association between CMDs and work disability is affected by the presence of co-morbid PDs. The aim of this study was to examine the association between DB and individual categories of PDs, with special attention to the effect of co-morbid CMDs on this association. The association between DB and PD was examined using data from the 2000 British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. Probable PD caseness was identified using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) screening questionnaire. The impact of CMDs, assessed with the revised version of the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), was examined as a covariate and in a stratified analysis of co-morbidity. Other covariates included sociodemographic factors, long-standing illnesses and substance use. Probable PD was associated with DB, with the strongest associations found for borderline, dependent and schizotypal PD. Antisocial PD was not associated with DB. The relationship between PD and DB was strongly modified by CMD, reducing the association from an odds ratio (OR) of 2.84 to 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.79)]. In the stratified analysis, co-morbid PD and CMD showed a stronger association with DB than PD without CMD but, when fully adjusted, this effect was not significantly different from the association between CMD without PD. Individuals screening positive for PD are more likely to experience severe occupational outcomes, especially in the presence of co-morbid CMD.

  6. A survey of psychiatric morbidity among bank workers in Ilorin, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant association between psychiatric syndromes and number of children, social club, Bank ownership, work experience, extra hours, and clinical syndrome of anxiety disorder was most significantly diagnosed. These presuppose the needs for introduction of preventive measures, and identification and ...

  7. Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed (1) to assess the relationship of childhood sexual abuse and revictimization with 6 common mental disorders, alcohol and drug dependence, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and suicidal behavior; (2) to test whether gender moderates the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric comorbidity; and (3) to assess the association of childhood sexual abuse with health care service use among middle-aged and older adults. The author conducted secondary analyses of data from a population-based, nationally representative sample of 3,493 community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and above who were interviewed in England in 2006 and 2007 as part of the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The survey assessed childhood sexual abuse (sexual touching and sexual intercourse), sexual abuse revictimization (experiencing both childhood and adult sexual abuse), demographics, health care service use, 6 common mental disorders according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria (depressive episode, mixed anxiety and depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder), eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug dependence, and suicidal behavior. After weighting, the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was 8.0%, and the prevalence of revictimization was 1.9%. Multivariate analyses revealed that childhood sexual abuse was significantly associated with mixed anxiety and depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.09-2.63), generalized anxiety disorder (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.11), eating disorders (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.12-3.75), posttraumatic stress disorder (AOR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.20-4.99), and suicidal ideation (AOR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.27-4.27). Revictimization was significantly related to mixed anxiety and depression (AOR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.63-6.32), generalized anxiety disorder (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.07-6.35), phobia (AOR = 4.07; 95% CI, 1.23-13.46), posttraumatic

  8. Al Ain community survey of psychiatric morbidity II. Sex differences in the prevalence of depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, Tewfik K; Ghubash, Rafia; Abou-Saleh, Mohammed T

    2002-11-01

    To examine sex differences in the prevalence of depressive disorders in an Arab community. One thousand three hundred and ninety-four subjects (n=1394) were systematically sampled from the general population in Al-Ain city, United Arab Emirates. All subjects were interviewed and assessed with the modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and a specially designed socio-demographic questionnaire. The lifetime male and female prevalence rates were estimated. Multivariate logistic regression of various socio-demographic variables was carried out to assess independent risk factors for depression. Statistical significance of sex differences in rates of depression by various socio-demographic groups were also assessed. The lifetime rates in males and females were 2.8 and 10.3%, respectively. F:M ratio found in this study is highest reported ratio in the literature. Sex, life events, chronic difficulties and to a certain extent age were found to be risk factors for depression in the studied community. The prevalence rates of depression were higher in females in all above categories but such differences reached statistical significance in age category before 55, regardless of marital status, when the number of children is four or more and among those exposed to recent life events and chronic difficulties. Females were found to to be more exposed to chronic life difficulties but only depressed females were significantly more subjected to recent life events. Sex differences in depression is a robust finding but more studies are needed to explain the high F:M ratio found in this survey.

  9. The contribution of work and non-work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C.; Pike, C.; McManus, S.; Harris, J.; Bebbington, P.; Brugha, T.; Jenkins, R.; Meltzer, H.; Weich, S.; Stansfeld, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account. Method Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants ⩾16 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age participants (N=3383: 1804 males; 1579 females). ICD-10 diagnoses for depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic or mixed anxiety and depression in the past week were derived using a structured diagnostic interview. Questionnaires assessed self-reported work stressors and non-work stressors. Results The effects of work stressors on CMD were not explained by co-existing non-work stressors. We found independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD. Job stress, whether conceptualized as job strain or effort–reward imbalance, together with lower levels of social support at work, recent stressful life events, domestic violence, caring responsibilities, lower levels of non-work social support, debt and poor housing quality were all independently associated with CMD. Social support at home and debt did not influence the effect of work stressors on CMD. Conclusions Non-work stressors do not appear to make people more susceptible to work stressors; both contribute to CMD. Tackling workplace stress is likely to benefit employee psychological health even if the employee's home life is stressful but interventions incorporating non-work stressors may also be effective. PMID:21896237

  10. The contribution of work and non-work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C; Pike, C; McManus, S; Harris, J; Bebbington, P; Brugha, T; Jenkins, R; Meltzer, H; Weich, S; Stansfeld, S

    2012-04-01

    Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account. Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants 6 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age participants (N=3383: 1804 males; 1579 females). ICD-10 diagnoses for depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic or mixed anxiety and depression in the past week were derived using a structured diagnostic interview. Questionnaires assessed self-reported work stressors and non-work stressors. The effects of work stressors on CMD were not explained by co-existing non-work stressors. We found independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD. Job stress, whether conceptualized as job strain or effort-reward imbalance, together with lower levels of social support at work, recent stressful life events, domestic violence, caring responsibilities, lower levels of non-work social support, debt and poor housing quality were all independently associated with CMD. Social support at home and debt did not influence the effect of work stressors on CMD. Non-work stressors do not appear to make people more susceptible to work stressors; both contribute to CMD. Tackling workplace stress is likely to benefit employee psychological health even if the employee's home life is stressful but interventions incorporating non-work stressors may also be effective.

  11. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disorder: evidence from the British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Albina R; Moran, Paul; Bebbington, Paul; Brugha, Traolach; Bhugra, Dinesh; Coid, Jeremy W; Farrell, Michael; Jenkins, Rachel; Lewis, Glyn; Meltzer, Howard; Prince, Martin

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that most individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have comorbid personality disorders (PDs), particularly from the anxious cluster. However, the nature and strength of this association remains unclear, as the majority of previous studies have relied heavily on clinical populations. We analysed the prevalence of screen positive personality disorder in a representative sample of adults with OCD living in private households in the UK. A secondary analysis of data from the 2000 British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. The prevalence of PD, as determined by the SCID-II questionnaire, was compared in participants with OCD, with other neuroses and non-neurotic controls. Within the OCD group we also analysed possible differences relating to sex and subtypes of the disorder. The prevalence of any screen positive PD in the OCD group (N=108) was 74%, significantly greater than in both control groups. The most common screen positive categories were paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, schizoid and schizotypal. Compared to participants with other neuroses, OCD cases were more likely to screen positively for paranoid, avoidant, schizotypal, dependent and narcissistic PDs. Men with OCD were more likely to screen positively for PDs in general, cluster A PDs, antisocial, obsessive-compulsive and narcissistic categories. The presence of comorbid neuroses in people with OCD had no significant effect on the prevalence of PD. Personality pathology is highly prevalent among people with OCD who are living in the community and should be routinely assessed, as it may affect help-seeking behaviour and response to treatment.

  12. Stressors and common mental disorder in informal carers – An analysis of the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Smuk, Melanie; Onwumere, Juliana; Clark, Charlotte; Pike, Cleo; McManus, Sally; Harris, Jenny; Bebbington, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates potential explanations of the association between caring and common mental disorder, using the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. We examined whether carers are more exposed to other stressors additional to caring – such as domestic violence and debt – and if so whether this explains their elevated rates of mental disorder. We analysed differences between carers and non-carers in common mental disorders (CMD), suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, recent stressors, social support, and social participation. We used multivariate models to investigate whether differences between carers and non-carers in identifiable stressors and supports explained the association between caring and CMD, as measured by the revised Clinical Interview Schedule. The prevalence of CMD (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.37–1.97), suicidal thoughts in the last week (OR = 2.71 95% CI 1.31–5.62) and fatigue (OR = 1.33 95% CI 1.14–1.54) was increased in carers. However, caring remained independently associated with CMD (OR = 1.58 1.30–1.91) after adjustment for other stressors and social support. Thus caring itself is associated with increased risk of CMD that is not explained by other identified social stressors. Carers should be recognized as being at increased risk of CMD independent of the other life stressors they have to deal with. Interventions aimed at a direct reduction of the stressfulness of caring are indicated. However, carers also reported higher rates of debt problems and domestic violence and perceived social support was slightly lower in carers than in non-carers. So carers are also more likely to experience stressors other than caring and it is likely that they will need support not only aimed at their caring role, but also at other aspects of their lives. PMID:25259657

  13. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 2 February 2012. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC. P. O. Ajiboye, FWACP, Senior Lecturer/ Consultant Psychiatrist, Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Ilorin/. University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, ...

  14. Al Ain Community Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity III. The natural history of psychopathology and the utilization rate of psychiatric services in Al Ain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K; Ghubash, R; Abou-Saleh, M T

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated the natural history of psychopathology in a stratified sample (n = 245) comprising subjects with no DSM-III-R psychiatric disorder, subthreshold disorder and threshold (DSM-III-R) psychiatric disorder, respectively, over a 12-months period, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R mental disorders (SCID) as an assessment tool. A representative sample categorized 1 year earlier into DSM-III-R psychiatric disorder, subthreshold disorder and no DSM-III-R psychiatric disorder were reassessed with SCID 1 year on. The incidence, recovery rates and the percentage of subthreshold disorders which become DSM-III-R disorders were calculated. The utilization rate of psychiatric services was also assessed. The incidence rate of new cases was 10.4%. The recovery (remission) rate was 41.5%, and approximately 20% of subthreshold disorders became definitive disorders (DSM-III-R) after 1 year. Anxiety disorders tend to have a higher magnitude of temporal stability in comparison with depressive disorders. Male sex and contact with psychiatric services were found to affect the recovery rate. Approximately 13% of the sample had made contact with psychiatric services with no gender differences, but men were significantly more often hospitalized than women. Our findings indicate that mental disorders are relatively common. The high incidence rate found in this study is attributed in part to the high negative rate at baseline assessment. Approximately 60% of psychiatric disorders in the community are persistent, and patients with emotional disorder under-utilize existing services.

  15. Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Co-morbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n    "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n    "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n    "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n    "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.

  16. Why are suicidal thoughts less prevalent in older age groups? Age differences in the correlates of suicidal thoughts in the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Claudia; Rantell, Khadija; Blanchard, Martin; McManus, Sally; Dennis, Michael; Brugha, Traolach; Jenkins, Rachel; Meltzer, Howard; Bebbington, Paul

    2015-05-15

    Suicidal ideation is more strongly associated with suicidal intent in later life, so risk factors may also differ by age. We investigated whether the relationship between suicidal ideation and established correlates varied by age in a representative population. We used data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey of England to assess the relationship between age and suicidal thoughts across 20-year age bands, using logistic regression, adjusted for survey weights. We used mediation analyses to assess the extent to which other factors mediate the relationship between suicidal thoughts and age. Reports of previous-year suicidal thoughts decreased with age. This was partly explained by (1) lower rates of reported child abuse (in those aged 75+), of depression, and of anxiety symptoms (in those aged 55+), factors all strongly associated with suicidal thoughts, and (2) higher rates of protective factors in people aged 35+, specifically homeownership and cohabitation. Rates of phobias, irritability and compulsions also decreased with age, and the association of these symptoms with suicidal thoughts was particularly strong in the youngest (16-34) age group. People who reported experiencing childhood abuse in all age groups reported more suicidal thoughts, suggesting abuse has lifelong negative effects on suicidal ideation. The response rate was 57%. Older people may be less likely to recall childhood abuse. Sexual and physical abuse in childhood are associated with suicidal ideas throughout the lifespan, so screening for suicidal ideas in younger and older people should be routine and vigorous, and cover experiences in early life: management may require appropriate psychological interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive factors for psychiatric morbidity among women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive factors for psychiatric morbidity among women with infertility attending a gynaecology clinic in Nigeria. ... p < 0.0001), discrimination (Χ2 = 69.91, p < 0.0001) and history of induced abortion (Χ2 = 30.40, p < 0.0001) were found to be significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity among patients with infertility ...

  18. Predictive factors for psychiatric morbidity among women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the psychosocial and clinical factors that are associated with psychiatric morbidity among women with infertility attending ... difference in the rate of psychiatric morbidity between women with primary infertility and those with secondary infertility (χ2 = ..... Emotional distress of infertile women in Japan.

  19. Gender and Psychiatric Morbidity at First Contact in General Practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender is a predictor of prevalence of psychiatric morbidity. The present study was to examine gender difference, prevalence and pattern of psychiatric morbidity among attendees of a general outpatient clinic in a tertiary hospital in sokoto, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 267,000 patients attended the general ...

  20. Abusive experiences and psychiatric morbidity in women primary care attenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Petruckevitch, Ann; Chung, Wai-Shan; Richardson, Jo; Moorey, Stirling; Feder, Gene

    2003-10-01

    Abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood increase risks of psychiatric morbidity in women and independently increase risks of further abuse over the lifetime. It is unclear which experiences are most damaging. To measure lifetime prevalence of abusive experiences and psychiatric morbidity, and to analyse associations in women primary care attenders. A cross-sectional, self-report survey of 1207 women attending 13 surgeries in the London borough of Hackney, UK. Independent associations between demographic measures, abusive experiences and psychiatric outcome were established using logistic regression. Childhood sexual abuse had few associations with adult mental health measures, in contrast to physical abuse. Sexual assault in adulthood was associated with substance misuse; rape with anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder but not substance misuse. Domestic violence showed strongest associations with most mental health measures, increased for experiences in the past year. Abuse in childhood and adulthood have differential effects on mental health; effects are increased by recency and severity. Women should be routinely questioned about ongoing and recent experiences as well as childhood.

  1. Screening for psychiatric morbidity in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, G; Hindley, N; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and twenty A&E Department daytime attenders were screened for psychiatric disorder in a two stage procedure. Thirty-three patients were identified as General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 'cases' of whom 28 agreed to a psychiatric interview using the Clinical Interview Schedule. Twenty-eight GHQ 'non-cases' were also interviewed. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 24 patients, 21 of whom were GHQ cases. Patients were more likely to suffer from psychiatric morbidity if the presenting...

  2. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AMONG CHILDREN AND YOUNG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-06-06

    Jun 6, 2003 ... Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders among children and young persons appearing in .... by a computer using the Statistical Package for Social. Sciences (SPSS) Version 8.0 and a ..... for further psychiatric assessment and treatment as necessary. The Juvenile court ...

  3. Comparative psychiatric morbidity among three groups of health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative psychiatric morbidity among three groups of health professionals in a Nigerian tertiary health institution. ... Background Because health professionals have different job schedules and commitments, they may be differentially ... Conclusion The author therefore advocates establishment of a comprehensive stress

  4. Psychiatric Morbidity in a Leprosy Camp in Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Most of the previous studies have focused on leprosy patients in clinical settings while studies on isolated people with leprosy remain scanty. Aims : To determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in a leprosy camp and its associated ...

  5. Psychiatric Morbidity in HIV-infected Male Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Yu-Chang Peng

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is prevalent among HIV-infected male prisoners. Tailored HIV/AIDS education related to mental health is therefore suggested for inclusion as part of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS training program among incarcerated populations.

  6. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A CHILDREN'S HOME1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P. K.; Agarwal, A. K; Gupta, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Sixty-two inmates of a children's home were examined by using a symptom check list and Hindi adaptation of Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale—Form LM (1960). A high proportion (69.4%) of the inmates had one or other psychiatric problem. Mild mental retardation (I. Q. 50—70) was most common (40.3%), 11.3% were diagnosed as having unsocialized disturbance of conduct. Four most common psychiatric symptoms were stealing, quarrelsome behaviour, destructive behaviour and bed wetting. No significant correlation was found between psychiatric illnesses and present age, duration of stay and age at entry into the home. PMID:22058478

  7. Psychiatric Morbidity Patterns in Referred Inpatients of Other Specialties

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    Ajay Risal

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: Psychiatric consultation was sought mostly by medical ward that had maximum number of patients presenting with self-poisoning. The commonest diagnosis seen in the referred in-patients was depression and anxiety disorder. Keywords: consultation-liaison psychiatry; in-patient referral; psychiatric morbidity.

  8. Psychiatric morbidity among children and young persons appearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The crude psychiatric morbidity (CPM) rate was 44.4%. ICD-10 documented psychiatric disorders detected in those with CPM were conduct disorders 45%, mixed disorders of conduct and emotion 20%, emotional disorders with onset specific to childhod 20%, mood disorders 12.5% and hyperkinetic disorders 2.5% ...

  9. Prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among caregivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To screen for psychiatric morbidity among caregivers of patients attending a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic. Method: A total of 155 patients and their caregivers were consecutively recruited over a 1 month period. Sociodemographic and clinical information on patients was obtained either from the hospital ...

  10. co-morbid psychiatric disorders in nigerian patients suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28-item General Health Questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales were used for first stage screening while the second stage interview utilised the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule. Results: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was 37.5% and 12.5% in the study and control groups respectively.

  11. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with high psychological morbidity.[6]. Yamaguchi et al. ... leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. The authors .... link between the physical and psychological health allows ..... Secondary school. 5. 8 .... psychiatric morbidity in dermatological patients. Indian J. Dermatol 2003;48:137‑41. 10. Verma KK ...

  12. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... medication effects and psychological reactions to the illness. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a good example of a disabling neurological disorder and it is now apparent that the underlying neurodegenerative disorder is a major cause of psychiatric disturbances even though the psychological reactions to the ...

  13. SPECIFIC PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AMONG DIABETICS AT A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... Background: In Nigeria, with a rising incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM), there are ... Objective: To assess the prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders and ..... Suleiman T.G., Ohaeri J.U., Lawal R.A., Haruna A.T. and Orija.

  14. Risk factors for psychiatric morbidity of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pressure, family problems, unfulfilled social expectations, and job .... health. Sociodemographic characteristics and morbidity. (Table I). Age. The majority of respondents (N = 271, 67.4%) were between 30 and 44 years of age, with 70% of respondents with .... armed robbery, air and noise pollution, to overcrowding could.

  15. Psychiatric morbidity among pregnant women with hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare psychiatry morbidity among normotensive and hypertensive (cases) pregnant women and their socio-demographic correlates. Method: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study using The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) at antenatal clinic of ...

  16. [Migraine with psychiatric co-morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radat, F

    2005-07-01

    Investigation of migraine co-morbidity has confirmed a strong association between depression, anxiety disorders (particularly panic and phobia) and migraine. However, research into the possible mechanisms underlying these associations remains limited. The literature also indicates that migrainers are at reduced risk of suffering from anxiety, mood disorders and substance-related disorders compared with medication overuse headache sufferers. Patients suffering from medication overuse headache sometimes exhibit addictive behavior for acute migraine drugs. Finally, migrainers show increased non-specific neurotic suffering.

  17. Psychiatric morbidity develops after onset of pediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangsberg Boesen, Magnus; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm

    2018-01-01

    ascertainment was performed in all children with pediatric MS, including chart review. For each MS patient, we selected five controls using density sampling from the entire Danish population, matching controls to children with MS by sex and birthdate. We analyzed data as a nested case-control study......BACKGROUND: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) affects life at a stage vital for social and educational achievements and psychiatric co-morbidity is common after MS onset. Few studies have examined psychiatric morbidity before MS onset. METHODS: In this nationwide study, detailed case...

  18. Screening for psychiatric morbidity in an accident and emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G; Hindley, N; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1990-09-01

    One hundred and twenty A&E Department daytime attenders were screened for psychiatric disorder in a two stage procedure. Thirty-three patients were identified as General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 'cases' of whom 28 agreed to a psychiatric interview using the Clinical Interview Schedule. Twenty-eight GHQ 'non-cases' were also interviewed. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 24 patients, 21 of whom were GHQ cases. Patients were more likely to suffer from psychiatric morbidity if the presenting complaint was other than minor trauma. There were trends for psychiatric morbidity to be associated with not being married and living in Bloomsbury Health District (No Fixed Abode or resident) or Northeast London. Sixty-nine percent of cases had a positive past psychiatric history. Ten of 12 cases (83%) requiring primary care intervention were not registered with a GP. It is suggested that appropriate intervention would be for A&E Departments to routinely facilitate such registration. In addition, resources need to be released to make 9am to 5pm walk-in psychiatric services commonplace.

  19. Childhood maltreatment and violence: mediation through psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rafael A; Kallis, Constantinos; Ullrich, Simone; Barnicot, Kirsten; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in adulthood including poor mental health and violence. We investigated direct and indirect pathways from childhood maltreatment to adult violence perpetration and the explanatory role of psychiatric morbidity. Analyses were based on a population survey of 2,928 young men 21-34 years in Great Britain in 2011, with boost surveys of black and minority ethnic groups and lower social grades. Respondents completed questionnaires measuring psychiatric diagnoses using standardized screening instruments, including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), drug and alcohol dependence and psychosis. Maltreatment exposures included childhood physical abuse, neglect, witnessing domestic violence and being bullied. Adult violence outcomes included: any violence, violence toward strangers and intimate partners (IPV), victim injury and minor violence. Witnessing domestic violence showed the strongest risk for adult violence (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.00, 3.65) through a direct pathway, with psychotic symptoms and ASPD as partial mediators. Childhood physical abuse was associated with IPV (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.25, 4.35), mediated by ASPD and alcohol dependence. Neglect was associated with violence toward strangers (AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.91), mediated by ASPD. Prevention of violence in adulthood following childhood physical abuse and neglect requires treatment interventions for associated alcohol dependence, psychosis, and ASPD. However, witnessing family violence in childhood had strongest and direct effects on the pathway to adult violence, with important implications for primary prevention. In this context, prevention strategies should prioritize and focus on early childhood exposure to violence in the family home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychiatric Morbidity among Street Children in Duhok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezar Ismet Taib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Due, in part, to family constraints in dealing with the economical burden of raising a family, a wave of street children is sweeping the developing world. Such children are prone to both somatic and mental illnesses. This is the first ever study that has been conducted to explore the psychopathology among street children in the Duhok Governorate. Methods The study was conducted between March 2004 and May 2005 in Duhok City among street children who attended the Zewa Center—the only center for street children in the region at the time of the study. Among a total of 107 eligible children, 100 agreed to participate (93% response rate. A modified family map (genogram was used to obtain demographic data from the children and their caregivers through semi-structured interviews. In addition, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID structured interviews were conducted with the children. Results The study found that 98% of children worked on the street because of the economic need and pressure on their families. There was high rate of parental illiteracy (90% of fathers and 95% of mothers, and 61% of respondents were shown to have at least one psychiatric disorder. A high percentage (57% of these children suffered from anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorders (29%. Ten percent had depression, and 5% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion Street children in Duhok seem to be working children due to their families’ needs.

  1. Symptomatology of minor psychiatric morbidity: a crosscultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T A

    1989-08-01

    The basic symptoms of minor psychiatric morbidity (MPM) reported elsewhere were also found in a community survey in Taiwan. However, differences in the patterns of and manifestations of the symptoms were evident. Contrary to most Western surveys, the prevalence of anxiety (24.7%) was found to be higher than that of depression (8.3%) in Taiwan. Possible explanations based on sociocultural characteristics of the Chinese family were proposed. The notion of somatization as a predominant symptom in Chinese neurotic patients advocated by some research workers was not supported in this study. As a result of findings in community cases, it is argued that the importance of somatization has been considerably overemphasized as a factor in the illness behaviour of neurotic cases in Chinese and other cultures, and it is therefore not a culture-specific disease phenomenon. It is also suggested that certain culture-specific neurotic syndromes reported in Chinese, such as shen-ching-shuai-jo (neurasthenia) and shen-k'uei (semen loss syndrome), are clinically equivalent to MPM. Implications of the present findings on crosscultural research and management of MPM were discussed.

  2. Predictive factors for psychiatric morbidity among women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Predictive factors; Psychiatric morbidity; Infertility; Nigeria. Received: 16-09-2008. Accepted: 14-11-2008 ... through the limbic system affect Gonadotrophin Releasing. Hormone pulsatility, cause low serotonin ... of the immune system which may have a negative influence on fertility-related antibodies.7 Infertility, ...

  3. Psychiatric morbidity in two urban communities in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-08-08

    Aug 8, 2008 ... Background: there is a welter of evidence for an inverse relationship between socio-economic status (ses) and mental health. the relationship is grossly under researched in the developing countries. Objective: to ascertain rates of gross psychiatric morbidity and some demographic correlations in.

  4. Psychiatric morbidity in stroke patients attending a neurology clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specific diagnoses recorded were depression (19.2%), generalised anxiety disorder (9.6%), harmful alcohol use (2.4%); dementia, somatoform disorder, phobia and delusional disorder each had a prevalence of 1.2%. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were not significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity.

  5. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects ...

  6. Co–Morbid Psychiatric Disorders Nigerian Patients Suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, 28–item General Health Questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales were used for first stage screening while the second stage interview utilised the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule. Results: The prevalence of psychotic morbidity was 37.5 % and 12.5% in the study ...

  7. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among medical practitioners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental health problems can affect anybody including Doctors. It can be related to nature of our work and personal factors. Mental ill health includes a range of conditions like depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety and psychosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among Medical ...

  8. Psychiatric morbidity in two urban communities in Nigeria | Mba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a welter of evidence for an inverse relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and mental health. The relationship is grossly under researched in the developing countries. Objective: To ascertain rates of gross psychiatric morbidity and some demographic correlations in two communities with ...

  9. Psychiatric Morbidity and Its Associated Factors, amongst Third Year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The problem of psychiatric morbidity among university students is important because subsequent impairment of the student's capacity for study may invariably lead to the termination of their studies(various works, as reviewed in the literature, have confirmed this). Aim/Objective: The aim of this study was to ...

  10. Stress and Minor Psychiatric Morbidity among Nigerian Executives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aims to determine factors associated with stress and minor psychiatric morbidities among Nigerian executives. Subjects and Methods: A total of 337 management cadre staff attending a health workshop, from various private organizations and belonging to different professional groups participated in this ...

  11. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consecutive asymptomatic seropositive HIV patients and an equal number of age, sex, education, economic and marital status matched HIV seronegative control. All subjects were assessed with the general health questionnaire (GHQ, mini mental status examination, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS and sensation seeking scale (SSS and the scores were analyzed statistically. Results: Asymptomatic HIV positive patients had significantly higher GHQ caseness and depression but not anxiety on HADS as compared to HIV seronegative controls. On SSS asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects showed significant higher scores in thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility as compared to controls. HIV seropositive patients had significantly higher incidence of total psychiatric morbidity. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is higher in asymptomatic HIV patients when compared to HIV seronegative controls. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. High sensation seeking and substance abuse found in HIV seropositive patients may play a vital role in engaging in high-risk behavior resulting in this dreaded illness.

  12. Detection of psychiatric morbidity in the primary medical care setting in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mari,Jair de Jesus; Iacoponi,Eduardo; Williams,Paul; Simões,Oziris; Silva,João Batista Teodoro

    1987-01-01

    The aims of this study were a) to assess the ability of primary care doctors to make accurate ratings of psychiatric disturbance and b) to evaluate the use of a case-finding questionnaire in the detection of psychiatric morbidity. The estudy took place in three primary care clinics in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, during a six-month survey. A time sample of consecutive adult attenders were asked to complete a case-finding questionnaire for psychiatric disorders (the Self Report Questionnaire...

  13. Psychiatric morbidity and pattern of dysfunctions in patients with leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy, being a chronic infectious disease with profound social stigma, remains associated with high psychological mortidity. PURPOSES: To find out the pattern of psychiatric morbidity in leprosy patients and the relationship of various factors with the morbidity. METHODS: Ninty patients attending leprosy clinic were randomly chosen for the study group alongwith 40 patients suffering from acute skin problem other than leprosy as control group. The socio-demographic data were recorded in semi-structural proforma; all patients were given Goldbery Health Questioneaire (GHQ. Patients having GHQ score> 2 was assessed by Disability Assessent Questionaire (DAQ. The psychiatric diagnoses was made according to ICD-10 by W ho0 and physical deformity by W ho 0 Disability Scale. FINDINGS: The mean GHQ score of the study grant was 3.44 and that of control group was 1.62. The mean DAQ score was 45.13. Psychiatric disorder was seen in 44.4% and 7.5% of study group and control group respectively. The psychiatric illness was generalised anoxidy disorder (GAD (27.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosis highly associated with psychiatric mobidity. LIMITATIONS: The findings can not be generalised due to small sample size and clinic-based data.

  14. Psychiatric morbidity in dermatology patients: Frequency and results of consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Muammer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dermatological patients quite commonly depict psychiatric morbidity. PURPOSES: To study the psychiatric morbidity among skin patients of our clinic. METHODS: In the present study, the patients who were treated in the Dermatology Clinic of Inonu University Medical Faculty were evaluated retrospectively. The age, gender, marital status, habits, dermatological and systemic diseases, previously used drugs, current therapy and psychiatric diagnosis of each patient were recorded. FINDINGS: Of 636 patients involved in the study, 15.3% had psychopathological problems, which were depression (32.0%, adjustment difficulty (15.5%, anxiety (13.4%, psychosomatic disorders (10.3%, obsessive-compulsive disorder and conversion (5.1%, dysthymic disorder (4.1%, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (2.1%, panic attack (1.0%, premenstrual syndrome, schizophrenia, somatization disorder, insomnia, alcohol dependency, bipolar affective disorder, mental retardation, agoraphobia, social phobia and dementia. The dermatological diseases defined for the patients with psychopathology diagnosis were chronic urticaria (25.8%; psoriasis (15.5%; alopecia areata, totalis and iniversalis (11.3%; acute urticaria, neurodermatitis and Behcet′s disease (5.1%; atopic dermatitis and drug eruptions (4.1%; pemphigus (3.1%; angioedema, contact dermatitis and generalized pruritus (2.1%; folliculitis and the others (1.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric morbidity has an affect on the course of dermatological diseases. When required, psychiatric consultation should be sought by dermatology clinics and patients should be followed with the cooperation of dermatologists and psychiatrists. LIMITATION: The indoor-based study had not included any control group and any domicillary patient.

  15. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PERSONS WITH HANSEN’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of psychiatric co - morbidity and its effect on quality of life in persons with Hansen’s disease. METHOD: The study was conducted on around 80 persons above 18 year age with Hansen’s disease in out - patient department dermatology and i n leprosy home. Participants were diagnosed cases of Hansen’s disease, selected randomly and were evaluated with socio demographic questionnaire, Duke’s general health questionnaire, DSM - 5 self rated level 1 cross cutting symptom measure – adult and WHO - QO L - BREF. The period of data collection was from October 2014 to March 2015. RESULTS: The assessment showed that prevalence of at least one psychiatric co morbidity was 83.75% (67/80 patients and of these 67 patients 18(26.86% have one diagnosis, 26(38.80% have two diagnoses and 23(34.32% have 3 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Among all depression was most prevalent (28.35% mental disorder; followed by anxiety disorder (23.88%. Quality of life was significantly impaired in almost all persons with Hansen’ s disease. CONCLUSION: Persons with Hansen’s disease have significantly high prevalence of mental disorders which have much impact on their quality of life which were under diagnosed and thus remained untreated

  17. [Psychiatric disorders and their effects on mortality and morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckel, G

    2014-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders themselves--and not only the known psychotropic agents--lead to enhanced psychic and somatic morbidity, and not only as a so-called psychic reaction. Psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are diseases with a high prevalence and incidence in most countries, and they are life-threatening because they induce--besides suicidality--also many somatic diseases such as coronary arte- riosclerotic syndrome and diabetes. As a result, they have an--often indirect--effect on mortality. In the future, studies should give greater attention to the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. True "psychosomatic medicine" consists of determining the combined biological effect of psychic and somatic factors and their interactions in greater detail.

  18. Association between childhood abuse and psychiatric morbidities among hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood abuse has been linked with increased risk of adult psychiatric disorders including major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. However, only a few from India attempted to study long-term consequences of childhood abuse. Our study aimed to understand the role of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse along with psychiatric co-morbidities in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to psychiatric inpatient services in the age group of 14-45 years for the 1 st time were evaluated for a history of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse on the basis of retrospective chart review. Semi-structured Performa was used to evaluate the patient with a history of child abuse, and they were diagnosed according to International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic criteria. Result: The prevalence of child abuse in our inpatient services was 43.29%; emotional abuse (61.9% was most commonly reported among patient followed by physical (21.43% and sexual abuse (16.67%. We observed a significant difference in terms of length of hospital stay between abuse (10.29 ± 6.01 days and nonabuse group (5.90 ± 2.43 days (t = 4.902, df = 95, P < 0.0001. The boys experienced physical abuse at a younger age (7.43 ± 2.50 years than girls (13.50 ± 0.70 years. The sexual abuse and emotional abuse were reported at a younger age in girls than boys. We found high prevalence of substance use disorders (40.47%, psychosis (19.04%, and mood disorder (28.57% among abuse group. Conclusions: The study findings highlight the developing importance of the different forms of abuse on adult psychiatric diagnosis in India. The abused patients are at high risk of the development of psychiatric disorder than the nonabuse group. The increased length of hospitalization among abused group reflects severity and complexity of child abuse. The early detection of social factors

  19. Increased psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    interval (CI): 1.12-2.04) and increased prevalence of treatment with antipsychotics (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.29-1.73), antidepressants (OR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.35-1.67), and anxiolytics (OR 1.28; 95% CI: 1.16-1.41). After the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, patients had a higher risk of being diagnosed......Background: Thyroid hormones are necessary for fetal brain development, while hypothyroidism in adults has been associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the association and temporal relation between hypothyroidism and mental disorders...... is ambiguous. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism is associated with psychiatric morbidity. Methods: Observational cohort study. Based on record-linkage between different Danish health registers, 2822 hypothyroid singletons each matched with 4 non...

  20. Association between stalking victimisation and psychiatric morbidity in a random community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rosemary; Pathé, Michele; Mullen, Paul E

    2005-11-01

    No studies have assessed psychopathology among victims of stalking who have not sought specialist help. To examine the associations between stalking victimisation and psychiatric morbidity in a representative community sample. A random community sample (n=1844) completed surveys examining the experience of harassment and current mental health. The 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Impact of Event Scale were used to assess symptomatology in those reporting brief harassment (n=196) or protracted stalking (n=236) and a matched control group reporting no harassment (n=432). Rates of caseness on the GHQ-28 were higher among stalking victims (36.4%) than among controls (19.3%) and victims of brief harassment (21.9%). Psychiatric morbidity did not differ according to the recency of victimisation, with 34.1% of victims meeting caseness criteria 1 year after stalking had ended. In a significant minority of victims, stalking victimisation is associated with psychiatric morbidity that may persist long after it has ceased. Recognition of the immediate and long-term impacts of stalking is necessary to assist victims and help alleviate distress and long-term disability.

  1. A study of psychiatric morbidity in patients of peptic ulcer diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Singh Klair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among patients of peptic ulcer disease and to study the patients of peptic ulcer disease with psychiatric morbidity in comparison to patients of peptic ulcer disease without psychiatric morbidity on following variables: sociodemographic variables and attributes/risk factors of peptic ulcer disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of clinically proven acid peptic diseases and 30 cases of the control group were screened in department of General Medicine, outdoor as well as indoor patients. Instruments applied for the purpose of the study were Personal Bio-data Performa (Appendix-I, (SCL- 80 (Appendix-II, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety and depression, (P.S.L.E.; clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders was made as per ICD- 10 criteria. Data collected shall be subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Findings: The psychiatric morbidity was significantly (P10 years, compared to 23.80% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Lastly, 48.27% of patients with psychiatric morbidity had significantly (P<0.01 stronger family history of acid peptic disease compared to 9.52% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the peptic ulcer disease and the various psychiatric morbidity factors as illustrated from the findings of this study.

  2. Psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Dandu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%–13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs. Methods: Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. Results: The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101 and 21–60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98, respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of

  3. Psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandu, Aruna; Bharathi, S; Dudala, Shankar Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%-13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs). Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101) and 21-60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98), respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of alcohol-dependent men were in the age group of 31

  4. Psychiatric Morbidity and Social Capital in Rural Communities of the Greek North Aegean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseloni, Andromachi; Zissi, Anastasia; Skapinakis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    Which facets of social capital affect mental health in rural settings? This study explores the association between different aspects of social capital and psychiatric morbidity in rural communities of the Greek North Aegean islands. A large number of individual and community characteristics that may influence psychiatric morbidity are concurrently…

  5. Psychiatric morbidity in HIV/AIDS: a 5-year retrospective study in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Most studies of psychiatric disorders associated with HIV/AIDS have been carried out in the USA and Europe in patients on anti-retroviral drugs. Few studies have looked at psychiatric disorders and substance use in Africa and a dearth of literature exists on HIV/AIDS and psychiatric morbidity in Nigeria.

  6. Psychiatric morbidity in oral lichen planus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ranjan Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical types and association of psychological factors in patients with Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. Materials and Methods: An analytical age- and sex-matched study involved 30 patients with oral lichen planus (group 1 and 30 control subjects (group 2. We applied the following psychometric tests to both groups: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: The patients with OLP were found to exhibit statistically significant higher anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction with the tests that were used (GHQ 24 and HADS than the control group (P > 0.05. The study group likewise exhibited greater depression and somatic symptoms. The mean total of the GHQ and HAD scores were found to be higher in the study group than in the controls (P > 0.05. Among the various types of OLP, patients with the erosive type had higher mean scores for anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depression. Conclusion: In most patients psychiatric morbidity was strongly associated with OLP, which could support its role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The higher scores of the General Health Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale gave an insight into the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with the causation of OLP.

  7. Psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Mine; Oflaz, Serap Batmaz; Kocaman, Nazmiye; Ozseker, Ferhan; Gelincik, Ash; Büyüköztürk, Suna; Ozkan, Sedat; Colakoğlu, Bahattin

    2007-07-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a frequently occurring disease that has a great impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients and seems to be associated with a number of psychological factors. To determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in patients with CIU and to determine HRQL of CIU patients compared with controls. A semistructured interview form, a generic form of the HRQL questionnaire (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36]), and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis Disorders (SCID-I) were administered to CIU patients who presented to the Allergy Department of the University of Istanbul (from January 1 to April 30, 2005). Healthy subjects matched sociodemographically with the study group were used as the control group. Eighty-four CIU patients and 75 controls were included in the study. The mean +/- SD age of the study participants was 36.83 +/- 10.26 years, and 84% were women. The mean +/- SD duration of the disease was 6.34 +/- 7.2 years, and symptoms were intermittent in 51%. The SCID-I revealed a psychiatric diagnosis in 60% of the patients. In terms of the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses, the most frequently occurring diagnosis was depressive disorders (40%). Most patients (81%) believed that their illnesses were due to stress. The subdomains on the SF-36 measurements were significantly lower than those of the control subjects (P < or = .005). The physical function, vitality, and mental health subdomains of the SF-36 in the patients with a psychiatric diagnosis were significantly lower (P < .05). These findings suggested that psychiatric morbidity is high among ICU patients and is detrimental to their quality of life.

  8. Psychosocial differences in children living in orphanages of Kashmir with and without psychiatric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Karrar Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Orphanages are emerging as an important source of care and child-raising for the ever-increasing number of orphans in the conflict-ridden Kashmir. These children are generally prone to develop psychiatric disorders even reared in well run institution. Objective is to highlight the psychosocial differences in children living in orphanages of Kashmir with and without psychiatric morbidity. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out where 348 children were recruited from eight registered orphanages of Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. Semistructured questionnaire was used to collect data related to sociodemographic profile of the children. Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA was used for one stage structured assessment of psychopathology. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for Social Sciences for windows 20.0 version. Results: A total of 97.87% among those having psychiatric morbidity were males as against those without psychiatric morbidity where 28.99% were females. While 8.51% among those having psychiatric morbidity were double orphans, it formed only 1.45% of those without psychiatric morbidity. Likewise 25% among those having psychiatric morbidity had parental deaths due to fire-arm injury, while only 11.67% of them fall in the group without psychiatric morbidity. Among the group with psychiatric morbidity 31.91% had spent less than a year in an orphanage and 10.64% had spent ≥ 9 years as against those without morbidity where percentages were 14.49% and 4.35%, respectively. While 21.28% among those with psychiatric morbidity were enrolled in high education, it formed only 13.04% of those without psychiatric morbidity. Gender, type of orphan, length of stay, cause of parental death, and grade (education level were significantly associated with the psychiatric morbidity (40.52%. Conclusion: The psychosocial differences in children with and without psychiatric morbidity may

  9. Prevalence of Co-morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Clinic Sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Co-morbid psychiatric disorders may mask or be masked by Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thereby confounding the clinical assessment ... awareness of these co-morbid disorders, which could become targets for interventions that may reduce the overall morbidity profile of children with ADHD.

  10. Psychiatric morbidity and its sociodemographic correlates among women in Irbid, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K; Alawan, A; Al Ma'aitah, R; Otoom, S A

    2006-01-01

    The rate of psychiatric morbidity and its sociodemographic correlates was estimated in 2000 women attending 3 primary care centres in Irbid, Jordan. Women completed standardized diagnostic tools that yielded psychiatric diagnoses, a stress scale and sociodemographic details. The rate of psychiatric morbidity was 26.3% and psychological distress 39.0%. A significant association was found between the amount and severity of stress and psychiatric morbidity. Post-marital status (separated, divorced, widowed), woman's illiteracy, family violence, violent marital relationship, living independently, being in a non-cousin marriage, being a second wife, poor housing and absence of a social support system were significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity in this group of women.

  11. Long-term follow-up of individuals undergoing sex reassignment surgery: Psychiatric morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Rikke Kildevæld; Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of long-term register-based follow-up studies of sex-reassigned individuals concerning mortality and psychiatric morbidity. Accordingly, the present study investigated both mortality and psychiatric morbidity using a sample of individuals with transsexualism which...... comprised 98% (n = 104) of all individuals in Denmark. Aims: (1) To investigate psychiatric morbidity before and after sex reassignment surgery (SRS) among Danish individuals who underwent SRS during the period of 1978–2010. (2) To investigate mortality among Danish individuals who underwent SRS during...... the period of 1978–2010. Method: Psychiatric morbidity and mortality were identified by data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Cause of Death Register through a retrospective register study of 104 sex-reassigned individuals. Results: Overall, 27.9% of the sample were registered...

  12. Psychiatric morbidity in school children who suffered a stampede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet S Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stampede is described as a sudden movement of a mass of people in response to a particular circumstance or stimulus. Human stampedes are quite often reported from crowded places like places of worship, sporting events, political rallies, etc. There are reports of development of posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents subsequent to both natural and man-made disasters. The present tragedy struck in a Government Secondary School in Delhi on September 9, 2009. The study describes the long-term psychiatric morbidity in children following stampede. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by the department of psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 38 children (all adolescent girls were registered at the casualty of the hospital and 1 absconded, 5 were brought dead. A total of 32 children were included in the study. After first assessment in the casualty, subsequent assessments at 8 weeks and 6 months were done using semi-structured performa, GHQ and Child′s reaction to traumatic event scale (CRTES-Revised. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The age-group of the children were 12-20 years(mean 14.3, all girls, studying in grades - VII to X Eight weeks follow up GHQ score was high in 27 (87%. On CRTESQ-R scale, 22 children were in high distress group (71%. Twenty-two children had symptoms of PTSD and five were in moderate distress group. Eleven children also had a comorbid diagnosis of depressive disorder, six had phobic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. There were statistically significant differences in mean GHQ scores at baseline and at 6 months follow up. There was also significant decrease in CRTESQ-R scale scores between baseline and 6 months. Conclusion: The children who were victims of stampede warrant the need for long-term intervention.

  13. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: rate of referral for neurorehabilitation and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, D

    2012-04-01

    Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients continue to present with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) which may be associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. We audited our patients with HAND referred for psychiatric assessment against the National Service Framework guidelines that they should receive neurorehabilitation. We found that despite these patients posing a risk to themselves and others due to poor insight and medication adherence, high rates of psychiatric co-morbidity and severely challenging behaviour, few were referred for neurorehabilitation. We recommend that clear referral pathways for psychiatric intervention and neurorehabilitation are established in HIV treatment centres.

  14. Stress, psychiatric co-morbidity and coping in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Symons, Christine; Gilliam, Jane; Kaminski, Edward R

    2010-04-01

    This study examined life event stress, perceived stress and psychiatric co-morbidity among patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). It also investigated the relationship between coping, stress, the severity of CIU and psychiatric co-morbidity. Total of 100 CIU patients and 60 allergy patients participated in the study. They completed the General Health Questionnaire, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Ways of Coping Checklist. Compared with allergy patients, CIU patients had worse co-morbidity and higher levels of life event stress and perceived stress. Emotion-focussed coping was associated with the severity of CIU; perceived stress was associated with co-morbidity.

  15. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidities: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse co-morbidity with psychiatric disorders is common and has been widely reported, except in Kenya. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern and socio-economic burden of a dual diagnosis of substance abuse disorder and other psychiatric conditions. This was a cross-sectional descriptive ...

  16. Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidities in Acute Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shoja shafti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric problems and stresses may deteriorate the prognosis of patients with IHD. So evaluating their frequency possibly will promote our perspective regarding their vital importance in the field of consultation-liaison psychiatry. Method and Materials. One hundred and one (101 patients with IHD were interviewed in CCU of a general hospital by a psychiatrist to find whether there was any relationship between cardiac events and psychiatric problems or stresses. Results. Cardiac events were significantly more prevalent among patients with both psychiatric problems and biological risk factors (P<0.05. Also, the number of patients suffering from psychiatric problems was significantly more than cases without that (P<0.05. There was a significant difference between male and female patients regarding the type of stress (P<0.01. 79% of total stresses were experienced by patients who had as well psychiatric problems (P<0.0001. In addition, there was significantly more dysthymic disorder in the acute group of patients in comparison with major or minor depressive disorder in the chronic group (P<0.001. Conclusion. The high prevalence of psychiatric problems and psychosocial stresses among patients with IHD deserves sufficient attention by clinicians for detection, monitoring, and management of them.

  17. The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students who had morbidity were 9 times at risk of being stressed consequent upon ecompeting with their peersf and 4 times at risk due to einadequate learning materialsf. Morbidity was significantly more likely to engender use of ereligionf, 4 times less likely to engender use of epositive reframingf with a trend in the use of ...

  18. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Suicide Attempters Who Needed ICU Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MMA Shalahuddin Qusar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a tragic and serious but preventable public health problem all over the world including Bangladesh. Committing suicide has become a burning issue and mortality rate increases especially in young females. Psychiatric evaluation is needed in suicide attempted patients for better management plan to reduce such unnatural mortality, as well as the impairment related to suicidal thought and psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To assess the psychiatric disorders and conditions that needed sufficient clinical attention among the suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a private hospital of Dhaka City from July 2008 to December 2008. Total forty four subjects of attempted suicide were included in the study and psychiatric diagnosis was made by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV by psychiatrists after initial physical problems subsided. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis was Major Depressive Disorder. Female suffered more and among them attention-seeking behaviors were frequent. Thirty-four patients (77.3% had previous history of psychiatric disorder. Chemicals (like; organophosphorous, kerosene, harpic and other medicine overdose ingestion was the most frequently used method by the suicide attempters. Conclusion: This study may be helpful for further research regarding suicide attempters and its' association with mental problems. In primary health care setting, the physicians may get a clue to design a system for preventing, early recognition and managing suicidal ideas, thoughts and attempts. Psychiatric consultation should be made mandatory for all patients admitted following attempted suicide. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4761 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 73-77

  19. Accuracy of diagnosing depression in primary care: the impact of somatic and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyen, J.; Volkers, A.C.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bos, G.A.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is highly co-morbid with both psychiatric and chronic somatic disease. These types of co-morbidity have been shown to exert opposite effects on underdiagnosis of depression by general practitioners (GPs). However, past research has not addressed their combined effect on

  20. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  1. Psychiatric morbidity among inmates of center for destitutes: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra B Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: One percent of the population in India is homeless (destitutes which include beggars, commercial sex workers, homeless mentally ill, elderly women with dependent children, street children, and persons with disability. Psychiatric disorders are generally seen to be common among homeless individuals. The data are limited regarding psychiatric morbidity and its prevalence in this populace in Indian context. Aim: The aim was to study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among the inmates of a center for destitutes. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study included all the residents (n = 50 of a center of destitutes. Psychiatric evaluation was done by qualified practicing psychiatrist. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning instruments were used to assess the severity of psychiatric symptoms and general functioning of the individuals with mental disorders. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: All residents (n = 50 of center of destitutes were evaluated for psychiatric co-morbidity. 42 (84% inmates were suffering from psychiatric disorders. Most common psychiatric disorder among them was psychotic disorders in 19 (38%, followed by affective disorders, mainly depression in 16 (32%, somatoform disorders in 5 (10%, and anxiety disorders in 2 (4%. No significant gender differences were noted (P = 0.335. Substance abuse was present in 22 (44% of the inmates. A significant negative correlation between psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the subject was seen, (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Psychiatric disorders and in particular substance abuse, are common among the homeless people who stay in the center of destitutes. Psychiatric disorders are likely to be the cause significant functional impairment.

  2. Sleep disturbance and its relationship to psychiatric morbidity after Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, T A; David, D; Kulick-Bell, R; Hebding, J; Nolan, B

    1995-11-01

    Sleep disturbance is an important dimension of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but most of the limited available data were obtained years after the original traumatic event. This study provides information on sleep disturbance and its relationship to posttraumatic morbidity from evaluations done within a year after the trauma. Sleep and psychiatric symptoms of 54 victims (12 men and 42 women) of Hurricane Andrew who had no psychiatric illness in the 6 months before the hurricane were evaluated. A subset of hurricane victims with active psychiatric morbidity (N = 10) and nine comparison subjects who were unaffected by the hurricane were examined in a sleep laboratory. A broad range of sleep-related complaints were rated as being greater after the hurricane, and psychiatric morbidity (which was most commonly PTSD, followed by depression) had a significant effect on most of the subjective sleep measures. In addition, subjects with active morbidity endorsed greater frequencies of "bad dreams" and general sleep disturbances before the hurricane. Polysomnographic results for the hurricane victims revealed a greater number of arousals and entries into stage 1 sleep. REM density correlated positively with both the PTSD symptom of reexperiencing trauma and global distress. Subjects affected by Hurricane Andrew reported sleep disturbances, particularly those subjects with psychiatric morbidity. Tendencies to experience bad dreams and interrupted sleep before a trauma appear to mark vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity. Results of sleep laboratory evaluations suggested brief shifts toward higher arousal levels during sleep for PTSD subjects and a relationship of REM phasic activity and symptom severity.

  3. Psychiatric morbidity in two urban communities in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-08-08

    Aug 8, 2008 ... status of psychiatric disorder in general (2) persistent depression (3) and neurotic disorder (4). a social-class ... for example, an excess of bipolar disorder had been found in the upper social classes (5) — a ..... of social and cognitive degeneracy and consequent decline of personal capabilities essential for ...

  4. Prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among caregivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generalized anxiety disorders.8 Other psychiatric disorders that may be seen among this group of people include substance and alcohol use disorders and chronic sleep disturbances.9,10. In a study of over 2000 families caring for a family member with seriously poor health in the United States, nearly 20% of caregivers ...

  5. Psychiatric Morbidity among a Sample of Orphanage Children in Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. EL Koumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study identifies the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems and the associated factors in orphanage children. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three private orphanages in Cairo. Two hundred sixty-five children of ages ranging from 6 to 12 years living in three different orphanages care systems were included in the study. A sociodemographic information form and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used. Children were clinically interviewed and psychiatric disorders were identified. Diagnoses were done according to the manual for diagnosis and statistics of mental disorder fourth version (DSMIV. A written formal consent from the director of social solidarity was obtained before inclusion in the study. Results. The prevalence of behavioral disturbances was 64.53% among those in institutional care and the most prominent psychiatric disorders were nocturnal enuresis (23.3%, attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD (19.62%, oppositional defiant disorder (17.36%. Age at first admission, causes of receiving institutional care, and moves 2 or more times between institutions were significantly associated with an increased risk of behavioral and emotional problems. Conclusion. Our study showed that children living in institutions are prone to suffer from psychiatric disorders. Stability of the caregiver acts as a protective variable.

  6. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and the Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity in Singleton Sibling Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Mikael; Lehtonen, Liisa; Korkeila, Jyrki; Gissler, Mika

    2017-05-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for psychiatric morbidity. We further studied this with Finnish siblings to control for genetic/familial factors. From the Finnish Medical Birth Register, sibling pairs were selected as the first two children born 1987-1995 to the same mother (n = 150 168 pairs), along with information on maternal smoking (no smoking/smoking). Information on the children's psychiatric diagnoses related to outpatient care visits (1998-2013) and inpatient care (1987-2013), and the mothers' psychiatric morbidity (1969-2013) was derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. The first pair analysis compared siblings of mothers who only smoked in the first pregnancy (Quitters, 4.7%) and mothers who smoked in both pregnancies (Smokers, 9.6%); the second analysis included mothers who smoked only in the second pregnancy (Starters, 3.3%) and mothers who did not smoke in either pregnancy (Nonsmokers, 77.5%). Smoking information was missing for 5.0% of pairs. Psychiatric morbidity of the siblings and mother was included in the statistical analyses. The risk of psychiatric diagnoses was significantly lower for the second child of quitters (adjusted OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.83) compared to the risk among smokers. A higher risk for psychiatric diagnoses was found for the second child of starters (1.39, 1.30-1.49) compared to the risk among nonsmokers. The effect of smoking was more robust for externalizing diagnoses. Maternal smoking was independently associated with a higher risk for psychiatric morbidity in children, even when controlling thoroughly for genetic and familial factors. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has an independent effect on the risk of psychiatric morbidity in children, even after controlling for non-measurable genetic/familial factors by using a sibling pair design. The effect of maternal smoking was robust for externalizing diagnoses. Maternal smoking during pregnancy had an effect on

  7. Co-occurrence of psychiatric and medical morbidity in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, L G; Tessler, R C; Nycz, G R

    1983-02-01

    This study examines the co-occurrence of psychiatric and medical morbidity in primary care patients utilizing a health care clinic in Marshfield, Wisconsin. Previous research has shown that individuals with psychiatric disorders have higher rates of medical illness than people without psychiatric illness, but most prior studies have tended to confound the measures of psychiatric and medical morbidity. In addition, appropriate controls for bias resulting from different medical utilization patterns have sometimes been absent. The present study reports the medical diagnoses of persons who had been assessed for psychiatric disorder with a standardized psychiatric interview using research diagnostic criteria independent of their medical assessment. Psychiatric diagnoses are analyzed in relation to medical diagnoses at the time of the interview and for a one-year period--six months before and six months after that date. The results indicate that persons with mental disorder diagnoses have significantly more morbidity for the one-year study period. Although considerable congruence exists in the physical diagnoses recorded for both groups, those with mental disorders are more likely to have diagnoses of the digestive and genitourinary systems. Some sex differences are also explored.

  8. Assessment of Parental Distress and Psychiatric Morbidity Before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Paediatric operation has been reported to be stressful not only to the child scheduled for operation but also to the parents and family members. In the absence of detailed information about the impending operation both mother and child may manifest preoperative distress and psychological morbidity. This study ...

  9. The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contributed to the low morbidity recorded. Studies have shown that when faced with problems, many students would turn to friends and classmates for support while others would turn to family, and religion, while others would keep the problems to themselves, or engage in sports, music, sleeping or going into isolation.19,22.

  10. Increasing risk of psychiatric morbidity after childhood onset type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, Daniel; Tolstrup, Janne S; Sildorf, Stine M

    2017-01-01

    of psychiatric disorders as well as the effects of age at onset and duration of type 1 diabetes on the risk of subsequently developing psychiatric morbidities. RESULTS: An increased risk of being diagnosed with mood disorders and anxiety, dissociative, eating, stress-related and somatoform disorders was observed......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate psychiatric morbidity following childhood onset of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a matched, population-based cohort study based on Danish national registers, we identified children and adolescents who had been diagnosed as an in......- or outpatient with type 1 diabetes before the age of 18, and afterwards diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (n = 5084). Control individuals were matched according to sex and date of birth (n = 35,588). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess associations between type 1 diabetes and the incidence...

  11. Psychosocial differences in children living in orphanages of Kashmir with and without psychiatric morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Karrar Hussain; Mohammad Maqbool Dar; Sabreena Qadri; Syed Seerat Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Orphanages are emerging as an important source of care and child-raising for the ever-increasing number of orphans in the conflict-ridden Kashmir. These children are generally prone to develop psychiatric disorders even reared in well run institution. Objective is to highlight the psychosocial differences in children living in orphanages of Kashmir with and without psychiatric morbidity. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out where 348 ...

  12. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in South East Nigeria: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attama, CM; Uwakwe, R; Onyeama, GM; Igwe, MN

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects with leprosy and 100 with albinism were interviewed. Sociodemographic questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) assessed the sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric morbidity, respectively. GHQ positive cases and 10% of noncases for each group were interviewed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory for specific ICD-10 diagnoses. Results: Fifty-five percent (55/100) subjects with leprosy were GHQ positive cases while 41% (41/100) with albinism were GHQ positive cases. The risk of developing psychiatric morbidity was significantly higher in subjects with leprosy than in subjects with albinism (OR = 1.76, CI = 1.00 – 3.08, P = 0.04). The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among subjects with leprosy were depression 49% (49/100), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 18% (18/100), alcohol/drug abuse 16% (16/100), whereas in albinism depression was 51% (51/100), GAD 27% (27/100), and alcohol/drug abuse 7% (7/100). Male, married and uneducated subjects with leprosy had significantly higher psychiatric morbidity than the male, married and uneducated subjects with albinism, respectively. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity was higher in subjects with leprosy than in subjects with albinism. Male, married and uneducated subjects with leprosy significantly had higher morbidity than male, married and uneducated subjects with albinism respectively. PMID:26097762

  13. Burden Assessment, Psychiatric Morbidity, and Their Correlates in Caregivers of Patients with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S; Srivastava, S; Gautam, P; Saha, R; Kaur, J

    2015-12-01

    Intellectual disability in a child places great stress on a family and caregiver and this leads to significant socio-occupational dysfunction and impaired quality of life for caregivers. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic characteristics, burden, and psychiatric morbidity of the caregivers of persons with intellectual disability, as well as to determine the variables that correlated with burden and psychiatric morbidity. An observational study was carried out in an outpatient psychiatric unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India from October 2014 to April 2015. A total of 100 caregivers of intellectually impaired individuals were assessed for burden and psychiatric morbidity. In all, 39% of the caregivers had a high burden score, 46% perceived mild-to-moderate burden severity, and 15% perceived no to mild burden. Mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were present in 23% and 16% had severe-to-extremely severe depressive symptoms. Mild-to-moderate anxiety symptoms were evident in 19% of caregivers and a further 19% had severe-to-extremely severe anxiety symptoms. Routine assessment of burden and psychiatric morbidity in the caregiver will help to reduce their burden and thus help them care for their children more appropriately and efficiently.

  14. Psychiatric Morbidity in Patients with Chikungunya Fever: First Report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S; Gautam, Priyanka; Jhanjee, Anurag

    2015-10-01

    Chikungunya fever is an acute illness caused by an arbovirus and has various complications like neurological, psychological, dermatological and even multi organ failure. Psychiatric co-morbidity is not very well studied till now. This is the first report from India. Aim of the study was to assess the psychiatric morbidity during or after the onset of Chikungunya fever. Patients referred from Medicine department with confirmed diagnosis of Chikungunya fever were recruited, after taking informed consent. Patient's socio-demographic characteristics were noted and Psychiatric co-morbidity was assessed by complete history taking and mental status examination, using WHO International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) edition (ICD -10) of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Diagnostic criteria for research. The age range of the study group was found to be 23-48 years. Fourteen (70%) were males and 6 (30%) were females. Five (25%) patients were diagnosed with depressive disorder, 3 (15%) patients had Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), 2 (10%) patients GAD with Panic attacks, 1(5%) patients phobic disorder (claustrophobia), 3 (15%) patients Somatoform Disorder, 3 (15%), Neurasthenia (Fatigue Syndrome), etc. Two (10%) patients presented with vague somatic complaints which did not fit into any of the diagnostic category. Chikungunya fever can result in significant psychiatric morbidity, mainly in the form of depressive episode, anxiety disorder and even long persisting illnesses like somato-form disorders. Further research is required to know about the phenomenology or the neurobiology of the psychiatric disorders occurring in the course of this illness.

  15. Psychological correlates and psychiatric morbidity in patients with Dhat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Gupta, Sunil; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine psychological factors in the form of somatosensory amplification, alexithymia and hypochondriasis in patients with Dhat syndrome. Secondary aims of the study were: (1) To evaluate the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on the psychological correlates; (2) to compare the prevalence of psychological correlates in those with Dhat syndrome and in those with depression and somatoform disorders. A total of 106 subjects diagnosed with Dhat syndrome as per International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) criteria were assessed on Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SSAS) and Whitely Index (WI). Psychiatric comorbidity was diagnosed as per ICD-10. Data on 50 patients with depression and 119 patients with somatoform disorder was used for comparison. The age at onset of Dhat syndrome was 22.54 (standard deviation [SD] - 7.5) years, and duration of illness was 5.04 (SD - 4.2) years. Depressive disorders were diagnosed in 13.2%, anxiety disorders in 15.1%, erectile dysfunction in 14.2% and premature ejaculation in 17% of cases. The mean SSAS total score was 23.12 (SD - 7.99), mean total TAS-20 score was 63.3 (SD - 13.3) and mean WI score was 8.23 (SD - 2.7). About two third of the patients had alexithymia (n = 67; 63.2%) and hypochondriasis (n = 69; 65.1%). Comparison of the psychological correlates between those with Dhat syndrome alone (n = 59) and those with comorbid psychiatric disorder (n = 47) revealed no significant differences. Patients with only Dhat syndrome had significantly higher scores for somatosensory amplification when compared with those with somatoform disorders, but no difference was seen between those with depression and Dhat syndrome alone. Compared to patients with Dhat syndrome alone, those with depression had higher prevalence of alexithymia and hypochondriasis. There are differences in the prevalence of somatosensory amplification, hypochondriasis and alexithymia between

  16. Psychiatric morbidity in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis-an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lalit; Pardal, Pavan Kumar; Prakash, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    A lot of stigma and misconceptions about pulmonary tuberculosis still persist, in spite of the advances in treatment. Thus, a mere diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis can be a psychological trauma to an individual. The situation has aggravated with the association of tuberculosis with HIV infection. To study the psychiatric morbidity due to the various psychological stresses faced by a patient of pulmonary tuberculosis. The study group consisted of 100 inpatients admitted to pulmonary ward with diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The control group consisted of 100 inpatients admitted to pulmonary ward with nontuberculous pulmonary diseases. Psychiatric history and mental status were recorded on a specially designed proforma and diagnosis of any psychiatric illness, if present, arrived at as per International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The psychiatric tests applied were beck's depression inventory (BDI) and Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS). Of the patients of pulmonary tuberculosis, 24% could be given a diagnostic category, as per ICD-10, as compared to only 8% of the controls (P anxiety as compared to 24% of controls (P anxiety (on TMAS) was seen in those with longer duration of illness (P < 0.02) and in those with greater severity of illness (P < 0.02). In view of the high psychiatric morbidity associated with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is enough scope for psychiatric services to be made available to these patients. In addition, personnel involved in the treatment of these patients should be trained for early detection of psychiatric symptoms.

  17. Increased psychiatric morbidity in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or complete gonadal dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Hedvig; Strandqvist, Anna; Nordenström, Anna; Butwicka, Agnieszka; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Frisén, Louise

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge concerning mental health outcomes is important to optimize the health of individuals with disorders or differences of sex development (DSD). Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate if the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adult women diagnosed with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) or complete gonadal dysgenesis (46,XY GD and 46,XX GD) differs from that in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) or age-matched population controls. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, and included 33 women with different DSDs: 20 CAIS, 6 46,XY GD, 7 46,XX GD, 21 women with POI and 61 population-derived controls. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview plus (MINI+). To complement the MINI+, three self-report questions were used to evaluate current and previous psychiatric history. Results are presented as p values and estimated risks (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of psychiatric conditions among women with CAIS or GD in comparison with women with POI and age-matched population-derived controls. Twenty-eight of the 33 women (85%) with CAIS or GD met the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder according to the MINI+, with depression and anxiety disorders being most common. This was significantly higher compared with population controls (52%) (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.7-14.9), but not compared to women with POI, who had a high frequency of psychiatric diagnoses (76%). The increased psychiatric morbidity in women with CAIS and GD highlights the need for clinical awareness of the psychiatric vulnerability in these patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychiatric morbidities in postpartum females: a prospective follow-up during puerperium

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    Adya Shanker Srivastava

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: Postpartum psychiatric disturbances pose a significant mental health problem in community because of their impact on parent-infant and couple relationship. This study was carried out with the aim to find out psychiatric morbidities in postpartum females during puerperium so that a proper assessment of mental health and comprehensive management can be planned. Methodology: Hundred females who had delivered in maternity ward of obstetrics and gynaecology department of Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi were evaluated for mental status on day one (i.e. day of delivery, and followed-up till four weeks postpartum period. Psychiatric evaluation was done on the basis of structured proforma containing socio-demographic details and the text revision of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for diagnosis. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS were used to assess the severity of the respective conditions. Result: Psychiatric evaluation during postpartum puerperal stage revealed that 16 (16% females had developed psychiatric morbidity. Twelve (12% cases fulfilled the criteria for major depressive disorder and four (four per cent patients had features of anxiety disorder. In 84 (84% cases, postpartum period was uneventful and no psychiatric disturbance was found.Seventy five per cent females had joint family and good family support. Conclusion: Major depressive disorder is the most common psychiatric morbidity observed in postpartum females during puerperium. The careful observation of females during postpartum puerperal stage may help in identification and proper management of mental state of such females, and also proper care of newborn.perspective.

  19. Psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in skin diseases: A comparison of alopecia areata and psoriasis

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    Sagar B Karia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA and psoriasis are associated with various psychiatric comorbidities. Both greatly affect the quality of life (QOL of patients and psychiatric comorbidities can further worsen it. Thus there is need to recognise psychiatric comorbidities and treat them in these patients. Aims: To determine the psychiatric morbidity and the QOL in these patients to study the factors affecting them. Methodology: 50 patients each of psoriasis and AA were included. 50 people accompanying these patients served as control group. They were diagnosed for psychiatric disorders by clinical interview. Scales used were severity of alopecia tool for AA, psoriasis area and severity index for psoriasis, WHO-QOL scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety and depression. Results: 22% and 38% patients in AA and psoriasis group respectively suffered from psychiatric disorder, depression was present in 18% and 24% of patients and 4% and 12% had anxiety disorders in respective groups. The control group had only 6% of psychiatric comorbidities. QOL scores had negative correlation with Hamilton-A, Hamilton-D and severity of psoriasis scores and they were statistically significant but not with severity of AA. Conclusion: Thus AA and psoriasis patients had more prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities and it had bearing on their QOL.

  20. Comorbid Visual and Psychiatric Disabilities Among the Chinese Elderly: A National Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Wang, Zhenjie; Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of, and association between, co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities among elderly (>65 years-of-age) persons in China. Random representative samples were obtained using multistage, stratified, cluster sampling, with probabilities proportional to size. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights that reflected this multistage, stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Logistic regression models were used to elucidate associations between visual and psychiatric disabilities. Among the Chinese elderly, >160,000 persons have co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities. The weighted prevalence among this cohort is 123.7 per 100,000 persons. A higher prevalence of co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities was found in the oldest-old (pvisual disability was significantly associated with a higher risk of having a psychiatric disability among persons aged ≥80 years-of-age [adjusted odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.54]. A significant number of Chinese elderly persons were living with co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities. To address the challenge of these co-morbid disorders among Chinese elders, it is incumbent upon the government to implement additional and more comprehensive prevention and rehabilitation strategies for health-care systems, reinforce health promotion among the elderly, and improve accessibility to health-care services.

  1. Psychiatric morbidities among mentally ill wives of Nepalese men working abroad

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    Dhana Ratna Shakya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Husband working abroad may have not only favorable outcomes for wives and other family members but also adverse consequences, including psychological problems. Present study intended to look into psychiatric morbidity profiles of the Nepalese female psychiatric patients and the stressors related with their husband working abroad. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based descriptive study with convenient sampling method. Hundred consecutive female psychiatric patients, with the particular stressor, coming into the contact of the investigating team were enrolled within the study period of 12 months. The psychiatric morbidities/diagnoses were sorted out according to the International classification of disease and infirmity, 10 th edition (ICD-10 criteria. Results: Average age of the enrolled cases was 29 years. Nearly half of the women were illiterate or barely literate. Some other stressors, besides the one of husband working abroad were found to precipitate the illness in about 60%, main being relational and health problems. Common presenting complaints were mood, anxiety, and physical symptoms. Almost 30% of the subjects had some mental illness in their past too and similar proportion had in their blood relatives. About one-third admitted to use substances, mainly alcohol and cigarettes. The common psychiatric diagnoses were mood, anxiety, neurotic, and stress-related disorders. Nearly 10% had presented for suicide attempt. Conclusions: The status of husband working abroad may have adverse consequences in mental health of women. Mood affect, anxiety, and stress-related disorders are common psychiatric illness among them.

  2. Psychiatric morbidities among mentally ill wives of Nepalese men working abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Dhana Ratna

    2014-01-01

    Husband working abroad may have not only favorable outcomes for wives and other family members but also adverse consequences, including psychological problems. Present study intended to look into psychiatric morbidity profiles of the Nepalese female psychiatric patients and the stressors related with their husband working abroad. This is a hospital-based descriptive study with convenient sampling method. Hundred consecutive female psychiatric patients, with the particular stressor, coming into the contact of the investigating team were enrolled within the study period of 12 months. The psychiatric morbidities/diagnoses were sorted out according to the International classification of disease and infirmity, 10(th) edition (ICD-10) criteria. Average age of the enrolled cases was 29 years. Nearly half of the women were illiterate or barely literate. Some other stressors, besides the one of husband working abroad were found to precipitate the illness in about 60%, main being relational and health problems. Common presenting complaints were mood, anxiety, and physical symptoms. Almost 30% of the subjects had some mental illness in their past too and similar proportion had in their blood relatives. About one-third admitted to use substances, mainly alcohol and cigarettes. The common psychiatric diagnoses were mood, anxiety, neurotic, and stress-related disorders. Nearly 10% had presented for suicide attempt. The status of husband working abroad may have adverse consequences in mental health of women. Mood affect, anxiety, and stress-related disorders are common psychiatric illness among them.

  3. Comparison of psychiatric morbidity in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and non-ulcer dyspepsia

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    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The present study aimed to find psychiatric morbidity, stress, anxiety, and depression in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and compare it with patients having non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD. Methods: This case NUD study compared 50 patients each with IBS and NUD. The two groups were compared on demographic data, psychiatric diagnosis using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis 1 disorders, anxiety levels using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A, and depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. The Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES was used to measure stress. Results: The cases of IBS were more likely to be of female gender (P = 0.012, married (P = 0.009, and employed (P < 0.001. Psychiatric diagnoses were more common in the cases of IBS than NUDs (88% vs. 30%, P< 0.001, the most common being major depression and somatization disorder. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were more common in patients with IBS (P < 0.001 for HAM-A and HAM-D. Logistic regression revealed that having IBS and increased age were independent predictors of having a psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions: IBS is associated with the considerable degree of psychiatric morbidity. Adequate attention should be paid toward comorbid psychiatric illnesses, and prompt treatment should be instituted.

  4. Psychiatric morbidity in elderly patients attending OPD of tertiary care centre in western region of Nepal

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    Prakash Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Aging of population is currently a global phenomenon. At least one in 5 people over the age of 65 years will suffer from a mental disorder by 2030. Study of psychiatric morbidities in this age group is essential to prepare for upcoming challenges. Aims: To find out the prevalence of different psychiatric morbidities in elderly population and to find out if there are any age and gender specific differences. Settings and Design: Retrospective review; Psychiatric outpatient department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. Materials and Methods: Data for patients ≥ 65 years of age attending the psychiatric outpatient department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, from 1 st January 2012 to 15 th January 2013 were collected retrospectively in a predesigned proforma. Statistical Analysis Used: Risk of having different psychiatric disorders was estimated using odds ratio. Results: The mean age of 120 patients included in this study was 69.67 (SD = 5.94 years. Depressive disorder (26.7% was the most common diagnosis. There was no statistically significant difference in psychiatric disorders in >75 years compared with ≤75 years except for dementia [odd ratio (OR (≤75 years/>75 years=0.055, 95% confidence interval (CI=0.016; 0.194]. Alcohol dependence syndrome [OR (male/female=7.826, 95% CI = 1.699;36.705] and dementia [OR (male/female=3.394, 95% CI = 1.015;11.350] was more common in males. Conclusions: Depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric morbidity among the elderly patients. The odds suffering from dementia increased with increasing age. The odds of having alcohol related problems and dementia were more in males compared with females.

  5. Co-morbid psychiatric disorder in chronic epilepsy: recognition and etiology of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegartz, P; Seidenberg, M; Woodard, A; Gidal, B; Hermann, B

    1999-01-01

    This article briefly presents one approach to conceptualizing known and suspected risk factors for co-morbid psychiatric disorder in epilepsy. The utility of this model is then reviewed by examining selected neurobiologic, psychosocial, and iatrogenic risk factors for a common co-morbid psychiatric disorder, interictal depression. Finally, data are presented concerning the rates of current and lifetime mood disorders among a sample of 76 patients with chronic complex partial seizures, the degree to which co-morbid depression has been recognized and treated in chronic epilepsy, and the health-related quality of life status associated with current and past mood disorders. Finally, these findings are related to the larger literature concerned with the recognition and treatment of depression.

  6. Epilepsy and quality of life: socio-demographic and clinical aspects, and psychiatric co-morbidity

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    Gloria Maria de Almeida Souza Tedrus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study socio-demographic and clinical aspects, as well as psychiatric co-morbidity that influence the quality of life of adult epileptic patients. Methods One hundred and thirty-two individuals diagnosed with epilepsy were evaluated from neurological/clinical and psychiatric points of view and by the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31. Predictive factors for the QOLIE-31 scores were studied. Results The regression analyses indicated the existence of psychiatric co-morbidity (total score, seizure worry, emotional well-being, energy/fatigue, social function and cognitive function and a greater seizure frequency (total score, cognitive function and energy/fatigue as predictive factors for lower scores in the total QOLIE-31 score and in various dimensions. Abnormalities in the neurological exam and poly-therapy with anti-epileptic drugs were negative factors limited to one of the dimensions cognitive function and social function, respectively. Conclusion The presence of psychiatric co-morbidity and a greater seizure frequency were the main factors influencing the quality of life in epileptic patients as evaluated by QOLIE-31.

  7. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity: evidence from a Danish nationwide register study.

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    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Green, Anders; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-02-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association and temporal relationship between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity. Register-based nationwide cohort study. Data on hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity were obtained by record linkage of the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish National Prescription Registry. A total of 2631 hyperthyroid individuals were identified and matched 1:4 with non-hyperthyroid controls and followed for a mean duration of 6 years (range 0-13). Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism respectively. BEFORE THE DIAGNOSIS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM, SUCH INDIVIDUALS HAD AN INCREASED RISK OF BEING HOSPITALIZED WITH PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSES (ODDS RATIO (OR): 1.33; 95% CI: 0.98-1.80) and an increased risk of being treated with antipsychotics (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.00-1.38), antidepressants (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01-1.27), or anxiolytics (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.16-1.42). After the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, there was a higher risk of being hospitalized with psychiatric diagnoses (hazard ratio (HR): 1.51; 95% CI: 1.11-2.05) and an increased risk of being treated with antipsychotics (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.20-1.79), antidepressants (HR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.36-1.74), or anxiolytics (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.27-1.69). Hyperthyroid individuals have an increased risk of being hospitalized with psychiatric diagnoses and being treated with antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytics, both before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.

  8. Psychiatric morbidity in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis-an observational study

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    Lalit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of stigma and misconceptions about pulmonary tuberculosis still persist, in spite of the advances in treatment. Thus, a mere diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis can be a psychological trauma to an individual. The situation has aggravated with the association of tuberculosis with HIV infection. Aim: To study the psychiatric morbidity due to the various psychological stresses faced by a patient of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 inpatients admitted to pulmonary ward with diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The control group consisted of 100 inpatients admitted to pulmonary ward with nontuberculous pulmonary diseases. Psychiatric history and mental status were recorded on a specially designed proforma and diagnosis of any psychiatric illness, if present, arrived at as per International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The psychiatric tests applied were beck's depression inventory (BDI and Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS. Results: Of the patients of pulmonary tuberculosis, 24% could be given a diagnostic category, as per ICD-10, as compared to only 8% of the controls (P < 0.005. On BDI, 44% of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis showed depression as compared to 27% of the controls (P < 0.02. On TMAS, 38% of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis showed anxiety as compared to 24% of controls (P < 0.05. A greater incidence of depression (on BDI and anxiety (on TMAS was seen in those with longer duration of illness (P < 0.02 and in those with greater severity of illness (P < 0.02. Conclusion: In view of the high psychiatric morbidity associated with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is enough scope for psychiatric services to be made available to these patients. In addition, personnel involved in the treatment of these patients should be trained for early detection of psychiatric symptoms.

  9. Intellectual disability and multiple co morbid psychiatric disorders in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Priyanka; Bhatia, M S; Rathi, Anubhav

    2014-11-01

    Comorbid psychiatric Disorders are seen commonly in people with intellectual disability and in fact they are at greater risk for developing other health disorders. Most prevalent chronic health conditions in children with intellectual disability are epilepsy, cerebral palsy,anxiety disorders, sleep disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Co morbidities multiply the problem of people with intellectual impairment to a great extent and hence an accurate psychological assessment of multiple diagnoses is useful in detecting the specific underlying processes differentiating the co morbid syndrome and in planning an appropriate management and rehabilitation program. This case report is presented to emphasize the fact that though. It is common for intellectually disabled children to have other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, it is important to have accurate, suitable assessment and recording of every co-morbid disorder as it has its own implication in course and outcome of the disability in the child. A comprehensive management approach involving people from various spheres would be required to improve the quality of life and for reduction of burden of care giver.We describe a child of intellectual disability with multiple co morbidities.

  10. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S.; Requi?o, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in S?o Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the ...

  11. Psychiatric morbidity in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis-an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Lalit Singh; Pavan Kumar Pardal; Jyoti Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Background: A lot of stigma and misconceptions about pulmonary tuberculosis still persist, in spite of the advances in treatment. Thus, a mere diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis can be a psychological trauma to an individual. The situation has aggravated with the association of tuberculosis with HIV infection. Aim: To study the psychiatric morbidity due to the various psychological stresses faced by a patient of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 ...

  12. Psychiatric Morbidity and Work and Social Adjustment Among Earthquake Survivors Extricated from under the Rubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shamaila; Aslam, Naeem

    2012-10-01

    This cross-sectional study examined psychiatric co-morbidity and work and social adjustment after a natural disaster among survivors who were extricated from under the rubble. Individuals (N=40) belonging to district Muzaffarabad, a severely earthquake affected area on 8(th) October 2005, were interviewed. The examination included the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and questions covering background characteristics and disaster exposure. The most prevalent disorders were posttaumatic stress disorder (32.5%), major depressive disorder (17.5%), dysthymia (15.0%), agoraphobia (25.0%), and panic disorder (20.0%). Moreover, 77% of the respondents have been diagnosed with at least one psychiatric disorder. Work and soical adjustment was found to have an inverse relationship with the psychiatric co-morbidity. Small sample size and lack of comparison group from non-earthquake struck areas may limit the generalizability of the psychatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders other than PTSD, especially depressive and anxiety disorders, are of clinical importance when considering long-term mental health effect of disasters.

  13. Differentiating Gang Members, Gang Affiliates, and Violent Men on Their Psychiatric Morbidity and Traumatic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane L; Kallis, Constantinos; Coid, Jeremy W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the differences between gang members and gang affiliates-or those individuals who associate with gangs but are not gang members. Even less is known about how these groups compare with other violent populations. This study examined how gang members, gang affiliates, and violent men compare on mental health symptoms and traumatic experiences. Data included a sample of 1,539 adult males, aged 19 to 34 years, taken from an earlier survey conducted in the United Kingdom. Participants provided informed consent before completing questionnaires and were paid £5 for participation. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare participants' symptoms of psychiatric morbidity and traumatic event exposure. Findings showed that, compared to violent men and gang affiliates, gang members had experienced more severe violence, sexual assaults, and suffered more serious/life-threatening injuries. Compared to violent men, gang members and gang affiliates had made more suicide attempts; had self-harmed more frequently; and had experienced more domestic violence, violence at work, homelessness, stalking, and bankruptcy. Findings further showed a decreasing gradient from gang members to gang affiliates to violent men in symptom levels of anxiety, antisocial personality disorder, pathological gambling, stalking others, and drug and/or alcohol dependence. Depression symptoms were similar across groups. The identified relationship between gang membership, affiliation, and adverse mental health indicates that mental health in gang membership deserves more research attention. Findings also indicate that criminal justice strategies need to consider gang members' mental health more fully, if gang membership is to be appropriately addressed and reduced.

  14. Stigmatization of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric service use: a vignette-based representative population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F; Lange, Claudia; Euler, Sebastian; Hachtel, Henning; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G

    2017-06-01

    Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent. Methods We conducted a representative survey of the general population (N = 2207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to read a vignette depicting either the psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution to which the character had been admitted, and indicate desired social distance (an indicator for stigma). Type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied between vignettes. Findings Desired social distance was significantly lower in relation to psychiatric service use than to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and the fictitious character's being male tend to increase stigmatization. Interestingly, the character's being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital and also respondent familiarity with psychiatric services tend to decrease stigmatization. Interpretation Familiarity of the general population with psychiatric patients should be increased. Furthermore, treatment in psychiatric units located within general hospitals should be promoted, as such treatment is associated with decreased stigma.

  15. Psychiatric morbidity among adult patients in a semi-urban primary care setting in Malaysia

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    Omar Khairani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for psychiatric disorders in primary care can improve the detection rate and helps in preventing grave consequences of unrecognised and untreated psychiatric morbidity. This is relevant to the Malaysian setting where mental health care is now also being provided at primary care level. The aim of this paper is to report the prevalence of psychiatric illness in a semi-urban primary care setting in Malaysia using the screening tool Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Methods This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a semi-urban primary healthcare centre located south of Kuala Lumpur. Systematic random sampling was carried out and a total of 267 subjects completed the PHQ during the study period. Results The proportion of respondents who had at least one PHQ positive diagnosis was 24.7% and some respondents had more than one diagnosis. Diagnoses included depressive illness (n = 38, 14.4%, somatoform disorder (n = 32, 12.2%, panic and anxiety disorders (n = 17, 6.5%, binge eating disorder (n = 9, 3.4% and alcohol abuse (n = 6, 2.3%. Younger age (18 to 29 years and having a history of stressors in the previous four weeks were found to be significantly associated (p = 0.036 and p = 0.044 respectively with PHQ positive scores. Conclusion These findings are broadly similar to the findings of studies done in other countries and are a useful guide to the probable prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in primary care in other similar settings in Malaysia.

  16. Accuracy of diagnosing depression in primary care : the impact of chronic somatic and psychiatric co-morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyen, Jasper; Volkers, Anita C.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Schellevis, Francois G.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Bos, Geertrudis A.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    Background. Depression is highly co-morbid with both psychiatric and chronic somatic disease. These types of co-morbidity have been shown to exert opposite effects on underdiagnosis of depression by general practitioners (GPs). However, past research has not addressed their combined effect on

  17. Accuracy of diagnosing depression in primary care: the impact of chronic somatic and psychiatric co-morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyen, Jasper; Volkers, Anita C.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Schellevis, François G.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; van den Bos, Geertrudis A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Depression is highly co-morbid with both psychiatric and chronic somatic disease. These types of co-morbidity have been shown to exert opposite effects on underdiagnosis of depression by general practitioners (GPs). However, past research has not addressed their combined effect on

  18. Risk factors for psychiatric morbidity among bank workers in a northern city of Nigeria

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    A D Yussuf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidi- ty in bank workers in Ilorin, Nigeria, and the sociodemo- graphic and work-related factors that may be associated with poor psychological health. Method. This cross-sectional two-staged study conducted between March and July 1999 involved screening using the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30, a socio- demographic questionnaire, the Present State Examination (PSE schedule and diagnostic criteria from the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Data source. Bank workers in the three local government areas (west, east, and south of Ilorin, a city in the middle belt of Nigeria. Data analysis. Data were analysed using EpiInfo version 6.0. Frequency distribution, cross tabulation, and chi-square analy- ses were obtained. The level of statistical significance was set at 5%. Result. Four hundred and thirty workers responded satisfactori- ly to the questionnaires (response rate 76%; 77 respondents (18% were GHQ-positive and therefore had psychiatric mor- bidity. There was a significant association between psychiatric morbidity and age, gender, number of children, belonging to a social club, workload, promotion, and job status. Conclusion. The implications of these findings are discussed and possible medical and administrative interventions advo- cated.

  19. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Stress-Related Psychiatric Co-morbidities: Focus on Early Life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, with stress playing a major role in onset and exacerbation of symptoms such as abdominal pain and altered bowel movements. Stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression often precede the development of irritable bowel syndrome and vice versa. Stressor exposure during early life has the potential to increase an individual's susceptibility to both irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disease indicating that there may be a common origin for these disorders. Moreover, adverse early life events significantly impact upon many of the communication pathways within the brain-gut-microbiota axis, which allows bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. This axis is proposed to be perturbed in irritable bowel syndrome and studies now indicate that dysfunction of this axis is also seen in psychiatric disease. Here we review the co-morbidity of irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disease with their common origin in mind in relation to the impact of early life stress on the developing brain-gut-microbiota axis. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting this axis in these diseases.

  20. Morbidity of "DSM-IV" Axis I Disorders in Patients with Noncardiac Chest Pain: Psychiatric Morbidity Linked with Increased Pain and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kamila S.; Raffa, Susan D.; Jakle, Katherine R.; Stoddard, Jill A.; Barlow, David H.; Brown, Timothy A.; Covino, Nicholas A.; Ullman, Edward; Gervino, Ernest V.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined current and lifetime psychiatric morbidity, chest pain, and health care utilization in 229 patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP), angina-like pain in the absence of cardiac etiology. Diagnostic interview findings based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV"; American…

  1. Association of psychiatric co-morbidity and efficacy of treatment in chronic daily headache in Indian population

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    Ajai Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients of chronic daily headache (CDH and compare the efficacy of treatment between various type of headache associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Materials and Methods: Prospective case control cohort study, 92 consecutive patients of CDH meeting eligibility criteria. The diagnosis of various subtypes of CDH was made according to the IHS criteria. Age, sex, educational, marital and socioeconomic status, matched controls were also selected. Patients were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI scale at the time of enrolment and at 3 months. Results: CDH accounted for 28% of all headache patients. The mean age of presentation was 30.2 ± 10.3 years, male: Female ratio of 28:64 and mean duration of 4.56 ± 0.56 years. Chronic migraine (CM accounted for 59 patients, chronic tension type headache (CTTH 22 patients, new daily persistent headache (NDPH 3 patients and miscellaneous 8 patients. Psychiatric co-morbidity was present in 53.3% patients with CDH, and was more common in CM (62.7% as compared to CTTH (36.4%. Single psychiatric co-morbidity was seen in 26 patients, while 23 patients had multiple co-morbidity. Major depressive episode, anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and dysthymia were significant psychiatric co-morbidities. Patients with CM were treated with topiramate or divalproex sodium ER and CTTH were treated with amitriptyline. 55 patients came for follow up at 3 months, improvement in headache was seen in 29 patients. Conclusion: Psychiatric co-morbidity was present in more than 50% patients with CDH and its presence along with a duration of ≥2 years was associated with a poor response to treatment.

  2. Adolescent loneliness and psychiatric morbidity in the general population: Identifying "at risk" groups using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, Mark; Murphy, Siobhan; Murphy, Jamie

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has shown that loneliness is strongly associated with both physical and psychological ill health, particularly among adolescents. Factor analytic research has also shown that loneliness is a multi-dimensional construct, characterized by e.g. feelings of isolation, and relational and collective connectedness. While factor analytic representations of the phenomenon effectively illustrate the structure and form of the loneliness construct, they may not adequately capture its expression in the population within, among and across individuals. The current study modelled the expression of loneliness among a population sample of Northern Irish adolescents using latent class analysis. Data from the Young Life and Times Survey (2011) was used to identify the fewest groups of adolescents in the population characterized by discrete and shared loneliness profiles based on their responses to the UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Individual "at risk" status for psychiatric morbidity was then assessed on the basis of LCA-group membership. Four groups of adolescents were identified: 1) high loneliness, characterized predominantly by feelings of isolation, 2) intermediate loneliness (two groups), and a baseline group with low levels of loneliness. While all groups were more likely to screen positive for psychiatric morbidity compared with the baseline group, notable risk, however, was attributable to specific isolation experiences or disconnectedness, that characterized both the profiles of the high loneliness group and the similar, but less severe, intermediate loneliness group. Loneliness is distributed throughout the adolescent population; however, among a significant minority, loneliness is predominantly characterized by feelings of isolation and is strongly indicative of psychological ill health.

  3. Predictive validity of a five-item symptom checklist to screen psychiatric morbidity and suicide ideation in general population and psychiatric settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Wu

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The BSRS-5R was validated as an efficient checklist to screen for psychiatric morbidity and suicide ideation in the general public. The result is valuable in translating into general medical and community settings for early detection of suicide ideation.

  4. Extremism, religion and psychiatric morbidity in a population-based sample of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy W; Bhui, Kamaldeep; MacManus, Deirdre; Kallis, Constantinos; Bebbington, Paul; Ullrich, Simone

    2016-12-01

    There is growing risk from terrorism following radicalisation of young men. It is unclear whether psychopathology is associated. To investigate the population distribution of extremist views among UK men. Cross-sectional study of 3679 men, 18-34 years, in Great Britain. Multivariate analyses of attitudes, psychiatric morbidity, ethnicity and religion. Pro-British men were more likely to be White, UK born, not religious; anti-British were Muslim, religious, of Pakistani origin, from deprived areas. Pro- and anti-British views were linearly associated with violence (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.38-1.64, PReligion is protective but may determine targets of violence following radicalisation. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  5. Psychiatric morbidity associated with caesarean section: a study from Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpong, D I; Owolabi, A T

    2004-11-01

    Fifty-five women who presented at Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria, for either elective or emergency caesarean section during a 5-month period (1 December 2003 - 30 April 2004) were recruited consecutively and assessed for psychiatric morbidity using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State Version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Twenty-two women (40%), were cases on the GHQ, and the BDI was able to pick 11 women with depression in the study sample. The mean anxiety score for the entire study population was 41.7, which was higher than the usually accepted threshold of 40 for clinical disorder on the scale. Thirty-three women (60%) were initially reluctant to give consent for the operation and they had higher mean STAI scores than those who willingly consented to the procedure, and the difference in scores was statistically significant. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Coping strategies and psychiatric morbidity in women attending breast assessment clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; David, A; Thompson, K; Smith, C; Lea, S; Fahy, T

    1996-03-01

    This study examined the role of coping strategies and personality characteristics in mediating psychiatric morbidity in subjects facing possibly serious breast disease. Participating were 121 women aged 20 to 65 undergoing breast fine needle biopsy for a suspicious lesion on mammography. All subjects received psychosocial assessments including the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and the Coping Strategies Inventory. The results show that neuroticism was the only EPI subscore significantly correlated with GHQ-12 score. A habitual method of coping with adversity known as 'engagement' has a negative correlation with GHQ-12 score; that is, patients who actively confront their illness and the uncertainty that surrounds it show better psychological health. Stepwise multiple regression reveals that neuroticism and an engagement coping strategy are the most significant predictors towards GHQ-12 score prior to the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  7. Morbid risk for psychiatric disorder among the relatives of methamphetamine users with and without psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ken; Lin, Shih-Ku; Sham, Pak C; Ball, David; Loh, El-Wui; Murray, Robin M

    2005-07-05

    It is not clear why some methamphetamine (MAMP) abusers develop psychotic symptoms, while others use MAMP regularly over long periods and remain unscathed. We tested the hypotheses that those users who develop MAMP-induced psychosis (MIP) have greater familial loading for psychotic disorders than users with no psychosis. Four hundred forty-five MAMP users were recruited from a psychiatric hospital and a detention center in Taipei, and were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for genetic studies (DIGS-C) and the Family Interview for genetic study (FIGS-C). Morbid risk (MR) for psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives was compared between those MAMP users with a lifetime diagnosis of MAMP psychosis and those without. The relatives of MAMP users with a lifetime diagnosis of MAMP psychosis had a significantly higher MR for schizophrenia (OR = 5.4, 95% CI: 2.0-14.7, P < 0.001) than the relatives of those probands who never became psychotic. Furthermore, the MR for schizophrenia in the relatives of the subjects with a prolonged MAMP psychosis (MIP-P) was higher than in the relatives of those users with a brief MAMP psychosis (MIP-B) (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.0-8.0, P = 0.042). The greater his or her familial loading for schizophrenia, the more likely a MAMP user is to develop psychosis, and the longer that psychosis is likely to last. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. A1 Ain Community Psychiatric Survey. I. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Saleh, M T; Ghubash, R; Daradkeh, T K

    2001-01-01

    Psychiatric community studies are essential for the planning and development of psychiatric services, as well as being helpful in examining the socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders in a given community. Few such studies have been carried out to date in the Arabian peninsula. This paper forms part of a multipurpose community psychiatric survey conducted in A1 Ain in the United Arab Emirates. The findings regarding lifetime prevalence and psychiatric morbidity are reported. A total of 1394 (n = 1394) adults systematically sampled from Al Ain community were assessed with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) as well with other instruments: the new screening psychiatric instrument, Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis 1 disorders (SCID) screening module. Lifetime prevalence and 1-week prevalence rates of mental distress as measured by screening instruments were estimated as well as the lifetime prevalence rate of CIDI ICD-10 psychiatric disorders. The sensitivity of the CIDI interview to correctly pick up distressed subjects, as well as those who had undergone previous treatment for a psychiatric disorder, was also calculated. Associations between socio-demographic risk factors and ICD-10 psychiatric disorder as well as with mental distress were also examined by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Overall lifetime prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorder was found to be 8.2% (95% CI: 6.7-9.7), while the 1-week prevalence rate of mental distress as measured by the SRQ-20 was 15.6% (95% CI: 11.8-19.5) and the lifetime prevalence rate of mental distress as measured by the new screening instrument was 18.9% (95% CI: 11.5-25.9). The CIDI interview correctly picked up 42% of subjects who had received previous psychiatric treatment and 51% of the distressed. Mood disorders and anxiety (neurotic) disorders were more common in women and alcohol and substance use

  9. Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among medical students entering clinical training: a three year prospective questionnaire and interview-based study

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    Runeson Bo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental distress among medical students is often reported. Burnout has not been studied frequently and studies using interviewer-rated diagnoses as outcomes are rarely employed. The objective of this prospective study of medical students was to examine clinically significant psychiatric morbidity and burnout at 3rd year of medical school, considering personality and study conditions measured at 1st year. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 127 first year medical students who were then followed-up at 3rd year of medical school. Eighty-one of 3rd year respondents participated in a diagnostic interview. Personality (HP5-i and Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE-scale were assessed at first year, Study conditions (HESI, Burnout (OLBI, Depression (MDI at 1st and 3rd years. Diagnostic interviews (MINI were used at 3rd year to assess psychiatric morbidity. High and low burnout at 3rd year was defined by cluster analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of high burnout and psychiatric morbidity, controlling for gender. Results 98 (77% responded on both occasions, 80 (63% of these were interviewed. High burnout was predicted by Impulsivity trait, Depressive symptoms at 1st year and Financial concerns at 1st year. When controlling for 3rd year study conditions, Impulsivity and concurrent Workload remained. Of the interviewed sample 21 (27% had a psychiatric diagnosis, 6 of whom had sought help. Unadjusted analyses showed that psychiatric morbidity was predicted by high Performance-based self-esteem, Disengagement and Depression at 1st year, only the later remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is common in medical students but few seek help. Burnout has individual as well as environmental explanations and to avoid it, organisational as well as individual interventions may be needed. Early signs of depressive symptoms in medical students may be important to address. Students

  10. Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among medical students entering clinical training: a three year prospective questionnaire and interview-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Marie E; Runeson, Bo

    2007-04-12

    Mental distress among medical students is often reported. Burnout has not been studied frequently and studies using interviewer-rated diagnoses as outcomes are rarely employed. The objective of this prospective study of medical students was to examine clinically significant psychiatric morbidity and burnout at 3rd year of medical school, considering personality and study conditions measured at 1st year. Questionnaires were sent to 127 first year medical students who were then followed-up at 3rd year of medical school. Eighty-one of 3rd year respondents participated in a diagnostic interview. Personality (HP5-i) and Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE-scale) were assessed at first year, Study conditions (HESI), Burnout (OLBI), Depression (MDI) at 1st and 3rd years. Diagnostic interviews (MINI) were used at 3rd year to assess psychiatric morbidity. High and low burnout at 3rd year was defined by cluster analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of high burnout and psychiatric morbidity, controlling for gender. 98 (77%) responded on both occasions, 80 (63%) of these were interviewed. High burnout was predicted by Impulsivity trait, Depressive symptoms at 1st year and Financial concerns at 1st year. When controlling for 3rd year study conditions, Impulsivity and concurrent Workload remained. Of the interviewed sample 21 (27%) had a psychiatric diagnosis, 6 of whom had sought help. Unadjusted analyses showed that psychiatric morbidity was predicted by high Performance-based self-esteem, Disengagement and Depression at 1st year, only the later remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Psychiatric morbidity is common in medical students but few seek help. Burnout has individual as well as environmental explanations and to avoid it, organisational as well as individual interventions may be needed. Early signs of depressive symptoms in medical students may be important to address. Students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities

  11. Smoking and psychiatric disorders: a comorbidity survey

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    Lopes F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between smoking and psychiatric disorders. To investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking, 277 psychiatric outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders (DSM-IV answered a self-evaluation questionnaire about smoking behavior and were compared with a group of 68 control subjects. The diagnoses (N = 262 were: 30.2% (N = 79 major depressive disorder, 23.3% (N = 61 panic disorder, 15.6% (N = 41 social anxiety disorder, 7.3% (N = 19 other anxiety disorders, and 23.7% (N = 62 comorbidity disorders. Among them, 26.3% (N = 69 were smokers, 23.7% (N = 62 were former smokers and 50.0% (N = 131 were nonsmokers. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the smokers was 59.0% (DSM-IV. The frequency of cigarette smoking did not show any significant difference among the five classes of diagnosis. The social anxiety disorder patients were the heaviest smokers (75.0%, with more unsuccessful attempts to stop smoking (89.0%. The frequency of former smokers was significantly higher among older subjects and nonsmokers were significantly younger (chi² = 9.13, d.f. = 2, P = 0.01. Our data present some clinical implications suggesting that in our psychiatric outpatient sample with anxiety disorder, major depression and comorbidity (anxiety disorder and major depression, the frequency of cigarette smoking did not differ from the frequency found in the control group or in general population studies. Some specific features of our population (outpatients, anxiety and depressive disorders might be responsible for these results.

  12. Adolescents and Adults with Autism with and without Co-Morbid Psychiatric Disorders: Differences in Maternal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Sheilah R.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between the characteristics of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and maternal well-being. Two groups were compared: mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD and co-morbid psychiatric disorders (n = 142) and mothers whose sons or daughters had a single diagnosis of ASD (n = 130).…

  13. Physical morbidity in elderly psychiatric inpatients: prevalence and possible relations between the major mental disorders and physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamis, D; Ball, C

    2000-03-01

    This study examines the prevalence of physical morbidity in elderly psychiatric inpatients and the possible relationships between major psychiatric disorders (organic mental disorders, schizophrenic and mood disorders) and physical illnesses. The clinical implications of such relationships are discussed. Data were obtained from two old age psychiatry wards over a six month period. Seventy-nine subjects were studied and information was obtained from their medical files. Demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnosis, number of physical illnesses and number of body systems affected were collected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the psychiatric groups on continuous outcome data and chi(2) test to compare psychiatric groups on categorical data. Seventy-five per cent of subjects had at least one physical illness. The number of medical illnesses was independent from the psychiatric disorder. Subjects with mood disorders, and especially depression, were more likely to suffer from hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular illnesses than subjects with schizophrenic or organic disorders. Subjects with organic disorders had the lowest prevalence of endocrine disease and diabetes. It was concluded the link between mood disorders (depression), cardiovascular diseases and hypertension could be of a 'cause/effect' type or are the results of a survivor effect. The high prevalence of physical morbidity has implications for training and continuing professional development of those in Old Age Psychiatry Services. It should also be taken into consideration when the location of services is being decided.

  14. Chronic pain and psychiatric morbidity: a comparison between patients attending specialist orthopedics clinic and multidisciplinary pain clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing S; Chen, Phoon P; Yap, Jackequaline; Mak, Kan Hing; Tam, Barry Ka H; Fielding, Richard

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between chronic pain and psychiatric morbidity using interview-based assessments of psychiatric symptomatology. We compared the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD; consistent with neurotic and somatic symptoms, fatigue, and negative affect), depression, and anxiety disorder(s), and associated factors with these psychiatric illnesses among Chinese patients with chronic pain attending specialist orthopedics clinic and multidisciplinary pain clinic. A total of 370 patients with chronic pain were recruited from an Orthopedics Clinic (N=185) and a Pain Clinic (N=185) in Hong Kong. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Individual scores for neurotic symptoms and neurotic disorders (including depression and four types of anxiety disorders) were also calculated. The reported lifetime prevalence rates of CMD were 35.3% and 75.3% for the Orthopedics and Pain Clinic samples, respectively. Rates of depression and anxiety disorders in the Pain Clinic (57.1% and 23.2%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the Orthopedics sample (20.2% and 5.9%, respectively) (all P<0.001). Pain characteristics including number of pain sites, pain duration, pain intensity, and pain interference were all significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Pain duration and litigation/compensation status consistently predicted concurrent pain intensity and disability. Chronic pain is associated with psychiatric morbidity. The higher rate of depression than anxiety disorder(s) among patients with chronic pain is consistent with previous studies that have found depression to be highly prevalent in chronic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Psychiatric disorders in a Dutch Health Area: a repeated cross-sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.H.; Mulder, J.; Furer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decades of psychiatric epidemiology have shown a wide variation in prevalence rates, but a consistent relationship between psychiatric disorder and sociodemographic variables. In this repeated cross-sectional survey, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their distribution in the

  16. Prevalence and co-morbidity among anxiety disorders in a national cohort of psychiatrically referred children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hoeyer, Mette; Dyrborg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from...... a database containing 83% of all youth referred from 2004 to 2007 (N=13,241). A prevalence of 5.7% of anxiety disorder was found in the sample. Homotypic co-morbidity was found in only 2.8%, whereas heterotypic co-morbidity was found in 42.9% of the cohort. A total of 73.6% had a principal anxiety disorder...... as opposed to 26.4% who had other principal diagnoses and a secondary anxiety disorder. The national database not only provides a valuable prevalence estimate of anxiety disorders in every-day non-research psychiatric settings, but also highlights the importance of applying standardized screening instruments...

  17. Systematic Review of Interventions to Reduce Psychiatric Morbidity in Parents and Children After PICU Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Samantha C; Gledhill, Julia A

    2017-04-01

    To describe and evaluate interventions aimed at reducing psychiatric morbidity in parents and children discharged from PICU. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken, searching EMBASE, PSYCHinfo, MEDLINE, and CINAHL. Experts in the field were contacted to identify unpublished studies. Exclusion criteria: Studies with participants above age 18 or drawn from a neonatal ICU, studies not in English, and those not measuring psychopathology. Seven hundred fifty-three articles initially identified were hand searched which identified three studies, with a further three studies found by contacting experts in the field. Of these, three were randomized controlled trials and three feasibility studies. The interventions primarily targeted parents (particularly mothers), with the aim of reducing psychopathology especially posttraumatic stress disorder. Findings from these few studies demonstrated that interventions can lead to a reduction in parent and child psychopathology. Key ingredients of these interventions included psychoeducation, parent support after discharge, offering intervention to those families at high risk of developing psychopathology as identified by screening at the point of discharge, follow-up of all families with the aim of case finding, and specific interventions to target posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Intervention studies are few but do lead to reductions in parent and child psychopathology. There is sufficient information to suggest some of these interventions could be supported and further evaluated.

  18. Factors Affecting Physical and Psychiatric Morbidity in Civilian Extremity Injuries of Firearms

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    Ahmet Aslan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: Shoutgun injuries are one of the most important social and medical problems of our country. Shotguns produce a wide variety of injuries, ranging from minor pellet wounds to major blast injuries and the extremities are the most commonly injured areas. Although ballistic and clinical differences exist, shotgun injuries are generally classified together with pistol injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal and neurovascular system injuries and to determine the the effects of physical and psychiatric morbidity in pistol bullet and shotgun pellet injuries. Patients and method: The records of 46 patients treated between January 2009-January 2011 with firearm injuries and who were followed for one year were reviewed. Injuries were classified according to the classification of Sherman. Trauma severity was evaluated with the severity of the injury score (ISS. Anxiety and depression scores were evaluated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale. All patients were evaluated with Daily Living Activities (ADL score in terms of quality of life and activities. Results: 27 of 46 patients had shotgun injuries and 19 of 46 had revolver injuries. The mean age was 34.70 ± 14.71, males (82.6% were commonly injured and lower limb injuries (52.2% were the most common injuries. Patients (58.7% were commonly injured wih shotgun and type 3 was the most common injury type (22/46. ISS, HAD and ADL scores were not found significantly different between shotgun and pistol groups in terms of age, gender, type of injury, morbidity, mortality, complications, duration of hospitalization and bone fractures, (p> 0.05. However, there were not any significant difference in HAD scores according to the type of injury; ISS (p = 0.016 and ADL (p = 0.025 scores were significantly different between injury types. Discussion: This study revealed no significant difference between the effects of different weapons on

  19. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

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    Magklara Konstantina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R, while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization

  20. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic

  1. Psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia: cross sectional epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R.; Graham, P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the prevalence and predictors of psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia. DESIGN--Cross sectional questionnaire survey of an epidemiological sample with individual assessments of a representative subgroup. The questionnaire survey was repeated on school age subjects four years later. SUBJECTS--428 hemiplegic children age 2 1/2-16 years, of whom 149 (aged 6-10 years) were individually assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Psychiatric symptom scores and the occurrence of psychiatric disorder. RESULTS--Psychiatric disorders affected 61% (95% confidence interval 53% to 69%) of subjects as judged by individual assessments and 54% (49% to 59%) and 42% (37% to 47%) as judged from parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Few affected children had been in contact with child mental health services. The strongest consistent predictor of psychiatric problems was intelligence quotient (IQ), which was highly correlated with an index of neurological severity; age, sex, and laterality of lesion had little or no predictive power. CONCLUSION--Though most hemiplegic children have considerable emotional or behavioural difficulties, these psychological complications commonly go unrecognised or untreated. Comprehensive health provision for children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders such as hemiplegia should be psychologically as well as physically oriented. PMID:8616413

  2. Phenomenology and predisposing factors of morbid jealousy in a psychiatric outdoor: a cross-sectional, descriptive study

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    Satyajeet Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jealousy in a sexual relation has some advantage that it ensures propagation of one’s own gene as put by evolutionary psychologists. However, if this belief is based on unfounded evidence it may impair the relationship between partners and may be extremely distressful. Morbid jealousy may present as obsession, overvalued idea, or delusion as one of the symptoms in different psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of the study was to find the frequency of patients with morbid jealousy presenting in the Department of Psychiatry of Patna Medical College and Hospital (PMCH, the psychiatric diagnoses of such patients, frequency of different forms of morbid jealousy (obsession, overvalued idea, and delusion. Also, to assess predisposing or triggering factors for jealousy and to assess for suicidality in such patients and their partners. Materials and methods: All patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, PMCH were administered a screening questionnaire and if they qualified they were further administered the operational criteria for morbid jealousy. The psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed with the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: Diagnostic Criteria for Research (ICD-10: DCR. Each patient was then administered a rating scale to quantify the psychopathology. Results: Out of 970 patients who attended outpatient department, 658 patients were administered the screening questionnaire, 174 qualified who were later assessed with the operational criteria for morbid jealousy. Fifty patients who fulfilled the criteria were assessed. The mean age of presentation for both sexes were 36.44 year (SD=13.12 years. Morbid jealousy was found to be twice as common in males as compared in females. Highest prevalence was found among participants who had higher secondary education, belonged to middle socioeconomic status, and having psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia followed by

  3. Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.

  4. Psychiatric morbidity, phenomenology and management in hospitalized female foreign domestic workers in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahreddine, Nada; Hady, Rima Talaat; Chammai, Rabih; Kazour, François; Hachem, Dory; Richa, Sami

    2014-07-01

    40 million female domestic workers worldwide experience the inhumane conditions associated with this unregulated occupation, a situation that induces psychiatric morbidities in many. The case in Lebanon is not any better where it is estimated that one foreign domestic worker (FDW) commits suicide weekly. 33 female FDW and 14 female Lebanese (control group, CG) were enrolled. Brief Psychotic Rating Scale (BPRS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales were administered on admission and discharge and socio-demographic, living conditions, mental health care data and phenomenological observations were collected. Sexual, physical, and verbal abuses were detected in FDW (12.5, 37.5, and 50.0 %. respectively). 66.7 % of them were diagnosed with brief psychotic episode. The mean duration of hospital stay (13.1 days) was significantly lower in the FDW group. The mean cumulative antipsychotic dose of the FDW was 337.1 mg of chlorpromazine equivalent and the mean BPRS total pre-score of FDW was 66.4 with a much improved state on the CGI global improvement scale, all of which were nonsignificantly different from the CG. Striking phenomenological findings among FDW were acute anorexia (39.4 %), nudity (30.3 %), catatonic features (21.2 %), and delusion of pregnancy (12.1 %). Inpatient FDW are more diagnosed with psychotic than affective disorders and receive approximately similar treatment as controls in spite of the trend to rapidly discharge and deport the worker to limit the costs. Both groups presented with similar severity, although the FDW had peculiar phenomenological observations.

  5. The impact of trauma exposure characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung Chung, Man; AlQarni, Nowf; AlMazrouei, Mariam; Al Muhairi, Shamsa; Shakra, Mudar; Mitchell, Britt; Al Mazrouei, Sara; Al Hashimi, Shurooq

    2017-10-25

    This study investigated the impact of trauma exposure characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees. One thousand one hundred and ninety-seven refugees residing in Turkey and Sweden participated in the research. They completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire-28. Forty-three percent of refugees met the cutoff for PTSD. After adjusting for location of residence, witnessing horror and exposure to life threat and assault were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity respectively. Death of, or life threat to family members or friends were significantly correlated with both distress outcomes. Refugees residing in Turkey had significantly higher levels of PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and trauma characteristics than those living in Sweden. To conclude, Syrian refugees who witnessed horror, life threat or had family or friends die, tended to have elevated psychological distress. Levels of distress among resettled refugees can vary depending on country of resettlement. We recommend systematic mental health screening and implementation of psychotherapeutic interventions to address issues pertaining to subjective experience of resettlement and trauma exposure for Syrian refugees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. POSTGRADUATE PSYCHIATRIC TEACHING CENTRES: FINDINGS OF A SURVEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhara, P.

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY A survey by a questionnaire method was undertaken to enquire about the facilities, the level of medical and non-medical staffing, structure and functioning of psychiatric teaching centres offering teaching and training in psychiatry at postgraduate level. The results of the survey are presented and discussed. It is evident that postgraduate teaching centres are inadequately staffed and poorly equipped. The implications of these vis-a-vis teaching and training and effective participation in the implementation of National Mental Health Programme are commented upon. PMID:21927107

  7. Psychiatric Morbidity among Elderly People Living in Old Age Homes and in the Community: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disorders such as depression, anxiety, cognitive and psychotic disorders have a high prevalence among elderly. There is some preliminary evidence that life in old age homes is perceived by inmates as more supportive, though the issue is not well studied. Aim: This project is directed towards studying and comparing the psychiatric morbidity and quality of life of elderly people residing in two unique settings: community and old age homes. Method: It is a cross-sectional study where the elderly subjects, 50 each in both the groups, were selected by simple random sampling technique and assessed on Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE, Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in Elderly (IQCODE, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Quality of life visual analogue scale. Result: On comparison using suitable statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in the total scores on MMSE, IQCODE and quality of life scale across the groups. Depression was present in 22% of people in the community and 36% of old age home inmates. Psychosis was present in 26% of people in the community and 20% of old age home inmates. Conclusion: The psychiatric morbidity is high in elderly irrespective of the setting in which they live.

  8. Mentoring in psychiatric residency programs: a survey of chief residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Lea DeFrancisci; Wood, William C; Petkova, Eva; Shatkin, Jess

    2009-01-01

    Mentorship is an important component of graduate education. This study assessed the perceptions of general psychiatry chief residents regarding the adequacy of mentorship provided during training. The authors surveyed 229 chief residents participating in the APA National Chief Residents Leadership Program in 2004 and 2005. The survey assessed domains such as work hours, didactics, home and family life, and mentorship. Of the chief psychiatric residents surveyed, 49% reported that they did not have a clearly defined career development mentor, and 39% reported that they did not feel adequately mentored. Gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, moonlighting, medical school (American versus international), and type of residency program (academic versus community based) did not show significant association with either "having a clearly defined mentor" or "feeling adequately mentored," based on chi-squared tests for independence. Chief residents who had authored peer-reviewed publications were significantly more likely to report having a clearly defined mentor and to feel adequately mentored than those who did not author publications. Logistic regression analysis showed that having a clearly defined mentor was associated with twice the odds for feeling well prepared to practice psychiatry upon graduation compared with those who did not have a clearly defined mentor, even after controlling for gender, race, medical school, and residency program type. Half of the psychiatric chief residents surveyed reported the lack of a clearly defined career development mentor. In addition, a chief resident's response of lacking a clear mentor was associated with the perception of being less prepared to practice psychiatry upon graduation. Psychiatric residency training programs may benefit from further clarification and implementation of effective mentorship programs.

  9. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use – a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F.; Gonet-Wirz, Franca; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E.; Huber, Christian G.

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N = 2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either depicted psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution the fictitious character had been admitted to. Between the vignettes, type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied. Perceived dangerousness was significantly lower as related to psychiatric service use than related to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and male gender of the fictitious character tend to increase perceived dangerousness. Furthermore, being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital or the rater being familiar with psychiatric services tends to decrease perceived dangerousness. Effective anti-stigma initiatives should integrate education about dangerousness as well as methods to increase familiarity with psychiatry. Additionally, an integration of modern psychiatry in somato-medical care institutions might decrease stigmatization. PMID:28367993

  10. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use - a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F; Gonet-Wirz, Franca; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G

    2017-04-03

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N = 2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either depicted psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution the fictitious character had been admitted to. Between the vignettes, type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied. Perceived dangerousness was significantly lower as related to psychiatric service use than related to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and male gender of the fictitious character tend to increase perceived dangerousness. Furthermore, being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital or the rater being familiar with psychiatric services tends to decrease perceived dangerousness. Effective anti-stigma initiatives should integrate education about dangerousness as well as methods to increase familiarity with psychiatry. Additionally, an integration of modern psychiatry in somato-medical care institutions might decrease stigmatization.

  11. Psychiatric Morbidity, Violent Crime, and Suicide among Children and Adolescents Exposed to Parental Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C.; Kuramoto, Satoko J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Langstrom, Niklas; Brent, David A.; Runeson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective cohort study examined the risk for suicide, psychiatric hospitalization, and violent criminal convictions among offspring of parents who died from suicide, accidents, and other causes. Method: Population-based data from multiple Swedish national registers were linked from 1969 to 2004. Participants were 44,397…

  12. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  13. Identification of clinically significant psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity by examining quality of life in subjects with occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzo Heberto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Juniper Asthma Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S is a questionnaire that allows measurement of disease specific quality of life. We wanted to examine correlations between the (AQLQ(S general and different subscale scores and both psychiatric morbidity and levels of psychological distress in individuals with occupational asthma (OA and to determine if results in the emotional function subscale allow identification of individuals with clinically significant psychological distress or current psychiatric disorders. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of individuals with OA who were assessed during a re-evaluation for permanent disability, after they were no longer exposed to the sensitizing agent. Patients underwent a general sociodemographic and medical history evaluation, a brief psychiatric interview (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, PRIME-MD and completed a battery of questionnaires including the AQLQ(S, the St-Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, and the Psychiatric Symptom Index (PSI. Results There was good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.936 for the AQLQ(S total score and construct validity for the AQLQ(S (Spearman rho = -0.693 for the SGRQ symptom score and rho = -0.650 for the asthma severity score. There were medium to large correlations between the total score of the AQLQ(S and the SGRQ symptom score (r = -.693, and PSI total (r = -.619 and subscale scores (including depression, r = -.419; anxiety, r = -.664; anger, r = -.367; cognitive disturbances, r = -.419. A cut-off of 5.1 on the AQLQ(S emotional function subscale (where 0 = high impairment and 7 = no impairment had the best discriminative value to distinguish individuals with or without clinically significant psychiatric distress according to the PSI, and a cut-off of 4.7 best distinguished individuals with or without a current psychiatric disorder according to the PRIME-MD. Conclusions Impaired quality of life is

  14. Psychiatric co-morbidities and cardiovascular risk factors in people with lifetime history of epilepsy of an urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Jan; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2012-01-01

    Depression has been consistently reported in people with epilepsy. Several studies also suggest a higher burden of cardiovascular diseases. We therefore analysed psychosocial co-morbidity and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with a lifetime history of epilepsy in the PsyCoLaus study, a Swiss urban population-based assessment of mental health and cardiovascular risk factors in adults aged between 35 and 66 years. Among 3719 participants in the PsyCoLaus study, we retrospectively identified those reporting at least 2 unprovoked seizures, defined as epilepsy. These subjects were compared to all others regarding psychiatric, social, and cardiovascular risk factors data using uni- and multivariable assessments. A significant higher need for social help (phistory of epilepsy and 3676 controls, while a higher prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidities (p=0.015) and a lower prevalent marital status (p=0.01) were only significant on univariate analyses. Depression and cardio-vascular risk factors, as well as educational level and employment, were similar among the groups. This analysis confirms an increased prevalence of psychosocial burden in subjects with a lifetime history of epilepsy; conversely, we did not find a higher cardiovascular risk. The specific urban and geographical location of our cohort and the age span of the studied population may account for the differences from previous studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating the Impact of Past Trauma and Defense Styles on Posttraumatic Stress Following Homicide and Psychiatric Co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaohua; Chung, Man Cheung; Wan, King Hung

    2017-10-30

    To examine the prevalence of PTSD following homicide and investigate the relationship between PTSD from past traumas, defense styles and PTSD following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. 167 male homicide perpetrators participated in the study and completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the General Health Questionnaire-28 and the Defense Styles Questionnaire. 45% met the criteria for PTSD following homicide and 55% for no-PTSD. With the number of times for imprisonment adjusted, regression analyses showed that immature defense style was associated with PTSD following homicide with the severity of PTSD from past traumas as a moderator. Neurotic and immature defense styles and PTSD from past trauma were significantly and independently associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators could develop PTSD following homicide. The severity of PTSD from past traumas could affect PTSD following homicide and other psychological problems, and influence the effect of using immature defense against PTSD from homicide. Past trauma, immature and neurotic defense styles had a unique and specific pattern of influence on psychological symptoms, other than trauma symptoms.

  16. Psychiatric disorders in a Dutch Health Area: a repeated cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Mulder, J.; Furer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Decades of psychiatric epidemiology have shown a wide variation in prevalence rates. but a consistent relationship U between psychiatric disorder and sociodemographic variables. In this repeated cross-sectional survey. the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their distribution in the

  17. Sexually transmitted infections among pregnant heroin- or cocaine-addicted women in treatment: the significance of psychiatric co-morbidity and sex trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, C E; Hedden, S L; Latimer, W W

    2010-02-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidity and sex trade were tested as correlates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 76 pregnant heroin- or cocaine-dependent women. Participants were recruited from a drug treatment programme and attended a clinician-administered assessment including the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV-TR) and self-report questionnaires about lifetime histories of sex trade and STIs (i.e. gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts or trichomonas). Lifetime and six month rates of STIs were 53.9% and 18.4%, respectively. The majority of women also had lifetime histories of psychiatric co-morbidity (61.8%) and/or sex trade (60.5%). Participants with psychiatric co-morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-11.6) and/or sex trade (AOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.1-9.5) were more likely to report STIs during their lifetime compared with those without such histories while controlling for age, education and race/ethnicity. Results suggest that as many as one-in-five pregnant heroin- or cocaine-dependent women in treatment have one or more STIs that are concurrent with their pregnancy and may contribute to risk for contracting HIV and pregnancy complications; psychiatric co-morbidity and/or sex trade were associated with greater STI risk. Findings underscore the importance of identifying and addressing co-morbid psychiatric disorders and sex trade behaviour in this population.

  18. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use ? a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Julia F. Sowislo; Franca Gonet-Wirz; Stefan Borgwardt; Lang, Undine E.; Christian G. Huber

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N?=?2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either d...

  19. App Use in Psychiatric Education: A Medical Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cecilia; Kolli, Venkata

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study is to understand and appraise app use by medical students during their clerkships. Following Creighton University IRB approval, a voluntary and anonymous paper-based, 15-question survey was distributed to third-year medical students. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Of 112 medical students available, 76.7% (86) participated in the survey. All participants owned a smartphone or tablet with 84.9% using Apple iOS, followed by 12.8% using Android platform. Students reported using the fewest number of apps during surgery, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology clerkships. The largest number of apps were used during the internal medicine rotation (70.3%). The three most popular apps were Epocrates, UpToDate, and UWorld. The most common uses for these apps were as references during the clerkship, followed by improving knowledge, and test taking. Perceived major benefits included accessibility (96% of student respondents) and interactivity (39.5%). Common apps used during the psychiatry clerkship included UpToDate (71%), Epocrates (51%), and Medscape (43%). Despite less frequent app use during their psychiatry clerkship, 90% felt there was a utility for educational apps in psychiatric education. Consistent with the previous literature on medical students preferring educational apps, students suggest developers focus on question bank-type apps, followed by clinical support-focused and self-directed case-based learning apps for psychiatry clerkship learning. Educators should factor these modes of educational delivery into future educational app development. This survey shows a high degree of smartphone and tablet use among medical students, and they attest to mobile phone app utility in psychiatric education.

  20. A study of phenomenology, psychiatric co-morbidities, social and adaptive functioning in children and adolescents with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Yaduvanshi, Rakesh; Arya, Amit; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Sitholey, Prabhat

    2016-08-01

    To study the phenomenology, social, adaptive and global functioning of children and adolescents with OCD. Studies have shown varying prevalence of paediatric OCD ranging from 1% to 4%. Childhood-onset OCD have some important differences in sex distribution, presentation, co-morbidities and insight. 25 subjects (6 to ≤18 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of OCD were included in this study. Subjects were evaluated using K-SADS-PL, Children's Y-BOCS, HoNOSCA, C-GAS and VABS-II. The mean age of the sample was 14.9±2.2 years. Obsession of contamination was commonest (68%) followed by aggressive obsession (60%); commonest compulsions were washing and cleaning (72%) followed by checking (56%). Most distressing obsessions were obsession of doubt about their decision (28%), having horrible thoughts about their family being hurt (20%) and thought that something terrible is going to happen and it will be their fault (16%). Most subjects rate spending far too much time in washing hands (60%) as most distressing compulsion, followed by rewriting and checking compulsions (both 12%). 76% subjects have co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis. Anxiety disorders (24%), depression (16%), and dissociative disorder (16%) were common co-morbidities. Mean C-GAS score of the sample was 53.2±9.9. 44% of subjects had below average adaptive functioning. The study shows that, most frequent obsessions and compulsions may be different from most distressing ones and this finding might have clinical implication. Most of the children and adolescent with OCD have co-morbidities. Children also had problems in adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of self-efficacy, alexithymia and multiple traumas on posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizures: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Allen, Rachel D; Dennis, Ian

    2013-12-30

    This study investigated the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizure, whether alexithymia mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and psychiatric outcomes, and whether the mediational effect was moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas. Seventy-one (M=31, F=40) people with a diagnosis of epilepsy recruited from support groups in the United Kingdom completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. They were compared with 71 people (M=29, F=42) without epilepsy. For people with epilepsy, 51% and 22% met the diagnostic criteria for post-epileptic seizure PTSD and for PTSD following one other traumatic life event respectively. For the control group, 24% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD following other traumatic life events. The epilepsy group reported significantly more anxiety and depression than the control. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis showed that self-efficacy was significantly correlated with alexithymia, post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Alexithymia was also significantly correlated with post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Mediation analyses confirmed that alexithymia mediated the path between self-efficacy and post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Moderated mediation also confirmed that self-efficacy and PTSD from one other trauma moderated the effect of alexithymia on outcomes. To conclude, people can develop posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizure. These psychiatric outcomes are closely linked with their belief in personal competence to deal with stressful situations and regulate their own functioning, to process rather than defend against distressing emotions, and with the degree of PTSD from other traumas. © 2013 Elsevier

  2. Prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in treatment-seeking problem gamblers: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Jackson, Alun C; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Francis, Kate L; Christensen, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper was to systematically review and meta-analyse the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV Axis I disorders) among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for peer-reviewed studies that provided prevalence estimates of Axis I psychiatric disorders in individuals seeking psychological or pharmacological treatment for problem gambling (including pathological gambling). Meta-analytic techniques were performed to estimate the weighted mean effect size and heterogeneity across studies. Results: Results from 36 studies identified high rates of co-morbid current (74.8%, 95% CI 36.5–93.9) and lifetime (75.5%, 95% CI 46.5–91.8) Axis I disorders. There were high rates of current mood disorders (23.1%, 95% CI 14.9–34.0), alcohol use disorders (21.2%, 95% CI 15.6–28.1), anxiety disorders (17.6%, 95% CI 10.8–27.3) and substance (non-alcohol) use disorders (7.0%, 95% CI 1.7–24.9). Specifically, the highest mean prevalence of current psychiatric disorders was for nicotine dependence (56.4%, 95% CI 35.7–75.2) and major depressive disorder (29.9%, 95% CI 20.5–41.3), with smaller estimates for alcohol abuse (18.2%, 95% CI 13.4–24.2), alcohol dependence (15.2%, 95% CI 10.2–22.0), social phobia (14.9%, 95% CI 2.0–59.8), generalised anxiety disorder (14.4%, 95% CI 3.9–40.8), panic disorder (13.7%, 95% CI 6.7–26.0), post-traumatic stress disorder (12.3%, 95% CI 3.4–35.7), cannabis use disorder (11.5%, 95% CI 4.8–25.0), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (9.3%, 95% CI 4.1–19.6), adjustment disorder (9.2%, 95% CI 4.8–17.2), bipolar disorder (8.8%, 95% CI 4.4–17.1) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (8.2%, 95% CI 3.4–18.6). There were no consistent patterns according to gambling problem severity, type of treatment facility and study jurisdiction. Although these estimates were robust to the inclusion of studies with non-representative sampling biases, they should

  3. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Kruuse, Christina; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2017-04-01

    Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students at risk of later psychiatric events. Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves for unadjusted associations and multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard analyses for adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). We identified 12,147 healthy students with exam-related beta-blocker use and 12,147 matched healthy students with no current or prior use of beta-blockers (median age, 19 years; 80.3% women). Among all healthy students, 0.14% had a first-time prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period with the highest proportion among students aged 19 years (0.39%). Eighty-one percent of the students filled only that single prescription for a beta-blocker during follow-up. During follow-up, 2225 (18.3%) beta-blocker users and 1400 (11.5%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed an antidepressant (p Exam-related beta-blocker use was associated with an increased risk of antidepressant use (adjusted HRs, 1.68 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.57-1.79], p exam period was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric outcomes and might identify psychologically vulnerable students who need special attention.

  4. Psychiatric morbidity of overseas patients in inner London: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parshall Alice M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the referral, admission, treatment, and outcome of overseas patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in central London. Ethical, legal and economic implications, and the involvement of consulates in the admission process, are discussed. Method Assessment and review of overseas patients admitted between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. Non-parametric statistical tests were used, and relevant outcomes described. Results 19% of admissions were overseas patients. Mean age was 38 years. 90% were unattached; 84% were white, 71% from European countries. 45% spoke fluent English. Differences in socio-economic status between home country and England were found. 74% were unwell on arrival; 65% travelled to England as tourists. 65% of admissions came via the police. 32% had been ill for more than one year before admission; 68% had psychiatric history. 77% were admitted and 48% discharged under section of the Mental Health Act. 74% had psychotic disorders, all of them with positive symptoms. 55% showed little to moderate improvement in mental state; 10% were on Enhanced Care Programme Approach. Relatives of 48% of patients were contacted. The Hospital repatriated 52% of patients; the Mental Health Team followed up 13% of those discharged. The average length of admission was 43.4 days (range 1–365. Total cost of admissions was GBP350, 600 ($577, 490; average individual cost was GBP11, 116 (range GBP200-81, 000. Conclusions Mentally ill overseas individuals are a vulnerable group that need recognition by health organisations to adapt current practice to better serve their needs. The involvement of consulates needs further evaluation.

  5. Complaints of stress in young soldiers strongly predispose to psychiatric morbidity and mortality: Danish national cohort study with 10-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hageman, I.; Pinborg, A.; Andersen, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Serving military can be regarded as exposure to a moderate enforced stressor independent of other vulnerability factors. The aims of this study were i) to explore psychiatric morbidity and mortality during 10 years of follow-up in a cohort of healthy adolescent Danish conscripts and ii......) to investigate whether stress-related disorders precede other psychiatric disorders. Method: Controlled national cohort study on all psychiatric hospital contacts in young men referred to the Military Psychiatric Department (MPD) with 10 years of follow-up. Results: During the follow-up period, 24% of conscripts...... seen at the MPD were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder compared with 4% in the control cohort. Almost all diagnostic categories were over-represented but especially psychotic disorders. Mortality was substantially increased. Of subjects initially diagnosed with stress-related disorders at the MPD...

  6. Epidemiological Survey of Paediatric Ocular Morbidity in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vernal disease was the commonest ocular morbidity seen constituting 349 cases (40.3%), ocular trauma 152 (17.6%), infective conjunctivitis 106 (12.3%) and refractive errors 89 (10.2%). The location of industries (rice mills, sawmills, cement factory) away from residential areas, availability of antiallergic drugs must be ...

  7. [Psychiatric co-morbidity, body image problems and psychotherapeutic interventions for burn survivors: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Stefanie; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; de Zwaan, Martina

    2013-11-01

    Due to progress in burn treatment, more patients even with severe burn injuries survive. Despite this positive development, however, there are still negative somatic and mental consequences. These include the life-long care of scars and pain. In addition, posttraumatic-stress disorder and depression are common consequences. Also distress due to disfigurement and body image problems have to be considered, since this is likely to result in social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and reduction of quality of life. Overall, the impact of mental strain on burn victims is quite high. Therefore, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches should be integrated into the care of patients with burns. This might be helpful for both coping and compliance with long-term treatment. This paper provides a review of the mental co-morbidity of burn victims and of psychotherapeutic treatment approaches focusing on changes in body image and the respective social consequences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Child Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity Among Chinese Adolescents: Emotional Processing as Mediator and PTSD from Past Trauma as Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Chen, Zhuo Sheng

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity in a group of Chinese adolescents, and whether this association would be mediated by emotional processing difficulties and moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas in the past. Four hundred seventy-four adolescents participated in the study. They completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, General Health Questionnaire-28, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Emotional processing scale-25. The results showed that after adjusting for the total number of traumatic events and how long ago the most traumatic event occurred, child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. This association was not moderated by the severity of PTSD from past traumas but mediated by emotion processing difficulties. To conclude, adolescents who experience child abuse can develop emotional processing difficulties which in turn impact on psychiatric symptoms. Experience of past trauma does not influence these psychological processes.

  9. The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in the first year of medical education at a Nigerian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussuf, A D; Issa, B A; Ajiboye, P O; Buhari, O I

    2013-05-01

    This study was prompted by the heightened concerns about the stress inherent in medical education evident from the incessant requests for suspension of studies due to psychological problems. The objectives of the study were to: (i) survey the students for possible psychological problems at admission, and follow them up till exit for possible changes in morbidity, and (ii) ascertain possible risk factors, and coping strategies. This is a preliminary 2-stage cross-sectional report, which is part of a longitudinal survey. It involves first year medical students of the College of Health Sciences of University of Ilorin between March and April, 2011. Questionnaires used included socio demographic, sources of stress, the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Maslach's burnout inventory (MBI), and Brief COPE. Data were analysed using SPSS version 15 at 5% significance level. Chi-square, frequency distributions, Pearson's correlation, Odd ratios, and Confidence Intervals were calculated to determine the levels of risk. 79 students returned completed questionnaires. 12 (15.2%) were ghq-12 cases (i.e., scored ≥ 3). Students who had morbidity were 9 times at risk of being stressed consequent upon 'competing with their peers' and 4 times at risk due to 'inadequate learning materials'. Morbidity was significantly more likely to engender use of 'religion', 4 times less likely to engender use of 'positive reframing' with a trend in the use of 'self blame' as coping strategies. Aside from psychosocial/personal issues in this cohort, academic demand was an additional source of psychological problems thereby causing those who had morbidity to utilize 'religion' and 'positive reframing' to cope. There is therefore an apparent need to incorporate the principle of mental health promotion in medical education.

  10. [Introduction; questionnaire survey on postgraduate psychiatric education in the eleven Asian countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizono, Masahisa

    2003-01-01

    Postgraduate psychiatric education should be considered from the viewpoint of the interrelationship between the quality assurance of psychiatric services and postgraduate education of mental health worker, especially psychiatrist, and its constancy with undergraduate psychiatric education. Drs. N. Sartorius, N. Shinfuku, K. Maeda, A. Maruyama and M. Nishizono have conducted some questionnaire surveys on postgraduate psychiatric education in eleven Asian countries. In this symposium, some trends of postgraduate psychiatric education in Asian countries based on the survey were reported. And, actual situations and problem resolving strategies in three countries, Korea, China and Japan models were presented. This symposium was expected to join with another symposium "The Undergraduate Psychiatric Education in Asian Countries" proposed by Prof. E-H Kua.

  11. The relationships of sociodemographic factors, medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities to neurocognition in short-term abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Rothlind, Johannes C; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2008-09-01

    Co-morbidities that commonly accompany those afflicted with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may promote variability in the pattern and magnitude of neurocognitive abnormalities demonstrated. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of several common co-morbid medical conditions (primarily hypertension and hepatitis C), psychiatric (primarily unipolar mood and anxiety disorders), and substance use (primarily psychostimulant and cannabis) disorders, and chronic cigarette smoking on the neurocognitive functioning in short-term abstinent, treatment-seeking individuals with AUD. Seventy-five alcohol-dependent participants (ALC; 51+/-9 years of age; three females) completed comprehensive neurocognitive testing after approximately 1 month of abstinence. Multivariate multiple linear regression evaluated the relationships among neurocognitive variables and medical conditions, psychiatric, and substance-use disorders, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Sixty-four percent of ALC had at least one medical, psychiatric, or substance-abuse co-morbidity (excluding smoking). Smoking status (smoker or nonsmoker) and age were significant independent predictors of cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, postural stability, processing speed, and visuospatial memory after age-normed adjustment and control for estimated pre-morbid verbal intelligence, education, alcohol consumption, and medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities. Results indicated that chronic smoking accounted for a significant portion of the variance in the neurocognitive performance of this middle-aged AUD cohort. The age-related findings for ALC suggest that alcohol dependence, per se, was associated with diminished neurocognitive functioning with increasing age. The study of participants who demonstrate common co-morbidities observed in AUD is necessary to fully understand how AUD, as a clinical syndrome, affects neurocognition, brain neurobiology, and their changes with

  12. Management of Chronic Daily Headache and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities by Lifestyle Modification: Participatory Action Research Combining New Communication Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizi, Fakhrudin; Tavallaee, Abbas; Rahimi, Abolfazl; Saghafinia, Masoud

    2017-04-01

    Lifestyle modification has a significant role in chronic daily headache (CDH) management. Participatory action research (PAR) can play an important role in managing chronic medical conditions. However, it has been scarcely used in CDH management. This study aimed to empower patients with CDH to modify their lifestyle in order to reduce both their headache and related psychiatric co-morbidities in a multidisciplinary headache clinic at Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, IR Iran. In the PAR plan, 37 patients (27 females) diagnosed with CDH were selected using purposeful sampling. Along with face-to-face group sessions, all available communication means such as phone calls, emails, short message system (SMS), and social media (Telegram) were used to facilitate the process. Questionnaires of health promotion lifestyle profile (HPLPІІ), visual analog scale (VAS), and depression-anxiety-stress scale (DASS21) were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Mean age of the patients was 38.33 (± 9.7) years. Both "general pain" and "the worst imaginable pain" reduced (mean of reduction: 2.56 ± 2.7 and 2.3 ± 2.9, respectively, P 50% of pain reduction occurred in "the worst imaginable pain" category (-1.45 ± 2.02, P stress (P stress management" (17.73 ± 2.8 vs. 25.53 ± 3.9, P social media are recommended for action research to be more applicable.

  13. The Collateral Damage of Mass Incarceration: Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity Among Nonincarcerated Residents of High-Incarceration Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether residence in neighborhoods with high levels of incarceration is associated with psychiatric morbidity among nonincarcerated community members. Methods. We linked zip code-linked information on neighborhood prison admissions rates to individual-level data on mental health from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (2008-2012), a prospective probability sample of predominantly Black individuals. Results. Controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level risk factors, individuals living in neighborhoods with high prison admission rates were more likely to meet criteria for a current (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7, 5.5) and lifetime (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.4, 4.6) major depressive disorder across the 3 waves of follow-up as well as current (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0, 4.2) and lifetime (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2, 4.5) generalized anxiety disorder than were individuals living in neighborhoods with low prison admission rates. These relationships between neighborhood-level incarceration and mental health were comparable for individuals with and without a personal history of incarceration. Conclusions. Incarceration may exert collateral damage on the mental health of individuals living in high-incarceration neighborhoods, suggesting that the public mental health impact of mass incarceration extends beyond those who are incarcerated.

  14. Sociodemographic Correlates and Morbidity in Lottery Gamblers: Results from a Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Tang, Benjamin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the socio-demographic correlates, the association of mental and physical illness, and the prevalence of pathological gambling among three groups (1) those with lottery gambling only (2) those with lottery and other types of gambling and (3) those with other types of gambling only-such as playing cards, sports betting, horse racing, casino gambling etc. Data was used from a nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological nationally representative survey of the resident (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents) population in Singapore of 6616 Singaporean adults aged 18 years and older. All respondents were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen to screen for pathological gambling. The diagnoses of mental disorders were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and relevant socio-demographic data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Lottery gambling was by far the most popular form of gambling in Singapore, with 83.5 % of those who had ever gambled indicating that they had participated in lottery gambling. Those who participated in lottery gambling alone were more likely to belong to the older age group (as compared to the 18-35 years age group), be of Indian ethnicity, have a secondary or vocational education, and earn a lower income as compared to the other two groups. Our findings that those with pure lottery gambling were significantly less likely to be pathological gamblers and had significantly lower odds of psychiatric and physical morbidity as compared to the other two groups are unique and need further research.

  15. Severe MUPS in a sick-listed population: a cross-sectional study on prevalence, recognition, psychiatric co-morbidity and impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Petra C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the prevalence of MUPS in sick-listed-employees and its associations with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment. Secondary objectives were to investigate the classification of the occupational health physicians (OHPs, their opinions about the causes as well as the attributions of the employee. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 489 sick-listed employees from 5 OHP group practices, MUPS, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, the Whitely Index (WI, the Four- Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. We used a cut off score of 15 on the PHQ for the categorisation of severe MUPS. The opinions of the OHPs were evaluated by means of a separate questionnaire with regard to the presence of employees physical symptoms, and the symptoms attributions, and the diagnoses of the OHPs. Results Severe MUPS had a prevalence of 15.1% in this population of sick-listed employees. These employees had 4-6 times more depressive and anxiety disorders, and were more impaired. Female gender and PHQ-9 scores were determinants of severe MUPS. Most of the time the OHPs diagnosed employees with severe MUPS as having a mental disorder. The employees attributed their physical symptoms in 66% to mental or to both mental and physical causes. Conclusion The prevalence of severe MUPS is higher in long-term sick-listed employees than in the non-sick- listed working population and at least equals the prevalence in the general practice population. Severe MUPS are associated with

  16. A morbidity survey of South African primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Mash

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have described the burden of disease in South Africa. However these studies do not tell us which of these conditions commonly present to primary care providers, how these conditions may present and how providers make sense of them in terms of their diagnoses. Clinical nurse practitioners are the main primary care providers and need to be better prepared for this role. This study aimed to determine the range and prevalence of reasons for encounter and diagnoses found among ambulatory patients attending public sector primary care facilities in South Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was a multi-centre prospective cross-sectional survey of consultations in primary care in four provinces of South Africa: Western Cape, Limpopo, Northern Cape and North West. Consultations were coded prior to analysis by using the International Classification of Primary Care-Version 2 in terms of reasons for encounter (REF and diagnoses. Altogether 18856 consultations were included in the survey and generated 31451 reasons for encounter (RFE and 24561 diagnoses. Women accounted for 12526 (66.6% and men 6288 (33.4%. Nurses saw 16238 (86.1% and doctors 2612 (13.9% of patients. The top 80 RFE and top 25 diagnoses are reported and ongoing care for hypertension was the commonest RFE and diagnosis. The 20 commonest RFE and diagnoses by age group are also reported. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ambulatory primary care is dominated by non-communicable chronic diseases. HIV/AIDS and TB are common, but not to the extent predicted by the burden of disease. Pneumonia and gastroenteritis are commonly seen especially in children. Women's health issues such as family planning and pregnancy related visits are also common. Injuries are not as common as expected from the burden of disease. Primary care providers did not recognise mental health problems. The results should guide the future training and assessment of primary care providers.

  17. Are ENT surgeons in the UK at risk of stress, psychological morbidities and burnout? A national questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendren, Ananth; Yung, Matthew; Shiralkar, Uttam

    2016-03-15

    Work-related stress, psychological disorders and burnout are common occupational disorders affecting UK doctors. To date, there are no studies looking at these psychosocial morbidities amongst ENT surgeons worldwide. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory (aMBI) were incorporated into a questionnaire on occupational diseases amongst ENT surgeons and distributed to the entire membership of ENT-UK. The survey study also acquired demographic data on grade of respondent, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty interest. We received 108 (8.1% response rate) appropriately filled GHQ-12 and 121 (9.0% response rate) aMBI questionnaires. 61 respondents (56.5%) on the GHQ-12 were at high risk of developing stress and psychological morbidity and 35 (28.9%) had high enough aMBI scores to suggested burnout. When comparing scores of both GHQ-12 and aMBI with grade of respondent, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty, statistical difference was only found on the risk of stress and psychiatric disorders amongst paediatric ENT surgeons (7 high risk vs 0 low risk, p = 0.02), however the number of these respondents was small (7 in total). Both questionnaires had been validated for use within our population. We found high incidence rates of stress and psychological morbidity (56.5%) and a burnout prevalence rate of 28.9% amongst our responding cohort of UK Oto-rhino-laryngologists. No meaningful differences were found between stress, psychological morbidity and burnout with grade of ENT surgeon, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty within ENT. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reconsidering Co-Morbid Traits in Explanatory Models of High Dental Anxiety Using a Comparison of Psychiatric and Normal Patient Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Jensen, Christina Gundlev; Andersen, Line Bæk

    2016-01-01

    Explanatory models of co-morbid traits related to dental anxiety (DA) as described in the literature were tested and relative strengths analyzed in two groups of Danish adults, one with psychiatric diagnoses (n = 108) and the other healthy incoming patients at a large dental school teaching clinic...... (n = 151). Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and self-report measures representing three co-morbidity explanatory models, 1) presence of other fears; 2) anxiety sensitivity and 3) feelings of vulnerability specific to dental treatment, were collected in subscales of a 53-item questionnaire. Other items.......) versus lower or no anxiety. Patients with psychiatric diagnoses were three times more likely to have high DA and nearly two times more likely to have avoided dental treatment >2 yr.; 25.9% reported extreme DA, compared to 9.3% of controls. Models of high general fear levels, predisposing anxiety...

  19. Psychiatric morbidity, quality of life, and perceived social support among elderly population: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growth in the elderly population means an inevitable increase in general physical health, psychobiological and mental health-related problems. Aim of the study: The present study aims to examine psychiatric morbidity, quality of life, and perceived social support among elderly population. Research design: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted. People in age group of 60 years and above, who were permanent members of their respective households of Ranga Pukri Para and Dekargaon village in Tezpur, Sonitpur district of Assam, were the sample for the present study. One thousand four hundred and ninety adult populations had been identified as sample frame from the electorate list. One hundred and four people of age 60 years and above had been identified from the list for the study purpose. Random sampling method was used for selection of the sample. Semi-structured socio-demographic datasheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, CAGE questionnaire, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF scale were administered to the respondents. Results: Based on the GHQ-12 score, it was found that 24% of the respondents showed an indication of mental health problems and from the CAGE score, it indicated that 13% of the respondents were found to be misusing or was in dependence in alcohol. The result from the present study indicated that elderly population was getting more family social support, followed by friends and from significant others. The result indicated that the mean score was low in the domain of social relationships. Environment domain was high followed by physical health and psychological domains of WHOQOL-BREF. Conclusion: In the elderly population, overall health can be influenced by multiple factors, including a person’s physical, psychological, behavioural, and social factors. The mental health professionals can provide resources, services

  20. Prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity among abused and neglected: a cross-sectional study among child, adolescents, and adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvana R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past few decades child abuse and neglects has been only highlighted as an area of concern and has only explained lifelong mental and physical consequences rather than estimating the prevalence rates also there were gaps in child age groups in most of the previous studies in the world, especially in India. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity among those who having history of abuse and neglects in a community popu...

  1. São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey - a population-based epidemiological study of psychiatric morbidity in the São Paulo metropolitan area: aims, design and field implementation São Paulo megacity - um estudo epidemiológico de base populacional avaliando a morbidade psiquiátrica na região metropolitana de São Paulo: objetivos, desenho e implementação do trabalho de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Viana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey is a population-based cross-sectional survey of psychiatric morbidity, assessing a probabilistic sample of household residents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, aged 18 years and over. Respondents were selected from a stratified multistage clustered area probability sample of households, covering all 39 municipalities, without replacement. Respondents were assessed using the World Mental Health Survey version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI, which was translated and adapted into the Brazilian-Portuguese language. Data was collected between May 2005 and April 2007 by trained lay interviewers. The World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview comprises clinical and non-clinical sections, arranged as Part I and Part II, producing diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition, and the International Classification of Diseases - 10th Revision. Mood, anxiety, impulse-control and substance use disorders, and suicide-related behavior, considered core disorders, as well as socio-demographic information, were assessed in all respondents. Non-clinical modules and non-core clinical sections (obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, gambling, eating disorders, neurasthenia, pre-menstrual disorders, psychotic symptoms and personality traits were assessed in a sub-sample (2,942 respondents, composed by all respondents with at least one core disorder and a 25% random sample of those who were non-cases. A total of 5,037 individuals were interviewed, with a global response rate of 81.3%. Saliva samples were collected from 1,801 respondents, with DNA extracted stored pending further investigations.O Estudo Epidemiológico dos Transtornos Mentais São Paulo Megacity é um estudo de corte transversal de base populacional avaliando a morbidade psiqui

  2. Is there any difference between the early age myocardial infarction and late age myocardial infarction in terms of psychiatric morbidity in patients who have survived acute myocardial infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Avci, Ahmet; Demir, Kenan; Uygur, Ömer Faruk

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to compare the rates of psychiatric morbidity in patients who had early age and late age MI in patients who have survived acute myocardial infarction? One hundred sixteen patients who were hospitalized in the coronary care unit were included in the study. Psychiatric assessment of the patients was carried out within 1-6months post-MI. Psychiatric interviews were conducted with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I). Also used were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI). A total of 116 patients were divided into two groups according to age as an early age myocardial infarction group (EA-MI) and a late age myocardial infarction group (LA-MI). The EA-MI group included 24 patients 45years of age and under. The LA-MI group included 92 patients over 45years of age. Current psychiatric disorders, lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime depressive disorders were significantly more frequent in the EA-MI group than in the LA-MI group. EA-MI patients have experienced a depressive episode prior to the onset of the MI, whereas in the LA-MI group, the patients typically experienced depressive episodes after MI. Our findings suggest that depression may increase the risk of MI at an early age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Psychosocial adjustment, psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rosália; Teixeira, Flávio; Silva, Ana Margarida; Vaz, Cláudia; Vieira, Daniela; Proença, Cidália; Moura, Cláudia; Viana, Victor; Areias, José Carlos; Areias, Maria Emília Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to study the psychosocial adjustment (PSA), psychiatric morbidity and quality of life of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) to determine which demographic and clinical variables negatively affect adjustment and which increase resilience. The study included 74 patients with CHD, 41 male and 33 female, aged between 12 and 26 years (mean 18.76±3.86). Demographic information and a complete clinical history were obtained. The participants were interviewed regarding social support, family environment, self-image and physical limitations. A standardized psychiatric interview was conducted, and self-report questionnaires were administered for assessment of PSA (Youth Self Report and Adult Self Report) and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life - Short Version). A caregiver completed an observational version of the PSA questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist or Adult Behavior Checklist). Female participants showed more feelings of anxiety and depression (U=952.500; p=0.003), thought problems (U=929.500; p=0.005) and aggressive behavior (U=999.000; p=0.000). They also showed a higher rate of psychopathology. Patients with complex forms of CHD reported more thought problems (U=442.000; p=0.027) and internalization (U=429.000; p=0.021). Compared to the Portuguese population as a whole, participants showed better quality of life in the domains of social relationships (t=2.333; p=0.022) and environment (t=3.754; p=0.000). Patients who had undergone surgery had worse quality of life in physical terms (t=-1.989; p=0.050), social relationships (t=-2.012; p=0.048) and general quality of life (U=563.000; p=0.037), compared to those who were not operated. Better social support was associated with better quality of life in physical terms (t=3.287; p=0.002) and social relationships (t=3.669; p=0.000). Better school performance was also associated with better overall quality of life (U=457.000; p=0.046), less withdrawn behavior

  4. [Multisystemic therapy for child abuse and neglect (MST-CAN): description of the treatment, psychiatric morbidity, and the psychiatrist's role].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, F N; Brand-De Wilde, O M; van der Rijken, R E A

    2015-01-01

    Many untreated psychiatric problems occur in families where there is child abuse. It is very important to find ways of ensuring that the hard-to-reach families receive adequate psychiatric assessment and appropriate treatment. To describe the treatment method and first results of multisystemic therapy for child abuse and neglect (mst-can). We report the psychiatric problems of the first 18 families that were treated and we report the follow-up during the first 18 months. In addition, the mst-can treatment and the psychiatrist's role are illustrated by taking two cases as an example. Most of the families agreed to a psychiatric assessment and subsequent treatment. In most families safety improved considerably and out-of-house placements were avoided. The first results suggest that mst-can is a promising treatment for families where there is child abuse. Essential elements of mst-can are targeted psychiatric diagnostic assessment and subsequent treatment.

  5. Toward the integration of comprehensive mental health services in HIV care: an assessment of psychiatric morbidity among HIV-positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, Andrew T; Ogundipe, Olasimbo A; Erinfolami, Adebayo R; Akinbode, Abiola A; Adeyemi, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Existing evidence from research supports the desirability of integration of mental health services into HIV care in order to mitigate the grave consequences of unattended mental health morbidity among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study aims to find out the burden and pattern of psychiatric disorders that is prevalent among HIV-positive individuals attending a Nigerian-based HIV clinic. The study participants, consisting of 295 HIV-positive adults were recruited using systematic random sampling method. The participants were subjected to questionnaire to elicit demographic profile and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) to screen for probable psychiatric disorders. This was followed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Non patient (SCID-NP) to diagnose the presence of psychiatric morbidity in any of the participant with a GHQ-28 score ≥5 and 10% of those with GHQ-28 score mental disorder detected as 44 (14.9%) met the DSM-IV Axis 1 diagnosis of major depressive disorders. Anxiety disorders, concurrent Nicotine with Alcohol dependence and cannabis abuse were elicited in 24 (8.1%), 4 (1.3%), and 2 (0.7%) participants, respectively. This study finds a higher burden of psychiatric disorders in PLWHA in comparison to what is obtainable in the general population based on previous research works in similar context. Thus further underscores the need for integration of comprehensive psychiatric services into HIV care. We advocate the support and commitment of key stakeholders in HIV care to the translation of this research-based evidence into practice among PLWHA.

  6. Detection of psychiatric morbidity in the primary medical care setting in Brazil Distúrbios psiquiátricos e assistência primária à saúde no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair de Jesus Mari

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were a to assess the ability of primary care doctors to make accurate ratings of psychiatric disturbance and b to evaluate the use of a case-finding questionnaire in the detection of psychiatric morbidity. The estudy took place in three primary care clinics in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, during a six-month survey. A time sample of consecutive adult attenders were asked to complete a case-finding questionnaire for psychiatric disorders (the Self Report Questionnaire - SRQ and a subsample were selected for a semi-structured psychiatric interview (the Clinical Interview Schedule - CIS. At the end of the consultation the primary care doctors were asked to assess, in a standardized way, the presence or absence of psychiatric disorder; these assessments were then compared with that ratings obtained in the psychiatric interview. A considerable proportion of minor psychiatric morbidity remained undetected by the three primary care doctors: the hidden morbidity ranged from 22% to 79%. When these were compared to those of the case-finding questionnaire, they were consistently lower, indicating that the use of these instruments can enhance the recognition of psychiatric disorders in primary care settings. Four strategies for adopting the questionnaire are described, and some of the clinical consequences of its use are discussed.Objetivou-se avaliar a habilidade de clínicos gerais em diagnosticar distúrbios emocionais na assistência primária, e investigar a possibilidade de se introduzir um questionário de "screening" para auxiliar o diagnóstico de doenças psiquiátricas. O estudo foi realizado em dois centros de saúde e um ambulatório de clínica geral na cidade de São Paulo (Brasil, por um período de 6 meses. Uma amostra representativa de pacientes adultos (16 anos atendidos por clínico geral preencheu um questionário de "screening" para distúrbios psiquiátricos menores. Uma sub-amostra foi selecionada para

  7. Plasma profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in cocaine users under outpatient treatment: influence of cocaine symptom severity and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araos, Pedro; Pedraz, María; Serrano, Antonia; Lucena, Miguel; Barrios, Vicente; García-Marchena, Nuria; Campos-Cloute, Rafael; Ruiz, Juan J; Romero, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Baixeras, Elena; de la Torre, Rafael; Montesinos, Jorge; Guerri, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Martínez-Riera, Roser; Torrens, Marta; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Mason, Barbara J; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    The treatment for cocaine use constitutes a clinical challenge because of the lack of appropriate therapies and the high rate of relapse. Recent evidence indicates that the immune system might be involved in the pathogenesis of cocaine addiction and its co-morbid psychiatric disorders. This work examined the plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profile in abstinent cocaine users (n = 82) who sought outpatient cocaine treatment and age/sex/body mass-matched controls (n = 65). Participants were assessed with the diagnostic interview Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Diseases according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) were decreased in cocaine users, although all cytokines were identified as predictors of a lifetime pathological use of cocaine. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/fractalkine and CXCL12/SDF-1 positively correlated with the cocaine symptom severity when using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine abuse/dependence. These cytokines allowed the categorization of the outpatients into subgroups according to severity, identifying a subgroup of severe cocaine users (9-11 criteria) with increased prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders [mood (54%), anxiety (32%), psychotic (30%) and personality (60%) disorders]. IL-1β was observed to be increased in users with such psychiatric disorders relative to those users with no diagnosis. In addition to these clinical data, studies in mice demonstrated that plasma IL-1β, CX3CL1 and CXCL12 were also affected after acute and chronic cocaine administration, providing a preclinical model for further research. In conclusion, cocaine exposure modifies the circulating levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Plasma

  8. Estimating the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders through a national health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padoin Cintia V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children whose parents have psychiatric disorders experience an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and have higher rates of developmental problems and mortality. Assessing the size of this population is important for planning of preventive strategies which target these children. Methods National survey data (CCHS 1.2 was used to estimate the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders. Disorders were diagnosed using the World Psychiatric Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (12 month prevalence. Data on the number of children below 12 years of age in the home, and the relationship of the respondents with the children, was used to estimate exposure. Parent-child relations were identified, as was single parenthood. Using a design-based analysis, the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders was calculated. Results Almost 570,000 children under 12 live in households where the survey respondent met criteria for one or more mood, anxiety or substance use disorders in the previous 12 months, corresponding to 12.1% of Canadian children under the age of 12. Almost 3/4 of these children have parents that report receiving no mental health care in the 12 months preceding the survey. For 17% of all Canadian children under age 12, the individual experiencing a psychiatric disorder is the only parent in the household. Conclusion The high number of children exposed causes major concern and has important implications. Although these children will not necessarily experience adversities, they possess an elevated risk of accidents, mortality, and of developing psychiatric disorders. We expect these estimates will promote further research and stimulate discussion at both health policy and planning tables.

  9. Higher education and psychiatric disabilities: national survey of campus disability services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Elizabeth; Mowbray, Carol T

    2005-04-01

    Students with psychiatric disabilities are an increasing presence on college and university campuses. However, there is little factual information about the services available to these students in campus disability services offices or the extent to which they use these services. This article reports the results of a survey of disability services offices at colleges and universities in 10 states. Data from 275 schools revealed the number of students with psychiatric disabilities seeking assistance from disability services offices, characteristics of these offices, and the types of services they provide. Survey data also identified barriers to full participation of these students in academic settings. Implications of the study are discussed to inform policy and postsecondary institutional practices with the goal of better serving psychiatrically disabled students to maximize their talents and potential. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. A survey of HIV-related knowledge among adult psychiatric patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hughes E, Gray R. HIV prevention for people with serious mental illness: A survey of mental health workers' attitudes, knowledge and practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2008;. 18:591-600. 8. Naber D, Pajonk FG, Perro C, Lohmer B. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

  11. 1990 South Carolina Physician Survey of tick, spider and fire ant morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, S H; Caldwell, S T

    1991-08-01

    A population of 2,366 primary care physicians in South Carolina was surveyed by mail to estimate the number of cases of insect morbidity treated in 1990. A response rate of 42.3 percent was obtained. Cases reported totaled 414 for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 334 for Lyme disease, 143 black widow and 478 brown recluse spider bites and 4,975 fire ant stings. These are counts of cases from a mail survey, not from a research-based study. Five deaths were also reported; two for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, two due to black widow spider bites and one fire ant anaphylaxis.

  12. Association of trauma exposure with psychiatric morbidity in military veterans who have served since September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedert, Eric A.; Green, Kimberly T.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth; Taber, Katherine H.; Mumford, Marinell Miller; Tupler, Larry A.; Morey, Rajendra A.; Marx, Christine E.; Weiner, Richard D.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association of lifetime traumatic stress with psychiatric diagnostic status and symptom severity in veterans serving in the US military after 9/11/01. Method Data from 356 US military veterans were analyzed. Measures included a standardized clinical interview measure of psychiatric disorders, and paper-and-pencil assessments of trauma history, demo-graphic variables, intellectual functioning, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, alcohol misuse, and global distress. Results Ninety-four percent of respondents reported at least one traumatic stressor meeting DSM-IV criterion A for PTSD (i.e., life threatening event to which the person responded with fear, helplessness or horror), with a mean of four criterion A traumas. Seventy-one percent reported serving in a war-zone, with 50% reporting occurrence of an event meeting criterion A. The rate of current psychiatric disorder in this sample was: 30% PTSD, 20% major depressive disorder, 6% substance abuse or dependence and 10% for the presence of other Axis I psychiatric disorders. After accounting for demographic covariates and combat exposure, childhood physical assault and accident/disasters were most consistently associated with increased likelihood of PTSD. However, PTSD with no comorbid major depressive disorder or substance use disorder was predicted only by combat exposure and adult physical assault. Medical/unexpected-death trauma and adult physical assault were most consistently associated with more severe symptomatology. Conclusions Particular categories of trauma were differentially associated with the risk of psychiatric diagnosis and current symptom severity. These findings underscore the importance of conducting thorough assessment of multiple trauma exposures when evaluating recently post-deployed veterans. PMID:19232639

  13. The relationship between trauma centrality, self-efficacy, posttraumatic stress and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees: Is gender a moderator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; AlQarni, Nowf; Al Muhairi, Shamsa; Mitchell, Britt

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the inter-relationship between trauma centrality, self-efficacy, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among a group of Syrian refugees living in Turkey, and whether gender would moderate the mediational effect of self-efficacy on the impact of trauma centrality on distress. Seven hundred and ninety-two Syrian refugees completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire-28, Centrality of Event Scale and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that 52% met the cutoff for PTSD. Trauma centrality was positively correlated with PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was negatively correlated with PTSD only. Gender did not moderate the mediational effect of self-efficacy on the path between trauma centrality and distress outcomes. To conclude, following exposure to traumatic events, more than half reported PTSD. Perception of the future and identity construction was affected. Signs of psychological distress were evident, alongside resilience, regardless of gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lifetime co-morbidities between social phobia and mood disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R C; Stang, P; Wittchen, H U; Stein, M; Walters, E E

    1999-05-01

    General population data were used to study co-morbidities between lifetime social phobia and mood disorders. Data come from the US National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). Strong associations exist between lifetime social phobia and major depressive disorder (odds ratio 2.9), dysthymia (2.7) and bipolar disorder (5.9). Odds ratios increase in magnitude with number of social fears. Reported age of onset is earlier for social phobia than mood disorders in the vast majority of co-morbid cases. Temporally-primary social phobia predicts subsequent onset of mood disorders, with population attributable risk proportions of 10-15%. Social phobia is also associated with severity and persistence of co-morbid mood disorders. Social phobia is a commonly occurring, chronic and seriously impairing disorder that is seldom treated unless it occurs in conjunction with another co-morbid condition. The adverse consequences of social phobia include increased risk of onset, severity and course of subsequent mood disorders. Early outreach and treatment of primary social phobia might not only reduce the prevalence of this disorder itself, but also the subsequent onset of mood disorders.

  15. Nurses' caring and empathy in Jordanian psychiatric hospitals: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadidi, Majdi M B; Abdalrahim, Maysoon S; Al-Hussami, Mahmoud

    2016-08-01

    Nurses working in psychiatric hospitals need to acquire the skills of therapeutic communication and empathy, and have higher levels of caring. The present study aims to investigate the level of caring and empathy among nurses working in psychiatric hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was utilized to collect data from 205 nurses recruited from three psychiatric hospitals in Jordan. The Background Information Questionnaire, Modified Caring Dimensions Inventory, and Toronto Empathy Questionnaire were administered to the recruited participants. The findings revealed that the sampled nurses had a high level of caring and empathy. Significant correlations were found between caring and having a specialized training in mental health nursing, and having organizational and managerial support. However, no significant correlations were found between empathy and participants' characteristics. Specialized training in mental health nursing, having organizational and managerial support, and empathy were found predictors for caring. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  16. Bibliotherapy for mental health service users Part 2: a survey of psychiatric libraries in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanner, Deborah; Urqhuart, Christine

    2009-06-01

    UK health policy advocates a patient-centred approach to patient care. Library services could serve the rehabilitation needs of mental health service users through bibliotherapy (the use of written, audio or e-learning materials to provide therapeutic support). Part 2 of this two-part paper assesses the views of psychiatric libraries in the UK on providing access to service users and possible services provided. An e-mail questionnaire survey of psychiatric library members of the psychiatric lending co-operative scheme (n = 100) obtained a response rate of 55%, mostly from libraries based in hospitals. At present, libraries funded by the health service provide minimal facilities for service users. Librarians are uncertain about the benefits and practicalities of providing access to service users. In order to implement change, information providers across the National Health Service (NHS) will need to work collaboratively to overcome attitudinal and institutional barriers, including the key issue of funding.

  17. Pre-morbid IQ in mental disorders: a Danish draft-board study of 7486 psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer-Parnas, A; Lykke Mortensen, E; Sæbye, D

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies indicate that future schizophrenia patients exhibit lower IQ than healthy controls. Recent studies suggest that future patients with other mental illnesses obtain lower pre-morbid IQ. The aims of this study were to compare pre-morbid IQ among five diagnostic categ...... normal and uni-modal. CONCLUSIONS: IQ deficits in each diagnostic category may reflect different functional patterns and temporal vicissitudes of the specific pathogenetic processes involved in different mental disorders....... diagnoses [schizophrenia (Sz), non-schizophrenic, non-affective psychoses (NSAP), affective (AD), personality (PD) and neurotic/stress disorders (ND)] were followed up to ages 43-54 years. Individuals hospitalized 1 year after appearing before the draft board were excluded. RESULTS: All future patients...

  18. Morbidity and Mortality Conference: A Survey of Academic Internal Medicine Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Orlander, Jay D; Fincke, B Graeme

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of morbidity and mortality conferences (M&MCs) in U.S. internal medicine training programs. Two hundred ninety-five of 416 (71%) surveys were returned. Ninety percent of programs have an M&MC. Most meet monthly, have a designated leader, and entail case discussions of 3 or fewer patients. Cases are selected on the basis of unexpected bad outcomes, teaching value, and to a lesser extent, suspected medical error. Two thirds of th...

  19. Patient Aggression and the Wellbeing of Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Psychiatric and Non-Psychiatric Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve Pekurinen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses in psychiatric and non-psychiatric specialties (medical and surgical, and emergency medicine. A sample of 5288 nurses (923 psychiatric nurses, 4070 medical and surgical nurses, 295 emergency nurses participated in the study. Subjective measures were used to assess both the occurrence of patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses (self-rated health, sleep disturbances, psychological distress and perceived work ability. Binary logistic regression with interaction terms was used to compare the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported all types of patient aggression more frequently than medical and surgical nurses, whereas nurses working in emergency settings reported physical violence and verbal aggression more frequently than psychiatric nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported poor self-rated health and reduced work ability more frequently than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, whereas medical and surgical nurses reported psychological distress and sleep disturbances more often. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced at least one type of patient aggression or mental abuse in the previous year, were less likely to suffer from psychological distress and sleep disturbances compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced physical assaults and armed threats were less likely to suffer from sleep disturbances compared to nurses working in emergency settings. Compared to medical and surgical nurses, psychiatric nurses face patient aggression more often, but certain types of aggression are more common in emergency settings. Psychiatric nurses have

  20. Co-morbidity of eating disorders and alcohol use among female patients in the Psychiatric Hospital Bohnice

    OpenAIRE

    Vycpálková, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Co-morbidity of eating disorders and alcohol use among women is topical, because eating disorders can be seen as a disease of modern women and alcohol use as a very frequent and tolerated by society. Despite the seriousness of this issue there are not enough studies on this topic. Unfortunately, interest in this issue is not large in Czech Republic and literature comprehensively addressing this subject is not available. This work defines the basic terms important in the field of eating disord...

  1. Cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with insomnia (sleep apnea plus) versus obstructive sleep apnea without insomnia: a case-control study from a Nationally Representative US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Knapp, Katie

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in patient visits with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with insomnia (OSA+Insomnia) versus OSA without insomnia (OSA-Insomnia) in a nationally representative US sample. A retrospective case-control study of epidemiologic databases (National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) representing an estimated ± standard error (SE) 62,253,910 ± 5,274,747 (unweighted count=7234) patient visits with diagnosis of OSA from 1995-2010, was conducted. An estimated 3,994,104 ± 791,386 (unweighted count=658) were classified as OSA+Insomnia and an estimated 58,259,806 ± 4,849,800 (unweighted count=6576) as OSA-Insomnia. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using OSA+Insomnia versus OSA-Insomnia as the dependent variable, and age (>50 years versus ≤ 50 years), sex, race ('White' versus 'non-White'), essential hypertension, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cardiac dysrhythmia, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, depressive, anxiety, and adjustment disorders (includes PTSD), hypersomnia and all medications used as independent variables. All comorbidities were physician diagnosed using the ICD9-CM. Among patient visits with OSA, an estimated 6.4%± 0.9% also had insomnia. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the OSA+Insomnia group was significantly more likely to have essential hypertension (all ICD9-CM codes 401) (OR=1.83, 95% CI 1.27-2.65) and provisionally more likely to have cerebrovascular disease (ICD9-CM codes 430-438) (OR=6.58, 95% CI 1.66-26.08). The significant OR for cerebrovascular disease was considered provisional because the unweighted count was OSA+Insomnia was associated significantly more frequently with essential hypertension than OSA-Insomnia, a finding that has not been previously reported. In contrast to studies that have considered patient self-reports of psychological morbidity, the absence of a significant

  2. Cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with insomnia (sleep apnea plus versus obstructive sleep apnea without insomnia: a case-control study from a Nationally Representative US sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika A Gupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in patient visits with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with insomnia (OSA+Insomnia versus OSA without insomnia (OSA-Insomnia in a nationally representative US sample. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of epidemiologic databases (National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey representing an estimated ± standard error (SE 62,253,910 ± 5,274,747 (unweighted count=7234 patient visits with diagnosis of OSA from 1995-2010, was conducted. An estimated 3,994,104 ± 791,386 (unweighted count=658 were classified as OSA+Insomnia and an estimated 58,259,806 ± 4,849,800 (unweighted count=6576 as OSA-Insomnia. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using OSA+Insomnia versus OSA-Insomnia as the dependent variable, and age (>50 years versus ≤ 50 years, sex, race ('White' versus 'non-White', essential hypertension, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cardiac dysrhythmia, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, depressive, anxiety, and adjustment disorders (includes PTSD, hypersomnia and all medications used as independent variables. All comorbidities were physician diagnosed using the ICD9-CM. RESULTS: Among patient visits with OSA, an estimated 6.4%± 0.9% also had insomnia. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the OSA+Insomnia group was significantly more likely to have essential hypertension (all ICD9-CM codes 401 (OR=1.83, 95% CI 1.27-2.65 and provisionally more likely to have cerebrovascular disease (ICD9-CM codes 430-438 (OR=6.58, 95% CI 1.66-26.08. The significant OR for cerebrovascular disease was considered provisional because the unweighted count was <30. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative sample, OSA+Insomnia was associated significantly more frequently with essential hypertension than OSA-Insomnia, a finding that has not been previously reported. In contrast to studies that have

  3. Patient Aggression and the Wellbeing of Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Psychiatric and Non-Psychiatric Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Virve Pekurinen; Laura Willman; Marianna Virtanen; Mika Kivimäki; Jussi Vahtera; Maritta Välimäki

    2017-01-01

    Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses in psychiatric and non-psychiatric specialties (medical and surgical, and emergency medicine). A sample of 5288 nurses (923 psychiatric nurses, 4070 medical and surgical nurses, 295 e...

  4. Morbidity and mortality conference: a survey of academic internal medicine departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Jay D; Fincke, B Graeme

    2003-08-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of morbidity and mortality conferences (M&MCs) in U.S. internal medicine training programs. Two hundred ninety-five of 416 (71%) surveys were returned. Ninety percent of programs have an M&MC. Most meet monthly, have a designated leader, and entail case discussions of 3 or fewer patients. Cases are selected on the basis of unexpected bad outcomes, teaching value, and to a lesser extent, suspected medical error. Two thirds of the sites use M&MCs to meet administrative requirements for quality assurance. M&MC, while prevalent in internal medicine training programs, has a heterogeneity of focus. Hence, the goals and role of the conference, as judged by this survey, do not appear to be well defined and may warrant further clarification.

  5. Assessing psychological factors, social aspects and psychiatric co-morbidity associated with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) in men -- a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Björn; Bruenahl, Christian A; Ahyai, Sascha; Bingel, Ulrike; Fisch, Margit; Löwe, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a chronic pain disease with high prevalence rates and substantial health care costs. An interdisciplinary classification system is commonly used (UPOINT) which includes psychosocial factors. Nevertheless, psychosocial influences on CP/CPPS only recently became a research focus. Therefore, we aimed to synthesize the existing data and to identify further research topics. Then, based on our results, diagnosis and treatment can be improved. In a systematic review conducted according to the PRISMA reporting guidelines we searched different databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO) using the broad search terms "chronic pelvic pain syndrome AND men". Two raters independently screened the literature and assessed the risk of bias. We included 69 original research articles which considered psychosocial variables. We found studies investigating different psychosocial factors (pain catastrophizing, stress, personality factors, social aspects), co-morbid psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and trauma-related disorders, somatization disorder, substance abuse) and Quality of Life (QoL). In addition, there is a high risk of bias in most studies e.g. concerning the study design or the measures. There is evidence suggesting that psychological factors are important in understanding CP/CPPS. However, research concentrated on a few aspects while the others were not covered adequately. We found evidence of a higher number of psychosocial factors and psychiatric co-morbidities than is currently included in the UPOINT system. More high quality research is needed to understand the interplay of psychosocial factors in CP/CPPS. Furthermore, these factors should be incorporated into treatment approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of childhood morbidity in Bangladesh: evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Md Moustafa; Hasan, Md Masud; Davey, Rachel

    2015-10-28

    The present study aims to estimate the incidence of preventable infectious diseases or associated symptoms among young children in Bangladesh and also determine the factors affecting these conditions. The study hypothesised that various background characteristics of children as well as their parents influence the incidence of morbidity of children aged below 5 years. The study used data from the most recent nationally representative cross-sectional Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) conducted in 2011. A total of 7550 children aged below 5 years during the survey from mothers aged between 12 and 49 years are the participants of the study. In general, younger children were more likely to suffer from multiple health conditions than their older counterparts. Children belonging to households classified as poor (OR=1.425, 95% CI (1.130 to 1.796)) or middle (OR=1.349, 95% CI (1.113 to 1.636)) faced greater risk of illness than those from well-off households. A combination of source and treatment practices of drinking water showed a significant impact on incidence of childhood morbidity. Children from households using untreated non-piped water were 85.8% (OR=1.860, 95% CI (1.269 to 2.728)) more likely to suffer from comorbidity than those who treat their piped drinking water. However, we observed that water treatment alone has no impact unless the water itself was sourced from a pipe. Accelerated programmes promoting access to safe drinking water along with water treatment practices, and better household environment may prove effective in reducing the incidence of childhood morbidity in Bangladesh. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation of the nurses in a structured SARS caring unit during outbreak: a prospective and periodic assessment study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tung-Ping; Lien, Te-Cheng; Yang, Chih-Yi; Su, Yiet Ling; Wang, Jia-Horng; Tsai, Sing-Ling; Yin, Jeo-Chen

    2007-01-01

    To assess the rapidly changing psychological status of nurses during the acute phase of the 2003 SARS outbreak, we conducted a prospective and periodic evaluation of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation among nurses in SARS units and non-SARS units. Nurse participants were from two SARS units (regular SARS [N=44] and SARS ICU [N=26]) and two non-SARS units (Neurology [N=15] and CCU [N=17]). Participants periodically self-evaluated their depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, sleep disturbance, attitude towards SARS and family support. Results showed that depression (38.5% vs. 3.1%) and insomnia (37% vs. 9.7%) were, respectively, greater in the SARS unit nurses than the non-SARS unit nurses. No difference between these two groups was found in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (33% vs. 18.7%), yet, three unit subjects (SARS ICU, SARS regular and Neurology) had significantly higher rate than those in CCU (29.7% vs. 11.8%, respectively) (pregular SARS unit. Occurrence of psychiatric symptoms was linked to direct exposure to SARS patient care, previous mood disorder history, younger age and perceived negative feelings. Positive coping attitude and strong social and family support may have protected against acute stress. In conclusion, the psychological impact on the caring staffs facing future bio-disaster will be minimized with lowered risk factors and a safer and more structured work environment.

  8. Co-morbidity of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Joanna; Sareen, Jitender; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Pagura, Jina; Spiwak, Rae; Enns, Murray W

    2015-04-01

    Clinical studies suggest a high co-morbidity rate of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with bipolar disorder (BD). This study examines the prevalence and correlates of BPD in BD (I and II) in a longitudinal population-based survey. Data came from waves 1 and 2 (wave 2: N=34,653, 70.2% cumulative response rate; age ≥ 20 years) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Lay interviewers conducted in person interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview (AUDADIS-IV), a reliable diagnostic tool of psychiatric disorders based on DSM-IV criteria. Subjects with BD I (n=812), BD I/BPD (n=360), BD II (n=327) and BD II/BPD (n=101) were examined in terms of sociodemographics, mood, anxiety, substance use and personality disorder co-morbidities and history of childhood traumatic experiences. Lifetime prevalence of BPD was 29.0% in BD I and 24.0% in BD II. Significant differences were observed between co-morbid BD I/II and BPD versus BD I/II without BPD in terms of number of depressive episodes and age of onset, co-morbidity, and childhood trauma. BPD was strongly and positively associated with incident BD I (AOR=16.9; 95% CI: 13.88-20.55) and BD II (AOR=9.5; 95% CI: 6.44-13.97). BD with BPD has a more severe presentation of illness than BD alone. The results suggest that BPD is highly predictive of a future diagnosis of BD. Childhood traumatic experiences may have a role in understanding this relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lifetime prevalence of psychiatric morbidities, suicidality, and quality of life in a community population with the bimodal chronotype: A nationwide epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Hyoung; Jung, Doo-Young; Lee, Joo-Young; Chang, Sung-Man; Jeon, Hong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Bae, Jae-Nam; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng-Je; Hahm, Bong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Chronotypes are classified as morning, evening, or intermediate, but there are reports of a bimodal type. This study was undertaken to describe the characteristics of the bimodal chronotype and to explore relationships between the bimodal type and psychiatric disorders, fatigue, and quality of life. A total of 2389 subjects from a Korean national epidemiological survey of psychiatric disorders responded during face-to-face interviews. The Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose psychiatric disorders, and the Composite Scale of Morningness was used to assess chronotypes. Among intermediate-type subjects, those with a positive bimodal index were classified as bimodal type. In the present study, the proportions of bimodal, morning, intermediate, and evening types were 4.8%, 10.8%, 73.3%, and 11.1%, respectively. Distributions of sociodemographic variables were similar for the bimodal and intermediate types. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, any mood disorder and major depressive disorder were found to be significantly more associated with the bimodal type than the morning type, and dysthymic disorder was significantly more associated with the bimodal type than the intermediate type. For quality-of-life domains, moderate or extreme pain/discomfort was complained about more by subjects with the bimodal type than other types. In summary, the study shows chronotypes differ with respect to their relationships with mood disorder and quality of life. Before the bimodal type is classified as a clinically valid type, further investigations are needed to examine its psychological, physiological, and genetic characteristics.

  10. Confirmatory test of two factors and four subtypes of bipolar disorder based on lifetime psychiatric co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, P O; Stump, T; Coryell, W H; Harezlak, J; Marcoulides, G A; Liu, H; Steeger, C M; Mitchell, P B; Wilcox, H C; Hulvershorn, L A; Glowinski, A L; Iyer-Eimerbrink, P A; McInnis, M; Nurnberger, J I

    2015-07-01

    The first aim was to use confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test a hypothesis that two factors (internalizing and externalizing) account for lifetime co-morbid DSM-IV diagnoses among adults with bipolar I (BPI) disorder. The second aim was to use confirmatory latent class analysis (CLCA) to test the hypothesis that four clinical subtypes are detectible: pure BPI; BPI plus internalizing disorders only; BPI plus externalizing disorders only; and BPI plus internalizing and externalizing disorders. A cohort of 699 multiplex BPI families was studied, ascertained and assessed (1998-2003) by the National Institute of Mental Health Genetics Initiative Bipolar Consortium: 1156 with BPI disorder (504 adult probands; 594 first-degree relatives; and 58 more distant relatives) and 563 first-degree relatives without BPI. Best-estimate consensus DSM-IV diagnoses were based on structured interviews, family history and medical records. MPLUS software was used for CFA and CLCA. The two-factor CFA model fit the data very well, and could not be improved by adding or removing paths. The four-class CLCA model fit better than exploratory LCA models or post-hoc-modified CLCA models. The two factors and four classes were associated with distinctive clinical course and severity variables, adjusted for proband gender. Co-morbidity, especially more than one internalizing and/or externalizing disorder, was associated with a more severe and complicated course of illness. The four classes demonstrated significant familial aggregation, adjusted for gender and age of relatives. The BPI two-factor and four-cluster hypotheses demonstrated substantial confirmatory support. These models may be useful for subtyping BPI disorders, predicting course of illness and refining the phenotype in genetic studies.

  11. The Mediating Effect of Gaming Motivation Between Psychiatric Symptoms and Problematic Online Gaming: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Ágoston, Csilla; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid expansion of online video gaming as a leisure time activity has led to the appearance of problematic online gaming (POG). According to the literature, POG is associated with different psychiatric symptoms (eg, depression, anxiety) and with specific gaming motives (ie, escape, achievement). Based on studies of alcohol use that suggest a mediator role of drinking motives between distal influences (eg, trauma symptoms) and drinking problems, this study examined the assumption that there is an indirect link between psychiatric distress and POG via the mediation of gaming motives. Furthermore, it was also assumed that there was a moderator effect of gender and game type preference based on the important role gender plays in POG and the structural differences between different game types. Objective This study had two aims. The first aim was to test the mediating role of online gaming motives between psychiatric symptoms and problematic use of online games. The second aim was to test the moderator effect of gender and game type preference in this mediation model. Methods An online survey was conducted on a sample of online gamers (N=3186; age: mean 21.1, SD 5.9 years; male: 2859/3186, 89.74%). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ), and the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) were administered to assess general psychiatric distress, online gaming motives, and problematic online game use, respectively. Structural regression analyses within structural equation modeling were used to test the proposed mediation models and multigroup analyses were used to test gender and game type differences to determine possible moderating effects. Results The mediation models fitted the data adequately. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the BSI indicated that the level of psychiatric distress had a significant positive direct effect (standardized effect=.35, Pgaming motives: escape (standardized effect=.139

  12. The mediating effect of gaming motivation between psychiatric symptoms and problematic online gaming: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Ágoston, Csilla; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-04-07

    The rapid expansion of online video gaming as a leisure time activity has led to the appearance of problematic online gaming (POG). According to the literature, POG is associated with different psychiatric symptoms (eg, depression, anxiety) and with specific gaming motives (ie, escape, achievement). Based on studies of alcohol use that suggest a mediator role of drinking motives between distal influences (eg, trauma symptoms) and drinking problems, this study examined the assumption that there is an indirect link between psychiatric distress and POG via the mediation of gaming motives. Furthermore, it was also assumed that there was a moderator effect of gender and game type preference based on the important role gender plays in POG and the structural differences between different game types. This study had two aims. The first aim was to test the mediating role of online gaming motives between psychiatric symptoms and problematic use of online games. The second aim was to test the moderator effect of gender and game type preference in this mediation model. An online survey was conducted on a sample of online gamers (N=3186; age: mean 21.1, SD 5.9 years; male: 2859/3186, 89.74%). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ), and the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) were administered to assess general psychiatric distress, online gaming motives, and problematic online game use, respectively. Structural regression analyses within structural equation modeling were used to test the proposed mediation models and multigroup analyses were used to test gender and game type differences to determine possible moderating effects. The mediation models fitted the data adequately. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the BSI indicated that the level of psychiatric distress had a significant positive direct effect (standardized effect=.35, Pgaming motives: escape (standardized effect=.139, Pgaming (standardized effect size=.64

  13. Workplace Harassment and Morbidity Among US Adults: Results from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H

    2015-06-01

    Most research on workplace harassment originates from European countries.Prevalence of workplace harassment and associated morbidity has not been well studied in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of US workers the prevalence of workplace harassment and the psychological and physical health consequences of workplace harassment. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed in 2014 for this study. We computed the prevalence of workplace harassment, assessed the demographic and background characteristics of victims of harassment, and tested the association between harassment and selected health risk factors by using logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance was established as p workplace in the past 12 months. The odds of harassment were significantly higher for females (OR 1.47, p gender and distinct health risk patterns for men and women victims were observed. Workplace harassment in the US is associated with significant health risk factors and morbidity. Workplace policies and protocols can play a significant role in reducing harassment and the associated negative health outcomes.

  14. Psychological morbidity and quality of life in women with advanced breast cancer: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabsch, Brenda; Clarke, David M; Love, Anthony; McKenzie, Dean P; Snyder, Raymond D; Bloch, Sidney; Smith, Graeme; Kissane, David W

    2006-03-01

    Our purpose was to determine the frequency of psychiatric morbidity and to assess the quality of life of women with advanced breast cancer. The 227 women in the sample were recruited in Melbourne, Australia, and were interviewed (prior to intervention) for a randomized controlled trial of supportive-expressive group therapy. The main outcome measures were DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses plus quality of life data based on the EORTC QLQ-C30 (core) and QLQ-BR23 (breast module) instruments. Forty-two percent of the women (97/227) had a psychiatric disorder; 35.7% (81) of these had depression or anxiety or both. Specific diagnoses were minor depression in 58 women (25.6%), major depression in 16 (7%), anxiety disorder in 14 (6.2%), and phobic disorder in 9 (4%). Seventeen (7.5%) women had more than one disorder. In terms of quality of life, one-third felt less attractive, one-quarter were dissatisfied with their body image, and, in most, sexual interest had waned. Menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes affected less than one-third, whereas symptoms of lymphedema were experienced by 26 (11.5%). Women with advanced breast cancer have high rates of psychiatric and psychological disturbance. Quality of life is substantially affected. Clinicians need to be vigilant in monitoring psychological adjustment as part of a comprehensive biopsychosocial approach.

  15. An evaluation of Health of the Nation Outcome Scales data to inform psychiatric morbidity following the Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaglehole, Ben; Frampton, Chris M; Boden, Joseph M; Mulder, Roger T; Bell, Caroline J

    2017-11-01

    Outcome Scales scores for attendees of local mental health services compared to other large district health boards. This suggests that patients presented with greater degrees of psychiatric distress, social disruption, behavioural change and impairment as a result of the earthquakes.

  16. A survey of morbidity and mortality review meetings in the general surgical units of the West of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Myo; Leung, Edward; McGregor, John R

    2015-11-01

    There is little consensus as to the conduct of surgical morbidity and mortality review meetings. The aim of this survey was to determine how surgical morbidity and mortality meetings in the surgical units in the West of Scotland are carried out and to explore possible areas for improvement. Forty six surgical trainees distributed between the 15 general surgery units of the West of Scotland were asked to provide details of their surgical morbidity and mortality meetings for the training year 2012-2013. Twenty-five of 46 (54%) specialty trainees responded with all units being represented. All had designated time for surgical morbidity and mortality review. Meeting frequency varied as follows: weekly (3 units), fortnightly (1 unit), monthly (10 units), three monthly (1 unit). Fewer than half the units (6) included Foundation Trainees, and only one meeting was attended by nursing staff. Five units had clear criteria for morbidity, but only three included morbidity collected from outpatient follow-up. A standardised proforma was used to present the cases in only 2 units. All 15 surgical units in the West of Scotland have a regular surgical morbidity and mortality meeting but significant variations were observed as to frequency and participating personnel. A more robust system for reporting morbidities should be considered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Surveying Substance Abuse Frequency in Hospitalized Patients in Psychiatric Ward of Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan

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    A. Ghaleiha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Substance abuse is believed to be one of the greatest social, economical ,and cultural problems all over the world and it is commonly observed among all social classes especially among mental disorder patients. Substance abuse can influence on the receptive-mental states such as mood and on the external visible activities such as behaviors. The aim of this study is to survey the frequency of Substance abuse in hospitalized mental-psychic patients in psychiatric ward of Farshchian hospital in Hamadan. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and retrospective study, available sampling method was used along with examining filed records in which the records of 400 hospitalized patients (293 men and 107 women from September 2000 to 2001 were checked and required data such as demographic information, infliction duration, substance abuse duration, psychiatric diagnosis were extracted and registered. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods.Results: About half of the hospitalized patients in the psychiatric ward had simultaneous substance abuse. Men had substance abuse more than women and the youths aged 20-39 more than the other groups. The study showed that widowing had positive relationship and higher education negative relationship with substance abuse.Conclusion: Mood disorders with 90.53%, schizophrenia with 8.29%, and other diagnostics with 1.18% were observed in persons with substance abuse and these diagnostics in non substance abuse persons were 79.22% ,11.26% and 9.52% respectively.

  18. The PsyCoLaus study: methodology and characteristics of the sample of a population-based survey on psychiatric disorders and their association with genetic and cardiovascular risk factors

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    Middleton Lefkos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Psychiatric arm of the population-based CoLaus study (PsyCoLaus is designed to: 1 establish the prevalence of threshold and subthreshold psychiatric syndromes in the 35 to 66 year-old population of the city of Lausanne (Switzerland; 2 test the validity of postulated definitions for subthreshold mood and anxiety syndromes; 3 determine the associations between psychiatric disorders, personality traits and cardiovascular diseases (CVD, 4 identify genetic variants that can modify the risk for psychiatric disorders and determine whether genetic risk factors are shared between psychiatric disorders and CVD. This paper presents the method as well as sociodemographic and somatic characteristics of the sample. Methods All 35 to 66 year-old persons previously selected for the population-based CoLaus survey on risk factors for CVD were asked to participate in a substudy assessing psychiatric conditions. This investigation included the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies to elicit diagnostic criteria for threshold disorders according to DSM-IV and algorithmically defined subthreshold syndromes. Complementary information was collected on potential risk and protective factors for psychiatric disorders, migraine and on the morbidity of first-degree relatives, whereas the collection of DNA and plasma samples was already part of the original CoLaus survey. Results A total of 3,691 individuals completed the psychiatric evaluation (67% participation. The gender distribution of the sample did not differ significantly from that of the general population in the same age range. Although the youngest 5-year band of the cohort was underrepresented and the oldest 5-year band overrepresented, participants of PsyCoLaus and individuals who refused to participate revealed comparable scores on the General Health Questionnaire, a self-rating instrument completed at the somatic exam. Conclusion Despite limitations resulting from the relatively low

  19. Clinical features and therapeutic management of patients admitted to Italian acute hospital psychiatric units: the PERSEO (psychiatric emergency study and epidemiology survey

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    Russo Federico

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PERSEO study (psychiatric emergency study and epidemiology is a naturalistic, observational clinical survey in Italian acute hospital psychiatric units, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura; in English, the psychiatric service for diagnosis and management. The aims of this paper are: (i to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients, including sociodemographic features, risk factors, life habits and psychiatric diagnoses; and (ii to assess the clinical management, subjective wellbeing and attitudes toward medications. Methods A total of 62 SPDCs distributed throughout Italy participated in the study and 2521 patients were enrolled over the 5-month study period. Results Almost half of patients (46% showed an aggressive behaviour at admission to ward, but they engaged more commonly in verbal aggression (38%, than in aggression toward other people (20%. A total of 78% of patients had a psychiatric diagnosis at admission, most frequently schizophrenia (36%, followed by depression (16% and personality disorders (14%, and no relevant changes in the diagnoses pattern were observed during hospital stay. Benzodiazepines were the most commonly prescribed drugs, regardless of diagnosis, at all time points. Overall, up to 83% of patients were treated with neuroleptic drugs and up to 27% received more than one neuroleptic either during hospital stay or at discharge. Atypical and conventional antipsychotics were equally prescribed for schizophrenia (59 vs 65% during stay and 59 vs 60% at discharge, while atypical drugs were preferred in schizoaffective psychoses (72 vs 49% during stay and 70 vs 46% at discharge and depression (41 vs 32% during stay and 44 vs 25% at discharge. Atypical neuroleptics were slightly preferred to conventional ones at hospital discharge (52 vs 44%. Polypharmacy was in general widely used. Patient attitudes toward medications were on average positive and self

  20. Time to gain trust and change—Experiences of attachment and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy among patients with chronic pain and psychiatric co-morbidity

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    Birgitta Peilot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with chronic pain disorders is complex. In the rehabilitation of these patients, coping with chronic pain is seen as important. The aim of this study was to explore the meaning of attachment and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (CT among patients with chronic pain and psychiatric co-morbidity. A phenomenological approach within a lifeworld perspective was used. In total, 10 patients were interviewed after completion of 7- to 13-month therapy. The findings reveal that the therapy and the process of interaction with the therapist were meaningful for the patients’ well-being and for a better management of pain. During the therapy, the patients were able to initiate a movement of change. Thus, CT with focus on attachment and mindfulness seems to be of value for these patients. The therapy used in this study was adjusted to the patients’ special needs, and a trained psychotherapist with a special knowledge of patients with chronic pain might be required.

  1. A 4q35.2 subtelomeric deletion identified in a screen of patients with co-morbid psychiatric illness and mental retardation

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    Blackwood Douglas HR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptic structural abnormalities within the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes have been the focus of much recent research because of their discovery in a percentage of people with mental retardation (UK terminology: learning disability. These studies focused on subjects (largely children with various severities of intellectual impairment with or without additional physical clinical features such as dysmorphisms. However it is well established that prevalence of schizophrenia is around three times greater in those with mild mental retardation. The rates of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder have also been reported as increased in people with mental retardation. We describe here a screen for telomeric abnormalities in a cohort of 69 patients in which mental retardation co-exists with severe psychiatric illness. Methods We have applied two techniques, subtelomeric fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH and multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH to detect abnormalities in the patient group. Results A subtelomeric deletion was discovered involving loss of 4q in a patient with co-morbid schizoaffective disorder and mental retardation. Conclusion The precise region of loss has been defined allowing us to identify genes that may contribute to the clinical phenotype through hemizygosity. Interestingly, the region of 4q loss exactly matches that linked to bipolar affective disorder in a large multiply affected Australian kindred.

  2. [Reality of treatment in psychotherapy: Results of a survey of German psychiatric hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, G; Sander, K; Artmann, S; Dreher, J; Lenz, J; Hauth, I

    2015-05-01

    Since the introduction of the qualification as specialist for psychiatry and psychotherapy, in addition to psychopharmacotherapy psychotherapy is an integral component of the treatment of mentally ill people. A survey was carried out to evaluate the reality of clinical routine use of psychotherapy in German psychiatric hospitals. Between October 2011 and March 2012 German hospitals of psychiatry and psychotherapy were contacted by the head organization, the conference of national directors (Bundesdirektorenkonferenz), to participate in a survey regarding the application of psychotherapy in the real clinical world of daily treatment. With an anonymous questionnaire, data were requested as either a printed form or online version. Data from 25 psychiatric hospitals in the year 2010 could be analysed (average number of beds 300 of which 53 were for psychosomatic/psychotherapeutic patients) and a total of 87,000 inpatients were treated whereby 34 % were diagnosed as F1 addictive disorders and 24 % as F3 affective disorders. More than 80 % of the hospitals applied group therapies of relaxation, cognitive behavior therapy, social competence training and specific techniques, such as dialectic-behavior therapy. As individual treatment methods, patients with depressive disorders were treated with cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy or psychodynamic therapy in more than 50 % of the cases. Relaxation techniques were offered in most cases by the nursing staff, behavior therapy by psychologists and physicians and psychodynamic therapy mainly by psychiatrists.

  3. Prevalence and causes of ocular morbidity in Mbeere District, Kenya. Results of a population-based survey.

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    Kahaki Kimani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Ocular morbidity (OM describes any eye disease regardless of resultant visual loss. Ocular morbidity may affect large numbers of people in low income countries and could lead to many episodes of care. However there is limited evidence about the prevalence of ocular morbidity or resulting health-seeking behavior. This study in Mbeere District, Kenya, set out to explore both these issues. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2011. Trained teams moved from house to house examining and questioning residents on ocular morbidity and health-seeking behavior. Data were collected on standardized proformas and entered into a database for analysis. RESULTS: 3,691 people were examined (response rate 91.7%. 15.52% (95% CI 13.86-16.92 had at least one ocular morbidity in at least one eye. The leading cause was presbyopia which affected 25.11% (95% CI 22.05-28.45 of participants over 35 and increased with age. Other leading causes of OM were conditions that affected the lens (32.58% and the conjunctiva (31.31%. No association was found between educational attainment or employment and OM. 9.63% (7.87-11.74 self-reported an ocular morbidity in the previous six months and 45.94% (95% CI 37.1-55.04 stated that they had sought treatment for the condition. CONCLUSION: A large number of people were affected by an ocular morbidity in this survey. Most of these people could potentially be managed in their own communities through primary care services (e.g. those with presbyopia. Further work is required to understand the best way of providing an effective, equitable service for ocular morbidity.

  4. Psychosis prevalence and physical, metabolic and cognitive co-morbidity: data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, V A; McGrath, J.J.; Jablensky, A; Badcock, J.G.; Waterreus, A.; Bush, R.; Carr, V.; Castle, D; Cohen, M.; Galletly, C.; Harvey, C.; Hocking, B.; McGorry, P; Neil, A.L.; Saw, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. There are insufficient data from nationwide surveys on the prevalence of specific psychotic disorders and associated co-morbidities. Method. The 2010 Australian national psychosis survey used a two-phase design to draw a representative sample of adults aged 18–64 years with psychotic disorders in contact with public treatment services from an estimated resident population of 1 464 923 adults. This paper is based on data from 1642 participants with an International Classificatio...

  5. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Ani Ahmad; Noraida Mohamad Kasim; Nur Azna Mahmud; Yusniza Mohd Yusof; Salimah Othman; Ying Ying Chan; Mohamad Aznuddin Abd Razak; Muslimah Yusof; Maisarah Omar; Fazly Azry Abdul Aziz; Rasidah Jamaluddin; Norazizah Ibrahim Wong; Tahir Aris

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. Methods This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washi...

  6. Living environment and self assessed morbidity: a questionnaire-based survey

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    Kulkarni Pradip

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health complaints have been reported to be higher among the industrial area residents when compared with reference community. Methods Such reports being only a few, a questionnaire survey was conducted in three different areas (Industrial, Residential, Commercial of Ahmedabad city of India to determine the pattern of morbidity and to do a comparative analysis of different areas within the city. Results A total of 679 families (243 from commercial, 199 from residential and 237 from industrial area were included in this study. This study revealed that apart from presence of industry in close proximity to residence (99.2%, industrial area residents are having many other disadvantages from the point of view of public health like waste water stagnation (87.4%, problem of cooking smoke (33.2% and presence of garbage dumps near residence (72.8%. Consequently, problems like coughing, wheezing, eye irritation, skin irritation, jaundice, asthma, and dental caries have been observed to be more common in industrial area. Comparative risk calculated in terms of odds ratio for different such problems have ranged from 1.83 to 6.2 when industrial area was compared with commercial area. Similarly on comparison of industrial area with residential area, odds ratio for different problems have ranged from 1.82 to 11.5. Conclusion This study has pointed out the need of separate planning and implementation of specific upliftment programs for addressing the environmental as well as public health issues of industrial localities.

  7. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Shamsa; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Rahman, Atif; Neilson, James P.; van den Broek, Nynke R.

    2015-01-01

    Background For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective) and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries. Methods Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%), late pregnancy (35%) and the postnatal period (31%) among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727) and Malawi (1732). Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity. Results One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective). Both infective (Pakistan) and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi) was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon (morbidity: 26.9% of women in Pakistan 2.6% in Malawi had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) > 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p morbidity in both settings. Conclusions Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. PMID:26390124

  8. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Zafar

    Full Text Available For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries.Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%, late pregnancy (35% and the postnatal period (31% among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727 and Malawi (1732. Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity.One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective. Both infective (Pakistan and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon ( 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001, intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02 were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings.Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  9. [Psychiatric consultation-liaison in Sweden surveyed: A patchwork of reimbursement schemes, organizational structures and levels of ambition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Lars

    2003-01-16

    In order to make a survey of consultation-liaison (c-l) psychiatric activity a questionnaire was distributed to all psychiatric departments in Sweden. Questions were asked concerning organization, reimbursement and indicators of the quality level of services. 42 of 72 possible responders returned the questionnaire (58%). The department-affiliated services work with few exceptions at a basic level of consultation, and existing liaison activities seldom have any organizational connection to the psychiatric departments. There is no commonly accepted organizational model and the use of professional categories other than psychiatrists is rare. Five psychiatric departments have special c-l units and research is pursued almost exclusively at these. A majority of respondents express a need for expansion. So far, the services have been working at a level of gentlemen's agreement between clinics, but a number of compensatory schemes are under way.

  10. Al-Ain community psychiatric survey IV: socio-cultural changes (traditionality-liberalism) and prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghubash, R; Daradkeh, T K; Ghubash, R; Daradkeh, T K; Al-Muzafari, S M; Al-Manssori, M E; Abou-Saleh, M T

    2001-11-01

    BACKGROUND This study was set to explore the relationship between socio-cultural change and psychopathology. A representative sample (n = 1,394) of Al-Ain adult population had their psychopathology assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and other self-reported questionnaires, while the socio-cultural change was assessed with the modified version of the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire (ScCQ). The reliability and construct validity of the modified ScCQ were assessed. The overall Tradition Index, attitudinal and behavioural indices of the sample were estimated. Association between socio-cultural change and psychopathology was also evaluated. The reliability of the modified ScCQ was found to be moderate (alpha Cronbach 0.66) and the hypothesis regarding its construct validity was confirmed. Mean traditional index was found to be 0.61 +/- 0.14.Young, highly educated, skilled, and female subjects were found to be significantly less conservative and their scores on traditional index deviated significantly from overall mean. Less traditional people were also found to have a significantly increased rate of ICD-10 psychiatric disorder and higher scores on psychopathology measures especially among females. Although females showed significantly more modern attitude, there were no significant sex differences in the expressed behaviour as measured by the behavioural Tradition Index. The findings of this study suggest that the prevalence of psychiatric disorder varies significantly according to the extent to which subjects adhere to traditional values.

  11. The prevalence of COPD co-morbidities in Serbia: results of a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila M; Vukovic, Dejana S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research studies have found different prevalence rates for co-morbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbidities as well as functional limitations in subjects with COPD. Methods: The study was based on a nationally representative sample of the population of Serbia. Information on the health of the population was obtained from interviews and anthropometric measurements. In this st...

  12. Indexation of psychiatric journals from low- and middle-income countries: a survey and a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIELING, CHRISTIAN; HERRMAN, HELEN; PATEL, VIKRAM; MARI, JAIR DE JESUS

    2009-01-01

    There is a marked underepresentation of low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC) in the psychiatric literature, which may reflect an overall low representation of LAMIC publications in databases of indexed journals. This paper investigates the worldwide distribution of indexed psychiatric journals. A survey in both Medline and ISI Web of Science was performed in order to identify journals in the field of psychiatry according to their country of origin. Two hundred and twenty-two indexed psychiatric journals were found. Of these, 213 originated from high-income countries and only nine (4.1%) from middle-income countries. None were found in low-income countries. We also present the experience of a LAMIC psychiatric journal, the Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, in its recent indexation process. This case study may serve as an example for other LAMIC journals to pursue indexation in major databases as a strategy to widen the international foundation of psychiatric research. There is an important need for the inclusion of LAMIC psychiatric publications in the major indexation databases. This process will require multiple agents to partner with journals from LAMIC to improve their quality and strengthen their chances of being indexed. PMID:19293959

  13. Psychiatric Residents' Needs for Education about Informed Consent, Principles of Ethics and Professionalism, and Caring for Vulnerable Populations: Results of a Multisite Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shaili; Lapid, Maria I.; Dunn, Laura B.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychiatric residents' perceived needs for education in informed consent, principles of ethics and professionalism, and treating vulnerable populations. Method: A written survey was distributed to psychiatric residents (N = 249) at seven U.S. residency programs in 2005. The survey contained 149 questions in 10…

  14. Economic Impact of Childhood Psychiatric Disorder on Public Sector Services in Britain: Estimates from National Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Tom; Knapp, Martin; Healey, Andrew; Guglani, Sacha; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Fernandez, Jose-Luis; Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Approximately one in ten children aged 5-15 in Britain has a conduct, hyperactivity or emotional disorder. Methods: The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys (BCAMHS) identified children aged 5-15 with a psychiatric disorder, and their use of health, education and social care services. Service costs were estimated for each…

  15. A retrospective chart review of the clinical and psychosocial profile of psychotic adolescents with co-morbid substance use disorders presenting to acute adolescent psychiatric services at Tygerberg Hospital

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    Anusha Lachman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. A large number of adolescents meet criteria for ‘dual diagnosis’ (a psychiatric disorder plus co-morbid substance use disorder (SUD, which prolongs treatment response and complicates intervention strategies. The current service model in Cape Town divides the care of such patients into psychiatric treatment and a separate substance use intervention. Child and adolescent mental health services face the challenge of high rates of readmission of adolescents into psychiatric facilities before utilisation of community-based substance abuse services. Objective. There is a scarcity of available treatment guidelines for dual-diagnosis adolescents, and a lack of systematically documented epidemiological and clinical data in South African adolescent populations. Method. A retrospective chart review of adolescent psychiatric admissions to the Tygerberg Adolescent Psychiatric Unit during 2010 was conducted. Relevant epidemiological, clinical and demographic data for those presenting with a dual diagnosis (specifically psychotic disorders and SUD was recorded. Results. Results suggest a high prevalence of SUD among adolescents presenting with a first-episode psychosis. Statistically significant correlations with lower levels of education were found in those with ongoing substance abuse (specifically cannabis and methamphetamine, and a significant relationship between choice of debut drug and ongoing drug use was also demonstrated. Risk factors for SUD (psychosocial adversities, childhood trauma, family and community exposure to substances, early debut drug ages, risky sexual behaviours, and clinical psychiatric profiles of adolescents with dual diagnosis are described. Conclusions. This cohort had an enhanced risk as a result of genetic vulnerability and environmental availability of substances, and the findings emphasise the differences in presentation, choice of drugs of abuse and psychosocial difficulties of adolescents with a dual

  16. A survey of common prevalent psychiatric disorders among a group of Iranian repatriated prisoners of war

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    Nourbala A

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The present survey covers a number of 91 Iranian repatriated war prisoners who, six months after their freedom, approached three psychiatric clinics in Tehran during 1989 and spring 1990. Of these, 34 persons (37.4% who showed higher symptoms of disorders were hospitalized and 57 (62.6% who showed milder signs of disorders were carefully diagnosed mentally and psychologically as outpatients. The prevalent disorders revealed by this study were adjustment disorders (48.3%, mood disorders (22%, schizophrenia (11%, anxiety disorder (9.9% and organic mental disorders (7.7%. The survey showed statistically the existence of a meaningful relation between the disorder severity with such factors as negative opinion of the prisoner's family on his going to the war front, and observance of martyrdom of co-fighters by the patient. However, no significant relation was observed between the severity of disorders and such factors as being involuntarily dispatched to the front, duration of captivity, type of being captive (singular or in group, having a previous record of solitary imprisonment, observing the treason of co-fighters during his captivity.

  17. Psychotic experiences and disability: Findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hans; Koyanagi, Ai; Kelleher, Ian; DeVylder, Jordan

    2017-08-07

    Psychotic experiences are associated with a number of poor clinical outcomes, including multimorbid psychopathology, suicidal behavior, and poor treatment response. We wished to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and disability, including the following domains: cognition, mobility, self-care, social interaction, role functioning, and days out of role. We used three nationally representative and racially/ethnically diverse samples of the general US adult population: the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between lifetime psychotic experiences (visual and auditory hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideation; WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview psychosis screen) and 30-day impairments in functioning across disability domains (using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II). In all three samples, models were adjusted for socio-demographics and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In the NCS-R, models were also adjusted for chronic health conditions. Across all three studies, our adjusted models showed that people with disability had anywhere from about 1.5 to over 3 times the odds of reporting lifetime psychotic experiences, depending on the domain. This was true for each disability domain, except self-care in the NLAAS and in the NSAL. Psychotic experiences are markers of risk for disability across a wide range of domains. This may explain the elevated rates of service utilization among individuals who report psychotic experiences and supports the need to assess for and respond to psychotic experiences even in the absence of psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Survey for management of BPSD in care managers and special psychiatric wards for people with severe dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiyoshi; Ozaki, Tohmi; Kawamata, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The integration of medical care and long-term care services is very important in managing dementia patients. We performed two surveys to explore how dementia patients and their symptoms were managed in care facilities (study 1) and at special psychiatric wards for people with severe dementia (study 2). (Study 1) One hundred and sixty-six care managers were subjects for the survey. The questionnaires were distributed at the meeting and recovered at the same meeting place. (Study 2) The questionnaires were sent by mail to 405 psychiatric hospitals with special psychiatric wards. The questionnaires were recovered from 105 wards (recovery rate: 26.0%). (Study 1) Over 60% of people the care managers take care of have dementia, and 1/3 of them showed severe dementia. The care managers felt that it is very difficult to manage dementia patients with severe BPSD. They were of the opinion that psychiatric care should be administered to those people. (Study 2) The average period of stay on the wards was about 2 years. One third of people stayed on the wards for over 3 years. The reasons why the people have to stay longer on the wards were as follows: severe BPSD, limited number of care facilities for patients to go to after discharge from the wards, and patients' families do not accept them in their homes. Care managers supposed that dementia patients with severe BPSD should be managed by specialists in dementia, psychiatrists, etc., at psychiatric hospitals. Patients on special psychiatric wards stayed for longer because of a limited number of care facilities which can manage them.

  19. Frequency and relevance of psychoeducation in psychiatric diagnoses: Results of two surveys five years apart in German-speaking European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kluge, Michael; Kissling, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychoeducation has been shown to reduce relapse rates in several psychiatric disorders. Studies investigating for which psychiatric diagnoses psychoeducation is offered and assessing its perceived relevance compared to other interventions are lacking. Methods A two-part questionnaire addressing these questions was sent to the heads of all psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Results were compared with those from a similar survey 5 years earlier. Results 289 o...

  20. Community psychiatric nursing in the Netherlands: a survey of a thriving but threatened profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, B.W.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Schene, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the Dutch community psychiatric nursing profession. In spite of their large numbers, estimated at 2900, Dutch community psychiatric nurses (CPNs) have contributed little to the international literature. The history of the profession reveals a

  1. Hipertensão arterial sistêmica e morbidade psiquiátrica em ambulatório de hospital terciário Hypertension and psychiatric morbidity: a tertiary care setting experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABELA M. BENSEÑOR

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A hipertensão arterial sistêmica representa um dos principais fatores de risco para as doenças cardiovasculares que são a principal causa de morte em nosso meio. Hipertensos que frequentam hospital terciário apresentam elevada co-morbidade incluindo distúrbios psiquiátricos. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a morbidade psiquiátrica em hipertensos graves. Este estudo foi realizado em ambulatório geral de hospital terciário: 41 pacientes (26 mulheres e 15 homens foram submetidos a consulta médica com aplicação do PRIME-MD, um questionário específico para diagnóstico de alterações psiquiátricas a ser realizado pelo clínico. A frequência de distúrbios psiquiátricos diferiu em homens e mulheres: 63,4% das mulheres na pesquisa apresentavam algum tipo de distúrbio contra 36,6% dos homens (p=0,012. A maior parte dos diagnósticos foi de distúrbios do humor representados pela depressão associada ou não a distúrbios ansiosos. A média de idade dos pacientes com distúrbio psiquiátrico foi 47,1 anos contra 59,3 anos dos pacientes sem distúrbio psiquiátrico (p=0,0049, mostrando a presença dos distúrbios psiquiátricos em pacientes mais jovens. Outros fatores pesquisados, como a pressão arterial sistólica, a pressão arterial diastólica e índice de massa corpórea não apresentaram diferenças em função dos distúrbios psiquiátricos apresentados. Concluímos que há grande co-morbidade psiquiátrica em hipertensos que frequentam ambulatórios de hospital terciário e que esses distúrbios são mais frequentes em mulheres e em pacientes jovens.Arterial hypertension is one of the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the main cause of death in Brazil. Hypertensive patients that have treated in tertiary care hospitals have shown elevated co-morbidity including psychiatric disturbances. Our objective is to study psychiatric co-morbidity among severe hypertensive patients. This study was performed in an

  2. Crime and Psychiatric Disorders Among Youth in the US Population: An Analysis of National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L.; Smith, Philip H.; Westphal, Alexander; Zonana, Howard V.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current knowledge regarding psychiatric disorders and crime in youth is limited to juvenile justice and community samples. This study examined relationships between psychiatric disorders and self-reported crime involvement in a sample of youth representative of the US population. Method The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N=10,123; ages 13–17; 2001–2004) was used to examine the relationship between lifetime DSM-IV-based diagnoses, reported crime (property, violent, other), and arrest history. Logistic regression compared the odds of reported crime involvement with specific psychiatric disorders to those without any diagnoses, and examined the odds of crime by psychiatric comorbidity. Results Prevalence of crime was 18.4%. Youth with lifetime psychiatric disorders, compared to no disorders, had significantly greater odds of crime, including violent crime. For violent crime resulting in arrest, conduct disorder (CD; OR=57.5; 95% CI=30.4,108.8), alcohol use disorders (OR=19.5; 95% CI=8.8,43.2), and drug use disorders (OR=16.1; 95% CI=9.3,27.7) had the greatest odds with similar findings for violent crime with no arrest. Psychiatric comorbidity increased the odds of crime. Youth with 3 or more diagnoses (16.0% of population) accounted for 54.1% of those reporting arrest for violent crime. Youth with at least 1 diagnosis committed 85.8% of crime, which was reduced to 67.9% by removing those with CD. Importantly, 88.2% of youth with mental illness report never committing any crime. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of improving access to mental health services for youthful offenders in community settings given the substantial associations found between mental illness and crime in this nationally representative epidemiological sample. PMID:25062596

  3. Reconsidering the definition of Major Depression based on Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenström, Tom; Jokela, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic definitions for depressive disorders remain a debated topic, despite their central role in clinical practice and research. We use both recent evidence and nationally representative data to derive an empirically-based modification of DSM-IV/-5 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A modified MDD diagnosis was derived by analyzing data from Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a multistage probability sample of adults (n=20 013; age ≥ 18 years) in coterminous USA, Alaska and Hawaii. The old and the newly suggested MDD definitions were compared for their associated disability (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule and number of disability days in past month), suicide attempt, and other covariates. Our data-driven definition for major depression was "lack of interest to all or most things" plus four other symptoms from the set {weight gain, weight loss, insomnia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, diminished ability to think/concentrate, suicidal ideation/attempt}. The new definition captured all the disability implied by MDD and excluded cases that showed no greater disability than the general population nor increased risk of suicide attempts. The lifetime prevalence of the new diagnosis was 14.7% (95% CI=14-15.4%) of the population, slightly less than for the old definition (16.4%; CI=15.4-17.3%). Only conservative modifications of MDD could be studied, because of restrictions in the symptom data. With only small adjusting, the new definition for major depression may be more clinically relevant than the old one, and could serve as a conservative replacement for the old definition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A National Survey of Psychiatric Mother and Baby Units in England

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Howard, Louise M; Slade, Mike; Johnson, Sonia; Gregoire, Alain; Elkin, Amanda; Gilburt, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This study identified all mother and baby units (MBUs) (defined in this study as inpatient psychiatric units where mothers and babies could be admitted that had at least four beds and were separate from other wards...

  5. The use of antipsychotic medication in child and adolescent psychiatric treatment in Denmark. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurell, Maria; Weischer, Merete; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2008-01-01

    The number of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders being treated with antipsychotic medication is increasing significantly; however, only a limited evidence-base is available on this topic, especially when children are concerned. This study reports and discusses the use of antipsyc...... patients received one or more additional treatment modalities other than medication. Antipsychotic medication has a definite role in the treatment of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Second-generation antipsychotics used as monotherapy prevail.......The number of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders being treated with antipsychotic medication is increasing significantly; however, only a limited evidence-base is available on this topic, especially when children are concerned. This study reports and discusses the use...... of antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents below 19 years of age in Denmark. A national cross-sectional survey registered the use of antipsychotic drugs on a given date. A questionnaire was sent to all child and adolescent psychiatric departments and all consultants in child and adolescent psychiatry...

  6. The morbidity and associated risk factors of cancer in chronic liver disease patients with diabetes mellitus: a multicenter field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Seike, Masataka; Ide, Yasushi; Mizuta, Toshihiko; Honda, Koichi; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Nakamuta, Makoto; Sata, Michio

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with various cancers; however, little is known of the relationship between cancer and diabetes in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the morbidity and associated factors of cancer, including the use of anti-diabetics, in CLD patients with diabetes. We performed a multicenter survey in 2012 and 478 CLD patients with diabetes were enrolled (age 64.3 ± 12.1 years, female/male 187/291). A frequency analysis of cancer and antidiabetic use was performed. Independent factors for cancer were analyzed using logistic regression and decision-tree analysis. The morbidity of cancer was 33.3%. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and extra-hepatic cancer were diagnosed in 24.7 and 11.3% of enrolled patients, respectively. The frequency of antidiabetic use was 66.5%. Of prescribed antidiabetics, 39% were dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors; however, their use was not significantly associated with cancer. In contrast, the use of exogenous insulin (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.16-4.21, P = 0.0165) and sulfonylurea (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.05-3.97, P = 0.0353) were independently associated with HCC and extra-hepatic cancer, respectively. In decision-tree analysis, exogenous insulin and sulfonylurea were also identified as a divergence factor for HCC and extra-hepatic cancer, respectively. We found a high morbidity of not only HCC, but also extra-hepatic cancer in CLD patients with diabetes. We also showed a possible association between the use of antidiabetics and the morbidity of cancer. Thus, a large-scale cohort study is needed to establish a therapeutic strategy for diabetes to suppress carcinogenesis in CLD patients.

  7. Psychiatric treatment of persons with HIV/AIDS: an HIV-psychiatry consensus survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenreich, Oliver; Goforth, Harold W; Cozza, Kelly L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A; Bachmann, Grace; Cohen, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Only sparse evidence from controlled clinical trials is available to guide the psychiatric treatment of persons with HIV/AIDS. The authors assessed and determined current treatment trends in AIDS psychiatry. Members of the Organization of AIDS Psychiatry (OAP) participated in a web-based survey. Of 159 members, 62 (39%) responded to the survey. Consensus emerged regarding first-line treatment for depression (escitalopram/citalopram), for psychosis and secondary mania (quetiapine), and for anxiety (clonazepam). Consensus statements can serve as a preliminary step toward providing some standardization of care for persons with HIV/AIDS.

  8. Childhood institutional care and personality disorder traits in adulthood: findings from the British national surveys of psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Roberts, Amanda; Coid, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Long-term institutional care in childhood is linked with behavioral and emotional problems and can negatively affect personality development. This study tested the hypotheses that institutional care constitutes a risk factor for adult personality psychopathology and that conduct disorder acts as a mediator to the institutional care effects, based on 544 community individuals and 470 prisoners aged 18-64 years. Childhood institutional care was associated with elevated dependent, histrionic, and narcissistic traits in the community sample and with schizoid traits in prisoners. Initial findings of associations of institutional care with cluster B personality traits in the two populations disappeared after adjusting for conduct disorder symptoms. Identification and treatment of conduct/behavior problems in children before or during care may help to reduce the risk of developing certain personality disorder traits.

  9. Lifetime Prevalence, age and gender distribution and age-of-onset of psychiatric disorders in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil: results from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2012-10-01

    To estimate prevalence, age-of-onset, gender distribution and identify correlates of lifetime psychiatric disorders in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey assessed psychiatric disorders on a probabilistic sample of 5,037 adult residents in the SPMA, using the World Mental Health Survey Version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Response rate was 81.3%. Lifetime prevalence for any disorder was 44.8%; estimated risk at age 75 was 57.7%; comorbidity was frequent. Major depression, specific phobias and alcohol abuse were the most prevalent across disorders; anxiety disorders were the most frequent class. Early age-of-onset for phobic and impulse-control disorders and later age-of-onset for mood disorders were observed. Women were more likely to have anxiety and mood disorders, whereas men, substance use disorders. Apart from conduct disorders, more frequent in men, there were no gender differences in impulse-control disorders. There was a consistent trend of higher prevalence in the youngest cohorts. Low education level was associated to substance use disorders. Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent among the general adult population in the SPMA, with frequent comorbidity, early age-of-onset for most disorders, and younger cohorts presenting higher rates of morbidity. Such scenario calls for vigorous public health action.

  10. Psychosis prevalence and physical, metabolic and cognitive co-morbidity: data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, V A; McGrath, J J; Jablensky, A; Badcock, J C; Waterreus, A; Bush, R; Carr, V; Castle, D; Cohen, M; Galletly, C; Harvey, C; Hocking, B; McGorry, P; Neil, A L; Saw, S; Shah, S; Stain, H J; Mackinnon, A

    2014-07-01

    There are insufficient data from nationwide surveys on the prevalence of specific psychotic disorders and associated co-morbidities. The 2010 Australian national psychosis survey used a two-phase design to draw a representative sample of adults aged 18-64 years with psychotic disorders in contact with public treatment services from an estimated resident population of 1 464 923 adults. This paper is based on data from 1642 participants with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 psychotic disorder. Its aim is to present estimates of treated prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of psychosis, and to describe the cognitive, physical health and substance use profiles of participants. The 1-month treated prevalence of psychotic disorders was 3.10 cases per 1000 population aged 18-64 years, not accounting for people solely accessing primary care services; lifetime morbid risk was 3.45 per 1000. Mean premorbid intelligence quotient was approximately 0.5 s.d.s below the population mean; current cognitive ability (measured with a digit symbol coding task) was 1.6 s.d.s below the population mean. For both cognitive tests, higher scores were significantly associated with better independent functioning. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was high, affecting 60.8% of participants, and pervasive across diagnostic groups. Of the participants, two-thirds (65.9%) were current smokers, 47.4% were obese and 32.4% were sedentary. Of the participants, half (49.8%) had a lifetime history of alcohol abuse/dependence and 50.8% lifetime cannabis abuse/dependence. Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive, integrative models of recovery to maximize the potential for good health and quality of life for people with psychotic illness.

  11. Psychological morbidity of farmers and non-farming population: results from a UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounsome, Barry; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Hounsome, Natalia; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2012-08-01

    The relatively high rate of suicide among UK farmers suggests that they may suffer greater mental health problems than the general population. This paper provides a comparison of the psychological morbidity of farmers and their partners/spouses with non-farmers. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was administered using face-to-face interviews with 784 attendees of agricultural shows in the UK. Results show that GHQ-12 scores for farmers and their partners/spouses were significantly higher (P employed or not in paid employment, having a non-supervisory position and living in a rural area were characterized by higher mean GHQ-12 scores compared to correspondent subgroups from the non-farming population.

  12. What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay; Glümer, Charlotte; Juel, Knud

    2015-09-01

    Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and different types of non-respondents to estimate alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity among non-respondents. Prospective follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in two cross-sectional health surveys. Denmark. A total sample of 39 540 Danish citizens aged 16 years or older. Register-based information on cause-specific mortality and morbidity at the individual level was obtained for respondents (n = 28 072) and different types of non-respondents (refusals n = 8954; illness/disabled n = 731, uncontactable n = 1593). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine differences in alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity, respectively, in a 12-year follow-up period. Overall, non-response was associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) of 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-1.78] for alcohol-related morbidity, 1.88 (95% CI = 1.38-2.57) for alcohol-related mortality, 1.55 (95% CI = 1.27-1.88) for drug-related morbidity, 3.04 (95% CI = 1.57-5.89) for drug-related mortality and 1.15 (95% CI = 1.03-1.29) for smoking-related morbidity. The hazard ratio for smoking-related mortality also tended to be higher among non-respondents compared with respondents, although no significant association was evident (HR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.95-1.36). Uncontactable and ill/disabled non-respondents generally had a higher hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with refusal non-respondents. Health survey non-respondents in Denmark have an increased hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with

  13. Sociodemographic and psychiatric predictors of attrition in a prospective psychiatric epidemiological study among the general population. Result of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet

    2013-11-01

    In prospective psychiatric epidemiological studies, attrition at follow-up can be selective, and can bias the research findings. Therefore, knowledge of predictors of attrition and of its different types (noncontact, refusal, inability to participate) is of importance. By means of (multinomial) logistic regression analyses, predictors of attrition were studied in the first 3-year follow-up of the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2), a prospective psychiatric epidemiological study among 6646 subjects of the general population aged 18-64 years. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics, physical health, mental disorders and their clinical characteristics, and experience with the previous interview were studied as predictors of attrition and of its different types. The attrition rate at follow-up was 20.2%. Refusal (14.2%) was more common than noncontact (4.6%) and inability to participate (1.4%). Compared to respondents, nonrespondents were more often younger, lower educated, unemployed and born outside the Netherlands. A less positive experience with the baseline interview and shorter interview duration also predicted attrition. Any 12-month mental disorder, the categories and separate mental disorders, and their clinical characteristics, were not significantly associated with attrition, after controlling for sociodemographics. Sociodemographic predictors and experience with the baseline interview differed between the three types of attrition, but these types were also hardly or not associated with previous mental disorders. The authors conclude that bias due to selective attrition was limited to sociodemographics and experience with the baseline interview. Mental health status at baseline was not of influence, possibly due to the large time investment to persuade respondents to re-participate and to find them in case of noncontact or removal to an unknown address. During follow-up waves of future prospective studies it is

  14. Burden of psychiatric morbidity among attendees of a secondary level hospital in Northern India: Implications for integration of mental health care at subdistrict level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Partha; Sagar, Rajesh; Malhotra, Sumit; Kant, Shashi

    2017-01-01

    There is little information available on the type, pattern, trend, and demographic differentials of psychiatric cases attending a subdistrict level facility in India. Our objectives were to describe the sociodemographic profile of the patients availing the psychiatric outpatient department services and document the diagnosis. This study is based on a retrospective analysis of routinely recorded administrative data collected during psychiatry consultations that took place between January 2010 and June 2014, at the subdistrict level hospital, Ballabgarh, Faridabad district, Haryana, Northern India. The data were abstracted in Microsoft Excel, scrutinized for duplicates, and cleaned in terms of the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision coding. Descriptive analysis was done for dependent variables and continuous variables were compared using independent t-test. A total of 2806 people (new registrations) were provided psychiatric consultations between January 2010 and June 2014. The mean age of males was 33.7 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.9, 34.5) and of females was 35.6 years (95% CI, 34.9, 36.3). Neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders (F40-F48) comprised the major category of diagnoses with 661 cases (24%), followed by unspecified mental disorders (F99) with 528 cases (19%), mood (affective) disorders (F30-F39) with 448 cases (16%), and episodic and paroxysmal disorders (G40-G47) with 334 cases (12%). We reported an increase in level and trend in the monthly attendance of patients who required psychiatric at a secondary care hospital in Northern India. We suggest that setting up of mental health units only at district hospital might not be a sufficient health system's approach as has been envisaged under the District Mental Health Program.

  15. Psychiatric services in primary care settings: a survey of general practitioners in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipanish Ratana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners (GPs in Thailand play an important role in treating psychiatric disorders since there is a shortage of psychiatrists in the country. Our aim was to examine GP's perception of psychiatric problems, drug treatment and service problems encountered in primary care settings. Methods We distributed 1,193 postal questionnaires inquiring about psychiatric practices and service problems to doctors in primary care settings throughout Thailand. Results Four hundred and thirty-four questionnaires (36.4% were returned. Sixty-seven of the respondents (15.4% who had taken further special training in various fields were excluded from the analysis, giving a total of 367 GPs in this study. Fifty-six per cent of respondents were males and they had worked for 4.6 years on average (median = 3 years. 65.6% (SD = 19.3 of the total patients examined had physical problems, 10.7% (SD = 7.9 had psychiatric problems and 23.9% (SD = 16.0 had both problems. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were anxiety disorders (37.5%, alcohol and drugs abuse (28.1%, and depressive disorders (29.2%. Commonly prescribed psychotropic drugs were anxiolytics and antidepressants. The psychotropic drugs most frequently prescribed were diazepam among anti-anxiety drugs, amitriptyline among antidepressant drugs, and haloperidol among antipsychotic drugs. Conclusion Most drugs available through primary care were the same as what existed 3 decades ago. There should be adequate supply of new and appropriate psychotropic drugs in primary care. Case-finding instruments for common mental disorders might be helpful for GPs whose quality of practice was limited by large numbers of patients. However, the service delivery system should be modified in order to maintain successful care for a large number of psychiatric patients.

  16. [Job Satisfaction Among Young Physicians Working in Psychiatric and Psychosomatic Care - Results of a Survey in Saxony, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantenburg, Birte; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2016-11-01

    Objective: Analysis of job satisfaction and intentions to quit among physicians working in psychiatric/psychosomatic care compared to physicians working in somatic care. Methods: Full postal survey of all physicians ≤ 40 years of age registered with the State Chamber of Physicians of Saxony (response rate 40 %, n = 2357). Analysis was restricted to physicians working in patient care (n = 1901). Results: Physicians working in psychiatric/psychosomatic care as well as those in somatic care were rather satisfied with their overall job situation (mean: 3.48 [standard deviation: 1.01] vs. 3.40 [0.94], 5 point Likert scale). Physicians working in psychiatric/psychosomatic care were less satisfied with only 2 out of 20 aspects of job satisfaction. Nearly a quarter wished to leave patient care or to go abroad, which did not differ from physicians working in somatic care. Conclusion: The present study did not confirm international results indicating lower job satisfaction among psychiatrists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Crime and psychiatric disorders among youth in the US population: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L; Smith, Philip H; Westphal, Alexander; Zonana, Howard V; McKee, Sherry A

    2014-08-01

    Current knowledge regarding psychiatric disorders and crime in youth is limited to juvenile justice and community samples. This study examined relationships between psychiatric disorders and self-reported crime involvement in a sample of youth representative of the US population. The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N = 10,123; ages 13-17 years; 2001-2004) was used to examine the relationship between lifetime DSM-IV-based diagnoses, reported crime (property, violent, other), and arrest history. Logistic regression compared the odds of reported crime involvement with specific psychiatric disorders to those without any diagnoses, and examined the odds of crime by psychiatric comorbidity. Prevalence of crime was 18.4%. Youth with lifetime psychiatric disorders, compared to no disorders, had significantly greater odds of crime, including violent crime. For violent crime resulting in arrest, conduct disorder (CD) (odds ratio OR = 57.5; 95% CI = 30.4, 108.8), alcohol use disorders (OR = 19.5; 95% CI = 8.8, 43.2), and drug use disorders (OR = 16.1; 95% CI = 9.3, 27.7) had the greatest odds with similar findings for violent crime with no arrest. Psychiatric comorbidity increased the odds of crime. Youth with 3 or more diagnoses (16.0% of population) accounted for 54.1% of those reporting arrest for violent crime. Youth with at least 1 diagnosis committed 85.8% of crime, which was reduced to 67.9% by removing individuals with CD. Importantly, 88.2% of youth with mental illness reported never having committed any crime. Our findings highlight the importance of improving access to mental health services for youthful offenders in community settings, given the substantial associations found between mental illness and crime in this nationally representative epidemiological sample. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setel Philip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

  19. Alcohol abuse in developed and developing countries in the World Mental Health Surveys: Socially defined consequences or psychiatric disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Meyer D; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Petukhova, Maria; Andrade, Laura Helena; Anthony, James C; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Degenhardt, Louisa; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Karam, Elie G; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Neumark, Yehuda; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J; Tomov, Toma; Wells, J Elisabeth; Chatterji, Somnath; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    Previous single country research has raised concerns that: (1) the DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol abuse (AA) is met primarily through the hazardous use criterion related to drinking and driving and (2) that the hazardous use and social consequences AA criteria primarily reflect varying socioeconomic and cultural factors rather than psychiatric disorder. Using representative cross-national data from the 21 countries in the World Mental Health surveys, adults meeting DSM-IV lifetime criteria for AA but not dependence from 10 developed (n=46,071) and 11 developing (n=49,761) countries were assessed as meeting AA with the hazardous use or the social consequences criteria. Between 29.3% (developed) and 16.2% (developing) of respondents with AA met only the hazardous use criterion. AA cases with and without hazardous use were similar in age-of-onset, course, predictors, and psychopathological consequences in both developed and developing countries. Despite some associations of the AA criteria with socioeconomic factors, the hazardous use and social consequences criteria were significantly associated with psychiatric predictors and sequelae. The findings indicate that these criteria reflect psychiatric disorder and are appropriate for inclusion as DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder criteria. These findings support a psychiatric rather than a sociocultural view of the hazardous use and social consequences symptoms and provide evidence that they are appropriate diagnostic criteria cross-nationally with utility in a wide range of socioeconomic environments. This suggests consideration for their adoption by ICD-11. Further research is needed on the implications of these results for prevention and treatment. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  20. Do gaming motives mediate between psychiatric symptoms and problematic gaming? An empirical survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Ballabio, M.; Griffiths, MD; Urbán, R; Quartiroli, A; Demetrovics, Z; Király, O

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that motives play an important role in several potentially addictive activities including online gaming. The aims of the present study were to (i) examine the mediation effect of different online gaming motives between psychiatric distress and problematic online gaming, and (ii) validate Italian versions of the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire, and the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire. Data collection took place online and targeted Italian-speakin...

  1. Violent behavior in acute psychiatric inpatient facilities: a national survey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancosino, Bruno; Delmonte, Sara; Grassi, Luigi; Santone, Giovanni; Preti, Antonio; Miglio, Rossella; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    Violence committed by acute psychiatric inpatients represents an important and challenging problem in clinical practice. Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment information were collected for 1324 patients (677 men and 647 women) admitted to Italian public and private acute psychiatric inpatient facilities during an index period in 2004, and the sample divided into 3 groups: nonhostile patients (no episodes of violent behavior during hospitalization), hostile patients (verbal aggression or violent acts against objects), and violent patients (authors of physical assault). Ten percent (N = 129) of patients showed hostile behavior during hospitalization and 3% (N = 37) physically assaulted other patients or staff members. Variables associated with violent behavior were: male gender, attitude at admission, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, personality disorder, mental retardation, organic brain disorder or substance/alcohol abuse. Violent behavior during hospitalization was a predictive factor for higher Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores and for lower Personal and Social Performance scale scores at discharge. Despite the low percentage of violent and hostile behavior observed in Italian acute inpatient units, this study shed light on a need for the careful assessment of clinical and treatment variables, and greater effort aimed at improving specific prevention and treatment programs of violent behavior.

  2. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Noor Ani; Mohamad Kasim, Noraida; Mahmud, Nur Azna; Mohd Yusof, Yusniza; Othman, Salimah; Chan, Ying Ying; Abd Razak, Mohamad Aznuddin; Yusof, Muslimah; Omar, Maisarah; Abdul Aziz, Fazly Azry; Jamaluddin, Rasidah; Ibrahim Wong, Norazizah; Aris, Tahir

    2017-09-29

    Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washington Group questionnaire was used to collect data on disability. Based on the definition of having at least one domain scored "a lot of difficulty or unable to do at all" or at least "some difficulty" scored in two domains, the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia was 11.8% (95% CI: 11.15, 12.53). Logistic regression analysis performed showed that population at risk of having disability in Malaysia were those of older people, ethnic minority, low level of education, single, obese, physically inactive and having mental health problems. Among older people, disability was significantly higher among those with no formal education, having mental health problems and physically inactive. The prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia is comparable to WHO estimates and most developing countries. Planning for healthcare services should consider at-risk population, particularly older people and those from disadvantaged background to ensure equity healthcare.

  3. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ani Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. Methods This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washington Group questionnaire was used to collect data on disability. Results Based on the definition of having at least one domain scored "a lot of difficulty or unable to do at all" or at least “some difficulty” scored in two domains, the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia was 11.8% (95% CI: 11.15, 12.53. Logistic regression analysis performed showed that population at risk of having disability in Malaysia were those of older people, ethnic minority, low level of education, single, obese, physically inactive and having mental health problems. Among older people, disability was significantly higher among those with no formal education, having mental health problems and physically inactive. Conclusions The prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia is comparable to WHO estimates and most developing countries. Planning for healthcare services should consider at-risk population, particularly older people and those from disadvantaged background to ensure equity healthcare.

  4. Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity as Predictors of Premature Mortality in Swedish Drug Abusers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study 1970-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyhlén, Anna; Fridell, Mats; Bäckström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had...... an increased risk of premature death to the age of 69. Drug related premature death was predicted by male gender, the use of opiates or barbiturates and depression and anxiety disorders at first admission. The predicted cumulative incidence of drug related death was significantly higher in opiate......Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates...

  5. Poverty and severe psychiatric disorder in the U.S.: evidence from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Brandon; Jones, Kristine; Mitra, Sophie

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that persons with severe psychiatric disorders are more likely to be poor and face disparities in education and employment outcomes. Poverty rates, the standard measure of poverty, give no information on how far below the poverty line this group falls. This paper compares the poverty rate, poverty depth (distance from the poverty line) and poverty severity (inequality of incomes below the poverty line) of households with and without a working-age member with severe psychiatric disorder in the United States using data from the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). First, we perform multivariate analysis of the association between severe disorder and poverty depth using MEPS data. Second, we calculate poverty rates, depth, and severity for the subgroup of households having a member with disorder and compare to the subgroup of households without such a member. In multivariate regressions, the presence of a household member with severe psychiatric disorder predicts a 52-percentage point increase in poverty depth and 3.10 times the odds of being poor. Poverty rate, depth, and severity are significantly greater for households of persons with disorder. Mean total incomes are lower for households of persons with severe disorder compared to other households while mean health expenditures are similar. Severe psychiatric disorder is associated with greater depth of poverty and likelihood of being poor. We identify groups who are the most disadvantaged according to severity of income poverty among households with severe psychiatric disorder. These include households whose head has no high school education, who has been without work for the entire year, and who is black or Hispanic. While these characteristics are related to poverty for the overall sample, they correlate to heightened poverty severity when combined with severe disorder. Families face less severity than single persons but poverty rate, depth, and severity increase for both

  6. Psychiatric correlates of past year adult bullying behaviors: Findings from the National Epidemiology Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Katherine A; Thorisdottir, Audur S; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2016-12-30

    Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviour and psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 239 individuals (138 males, 101 females) reported engaging in bullying behaviour within the past-year. Mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were all more common among bully perpetrators compared to others. Of note, strong associations were found between PTSD and bully perpetration. Findings from the current study demonstrate strong associations between bullying perpetration and mental health concerns. The proximity of bullying behaviors and mental health concerns may be important, suggesting avenues for efforts at intervention and bullying prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Co-morbidities in patients with heart failure : an analysis of the European Heart Failure Pilot Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Vincent M.; Urso, Renato; Laroche, Cecile; Damman, Kevin; Dahlstrom, Ulf; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    Aims Co-morbidities frequently accompany heart failure (HF), contributing to increased morbidity and mortality, and an impairment of quality of life. We assessed the prevalence, determinants, regional variation, and prognostic implications of co-morbidities in patients with chronic HF in Europe.

  8. Comorbilidad psiquiátrica y epilepsia en niños y adolescentes con discapacidades mentales Psychiatric co-morbidity and epilepsy in children and adolescents with mental disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadieska Benítez Gort

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La epilepsia es una condición médica de alta representación en la población infanto juvenil a nivel mundial, y si particularizamos esta en retrasados mentales, encontramos cifras bien elevadas en este tipo de población. Por tanto, no resulta raro el interés por estudiar si ella influye de alguna manera en el comportamiento de la comorbilidad psiquiátrica en niños y adolescentes con discapacidad cognitiva. Si a este acápite le añadimos la influencia de los síndromes genéticos y de la sicopatología parental en el comportamiento de la comorbilidad psiquiátrica de estos niños y adolescentes, estaremos obteniendo un compendio muy completo y actualizado sobre la influencia de importantes factores biológicos en esta particular condición. El objetivo de la presente revisión es profundizar en el conocimiento de este acápite y actualizarlo según los estudios más recientes y avanzados del tema. Se encontrará aquí la unanimidad de investigadores en el criterio de la influencia directa de estos factores en la mayor presencia de comorbilidades psiquiátricas en poblaciones de discapacitados cognitivos, así como los principales aspectos de ella que favorecen este comportamiento.Epilepsy is a medical condition of high representation in the infantile-youthful population at world level and if we characterize it in mentally retarded persons, it is possible to find very high figures in this type of population. Thus, it is usual the interest to study if it influence somehow in the behavior of psychiatric co-morbidity in children and adolescents presenting with cognitive inability. If to this paragraph we added the influence of genetic syndromes and of the parental psychopathology in the behavior of above mentioned co-morbidity in these children and adolescents, we will be achieving a very complete and updated compendium on the influence of significant biological factors in this particular condition. The objective of present review is to study

  9. Morbidity of childhood onset narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Pickering, Line; Thorstensen, Eva Wiberg

    2017-01-01

    Narcolepsy is associated with significant morbidities. We evaluated the morbidities and mortality in a national group of child and adolescent patients after a first diagnosis of narcolepsy. METHODS: Identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), 243 patients (128 boys) aged 0-19 years...... children presented significantly more diagnoses of multiple comorbidities than controls before and after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Before and after a diagnosis of narcolepsy in children, morbidity is more frequent in several domains, including metabolic, psychiatric, neurological and other diseases....

  10. Duration of daily TV/screen watching with cardiovascular, respiratory, mental and psychiatric health: Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-01-01

    The link of duration of TV and/or screen watching and chronic health conditions by subtypes is unclear. Therefore, the relationship between TV and/or screen watching hours and cardiovascular, respiratory, mental and psychiatric health and well-being (happiness) was assessed in an independent population-based survey to identify correlations of various hours with health conditions. Data was retrieved from the Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions and TV and/or screen watching duration in both Scottish adults and children was collected by annual household interviews. Chi-square test and survey weighted logistic and multi-nominal modelling were performed. 5527 (57.0%) Scottish adults aged 16-99 watched TV and/or screen daily for 3 + h on average. There was a trend toward more hypertension, angina, stroke, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and poor self-rated health and mental health. Reporting watching TV and/or screen for 4 + h, for 5 + h and for 8 + h was associated with higher rates of heart attack, heart murmur or other heart troubles and abnormal heart rhythms, respectively. 414 (20.7%) Scottish children aged 4-12 watched TV and/or screen for 3h or more. They tended to have poor self-rated health and life difficulties perceived as emotional and behavioural problems. There were associations between various hours of TV and/or screen watching (3+h) and poor health observed both in Scottish adults and children. Future educational and public health programmes minimising TV and/or screen watching in order to protect cardiovascular, respiratory, mental and psychiatric health might be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Beeler, Nadja; Pühse, Uwe; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs) are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. All psychiatric hospitals (N=55) in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%), sports therapy (97%), activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%), physiotherapy (85%), body therapies (59%), far-east techniques (57%), and hippotherapy (22%). Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not participate in PAEPs. Furthermore, those who do participate cannot continue to do so following discharge. PAEP providers need specific extended vocational trainings and believe that the potential of PA should be improved.

  12. Assessing the risk of self-diagnosed malaria in urban informal settlements of Nairobi using self-reported morbidity survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugisha Frederick

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the belief that Nairobi is a low risk zone for malaria, little empirical data exists on malaria risk in the area. The aim of this study was to explore the risk of perceived malaria and some associated factors in Nairobi informal settlements using self-reported morbidity survey. Methods The survey was conducted from May to August 2004 on 7,288 individuals in two informal settlements of Nairobi. Participants were asked to report illnesses they experienced in the past 14 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of perceived-malaria. The model included variables such as site of residence, age, ethnicity and number of reported symptoms. Results Participants reported 165 illnesses among which malaria was the leading cause (28.1%. The risk of perceived-malaria was significantly higher in Viwandani compared to Korogocho (OR 1.61, 95%CI: 1.10–2.26. Participants in age group 25–39 years had significantly higher odds of perceived-malaria compared to those under-five years (OR 2.07, 95%CI: 1.43–2.98. The Kikuyu had reduced odds of perceived-malaria compared to other ethnic groups. Individuals with five and more symptoms had higher odds compared to those with no symptoms (OR 23.69, 95%CI: 12.98–43.23. Conclusion Malaria was the leading cause of illness as perceived by the residents in the two informal settlements. This was rational as the number of reported symptoms was highly associated with the risk of reporting the illness. These results highlight the need for a more comprehensive assessment of malaria epidemiology in Nairobi to be able to offer evidence-based guidance to policy on malaria in Kenya and particularly in Nairobi.

  13. [Discharge curve among psychiatric patients after admission and risk factors associated with long stay based on "patient survey"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshiharu; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    The "Reform Vision of Mental Health Services" (2004) announced the basic policy for the transition from hospital based to community based care, and set up numerical objectives, such as the average proportion remaining hospitalized in the first year after admission and the incidence rate of discharge among psychiatric patients hospitalized for more than one year. Using data from the "Patient Survey" performed in 2002 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, we estimated discharge curves for each mental disorder during the first year after admission and assessed the effects of variables, i.e., diagnosis, sex, age, hospital type, and residential area, on remaining hospitalized after one year from admission and the incidence rate of discharge among psychiatric patients hospitalized for more than one year. The estimated number of discharged psychiatric patients was 27,974 in September, 2002, and 86% of them were discharged less than one year after admission. The incidence rate of discharge (per 100 person-year) in the first year was 314.8, but the rate after the second year sharply decreased to 19.9. Patients with dementia, mental retardation, and schizophrenia tended to stay for a long period in hospital, and proportions remaining hospitalized after one year from admission were 27.0%, 16.4%, and 14.6% respectively. Based on multivariate analysis using the weighted Poisson regression model, risk factors associated with an increased chance of remaining hospitalized after the first year included a long length of continuous hospitalization, diagnoses of dementia, mental retardation, and schizophrenia, male, older age, and being in a mental hospital. On the other hand, as to the incidence rate of discharge after one year, a long length of continuous hospitalization and being in a mental hospital were related with a long stay, but other variables were slightly different. Being female, patients aged 45-54 years old, and diagnoses of epilepsy and schizophrenia were

  14. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among adults with psychotic experiences: data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Lukens, Ellen P; Link, Bruce G; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death, especially among individuals with psychotic disorders, and may also be common among nonclinical populations of adults with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Understanding this association has the potential to critically bolster suicide prevention efforts. To examine the association between 12-month suicidality and 12-month psychotic experiences and to test the hypotheses that psychotic experiences are associated with increased prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts during the concurrent period and with greater severity of suicidal behavior. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from a large general population-based sample of households in the United States identified through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (2001-2003). Adult household residents (n = 11,716) were selected using a clustered multistage sampling design with oversampling of racial/ethnic minority groups. Logistic regression models were adjusted for potential demographic confounders and co-occurring DSM-IV mental health conditions. Twelve-month psychotic experiences assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0 psychosis screen. Twelve-month suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Respondents reporting psychotic experiences were more likely to report concurrent suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR], 5.24; 95% CI, 2.85-9.62) and suicide attempts (OR, 9.48; 95% CI, 3.98-22.62). Most respondents with psychotic experiences (mean [SE], 65.2% [4.2%]) met criteria for a DSM-IV depressive, anxiety, or substance use disorder. Among respondents with suicidal ideation, those with psychotic experiences were likely to make an attempt during the concurrent 12-month period (OR, 3.49; 95% CI, 1.05-11.58) when adjusting for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In contrast, depressive (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 0.62-4.52), anxiety (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.40-6.09), and substance use disorders (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0

  15. Complete immunization coverage and its determinants among children in Malaysia: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K K; Chan, Y Y; Noor Ani, A; Rohani, J; Siti Norfadhilah, Z A; Santhi, M R

    2017-12-01

    The success of the Expanded Program on Immunization among children will greatly reduce the burden of illness and disability from vaccine preventable diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the complete immunization coverage and its determinants among children aged 12-23 months in Malaysia. Cross-sectional study. Data on immunization were extracted from the 2016 National Health and Morbidity Survey. Complete immunization coverage was classified as received all recommended primary vaccine doses by the age of 12 months and verified by vaccination cards, and incompletely immunized if they received partially recommended vaccine dose or not received any recommended vaccine dose or had no vaccination card. The multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the sociodemographic factors associated with complete immunization coverage. The overall complete immunization coverage among children (verified by cards) was 86.4% (n = 8920, 95% confidence interval: 85.4-87.4). Multivariable logistic regression analyses model revealed that factors significantly associated with complete immunization coverage were ethnicity, occupation of the mother, head of household's education level, and head of household's occupation. While sex, citizenship, household income, mother's age, and marital status were not significantly associated with complete immunization coverage. According to the World Health Organization criteria, the present study demonstrated that the immunization coverage of 86.4% is still unsatisfactory. Thus, the current intervention program should be enhanced in order to achieve the 95% coverage for all antigens in the national vaccination program. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Racial and ethnic differences in diabetes mellitus among people with and without psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Blanco, Carlos; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Lin, Keng-Han; Lui, Shang-Min; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a nationally representative sample of adults with and without common psychiatric disorders. Data were drawn from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=34,653). Logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic variables and diabetes risk factors were used to examine racial/ethnic differences in 12-month prevalence rates of diabetes by psychiatric status. Among people without psychiatric disorders, African Americans, Hispanics and American Indians/Alaska Natives, but not Asians/Pacific Islanders, had significantly higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and diabetes risk factors. In the presence of psychiatric disorders, these health disparities persisted for African Americans and Hispanics, but not for American Indians/Alaska Natives. No significant interactions between race/ethnicity and psychiatric disorders in the odds of diabetes were found across any group. Policies and services that support culturally appropriate prevention and treatment strategies are needed to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes among people with and without psychiatric disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  18. A National Survey of Graduate Education in Psychopharmacology: Advancing the Social Work Perspective on Psychiatric Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Shannon; Narendorf, Sarah; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Social workers' unique skills and professional perspective can contribute to improved practices in psychopharmacology, yet it is unclear how social work programs prepare students for this area of practice. This study examined instruction of psychopharmacology through a national Web-based survey of MSW program directors and instructors of…

  19. Feigned symptoms among defendants claiming psychiatric problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Seyed Mehdi; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Ghorbani, Mazaher; Nasrabadi, Zaynab Nasri; Meysamie, Ali Pasha

    2013-01-01

    Objective In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers. Method In a prospective study 45 malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran. Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher's exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%). Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032) and a higher level of education (P=0.008) than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040). With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048) for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034), mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000) and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039) for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants. Conclusion This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be useful in detection of malingering,; however

  20. Feigned Symptoms among Defendants Claiming Psychiatric Problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Saberi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be

  1. [Child psychiatric documentation in child visitation and custody disputes--results of a survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andritzky, Walter

    2003-12-01

    In the last decade, increasing divorce rates, a joint custodial concept, and a deficient legal situation of non-married fathers have been involuntarily provoking cases of a parent with child custody alienating that child in order to exclude the other parent from visitations and educational participation. Medical certificates are frequently of fateful importance in child custody litigation. In an mail survey conduced in six German cities, N = 133 child psychiatrists were asked about the frequency in which they issue such certificates, what certificates contained, what recommendations were made, and where possible the reasons why the other parent was not included in the diagnostic process. According to the results 74.4% of those surveyed were asked to issue such medical certificates at least once in the year prior to the survey; 42% of the psychiatrists stating that the other parent never or only sometimes participated. The symptoms most frequently certified were behavioural disorders (46%), aggression (34%), problems in school/ADD (28%), anxiety (26%), bed-wetting (23%), depression (21%), and psychosomatic reactions (20%). Outlining the characteristics of alienated children and of alienating parents, of "natural" and of "induced" stress-symptoms in children after parental separation, the article provides physicians and institutions of the health system with support to prevent medical certificates being abused in child custody litigation. Some fundamental guidelines are presented as to what aspects and should be explored and which persons referred to before certificates are issued to parents, social workers or judges of family law courts.

  2. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Br

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2 Flora Colledge,2 Nadja Beeler,2 Uwe Pühse,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Thorsten Mikoteit,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Markus Gerber2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods: All psychiatric hospitals (N=55 in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results: Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%, sports therapy (97%, activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%, physiotherapy (85%, body therapies (59%, far-east techniques (57%, and hippotherapy (22%. Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion: All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not

  3. The prevalence and correlates of lifetime psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures in urban and rural settings: results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McCall-Hosenfeld

    Full Text Available Distinctions between rural and urban environments produce different frequencies of traumatic exposures and psychiatric disorders. We examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and frequency of trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum.The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R was used to evaluate psychiatric disorders among a nationally-representative sample of the U.S. population. Rurality was designated using the Department of Agriculture's 2003 rural-urban continuum codes (RUCC, which differentiate counties into levels of rurality by population density and adjacency to metropolitan areas. Lifetime psychiatric disorders included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, mood disorders, impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse. Trauma exposures were classified as war-related, accident-related, disaster-related, interpersonal or other. Weighted logistic regression models examined the odds of psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum, adjusted for relevant covariates.75% of participants were metropolitan, 12.2% were suburban, and 12.8% were from rural counties. The most common disorder reported was any anxiety disorder (38.5%. Drug abuse was more common among metropolitan (8.7%, p = 0.018, compared to nonmetropolitan (5.1% suburban, 6.1% rural participants. A one-category increase in rurality was associated with decreased odds for war-related trauma (aOR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.95. Rurality was not associated with risk for any other lifetime psychiatric disorders or trauma exposure.Contrary to the expectation of some rural primary care providers, the frequencies of most psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures are similar across the rural-urban continuum, reinforcing calls to improve mental healthcare access in resource-poor rural communities.

  4. Physical activity and overweight/obesity among Malaysian adults: findings from the 2015 National Health and morbidity survey (NHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ying Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are growing health problems both worldwide and in Malaysia due to such lifestyle changes as decreased physical activity (PA, increased sedentary behavior and unhealthy eating habits. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA among normal-weight and overweight/obese adults and to investigate the association between PA level and overweight/obesity in Malaysian adults. Methods This study used data from the 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, a nationwide cross-sectional survey that implemented a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Respondents aged 18 years and above (n = 17,261 were included in the analysis. The short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was administered to assess the respondents’ PA levels. The respondents’ height and weight were objectively measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. The respondents were categorized according to BMI as either normal-weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2 or overweight/obese (≥ 25 kg/m2. Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Results Overall, approximately 1 in 2 respondents (51.2% were overweight/obese, even though the majority (69.0% reporting at least a moderate level of PA (total PA ≥ 10 MET-hours/week. In both normal-weight and overweight/obese groups, a significantly higher prevalence of high PA (total PA ≥ 50 MET-hours/week was observed among men than women (p < 0.001, but women reported a significantly higher prevalence of low and moderate PA than men (p < 0.001. Men reported significantly higher activity levels (in MET-hours/week than women with regard to walking, vigorous-intensity PA and total PA (p < 0.001. Overweight/obese men reported a significantly lower level of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA than normal-weight men (p < 0.001. A low level of PA was associated with the risk of overweight

  5. Measuring safety culture in belgian psychiatric hospitals: validation of the dutch and French translations of the hospital survey on patient safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree; Abdou, Emba Aissami; Schrooten, Ward

    2015-03-01

    To measure safety culture in Belgian psychiatric hospitals on 12 dimensions and to examine the psychometric properties of the Dutch and French translations of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) for use in psychiatric hospitals. The authors analyzed 6,658 completed questionnaires (70.5% response rate) from a baseline measurement (2007-2009) in 44 psychiatric hospitals and 8,353 questionnaires (71.5% response rate) from a follow-up measurement (2011) in 46 psychiatric hospitals. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated using item analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), reliability analysis (Cronbach's alpha), and analysis of composite scores and inter-correlations. For both translations, CFA showed an acceptable fit with the original 12-dimensional model. For the Dutch and French translations, EFA showed a 10-factor and a 9-factor optimal measurement model, respectively. Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable level of reliability (≥ 0.70) for 7 of 12 dimensions. Most pair-wise correlations were significant and safety culture in psychiatric hospitals. Our results also suggest the use of combinations of specific dimensions as recommended in previous research.

  6. determining treatment levels of comorbid psychiatric conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    ABSTRACT. Background: Psychiatric co-morbidities occur more frequently in patients with epilepsy but are usually under- treated. Treatment of these disorders is key to reducing mortality via suicide and other causes. This study determined the levels of treatment of psychiatric co- morbidities at clinics in Lusaka, Zambia.

  7. Co-morbidity in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder. The disease is associated with several co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. It is important to identify and treat these co-morbidities because they have...... a strongly negative effect on the overall health of patients with psoriasis. Unfortunately, these co-morbidities are often overlooked and/or left untreated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of how co-morbidities are associated with psoriasis as well as implications...... for the clinic to be able to recognize such co-morbidities. Areas covered: This is a review of studies investigating and discussing co-morbidities of psoriasis and screening. Literature was retrieved by searching on the PubMed database using individual and combined search terms related to relevant co...

  8. Psychiatric co-morbidity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Huong; Laursen, Bjarne; Stenager, Elsebeth N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of depression and anxiety in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have reported higher rates in MS patients than the general population. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of depression and anxiety and the use of tricyclic antidepressant and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...

  9. Co-morbid depression is associated with poor work outcomes in persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD: A large, nationally representative survey in the Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD is associated with poor clinical and psychological outcomes. However, the full extent of the burden of, and interaction between, this co-morbidity on important vocational outcomes remains less clear, particularly at the population level. We examine the association of co-morbid MDD with work outcomes in persons with and without CVD. Methods This study utilised cross-sectional, population-based data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 8841 to compare work outcomes of individuals with diagnostically-defined MDD and CVD, MDD but not CVD, CVD but not MDD, with a reference group of "healthy" Australians. Workforce participation was defined as being in full- or part-time employment. Work functioning was measured using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Absenteeism was assessed using the 'days out of role' item. Results Of the four groups, those with co-morbid MDD and CVD were least likely to report workforce participation (adj OR:0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6. Those with MDD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI:0.7-0.9 and CVD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9 also reported significantly reduced odds of participation. Employed individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD were 8 times as likely to experience impairments in work functioning (adj OR:8.1, 95% CI: 3.8- 17.3 compared with the reference group. MDD was associated with a four-fold increase in impaired functioning. Further, individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD reported greatest likelihood of workplace absenteeism (adj. OR:3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6. Simultaneous exposure to MDD and CVD conferred an even greater likelihood of poorer work functioning. Conclusions Co-morbid MDD and CVD is associated with significantly poorer work outcomes. Specifically, the effects of these conditions on work functioning are synergistic. The development of specialised treatment programs for those with co-morbid

  10. Mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes among psychiatric outpatients: findings from a cross-sectional survey in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Picco, Louisa; Lau, Ying Wen; Pang, Shirlene; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Participants 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD. Methods Data were collect...

  11. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes in South Australia: comparison of burden of disease morbidity and survey-based health utility estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Hawthorne, Graeme; Goldney, Robert; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2014-08-05

    Global research shows a clear transition in health outcomes over the past two decades where improved survival was accompanied by lower health related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by morbidity and disability. These trends suggest the need to better understand changes in population HRQoL. This paper compares two perspectives on population HRQoL change using burden of disease morbidity estimates from administrative data and self-reports from random and representative population surveys. South Australian administrative data including inpatient hospital activity, cancer and communicable disease registrations were used within a Burden of Disease study framework to quantify morbidity as Prevalent Years of Life lived with Disease and injury related illness (PYLD) for 1999 to 2008. Self-reported HRQoL was measured using the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) in face to face interviews with at least 3000 respondents in each of South Australia's Health Omnibus Surveys (HOS) in 1998, 2004 and 2008. Age specific PYLD rates for those aged 75 or more increased by 5.1%. HRQoL dis-utility in this age group also increased significantly and beyond the minimally important difference threshold. Underlying increased dis-utility were greater difficulties in independent living (particularly requiring help with household tasks) and psychological well-being (as influenced by pain, discomfort and difficulty sleeping). Consistent with increased quantity of life being accompanied by reduced HRQoL, the analysis indicates older people in South Australia experienced increased morbidity in the decade to 2008. The results warrant routine monitoring of health dis-utility at a population level and improvement to the supply and scope of administrative data.

  12. Pre- and post-surgical psychiatric assessments and intervention by major epilepsy centers in Japan - Nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goji, Hiroko; Fukuchi, Toshihiko; Kanemoto, Kousuke

    2017-05-01

    Although psychiatric issues following epilepsy surgery are now widely recognized as a major problem, actual awareness of these issues by epilepsy centers remains to be elucidated. This is the first known report regarding the use of psychiatric assessments and interventions by epilepsy centers throughout Japan. At the beginning of 2016, we sent a questionnaire regarding psychiatric assessments performed before and after epilepsy surgery, psychiatric intervention after surgery, and future plans for dealing with psychiatric issues in relation to epilepsy surgery, which consisted of a total of 24 items, to all members of the Japan Epilepsy Center Association (JEPICA). Nearly all major epilepsy centers in Japan are included in JEPICA, which had 31 members in 2016. Twenty-four (77%) of the 31 centers responded to the questionnaire. Seventeen (70.8%) centers answered that a psychiatrist was incorporated as part of their epilepsy surgery unit. In addition, 17 (70.8%) noted that psychiatric assessments were obtained prior to surgery, which were performed by psychiatrists in 8 (33.3%) centers and psychologists in 11 (45.8%). In 23 (95.8%) of the centers, the risk of occurrence of psychiatric illness following surgery was routinely explained prior to surgery, at least to surgical candidates with high susceptibility. In total, cases of psychiatric illness following surgery had been experienced in 16 (66.7%) centers, with depression as the most commonly encountered (41.7%), followed by anxiety (33.3%), psychosis (25.0%), and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (8.3%). Strong points of epilepsy centers in Japan include serious concern regarding post-surgical psychiatric illness by nearly all members of JEPICA and explanation of the risk of psychiatric adverse events provided beforehand to their patients. On the other hand, the small size of some epilepsy centers, along with lack of a standardized method for evaluation of psychiatric symptoms as well as dependence on the

  13. Estimation of high risk pregnancy contributing to perinatal morbidity and mortality from a birth population-based regional survey in 2010 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Libo; Yue, Hongni; Sun, Bo; Han, Liangrong; Tian, Zhaofang; Qi, Meihua; Lu, Shuyan; Shan, Chunming; Luo, Jianxin; Fan, Yujing; Li, Shouzhong; Dong, Maotian; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yixing; Lin, Wenlong; Xu, Jinzhong; Heng, Yongbo

    2014-09-30

    Neonatal mortality reduction in China over past two decades was reported from nationwide sampling surveys, however, how high risk pregnancy affected neonatal outcome is unknown. The objective of this study was to explore relations of pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes from a regional birth population. In a prospective, cross-sectional survey of complete birth population-based data file from 151 level I-III hospitals in Huai'an region in 2010, pregnancy complications were analyzed for perinatal morbidity and mortality in association with maternal and perinatal characteristics, hospital levels, mode of delivery, newborn birth weight and gestational age, using international definition for birth registry and morbidities. Pregnancy complications were found in 10% of all births, in which more than 70% were delivered at level II and III hospitals associated with higher proportions of fetal and neonatal death, preterm birth, death at delivery and congenital anomalies. High Cesarean section delivery was associated with higher pregnancy complications, and more neonatal critical illnesses. The pregnancy complications related perinatal morbidity and mortality in level III were 2-4 times as high as in level I and II hospitals. By uni- and multi-variate regression analysis, impact of pregnancy complications was along with congenital anomalies and preterm birth, and maternal child-bearing age and school education years contributing to the prevalence. This survey revealed variable links of pregnancy complications to perinatal outcome in association with very high Cesarean section deliveries, which warrants investigation for causal relations between high risk pregnancy and neonatal outcome in this emerging region.

  14. Survey of Abdominal Access and Associated Morbidity for Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Does Palmer's Point Warrant Further Awareness and Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William K; Linsell, Susan; Miller, David; Ghani, Khurshid R

    2017-03-01

    Laparoscopic access for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is often initiated in the periumbilical location. Palmer's point, located in the left upper quadrant, has been reported as an alternative access site for pelvic laparoscopy to reduce morbidity, but not widely reported among urologists. To better understand surgeons' preferences for access and its associated morbidity during RARP, we surveyed surgeons from two urologic organizations. An anonymous online questionnaire (SurveyMonkey) consisting of 17 questions that assessed training, experience, and preferences for RARP was emailed in December 2014 and collected until February 2015 to members performing RARP of the Endourology Society (ES) and the Michigan Urological Society Improvement Collaborative (MUSIC). Surgeons were also asked to share their personal experience with a vascular, death or life-threatening event (DOLTE), or bowel injury during RARP. Questionnaires were answered by 111 surgeons in total (ES, n = 71 and MUSIC, n = 40) with an estimated total response rate of 5.5%. In total, 77% reported prior experience with the Veress needle method before exposure to RARP and 71% of respondents primarily use the Veress needle for RARP, with 73% reporting access primarily at the periumbilical location. A personal experience with a vascular or a bowel injury during Veress needle insertion was reported in 18% and 9% of surgeons, respectively; furthermore, 26% of respondents were personally aware of at least 1 DOLTE among colleagues (5% reported 3 or more). The majority (56%) of respondents were unaware of Palmer's point, while among the minority aware of Palmer's point, only 33% reported ever using this location. In this survey, surgeons most commonly access the abdomen at the periumbilical location with a Veress needle for RARP with the majority not aware or utilizing Palmer's point. Nearly one in five surgeons reported a personal experience with a vascular injury during access for RARP

  15. Do mental health consumers want to improve their long-term disease risk behaviours? A survey of over 2000 psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlem, Kate; Bailey, Jacqueline; Metse, Alexandra; Asara, Ashley; Wye, Paula; Clancy, Richard; Wiggers, John; Bowman, Jenny

    2017-12-02

    Policies and clinical guidelines acknowledge the role mental health services have in addressing the physical health of individuals with a mental illness; however, little research has explored interest in reducing health risk behaviours or the acceptability of receiving support to reduce such risks among psychiatric inpatients. This study estimated the prevalence of four long-term disease risk behaviours (tobacco smoking, hazardous alcohol consumption, inadequate fruit and/or vegetable consumption, and inadequate physical activity); patient interest in reducing these risks; and acceptability of being provided care to do so during a psychiatric inpatient stay. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 2075 inpatients from four inpatient psychiatric facilities in one health district in Australia (October 2012-April 2014). Prevalence of risk behaviours ranged from 50.2% (inadequate physical activity) to 94.8% (inadequate fruit and/or vegetable consumption). The majority of respondents (88.4%) had more than one risk behaviour, and most were seriously considering improving their risk behaviours (47.6% to 65.3%). The majority (80.4%) agreed that it would be acceptable to be provided support and advice to change such behaviours during their psychiatric inpatient stay. Some diagnoses were associated with smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption, interest in reducing alcohol consumption and increasing fruit and/or vegetable consumption, and acceptability of receiving advice and support. The findings reinforce the need and opportunity for psychiatric inpatient facilities to address the long-term disease risk behaviours of their patients. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  16. Unemployment among Canadians with physical and a co-morbid mental disability: an examination of the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Erin; Alvarado, Beatriz E; Stuart, Heather

    2013-10-01

    Co-occurring disabilities are common and data indicate that those with both physical and mental disabilities face greater discrimination in the workforce. However, studies that consider disability type in determining labor market outcomes are needed; particularly in Canada. The objective was to examine the association of disability type and unemployment among working-aged Canadians using data from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS). The 2006 PALS is a post-censal sample survey of individuals whose everyday activities are limited due to a physical/mental condition. The study design is cross-sectional. Two groups were compared: persons with one or more physical disabilities exclusively vs. those with one or more physical disabilities and a mental disability. We calculated the prevalence of unemployment and used multiple logistic regression to measure the association between disability type and unemployment, while considering relevant covariates. The prevalence of unemployment was 20% overall; 35.4% in those with a co-morbid mental disability and 18.5% in those with exclusively physical disabilities. Those with a mental co-morbidity had approximately double the odds of being unemployed relative to those with exclusively physical disabilities and the effect remained significant (at p physical disabilities, individuals with co-morbid physical and mental disabilities were found to be at a significantly greater disadvantage when accessing employment. More research is needed to clarify whether these findings are indicative of discrimination and to proceed toward removing workplace barriers that persist in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Evaluation of suicide risk factors based on a survey of suicides and suicidal attempts at psychiatric hospitals in Aichi Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takao

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined cases of suicide, suicidal attempts, and risk factors in 41 psychiatric hospitals of Aichi Prefecture. As a result, some characteristics of psychiatric wards considered to be effective in suicide prevention were shown. In addition, as for measures to resolve risk factors and the state of the patients, there were many which were effective in the prevention of suicide attempts. Regarding measures to reduce risk factors for symptoms and treat patients, there were many techniques which were effective in the prevention of suicidal attempts, but, for cases which did not respond to treatment, suicide was frequent. In addition, a "suicide preventive manual in a psychiatric hospital" produced based on these results was distributed.

  18. Psychiatric screening of admissions to an accident and emergency ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G; Reinstein, D Z; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1991-04-01

    One hundred medical and surgical patients admitted to an accident and emergency ward were screened for psychiatric disorder. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 37 patients, 32 of whom were correctly identified by the GHQ. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with being single, lower social class, unemployment, homelessness and living in Bloomsbury Health District or north-east London. It was also associated with not being registered with a GP. The 14 overdose patients were no more likely to receive a psychiatric diagnosis than other patients, yet constituted most of the psychiatric referrals. Few patients were asked by medical staff about emotional worries or problems. A desire to be asked such questions and a past psychiatric history were associated with a psychiatric diagnosis. Routine screening of psychiatric morbidity in both medical and surgical patients and appropriate psychiatric referral of identified patients is recommended. A system of facilitating GP registration is necessary, as much of the morbidity identified could be contained within primary care.

  19. Survey of Canadian Kidney Transplant Specialists on the Management of Morbid Obesity and the Transplant Waiting List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gabriel; Soucisse, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased surgical complications and long-term cardiovascular mortality. Studies of access in kidney transplantation have found a bias against obese patients on the wait-listing. To determine the current state of clinical practice for the management of obesity in kidney transplantation. A survey in two versions, PDF and traditional paper, composed of categorical questions. A pan-Canadian survey of transplant nephrologists and surgeons. The survey PDF was distributed electronically to the Kidney Group of the Canadian Society of Transplantation. A shorter, hardcopy version was distributed subsequently at a national transplant meeting. There were 47 responses, including almost every Canadian adult transplant program. Most (81%) reported the use of a body mass index limit for access to the waiting list. However, only 40% reported a strict enforcement. There were several instances of intra-hospital disagreements regarding the use of a policy, among the centers with multiple responses. The body mass index limit was most commonly 40 kg/m 2 (62%), followed by 35 kg/m 2 (36%). Despite the body mass index limit, few centers (30%) reported having a weight management program. The reported experience with bariatric surgery was small, though nearly all replied that they would refer to a bariatric specialist in the future. This national survey provides a broad assessment of clinical practice. The distinction between an official policy and informal clinical tendencies is difficult. The results cannot be used to support any specific limit or policy. This survey found that the body mass index limit for access to the kidney transplant waiting list was common in Canada. Several inconsistencies suggest a lack of official policy. To achieve equity in access, clear guidelines for obesity should be established and enforced. Bariatric surgery has the promise of rapid weight loss. Resource allocation to study obesity in transplant patients will be essential.

  20. Time's up. descriptive epidemiology of multi-morbidity and time spent on health related activity by older Australians: a time use survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanisha Jowsey

    Full Text Available Most Western health systems remain single illness orientated despite the growing prevalence of multi-morbidity. Identifying how much time people with multiple chronic conditions spend managing their health will help policy makers and health service providers make decisions about areas of patient need for support. This article presents findings from an Australian study concerning the time spent on health related activity by older adults (aged 50 years and over, most of whom had multiple chronic conditions. A recall questionnaire was developed, piloted, and adjusted. Sampling was undertaken through three bodies; the Lung Foundation Australia (COPD sub-sample, National Diabetes Services Scheme (Diabetes sub-sample and National Seniors Australia (Seniors sub-sample. Questionnaires were mailed out during 2011 to 10,600 older adults living in Australia. 2540 survey responses were received and analysed. Descriptive analyses were completed to obtain median values for the hours spent on each activity per month. The mean number of chronic conditions was 3.7 in the COPD sub-sample, 3.4 in the Diabetes sub-sample and 2.0 in the NSA sub-sample. The study identified a clear trend of increased time use associated with increased number of chronic conditions. Median monthly time use was 5-16 hours per month overall for our three sub-samples. For respondents in the top decile with five or more chronic conditions the median time use was equivalent to two to three hours per day, and if exercise is included in the calculations, respondents spent from between five and eight hours per day: an amount similar to full-time work. Multi-morbidity imposes considerable time burdens on patients. Ageing is associated with increasing rates of multi-morbidity. Many older adults are facing high demands on their time to manage their health in the face of decreasing energy and mobility. Their time use must be considered in health service delivery and health system reform.

  1. Determinants of early childhood morbidity and proper treatment responses in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Van Huy, Nguyen; Choi, Sugy

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and 'illness with a cough' and treatments for each of the conditions among young children in Vietnam, and describes trends over time. Data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Multivariable logistic regressions were undertaken to investigate factors associated with these childhood illnesses and proper treatment patterns. Between 2000 and 2011, the prevalence of diarrhea among children under the age of five declined from 11 to 7%, while having illness with a cough increased to 40% in 2011 after falling from 69 to 28% between 2000 and 2006. During the same period, the prevalence of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for treating diarrhea increased from 13 to 46%, whereas the rate of seeking formal treatment for illnesses with a cough fell from 24 to 7%. Multivariable models indicated that children who were older than 2 years (odds ration [OR]: 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.53, peducation had higher odds of seeking ORT compared with mothers with the lowest level of education. Seeking formal treatment for children who have illness with a cough was associated with being in a household in the richest wealth quintile (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34-0.91, pimportance of identifying different risk factors for these two illnesses and also factors associated with healthcare-seeking behaviors in order to reduce the burden of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. Policies aimed at tackling childhood morbidities should include comprehensive strategies that impact on socioeconomic and environmental factors.

  2. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity among elderly people in Kosovo: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerliu, Naim; Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Ramadani, Naser; Brand, Helmut

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity in the elderly population of transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including a representative sample of 1890 individuals aged ≥ 65 years (949 men, mean age 73 ± 6 years; 941 women, mean age 74 ± 7 years; response rate: 83%). A structured questionnaire inquired about the presence and the number of self-reported chronic diseases among elderly people, and their access to medical care. Demographic and socioeconomic data were also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with chronic conditions. In this nationwide population-based sample in Kosovo, 42% of elderly people were unable to access medical care, of whom 88% due to unaffordable costs. About 83% of the elderly people reported at least one chronic condition (63% cardiovascular diseases), and 45% had at least two chronic diseases. In multivariable-adjusted models, factors associated with the presence of chronic conditions and/or multimorbidity were female sex, older age, self-perceived poverty and the inability to access medical care. This study provides important evidence on the magnitude and distribution of chronic conditions among the elderly population of Kosovo. Our findings suggest that, in this sample of elderly people from Kosovo, the oldest-old (especially women) and the poor endure the vast majority of chronic conditions. These findings point to the urgent need to establish a social health insurance scheme including the marginalized segments of elderly people in this transitional country.

  3. Minor ailments in pregnancy are not a minor concern for pregnant women: a morbidity assessment survey in rural Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Buddhika Agampodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although maternal mortality has become a major focus on global public health agenda, maternal morbidity is a neglected area of research. The purpose of this paper is to present the burden of acute maternal illness during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. Pregnant women residing in the Anuradhapura district with a gestational age more than 24 weeks through 36 weeks were recruited to the study using a two-stage cluster sampling technique. All pregnant women who consented participated in a detailed interview using a structured questionnaire. Self reported episodes of acute illness during pregnancy were the main outcome measures. Secondary outcomes were utilization of medical services and frequency of hospitalizations. RESULTS: Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP was experienced by 325 (69.7% of the 466 pregnant women studied. Other common symptoms were backache (152, 32.6%, dizziness (112, 24.0% and heartburn/regurgitation (107, 23.0%. Of the 421 pregnant women who reported ill health conditions 260 (61.8% women sought medical treatment for these illnesses. Total number of episodes that needed treatment seeking were 373. Hospitalizations were reported by 83 (17.8% pregnant women and the total number of hospitalizations was 109. The leading cause of hospitalization was NVP which accounted for 43.1% of total admissions and 49.1% of total days spent in hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Minor maternal ill health conditions affecting day-to-day life have a major burden on pregnancy period. Evidence based management guidelines and health promotion strategies are needed to control and prevent these conditions, in order to provide comprehensive, good quality maternal health care.

  4. Morbidade psiquiátrica e uso de álcool em gestantes usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde Psychiatric morbidity and alcohol use by pregnant women in a public obstetric service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone N Pinheiro

    2005-08-01

    emotional distress than those with non-problematic alcohol consumption. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a clinical sample from a public obstetric service in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. A non-probabilistic convenience sample of patients who were consecutively recruited comprised 450 pregnant women. Three questionnaires were applied: a sociodemographic profile, followed by the Psychiatric Morbidity Questionnaire (QMPA and a standardized questionnaire for collecting data on alcohol-related problems (abuse or dependence according to ICD-10 criteria. Univariate analysis (ANOVA was used for comparison between groups using central distribution measures and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: There were found 172 (38.2% problematic pregnant women with positive score (score >7 in the QMPA. A group of 41 (9.1% pregnant women with problematic alcohol consumption was detected according to ICD-10 criteria, 27 (6.0% of them diagnosed as alcohol abuse and 14 (3.1% as alcohol dependence. Alcohol abuse or dependence syndrome was related to greater emotional distress, i.e. higher mean scoring in anxiety, depression and alcohol QMPA subscales. CONCLUSIONS: Given the prevalence of emotional distress and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and high risk of mother-child health problems, careful evaluations in this population should be conducted by health professionals.

  5. WHO Multi-Country Survey on Abortion-related Morbidity and Mortality in Health Facilities: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Caron R; Tunçalp, Özge; Ganatra, Bela; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin

    2016-01-01

    According to the WHO, abortion accounts for about 8% (4.7-13.2) of maternal mortality worldwide. In 2010, the WHO Multi-Country Survey (MCS) on Maternal and Newborn Health collected data on over 300 000 women who were admitted in health facilities to receive pregnancy-related care. Abortion data were partially captured by centring on severe maternal outcomes (ie, near-miss or maternal deaths). Building on the experiences of the prior MCS as well as current WHO reproductive health projects, we are undertaking a multi-country survey to better capture the burden and severity of abortion-related complications and management among women presenting to the health facilities. This is a large cross-sectional study with prospective data collection. It will be implemented in health facilities in 30 countries across the WHO regions of Africa, Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia and Western Pacific. Countries and facilities will be identified through a multistage sampling methodology. Data collection will be at both the facility and individual levels, involving review of medical records and exit surveys with eligible women using audio computer-assisted self-interview. All women presenting to the health facilities with signs and symptoms of abortion complications will comprise the study population. Online data entry and management will be performed on a web-based data management system. Analysis will include prevalence of abortion-related complications and descriptive frequencies of procedural/non-procedural management and experience of care. Ethical issues of the consent process are addressed. Dissemination plans will involve the participating facilities and communities to further strengthen abortion-related research capacity within the MCS on Abortion (MCS-A) countries. Furthermore, dissemination of results will be an iterative process at both the facility and national level to potentially propagate positive changes to abortion-related policies and

  6. Health of national service veterans: an analysis of a community-based sample using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Charlotte; Rona, Roberto J; Iversen, Amy C; MacManus, Deirdre; Hotopf, Matthew; Dean, Kimberlie; McManus, Sally; Meltzer, Howard; Brugha, Traolach; Jenkins, Rachel; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T

    2011-07-01

    In the context of increasing concerns for the health of UK armed forces veterans, this study aims to compare the prevalence of current mental, physical and behavioural difficulties in conscripted national service veterans with population controls, and to assess the impact of length of service in the military. The compulsory nature of national service sets these veterans apart from younger veterans. Data are drawn from a nationally representative community-dwelling sample of England. We compared 484 male national service veterans to 301 male non-veterans aged 65+ years. There were no differences in mental, behavioural or physical outcomes, except that veterans were less likely to have "any mental disorder" than non-veterans (age adjusted OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.31, 0.99). Longer serving veterans were older but were not different in terms of mental, behavioural or physical outcomes. Community-dwelling national service veterans are at no greater risk of current adverse mental, physical or behavioural health than population controls.

  7. Mental health and health service use among post-national service veterans: results from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, C; Rona, R J; Iversen, A; MacManus, D; Hotopf, M; Dean, K; McManus, S; Meltzer, H; Brugha, T; Jenkins, R; Wessely, S; Fear, N T

    2011-02-01

    There is concern surrounding the psychological health and uptake of treatment services among veterans of the UK Armed Forces. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample were used to compare health outcomes and treatment seeking among 257 post-national service veterans aged 16-64 years and 504 age and sex frequency-matched non-veterans living in the community in England. Early leavers (<4 years service) were compared with longer serving veterans. Male veterans reported more childhood adversity and were more likely to have experienced a major trauma in adulthood than non-veterans. There was no association between any measure of mental health and veteran status in males, except reporting more violent behaviours [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-2.06]. In females, a significant association was found between veteran status and ever having suicidal thoughts (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.13-7.03). No differences in treatment-seeking behaviour were identified between veterans and non-veterans with any mental disorder. Early service leavers were more likely to be heavy drinkers (aOR 4.16, 95% CI 1.08-16.00), to have had suicidal thoughts (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.21-4.66) and to have self-harmed (aOR 12.36, 95% CI 1.61-94.68) than longer serving veterans. The findings of this study do not suggest that being a veteran is associated with adversity in terms of mental health, social disadvantage or reluctance to seek treatment compared with the general population. Some evidence implies that early service leavers may experience more mental health problems than longer-serving veterans.

  8. Gambling disorders, gambling type preferences, and psychiatric comorbidity among the Thai general population: Results of the 2013 National Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; McNeil, Edward B.; Tantirangsee, Nopporn; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims To estimate the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling, gender and age-group differences in gambling types, and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders among the Thai general population. Methods Analysis was conducted on 4,727 participants of Thailand’s 2013 National Mental Health Survey, a multistage stratified cluster survey, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diagnoses of problem and pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders were based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria with the following additional criteria for gamblers: more than 10 lifetime gambling episodes and a single year loss of at least 365 USD from gambling. Results The estimated lifetime prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling were 0.90% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–1.29] and 1.14% (95% CI: 0.58–1.70), respectively. The most popular type of gambling was playing lotteries [69.5%, standard error (SE) = 1.9], the prevalence of which was significantly higher among females and older age groups. The most common psychiatric disorders seen among pathological gamblers were alcohol abuse (57.4%), nicotine dependence (49.5%), and any drug use disorder (16.2%). Pathological gambling was highly prevalent among those who ever experienced major depressive episodes (5.5%), any drug dependence (5.1%), and intermittent explosive disorder (4.8%). The association between pathological gambling was strongest with a history of major depressive episode [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.4, 95% CI: 2.80–38.4]. Conclusion The study confirms the recognition of gambling disorders as a public health concern in Thailand and suggests a need for culturally specific preventive measures for pathological gamblers and those with a history of substance use disorders or major depression. PMID:27648744

  9. Gambling disorders, gambling type preferences, and psychiatric comorbidity among the Thai general population: Results of the 2013 National Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; McNeil, Edward B; Tantirangsee, Nopporn; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims To estimate the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling, gender and age-group differences in gambling types, and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders among the Thai general population. Methods Analysis was conducted on 4,727 participants of Thailand's 2013 National Mental Health Survey, a multistage stratified cluster survey, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diagnoses of problem and pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders were based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria with the following additional criteria for gamblers: more than 10 lifetime gambling episodes and a single year loss of at least 365 USD from gambling. Results The estimated lifetime prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling were 0.90% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-1.29] and 1.14% (95% CI: 0.58-1.70), respectively. The most popular type of gambling was playing lotteries [69.5%, standard error (SE) = 1.9], the prevalence of which was significantly higher among females and older age groups. The most common psychiatric disorders seen among pathological gamblers were alcohol abuse (57.4%), nicotine dependence (49.5%), and any drug use disorder (16.2%). Pathological gambling was highly prevalent among those who ever experienced major depressive episodes (5.5%), any drug dependence (5.1%), and intermittent explosive disorder (4.8%). The association between pathological gambling was strongest with a history of major depressive episode [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.4, 95% CI: 2.80-38.4]. Conclusion The study confirms the recognition of gambling disorders as a public health concern in Thailand and suggests a need for culturally specific preventive measures for pathological gamblers and those with a history of substance use disorders or major depression.

  10. Same-sex sexuality and psychiatric disorders in the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M; de Graaf, Ron; Ten Have, Margreet; Ransome, Yusuf; Schnabel, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Sexual orientation has been shown to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. This study compared whether sexual orientation-related disparities in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders are similar based on homosexual behavior versus attraction and tested whether, with increased acceptance of homosexuality, these disparities have diminished over time. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 was administered with a total of 6,646 Dutch persons, aged 18 to 64 years. Between 2.0% and 2.5% of the participants reported same-sex sexual behavior in the preceding year or same-sex attraction. Homosexually active persons and persons with same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of disorders than heterosexual persons. There were more disparities in the prevalence of disorders based on sexual attraction than based on sexual behavior. Comparing these results with a previous study, showed that no significant changes over time have occurred in the pattern of health disparities. Sexual orientation continues to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, stressing the need for understanding the origins of these disparities.

  11. Interkulturelle Kompetenz in der Facharztausbildung von Psychiatern in Deutschland: Ergebnisse einer Umfrage [Intercultural competence in the psychiatric training curriculum in Germany: Results of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machleidt, Wielant

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: This study was carried out to assess the situation of and the demand for specific training in transcultural psychiatry as part of the residency program in Germany. Method: A semistructured questionnaire with 30 questions (28 structured, 2 open was developed, for which the “Local Survey of Realities in Transcultural Psychiatry” of the (APA served as a model and was modified accordingly. This questionnaire was sent out to all directors of psychiatric training institutions in Germany (N = 450. The directors of official psychiatric training institutions are authorized for residency training by the state medical associations. The responses were not anonymous. Results: The return rate was 25.5% (N = 114. In 71.7% of the training institutions (81 out of 113 valid cases, specific training in transcultural psychiatry occurred only rarely or not at all. 83.3% of the directors of psychiatric training institutions (70 out of 84 valid cases reported a demand for training in transcultural psychiatry in their training institutions; in 94.5% of the cases, the directors of psychiatric training institutions (69 out of 73 valid cases reported a need for transcultural issues as part of the official curriculum of the psychiatric residency program in Germany. The most frequently reported aspects were teaching of general cultural competence and of culture-specific issues in mental disorders. Implications: Cultural aspects currently are not a mandatory part of the official training curriculum of the psychiatric residency training in Germany. With respect to the reported need for training in cultural issues of mental disorders, the implementation of transcultural psychiatry within the official curriculum of the psychiatric residency training in Germany should be discussed. [german] Zielsetzung: Ziel der vorliegenden Studie ist die Erhebung des Status quo der Weiterbildungssituation in transkultureller Psychiatrie für den Facharzt in

  12. Utilization of health care services for childhood morbidity and associated factors in India: a national cross-sectional household survey.

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    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information about utilization of health services and associated factors are useful for improving service delivery to achieve universal health coverage. METHODS: Data on a sample of ever-married women from India Demographic and Health survey 2005-06 was used. Mothers of children aged 0-59 months were asked about child's illnesses and type of health facilities where treatment was given during 15 days prior to the survey date. Type of health facilities were grouped as informal provider, public provider and private provider. Factors associated with utilization of health services for diarrhea and fever/cough was assessed according to Andersen's health behavior model. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were done considering sampling weights for complex sampling design. RESULTS: A total of 48,679 of ever-married women reported that 9.1% 14.8% and 17.67% of their children had diarrhea, fever and cough respectively. Nearly one-third of the children with diarrhea and fever/cough did not receive any treatment. Two-thirds of children who received treatment were from private health care providers (HCPs. Among predisposing factors, children aged 1-2 years and those born at health facility (public/private were more likely to be taken to any type of HCP during illness. Among enabling factors, as compared to poorer household, wealthier households were 2.5 times more likely to choose private HCPs for any illness. Children in rural areas were likely to be taken to any type of HCP for diarrhea but rural children were less likely to utilize private HCP for fever/cough. 'Need' factors i.e. children having severe symptoms were 2-3 times more likely to be taken to any type of HCP. CONCLUSION: Private HCPs were preferred for treatment of childhood illnesses. Involvement of private HCPs may be considered while planning child health programs. Health insurance scheme for childhood illnesses may to protect economically weaker sections from out

  13. Subjective outcome related to donor site morbidity after sural nerve graft harvesting: a survey in 41 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Alexander; Björkman, Anders; Chemnitz, Anette; Dahlin, Lars B

    2013-09-24

    The sural nerve is the most commonly used nerve for grafting severe nerve defects. Our aim was to evaluate subjective outcome in the lower leg after harvesting the sural nerve for grafting nerve defects. Forty-six patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire to describe symptoms from leg or foot, where the sural nerve has been harvested to reconstruct an injured major nerve trunk. The questionnaire, previously used in patients going through a nerve biopsy, consists of questions about loss of sensation, pain, cold intolerance, allodynia and present problems from the foot. The survey also contained questions (visual analogue scales; VAS) about disability from the reconstructed nerve trunk. Forty-one out of 46 patients replied [35 males/6 females; age at reconstruction 23.0 years (10-72); median (min-max), reconstruction done 12 (1.2-39) years ago]. In most patients [37/41 cases (90%)], the sural nerve graft was used to reconstruct an injured nerve trunk in the upper extremity, mainly the median nerve [19/41 (46%)].In 38/41 patients, loss of sensation, to a variable extent, in the skin area innervated by the sural nerve was noted. These problems persisted at follow up, but 19/41 noted that this area of sensory deficit had decreased over time. Few patients had pain and less than 1/3 had cold intolerance. Allodynia was present in half of the patients, but the majority of them considered that they had no or only slight problems from their foot. None of the patients in the study required painkillers. Eighty eight per cent would accept an additional sural nerve graft procedure if another nerve reconstruction procedure is necessary in the future. Harvesting of the sural nerve for reconstruction nerve injuries results in mild residual symptoms similar to those seen after a nerve biopsy; although nerve biopsy patients are less prone to undergo an additional biopsy.

  14. Determinants of early childhood morbidity and proper treatment responses in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Young Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. Objective: This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and ‘illness with a cough’ and treatments for each of the conditions among young children in Vietnam, and describes trends over time. Design: Data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Multivariable logistic regressions were undertaken to investigate factors associated with these childhood illnesses and proper treatment patterns. Results: Between 2000 and 2011, the prevalence of diarrhea among children under the age of five declined from 11 to 7%, while having illness with a cough increased to 40% in 2011 after falling from 69 to 28% between 2000 and 2006. During the same period, the prevalence of oral rehydration therapy (ORT for treating diarrhea increased from 13 to 46%, whereas the rate of seeking formal treatment for illnesses with a cough fell from 24 to 7%. Multivariable models indicated that children who were older than 2 years (odds ration [OR]: 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37–0.53, p<0.001, male (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.64–2.37, p<0.05, living in rural areas (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00–1.64, p<0.05, or of Kinh ethnicity (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56–0.87, p<0.01 were more likely to suffer from diarrhea. Ethnic differences and higher household wealth were factors significantly associated with having illness with a cough. In particular, the effect of level of wealth on illness with a cough varied in each wave. Mothers with higher levels of education had higher odds of seeking ORT compared with mothers with the lowest level of education. Seeking formal treatment for

  15. Gender-related influences of parental alcoholism on the prevalence of psychiatric illnesses: Analysis of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Peter T.; Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Offspring of individuals with alcoholism are at increased risk for psychiatric illness, but the effects of gender on this risk are not well known. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the gender of the parent with alcoholism and the gender of offspring affect the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric illness. Method We analyzed the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data to examine the gender-specific prevalence of Axis I and Axis II disorders in 23,006 male and 17,368 female respondents with and without a history of paternal or maternal alcoholism. Adjusted odds-ratios were calculated for the disorders based on gender and presence of maternal or paternal alcoholism. Results Maternal or paternal alcoholism was associated with a higher prevalence of every disorder examined, regardless of the gender of offspring. Gender-related differences in prevalences were present in nearly all examined disorders and the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric disorders was significantly different in men and women. These differences included stronger associations in female offspring of men with alcoholism (alcohol abuse without dependence); in female offspring of women with alcoholism (mania, nicotine dependence, alcohol abuse, and schizoid personality disorder); in male offspring of men with alcoholism (mania); and in male offspring of women with alcoholism (panic disorder). Conclusions Interactions between gender and parental alcoholism were specific to certain disorders but varied in their effects, and in general female children of women with alcoholism appear at greatest risk for adult psychopathology. PMID:20645936

  16. [A survey on the prejudice and the stereotypes of mental illness in two communities with or without psychiatric Residential Facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltro, Franco; Raimondo, Antonella; Porzio, Clementina; Nugnes, Teresa; Ciampone, Vittorina

    2005-01-01

    Description of prejudice and stereotypes of mental illness in two samples with or without psychiatric Residential Facilities in their communities. It has been evaluated if the ongoing naturalistic relationship with the mentally ill was sufficient to modify the stigma of mental illness. The study has been carried out in 7 small towns with Residential Facilities and in 7 small towns without Residential Facilities on a sample of 560 people. Each respondent was asked to fill the Questionnaire on the Opinions about Mental Illness-General Population's version (QO-GP). Data on 557 respondents (99.5%) were collected. The most frequent opinion in the general sample was to reject the possibility to admit patients to Psychiatric Hospital. The significance (p stereotypes of mental illness. The results outline that the ongoing naturalistic relationship do not modify the stereotypes of mental illness, but only some aspects of prejudice (care and civil rights). As a consequence we need to plan structured, effective and more specific educational campaigns on mental illnesses.

  17. Lifestyle, chronic diseases and self-rated health among Malaysian adults: results from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Lim, Kuang Hock; Yeo, Pei Sien; Kee, Chee Cheong; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani

    2015-08-06

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been demonstrated as a valid and appropriate predictor of incident mortality and chronic morbidity. Associations between lifestyle, chronic diseases, and SRH have been reported by various population studies but few have included data from developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of poor SRH in Malaysia and its association with lifestyle factors and chronic diseases among Malaysian adults. This study was based on 18,184 adults aged 18 and above who participated in the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS). The NHMS was a cross-sectional survey (two-stage stratified sample) designed to collect health information on a nationally representative sample of the Malaysian adult population. Data were obtained via face-to-face interviews using validated questionnaires. Two categories were used to measure SRH: "good" (very good and good) and "poor" (moderate, not good and very bad). The association of lifestyle factors and chronic diseases with poor SRH was examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Approximately one-fifth of the Malaysian adult population (20.1 %) rated their health as poor (men: 18.4 % and women: 21.7 %). Prevalence increases with age from 16.2 % (aged 18-29) to 32.0 % (aged ≥60). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, lifestyle factors associated with poor SRH included: underweight (OR = 1.29; 95 % CI: 1.05-1.57), physical inactivity (OR = 1.25; 95 % CI: 1.11-1.39), former smoker (OR = 1.38; 95 % CI: 1.12-1.70), former drinker (OR = 1.27; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.62), and current drinker (OR = 1.35; 95 % CI: 1.08-1.68). Chronic diseases associated with poor SRH included: asthma (OR = 1.66; 95 % CI: 1.36-2.03), arthritis (OR = 1.87; 95 % CI: 1.52-2.29), hypertension (OR = 1.39; 95 % CI: 1.18-1.64), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI: 1.18-1.74), and heart disease (OR = 1.85; 95 % CI: 1.43-2.39). This study indicates that several unhealthy lifestyle

  18. Psychiatric disorders in Norwegian 8- to 10-year-olds: an epidemiological survey of prevalence, risk factors, and service use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiervang, Einar; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Bergen Child Study is a longitudinal study of child mental health from the city of Bergen, Norway. We present methods and results from the first wave of the study, focusing on prevalence of disorders, associations with risk factors, and the use of services. METHOD: The target...... population included all 9,430 children attending grades 2 to 4 in Bergen schools during the academic year 2002/2003. The main screening instrument was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, whereas diagnoses were based on the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Information about child and family......%) were assessed with the Development and Well-Being Assessment in the second phase. The weighted prevalence for any DSM-IV psychiatric disorder was 7.0% (95% confidence interval 5.6%-8.5%). Disorders were associated with age, gender, learning difficulties, family type, and poverty. Although 75...

  19. Awareness and perceptions of electroconvulsive therapy among psychiatric patients: a cross-sectional survey from teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Choudhary Maria

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is shown to be effective in many psychiatric illnesses, but its distorted projection by the Pakistani media and its unregulated use by many physicians across the country have adversely affected its acceptability. Given this situation we aimed to assess the awareness and perceptions regarding ECT as a treatment modality among the psychiatric patients. Methods This was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study carried out at 2 tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Results We interviewed 190 patients of which 140 were aware of ECT. The study showed that the level of education had a significant impact on the awareness of ECT (p = 0.009. The most common source of awareness was electronic and print media (38%, followed by relatives (24% and doctors (23%. Physical injuries (42% and neurological (12% and cognitive disturbances (11% were the commonly feared side effects. The most popular belief about ECT was that it was a treatment of last resort (56%. Thirty-nine percent thought that ECT could lead to severe mental and physical illness and 37% considered it inhumane. Patients' willingness to receive ECT was dependant on whether or not they were convinced of its safety (p = 0.001 and efficacy (p = 0.0001. Conclusion We identified a serious lack of dissemination of information regarding ECT by the psychiatrists and the mental health care providers. This may be the result of an inadequate postgraduate training in Pakistan or just a lack of concern about the mentally ill patients. The media seemed to be the major source of information for our patients. We also saw the prevalence of a variety of myths regarding ECT in our society, which we feel may be responsible for the patients' adverse attitudes. Given the widespread applicability of ECT there is a dire need to dispel these misconceptions and improve its acceptability.

  20. Trends in levels of self-reported psychological distress among individuals who seek psychiatric services over eight years: a comparison between age groups in three population surveys in Stockholm County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Lundin, Andreas; Lewis, Glyn; Fredlund, Peeter; Dal, Henrik; Dalman, Christina

    2017-10-11

    Psychiatric service use has increased in Sweden and in other developed countries, particularly among young people. Possible explanations include lower threshold for help-seeking among young people, but evidence is scarce. We analysed the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Stockholm public health surveys for changes in the mean level of psychological distress among adult users of psychiatric in- and outpatient services in four age groups: 18-24, 25-44, 45-64 and ≥65 years. Psychological distress was measured via the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), using the Likert scoring method 0-1-2-3. In- and out-patient psychiatric service use within 6 months from the surveys was obtained from registers. The mean level of distress among young adults 18-24 years who utilize psychiatric services decreased between 2002 (mean GHQ-12 score, 95% confidence interval 20.5, 18.1-23.0) and 2010 (16.2, 14.6-17.7), while it remained fairly stable in older age groups. Results were similar in sex-stratified analyses, although the decrease was statistically significant only among young women 18-24 years. At the end of the follow-up, the level of distress among patients was similar for all age-groups. There were no differences between age groups in the level of distress when seeking care at the end of the follow-up period, supporting that there is no age-specific over- or under-consumption of psychiatric care in later years. However, the lowered threshold for help-seeking among young adults over time might have contributed to increases in psychiatric service use in the young age group. Public health policy and service delivery planning should consider the needs of the widening group of young users of psychiatric services.

  1. How sustainable household environment and knowledge of healthy practices relate to childhood morbidity in South Asia: analysis of survey data from Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Masud

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Prevalence of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) is considerably high among South Asian children. The objective of this study is to compare the associations of sustainable household environment and knowledge of healthy practices with episodes of these diseases among the children in the region. Design The study analysed the latest, nationally representative and cross-sectional Demographic and Health Survey data. Setting Data from three countries were analysed: Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. Participants Women aged between 12 and 49 years living in selected households provided information on 23 940 of their children under the age of 5 years. Primary outcomes measures The morbidity status of the children was recorded with respect to episodes of diarrhoea and/or ARI in the 2 weeks preceding data collection. Results Consuming unhygienic drinking water increased the risks of childhood diarrhoea, and use of solid fuel for indoor cooking increased the risk of ARI, across all three countries investigated. However, far more significant were the effects of mother’s education, with incomplete primary education leading to an odds of diarrhoea approaching twice that of a mother with secondary education or higher (OR 1.70 in Bangladesh, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.49). Conclusions Results from the current research underline the importance of developing and implementing integrated strategic plans for mothers and children in the countries investigated. Promoting hygienic water and sanitation facilities can help reduce the prevalence of childhood diarrhoea. Replacing indoor solid fuel cooking arrangements with cleaner fuel or more airy conditions can help reduce the prevalence of ARI. However, these strategies need to be integrated with education for women to raise the likelihood that reduced risks are actually realised. PMID:28615269

  2. Psychiatric Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-01-01

    into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can...... then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691...

  3. Psychological morbidity and substance use among patients with hypertension: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey from South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboka, Matiwos; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Tesfaye, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Psychological morbidity and substance use disorders have been linked to cardiovascular diseases; affecting patients' medical outcome and quality of life. However, little is known about psychological morbidity and substance use among patients with hypertension in Ethiopia. Therefore, we aimed to assess psychological comorbidity and substance use among hypertensive patients in Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 396 hypertensive patients on follow-up at Jimma University Teaching Hospital in Ethiopia during the study period. Structured questionnaires were used to assess alcohol use, khat chewing and cigarette smoking. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the Kessler-6 scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the independent association between outcome and explanatory variables. The prevalence of psychological morbidity among hypertensive patients was 31.6%. Of the total participants, 31 (7.8%) of them had alcohol use disorders and 79 (19.9%) of them were using khat regularly at the time of the study. Singles were more likely to have psychological morbidity than married participants (AOR = 4.72; 95% CI 1.83, 12.20, p = 0.001), whereas those who were able to 'read and write' were less likely to have psychological morbidity than non-literate ones (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.24, 0.89, p = 0.02). However, no association was seen between psychological morbidity and substance use (khat chewing, alcohol use and cigarette smoking), belief about hypertension, ever discontinuation of medication and lifestyle (exercise, salt consumption). Psychological morbidity and substance use are prevalent among hypertensive patients on follow-up at the hospital. The findings of the study imply that there is a need for further studies to understand the effect of psychological morbidity on the clinical outcomes of hypertensive patients.

  4. Training in Psychiatric Genomics during Residency: A New Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Joel G.; Goebert, Deborah; Matsu, Courtenay; Mrazek, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors ascertained the amount of training in psychiatric genomics that is provided in North American psychiatric residency programs. Methods: A sample of 217 chief residents in psychiatric residency programs in the United States and Canada were identified by e-mail and surveyed to assess their training in psychiatric genetics and…

  5. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease (PD is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control, sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.

  6. Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotypes in Men and Boys with X-Linked Ichthyosis: Evidence from a Worldwide Online Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Chatterjee

    Full Text Available X-linked ichthyosis (XLI is a rare dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS. Preliminary evidence in boys with XLI, and animal model studies, suggests that individuals lacking STS are at increased risk of developmental disorders and associated traits. However, the behavioural profile of children with XLI is poorly-characterised, and the behavioural profile of adults with XLI has not yet been documented at all.Using an online survey, advertised worldwide, we collected detailed self- or parent-reported information on behaviour in adult (n = 58 and younger (≤18yrs, n = 24 males with XLI for comparison to data from their non-affected brothers, and age/gender-matched previously-published normative data. The survey comprised demographic and background information (including any prior clinical diagnoses and validated questionnaires assaying phenotypes of particular interest (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1, Barrett Impulsiveness Scale-11, adult and adolescent Autism Quotient, Kessler Psychological Distress Scales, and Disruptive Behaviour Disorder Rating Scale.Individuals with XLI generally exhibited normal sensory function. Boys with XLI were at increased risk of developmental disorder, whilst adults with the condition were at increased risk of both developmental and mood disorders. Both adult and younger XLI groups scored significantly more highly than male general population norms on measures of inattention, impulsivity, autism-related traits, psychological distress and disruptive behavioural traits.These findings indicate that both adult and younger males with XLI exhibit personality profiles that are distinct from those of males within the general population, and suggest that individuals with XLI may be at heightened risk of psychopathology. The data are consistent with the notion that STS is important in neurodevelopment and ongoing brain function, and with previous work suggesting high rates of

  7. Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotypes in Men and Boys with X-Linked Ichthyosis: Evidence from a Worldwide Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sohini; Humby, Trevor; Davies, William

    2016-01-01

    X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a rare dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). Preliminary evidence in boys with XLI, and animal model studies, suggests that individuals lacking STS are at increased risk of developmental disorders and associated traits. However, the behavioural profile of children with XLI is poorly-characterised, and the behavioural profile of adults with XLI has not yet been documented at all. Using an online survey, advertised worldwide, we collected detailed self- or parent-reported information on behaviour in adult (n = 58) and younger (≤18yrs, n = 24) males with XLI for comparison to data from their non-affected brothers, and age/gender-matched previously-published normative data. The survey comprised demographic and background information (including any prior clinical diagnoses) and validated questionnaires assaying phenotypes of particular interest (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1, Barrett Impulsiveness Scale-11, adult and adolescent Autism Quotient, Kessler Psychological Distress Scales, and Disruptive Behaviour Disorder Rating Scale). Individuals with XLI generally exhibited normal sensory function. Boys with XLI were at increased risk of developmental disorder, whilst adults with the condition were at increased risk of both developmental and mood disorders. Both adult and younger XLI groups scored significantly more highly than male general population norms on measures of inattention, impulsivity, autism-related traits, psychological distress and disruptive behavioural traits. These findings indicate that both adult and younger males with XLI exhibit personality profiles that are distinct from those of males within the general population, and suggest that individuals with XLI may be at heightened risk of psychopathology. The data are consistent with the notion that STS is important in neurodevelopment and ongoing brain function, and with previous work suggesting high rates of

  8. Association of respondent psychiatric comorbidity with family history of comorbidity: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeesun; Goldstein, Risë B; Grant, Bridget F

    2016-11-01

    Substance use disorders and major psychiatric disorders are common, highly comorbid with each other, and familial. However, the extent to which comorbidity is itself familial remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate associations between comorbidity among respondents with family history of comorbidity. We analyzed data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III to study the associations of family history (FH) of comorbidity among alcoholism, drug problems, depression, antisocial behavior, and anxiety disorders in parents and maternal and paternal grandparents with corresponding DSM-5 diagnostic comorbidity among respondents. We utilized multivariable multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, race, education, family income, marital status, and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). All comorbid associations of any two disorders with FH were statistically significant; almost all adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for respondent comorbidity in the presence of FH of the parallel comorbidity exceeded 10. ORs involving antisocial behavior in relatives and antisocial personality disorder in respondents were consistently larger than those for any other pairs of disorders. After further adjustment for ACEs, most patterns of association were similar but the ORs were reduced twofold to threefold. ACEs may be mediators in relationships between familial and respondent comorbidities. Further investigations of relationships among familial comorbidity, ACEs, and respondents' diagnoses may improve understanding of comorbidity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Mental health of asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study of psychiatric disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heeren, Martina; Mueller, Julia; Ehlert, Ulrike; Schnyder, Ulrich; Copiery, Nadia; Maier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    .... International research shows high levels of distress for asylum seekers. Little is known about actual psychiatric morbidity in this population, especially during the first few years postmigration...

  10. A descriptive survey study of violence management and priorities among psychiatric staff in mental health services, across seventeen european countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowman, Seamus; Björkdahl, Anna; Clarke, Eric; Gethin, Georgina; Maguire, Jim

    2017-01-19

    In mental health services what is commonplace across international frontiers is that to prevent aggressive patients from harming themselves, other patients or staff, coercive measures and foremost, violence management strategies are required. There is no agreement, recommendations or direction from the EU on which measures of coercion should be practiced across EU countries, and there is no overall one best practice approach. The project was conceived through an expert group, the European Violence in Psychiatry Research Group (EViPRG). The study aimed to incorporate an EU and multidisciplinary response in the determination of violence management practices and related research and education priorities across 17 European countries. From the EVIPRG members, one member from each country agreed to act as the national project coordinator for their country. Given the international spread of respondents, an eDelphi survey approach was selected for the study design and data collection. A survey instrument was developed, agreed and validated through members of EVIPRG. The results included a total of 2809 respondents from 17 countries with 999 respondents who self-selected for round 2 eDelphi. The majority of respondents worked in acute psychiatry, 54% (n = 1511); outpatient departments, 10.5% (n = 295); and Forensic, 9.3% (n = 262). Other work areas of respondents include Rehabilitation, Primary Care and Emergency. It is of concern that 19.5% of respondents had not received training on violence management. The most commonly used interventions in the management of violent patients were physical restraint, seclusion and medications. The top priorities for education and research included: preventing violence; the influence of environment and staff on levels of violence; best practice in managing violence; risk assessment and the aetiology and triggers for violence and aggression. In many European countries there is an alarming lack of clarity on matters of procedure

  11. Eight-year incidence of psychiatric disorders and service use from adolescence to early adulthood: longitudinal follow-up of the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Albor, Yesica; Casanova, Leticia; Orozco, Ricardo; Curiel, Teresa; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2016-02-01

    Half of mental disorders have their first onset before adulthood when the presence of a disorder may be particularly disruptive to developmental milestones. Retrospective prevalence estimates have been shown to underestimate the burden of mental illness and scarce data are available on the incidence of disorders throughout the adolescent period, especially in developing countries. Thus, the objective was to determine the incidence of mental disorders in an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood, onset of service use and their predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1071 respondents from a representative two-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. Disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. 37.9% experienced the onset of a psychiatric disorder and 28.4% sought services for the first time. Substance use disorders had the greatest incidence, followed by mood and behavior disorders, anxiety disorders and lastly eating disorders. Sex, age, school dropout, childhood adversities and prior mental disorders predicted the onset of new disorders. Being female, having more educated parents and most classes of disorder predicted first time service use. These findings contribute to a paradigm shift in conceptions of mental disorder similar to how we think of common physical afflictions as near universal experiences across the life course, but less frequent at any given moment. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, public health policy should focus on early universal promotion of positive mental health and structural determinants of mental health.

  12. Incidence of GP-diagnosed respiratory tract infections according to age, gender and high-risk co-morbidity : the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Rovers, M M; Kuyvenhoven, M M; Schellevis, F G; Verheij, T J M

    BACKGROUND: Figures on GP-diagnosed respiratory tract infections (RTI) are outdated because of demographic changes and increase in co-morbid conditions, respiratory vaccination programmes and change in illness behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of RTI in patients presenting to the GP

  13. AGE DIFFERENCES IN THE PREVALENCE AND CO-MORBIDITY OF DSM-IV MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODES : RESULTS FROM THE WHO WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEY INITIATIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard G.; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    Background: Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late we. Methods: We investigated this issue by studying age differences in co-morbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with

  14. Policies on assisted suicide in Dutch psychiatric facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkate, I; van der Wal, G

    1998-01-01

    Recent jurisprudence in the Netherlands challenges psychiatric hospitals to formulate policies on how to approach requests for assisted suicide. This study examined whether such policies exist in Dutch psychiatric hospitals and general hospitals with psychiatric wards. The directors of patient care in 38 of the country's 52 psychiatric hospitals and 42 of the 59 general hospitals with psychiatric wards responded to a mail survey. Five psychiatric hospitals and six general hospitals had written policies. Almost half of the psychiatric hospitals had a verbal policy only. The majority of the hospitals with policies had a tolerant or permissive policy toward assisted suicide.

  15. Co-morbidity in psoriasis: mechanisms and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder. The disease is associated with several co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. It is important to identify and treat these co-morbidities because they have a strongly negative effect on the overall health of patients with psoriasis. Unfortunately, these co-morbidities are often overlooked and/or left untreated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of how co-morbidities are associated with psoriasis as well as implications for the clinic to be able to recognize such co-morbidities. Areas covered: This is a review of studies investigating and discussing co-morbidities of psoriasis and screening. Literature was retrieved by searching on the PubMed database using individual and combined search terms related to relevant co-morbidities. Expert commentary: Effective management of psoriasis involves targeting of both psoriasis and co-morbidities.

  16. Psychiatric aspects of chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhishek; Lolak, Sermsak

    2009-06-01

    Chronic lung diseases continue to be common and cause significant morbidity and mortality. There is a complex interplay between psychiatric issues and pulmonary diseases. This review aims to summarize the recent literature and advances involving psychiatric aspects of lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, restrictive lung disease, and cystic fibrosis. The authors include the latest findings in epidemiology, impact, etiology, screening, and management of psychiatric and pulmonary comorbidity. The relationship between mental health and lung disease, as it is between mental health and other physical illnesses, is multifactorial. Further studies continue to clarify issues and treatment guidelines for this comorbidity.

  17. Assessment of prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric inmates residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric jail patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study subjects consisted of prediagnosed psychiatric patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A matched control consisting of cross-section of the population, that is, jail inmates residing in the same Central Jail locality was also assessed to compare the psychiatric subjects. An 18 item questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among study subjects. Results: The total number of subjects examined was 244, which comprised of 122 psychiatric inmates and 122 nonpsychiatric inmates. Among all psychiatric inmates, about 57.4% of inmates had a diagnosis of depression, 14.8% had psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia, and 12.3% had anxiety disorder. A total of 77% study inmates, which comprised of 87.7% psychiatrics and 66.4% nonpsychiatrics had a habit of tobacco consumption (smokeless or smoking. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common tobacco related practices among psychiatric inmate population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the hazards of tobacco consumption and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of the prison population.

  18. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  19. Nurse-led medication reviews in psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Mainz, Jan; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    Background : Potential inappropiate prescribing (IP) is associated with higher mortality, morbidity and risk of hospitalization. Potential IP has only been investigated in elderly populations and never in a psychiatric setting or a general population. Registered nurses are the healthprofessionals...

  20. Pre-morbid characteristics and co-morbidity of methamphetamine users with and without psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C K; Lin, S K; Sham, P C; Ball, D; Loh, E W; Hsiao, C C; Chiang, Y L; Ree, S C; Lee, C H; Murray, R M

    2003-11-01

    The long-term use of methamphetamine (MAMP) can result in psychosis but it is not clear why some individuals develop psychotic symptoms, while others use MAMP regularly over long periods and remain unscathed. We set out to characterize MAMP users and to examine the relationship of pre-morbid personality, pre-morbid social function and other psychiatric disorders to MAMP psychosis. Four hundred and forty-five amphetamine users were recruited from a psychiatric hospital and a detention centre in Taipei, and were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). Their parents were interviewed with the Premorbid Schizoid and Schizotypal Traits (PSST) and the Premorbid Social Adjustment (PSA) schedules. Pre-morbid characteristics and psychiatric co-morbidity were compared between the MAMP users with a lifetime diagnosis of MAMP psychosis and those without. The MAMP users with psychosis presented a clinical picture which mimicked the positive symptoms of schizophrenia: 85% had auditory hallucinations; 71% persecutory delusions; 63% delusions of reference. Compared with their non-psychotic counterparts, these MAMP users were younger at first MAMP use, used larger amounts of MAMP, had a significantly higher mean PSST score, and higher rates of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence and antisocial personality disorder. Earlier and larger use of MAMP was associated with increased risk of psychosis. Our data are also compatible with the view that pre-morbid schizoid/schizotypal personality predisposes MAMP users to develop psychosis, and that the greater the personality vulnerability, the longer the psychosis will persist.

  1. Co-morbidity in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P; Srinath, S; Girimaji, S; Seshadri, S; Sagar, J V

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatry centre. A total of 63 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were comprehensively assessed for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities. The tools used included the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS), Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. All except 1 subject had neurodevelopmental and / or psychiatric disorder co-morbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; 66.7% had both neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Specific learning disability was the most common co-existing neurodevelopmental disorder and oppositional defiant disorder was the most common psychiatric co-morbidity. The mean baseline ADHD-RS scores were significantly higher in the group with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially in the group with oppositional defiant disorder. Co-morbidity is present at a very high frequency in clinic-referred children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric co-morbidity, specifically oppositional defiant disorder, has an impact on the severity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Co-morbidity needs to be explicitly looked for during evaluation and managed appropriately.

  2. Mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes among psychiatric outpatients: findings from a cross-sectional survey in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Lau, Ying Wen; Pang, Shirlene; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Participants 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD. Methods Data were collected in relation to self-stigma, perceived stigma, self-esteem, functioning and quality of life. In order to examine the mediating role of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes, bootstrapping mediation analyses were used. Results Mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes was subject to the effects of self-stigma among the overall sample. Separate mediation analyses were conducted by diagnoses and showed differences in the mediating effects of self-stigma. Among the whole sample and the subsample with OCD, self-stigma mediated the relationship between perceived stigma and all psychosocial outcomes. For those with anxiety, depression and schizophrenia, the mediating effects of self-stigma were present in all relationships except (1) perceived stigma with physical health in the anxiety sample, (2) perceived stigma with social relationships in the depression sample and (3) perceived stigma with physical health in the schizophrenia sample. Conclusions The mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and various psychosocial outcomes are evident and differ across diagnoses. Interventions to address and reduce the effects of self-stigma along with targeted treatments and psychoeducation to assist people with mental illness overcome or better manage self-stigma while providing them the skills to counteract public stigma are needed. PMID:28851803

  3. Self- and other-directed forms of violence and their relationship with lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Kerridge, Bradley T; Grant, Bridget F

    2017-09-13

    A combined history of violence toward self and others has been reported in clinical and incarcerated populations. Psychiatric disorders have been implicated as risk factors. This study examines the lifetime prevalence of this combined violence in the general population and its associations with DSM-5 psychiatric disorders in comparison with other- and self-directed violence. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) were analyzed, including 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older. Violent behavior was defined by suicide attempts; recurrent suicidal behavior; gestures, threats, or self-mutilating behavior (self-directed); and multiple items of violence toward others (other-directed) in four categories: none, self-directed only, other-directed only, and combined self-/other-directed. Multinomial logistic regression examined these violence categories in association with sociodemographics and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders. Results show that approximately 18.1% of adults reported violent behavior, including self-directed only (4.4%), other-directed only (10.9%), and combined self- and other-directed violence (2.8%). DSM-5 psychiatric disorders significantly associated with the violence typology include alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drug use disorders; mood disorders; posttraumatic stress disorder; and schizotypal, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Findings extend the clinical literature regarding the co-occurrence of self- and other-directed violent behaviors to the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determining treatment levels of comorbid psychiatric conditions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychiatric co-morbidities occur more frequently in patients with epilepsy but are usually undertreated. Treatment of these disorders is key to reducing mortality via suicide and other causes. This study determined the levels of treatment of psychiatric comorbidities at clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Methodology: This ...

  5. Challenges of Recognition of the Psychiatric Aspects of Intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Even though intimate partner violence represents a major public health problem in Nigeria, much of its associated burden of psychiatric morbidity presenting in the clinical setting goes unrecognized and untreated. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the psychiatric perspectives on intimate partner ...

  6. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  7. Quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among regular users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis: An analysis of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougle, Jesse R; Hakes, Jahn K; Macatee, Richard J; Chavarria, Jesus; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Research is limited on the effects of regular substance use on mental health-related outcomes. We used a large nationally representative survey to examine current and future quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among past-year regular (weekly) users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Data on psychiatric disorders and quality of life from two waves (Wave 1 N = 43,093, Wave 2 N = 34,653) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to test study aims. In cross-sectional analyses, regular nicotine and cannabis use were associated with higher rates of psychiatric disorder, though regular alcohol use was associated with lower rates of disorders. Prospective analyses found that regular nicotine use predicted onset of anxiety, depressive, and bipolar disorders. Regular alcohol use predicted lower risk of these disorders. Regular cannabis use uniquely predicted the development of bipolar disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and social phobia. Lastly, regular alcohol use predicted improvements in physical and mental health-related quality of life, whereas nicotine predicted deterioration in these outcomes. Regular cannabis use predicted declines in mental, but not physical health. These data add to the literature on the relations between substance use and mental and physical health and suggest increased risk of mental health problems among regular nicotine and cannabis users and better mental and physical health among regular alcohol users. Examination of mechanisms underlying these relationships is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Twelve-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders and treatment-seeking among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Okuda, Mayumi; Hser, Yih-Ing; Hasin, Deborah; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To compare the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in contrast to non–Hispanic whites; and further compare persistence and treatment-seeking rates for psychiatric disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and non-Hispanic whites, analyses from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 1 (n =43,093) were conducted for the subsample of 1,332 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (596 men and 736 women) and 24,507 non-Hispanic whites (10,845 men and 13,662 women). The past 12-month prevalence for any psychiatric disorder was significantly lower in Asian American/Pacific Islander males and females than non-Hispanic white males and females. Asian American/Pacific Islander males were less likely than non-Hispanic white males to have any mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders, whereas the prevalence of mood disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islander females did not differ from those of non-Hispanic white females. In some cases, such as drug use disorders, both male and female Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders were more likely to have more persistent disorders than non-Hispanic whites. Compared to non-Hispanic white females, Asian American/Pacific Islander females had lower rates of treatment-seeking for any mood/anxiety disorders. Although less prevalent than among non-Hispanic whites, psychiatric disorders are not uncommon among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. The lower treatment seeking rates for mood/anxiety disorders in Asian American/Pacific Islander females underscore the unmet needs for psychiatric service among this population. PMID:21238989

  9. Neonatal mortality and morbidity among infants between 24 to 31 complete weeks: a multicenter survey in China from 2013 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, XiangYong; Xu, FengDan; Wu, Rong; Wu, Hui; Ju, Rong; Zhao, XiaoLin; Tong, XiaoMei; Lv, HongYan; Ding, YanJie; Liu, Fang; Xu, Ping; Liu, WeiPeng; Cheng, HongBin; Chen, TieQiang; Zeng, ShuJuan; Jia, WenZheng; Li, ZhanKui; Qiu, HuiXian; Wang, Jin; Feng, ZhiChun

    2016-11-03

    The outcome of preterm infants has been varied in different hospitals and regions in developing countries. Regular clinical monitor are needed to know the effects of health care. This study aimed to describe the survival and morbidity rates of extreme to very preterm infants in 15 neonatal-intensive care hospitals in China. Data were collected from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014 for preterm neonates with gestational age (GA) between 24 and 31 complete weeks born in hospitals from our collaborative study group. The primary outcomes were survival and major morbidities prior to hospital discharge. Major morbidities included bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and sepsis. Mutivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factor influencing on the outcomes. The preterm birth rate was 9.9 % (13 701/138 240). The proportion of extreme to very preterm infants was 1.1 % and 11.8 % respectively. The survival rate prior to discharge was increased with increasing GA (0, 24 weeks; 28 %, 25 weeks; 84.8 %, 26 weeks; 83.5 %, 27 weeks; 87.4 %, 28 weeks; 90.7 %, 29 weeks; 93.9 %, 30 weeks; 96 %, 31 weeks). Rate of survival and without severe morbidity according to GA were 0 at 24 weeks, 8 % at 25 weeks, 60.6 % at 26 weeks; 53.2 % at 27 weeks; 62.3 % at 28 weeks; 67.9 % at 29 weeks; 79.1 % at 30 weeks, 85.8 % at 31 weeks respectively. Rate of antenatal steroid use was 56 %. The antenatal steroid use was lower in GA infants than that in GA between 28 and 32 weeks (28-44.3 % vs 49.7-60.1 %, P Infants at the lowest GAs had a highest incidence of morbidities. Overall, 58.5 % had respiratory distress syndrome, 12.5 % bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 3.9 % necrotizing enterocolitis, 15.4 % intraventricular hemorrhage, 5.4 % retinopathy of prematurity, 28.4 % patent ductus arteriosus, and 9.7 % sepsis

  10. Sociodemographic Characteristic, Oath Taking and Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is common knowledge that Nigeria is a source and route of transit for victims of human trafficking. Yet studies on psychiatric morbidity among the victims in the country are rare. In addition, previous studies were among post destination victims. The present study is aimed at determining the prevalence of ...

  11. Patients with a psychiatric disorder in general practice: determinants of general practitioners' psychological diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nuijen, J.; Volkers, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent in the community, many patients with a psychiatric morbidity remain unidentified as such in primary care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze which clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with psychiatric

  12. Psychiatric morbidity among physically ill patients in a Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v13i1.13 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  13. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disgust, loneliness, grief, aggressiveness, anger, family and social rejection. The author equally documented that major ... Gavron et al.,[20] in a study of 43 students with albinism and 43 students without albinism, using the Tennessee Self-Concept. Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory reported no significant ...

  14. Psychiatric Morbidity (Depression And Anxiety) In Children With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (children suffering from psoriasis, acne, urticaria, atopic dermatitis and alopecia), attended the dermatology outpatient clinic at Al Wahda Hospital and Community Health Center, Dema, Libya, from I st Jan. 2006 to May 30,2006. For all children the following were done: full medical history and clinical examination, D-test for ...

  15. Short Report: Psychiatric Morbidity among Infertile Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Infertile women have been observed to suffer from various forms of psychopathology due to the psychosocial pressures placed on them because of their inability to conceive. This study aimed at investigating levels of anxiety, depression and psychological distress among infertile women in Lagos state, Nigeria.

  16. Psychiatric morbidity among physically ill patients in a Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    on their respective admitting wards. The co-occurrence of mental and physical disorders seems to support the mind-body interaction (substance dualism) suggested by. Descartes (1641) as described by Nadler S & Morris. K (1997).8 It proposes that although the mind and body are distinctly different, they interact and affect.

  17. Psychiatric morbidity among elderly in Chandigarh | Bhatia | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over two-third elderly were having somatic (72.1%) and depression (68.2%) related symptoms of anger - hostility, cognition and anxiety. Paranoid and psychotic symptoms were noticed among 6.9% and 6.6% of elderly, respectively. Anxiety, depression, somatic, cognitive symptoms were more prevalent in females while ...

  18. Psychiatric morbidity and non-participation in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Dette registerstudie undersøger sammenhængen mellem psykiatrisk morbiditet og ikke-deltagelse i brystkræftscreening. Kvinder med en indikation på psykisk morbiditet havde en 21 % øget sandsynlighed for ikke-deltagelse sammenliget med kvinder uden indikation på psykiatrisk morbiditet (95 % CI: 18-...

  19. Does co-morbid depression impact diabetes related costs? Evidence from a cross-sectional survey in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereches, Răzvan M; Litan, Cristian M; Zlati, Alina M; Bloom, Joan R

    2012-09-01

    The economic implications of co-morbid depression in patients with chronic medical disorders have been studied mainly in high-income countries. However, the applicability of such findings in developing countries cannot be assumed. In the present study we estimate diabetes related costs and explore the link between depression and diabetes related costs in Romania. In this former communist country, the general perception of practitioners and policy-makers is that psychological issues are far less important than medical concerns for patients with diabetes, a perception that may lead to the misallocation of already scarce resources. Data related to costs of diabetes care and to co-morbid depression were collected from a sample of 1,171 diabetes patients at the Nutrition and Diabetes Center in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, using the Diabetes Costs Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ9). The gathered data were subjected to a bivariate analysis of the depression-cost relationship, as well as a regression analysis in order to isolate the effect of depression on diabetes related costs from the effect of covariates. Direct and indirect diabetes related costs equally contributed to the total costs. The repartition of the cost burden between the public system and private agents is nearly equal as well. The bivariate analysis of the depression-cost relationship reveals statistically significant larger diabetes related costs for patients with major depression than for patients with minor depression, and the latter have larger diabetes related costs than patients free of depression symptoms. When the pure effect of depression on diabetes related costs was isolated by means of regression techniques, the provisional diagnosis of major depression was found to significantly increase diabetes related costs. The equal distribution of diabetes related costs between direct and indirect measures, as well as the cost burden equally split between the public system and

  20. Morbidity and health-care use of people with intellectual disabilities in general practice: first results of a survey in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.J.M. van; Wierik, M.J.M. te; Akker, M. van den; Wullink, M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Dinant, G.J.; Metsemakers, J.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Reported here are the preliminary results of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice in which data were collected on all contacts with general practitioners (GPs) during a 12-month period to determine characteristics of patients with intellectual disabilities (ID). Sociodemographic

  1. [Length of stay in total hip and knee arthroplasty in Danmark I: volume, morbidity, mortality and resource utilization. A national survey in orthopaedic departments in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Henrik; Hansen, Hans Christian; Holm, Gitte; Bach-Dal, Charlotte; Rud, Kirsten; Andersen, Kristoffer Lande; Kehlet, Henrik

    2006-05-29

    The goal of this study was to evaluate hospital stays for patients operated on with primary total hip- and knee-arthroplasty (THA and TKA) in Denmark in order to focus on the relationship between duration of hospital stay, surgical volume, morbidity and mortality and resources. According to the National Register on Patients in 2004 concerning postoperative length of hospital stay, readmissions (30 days) and mortality (30 and 90 days), departments with short and long hospital stay were compared and potential economical savings were estimated if all departments reduced their stays to match the departments with the shortest hospital stay. Postoperative hospital stay varied between departments from 4.5 to 12 days. Two-thirds of the departments had stays of more than seven days. A high surgical volume tended to correlate with short hospital stay and reduced mortality. A nation-wide reduction of hospital stay after THA and TKA to five days would free 28,000 hospital beds and produce economic savings of approx. 13 million Euro. Nation-wide implementation of fast-track THA and TKA would result in a significant decrease in the needed number of hospital beds and generate economic savings with similar or better outcome.

  2. Gender differences in the use of psychiatric outpatient specialist services in Tromsø, Norway are dependent on age: a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne Helen; Høye, Anne

    2015-10-22

    Overall, men are less likely than women to seek health care services for mental health problems, but differences between genders in higher age groups are equivocal. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between gender and the use of psychiatric outpatient specialist services in Norway, both in a general population and in a subpopulation with self-reported anxiety and/or depression. Using questionnaires from 12,982 participants (30-87 years) in the cross-sectional sixth Tromsø Study (2007-8) we estimated proportions reporting anxiety/depression, and proportions using psychiatric outpatient specialist services in a year. By logistic regressions we studied the association between gender and the use of psychiatric outpatient specialist services. Analyses were adjusted for age, marital status, income, education, self-reported degree of anxiety/depression, and GP visits last year. Analyses were also performed for genders separately. Anxiety/depression was reported by 21.5 % of women and 12.3 % of men in the general population. Visits to psychiatric outpatient services during one year were reported by 4.6 % of women and 3.3 % of men. The general population's probability of a visit was significantly lower among men compared to women in ages 30-49 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.58, confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.84, p-value [p] = 0.004), whereas men used services slightly more than women in ages 50 years and over (OR 1.36, CI 1.00-1.83, p = 0.047). Among those with anxiety/depression 13.5 % of women and 10.5 % of men visited psychiatric outpatient services in a year. We found no statistically significant gender differences in the use of services in this subgroup. Other factors associated with services use in women with anxiety/depression were higher education, more severe anxiety/depression, and GP visits the last year, whereas in men only a more severe anxiety/depression was associated with psychiatric outpatient visits. Overall, the use of

  3. Psychiatric disorders among the elderly on non-psychiatric wards in an African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Walugembe, James; Wallace, Daphne

    2007-08-01

    The elderly are vulnerable to illness and particularly to psychiatric illness. Many mentally ill elderly patients end up on non-psychiatric wards owing to somatization of their illnesses. Even for these patients, a psychiatric diagnosis may not be made. The literature on the elderly in Uganda is very scanty. This study aims to establish the prevalence and factors associated with psychiatric disorders among elderly patients admitted to non-psychiatric wards. We carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 127 consenting elderly patients. They were administered a standardized questionnaire comprising the Self Reporting Questionnaire 25, the Mini-mental State Examination and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV. Study variables included socio-demographic characteristics, physical illnesses, psychiatric disorders and the treatment given. The rate of psychiatric morbidity was 48%. The sex ratio was 1:1; however, women had a higher rate of psychiatric illness than men, 54.6% and 41.3% respectively. Being widowed or separated and having cancer were associated with SRQ>5, p=0.02 and p=0.04 respectively. Depressive disorders were the most common at 25.2% and were more common in women. Increasing age was associated with dementia (pUganda. Particular attention should be given to the psychological health of elderly people admitted to general hospitals.

  4. Epidemiology and morbidity of regional anesthesia in children: a follow-up one-year prospective survey of the French-Language Society of Paediatric Anaesthesiologists (ADARPEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecoffey, Claude; Lacroix, Frédéric; Giaufré, Elisabeth; Orliaguet, Gilles; Courrèges, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The French-Language Society of Paediatric Anaesthesiologists (ADARPEF) designed a 1-year prospective, multicenter and anonymous study to update both epidemiology and morbidity of regional anesthesia in children. From November 2005 to October 2006, data from participating hospitals were recorded using an identification form, a data recording form, and a complication form. Information collected included the characteristics of the hospitals, the number and type of regional anesthetics (RA), the age of the involved children as well as the incidence, and type of complications. Data collected in 47 institutions included 104,612 pure general anesthesias (GAs), 29,870 GAs associated with regional blocks, and 1262 pure regional blocks. Central blocks accounted for 34% of all RA. Peripheral blocks (66%) were upper or lower limb blocks (29% of peripheral blocks), trunk blocks, and face blocks (71%). In children aged ≤3 years, the percentage of central blocks was similar to the peripheral ones (45% vs 55), while in older children, peripheral blocks were more than four times used than central ones. Complications (41 involving 40 patients) were rare and usually minor. They did not result in any sequelae. The study revealed an overall rate of complication of 0.12%; CI 95% [0.09-0.17], significantly six times higher for central than for peripheral blocks. As a result of the low rate of complications, RA techniques have a good safety profile and can be used to provide postoperative analgesia. In addition, the results should encourage anesthesiologists to continue to use peripheral instead of central (including caudal) blocks as often as possible when appropriate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The impact of the 2008 economic crisis on the increasing number of young psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Herrero, Alvaro; Gomez-Beneyto, Manuel

    2017-11-21

    Little is published about the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on mental health services in Spain. An interrupted time series analysis was conducted to investigate a potential short-term association between the 2008 economic crisis and the number of psychiatric hospital admissions. The timing of the intervention (April 2008) was based on observed changes in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Data on 1,152,880 psychiatric inpatients from the national Hospital Morbidity Survey, 69 months before and after the onset of the economic crisis (April 2008), were analyzed. Age-adjusted psychiatric (ICD9 290-319) hospital discharge rates significantly increased from April 2008, matching the onset of the crisis, especially for inpatients aged 15-24 years old and to a less extend for inpatients aged 25-34 years old. Other age groups were not affected. There was a significant increase in diagnoses for disturbance of conduct and emotions, depression, neurotic and personality disorders and alcohol and drug disorders; however, diagnoses for mental retardation and organic psychosis for 15-34 years old inpatients were unaffected. Psychiatric hospital admissions abruptly increased in April 2008, coinciding with the onset of the economic crisis. We identified age groups and diagnoses affected. Increased hospitalizations were found only at the age-ranges most affected by the rise in unemployment. The diagnoses affected were those most sensitive to environmental changes. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  7. The effects of temporally secondary co-morbid mental disorders on the associations of DSM-IV ADHD with adverse outcomes in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R. C.; Adler, L. A.; Berglund, P.; Green, J. G.; McLaughlin, K. A.; Fayyad, J.; Russo, L. J.; Sampson, N. A.; Shahly, V.; Zaslavsky, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be associated with numerous adverse outcomes, uncertainties exist about how much these associations are mediated temporally by secondary co-morbid disorders. Method The US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescents aged 13–17 years (n = 6483 adolescent–parent pairs), assessed DSM-IV disorders with the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Statistical decomposition was used to compare direct effects of ADHD with indirect effects of ADHD through temporally secondary mental disorders (anxiety, mood, disruptive behavior, substance disorders) in predicting poor educational performance (suspension, repeating a grade, below-average grades), suicidality (ideation, plans, attempts) and parent perceptions of adolescent functioning (physical and mental health, interference with role functioning and distress due to emotional problems). Results ADHD had significant gross associations with all outcomes. Direct effects of ADHD explained most (51.9–67.6%) of these associations with repeating a grade in school, perceived physical and mental health (only girls), interference with role functioning and distress, and significant components (34.5–44.6%) of the associations with school suspension and perceived mental health (only boys). Indirect effects of ADHD on educational outcomes were predominantly through disruptive behavior disorders (26.9–52.5%) whereas indirect effects on suicidality were predominantly through mood disorders (42.8–59.1%). Indirect effects on most other outcomes were through both mood (19.8–31.2%) and disruptive behavior (20.1–24.5%) disorders, with anxiety and substance disorders less consistently important. Most associations were comparable for girls and boys. Conclusions Interventions aimed at reducing the adverse effects of ADHD might profitably target

  8. Tinnitus and the prevalence of co-morbid psychological stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tinnitus is a symptom of unknown pathophysiology with few therapeutic measures and may present with co-morbid psychological stresses necessitating psychiatric treatment. This study aims at determining the prevalence of depression and anxiety in tinnitus sufferers in our environment. Method: This is a one ...

  9. Association of psychiatric history and type D personality with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and health status prior to ICD implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).......Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)....

  10. Considerações acerca da avaliação psicológica das comorbidades psiquiátricas em obesos Consideraciones sobre la evaluación psicológica de las comorbidades psiquiátricas en obesos Consideration about psychological assessment of psychiatric co morbidity in obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Silva Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se neste artigo apresentar uma revisão teórica sobre avaliação psicológica, obesidade e comorbidades psiquiátricas mais frequentes na população obesa. A obesidade é uma doença clínica de múltiplas causas, e atualmente é considerada uma epidemia; assim seu adequado entendimento deve envolver uma equipe composta por diversos profissionais de saúde, incluindo o psicólogo. Serão abordadas questões pertinentes ao tema de obesidade, como etiologia, incidência e a relação entre obesidade e transtornos psiquiátricos. Serão propostos alguns instrumentos com o objetivo de estruturar informações necessárias ao tratamento e à demanda do paciente obeso, e reflexões referentes à avaliação psicológica em obesos e a prática do profissional de psicologia.Se pretiende en ese artículo presentar una revisión teórica sobre la evaluación psicológica, obesidad y comorbidades psiquiátricas más frecuentes en esa población. La obesidad es una enfermedad clínica con diversas causas y actualmente es considerada una epidemia, así el adecuado entendimiento de la obesidad debe involucrar un equipo compuesto por diversos profesionales de salud, incluso el psicólogo. En ese artículo serán abordadas cuestiones pertinentes a la temática de la obesidad, como etiología, prevalencia y la relación entre obesidad y los trastornos psiquiátricos. Serán propuestos algunos instrumentos* con el objetivo de estructurar informaciones necesarias al tratamiento y a la demanda del paciente obeso, reflexiones referentes a la evaluación psicológica en obesos y la práctica del profesional de PsicologíaWe intend in this article to present a theoretical review about psychological assessment, obesity and psychiatric co morbidity. Obesity is a clinical illness, it has multi factorial causes, and nowadays it is considered an epidemic, so the right knowledge must involve all health professional, include the psychologist. In this article we

  11. A nurse-physician co-leadership model in psychiatric hospitals: results of a survey among leading staff members in three sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Tilman; Goebel, Rita; Rieger, Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    In three psychiatric hospitals in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, a physician-nurse shared leadership model was implemented in 1997 by the hospital management. The whole hospital, departments, and single wards are led each by a leadership team consisting of a physician, psychologist or social worker and a nurse, being responsible for organization, staff, and budgets. The consequences for staff opinion in leadership positions were evaluated. All 165 leading staff members of all professional groups were anonymously interviewed with a questionnaire containing 45 items regarding their satisfaction with this new leadership model. The response rate was 79.4%. Overall, the leading staff members were satisfied with the shared leadership model both in their own clinical practice and in general. Non-medical staff members were significantly more in favour of several aspects of shared leadership than physicians, but even the latter reported to be generally satisfied. However, both professional groups estimated leading positions to be only modestly attractive. The results yield some evidence that the change from traditional leadership models to the physician-nurse shared leadership model may have advantages in the management of psychiatric hospitals.

  12. Livestock Ownership Among Rural Households and Child Morbidity and Mortality: An Analysis of Demographic Health Survey Data from 30 Sub-Saharan African Countries (2005-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maneet; Graham, Jay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2017-03-01

    AbstractChildren living in homes with livestock may have both an increased risk of enteric infections and improved access to food, and therefore improved nutritional status. Few studies, however, have characterized these relationships in tandem. This study investigated the association between child health and household ownership of livestock. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 sub-Saharan African countries with 215,971 rural children under 5 years of age from 2005 to 2015. Logistic regression was performed for each country to estimate the relationship between a log2 increase in the number of livestock owned by the household and three child-health outcomes: 2-week prevalence of diarrhea, stunting, and all-cause mortality. Results for each country were combined using meta-analyses. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an odds ratio (OR) less than 1 for child stunting associated with livestock (pooled OR = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95, 0.99). The results for diarrhea were more even with 14 countries displaying ORs greater than 1 and 10 displaying ORs less than 1. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an OR greater than 1 for child mortality (pooled OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.06). All meta-analyses displayed significant heterogeneity by country. Our analysis is consistent with the theory that livestock may have a dual role as protective against stunting, an indicator of chronic malnutrition, and a risk factor for all-cause mortality in children, which may be linked to acute infections. The heterogeneity by country, however, indicates more data are needed on specific household livestock management practices.

  13. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  14. Psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the home-care setting: A nation-wide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayakawa, Makoto; Ogawa, Asao; Konno, Michiko; Kurata, Akiko; Hamano, Jun; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Aoyama, Maho; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-12-01

    The psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill cancer patients are highly problematic and have been associated with greater burden among caregivers. Until now, the extent of these problems in the home care setting was unclear. This retrospective study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan (J-HOPE3). The bereaved family members rated the symptoms of delirium and suicidal ideation of patients with cancer, and the sleeplessness and depressed mood of family caregivers utilizing home care services in the one month before the patients' deaths. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with caregivers' sleeplessness or depressed mood. Of the 532 subjects analyzed, between 17% and 65% of patients experienced various symptoms of delirium, and 27% suicidal ideation. Among family caregivers, 60% experienced sleeplessness and 35% experienced depressed mood at least once during the week. Caregivers' psychological symptoms were associated with their own poor health status, being the spouse of the patient, and the patients' psychological or psychiatric symptoms. To manage patients' symptoms, 11% of caregivers had consulted psychiatrists or psychologists while another 11% wanted to do so. Psychological problems assessed were common among patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the one month of home care prior to the patient's death. An effective complementary care system, run by home-visit physicians, nurses, and experts in mental disorders, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sociodemographic and psychiatric diagnostic predictors of 3-year incidence of DSM-IV substance use disorders among men and women in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Smith, Sharon M; Dawson, Deborah A; Grant, Bridget F

    2015-12-01

    Incidence rates of alcohol and drug use disorders (AUDs and DUDs) are consistently higher in men than women, but information on whether sociodemographic and psychiatric diagnostic predictors of AUD and DUD incidence differ by sex is limited. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, sex-specific 3-year incidence rates of AUDs and DUDs among United States adults were compared by sociodemographic variables and baseline psychiatric disorders. Sex-specific logistic regression models estimated odds ratios for prediction of incident AUDs and DUDs, adjusting for potentially confounding baseline sociodemographic and diagnostic variables. Few statistically significant sex differences in predictive relationships were identified and those observed were generally modest. Prospective research is needed to identify predictors of incident DSM-5 AUDs and DUDs and their underlying mechanisms, including whether there is sex specificity by developmental phase, in the role of additional comorbidity in etiology and course, and in outcomes of prevention and treatment. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Morbidity and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Laursen, Torben; Green, Anders

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate morbidity in Denmark in all patients with GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Morbidity was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in the GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Diagnoses and dates of admissions were...... identified in the National Patient Registry. Lag time until first admission was used as a measure of morbidity. Patients were divided into childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO), discriminated by an age cut-off of 18 years at onset of GHD. METHOD: Sex- and cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) in CO and AO...... GHD compared with controls. RESULTS: Total morbidity was significantly increased in the GHD patients. HR for CO males: 3.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-3.7), CO females: 3.2 (95% CI: 2.6-3.9), AO males: 2.9 (95% CI: 2.6-3.2), and AO females: 3.2 (95% CI: 2.8-3.6). In 18 out of 20 chapters from...

  17. Do Psychiatric Medications Cause More Harm Than Good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    A head-to-head debate published in The BMJ was centered on the question "Does long-term use of psychiatric drugs cause more harm than good?" One of the debaters stated that virtually all psychotropic drug use could be stopped without deleterious effects, claiming that these drugs have minimal benefits, are immensely harmful, and cause more than 500,000 deaths each year. In the current article, this conclusion is disputed by the discussion of the history of psychiatric therapeutics, limitations of research investigations, inherent morbidity and mortality associated with mental disorders, and importance of direct care experience with psychiatric patients and their families. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Sexual violence: psychiatric healing with eye movement reprocessing and desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmontier, Bobbie; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Lipman, Kenneth

    2010-08-01

    Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to introduce health care providers to the technique of EMDR, review safety and appropriateness, and discuss clinical and research implications.

  19. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  20. Is psychiatric assessment essential for better epilepsy surgery outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Neena; Ravat, Sangeeta; Muzumdar, Dattatraya; Shah, Urvashi

    2016-12-01

    Epilepsy surgery is one of the most accepted and beneficial treatment for resistant epilepsies. However there is some variability in the comprehensive epilepsy care programs offered globally. Many centers do not do a psychiatric assessment unless required. It is now evident from a large body of research that epilepsy is associated with psychiatric morbidity which is also seen in patients considered for epilepsy surgery. There is also evidence to state that the risk for worsening or de novo psychiatric disorders is often seen post surgery. This calls for a comprehensive psychiatric assessment of all patients enrolled for the epilepsy surgery program to be evaluated pre and post surgically to minimize the risk of post surgical psychological disturbances and/or poor quality of life. Efficacious treatment of psychiatric disorders in those having psychiatric morbidity contributes to improved patient wellbeing, seizure freedom and better quality of life. Hence there is a need for most centers globally to include regular psychiatric assessment of epilepsy surgery patients as a protocol. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Morbidity from parotid sialography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalk, WWI; Vissink, A; Spijkervet, FKL; Moller, JM; Roodenburg, JLN

    2001-01-01

    Objective. Sialography is commonly used for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome, although its invasive nature is often regarded as a serious drawback for routine usage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity and acceptability of parotid sialography using oil-based contrast fluid. Study

  2. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  3. Autoimmune Aspects of Neurodegenerative and Psychiatric Diseases : A Template for innovative Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Peter; Klein, Hans C.; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases (NPDs) are today's most important group of diseases, surpassing both atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cancer in morbidity incidence. Although NPDs have a dramatic impact on our society because of their high incidence, mortality, and severe

  4. Psychiatric factors associated with normal coronary angiography among angina like chest pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Altintas

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study revealed that prevalence of psychiatric co morbidities is high and impairment in quality of life is notable in the patients with NCA patients [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 129-135

  5. Descriptive epidemiology and underlying psychiatric disorders among hospitalizations with self-directed violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya S Weber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide claims over one million lives worldwide each year. In the United States, 1 per 10,000 persons dies from suicide every year, and these rates have remained relatively constant over the last 20 years. There are nearly 25 suicide attempts for each suicide, and previous self-directed violence is a strong predictor of death from suicide. While many studies have focused on suicides, the epidemiology of non-fatal self-directed violence is not well-defined. OBJECTIVE: We used a nationally representative survey to examine demographics and underlying psychiatric disorders in United States (US hospitalizations with non-fatal self-directed violence (SDV. METHOD: International Classification of Disease, 9(th Revision (ICD-9 discharge diagnosis data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS were examined from 1997 to 2006 using frequency measures and adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: The rate of discharges with SDV remained relatively stable over the study time period with 4.5 to 5.7 hospitalizations per 10,000 persons per year. Excess SDV was documented for females, adolescents, whites, and those from the Midwest or West. While females had a higher likelihood of self-poisoning, both genders had comparable proportions of hospitalizations with SDV resulting in injury. Over 86% of the records listing SDV also included psychiatric disorders, with the most frequent being affective (57.8% and substance abuse (37.1% disorders. The association between psychiatric disorders and self-injury was strongest for personality disorders for both males (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4 and females (OR = 3.8; 95% CI = 2.7-5.3. CONCLUSION: The NHDS provides new insights into the demographics and psychiatric morbidity of those hospitalized with SDV. Classification of SDV as self-injury or self-poisoning provides an additional parameter useful to epidemiologic studies.

  6. Descriptive epidemiology and underlying psychiatric disorders among hospitalizations with self-directed violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Natalya S; Fisher, Jared A; Cowan, David N; Postolache, Teodor T; Larsen, Rakel A; Niebuhr, David W

    2013-01-01

    Suicide claims over one million lives worldwide each year. In the United States, 1 per 10,000 persons dies from suicide every year, and these rates have remained relatively constant over the last 20 years. There are nearly 25 suicide attempts for each suicide, and previous self-directed violence is a strong predictor of death from suicide. While many studies have focused on suicides, the epidemiology of non-fatal self-directed violence is not well-defined. We used a nationally representative survey to examine demographics and underlying psychiatric disorders in United States (US) hospitalizations with non-fatal self-directed violence (SDV). International Classification of Disease, 9(th) Revision (ICD-9) discharge diagnosis data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) were examined from 1997 to 2006 using frequency measures and adjusted logistic regression. The rate of discharges with SDV remained relatively stable over the study time period with 4.5 to 5.7 hospitalizations per 10,000 persons per year. Excess SDV was documented for females, adolescents, whites, and those from the Midwest or West. While females had a higher likelihood of self-poisoning, both genders had comparable proportions of hospitalizations with SDV resulting in injury. Over 86% of the records listing SDV also included psychiatric disorders, with the most frequent being affective (57.8%) and substance abuse (37.1%) disorders. The association between psychiatric disorders and self-injury was strongest for personality disorders for both males (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4) and females (OR = 3.8; 95% CI = 2.7-5.3). The NHDS provides new insights into the demographics and psychiatric morbidity of those hospitalized with SDV. Classification of SDV as self-injury or self-poisoning provides an additional parameter useful to epidemiologic studies.

  7. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    Literature on liver morphology in untreated obesity reveals varying prevalences of various pathological findings. The purpose of this literature study was to summarize and evaluate the published observations and to discuss discrepant findings. A complete search was aimed at utilizing bibliographic...... methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...... of the biopsies. Portal inflammation was also common (33 per cent). Fibrosis, mainly portal or periportal, was observed in 29 per cent. Cirrhosis, however, involved only 3 per cent. Study of relationships between the degree of liver change and certain possible pathogenetic factors (eg degree and duration...

  8. Psychiatric services in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmebarek, Zoubir

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes the current provision of psychiatric services in Algeria - in particular, in-patient and out-patient facilities, child psychiatry and human resources. Education, training, associations and research in the field of mental health are also briefly presented. The challenges that must dealt with to improve psychiatric care and to comply with international standards are listed, by way of conclusion.

  9. An analysis of acute admissions to a general hospital psychiatric unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    Aim: The study sought to analyse admissions to an acute psychiatric unit with a view to determining the demographic distribution of the patients, duration ... males with a past psychiatric history of either an Axis I or a co-morbid Axis II disorder, and had defaulted on their regular follow up. .... The effectiveness of stigma coping.

  10. Psychiatric trainees in Finland 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, Hanna; Holi, Matti; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Korkeila, Jyrki; Eronen, Markku

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Finnish psychiatric trainees' views on their education. This was a survey study of nationwide data on Finnish psychiatric trainees in 2001. The quality of training was considered at least moderate by 84% of the respondents. Training on epidemiology, on taking history and status, and on psychopharmacology was considered the best. Quality was rated bad for training in leadership and administration, and educating the community. Research was done by 20%, and a personal clinical supervisor was appointed to 52% of the respondents. Offensive treatment had been experienced by 49% of the trainees in this study. Generally, studies of training also reflect strengths and weaknesses of the profession. Based on our results, it seems especially that training in leadership and in educating the community need to be improved; both of these are quintessential skills to survive in the struggle for economic and human resources. Furthermore, treatment of the trainees could still be better; attention should be paid to supervision of all trainees. Moreover, research must become more attractive. Psychiatry can be developed by the development of psychiatric training.

  11. Primary Psychiatric Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Mercan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of these dermatological diseases is entirely psychiatric origin. These patients show overconcern to their skin or self inflicted dermatoses unconsciously instead of facing with their real problems. In this group, delusions, dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder can be seen. They use denial as defence mechanism to their real psychiatric problems and prefer to apply dermatology instead of psychiatry. Dermatologist should be very careful before asking psychiatric consultation. Denial mechanism help patients to overcome agressive impulses like suicide or prevent further psychiatric damage like psychosis. Dermatologist should see these patients with short and frequent intervals with a good empathic approach. This will help to progress a powerful patient doctor relationship which will lead to a psychiatric evaluation.

  12. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...

  13. Common psychiatric disorders in glaucoma patients as seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    month period and screened for general psychiatric morbidity, anxiety and depression using the SRQ-20 and HAD scales respectively. The male:female ratio of the group was 2.1:1 with a mean age of 57.3 years. The elderly population constituted ...

  14. Treatment profiles in a Danish psychiatric university hospital department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Mogensen, Rasmus Beyer; Crean, Lea Catherine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite concerns about rising treatment of psychiatric patients with psychotropic medications and declining treatment with psychotherapy, actual treatment profiles of psychiatric patients are largely unknown. AIMS: To describe patterns in the treatment of patients in a large psychiatric...... university hospital department. METHODS: A descriptive mapping of treatment of in- and outpatients in a psychiatric department at Aarhus University Hospital Risskov, Denmark. Information was collected by healthcare staff using a 25-item survey form. The p-value was calculated with a chi-squared test and p...

  15. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.; Jansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatient aggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this "Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale" (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff

  16. Psychiatric epidemiology and disaster exposure in Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reifels, L.; Mills, K.; Dückers, M.L.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To examine the lifetime prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. Methods. We utilised data from a nationally representative population survey (N = 8841) which were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic

  17. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.E.; Jansen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatienaggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff members

  18. Do co-morbid anxiety disorders predict drinking outcomes in women with alcohol use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Epstein, Elizabeth E; McCrady, Barbara S; Hunter-Reel, Dorian

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether co-morbid anxiety disorders predict worse drinking outcomes during attempts to change drinking behavior. Studies have yielded mixed results, and have rarely examined drinking outcomes based on a specific type of anxiety disorder. Women with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are of particular interest as they are at risk for co-morbid anxiety [Kessler et al. (1997) Lifetime co-occurrence of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse and dependence with other psychiatric disorders in the national co-morbidity survey. Arch Gen Psychiat 54:313-21]. Participants were 260 women with AUDs participating in an alcohol-treatment outcome studies. The Timeline Follow-Back was used to assess drinking frequency (percent days drinking) prior, within and 6 months post-treatment. The current study tested the hypothesis that having at least one lifetime anxiety disorder diagnosed at baseline using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders would be associated with more drinking at all study time points. Exploratory analyses examined patterns of drinking outcomes by specific anxiety diagnoses. Lifetime anxiety diagnosis was linked to poorer drinking outcomes post-treatment (β = 0.15, P = 0.020), despite less frequent drinking prior to treatment. Analyses by specific anxiety diagnosis indicated that generalized anxiety disorder predicted poorer drinking outcomes within treatment (β = 0.14, P = 0.018) and during follow-up (β = 0.16, P = 0.014). Co-morbid anxiety problems complicate treatment for AUDs among women. Further, specific anxiety disorders should be evaluated as distinct constructs as evidenced by the differential outcomes related to generalized anxiety disorder. Implications for treatment development for women with AUDs are discussed.

  19. [Psychiatric investigation of Tyrolean patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Iris; Klein-Weigel, Peter; Kinzl, Johann; Biebl, Wilfried; Fraedrich, Gustav; Heidrich, Heinz

    2005-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is provoked by digital vasospasm, mostly induced by cold and emotional strain. While studies dealing with other vasospastic disorders, e. g. migraine, described an increased comorbidity with affective and anxiety disorders, only little evidence has been reported for such an association in Raynaud's phenomenon. 70 Tyrolean patients (55 females and 15 males) with primary Raynaud's phenomenon presented more often with psychiatric morbidity on DSM-IV axis-I during their life-time than prevalence studies in the general population of North America and Europe would have led to expect. No psychotic (0%) and fewer somatoform disorders (2.9%) were found whereas anxiety disorders (77.1%), affective disorders (48.6%), and eating disorders (14.3%) were clearly overrepresented. We would therefore recommend a psychiatric evaluation in primary Raynaud's phenomenon along with the vascular diagnostic assessment to ensure that any psychiatric co-morbidity can be identified and treated.

  20. [Morbidity among forestry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalski, H; Bernacki, K

    1981-01-01

    The past and presently diagnosed diseases (excluding vibration disease and occupational hearing impairment) were analysed in 1105 sawers operating combustion drive mechanic saws and in 295 controls. The greatest rate, both in the sawers and controls, was that of the diseases of respiratory tract, circulatory system and osseo -- articulo -- muscular system, nervous system and sense organs. These constituted 86% of all diseases that afflicted sawers and controls. No specific general morbidity accompanying vibration disease or occupational hearing impairment was found in the sawers exposed to noise and vibration.

  1. Conceptions of mobile emergency service health professionals concerning psychiatric emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bonfada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Brazilian Psychiatric Reformation, assistance to psychological seizures represents a challenge for the emergency services. Therefore, the objective of this paper is the analysis of the conceptions of health professionals who work at the Mobile Emergency Service in Natal on psychiatric emergency care. This paper is, then, a qualitative study that used interviews as tools for collecting information. By using thematic analysis, the speeches were grouped into three categories: the stigma on patients and the professionals' fear of services interventions in psychiatric emergencies; having psychiatric emergencies regarded as harmful to patients and others' security; psychiatric emergencies being taken as patients' aggressiveness or severe depression. The data collected indicate that the interviewed professionals' ideas are supported by elements associated with the ideology that insanity implies social segregation and dangerousness. Thus, the survey prompted reflection on relevant issues to the process of psychiatric reformation implementation.

  2. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  3. Psychiatric Assessment and Rehabilitation of Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.

  4. Regional anaesthesia and surgical morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, N B; Kehlet, H

    1988-01-01

    This review assesses the results of studies examining the influence of regional anaesthesia on surgical morbidity. Morbidity appears to be reduced when procedures below the umbilicus are concerned, but evidence is less convincing for upper abdominal and thoracic procedures.......This review assesses the results of studies examining the influence of regional anaesthesia on surgical morbidity. Morbidity appears to be reduced when procedures below the umbilicus are concerned, but evidence is less convincing for upper abdominal and thoracic procedures....

  5. Laryngeal morbidity after tracheal intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Rasmussen, N; Kristensen, M S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation may cause vocal fold damage. The trial was designed to assess laryngeal morbidity comparing the Endoflex(®) tube with a conventional endotracheal tube with stylet. We hypothesised that laryngeal morbidity within the first 24 h after extubation would be lower...... in the shimmer values in that group implies that the Endoflex may be associated with less laryngeal morbidity....

  6. Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication II: associations with persistence of DSM-IV disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2010-02-01

    Although significant associations of childhood adversities (CAs) with adult mental disorders have been widely documented, associations of CAs with onset and persistence of disorders have not been distinguished. This distinction is important for conceptual and practical purposes. To examine the multivariate associations of 12 retrospectively reported CAs with persistence of adult DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Cross-sectional community survey. Household population in the United States. Nationally representative sample of 5692 adults. Recency of episodes was assessed separately for each of 20 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior, and substance use disorders in respondents with a lifetime history of these disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Predictors of persistence were examined using backward recurrence survival models to predict time since most recent episode controlling for age at onset and time since onset. The CAs involving maladaptive family functioning (parental mental illness, substance use disorder, criminality, family violence, physical and sexual abuse, and neglect) but not other CAs were significantly but modestly related to persistence of mood, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Number of maladaptive family functioning CAs had statistically significant, but again substantively modest, subadditive associations with the same outcomes. Exposure to multiple other CAs was significantly associated with persistence of mood and anxiety disorders. Associations remained statistically significant throughout the life course, although the substantive size of associations indicated by simulations showing time to most recent episode would increase by only 1.6% (from a mean of 8.3 years to a mean of 8.4 years) in the absence of CAs. The overall statistically significant associations of CAs with adult DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview disorders are due largely to

  7. The prevalence, age-of-onset and the correlates of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in the Tianjin Mental Health Survey (TJMHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H; Xu, G; Tian, H; Yang, G; Wardenaar, K J; Schoevers, R A

    2018-02-01

    To effectively shape mental healthcare policy in modern-day China, up-to-date epidemiological data on mental disorders is needed. The objective was to estimate the prevalence, age-of-onset (AOO) and sociodemographic correlates of mental disorders in a representative household sample of the general population (age ⩾ 18) in the Tianjin Municipality in China. Data came from the Tianjin Mental health Survey (TJMHS), which was conducted between July 2011 and March 2012 using a two-phase design. 11 748 individuals were screened with an expanded version of the General Health Questionnaire and 4438 subjects were selected for a diagnostic interview by a psychiatrist, using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - fourth edition (SCID). The lifetime and 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder were 23.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Mood disorders (lifetime: 9.3%; 1-month: 3.9%), anxiety disorders (lifetime: 4.5% 1-month: 3.1%) and substance-use disorders (lifetime: 8.8%; 1-month: 3.5%) were most prevalent. The median AOO ranged from 25 years [interquartile range (IQR): 23-32] for substance-use disorders to 36 years (IQR: 24-50) for mood disorders. Not being married, non-immigrant status (i.e. local 'Hukou'), being a farmer, having mental disorder. Results from the current survey indicate that mental disorders are steadily reported more commonly in rapidly-developing urban China. Several interesting sociodemographic correlates were observed (e.g. male gender and non-immigrant status) that warrant further investigation and could be used to profile persons in need of preventive intervention.

  8. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide - Table of Contents Facts For Families Guide - View by Topic Chinese Facts for Families Guide ... Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate for any child or adolescent ...

  9. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopat...

  10. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Additional Psychiatric Comorbidity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among U.S. Adults: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Compton, Wilson M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the relatively high prevalence of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), associations of ASPD with clinical presentation of PTSD, including additional comorbidity, have not been investigated. Objective To present nationally representative findings on associations of DSM-IV ASPD versus syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder before age 15 with additional psychiatric disorders among U.S. adults with PTSD. Method Face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653). Results After adjustment for sociodemographics and additional comorbidity, both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with bipolar I, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, substance use, and paranoid, schizoid, histrionic, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders among respondents with PTSD. Odds of major depressive and generalized anxiety disorders were significantly reduced among men with ASPD. Conclusions Interventions targeting PTSD may require attention to co-occurring antisociality and additional comorbidity. PMID:20661317

  11. Association between cigarette smoking and suicide in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Sharifi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cigarette smoking is the single largest preventable cause of death and disability in the industrialized world and it causes at least 85% of lung cancers, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In addition smokers are at a higher risk from psychiatric co-morbid illness such as depression and completed suicide. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in which we targeted all patients with serious mental illness (SMI who were admitted in Razi mental health Hospital in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 984 participants, who were receiving services from Razi mental health Hospital and hospitalized for at least two days between 21 July to 21 September, 2010. Nine hundred and fifty patients out of this figure were able to participate in our study. Results The final study sample (n = 950 consisted of 73.2% males and 26.8% females. The mean age was 45.31 (SD=13.7. A majority of participants (70% was smoker. A history of never smoking was present for 25.2% of the study sample; while 4.8% qualified as former smokers and 70.0% as occasional or current smokers. Two hundred and nineteen participants had attempted suicide amongst them 102 (46.6% once, 37 (16.9% twice, and 80 (36.5% attempted more than two times in their life time. In regression model, gender, age, and cigarette consumption were associated with previous suicide attempts and entered the model in this order as significant predictors. Conclusion There is an association of cigarette smoking and suicide attempt in psychiatric inpatients. Current smoking, a simple clinical assessment, should trigger greater attention by clinicians to potential suicidality and become part of a comprehensive assessment of suicide risk.

  12. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Survey to child/adolescent psychiatry and developmental/behavioral pediatric training directors to expand psychiatric-mental health training to nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H; O'Laughlen, Mary C; Kim, Joshua

    2017-06-01

    There is an ongoing shortage of child mental health professionals. Nurse practitioners (NPs) who completed behavioral and mental health training have proven that they can diagnose and manage many pediatric problems. To ask the training directors of both child/adolescent psychiatry (CAP) and developmental/behavioral pediatric (DBP) programs about their receptivity and willingness to give additional training for NPs who provide care to children with behavioral and mental health issues and examine the main obstacles to the development of such programs. A survey was sent to 151 CAP and DBP training directors in the United States. The return rate was 67% (N = 101). Only 12% expressed objection to the concept of additional NP training in CAP or DBP, but only 53% of training directors currently reported having sufficient faculty to do so. Some training directors reported already having advanced behavioral and mental health training programs for NPs (31%) and most (82%) would consider expanding, if funded. There is support for advanced training for NPs, but funding is needed to make this a reality. Expansion of such programs might rapidly improve accessibility and reduce waiting time of mental health providers for children and adolescents. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. The impact of co-morbidity burden on appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne Christine; Vinther, Michael; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2016-01-01

    -ICD indication-related co-morbidities including atrial fibrillation, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal disease, liver disease, cancer, chronic psychiatric disease, and peripheral and/or cerebrovascular disease, and divided into four groups (co-morbidity burden 0, 1, 2, and ≥3...

  15. Morbidity in early Parkinson's disease and prior to diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonmotor symptoms are probably present prior to, early on, and following, a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Nonmotor symptoms may hold important information about the progression of Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the total early and prediagnostic morbidities in the 3...... years before a hospital contact leading to a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Retrospective morbidity data from Danish National Patient Registry records (1997-2007) of 10,490 adult patients with a secondary care diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were compared with 42,505 control cases. RESULTS......: Parkinson's disease was associated with significantly higher morbidity rates associated with conditions in the following categories: mental and psychiatric, nervous system, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, genitourinary, abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, injury...

  16. Morbidity and mortality of middle-aged and elderly narcoleptics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Thorstensen, Eva Wiberg; Pickering, Line

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate the morbidities and mortality in a national group of middle-aged and elderly narcolepsy patients before and after the first diagnosis of the condition. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), 1174 patients (45.1% males) aged....... In the NPR, all morbidities are grouped into major WHO classes. RESULTS: Middle-aged and elderly patients had more health contacts before and after their narcolepsy diagnosis with respect to several disease domains: infections, neoplasm, endocrine/metabolic diseases/diabetes, mental/psychiatric, neurological.......002) among those aged 60+ years. CONCLUSION: There are higher rates of morbidity in several disease domains before and after a diagnosis of narcolepsy. Elderly narcolepsy patients have higher mortality rates....

  17. Psychiatric specialty training in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Kontaxakis, V; Ploumpidis, D

    2017-01-01

    The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system. This multifaceted role requires the continuous education of modern psychiatrists, but above all a broad, substantial and comprehensive training regime in the initial stage of their professional career, that is to say during specialization. Training in Psychiatry, as indeed has happened in all other medical specialties, has evolved considerably in recent decades, both in the content of education due to scientific advances in the fields of neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience, genetics, psychopharmacology, epidemiology and psychiatric nosology, and also because of advances in the educational process itself. Simple apprenticeship next to an experienced clinician, despite its importance in the clinical training of young psychiatrists, is no longer sufficient to meet the increased demands of the modern role of psychiatrists, resulting in the creation of educational programs defined by setting and pursuing minimum, though comprehensive educational objectives. This development has created the global need to develop organizations intended to supervise training programs. These organizations have various forms worldwide. In the European Union, the competent supervising body for medical specialties is the UEMS (European Union of Medical Specialities) and particularly in the case of the psychiatric

  18. Psychiatric comorbidities in women with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Anskis, Alicia M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2012-03-01

    Although the physical consequences of Celiac Disease are well studied, less is known about co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. This study examines psychiatric risk and comorbidities of women with Celiac Disease, who may be at increased risk for psychiatric symptoms (e.g. depression, and disordered eating behaviours). Women (N = 177) with Celiac Disease responded to an extensive web-mediated survey assessing dietary compliance, illness symptoms, psychiatric functioning, and disordered eating. Despite high reported dietary compliance, patients reported marked illness symptoms and impaired quality of life. A substantial minority endorsed symptoms that met criteria for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: 37% (n = 65) met the threshold suggesting depression, and 22% (n = 39) for disordered eating. Participants whose symptoms exceeded these clinical thresholds reported greater perceived stress and reduced overall mental health, relative to women below the clinical cutoffs. Despite largely adhering to a gluten-free diet, a substantial subset of women with Celiac Disease report clinically relevant symptoms of depression and disordered eating; such symptoms are associated with increased psychosocial distress in other domains. These results suggest potential to improve the patient well-being through attention to psychosocial care, in addition to existing dietary recommendations for individuals with Celiac Disease.

  19. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  20. Association of Psychiatric History and Type D Personality with Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Health Status Prior to ICD Implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H.; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Hout, Moniek; Scholten, Marcoen; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). PURPOSE: We examined associations between previous anxiety and depressive

  1. Psychopathological Behaviour and Cognition in Morbid Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Alba; Calabro, Pasquale Fabio; Lippi, Chita; Jaccheri, Roberta; Vitti, Jacopo; Santini, Ferruccio

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition with high prevalence and multifaceted aetiology, accompanied by an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Obesity has several negative effects on the psychological status, and the severity of psychological disorders correlates with the degree of obesity. Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the psychological distress associated with severe obesity, which contributes to deterioration of the quality of life of affected patients. Dysfunctional eating behaviours and eating disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, cognition and quality of life will be discussed together with the most common drugs that can be employed to treat the various disorders in this peculiar clinical setting. The effects of bariatric surgery will be also reviewed. Obesity is often the result of pathological behaviours implemented in an eating disorder. Inconsistent results have been reported with regard to the effect of severe obesity on cognition, which recognize a multifaceted aetiology. Serotonergic agents play an important role in the management of patients with obesity and binge episodes, fluoxetine being currently a drug approved for this disorder. The efficacy of lorcaserin, a combination of bupropion and naltrexone, or antiepileptic medications (topiramate and zonisamide) has also been proposed. A neuroprotective role of leptin and oestrogen has been hypothesized. Bariatric surgery is a helpful treatment of morbid obese patients, with long-term favourable results on the psychopathological profile. Psychological, psychoeducational and psychopharmacological treatment can facilitate weight loss in morbid obese subjects with psychopathological comorbidities. A precise definition of the mechanisms affecting appetite, satiety and energy balance is expected to foster the development of new effective antiobesity drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Psychiatric patient and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Pal Attri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with psychiatric illnesses are prescribed long-term drug treatment, and the anaesthesiologist must be aware of potential interactions with anaesthetic agents. Psychotropic drugs often given in combination with each other or with other non-psychiatric drugs generally exert profound effects on the central and peripheral neurotransmitter and ionic mechanisms. Hence, prior intake of these drugs is an important consideration in the management of the patient about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. This article highlights the effects of anaesthetics on patients taking antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and lithium carbonate. The risk that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of surgery, the patient′s physical state, anaesthesia, the direct and indirect effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms and risk of psychiatric recurrence and relapse.

  3. Do Co-morbid Anxiety Disorders Predict Drinking Outcomes in Women with Alcohol Use Disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Farris, Samantha G.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Hunter-Reel, Dorian

    2012-01-01

    Aims: It is unclear whether co-morbid anxiety disorders predict worse drinking outcomes during attempts to change drinking behavior. Studies have yielded mixed results, and have rarely examined drinking outcomes based on a specific type of anxiety disorder. Women with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are of particular interest as they are at risk for co-morbid anxiety [Kessler et al. (1997) Lifetime co-occurrence of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse and dependence with other psychiatric disorders in the na...

  4. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service......, and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics...

  5. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    , and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics......A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  6. Study of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with headache using a short structured clinical interview in a rural neurology clinic in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soaham Dilip Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are common in patients attending neurology clinics with headache. Evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with headache is often missed in the busy neurology clinics. Aims: To assess the prevalence of Axis-I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in patients with primary headache disorders in a rural-based tertiary neurology clinic in Western India. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional observation survey was conducting assessing all patients with migraine, tension-type headache and chronic daily headache attending the Neurology Clinic of Shree Krishna Hospital, a rural medical teaching hospital in Karamsad, in Gujarat in Western India. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 consecutive consenting adults with headache were interviewed using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I., a structured diagnostic clinical interview to assess prevalence of Axis-I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were calculated using SPSS software version 16 and a binomial regression model was used to study the relationship of psychiatric co-morbidity with patient-related factors. Results: 49 out of 101 (48.5% patients with headache suffered from depressive disorders (dysthymia or depression or suicidality, 18 out of 101 patients with headache (17.90% suffered from anxiety related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder or agoraphobia or social phobia or panic disorder. Conclusions: Axis-I psychiatric disorders are a significant comorbidity among patients with headache disorders. M.I.N.I. can be used as a short, less time consuming instrument to assess all patients with headache disorders.

  7. Sensitive Index to Assess Risk of Morbidity in Undernutrition | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the NFI to test this hypothesis in a secondary analysis of data from the National Family Health Survey-3. Using a sample of 46 000 preschool children from the survey, researchers will determine the relative risk of morbidity due to infections and undernutrition (stunting, underweight and low BMI for age) ...

  8. Psychiatric symptomatology after delirium: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Clare; Sarode, Deep P; Russ, Tom C; Shenkin, Susan D; Carson, Alan; Maclullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-09-01

    Delirium is an acute and usually transient severe neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with significant long-term physical morbidity. However, its chronic psychiatric sequelae remain poorly characterized. To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, namely anxiety, depressive, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after delirium, a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases was performed independently by two authors in March 2016. Bibliographies were hand-searched, and a forward- and backward-citation search using Web of Science was performed for all included studies. Of 6411 titles, we included eight prospective cohort studies, including 370 patients with delirium and 1073 without delirium. Studies were heterogeneous and mostly included older people from a range of clinical groups. Consideration of confounders was variable. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was almost three times higher in patients with delirium than in patients without delirium (22.2% vs 8.0%, risk ratio = 2.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.36-5.73). There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of anxiety symptoms between patients with and without delirium. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms after delirium was inconclusive: only one study investigated this and no association between PTSD symptoms after delirium was reported. There is limited published evidence of the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms after non-ICU delirium and the strongest evidence is for depressive symptoms. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and PTSD symptoms. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  10. Psychiatric impairment and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-03

    Dec 3, 2002 ... Impairment and disability assessment on psychiatric grounds has always been subjective, controversial ... informed medical advisors doing their disability assessments. Many of these advisors have expressed ..... that will empower the affected employee and that is non- stigma- tising. In order to do so it is ...

  11. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated wh...

  12. Psychiatric genetics:AJP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pippa

    their caregivers in South Africa. The heritability of the majority of the psychiatric disorders is ... linkage analyses in a cohort of Bantu-speaking black South. Africans.17-22 Areas of implied linkage to schizophrenia ... one of the studies of a Bantu-speaking schizophrenia cohort. Table I. Glossary of genetic terminology. Allele.

  13. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda,Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski,Andrea Parolin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  14. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Koelen, Jurrijn; Smit, Filip; Schoevers, Robert

    2008-01-17

    Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18-65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the inhabitants of more urbanized areas

  15. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koelen Jurrijn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Methods The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65. The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement. Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Results Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders. The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Conclusion Psychiatric disorders are more

  16. The social support network for black psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ngubane

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out of almost 50% of Black inpatients in a state psychiatric hospital to evaluate the level of accessibility of the family network of the patients. Staff were interviewed on the problems they have with contacting families. The survey shows the extent of inadequate access and identifies reasons for the problem.

  17. Psychiatric aspects of pediatric epilepsy: Focus on anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric co-morbidities are commonly seen with pediatric epilepsy, which can be in the form of cognitive deficits like - inattention and intellectual disability, motor disturbances like - hyperactivity, emotional disturbances like - depression and anxiety disorders and behavioral problems like - impulsivity, aggression and even psychotic behavior. Anxiety disorders like - Obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and panic attacks are commonly seen with pediatric epilepsy. Presence of co-morbid anxiety disorder in pediatric epilepsy is responsible for scholastic decline, peer maladjustment and poor quality of life. Management of anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy is always a challenge. Until, there is no general consensus regarding management of anxiety disorders in pediatric epilepsy. Despite its enormous impact on an individual′s life, this area has not been addressed adequately through clinical research. This review focuses on psychiatric aspects of pediatric epilepsy with specific emphasis on anxiety disorders.

  18. Improving the physical health in long-term psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Davidsen, A.S.; Killian, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with psychiatric illness have increased somatic morbidity and increased mortality. Knowledge of how to integrate the prevention and care of somatic illness into the treatment of psychiatric patients is required. The aims of this study were to investigate whether an intervention...... programme to improve physical health is effective. METHODS: An extension of the European Network for Promoting the Health of Residents in Psychiatric and Social Care Institutions (HELPS) project further developed as a 12-month controlled cluster-randomized intervention study in the Danish centre. Waist...... circumference was a proxy of unhealthy body fat in view of the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Waist circumference was 108 cm for men and 108 cm for women. Controlled for cluster randomization, sex, age, and body fat, the intervention group showed a small...

  19. [Rheumatic fibromyalgia: psychiatric features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarró Alvarez, S

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatic fibromyalgia, also known as fibrositis or myofascial pain, is a common syndrome whose diagnoses, founded mainly on physical examination, usually delays due to symptom unspecificity, amount of complementary tests requested and intercourse with psychiatric disorders. Psychyatrists and psychologists get often involved in fibromyalgia treatment. Its proper knowledge prevents not only physicians and patients' psychological discourage but also development of depression and mental health expenses, as well as allows designing a treatment plan according to the main symptoms which may offer improvement chances to fibromyalgia patients. This article intends to offer an up-to-date and complete information about this entity, focused on psychiatric aspects, to better identify and manage such a puzzling disease.

  20. The Relationship Between Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirmohammadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Premenstrual syndrome is a common disorder experienced by up to 50% of women during reproductive age. The prevalence of severe form of PMS (PMDD is 3 % to 8%. Psychiatric disorders in PMS patients have resulted in significant morbidity and in some cases caused resistance to the treatment process Material and Method: 390 participants (264 with PMS/PMDD, and 126 healthy students of University of Guilan who completed the demographic questionnaire, daily symptom rating (DSR and the checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R took part in this study. This study was conducted using a cross sectional method. Results: According to repeated measure variance, the mean scores of psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, Aggression, Interpersonal sensitivity in the PMS group were significantly higher than the healthy group (p< 0/05, and increase in severity of PMS from mild to severe was accompanied by increase in mean score of these subscales. There was a significant difference in mean score of depression, anxiety, aggression and interpersonal sensitivity between the 3rd and the 13th day of the cycle. Significant effect of the DSR grouping (PMS and Healthy group and time interaction emerged in interpersonal sensitivity and aggression, significant effect on the DSR grouping (Mild, Moderate, Severer and time interaction demonstrated in interpersonal sensitivity. Conclusion: Patients with prospective confirmed PMDD seemed to suffer from psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, recognizing co-morbid psychiatric symptoms in patients with PMDD is of prime importance. All healthcare providers should be sensitive to mental status of women with PMS.

  1. Wound morbidity after kidney transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, M. Matthijs; Alberts, Victor P.; Bemelman, Frederike J.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Idu, Mirza M.

    2015-01-01

    Wound morbidity is an important surgical complication after kidney transplant. To assess risk factors for postoperative wound complications and the impact of such complications on outcomes of kidney transplant. Retrospectively, 108 consecutive kidney transplant patients between January 2010 and

  2. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... account for about half of the morbidity. The pathogenic mechanisms include preoperative immune incompetence, subclinical cardiac insufficiency and haemostatic imbalance. In addition, surgical trauma and/or postoperative abstinence result in an exaggerated stress response, which may further contribute...

  3. Morbidity and Mortality in Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Alicia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Chronic sarcoidosis is a complex disease with numerous comorbid conditions and can be fatal in some cases. Recognizing causes of morbidity and mortality is important to effectively select treatments, manage symptoms, and improve outcomes. The purpose of this review is to examine emerging knowledge on morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Recent Findings Approximately one to five percent of patients with sarcoidosis die from complications of sarcoidosis. Recent population studies indicate that mortality may be increasing over the past decade. The reasons behind these trends are unclear, but could include increasing incidence, detection rates, severity of disease, or age of the population. Morbidity of sarcoidosis is reflected by a trend of increased hospitalizations over recent years and increased use of healthcare resources. Morbidity can be caused by organ damage from granulomatous inflammation, treatment complications, and psychosocial effects of the disease. Recent studies are focused on morbidity related to cardiopulmonary complications, bone health, and aging within the sarcoidosis population. Last, sarcoidosis is associated with autoimmune diseases, pulmonary embolism, and malignancy; however, the underlying mechanisms linking diseases continue to be debated. Summary Morbidity in sarcoidosis is significant and multifactorial. Mortality is infrequent, but may be increasing over the years. PMID:25029298

  4. Psychological morbidity among co-residents of older people in rural South India: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M Khurram; Jacob, K S

    2015-03-01

    This study attempted to examine psychological morbidity among co-residents of older people living in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. This cross-sectional study evaluated psychological morbidity among co-residents using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire and psychiatric morbidity among older people using the 10/66 Dementia Research Group's population-based studies protocol. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Of 807 residents evaluated, 73 (9.0%) had significant psychological morbidity. Such morbidity was associated with being older, female, poorer, illiterate, currently employed and being a spouse of the older person. A diagnosis of depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms and greater disability in older people were also associated with psychological morbidity among co-residents. Co-residents living with older people have significant psychological morbidity, which needs to be recognised and treated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Psychiatric genetics:AJP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pippa

    extended morbidity of such conditions.12 Unipolar depression, alcohol use, bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia, drug use, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and panic disorder are neuropsychiatric disorders that fall into the top 20 causes of years lived with disability in South Africa.12 This is exacerbated.

  6. Social factors ameliorate psychiatric disorders in community-based asylum seekers independent of visa status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Debbie C; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sundram, Suresh

    2015-12-15

    The impact of industrialised host nations' deterrent immigration policies on the mental health of forced migrants has not been well characterised. The present study investigated the impact of Australia's refugee determination process (RDP) on psychiatric morbidity in community-based asylum-seekers (AS) and refugees. Psychiatric morbidity was predicted to be greater in AS than refugees, and to persist or increase as a function of time in the RDP. The effect on mental health of demographic and socio-political factors such as health cover and work rights were also investigated. Psychiatric morbidity was measured prospectively on five mental health indices at baseline (T1, n=131) and an average of 15.7 months later (T2, n=56). Psychiatric morbidity in AS significantly decreased between time points such that it was no longer greater than that of refugees at T2. Caseness of PTSD and demoralisation reduced in AS who gained protection; however, those who maintained asylum-seeker status at T2 also had a significant reduction in PTS and depression symptom severity. Reduced PTS and demoralisation symptoms were associated with securing work rights and health cover. Living in the community with work rights and access to health cover significantly improves psychiatric symptoms in forced migrants irrespective of their protection status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tina Gram; Valbak, Lone; Perto, Gurli; Reinert, Kjeld

    2006-06-05

    In Denmark the number of forensic psychiatric patients is increasing. The objective of this study was to explore whether the increased number of forensic psychiatric patients has been reflected in the use of psychiatric inpatient facilities. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate differences in the treatment of various diagnostic groups of forensic patients and of forensic and non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Information about admissions and outpatient contact was extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register for all Danish patients sentenced to psychiatric treatment in the period 1994-2003. Furthermore, a group of first-admission forensic patients suffering from schizophrenia was compared to a control group of first-admission non-forensic patients with schizophrenia, matched for sex, age and time of admission. The number of forensic psychiatric patients increased markedly in the period 1994-2003; at the same time, the use of inpatient facilities for this group of patients did not increase to a similar degree but actually decreased. Forensic patients in the group F20-F29 spent more time in hospital than did forensic patients with affective disorders and personality disorders. Forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia had significantly longer periods of hospitalization than did non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Forensic psychiatric patients' use of psychiatric inpatient facilities during the last 10 years did not increase to the extent expected relative to the increasing number of forensic psychiatric patients. This raises the question of whether these patients are receiving necessary and sufficient treatment.

  8. Psychological distress in morbid obesity in relation to weight history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Maria Letizia; Villanova, Nicola; Avagnina, Sebastiano; Fusco, Maria Antonia; Fatati, Giuseppe; Compare, Angelo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2007-03-01

    Very few data are available on psychological distress in morbidly obese subjects in relation to the history of their weight. In subjects with childhood obesity, psychological distress might be better than in adult-onset obesity, because of progressive adaptation to the social stigma. Psychological distress was tested in relation to BMI at age 20 years (BMI-20), weight history and somatic co-morbidities in 632 treatment-seeking, morbidly obese participants from the QUOVADIS cohort (130 men, 502 women; mean age 45.5 years). The number of dieting attempts/year, BMI increase and cumulative BMI loss since age 20 were calculated as weight cycling parameters. The Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), the Binge-Eating Scale, and the ORWELL-97 questionnaire were used to score psychometry and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Complications were quantitatively assessed by a modified Charlson's score. BMI-20 was normal in 35% of cases and >35 kg/m2 in only 14%. Psychometric scores were not different in relation to BMI-20, when corrected for age, with the exception of the General Health scale of PGWB, showing a greater distress in subjects with normal BMI-20. In most cases, the prevalence of pathological results of questionnaires showed a J-shaped curve, with participants with normal BMI-20 or those with Class II-III obesity in early adulthood having the highest prevalence of psychological/psychiatric distress and poor HRQL. Weight cycling was a risk factor for binge-eating, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in SCL-90, whereas somatic co-morbidities adversely affected most SCL-90 and all PGWB scales. Weight cycling and somatic co-morbidities, but not age of onset of obesity, are the main factors negatively influencing psychological health in treatment-seeking, morbidly obese subjects.

  9. Workplace violence in the hospital psychiatric setting. An occupational health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, B

    1996-12-01

    1. Assault directed against psychiatric staff is emerging as a serious occupational health problem. Governmental regulatory agencies, unions, and academic research have identified workplace assault in the psychiatric setting as a serious workplace health issue. 2. Violence directed against psychiatric nursing personnel is increasing. Increases in assault are related to shorter hospitalizations, cutbacks in mental health services, and the increasing number of clients with criminal histories and personality disorders. 3. Reduction in staff assault can best be accomplished using an injury epidemiology occupational health focus. Identifying hazards, energy transfer mechanisms, and other environmental factors contributing to staff injuries can reduce or eliminate the morbidity associated with client assault.

  10. [Psychiatric complications of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpegui, Manuel; Jurado, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The psychiatric consequences of induced abortion continue to be the object of controversy. The reactions of women when they became aware of conception are very variable. Pregnancy, whether initially intended or unintended, may provoke stress; and miscarriage may bring about feelings of loss and grief reaction. Therefore, induced abortion, with its emotional implications (of relief, shame and guilt) not surprisingly is a stressful adverse life event. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: There is agreement among researchers on the need to compare the mental health outcomes (or the psychiatric complications) with appropriate groups, including women with unintended pregnancies ending in live births and women with miscarriages. There is also agreement on the need to control for the potential confounding effects of multiple variables: demographic, contextual, personal development, previous or current traumatic experiences, and mental health prior to the obstetric event. Any psychiatric outcome is multi-factorial in origin and the impact of life events depend on how they are perceived, the psychological defence mechanisms (unconscious to a great extent) and the coping style. The fact of voluntarily aborting has an undeniable ethical dimension in which facts and values are interwoven. No research study has found that induced abortion is associated with a better mental health outcome, although the results of some studies are interpreted as or Some general population studies point out significant associations with alcohol or illegal drug dependence, mood disorders (including depression) and some anxiety disorders. Some of these associations have been confirmed, and nuanced, by longitudinal prospective studies which support causal relationships. With the available data, it is advisable to devote efforts to the mental health care of women who have had an induced abortion. Reasons of the woman's mental health by no means can be invoked, on empirical bases, for inducing an abortion.

  11. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer G; Gitlin, Michael J; Altshuler, Lori L

    2013-07-01

    Owing to the prevalence of medication side effects and treatment resistance, prescribers often consider off-label uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for the treatment of persistent symptoms. The authors review the available literature on the FDA-approved and non-FDA-approved uses of lamotrigine in adults with psychiatric disorders. We used PubMed, MEDLINE, and a hand search of relevant literature to find studies published between 1990 and 2012 and available in English language. The following keywords were searched: lamotrigine, psychiatric, mood disorders, depression, personality disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, side effects, and rash. Data were selected from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When RCTs were not available, open-label trials (6), retrospective case reviews (10), and case series (4) were summarized. We extracted results of monotherapy and augmentation trials of lamotrigine on primary and secondary outcome measures. Lamotrigine is generally well tolerated, with the best evidence for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, particularly in prevention of depressive episodes. In acute bipolar depression, meta-analyses suggested a modest benefit, especially for more severely depressed subjects, with switch rates similar to placebo. In unipolar depression, double-blind RCTs noted benefit on subsets of symptoms and improved response in more severely depressed subjects. Data are limited but promising in borderline personality disorder. Use of lamotrigine in schizophrenia and anxiety disorders has little supportive evidence. Lamotrigine is recommended in bipolar maintenance when depression is prominent. It also has a role in treating acute bipolar depression and unipolar depression, though the latter warrants more research. Data are too limited in other psychiatric disorders to recommend its use at this time. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Who’s Boarding in the Psychiatric Emergency Service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Simpson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When a psychiatric patient in the emergency department requires inpatient admission, but no bed is available, they may become a “boarder.” The psychiatric emergency service (PES has been suggested as one means to reduce psychiatric boarding, but the frequency and characteristics of adult PES boarders have not been described. Methods: We electronically extracted electronic medical records for adult patients presenting to the PES in an urban county safety-net hospital over 12 months. Correlative analyses included Student’s t-tests and multivariate regression. Results: 521 of 5363 patient encounters (9.7% resulted in boarding. Compared to non-boarding encounters, boarding patient encounters were associated with diagnoses of a primary psychotic, anxiety, or personality disorder, or a bipolar manic/mixed episode. Boarders were also more likely to be referred by family, friends or providers than self-referred; arrive in restraints; experience restraint/ seclusion in the PES; or be referred for involuntary hospitalization. Boarders were more likely to present to the PES on the weekend. Substance use was common, but only tobacco use was more likely associated with boarding status in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Boarding is common in the PES, and boarders have substantial psychiatric morbidity requiring treatment during extended PES stays. We question the appropriateness of PES boarding for seriously ill psychiatric patients. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:669-674

  13. Psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities in epilepsy: A critical reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T; Altalib, Hamada H; Devinsky, Orrin

    2017-07-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral disorders are important aspects of epilepsy and have received increasing attention in the last several years. The literature upon which most of the field relies contains some biases that must be carefully examined and resolved in future studies. First, in the pediatric epilepsy literature, many reports find that children with epilepsy have high levels of behavioral and psychiatric disorders when compared to appropriate controls. Most of these studies rely on parent-proxy completed instruments to assess these behavioral endpoints. Parents' reports are not objective but reflect parents' reactions and emotions. Increasing evidence suggests inherent biases in proxy reports and highlights the need to assess children directly. Second, periictal phenomena may be mischaracterized as underlying mood disorders. Third, many studies report elevated levels of psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of epilepsy, suggesting an inherent relation between the two types of disorders. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, while widely recognized as posing a diagnostic dilemma in the clinic, may account for some of these research findings. Diagnostic errors between epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures need careful consideration when evaluating studies demonstrating associations between psychiatric disorders and epilepsy or poorer seizure control in association with psychiatric disorders in people who have epilepsy. Mental health concerns are important for everyone. An accurate, undistorted understanding of the relation between mental health disorders and epilepsy is essential to ensure appropriate therapy and to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful treatments and common misconceptions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Airway management and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-11-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more efficient in the morbidly obese patients than in lean patients and serves as a rescue device for both failed ventilation and failed intubation. In the 24 h following anaesthesia, morbidly obese patients experience frequent oxygen desaturation periods that can be counteracted by continuous positive airway pressure, noninvasive ventilation and physiotherapy.

  15. Psychiatric aspects of dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, J S; Ford, C V; Rimoin, D L

    1976-02-01

    Sixteen adult dwarfs - 11 with achondroplasia and 5 with hypopituitarism - were studied by means of psychiatric interviews and psychological tests. There were no significant differences between the two groups; in general, the subjects had achieved a satisfactory life adjustment despite the stress of having bodies uniquely different from those of the general population. They had secure identities as "little people" and successfully used coping mechanisms such as a sense of humor and a pleasant interpersonal style. Male dwarfs tended to experience more emotional distress than female dwarfs.

  16. The missing p in psychiatric training: why it is important to teach pain to psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Igor; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Borsook, David

    2011-01-01

    Pain problems are exceedingly prevalent among psychiatric patients. Moreover, clinical impressions and neurobiological research suggest that physical and psychological aspects of pain are closely related entities. Nonetheless, remarkably few pain-related themes are currently included in psychiatric residency training. To provide clinical and scientific rationale for psychiatric-training enrichment with basic tenets of pain medicine and to raise the awareness and sensitivity of physicians, scientists, and educators to this important yet unmet clinical and public health need. We present 3 lines of translational research evidence, extracted from a comprehensive literature review, in support of our objectives. First, the neuroanatomical and functional overlap between pain and emotion/reward/motivation brain circuitry suggests integration and mutual modulation of these systems. Second, psychiatric disorders are commonly associated with alterations in pain processing, whereas chronic pain may impair emotional and neurocognitive functioning. Third, given its stressful nature, pain may serve as a functional probe for unraveling pathophysiological mechanisms inherent in psychiatric morbidity. Pain training in psychiatry will contribute to deeper and more sophisticated insight into both pain syndromes and general psychiatric morbidity regardless of patients' pain status. Furthermore, it will ease the artificial boundaries separating psychiatric and medical formulations of brain disorders, thus fostering cross-fertilizing interactions among specialists in various disciplines entrusted with the care of patients experiencing pain.

  17. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric diseases: what are the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Christian; Fontaine, Denys

    2015-05-01

    Despite the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as an efficient treatment modality for psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS), and treatment refractory major depression (TRD), few patients are operated or included in clinical trials, often for fear of the potential risks of an approach deemed too dangerous. To assess the surgical risks, we conducted an analysis of publications on DBS for psychiatric disorders. A PubMed search was conducted on reports on DBS for OCD, GTS, and TRD. Forty-nine articles were included. Only reports on complications related to DBS were selected and analyzed. Two hundred seventy-two patients with a mean follow-up of 22 months were included in our analysis. Surgical mortality was nil. The overall mortality was 1.1 %: two suicides were unrelated to DBS and one death was reported to be unlikely due to DBS. The majority of complications were transient and related to stimulation. Long-term morbidity occurred in 16.5 % of cases. Three patients had permanent neurological complications due to intracerebral hemorrhage (2.2 %). Complications reported in DBS for psychiatric diseases appear to be similar to those reported for DBS in movement disorders. But class I evidence is lacking. Our analysis was based mainly on small non-randomized studies. A significant number of patients (approximately 150 patients) who were treated with DBS for psychiatric diseases had to be excluded from our analysis as no data on complications was available. The exact prevalence of complications of DBS in psychiatric diseases could not be established. DBS for psychiatric diseases is promising, but remains an experimental technique in need of further evaluation. A close surveillance of patients undergoing DBS for psychiatric diseases is mandatory.

  18. Surgical treatment of morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brane Breznikar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the article we present a morbid obesity and treatment options. We describe instructions for patients before operation and our results for operation with adjustable band.Patients and methods: Between May and December 2005 we operated 10 morbidly obese patients, 7 female and 3 male, aged 23 to 56, body mass index (BMI between 38 and 48.5 (laparoscopically inserted adjustable band. Two had comorbidity (diabetes.Results: We followed the patients’ status between 1 and 8 months. They reduced their body weight from 5 to 28 kg, on average 4.3 kg per month.Conclusions: Bariatric surgery is successful method for morbid obesity treatment. It demands multidisciplinary approach. Beside surgeon, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, psychologist and others take part in the decision for the operation. During subsequent treatment dietetics and general physician play an important role.

  19. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...

  20. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  1. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re...... precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces...

  2. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... account for about half of the morbidity. The pathogenic mechanisms include preoperative immune incompetence, subclinical cardiac insufficiency and haemostatic imbalance. In addition, surgical trauma and/or postoperative abstinence result in an exaggerated stress response, which may further contribute...

  3. Morbid obesity and asthma : co-morbidity or causal relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenburg-van Huisstede, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts. Part A describes in chapter 2 the complex diagnosis of asthma in the morbidly obese, and especially focuses on underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of asthma in this patient group. Part B investigates bronchial and systemic inflammation. It starts in chapter 3 with a

  4. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electronic search was done up to April 2008. Structural and functional cerebellar abnormalities have been reported in many psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported smaller total cerebellar and vermal volumes in schizophrenia, mood disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using cognitive paradigms have shown alterations in cerebellar activity in schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In dementia, the cerebellum is affected in later stages of the disease. Contrasting with early theories, cerebellum appears to play a major role in different brain functions other than balance and motor control, including emotional regulation and cognition. Future studies are clearly needed to further elucidate the role of cerebellum in both normal and pathological behavior, mood regulation, and cognitive functioning.

  5. Smoking, quitting, and psychiatric disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Rollema, Hans; Svensson, Torgny H; Winterer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking among patients with psychiatric disease is more common than in the general population, due to complex neurobiological, psychological, and pharmacotherapeutic mechanisms. Nicotine dependence exposes smokers with co-occurring mental illness to increased risks of smoking-related morbidity, mortality, and to detrimental impacts on their quality of life. The neurobiological and psychosocial links to smoking appear stronger in certain comorbidities, notably depression and schizophrenia. Through its action on the cholinergic system, nicotine may have certain beneficial effects across a range of mental health domains in these patients, including improved concentration and cognition, relief of stress and depressive affect, and feeling pleasurable sensations. Despite the availability of effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies and psychosocial interventions, as well as increasing evidence that individuals with psychiatric disorders are motivated to quit, nicotine dependence remains an undertreated and under-recognized problem within this patient population. Evidence suggests that provision of flexible and individualized treatment programs may be successful. Furthermore, the complicated relationship observed between nicotine dependence, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and mental illness necessitates integration of close monitoring in any successful smoking cessation program. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inter-Pregnancy Intervals and Maternal Morbidity: New Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The effects of short and long pregnancy intervals on maternal morbidity have hardly been investigated. This research analyses these effects using logistic regression in two steps. First, data from the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2010 are used to study delivery referrals to District hospitals. Second, Kibagabaga ...

  7. Foreskin Morbidity in Uncircumcised Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, Ida; Thorup, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of the discussion on whether the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks and the discrepancies in reported figures of complications, we evaluated the incidence and morbidity of foreskin surgery due to medical indications in boys from the Capital...

  8. Treating the disconfirmed psychiatric client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, J

    1983-01-01

    Frequent disconfirmation behaviors have been documented in psychiatric clients. Individuals who demonstrate maladaptive patterns of disconfirmation can learn to understand and modify this dysfunctional sequence. Through one to one interactions and group discussions, psychiatric nurses can help clients learn more positive communication behaviors. This accomplishment will positively affect the client's interpersonal responsiveness and self-esteem.

  9. Psychiatric comorbidity : fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes

    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus

  10. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  11. Pulmonary function in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, H J

    1987-06-01

    Morbid obesity is not infrequently associated with severe respiratory impairment. In our experience approximately 10 per cent of morbidly obese patients who underwent gastric surgery had severe respiratory impairment. Respiratory insufficiency of obesity can be divided into two primary breathing disorders: the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) and the obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). In its most severe form, when both SAS and OHS are present, it is called the Pickwickian syndrome. In our series 59 morbidly obese patients with respiratory insufficiency secondary to obesity underwent gastric surgery for weight reduction. Fourteen had OHS, 19 had SAS and 26 had both. Of these, two patients died of postoperative complications and one died at five weeks with an inconclusive autopsy, totalling an operative mortality rate of 3.4 per cent and a total mortality of 5.1 per cent. In our overall experience morbidly obese patients lost 67 per cent of excess weight after gastric procedures. In conclusion, surgically induced weight loss will markedly improve or correct respiratory insufficiency secondary to obesity. It will improve arterial oxygenation, minimize CO2 retention, expand lung volumes, correct polycythemia, and reduce apnea frequency. The magnitude of changes in these variables is clinically significant. Therefore, respiratory insufficiency of obesity should be considered a major indication for an aggressive approach to weight reduction. The jejunoileal bypass and unbanded gastroplasty operations have an unacceptable incidence of complications or failure, respectively. There is a high degree of recidivism following dietary programs. Sweets eaters will not do well with a gastroplasty procedure. Gastric bypass for individuals addicted to sweets or the vertical banded gastroplasty for "gorgers" are currently our procedures of choice and are associated with the average loss of two thirds of excess weight and correction of breathing problems associated with

  12. A nested case-control study of the risk of suicide attempts after discharge from psychiatric care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge

    2008-01-01

    The literature suggests that the risk of suicide is high within the first weeks after discharge from psychiatric care, but practically no studies have estimated the risk of suicide attempt after discharge from psychiatric care. The aim of this study was to examine the risk level for suicide attempt...... after discharge from psychiatric care, and to control for effects from psychiatric diagnoses, number and length of previous admission. An analysis of the role of co-morbid substance use disorder in suicide attempts risk was completed. The study is a Danish register-based nested case-control study; 3037...... cases were identified from Register for Suicide Attempts, and 60,295 individuals, matched by gender and age, were identified for comparison. Retrospective personal data on psychiatric care was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Risk of suicide attempts was estimated by the use...

  13. Alcohol Misuse among College Athletes: Self-Medication for Psychiatric Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, M. N.; Verhegge, R.; Linville, H. H.; Pumariega, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys a collegiate athlete population for alcohol abuse as well as self-reported depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms. Significant correlations were found between reported alcohol abuse and self-reported symptoms of depression and general psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest a possible link between psychopathology and serious…

  14. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    that are historically rooted in logical positivism and behaviorism. These theoretical approaches marked decisively the so-called "operational revolution in psychiatry" leading to the creation of DSM-III. This paper attempts to examine the theoretical assumptions that underlie the use of a fully structured psychiatric...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...... faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully...

  16. Risk Factors of Internet Addiction among Internet Users: An Online Questionnaire Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available Internet addiction (IA has become a major public health issue worldwide and is closely linked to psychiatric disorders and suicide. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of IA and its associated psychosocial and psychopathological determinants among internet users across different age groups.The study was a cross-sectional survey initiated by the Taiwan Suicide Prevention Center. The participants were recruited from the general public who responded to the online questionnaire. They completed a series of self-reported measures, including Chen Internet Addiction Scale-revised (CIAS-R, Five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-5, Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI, and questions about suicide and internet use habits.We enrolled 1100 respondents with a preponderance of female subjects (85.8%. Based on an optimal cutoff for CIAS-R (67/68, the prevalence rate of IA was 10.6%. People with higher scores of CIAS-R were characterized as: male, single, students, high neuroticism, life impairment due to internet use, time for internet use, online gaming, presence of psychiatric morbidity, recent suicide ideation and past suicide attempts. Multiple regression on IA showed that age, gender, neuroticism, life impairment, internet use time, and BSRS-5 score accounted for 31% of variance for CIAS-R score. Further, logistic regression showed that neuroticism, life impairment and internet use time were three main predictors for IA. Compared to those without IA, the internet addicts had higher rates of psychiatric morbidity (65.0%, suicide ideation in a week (47.0%, lifetime suicide attempts (23.1%, and suicide attempt in a year (5.1%.Neurotic personality traits, psychopathology, time for internet use and its subsequent life impairment were important predictors for IA. Individuals with IA may have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and suicide risks. The findings provide important information for further investigation and prevention of IA.

  17. Risk Factors of Internet Addiction among Internet Users: An Online Questionnaire Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lee, Ming-Been; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Li-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a major public health issue worldwide and is closely linked to psychiatric disorders and suicide. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of IA and its associated psychosocial and psychopathological determinants among internet users across different age groups. The study was a cross-sectional survey initiated by the Taiwan Suicide Prevention Center. The participants were recruited from the general public who responded to the online questionnaire. They completed a series of self-reported measures, including Chen Internet Addiction Scale-revised (CIAS-R), Five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-5), Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI), and questions about suicide and internet use habits. We enrolled 1100 respondents with a preponderance of female subjects (85.8%). Based on an optimal cutoff for CIAS-R (67/68), the prevalence rate of IA was 10.6%. People with higher scores of CIAS-R were characterized as: male, single, students, high neuroticism, life impairment due to internet use, time for internet use, online gaming, presence of psychiatric morbidity, recent suicide ideation and past suicide attempts. Multiple regression on IA showed that age, gender, neuroticism, life impairment, internet use time, and BSRS-5 score accounted for 31% of variance for CIAS-R score. Further, logistic regression showed that neuroticism, life impairment and internet use time were three main predictors for IA. Compared to those without IA, the internet addicts had higher rates of psychiatric morbidity (65.0%), suicide ideation in a week (47.0%), lifetime suicide attempts (23.1%), and suicide attempt in a year (5.1%). Neurotic personality traits, psychopathology, time for internet use and its subsequent life impairment were important predictors for IA. Individuals with IA may have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and suicide risks. The findings provide important information for further investigation and prevention of IA.

  18. Morbidity of childhood onset narcolepsy: a controlled national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennum, Poul; Pickering, Line; Thorstensen, Eva Wiberg; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Narcolepsy is associated with significant morbidities. We evaluated the morbidities and mortality in a national group of child and adolescent patients after a first diagnosis of narcolepsy. Identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), 243 patients (128 boys) aged 0-19 years diagnosed with narcolepsy between 1998 and 2012 with follow-up until 2014 were compared with 970 controls who were randomly chosen from the Danish Civil Registration System Statistics and matched by age, gender and geography. Comorbidities were calculated three years before and after diagnoses. In addition to the more frequent health contacts due to neurological diseases, patients showed elevated odds ratios before and after diagnosis of endocrine and metabolic conditions (4.4 (95% CI, 1.9-10.4); 3.8 (1.7-8.4)), nervous disorders (16.6 (8.0-34.4); 198 (49.0-804)), psychiatric illnesses (4.5 (2.3-9.1)/5.8 (2.8-12.1)), pulmonary diseases, and other diseases (3.1 (2.0-4.9); 3.1 (2.0-4.9)). Congenital abnormalities (2.5 (1.1-5.5)), respiratory (2.9 (1.5-5-5)) and eye (5.7 (2.2-15.0)) diseases were more common before diagnosis. Injuries were also more common after diagnosis (1.5 (1.0-2.1)). Narcoleptic children presented significantly more diagnoses of multiple comorbidities than controls before and after diagnosis. Before and after a diagnosis of narcolepsy in children, morbidity is more frequent in several domains, including metabolic, psychiatric, neurological and other diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of epidemic violence on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Wagner Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. AIMS: To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007-2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001. Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027, depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006 generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021 and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027. Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses--e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001 and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying

  20. Integrated morbidity management for lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Biruck; Tamiru, Mossie; Mengistu, Belete; Kebede, Fikreab; Martindale, Sarah; Sime, Heven; Mulugeta, Abate; Kebede, Biruk; Sileshi, Mesfin; Mengiste, Asrat; McPherson, Scott; Fentaye, Amha

    2017-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis are the major causes of tropical lymphoedema in Ethiopia. The diseases require a similar provision of care, but until recently the Ethiopian health system did not integrate the morbidity management. To establish health-care services for integrated lymphoedema morbidity management, the health ministry and partners used existing governmental structures. Integrated disease mapping was done in 659 out of the 817 districts, to identify endemic districts. To inform resource allocation, trained health extension workers carried out integrated disease burden assessments in 56 districts with a high clinical burden. To ensure standard provision of care, the health ministry developed an integrated lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis morbidity management guideline, containing a treatment algorithm and a defined package of care. Experienced professionals on lymphoedema management trained government-employed health workers on integrated morbidity management. To monitor the integration, an indicator on the number of lymphoedema-treated patients was included in the national health management information system. In 2014, only 24% (87) of the 363 health facilities surveyed provided lymphatic filariasis services, while 12% (44) provided podoconiosis services. To date, 542 health workers from 53 health centres in 24 districts have been trained on integrated morbidity management. Between July 2013 and June 2016, the national health management information system has recorded 46 487 treated patients from 189 districts. In Ethiopia, an integrated approach for lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis morbidity management was feasible. The processes used could be applicable in other settings where these diseases are co-endemic.

  1. Association between bullying and pediatric psychiatric hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Hadassa; Singh, Jasmine; Ghaffar, Ayesha; de Silva, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Bullying is a serious public health issue. We sought to demonstrate an association between bullying victimization and hospital admissions for acute psychiatric problems. We described the demographics and types of bullying in a sample of hospitalized patients in Staten Island, NY, and compared bullying victimization scores with psychiatric versus medical admissions. Methods: Patients in grades 3–12 were recruited from the Staten Island University Hospital Inpatient Pediatrics unit and emergency department. Patients completed the validated Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBQ) was analyzed to formulate a report of bullying in our sample as well as a sub-score measurement of bullying victimization. Pediatric residents simultaneously documented whether the subject was a medical versus an in-patient psychiatry admission. Statistical analysis was performed to look for an association between the victimization sub-score and a psychiatric indication for admission. Results: A total of 185 surveys were analyzed. Peak bullying occurred in 7th and 8th grades. Demographics and types of bullying in our sample were described. A strong association between bullying victimization and hospitalization for in-patient psychiatry was demonstrated. Association between bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, psychiatry, and social work consults was also shown. Concern for an association between hospitalization for psychogenic illness and bullying victimization was also raised. Conclusions: There is a significant association between bullying victimization and psychiatric hospital admissions. This raises the specter of the serious consequences of bullying as it is the first study to prospectively link hospital admissions to bullying. Studies using a valid measure of psychogenic illness to look for an association with bullying victimization are needed. PMID:29326819

  2. Forensic Psychiatric Perspective on Criminality Associated with Intellectual Disability: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannynsalo, L.; Putkonen, H.; Lindberg, N.; Kotilainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrasting views exist over the association of intellectual disability (ID) and criminal offending. This nationwide study attempts to shed further light to expand understanding to substantiate the relation between socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric co-morbidity and criminal behaviour among the Finnish forensic population…

  3. Firearm Anticipatory Guidance Training in Psychiatric Residency Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy J.; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Mrdjenovich, Adam J.; Price, Joy A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Most suicides (60%) are committed with firearms, and most (80%) of individuals attempting suicide meet diagnostic criteria for mental illness. This study assessed the prevalence of firearm injury prevention training in psychiatric residency programs. Methods: A three-wave mail survey was sent to the directors of 179 psychiatric…

  4. What do bodily symptoms in African psychiatric patients mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the various bodily symptoms presented by African psychiatric patients and attempt to understand them. Method: The literature on bodily (somatic) symptoms is surveyed with special reference to Africans and examples are drawn from a focused group discussion in one African rural community.

  5. Price elasticity of demand for psychiatric consultation in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12. Central Intelligence Agency, CIA World Fact Book. 13. Saraceno, B. and C. Barbui, Poverty and Mental iIl- ness. Can J Psychiatry, 1997. 42(3): p. 285-90. 14. Vick, B., K. Jones, and S. Mitra, Poverty and severe- psychiatric disorder in the U.S.: evidence from Medical. Expenditure Panel Survey. J Ment Health Policy Econ, ...

  6. Attitude towards psychiatric treatment and referral pattern in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is a paucity of literature on consultation-liaison psychiatry, in northern Nigeria. This study aimed to determine both the pattern of psychiatric referrals, and the attitudes of doctors toward the treatment of mental disorders in a teaching hospital, in northeast Nigeria. Method: In this cross-sectional survey, we ...

  7. Child psychiatric disorders in a primary care Arab population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Al-Sabosy, Moza; Saeed, Mohammed; Sabri, Sufyan

    2004-01-01

    Physical and psychiatric comorbidity is relatively common in general practice but there have been few systematic studies using clinical interviews of children attending the primary care services in the Arab population, and none from the Gulf countries. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and nature of child psychiatric morbidity in primary care in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Systematic psychiatric evaluations were carried out on consecutive children aged 6 to 18 years visiting their primary care doctors in Al Ain. The sample consisted of 141 (50.7%) boys and 137 (49.3%) girls. Forty-three percent of the 278 children received a DSM-IV diagnosis. Of these, 46 (38%) were males and 74 (62%) were females. However, only 1.1% (3/120) of the patients consulted general practitioners for a primary psychiatric symptom. The most common diagnosis was anxiety disorder followed by depression. Obsessive compulsive disorder was present in 11%, conduct disorder in 7%, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in 3% of those with a diagnosis. A statistically significant association was found between DSM-IV caseness and female gender, higher number of children in the household, relationship problems in the family, physical illness and family history of psychiatric disorder. Other factors that did not show any significant association were age, nationality, socioeconomic status, parental education or occupation, scholastic performance or developmental delay in the child, or parental consanguinity. Our findings suggest that psychiatric disorders are common among young people of Arab origin attending primary care facilities, and that doctors need to be vigilant about this possibility.

  8. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  9. PREVALENCE OF OCCULT DEPRESSION IN ELDERLY WITH CHRONIC CO - MORBIDS

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    Sachin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth in elderly population has led to an increase in age related diseases and mainly depression which is affecting the quality of life. Depression is more prevalent amongst elderly individuals with medical illnesses and emerging public health problem leading to increased morbidity and disability worldwide. AIMS AND OBJE CTIVES: To assess the prevalence of occult depression in elderly patients with chronic co - morbid medical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross - sectional study conducted in tertiary hospital. Total 100 elderly patients with underlying chronic me dical illnesses were included. Depression in study population was assessed by geriatric depression scale and analyzed. RESULT: Out of 100 patients 23(23% had depression. Females 12/39(30.76% were affected more than males 11/61 (18.03%. Depression was mo re prevalent among patients with 3 or more co - morbid conditions (45.4% as compared to <3 (11.9%. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with multiple chronic medical illnesses may have associated occult depression. Screening of these patients for depression couple d with appropriate psychiatric referral should be an integral part of Geriatric service

  10. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  12. Race and psychiatric services in post-apartheid South Africa: a preliminary study of psychiatrists' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Robert; Szabo, Christopher P; Gordon, Alan; Allwood, Clifford W

    2004-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the perception of the quality of psychiatric services five years after apartheid, and specifically whether care for black patients had improved. A survey was distributed to South African psychiatrists during a national congress and by mail. The questionnaire focused on the quality of psychiatric care in general, for black and white patients, the racial composition of each respondent's psychiatric practice currently, and the racial composition of the psychiatric practice during apartheid. Psychiatric services in South Africa were viewed as deteriorating. The end of apartheid has done little to improve the quality of psychiatric care for both black and white patients. Although less pronounced, racial inequality in psychiatric care continues to exist. Psychiatric practices continue to be overrepresented with white patients. There remains a differential in quality of psychiatric care and further monitoring should continue. Continued efforts to improve racial equality and the need for greater awareness of cultural issues need to be addressed. Limitations of this study included possible social desirability bias, use of subjective rather than objective measures, and a survey that was limited in scope.

  13. Lifetime Prevalence, age and gender distribution and age-of-onset of psychiatric disorders in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil: results from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey Prevalência em toda a vida, distribuição por idade e sexo e idade de início de transtornos psiquiátricos na área metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil: resultados do Estudo Epidemiológico de Transtornos Mentais São Paulo Megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Viana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence, age-of-onset, gender distribution and identify correlates of lifetime psychiatric disorders in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA. METHODS: The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey assessed psychiatric disorders on a probabilistic sample of 5,037 adult residents in the SPMA, using the World Mental Health Survey Version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Response rate was 81.3%. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence for any disorder was 44.8%; estimated risk at age 75 was 57.7%; comorbidity was frequent. Major depression, specific phobias and alcohol abuse were the most prevalent across disorders; anxiety disorders were the most frequent class. Early age-of-onset for phobic and impulse-control disorders and later age-of-onset for mood disorders were observed. Women were more likely to have anxiety and mood disorders, whereas men, substance use disorders. Apart from conduct disorders, more frequent in men, there were no gender differences in impulse-control disorders. There was a consistent trend of higher prevalence in the youngest cohorts. Low education level was associated to substance use disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent among the general adult population in the SPMA, with frequent comorbidity, early age-of-onset for most disorders, and younger cohorts presenting higher rates of morbidity. Such scenario calls for vigorous public health action.OBJETIVOS: Estimar a prevalência, idade de início, distribuição por sexo e idade e identifica fatores correlacionados à morbidade psiquiátrica na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP. MÉTODOS: O Estudo Epidemiológico de Transtornos Mentais São Paulo Megacity avaliou transtornos psiquiátricos em uma amostra probabilística composta por 5.037 adultos (18+ residentes na RMSP, utilizando o Composite International Diagnostic Interview, versão World Mental Health Survey. A taxa global de resposta foi de 81

  14. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

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    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  15. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

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    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  16. [Qualitative methods in psychiatric research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.