WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychiatric history presented

  1. Neopositivism and the DSM psychiatric classification. An epistemological history. Part 2: Historical pathways, epistemological developments and present-day needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Massimiliano

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the concrete historical sources for the use of neopositivist operational criteria by the DSM-III. This paper suggests that distinct sources operated implicitly. The current usefulness of the operational approach is questioned. It is shown that: (a) in epistemology, neopositivism has been replaced by more adequate accounts; (b) psychologists rejected operational definitions because these were unable to define the majority of mental phenomena; (c) mental symptoms cannot be directly described as such, because they already make part of the psychiatric diagnosis to which they belong. In conclusion, diagnosing is based on the hermeneutical co-construction of mental symptoms. The failure of the neopositivist programme suggests that it is time to reconcile scientific formalization and semiotic activity.

  2. History of psychiatry and the psychiatric profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael D

    2009-11-01

    The present article reviews the English language literature on the history of psychiatry published within the previous year. Research has been conducted in the history of clinical syndromes, famous people and psychiatrists, psychiatric institutions, treatments and legislations. The importance of the sociocultural contexts has been shown, particularly in research emanating from Europe and North America, which addresses late 18th to late 20th century issues. Much varied and important research on the history of psychiatry is being performed around the world. This scholarship provides insight into the cultural context and ways in which psychiatry was practised in the past and can help shed light on the way in which psychiatry is conducted today.

  3. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  4. A modern history of psychiatric-mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Laura C; Scharer, Kathleen M

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the progression of developments in psychiatric-mental health nursing from the 1960s to the present. The 1960s were a time of shortage of psychiatric APRNs, with legislation expanding the availability of mental health services. We find ourselves in a similar time with 7 million new health insurance enrollees, because of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The expansion of health insurance coverage comes at a time when some colleges of nursing are closing master's programs in psychiatric-mental health, in lieu of the DNP mandate from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Is history repeating itself? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. North

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This editorial examines controversies identified by the articles in this special issue, which explore psychopathology in the broad history of the classification of selected psychiatric disorders and syndromes over time through current American criteria. Psychiatric diagnosis has a long history of scientific investigation and application, with periods of rapid change, instability, and heated controversy associated with it. The articles in this issue examine the history of psychiatric nomenclature and explore current and future directions in psychiatric diagnosis through the various versions of accepted diagnostic criteria and accompanying research literature addressing the criteria. The articles seek to guide readers in appreciating the complexities of psychiatric diagnosis as the field of psychiatry pushes forward toward future advancements in diagnosis. Despite efforts of many scientists to advance a diagnostic classification system that incorporates neuroscience and genetics, it has been argued that it may be premature to attempt to move to a biologically-based classification system, because psychiatric disorders cannot yet be fully distinguished by any specific biological markers. For now, the symptom-based criteria that the field has been using continue to serve many essential purposes, including selection of the most effective treatment, communication about disease with colleagues, education about psychiatric illness, and support for ongoing research.

  6. Anxiety: its role in the history of psychiatric epidemiology.

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    Murphy, J M; Leighton, A H

    2009-07-01

    The role played by anxiety in the history of psychiatric epidemiology has not been well recognized. Such lack of understanding retarded the incremental growth of psychiatric research in general populations. It seems useful to look back on this history while deliberations are being carried out about how anxiety will be presented in DSM-V. Drawing on the literature and our own research, we examined work that was carried out during and after the Second World War by a Research Branch of the United States War Department, by the Stirling County Study, and by the Midtown Manhattan Study. The differential influences of Meyerian psychobiology and Freudian psychoanalysis are noted. The instruments developed in the early epidemiologic endeavors used questions about nervousness, palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, upset stomach, etc. These symptoms are important features of what the clinical literature called 'manifest', 'free-floating' or 'chronic anxiety'. A useful descriptive name is 'autonomic anxiety'. Although not focusing on specific circumstances as in Panic and Phobic disorders, a non-specific form of autonomic anxiety is a common, disabling and usually chronic disorder that received empirical verification in studies of several community populations. It is suggested that two types of general anxiety may need to be recognized, one dominated by excessive worry and feelings of stress, as in the current DSM-IV definition of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and another emphasizing frequent unexplainable autonomic fearfulness, as in the early epidemiologic studies.

  7. Functional neuroimaging and presenting psychiatric features in frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M F; McMurtray, A; Chen, A K; Shapira, J S; Mishkin, F; Miller, B L

    2006-01-01

    Background Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a behavioural syndrome caused by degeneration of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. Behavioural disturbances include psychiatric features. Whether patients with FTD present with psychiatric features varies with the initial neuroanatomical variability of FTD. Objective To identify presenting psychiatric changes not part of diagnostic criteria of FTD and contrast them with the degree of hemispheric asymmetry and frontal and temporal hypoperfusion on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Methods 74 patients who met consensus criteria for FTD were evaluated at a two year follow up. All had brain SPECT on initial presentation. Results of an FTD psychiatric checklist were contrasted with ratings of regional hypoperfusion. Results The regions of predominant hypoperfusion did not correlate with differences on FTD demographic variables but were associated with presenting psychiatric features. Dysthymia and anxiety were associated with right temporal hypoperfusion. “Moria” or frivolous behaviour also occurred with temporal lobe changes, especially on the right. The only significant frontal lobe feature was the presence of a peculiar physical bearing in association with right frontal hypoperfusion. Conclusions Patients with FTD may present with psychiatric changes distinct from the behavioural diagnostic criteria for this disorder. Early temporal involvement is associated with frivolous behaviour and right temporal involvement is associated with emotional disturbances. In contrast, those with right frontal disease may present with alterations in non‐verbal behaviour. PMID:16043457

  8. Genomewide Association Studies: History, Rationale, and Prospects for Psychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cichon, S.; Craddock, N.; Daly, M.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Kelsoe, J.; Lehner, T.; Levinson, D.F.; Moran, A.P.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Posthuma, D.; Willemsen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a review of the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. Method: A literature review was carried out, power and other issues

  9. Genomewide association studies: history, rationale, and prospects for psychiatric disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cichon, S.; Craddock, N.; Daly, M.; Faraone, S.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Kelsoe, J.; Lehner, T.; Levinson, D.F.; Moran, A.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a review of the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. METHOD: A literature review was carried out, power and other issues

  10. Limbic encephalitis presenting as a post-partum psychiatric condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkine, Marc; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Vincent, Angela; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2011-09-15

    We describe a woman who presented with a psychiatric disorder post-partum and subsequently developed seizures and cognitive dysfunction prompting further investigation. A diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (LE) was made and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) detected. These antibodies are found in many non-paraneoplastic patients with LE. Although antibody-mediated conditions tend to present or relapse post-partum, VGKC-LE in the post-partum period has not been described. Case report. Clinical and imaging data were consistent with limbic encephalitis. High titres of anti-VGKC-complex antibodies confirmed the diagnosis of VGKC-LE. The similarities between the psychiatric symptomatology of VGKC-LE and post-partum psychiatric disorders raise the possibility that some instances of post-partum psychiatric conditions are manifestations of immune-mediated, non-paraneoplastic LE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Limbic encephalitis presenting as a post-partum psychiatric condition.

    OpenAIRE

    Gotkine, Marc; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Vincent, Angela; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe a woman who presented with a psychiatric disorder post-partum and subsequently developed seizures and cognitive dysfunction prompting further investigation. A diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (LE) was made and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) detected. These antibodies are found in many non-paraneoplastic patients with LE. Although antibody-mediated conditions tend to present or relapse post-partum, VGKC-LE in the post-partum period has not b...

  12. TENNIS: HISTORY AND THE PRESENT

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    Borisova O. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - a substantiation of ways of development of professional sports in Ukraine (on a tennis material. The primary information is received by the analysis of the scientifically-methodical literature and the documentary sources, official sites of organizational structures of tennis (АТР, WТА, ITF, continental and national federations, organising committees of tennis tournaments, tennis academies etc. (more than 450 sources; the method of expert estimations (the qualified experts, judges, trainers, science officers - 26 people was applied. In article possibility of use of tennis as by one of effective models of development of Olympic kinds of sports in conditions of commercialization and professionalization is theoretically proved; the history-theoretical analyzes of development of professional tennis in the world (3 periods is carried out; the analyzes of its organizational-legal and economic forms at the international and national levels.

  13. Emergency Department Referrals for Adolescent Urgent Psychiatric Consultation: Comparison of Clinical Characteristics of Repeat-presentations and Single-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nasreen; Nesdole, Robert; Hu, Tina

    2018-01-01

    a) to examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of repeat-presentations to an adolescent urgent psychiatric clinic, and b) to compare them with single-time presentation. This 18-month retrospective study compared repeat-presenters to age and gender matched single-time presenters. Demographic variables included age gender and ethnicity. Clinical variables included reason for referral, family history, diagnosis, recommendations and compliance. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, McNemar's Chi-square tests for matched pairs, and conditional logistic regression. Of 624 assessments 24% (N=151) were repeat-presentations. Compared with single-presentation, repeat-presentation group had a higher proportion of Aboriginal youth (X2 (1) = 108.28 p presentation group had higher odds of past hospital admission (OR: 3.50, p presentations for urgent psychiatric consultation constitute a quarter of referrals to the urgent psychiatric clinic. Identifying and addressing factors that contribute to repeat-presentations may, assist in improving treatment compliance by ensuring focused interventions and service delivery for these youth. In turn, this will improve access to the limited urgent services for other youth.

  14. A case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome presented with psychiatric features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir; Alsabousi, Mouza; Salih, Badr; Alhassani, Ghanem; Osman, Ossama T

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with an acute onset of pleomorphic psychiatric features. Upon examination we later diagnosed him with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome based on clinical and radiological findings that are characteristic for this rare autosomal dominant syndrome. His psychiatric manifestations included irritability, aggressive behavior, labile mood, hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and transient cognitive impairment. His past history indicated surgical excision of pigmented lesion in the left lower eyelid which turned out to be a basal cell carcinoma. His past visits to dermatology clinics indicated pitted keratosis involving hands, callosities, and seborrheic dermatitis. There were numerous palmar pits, and Brain CT Head scan revealed extensive calcification along falx cerebri and around the cerebellar vermis. He had low (20 ng/L) vitamin D level and high parathyroid hormone level. The patient improved using antipsychotic medications and vitamin D supplementations for symptomatic management and was discharged with a plan for multispecialty outpatient follow-up. This case highlights the importance of considering rare organic etiologies in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with psychiatric symptoms. This is of vital importance for early intervention to prevent complications and for better outcomes of the coexistent diseases.

  15. A Case of Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome Presented with Psychiatric Features

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    Amir Mufaddel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with an acute onset of pleomorphic psychiatric features. Upon examination we later diagnosed him with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome based on clinical and radiological findings that are characteristic for this rare autosomal dominant syndrome. His psychiatric manifestations included irritability, aggressive behavior, labile mood, hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and transient cognitive impairment. His past history indicated surgical excision of pigmented lesion in the left lower eyelid which turned out to be a basal cell carcinoma. His past visits to dermatology clinics indicated pitted keratosis involving hands, callosities, and seborrheic dermatitis. There were numerous palmar pits, and Brain CT Head scan revealed extensive calcification along falx cerebri and around the cerebellar vermis. He had low (20 ng/L vitamin D level and high parathyroid hormone level. The patient improved using antipsychotic medications and vitamin D supplementations for symptomatic management and was discharged with a plan for multispecialty outpatient follow-up. This case highlights the importance of considering rare organic etiologies in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with psychiatric symptoms. This is of vital importance for early intervention to prevent complications and for better outcomes of the coexistent diseases.

  16. The impact of psychiatric history on women's pre- and postabortion experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ditzhuijzen, Jenneke; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate to what extent psychiatric history affects preabortion decision difficulty, experienced burden, and postabortion emotions and coping. Women with and without a history of mental disorders might respond differently to unwanted pregnancy and

  17. Parental history of psychiatric diagnoses and unipolar depression: a Danish National Register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musliner, K L; Trabjerg, B B; Waltoft, B L; Laursen, T M; Mortensen, P B; Zandi, P P; Munk-Olsen, T

    2015-10-01

    Depression is known to run in families, but the effects of parental history of other psychiatric diagnoses on depression rates are less well studied. Few studies have examined the impact of parental psychopathology on depression rates in older age groups. We established a population-based cohort including all individuals born in Denmark after 1954 and alive on their 10th birthday (N = 29 76 264). Exposure variables were maternal and paternal history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety or 'other' psychiatric diagnoses. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using Poisson regressions. Parental history of any psychiatric diagnosis increased incidence rates of outpatient (maternal: IRR 1.88, p history. IRRs for parental history of non-affective disorders remained relatively stable across age groups, while IRRs for parental affective disorders (unipolar or bipolar) decreased with age from 2.29-3.96 in the youngest age group to 1.53-1.90 in the oldest group. IRR estimates for all parental diagnoses were similar among individuals aged ⩾41 years (IRR range 1.51-1.90). Parental history of any psychiatric diagnosis is associated with increased incidence rates of unipolar depression. In younger age groups, parental history of affective diagnoses is more strongly associated with rates of unipolar depression than non-affective diagnoses; however, this distinction disappears after age 40, suggesting that parental psychopathology in general, rather than any one disorder, confers risk for depression in middle life.

  18. Psychiatric Outcomes in Young Children with a History of Institutionalization

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    Bos, Karen; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Children raised in institutions, considered an extreme example of social deprivation, are one group through which we can better understand the impact of neglect on child health and development. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) is the first randomized, controlled trial of foster care as an intervention for institutionalized children. In this review we describe the mental health outcomes from the BEIP. Specifically, we report findings on attachment styles, attachment disorders, emotional reactivity, and psychiatric symptomatology for children in the BEIP. We describe the impact of the foster care intervention on these outcomes and also describe how outcomes differ by gender and by length of time spent in the institution. In addition, we explore the influence of genetic variation on individual outcomes and recovery from early severe social deprivation, as well as the role of differences in brain development in mediating later psychiatric morbidity. The results from the BEIP confirm and extend the previous findings on the negative sequelae of early institutional care on mental health. The results also underscore the benefit of early family placement for children living in institutions. PMID:21250893

  19. Psychiatric family history and schizophrenia risk in Denmark: which mental disorders are relevant?

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    Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, M G; Pedersen, C B

    2010-02-01

    A family history of schizophrenia is the strongest single indicator of individual schizophrenia risk. Bipolar affective disorder and schizo-affective disorders have been documented to occur more frequently in parents and siblings of schizophrenia patients, but the familial occurrence of the broader range of mental illnesses and their role as confounders have not been studied in large population-based samples. All people born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991 (1.74 million) were followed for the development of schizophrenia (9324 cases) during 28 million person-years at risk. Information of schizophrenia in cohort members and psychiatric history in parents and siblings was established through linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Data were analysed using log-linear Poisson regression. Schizophrenia was, as expected, strongly associated with schizophrenia and related disorders among first-degree relatives. However, almost any other psychiatric disorder among first-degree relatives increased the individual's risk of schizophrenia. The population attributable risk associated with psychiatric family history in general was 27.1% whereas family histories including schizophrenia only accounted for 6.0%. The general psychiatric family history was a confounder of the association between schizophrenia and urbanization of place of birth. Clinically diagnosed schizophrenia is associated with a much broader range of mental disorders in first-degree relatives than previously reported. This may suggest risk haplotypes shared across many disorders and/or shared environmental factors clustering in families. Failure to take the broad range of psychiatric family history into account may bias results of all risk-factor studies of schizophrenia.

  20. Prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders as a function of variant rape histories: results from a national survey of women.

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    Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2012-06-01

    Rape is an established risk factor for mental health disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episodes (MDE), and substance use disorders. The majority of studies have not differentiated substance-involved rape or examined comorbid diagnoses among victims. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of common trauma-related psychiatric disorders (and their comorbidity) in a national sample of women, with an emphasis on distinguishing between rape tactics. A secondary objective was to estimate the risk for psychiatric disorders among victims of variant rape tactics, in comparison to non-victims. A nationally representative population-based sample of 3,001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18-86 years) participated in a structured telephone interview assessing rape history and DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, MDE, alcohol abuse (AA), and drug abuse (DA). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. Women with rape histories involving both substance facilitation and forcible tactics reported the highest current prevalence of PTSD (36%), MDE (36%), and AA (20%). Multivariate models demonstrated that this victim group was also at highest risk for psychiatric disorders, after controlling for demographics and childhood and multiple victimization history. Women with substance-facilitated rapes reported higher prevalence of substance abuse in comparison to women with forcible rape histories. Comorbidity between PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was higher among rape victims in comparison to non-rape victims. Researchers and clinicians should assess substance-facilitated rape tactics and attend to comorbidity among rape victims. Empirically supported treatments are needed to address the complex presentations observed among women with variant rape histories.

  1. Longing for the Present in the History of History Education

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    Wils, Kaat; Verschaffel, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The public debates on history education that occurred in many countries over the past decades have given rise to the idea that people live in an age of "history wars". While these wars are primarily fought on a national level, they are increasingly looked at as a global phenomenon. In most cases, they are the expression of tensions between the…

  2. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  3. Association of psychiatric history and type D personality with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and health status prior to ICD implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).......Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)....

  4. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Review of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of common primary psychiatric causes of cutaneous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krooks, J A; Weatherall, A G; Holland, P J

    2018-06-01

    Approximately half of all patients presenting to dermatologists exhibit signs and symptoms of psychiatric conditions that are either primary or secondary to cutaneous disease. Because patients typically resist psychiatric consult, dermatologists often are on the front line in evaluating and treating these patients. Accordingly, distinguishing the specific underlying or resulting psychiatric condition is essential for effective treatment. The etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and first-line treatment of specific primary psychiatric causes of dermatologic conditions, including delusional infestation, Morgellons syndrome, olfactory reference syndrome, body dysmorphic disorder, excoriation disorder, trichotillomania, and dermatitis artefacta are discussed here, followed by a discussion of the recommended treatment approach with an overview of the different first-line therapies discussed in this review, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy, atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants. Included is a guide for dermatologists to use while prescribing these medications.

  6. Psychiatric symptoms are present in most of the patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

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    Matheus F. Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH is characterized by gait disturbance, dementia and/or urinary incontinence associated with dilation of ventricular system with normal opening cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Wide scientifical evidence confirms association between NPH and psychiatric symptoms. We selected 35 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus from January 2010 to January 2012 in a Brazilian tertiary hospital and performed a formal psychiatric evaluation to identify psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders were present in 71% of these patients, especially anxiety, depression and psychotic syndromes. NPH patients may develop symptoms with frontal dominance, such as personality changes, anxiety, depression, psychotic syndromes, obsessive compulsive disorder, Othello syndrome; shoplifting and mania. Unusual appearances of NPH symptoms may hinder early diagnosis and consequently proper treatment.

  7. The presentation of forensic psychiatric evidence in court.

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    Gutheil, T G

    2000-01-01

    After defining the role of expert witness, the article reviews the basics of courtroom testimony under the rubrics of (a) truth (presenting under oath only that testimony that one can "swear to," to a reasonable degree of medical certainty); (b) testing (including both psychological testing and tests to assess admissibility standards); and (c) theater (including elements of drama, solemnity, and ritual as well as persuasiveness to the "audience"). Pathways to effectiveness are discussed, including use of visual materials, adjustment of language level for the jury's comprehension and attention to the narrative dimension of the case. Areas of excluded testimony are identified, such as the "ultimate issue" in the case, comments on credibility of other witnesses and comments on the legal process itself. Pitfalls that lie on the path to effectiveness are described, including narcissistic arrogance, anger, and using testimony in a personal crusade; means of avoiding these pitfalls are noted. The author concludes that effective courtroom testimony fulfills expert witness functions necessary to the legal system.

  8. Pediatric paradoxical vocal-fold motion: presentation and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Stephen; Hill, Courtney; Bunting, Glenn; Baliff, Cathy; Ramakrishna, Jyoti; Scirica, Christina; Fracchia, Shannon; Donovan, Abigail; Hartnick, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    To describe (1) a cohort of children with paradoxical vocal-fold motion (PVFM) who were referred to a multidisciplinary airway center and (2) the outcomes of various treatment modalities including speech therapy, gastroesophageal reflux disease treatment, and psychiatric treatment. This was a case series with chart review of children younger than 18 years with PVFM evaluated at a tertiary care pediatric airway center over a 36-month period. Fifty-nine children with PVFM were evaluated. The cohort had a mean age of 13.64 years (range: 8-18 years) and a female-to-male ratio of 3:1. Speech therapy as an initial treatment resulted in a 63% (24 of 38) success rate after an average of 3.7 treatment sessions. Speech therapy was a more successful treatment than antireflux therapy (P = .001). Ten percent (6 of 59) of the children presented with a known psychiatric diagnosis, and 30% (18 of 59) of children in the cohort were ultimately diagnosed with a psychiatric condition. Children with inspiratory stridor at rest had a lower initial success rate with speech therapy (56%), a higher rate of underlying psychiatric disorders (75%), and a high rate of success after psychiatric treatment (100%) that required, on average, 3 sessions over a 2-month period. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date on pediatric PVFM. The majority of children with PVFM improve with speech therapy. Children with PVFM at rest may be better treated with psychiatric therapy than speech therapy. Furthermore, children who present with symptoms at rest may have a higher likelihood of underlying psychiatric disease.

  9. Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Long-term social and psychiatric aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1.......5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator...

  10. Creutzfeldt-Jacob’s Disease Presenting with Psychiatric Symptomsand Severe Itching

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    Emine Rabia Koç

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal prion-like proteins in the central nervous system. Clinical features, electroencephalography, brain magnetic resonance imaging and protein 14.3.3 is useful in diagnosis. Protein 14.3.3 may be negative in the early or late stages of the disease. Presentation with psychiatric symptoms and itching is not typical in the beginning of the disease In this paper, we present a patient who was first accepted to the pschiatry ward because of his psychiatric symtpoms and had severe itching, resistant to antihistaminic drugs

  11. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Coskun Murat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.

  12. The impact of psychiatric history on women's pre- and postabortion experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ditzhuijzen, Jenneke; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate to what extent psychiatric history affects preabortion decision difficulty, experienced burden, and postabortion emotions and coping. Women with and without a history of mental disorders might respond differently to unwanted pregnancy and subsequent abortion. Women who had an abortion (n=325) were classified as either with or without a history of mental disorders, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. The two groups were compared on preabortion doubt, postabortion decision uncertainty, experienced pressure, experienced burden of unwanted pregnancy and abortion, and postabortion emotions, self-efficacy and coping. The study was conducted in the Netherlands. Data were collected using structured face-to-face interviews and analyzed with regression analyses. Compared to women without prior mental disorders, women with a psychiatric history were more likely to report higher levels of doubt [odds ratio (OR)=2.30; confidence interval (CI)=1.29-4.09], more burden of the pregnancy (OR=2.23; CI=1.34-3.70) and the abortion (OR=1.93; CI=1.12-3.34) and more negative postabortion emotions (β=.16; CI=.05-.28). They also scored lower on abortion-specific self-efficacy (β=-.11; CI=-.22 to .00) and higher on emotion-oriented (β=.22; .11-.33) and avoidance-oriented coping (β=.12; CI=.01-.24). The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of experienced pressure, decision uncertainty and positive postabortion emotions. Psychiatric history strongly affects women's pre- and postabortion experiences. Women with a history of mental disorders experience a more stressful pre- and postabortion period in terms of preabortion doubt, burden of pregnancy and abortion, and postabortion emotions, self-efficacy and coping. Negative abortion experiences may, at least partially, stem from prior or underlying mental health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutron scattering: history, present state and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belushkin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reminds some milestones in development of condensed matter research with neutrons. Present status of the investigations in this field is briefly outlined. An analysis is given on the situation and future prospects in different neutron sources development in Russia and in the world. The next generation neutron sources projects in Japan, USA and Europe are reviewed

  14. Histories and Freedom of the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vucina, Naja; Drejer, Claus Munch; Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the ways in which Michel Foucault and Quentin Skinner’s historical analyses seek to unsettle the limits on present forms of freedom. We do so by comparing their ways of analyzing discourse, rationality and agency. The two authors differ significantly in the ways they deal...

  15. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research relations.......This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...

  16. Psychiatric presentations heralding Hashimoto's encephalopathy: A systematic review and analysis of cases reported in literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE may often present initially with psychiatric symptoms. These presentations are often variable in clinical aspects, and there has been no systematic analysis of the numerous psychiatric presentations heralding an eventual diagnosis of HE which will guide clinicians to make a correct diagnosis of HE. This systematic review was done to analyze the demographic characteristics, symptom typology, and clinical and treatment variables associated with such forerunner presentations. Electronic databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify potential case reports that described initial psychiatric presentations of HE in English language peer-reviewed journals. The generated articles were evaluated and relevant data were extracted using a structured tool. We identified a total of forty articles that described 46 cases. More than half of the total samples (54.4% were above the age of 50 years at presentation. The most common psychiatric diagnosis heralding HE was acute psychosis (26.1% followed by depressive disorders (23.9%. Dementia (10.9% and schizophrenia (2.2% were uncommon presentations. Antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were elevated in all patients but not antithyroglobulin antibodies. Preexisting hypothyroidism was absent in majority of cases (60.9%. Steroid doses initiated were 500–1000 mg of intravenous methylprednisolone for majority (52.1% of patients while oral steroid maintenance was required for a significant minority (39.1%. Psychiatric manifestations of HE may be heterogeneous and require a high index of clinical suspicion, especially in older adults. A range of clinical and treatment variables may assist clinicians in making a faster diagnosis and instituting prompt and effective management.

  17. A case of peduncular hallucinosis presenting as a primary psychiatric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfiye Burcu Dogan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peduncular hallucinosis usually occurs due to vascular or infectious midbrain lesions or brain stem compression by tumors. We present a peduncular hallucinosis case in a 63-year-old female with brain stem infarction, which can easily be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder.

  18. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health : Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Ormel, Johan

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to

  19. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent mental disorders. Current disorder most important but psychiatric history matters as well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oerlemans, Anoek; Raven, Dennis; Laceulle, O.M.; Hartman, Catharina; Veenstra, Rene; Verhulst, F; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Oldehinkel, Tineke

    2017-01-01

    Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting

  20. An unusual psychiatric presentation of polycythaemia 'Difficulties lie in our habits of thought rather than in the nature of things' Andre Tardieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rahul; Pieters, Thirza

    2013-04-09

    Psychiatric symptoms are not always best explained in the context of psychological stress. The same mental, emotional and behavioural changes also arise from various medical conditions. For a clinician this dual origin of psychiatric symptoms creates an ongoing diagnostic challenge. Our patient is a 50-year-old gentleman who had been working in a company for around 33 years and always had good appraisals. He presented to mental health services with a 5-year history of persecutory beliefs, convinced that his employers were out to damage his reputation. Apart from a diagnosis of polycythaemia, a few months before the onset of abnormal beliefs, there is no personal or family history of psychiatric disorder or medical illness. His delusions did not respond to conventional treatment with psychotropic medication possibly due to non-adherence because of side effects. However, a series of venesections lead to an improvement in mental state.

  1. Word Memory Test Performance Across Cognitive Domains, Psychiatric Presentations, and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jared A; Miskey, Holly M; Brearly, Timothy W; Martindale, Sarah L; Shura, Robert D

    2017-05-01

    The current study addressed two aims: (i) determine how Word Memory Test (WMT) performance relates to test performance across numerous cognitive domains and (ii) evaluate how current psychiatric disorders or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history affects performance on the WMT after excluding participants with poor symptom validity. Participants were 235 Iraq and Afghanistan-era veterans (Mage = 35.5) who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were divided into two groups based on WMT performance (Pass = 193, Fail = 42). Tests were grouped into cognitive domains and an average z-score was calculated for each domain. Significant differences were found between those who passed and those who failed the WMT on the memory, attention, executive function, and motor output domain z-scores. WMT failure was associated with a larger performance decrement in the memory domain than the sensation or visuospatial-construction domains. Participants with a current psychiatric diagnosis or mTBI history were significantly more likely to fail the WMT, even after removing participants with poor symptom validity. Results suggest that the WMT is most appropriate for assessing validity in the domains of attention, executive function, motor output and memory, with little relationship to performance in domains of sensation or visuospatial-construction. Comprehensive cognitive batteries would benefit from inclusion of additional performance validity tests in these domains. Additionally, symptom validity did not explain higher rates of WMT failure in individuals with a current psychiatric diagnosis or mTBI history. Further research is needed to better understand how these conditions may affect WMT performance. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Variables influencing presenting symptoms of patients with eating disorders at psychiatric outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2016-04-30

    Eating disorders (EDs) have been underdiagnosed in many clinical settings. This study investigates the influence of clinical characteristics on presenting symptoms of patients with EDs. Psychiatric outpatients, aged 18-45, were enrolled sequentially and received a two-phase survey for EDs in August 2010-January 2013. Their primary reasons for seeking psychiatric help were obtained at their first encounter with outpatient psychiatrists. Patients' clinical and demographic characteristics were compared according to presenting symptoms with or without eating/weight problems. Of 2140 patients, 348 (16.3%) were diagnosed with an ED (22.6% of women and 6.3% of men). The three most common reasons for seeking psychiatric help were eating/weight problems (46.0%), emotional problems (41.3%), and sleep disturbances (19.3%). The multivariate analyses suggest that when patients with EDs presented symptoms that were less related to eating/weight problems, they were significantly more likely to be those having diagnoses other than anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa and less severe degree of binge-eating. Further, patients with EDs who demonstrated more impulsive behaviors and poorer functioning were less likely to report their eating problems when visiting psychiatric clinics. Thus, ED should be assessed routinely in patients with complex psychopathology to facilitate comprehensive treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring of parents with a history of homelessness during childhood and adolescence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Background Children and adolescents from deprived backgrounds have high rates of psychiatric problems. Parental and social factors are crucial for children's healthy and positive development, but whether psychiatric morbidity is associated with parental social marginalisation is unknown. We aimed...... of homelessness, and 56 330 (5%) children and adolescents were diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder during the study period. The incidence of any psychiatric disorder was 15·1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 14·4–15·8) in offspring with at least one parent with a history of homelessness, compared with 6...... to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. Methods We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0...

  4. A narrative history of the International Society for Psychiatric Surgery: 1970-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsman, Nir; Meyerson, Björn A; Lozano, Andres M

    2012-01-01

    In order to reconcile the present resurgence of psychiatric neurosurgery with the not-too-distant historic transgressions in the field, one needs to examine the era of transition from crude art to regulated science. In large part, this transition took place in the 1970s with the continued development and widespread acceptance of stereotactic techniques in functional neurosurgery and several hard-fought ideological and academic victories by proponents of the much-maligned field. Established in 1970, the International Society for Psychiatric Surgery (ISPS) sought to gather like-minded surgeons, psychiatrists and other neuroscientists to counter the rising pressure from special interest groups, as well as some in the public and medical realm, who attempted to abolish all forms of surgical management of psychiatric disease. We reviewed the archives of the ISPS, including letters from its founding members and active participants, conference proceedings and minutes from organizational meetings, from throughout its existence from 1970 to 1983. The archives provide a unique insight into the organization and objectives of the society that kept psychiatric surgery alive in the face of persistent and staunch opposition. We also outline the lessons that current and future functional neurosurgeons can learn from the ISPS, whose key figures, structure and communication, in the non-electronic era, were instrumental for the survival of psychiatric surgery during that critical period. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Ceftriaxone treatment for two neurosyphilis cases presenting with cognitive and psychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Kandemir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema Pallidum subspecies pallidum. The route of transmission of syphilis is almost always through sexual contact. The incidence of syphilis decreased significantly with the introduction of penicilin in the 1940s but rose sharply again with the advent of HIV infection in the 1980s. Tertiary or late syphilis develops years after the initial infection and can involve any organ system. Neurologic involvement occurs in up to 10 percent of patients with untreated syphilis. General paresis, the clinical form of neurosyphilis most associated with psychiatric symptoms, occurs with parenchymatous disease and involves neuronal loss as opposed to the vascular lesions or inflammatory changes characteristic of most other forms of neurosyphilis. In the classic description, after early psychiatric manifestations such as mood changes, psychosis, or cognitive changes, demantia becomes prominent. Penicillin is the only drug that has proved effective in the treatment of neurosyphilis. Ceftriaxone is used as an alternative treatment in patients with penicilin allergy. This article reports two cases of neurosyphilis one of whom is presented with dementia and the other with psychiatric symptoms. Both of them are treated with ceftriaxone. Our purpose is to reveal the fact that ceftriaxone is a succesful alternative treatment for the cases with penicilin allergy and to emphasize the importance of neurosyphilis in the differential diagnosis for the psychiatric cases that are resistant to treatment

  6. Risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring of parents with a history of homelessness during childhood and adolescence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. Methods We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0......–16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental...... information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival...

  7. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health: Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hartman, Catharina A; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Ormel, Johan

    2015-08-01

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to indicate high context sensitivity, would show relatively high problem levels following chronic stress, especially in the presence of parental psychiatric history. With Linear Mixed Models, we investigated the hypotheses in 1917 Dutch adolescents (53.2% boys), assessed at ages 11, 13.5, and 16. Low basal cortisol combined with the absence of a parental psychiatric history increased the risk of externalizing but not internalizing problems following chronic stress. Conversely, low basal cortisol combined with a substantial parental psychiatric history increased the risk of internalizing but not externalizing problems following chronic stress. Thus, parental psychiatric history moderated stress- cortisol interactions in predicting psychopathology, but in a different direction than hypothesized. We conclude that the premise that basal cortisol indicates context sensitivity may be too crude. Context sensitivity may not be a general trait but may depend on the nature of the context (e.g., type or duration of stress exposure) and on the outcome of interest (e.g., internalizing vs. externalizing problems). Although consistent across informants, our findings need replication.

  8. Uncovering the Genetic History of the Present Day Greenlandic Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed...

  9. Familiality of Psychiatric Disorders and Risk of Postpartum Psychiatric Episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Anna E; Maegbaek, Merete L; Liu, Xiaoqin

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Postpartum psychiatric disorders are common and morbid complications of pregnancy. The authors sought to evaluate how family history of psychiatric disorders is associated with postpartum psychiatric disorders in proband mothers with and without a prior psychiatric history by assessing...

  10. Non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome in psychiatric patients with a history of undiagnosed Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakaros, Georgios; Ilonen, Tuula; Kurki, Timo; Paju, Janina; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Vataja, Risto

    2016-11-15

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is often undiagnosed, particularly in non-alcoholics. There are very few reports of non-alcoholic patients diagnosed with Korsakoff syndrome in the absence of a prior diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy and no studies of diffusion tensor imaging in non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. We report on three non-alcoholic psychiatric patients (all women) with long-term non-progressive memory impairment that developed after malnutrition accompanied by at least one of the three Wernicke's encephalopathy manifestations: ocular abnormalities, ataxia or unsteadiness, and an altered mental state or mild memory impairment. In neuropsychological examination, all patients had memory impairment, including intrusions. One patient had mild cerebellar vermis atrophy in MRI taken after the second episode of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The same patient had mild hypometabolism in the lateral cortex of the temporal lobes. Another patient had mild symmetrical atrophy and hypometabolism of the superior frontal lobes. Two patients were examined with diffusion tensor imaging. Reduced fractional anisotropy values were found in the corona radiata in two patients, and the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus in one patient. Our results suggest that non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome is underdiagnosed. Psychiatric patients with long-term memory impairment may have Korsakoff syndrome and, therefore, they should be evaluated for a history of previously undiagnosed Wernicke's encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  12. Cushing Disease Presenting as Primary Psychiatric Illness: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sean A; Rosebush, Patricia I; Smyth, Harley S; Mazurek, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    We report the case of a woman with long-standing refractory depression and psychotic features who was eventually diagnosed with Cushing disease. After surgical treatment of a pituitary adenoma, she experienced gradual psychiatric recovery and was eventually able to discontinue all psychotropic medication. We review the psychiatric components of Cushing disease, implications of psychiatric illnesses for the treatment and prognosis of Cushing disease, and potential pathophysiological mechanisms linking glucocorticoid excess to psychiatric illness.

  13. The Preinterventional Psychiatric History as a Major Predictor for a Reduced Quality of Life After Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Johann; Wenz, Ralf; Groden, Christoph; Schmieder, Kirsten; Wenz, Holger

    2015-11-01

    A significantly increased rate of positive preinterventional psychiatric histories in the unruptured aneurysm collective was demonstrated previously. The current study was designed to analyze the influence of the preinterventional psychiatric status on the outcome after treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Patients treated due to meningioma World Health Organization °I and unruptured intracranial aneurysms in 2 German neurosurgical centers between 2007 and 2013 were screened for exclusion criteria including malignant/chronic diseases, recurrence of the tumor/aneurysm, and neurologic deficits among others. The preinterventional psychiatric histories and the rates of postinterventional headaches, sleeping disorders, symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, and quality of life (QOL) were determined by questionnaires that were mailed to the patients in a printed version. A total of 58 M patients and 45 iA patients who met the inclusion criteria returned the questionnaires; 10 M (17.2%) and 17 iA patients (37.8%) had a positive psychiatric history. The overall Incidental aneurysm collective demonstrated significantly lower overall QOL scores (P = 0.003) and significant greater rates of chronic fatigue syndrome (P = 0.009) compared with the M collective. After we excluded all patients with positive pre-interventional psychiatric histories, those differences were no longer reproducible. Subjectively, the patients did not realize any significant changes in their QOL after successful aneurysm treatment. The results of the current study demonstrate the importance of taking the preinterventional psychiatric history into considerations when evaluating the outcome after unruptured aneurysm treatment. The unfavorable outcome of the aneurysm group seems to be caused by factors that are not related the aneurysm diagnosis or treatment itself. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Korsakoff Syndrome in Non-alcoholic Psychiatric Patients. Variable Cognitive Presentation and Impaired Frontotemporal Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Nikolakaros

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are greatly underdiagnosed. There are very few reported cases of neuropsychologically documented non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data are scarce.Methods: We report clinical characteristics and neuropsychological as well as radiological findings from three psychiatric patients (one woman and two men with a history of probable undiagnosed non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent chronic memory problems.Results: All patients had abnormal neuropsychological test results, predominantly in memory. Thus, the neuropsychological findings were compatible with Korsakoff syndrome. However, the neuropsychological findings were not uniform. The impairment of delayed verbal memory of the first patient was evident only when the results of the memory tests were compared to her general cognitive level. In addition, the logical memory test and the verbal working memory test were abnormal, but the word list memory test was normal. The second patient had impaired attention and psychomotor speed in addition to impaired memory. In the third patient, the word list memory test was abnormal, but the logical memory test was normal. All patients had intrusions in the neuropsychological examination. Executive functions were preserved, except for planning and foresight, which were impaired in two patients. Conventional MRI examination was normal. DTI showed reduced fractional anisotropy values in the uncinate fasciculus in two patients, and in the corpus callosum and in the subgenual cingulum in one patient.Conclusions: Non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome can have diverse neuropsychological findings. This may partly explain its marked underdiagnosis. Therefore, a strong index of suspicion is needed. The presence of intrusions in the neuropsychological examination supports the diagnosis. Damage in frontotemporal white matter tracts, particularly in the

  15. Korsakoff Syndrome in Non-alcoholic Psychiatric Patients. Variable Cognitive Presentation and Impaired Frontotemporal Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakaros, Georgios; Kurki, Timo; Paju, Janina; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Vataja, Risto; Ilonen, Tuula

    2018-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are greatly underdiagnosed. There are very few reported cases of neuropsychologically documented non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data are scarce. Methods: We report clinical characteristics and neuropsychological as well as radiological findings from three psychiatric patients (one woman and two men) with a history of probable undiagnosed non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent chronic memory problems. Results: All patients had abnormal neuropsychological test results, predominantly in memory. Thus, the neuropsychological findings were compatible with Korsakoff syndrome. However, the neuropsychological findings were not uniform. The impairment of delayed verbal memory of the first patient was evident only when the results of the memory tests were compared to her general cognitive level. In addition, the logical memory test and the verbal working memory test were abnormal, but the word list memory test was normal. The second patient had impaired attention and psychomotor speed in addition to impaired memory. In the third patient, the word list memory test was abnormal, but the logical memory test was normal. All patients had intrusions in the neuropsychological examination. Executive functions were preserved, except for planning and foresight, which were impaired in two patients. Conventional MRI examination was normal. DTI showed reduced fractional anisotropy values in the uncinate fasciculus in two patients, and in the corpus callosum and in the subgenual cingulum in one patient. Conclusions: Non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome can have diverse neuropsychological findings. This may partly explain its marked underdiagnosis. Therefore, a strong index of suspicion is needed. The presence of intrusions in the neuropsychological examination supports the diagnosis. Damage in frontotemporal white matter tracts, particularly in the uncinate

  16. Sensitivity to psychosocial chronic stressors and adolescents’ externalizing problems : Combined moderator effects of resting heart rate and parental psychiatric history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, A.R.E.; Ormel, J.; Dietrich, A.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.

    2018-01-01

    From the literature it is not clear whether low resting heart rate (HR) reflects low or high sensitivity to the detrimental effects of adverse environments on externalizing problems. We studied parental psychiatric history (PH), reflecting general vulnerability, as possible moderator explaining

  17. Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with a History of Autism and Optimal Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine E.; Suh, Joyce; Troyb, Eva; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael; Barton, Marianne L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Kelley, Elizabeth; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael C.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Since autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often comorbid with psychiatric disorders, children who no longer meet criteria for ASD (optimal outcome; OO) may still be at risk for psychiatric disorders. A parent interview for DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (K-SADS-PL) for 33 OO, 42 high-functioning autism (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) youth,…

  18. Discerning suicide in drug intoxication deaths: Paucity and primacy of suicide notes and psychiatric history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Eric D.; Connery, Hilary S.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Gunnell, David J.; Miller, Ted R.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Kaplan, Mark S.; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Lilly, Christa L.; Nelson, Lewis S.; Putnam, Sandra L.; Stack, Steven; Värnik, Peeter; Webster, Lynn R.; Jia, Haomiao

    2018-01-01

    Objective A paucity of corroborative psychological and psychiatric evidence may be inhibiting detection of drug intoxication suicides in the United States. We evaluated the relative importance of suicide notes and psychiatric history in the classification of suicide by drug intoxication versus firearm (gunshot wound) plus hanging/suffocation—the other two major, but overtly violent methods. Methods This observational multilevel (individual/county), multivariable study employed a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze pooled suicides and undetermined intent deaths, as possible suicides, among the population aged 15 years and older in the 17 states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System throughout 2011–2013. The outcome measure was relative odds of suicide versus undetermined classification, adjusted for demographics, precipitating circumstances, and investigation characteristics. Results A suicide note, prior suicide attempt, or affective disorder was documented in less than one-third of suicides and one-quarter of undetermined deaths. The prevalence gaps were larger among drug intoxication cases than gunshot/hanging cases. The latter were more likely than intoxication cases to be classified as suicide versus undetermined manner of death (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 41.14; 95% CI, 34.43–49.15), as were cases documenting a suicide note (OR, 33.90; 95% CI, 26.11–44.05), prior suicide attempt (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.11–2.77), or depression (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.88), or bipolar disorder (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.10–1.81). Stratification by mechanism/cause intensified the association between a note and suicide classification for intoxication cases (OR, 45.43; 95% CI, 31.06–66.58). Prior suicide attempt (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 2.19–3.18) and depression (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.17–1.87) were associated with suicide classification in intoxication but not gunshot/hanging cases. Conclusions Without psychological/psychiatric evidence

  19. Discerning suicide in drug intoxication deaths: Paucity and primacy of suicide notes and psychiatric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Caine, Eric D; Connery, Hilary S; D'Onofrio, Gail; Gunnell, David J; Miller, Ted R; Nolte, Kurt B; Kaplan, Mark S; Kapusta, Nestor D; Lilly, Christa L; Nelson, Lewis S; Putnam, Sandra L; Stack, Steven; Värnik, Peeter; Webster, Lynn R; Jia, Haomiao

    2018-01-01

    A paucity of corroborative psychological and psychiatric evidence may be inhibiting detection of drug intoxication suicides in the United States. We evaluated the relative importance of suicide notes and psychiatric history in the classification of suicide by drug intoxication versus firearm (gunshot wound) plus hanging/suffocation-the other two major, but overtly violent methods. This observational multilevel (individual/county), multivariable study employed a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze pooled suicides and undetermined intent deaths, as possible suicides, among the population aged 15 years and older in the 17 states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System throughout 2011-2013. The outcome measure was relative odds of suicide versus undetermined classification, adjusted for demographics, precipitating circumstances, and investigation characteristics. A suicide note, prior suicide attempt, or affective disorder was documented in less than one-third of suicides and one-quarter of undetermined deaths. The prevalence gaps were larger among drug intoxication cases than gunshot/hanging cases. The latter were more likely than intoxication cases to be classified as suicide versus undetermined manner of death (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 41.14; 95% CI, 34.43-49.15), as were cases documenting a suicide note (OR, 33.90; 95% CI, 26.11-44.05), prior suicide attempt (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.11-2.77), or depression (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.88), or bipolar disorder (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.10-1.81). Stratification by mechanism/cause intensified the association between a note and suicide classification for intoxication cases (OR, 45.43; 95% CI, 31.06-66.58). Prior suicide attempt (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 2.19-3.18) and depression (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.17-1.87) were associated with suicide classification in intoxication but not gunshot/hanging cases. Without psychological/psychiatric evidence contributing to manner of death classification, suicide by

  20. Individual and parental psychiatric history and risk for suicide among adolescents and young adults in Denmark : A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Kirstina; Qin, Ping

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both individual and familial histories of mental illness are substantial risk factors for suicide in young people. AIM: To explore suicide risk among adolescents and young adults according to detailed aspects of individual and parental psychiatric admission history. METHODS: A nested...... case-control study was undertaken using data from Danish population registers to include 4,142 suicide cases and 82,840 matched controls aged 9-35 years. Data were analyzed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A history of hospitalized psychiatric illness was a strong risk factor for suicide......, affective disorders or substance abuse disorders. At the same time, a parental psychiatric history constituted a substantial risk factor for suicide in young people, in particular, if having a mother admitted for psychiatric illness. The elevated risk associated with parental psychiatric history was greater...

  1. Level of agitation of psychiatric patients presenting to an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zun, Leslie S; Downey, La Vonne A

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the level of agitation that psychiatric patients exhibit upon arrival to the emergency department. The secondary purpose was to determine whether the level of agitation changed over time depending upon whether the patient was restrained or unrestrained. An observational study enrolling a convenience sample of 100 patients presenting with a psychiatric complaint was planned, in order to obtain 50 chemically and/or physically restrained and 50 unrestrained patients. The study was performed in summer 2004 in a community, inner-city, level 1 emergency department with 45,000 visits per year. The level of patient agitation was measured using the Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS) and the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) upon arrival and every 30 minutes over a 3-hour period. The inclusion criteria allowed entry of any patient who presented to the emergency department with a psychiatric complaint thought to be unrelated to physical illness. Patients who were restrained for nonbehavioral reasons or were medically unstable were excluded. 101 patients were enrolled in the study. Of that total, 53 patients were not restrained, 47 patients were restrained, and 1 had incomplete data. There were no differences in gender, race, or age between the 2 groups. Upon arrival, 2 of the 47 restrained patients were rated severely agitated on the ABS, and 13 of 47 restrained patients were rated combative on the RASS. There was a statistical difference (p = .01) between the groups on both scales from time 0 to time 90 minutes. Scores on the agitation scales decreased over time in both groups. One patient in the unrestrained group became unarousable during treatment. This study demonstrated that patients who were restrained were more agitated than those who were not, and that agitation levels in both groups decreased over time. Some restrained patients did not meet combativeness or severe agitation criteria, suggesting either that use of

  2. History, philosophy, and science teaching: The present rapprochement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper traces the use of, and arguments for, the history and philosophy of science in school science courses. Specific attention is paid to the British National Curriculum proposals and to the recommendations of the US Project 2061 curriculum guidelines. Some objections to the inclusion of historical material in science courses are outlined and answered. Mention is made of the Piagetian thesis that individual psychological development mirrors the development of concepts in the history of science. This introduces the topic of idealisation in science. Some significant instances are itemised where science education has, at its considerable cost, ignored work in philosophy of science. Arguments for the inclusion of the history and philosophy of science in science teacher education programmes are given. The paper finishes with a list of topical issues in present science education where collaboration between science teachers, historians, philosophers, and sociologists would be of considerable benefit.

  3. Emergency presentations to an inner-city psychiatric service for children and adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dil, L.M.; Vuijk, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric emergency services for children and adolescents vary in process, structure and outcome. There are few systematic studies on the type and prevalence of psychiatric problems encountered, related circumstances or resulting interventions. Evidence in these areas is important in evaluation of

  4. Fictional and real-world revolutionary heroes in the history of psychiatric politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2012-12-01

    This article analyzes, firstly, how the representation of the psychiatric institution in Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest pioneered criticism regarding asylum politics during the 1950s and, secondly, how the reactions of R.D. Laing, an influential psychiatrist-critic of the time, impacted changes of asylum politics, as seen through his autobiographical considerations in Wisdom, Madness and Folly that were published in 1985. The key aim of this work is to compare the ability of a satirizing, fictional piece of writing and a medically focused, nonfictional work of criticism to influence a movement that extended during the 1960s and the 1970s, indeed shaping health care policies in the 1980s and the 1990s as well as our present-day view on institutional management.

  5. Pattern and pathway of psychiatric presentation at the out-patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -psychiatric hospital in Nigeria. A J Agara, A B Makanjuola. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry Vol. 4 (1) 2006: pp. 30-34. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, P F; Frissen, M N; de Clercq, N C; Nieuwdorp, M

    2017-05-04

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes. FMT in metabolic syndrome has proven to be an intriguing method to study the role of the gut microbiota and open the way to new therapies by dissecting in whom insulin resistance is driven by microbiota. In this article we review the history of FMT, the present evidence on its role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and its efficacy, limitations and future prospects.

  7. Family history of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder: a Danish register-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Licht, Rasmus W

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizoaffective disorder may be related to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, but no population-based studies, to our knowledge, have investigated this association in families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a psychiatric history of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder......, or schizophrenia among parents and siblings is a risk factor for developing a schizoaffective disorder, and whether a specific pattern of family history of psychiatric illness exists in persons with schizoaffective disorder compared with persons with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. DESIGN: Register-based cohort...... study. SETTING: Denmark. COHORT: The 2.4 million persons born in Denmark after 1952. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of the 3 illnesses estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1925 persons had a schizoaffective disorder, 3721 had a bipolar disorder, and 12 501 had schizophrenia...

  8. Individual and parental psychiatric history and risk for suicide among adolescents and young adults in Denmark: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenager, Kirstina; Qin, Ping

    2008-11-01

    Both individual and familial histories of mental illness are substantial risk factors for suicide in young people. To explore suicide risk among adolescents and young adults according to detailed aspects of individual and parental psychiatric admission history. A nested case-control study was undertaken using data from Danish population registers to include 4,142 suicide cases and 82,840 matched controls aged 9-35 years. Data were analyzed with conditional logistic regression. A history of hospitalized psychiatric illness was a strong risk factor for suicide in adolescents and young adults, and the effect of such a history was greater in females than males. The elevated risk peaked in the two periods immediately after admission and discharge for both sexes, and exceeded in females who had multiple admissions and in males who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, affective disorders or substance abuse disorders. At the same time, a parental psychiatric history constituted a substantial risk factor for suicide in young people, in particular, if having a mother admitted for psychiatric illness. The elevated risk associated with parental psychiatric history was greater in females than in males, and tended to be more prominent during the first few years after admission of a parent. Prevention strategies should aim at improving treatment and care to young people with psychiatric problems and at providing social support and psychological consultation to children with parental psychiatric illness.

  9. Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M M

    2000-09-01

    The Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (DFA) in Munich, one of the most important research institutes in the field of theoretical and clinical psychiatry, was founded in 1917 by Emil Kraepelin. Its financial existence between the world wars was assured by generous donations from the Jewish American scholar and philanthropist James Loeb. The scientific work done by Walther Spielmeyer (neuropathology), Felix Plaut (serology), Kurt Schneider (clinical psychiatry) and Ernst Rudin (psychiatric genetics) earned the DFA a reputation as an international center for psychiatry and neurology. During the 'Third Reich' Ernst Rudin cooperated with the National Socialist health system. His genetic concepts provided support for eugenic programmes such as forced sterilization of individuals with psychoses. These complex interactions underscore the importance of the DFA in understanding the recent history of medicine in Germany.

  10. Past trauma and present functioning of patients attending a women's psychiatric clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borins, E F; Forsythe, P J

    1985-04-01

    A women's psychiatric clinic, incorporated within a university teaching general hospital and staffed entirely by women, was opened in March of 1980. The authors studied a sample of 100 women who came to the clinic and characterized them by demographic variables, psychiatric diagnoses, health problems, chronic illness, death in the family, and traumatic incidents. Death in the family before she was 18 was found to predict a woman's subsequent request for or completion of sterilization. Physical or sexual abuse was significantly related to abortion, and abortion and trauma were significantly correlated.

  11. Level of Agitation of Psychiatric Patients Presenting to an Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Zun, Leslie S.; Downey, La Vonne A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the level of agitation that psychiatric patients exhibit upon arrival to the emergency department. The secondary purpose was to determine whether the level of agitation changed over time depending upon whether the patient was restrained or unrestrained.

  12. Risk, treatment duration, and recurrence risk of postpartum affective disorder in women with no prior psychiatric history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie-Louise H; Strøm, Marin; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some 5%-15% of all women experience postpartum depression (PPD), which for many is their first psychiatric disorder. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postpartum affective disorder (AD), duration of treatment, and rate of subsequent postpartum AD and other...... total of 789,068 births) and no prior psychiatric hospital contacts and/or use of antidepressants. These women were followed from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2014. Postpartum AD was defined as use of antidepressants and/or hospital contact for PPD within 6 months after childbirth. The main outcome.......4%. The recurrence risk of postpartum AD for women with a PPD hospital contact after first birth was 55.4 per 100 person-years; for women with postpartum antidepressant medication after first birth, it was 35.0 per 100 person-years. The rate of postpartum AD after second birth for women with no history of postpartum...

  13. Family history of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder: a Danish register-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Licht, Rasmus Wentzer

    2005-01-01

    , or schizophrenia among parents and siblings is a risk factor for developing a schizoaffective disorder, and whether a specific pattern of family history of psychiatric illness exists in persons with schizoaffective disorder compared with persons with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. DESIGN: Register-based cohort...... study. SETTING: Denmark. COHORT: The 2.4 million persons born in Denmark after 1952. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of the 3 illnesses estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1925 persons had a schizoaffective disorder, 3721 had a bipolar disorder, and 12 501 had schizophrenia....... The relative risk of schizoaffective disorder was 2.76 (95% confidence interval, 2.49-3.06) if a first-degree relative had a history of mental illness compared with a person with no first-degree relatives with such a history. There was an additional risk (95% confidence interval) of 2.57 (2.11-3.13), 3.23 (2...

  14. An Analysis of Canadian Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing through the Junctures of History, Gender, Nursing Education, and Quality of Work Life in Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A society that values mental health and helps people live enjoyable and meaningful lives is a clear aspiration echoed throughout our Canadian health care system. The Mental Health Commission of Canada has put forth a framework for a mental health strategy with goals that reflect the virtue of optimal mental health for all Canadians (Mental Health Commission Canada, 2009). Canadian nurses, the largest group of health care workers, have a vital role in achieving these goals. In Canada, two-thirds of those who experience mental health problems do not receive mental health services (Statistics Canada, 2003). Through a gendered, critical, and sociological perspective the goal of this paper is to further understand how the past has shaped the present state of psychiatric mental health nursing (PMHN). This integrative literature review offers a depiction of Canadian PMHN in light of the intersections of history, gender, education, and quality of nursing work life. Fourteen articles were selected, which provide a partial reflection of contemporary Canadian PMHN. Findings include the association between gender and professional status, inconsistencies in psychiatric nursing education, and the limitations for Canadian nurse practitioners to advance the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. PMID:23710367

  15. The association between intelligence scores and family history of psychiatric disorder in schizophrenia patients, their siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.; Derks, E.M.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R.; Krabbendam, L.; Linzen, D.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of

  16. The association between intelligence scores and family history of psychiatric disorder in schizophrenia patients, their siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Kim H. W.; Derks, Eske M.; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2013-01-01

    The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of family

  17. Agitation in the inpatient psychiatric setting: a review of clinical presentation, burden, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Cheryl S; Bronstone, Amy; Koran, Lorrin M

    2011-05-01

    Agitation among psychiatric inpatients (particularly those diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) is common and, unless recognized early and managed effectively, can rapidly escalate to potentially dangerous behaviors, including physical violence. Inpatient aggression and violence have substantial adverse psychological and physical consequences for both patients and providers, and they are costly to the healthcare system. In contrast to the commonly held view that inpatient violence occurs without warning or can be predicted by "static" risk factors, such as patient demographics or clinical characteristics, research indicates that violence is usually preceded by observable behaviors, especially non-violent agitation. When agitation is recognized, staff should employ nonpharmacological de-escalation strategies and, if the behavior continues, offer pharmacological treatment to calm patients rapidly. Given the poor therapeutic efficacy and potential for adverse events associated with physical restraint and seclusion, and the potential adverse sequelae of involuntary drug treatment, these interventions should be considered last resorts. Pharmacological agents used to treat agitation include benzodiazepines and first- and second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Although no currently available agent is ideal, recommendations for selecting among them are provided. There remains an unmet need for a non-invasive and rapidly acting agent that effectively calms without excessively sedating patients, addresses the patient's underlying psychiatric symptoms, and is reasonably safe and tolerable. A treatment with these characteristics could substantially reduce the clinical and economic burden of agitation in the inpatient psychiatric setting.

  18. The natural history of autoimmune hepatitis presenting with jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, Vasilis; Froud, Oliver J; Vine, Louisa; Laurent, Paul; Woolson, Kathy L; Hunter, Jeremy G; Madden, Richard G; Miller, Catherine; Palmer, Jo; Harris, Nicola; Mathew, Joe; Stableforth, Bill; Murray, Iain A; Dalton, Harry R

    2014-06-01

    Forty percent of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) present with acute jaundice/hepatitis. Such patients, when treated promptly, are thought to have a good prognosis. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of AIH in patients presenting with jaundice/hepatitis and to determine whether the diagnosis could have been made earlier, before presentation. This study is a retrospective review of 2249 consecutive patients who presented with jaundice to the Jaundice Hotline clinic, Truro, Cornwall, UK, over 15 years (1998-2013) and includes a review of the laboratory data over a 23-year period (1990-2013). Of the 955 patients with hepatocellular jaundice, 47 (5%) had criterion-referenced AIH: 35 female and 12 male, the median age was 65 years (range 15-91 years); the bilirubin concentration was 139 μmol/l (range 23-634 μmol/l) and the alanine transaminase level was 687 IU/l (range 22-2519 IU/l). Among the patients, 23/46 (50%) were cirrhotic on biopsy; 11/47 (23%) died: median time from diagnosis to death, 5 months (range 1-59); median age, 72 years (range 59-91 years). All 8/11 patients who died of liver-related causes were cirrhotic. Weight loss (P=0.04) and presence of cirrhosis (P=0.004) and varices (P=0.015) were more common among those who died. Among patients who died from liver-related causes, 6/8 (75%) died less than 6 months from diagnosis. Cirrhosis at presentation and oesophageal varices were associated with early liver-related deaths (P=0.011, 0.002 respectively). Liver function test results were available in 33/47 (70%) patients before presentation. Among these patients, 16 (49%) had abnormal alanine transaminase levels previously, and eight (50%) were cirrhotic at presentation. AIH presenting as jaundice/hepatitis was mainly observed in older women: 50% of the patients were cirrhotic, and liver-related mortality was high. Some of these deaths were potentially preventable by earlier diagnosis, as the patients had abnormal liver

  19. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent mental disorders. Current disorder most important but psychiatric history matters as well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, J; Oerlemans, A M; Raven, D; Laceulle, O M; Hartman, C A; Veenstra, R; Verhulst, F C; Vollebergh, W; Rosmalen, J G M; Reijneveld, S A; Oldehinkel, A J

    2017-05-01

    Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting individual differences in functional outcomes. We used data from the Dutch TRAILS study in which 1778 youths were followed from pre-adolescence into young adulthood (retention 80%). Of those, 1584 youths were successfully interviewed, at age 19, using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) to assess current and past CIDI-DSM-IV mental disorders. Four outcome domains were assessed at the same time: economic (e.g. academic achievement, social benefits, financial difficulties), social (early motherhood, interpersonal conflicts, antisocial behavior), psychological (e.g. suicidality, subjective well-being, loneliness), and health behavior (e.g. smoking, problematic alcohol, cannabis use). Out of the 19 outcomes, 14 were predicted by both current and past disorders, three only by past disorders (receiving social benefits, psychiatric hospitalization, adolescent motherhood), and two only by current disorder (absenteeism, obesity). Which type of disorders was most important depended on the outcome. Adjusted for current disorder, past internalizing disorders predicted in particular psychological outcomes while externalizing disorders predicted in particular health behavior outcomes. Economic and social outcomes were predicted by a history of co-morbidity of internalizing and externalizing disorder. The risk of problematic cannabis use and alcohol consumption dropped with a history of internalizing disorder. To understand current functioning, it is necessary to examine both current and past psychiatric status.

  20. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H.

    2016-01-01

    with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between......Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD....... Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children...

  1. History and present status of field application of radiotracers, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko; Sato, Otomaru.

    1988-01-01

    The history and present status of the utilization of RI tracers for hydrology are described by dividing into surface water and groundwater. By the birth of nuclear reactors, the availability of RIs became easy, and the utilization of tracers for hydrology has been attempted worldwide. The large scale development of water resources is required for increasing agricultural production, and the analysis of the actual condition of hydrological phenomena is indispensable for the purpose. The hydrology committee of IAEA aided the development of new techniques in the peaceful use of atomic energy, and let developing countries use the developed techniques together with researchers. The research on the field application of RI tracers in Japan began in agriculture, and the investigation of water leak in dams, the measurement of flow rate and flow velocity in rivers, the detection of the state of sand movement on sea bottom, the analysis of groundwater flow and so on have been carried out. Also the recent situation in foreign countries is reported about the measurement of flow rate, the measurement of flowing-down time and diffusion, the analysis of the behavior of lake water, the movement of mud and sediment, and the analysis of groundwater flow. (Kako, I.)

  2. History and present status of field application of radiotracers, 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Shigehiko; Sato, Otomaru

    1988-06-01

    The history and present status of the utilization of RI tracers for hydrology are described by dividing into surface water and groundwater. By the birth of nuclear reactors, the availability of RIs became easy, and the utilization of tracers for hydrology has been attempted worldwide. The large scale development of water resources is required for increasing agricultural production, and the analysis of the actual condition of hydrological phenomena is indispensable for the purpose. The hydrology committee of IAEA aided the development of new techniques in the peaceful use of atomic energy, and let developing countries use the developed techniques together with researchers. The research on the field application of RI tracers in Japan began in agriculture, and the investigation of water leak in dams, the measurement of flow rate and flow velocity in rivers, the detection of the state of sand movement on sea bottom, the analysis of groundwater flow and so on have been carried out. Also the recent situation in foreign countries is reported about the measurement of flow rate, the measurement of flowing-down time and diffusion, the analysis of the behavior of lake water, the movement of mud and sediment, and the analysis of groundwater flow. (Kako, I.).

  3. Energy history chronology from World War II to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, P.C.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.

  4. [Lato sensu post-graduation in psychiatric nursing and mental health: history, institutional context, and actors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olschowsky, Agnes; da Silva, Graciette Borges

    2003-01-01

    The theme of this study is "latu sensu" post-graduation teaching in nursing psychiatry and mental health in EE/UFRGS and EERP/USP nursing schools. In this study we characterize this courses and the profile of its professors. Through the analysis of the teaching plans, programs and documents of the specialization courses, as well as through the analysis of semi-structured interviews, we obtained data regarding the history and structure of these courses, which were pioneers and motivators of the specialized education in this field. The characterization of the courses will be done through the presentation of its timetable, number of disciplines, professional titles, and development of the professors involved, in order to show how psychiatry nursing and mental health teaching has been constituted.

  5. Assessment of Risk of Violent Behavior in Female Psychiatric Patients with a Criminal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makurina A.P.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of study of illegal actions predictors in individuals with mental disorders and discuss the specific features of female criminality. On a sample of 69 patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia, with criminal histories, we applied clinical and psychological hermeneutic analysis, used questionnaires to determine the self-assessments of patients, self-control diagnosis, self-regulation style features, diagnosis of aggression and hostility, coping strategies, destructive attitudes in interpersonal relationships. It made possible to identify clinical, social and pathopsychological factors of aggressive behavior in forensic patients. These individual psychological characteristics of mentally ill women will improve the prognosis of their aggressive behavior, implement differentiated preventive measures in the hospital and to establish appropriate intervention programs

  6. Risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring of parents with a history of homelessness during childhood and adolescence in Denmark: a nationwide, register-based, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Thorup, Anne; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-12-01

    Children and adolescents from deprived backgrounds have high rates of psychiatric problems. Parental and social factors are crucial for children's healthy and positive development, but whether psychiatric morbidity is associated with parental social marginalisation is unknown. We aimed to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0-16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival analysis using Poisson regression and incidence rate ratios (IRRs), adjusted for year and offspring characteristics, and additionally adjusted for parental factors (age at offspring's birth and parental psychiatric disorders). 17 238 (2%) offspring had either one or two parents with a history of homelessness, and 56 330 (5%) children and adolescents were diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder during the study period. The incidence of any psychiatric disorder was 15·1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 14·4-15·8) in offspring with at least one parent with a history of homelessness, compared with 6·0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 6·0-6·1) in those whose parents had no such history (IRR 2·5 [95% CI 2·3-2·7] for mother homeless, 2·3 [2·2-2·5] for father homeless, and 2·8 [2·4-3·2

  7. Risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring of parents with a history of homelessness during childhood and adolescence in Denmark: a nationwide, register-based, cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Feodor Nilsson, MSc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Children and adolescents from deprived backgrounds have high rates of psychiatric problems. Parental and social factors are crucial for children's healthy and positive development, but whether psychiatric morbidity is associated with parental social marginalisation is unknown. We aimed to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. Methods: We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0–16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival analysis using Poisson regression and incidence rate ratios (IRRs, adjusted for year and offspring characteristics, and additionally adjusted for parental factors (age at offspring's birth and parental psychiatric disorders. Findings: 17 238 (2% offspring had either one or two parents with a history of homelessness, and 56 330 (5% children and adolescents were diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder during the study period. The incidence of any psychiatric disorder was 15·1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 14·4–15·8 in offspring with at least one parent with a history of homelessness, compared with 6·0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 6·0–6·1 in those whose parents had no such history (IRR 2·5 [95

  8. Could presentism in the histories of psychology actually be futuristic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsiner, Jaan; Brinkmann, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Disputes about the origins of psychology in the history of the discipline are functional not for our understanding of the past, but as normative signs that regulate the construction of ideas in the future. We introduce the notion of open-ended normativity that regulates the development of a given...... discipline towards its future. Hence the question of the cultural origins of psychology becomes contested in the 21st century as an important topic. It proves that the history of psychology is an active participant in the making of psychology, as it is creating its future....

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine and cancer: History, present situation, and development

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Fan, Hui-ting; Lin, Hong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history. Heritage provides general conditions for the innovation and development of TCM in oncology. This article reviews the development of TCM in oncology, interprets the position and function of TCM for cancer prevention and treatment, summarizes the innovations of TCM in oncology over nearly fifty years, and suggests the development direction.

  10. African Urban History: Past and Present Perspective | Fourchard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History of cities in Africa is a recent field of research which interrogates – in the last two decades – the ways in which Africans shape the patterns of urbanisation and how urbanisation influences African social and cultural practices. The development of numerous case studies testifies to this new interest in African cities.

  11. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P. F.; Frissen, M. N.; de Clercq, N. C.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2017-01-01

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial

  12. Cólera: historia y actualidad Cholera: history and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita González Valdés

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó la bibliografía actualizada sobre el tema a partir de los principales buscadores, y reuniones internacionales realizadas sobre las pandemias de cólera. Se tratan los aspectos relacionados con la historia, aparición de la pandemia, la biología de la enfermedad, epidemiología, el cuadro clínico, tratamiento y el pronóstico y la prevención. El cólera es un infección intestinal aguda causada por la ingestión de Vibrio cholerae, una bacteria presente en aguas y alimentos contaminados por heces fecales, que suele transmitirse a través de estos, y sigue constituyendo un riesgo permanente en muchos países. El riesgo mayor se registra en las comunidades y los entornos sobrepoblados, donde el saneamiento es deficiente; sin embargo, ante una comunidad preparada y con tratamiento oportuno, la letalidad no sobrepasa el 1%. Las manifestaciones clínicas pueden ser leves, moderadas o graves, el tratamiento de elección es la doxiciclina, pero el más importante es el de la deshidratación. Solo se usa antibióticos en los casos graves. Es indispensable la adecuada educación sanitaria de la población y el tratamiento del agua de consumo y de los alimentos, además de la disposición adecuada de residuales.Current medical literature about the theme was reviewed from the main web searching engines, and from international meetings concerning cholera pandemics. Characteristics related to the history, onset, the biology of the disease, its epidemiology, clinical chart, treatment, prognosis and prevention were analyzed. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the ingestion of Vibriocholerae, a bacterium that lives in waters and food contaminated by fecal matters, which is transmitted through these elements, representing a permanent risk in several countries. The major risk is observed in communities and overpopulated locations with deprived sanitary conditions; however in a well-educated and well-prepared community having

  13. Multigenerational Positive Family History of Psychiatric Disorders Is Associated With a Poor Prognosis in Bipolar Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed how family history loading affected the course of illness in patients from the United States. A total of 676 outpatients with bipolar disorder from the United States rated their illness and provided a parental and grandparental history of mood disorder, substance abuse, and

  14. Delivery of mental health treatment to combat veterans with psychiatric diagnoses and TBI histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon R Miles

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI and mental health (MH disorders are prevalent in combat veterans returning from Afghanistan and/or Iraq (hereafter referred to as returning veterans. Accurate estimates of service utilization for veterans with and without TBI exposure (referred to as TBI history are imperative in order to provide high quality healthcare to returning veterans. We examined associations between TBI history and MH service utilization in a subsample of returning veterans who were newly diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, and/or anxiety in the 2010 fiscal year (N = 55,458. Data were extracted from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA National Patient Care Database. Veterans with MH diagnoses and TBI histories attended significantly more psychotherapy visits, (M = 8.32 visits, SD = 17.15 and were more likely to attend at least 8 psychotherapy visits, (15.7% than veterans with MH diagnoses but no TBI history (M = 6.48 visits, SD = 12.12; 10.1% attended at least 8 sessions. PTSD and TBI history, but not depression or anxiety, were associated with a greater number of psychotherapy visits when controlling for demographic and clinical variables. PTSD, anxiety, depression, and TBI history were associated with number of psychotropic medication-management visits. TBI history was related to greater MH service utilization, independent of MH diagnoses. Future research should examine what MH services are being utilized and if these services are helping veterans recover from their disorders.

  15. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior: examining lifetime sexual and physical abuse histories in relation to substance use and psychiatric problem severity among ex-offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.

  16. A brief history of vaccines: smallpox to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Modern vaccine history began in the late 18th century with the discovery of smallpox immunization by Edward Jenner. This pivotal step led to substantial progress in prevention of infectious diseases with inactivated vaccines for multiple infectious diseases, including typhoid, plague and cholera. Each advance produced significant decreases in infection-associated morbidity and mortality, thus shaping our modem cultures. As knowledge of microbiology and immunology grew through the 20th century, techniques were developed for cell culture of viruses. This allowed for rapid advances in prevention of polio, varicella, influenza and others. Finally, recent research has led to development of alternative vaccine strategies through use of vectored antigens, pathogen subunits (purified proteins or polysaccharides) or genetically engineered antigens. As the science of vaccinology continues to rapidly evolve, knowledge of the past creates added emphasis on the importance of developing safe and effective strategies for infectious disease prevention in the 21st century.

  17. Individual and parental psychiatric history and risk for suicide among adolescents and young adults in Denmark : A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Kirstina; Qin, Ping

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both individual and familial histories of mental illness are substantial risk factors for suicide in young people. AIM: To explore suicide risk among adolescents and young adults according to detailed aspects of individual and parental psychiatric admission history. METHODS: A nested...... case-control study was undertaken using data from Danish population registers to include 4,142 suicide cases and 82,840 matched controls aged 9-35 years. Data were analyzed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A history of hospitalized psychiatric illness was a strong risk factor for suicide...... in adolescents and young adults, and the effect of such a history was greater in females than males. The elevated risk peaked in the two periods immediately after admission and discharge for both sexes, and exceeded in females who had multiple admissions and in males who were diagnosed with schizophrenia...

  18. Involuntary psychiatric attendances at an Australasian emergency department: A comparison of police and health-care worker initiated presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellin, Peter; Arendts, Glenn; Weeden, Jacqueline; Pethebridge, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    To identify any significant differences in the population of patients brought in to a hospital ED under involuntary mental health orders, based on whether the orders are initiated by police or health professionals. A retrospective analysis of consecutive presentations to a tertiary hospital ED with a co-located psychiatric emergency care centre over a 12 month period, with univariate and multivariate statistical comparisons. Two hundred and eighty-two patients (making 378 ED presentations) met the case definition and were analysed. Compared with patients on medical orders, patients on police orders had significantly more presentations related to violence, longer stays in ED and lower rates of admission to an inpatient bed, but were no more likely to require restraint or security intervention within the ED. Patients on police and medical orders differ considerably, but the impact of these differences on ED workload is small. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. Wind Power Project Repowering: History, Economics, and Demand (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation summarizes a related NREL technical report and seeks to capture the current status of wind power project repowering in the U.S. and globally, analyze the economic and financial decision drivers that surround repowering, and to quantify the level and timing of demand for new turbine equipment to supply the repowering market.

  20. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN ENGLISH FOOTBALL: HISTORY AND PRESENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad ROŞCA

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive research is to present what kind of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities English football clubs are implementing. The paper was designed by approaching the examples of the twenty clubs playing in the 2010-2011 season of the Premier League. A key finding is that football clubs are not only interested in the sporting outcome on the field, but they are also aware of their social status. An implication of this research would be to encourage academics to...

  2. Clinical Presentation and Natural History of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in RASopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Adorisio, Rachele; Martinelli, Simone; Grutter, Giorgia; Baban, Anwar; Versacci, Paolo; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Drago, Fabrizio; Gelb, Bruce D; Tartaglia, Marco; Marino, Bruno

    2018-04-01

    RASopathies are a heterogeneous group of genetic syndromes characterized by mutations in genes that regulate cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, migration, and metabolism. Excluding congenital heart defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequent cardiovascular defect in patients affected by RASopathies. A worse outcome (in terms of surgical risk and/or mortality) has been described in a specific subset of Rasopathy patients with early onset, severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting with heart failure. New short-term therapy with a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor has recently been used to prevent heart failure in these patients with a severe form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. History and present status of field application of radiotracers, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Takeo; Shimizu, Makoto.

    1988-01-01

    In the field of agriculture, radiotracers were first used in 1957 in studies for improvement in fertilizing techniques. Techniques were established for accurate measurement of extremely low radioactivity in crops and for the separate determination of the phosphorus in crops of the fertilizer origin and soil origin. Then, RI or stable isotope tracing test methods were developed using 32 P or 15 N to determine the flow and absorption of fertilizers. Other techniques using radiotracers developed in this period served for the construction of maps of the root activity of crops, investigation of the effects of different fertilizers in farms where double-cropping was practised, identification of suitable fertilizers for orange cultivation, development of new fertilizing techniques for Japanese persimmon cultivation, etc. Practically, no field use of radiotracers has been found since 1970. At present, it is prohibited and replaced by other techniques using stable isotopes, etc. In the field fishery, radiotracers have been used for studies of various dynamic phenomena including the flow of water and deposits in the sea, behaviors of fish, food, chain, circulation of chemical substances in the ecological system, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  4. [The relations between music and medicine in history and present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2011-12-01

    Since the ancient world relations exist between music and medicine. In the prehistoric music, dance, rhythm and religious practice were important parts of shamanism and early medical procedures. Important philosophers of the classic period already began with the scientific research of musical and medical questions. During the middle age convents conserved ancient knowledge. They offered medical care and taught the ancient knowledge of medicine, arts and music. The Gregorian choral was created. Traditions of popular believe expressed the relations between music and medicine. The Renaissance became the great époque of art, music and science. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius presented a new style of artistic working and scientific knowledge. Also the basics of western music, like tonality was developed. With the separation of scientific subjects in natural sciences and humanities, the relationships between music and medicine fall into oblivion. During the classic and romantic era music and art were important parts of cultural live of the well educated society. With the development of neurology, psychiatry and psychoanalysis more physicians and scientists were interested in musical questions. Questions about the role of music in human behavior and the ancient method to use music in medical treatment became popular. In the early 20th century the music therapy was developed. Today the effects of music to the human brain are investigated with radionuclear methods. A lot of investigations showed the effect of music and music performance to humans. Music plays an important part in psychotherapy, therapeutic pedagogy and medical care, the importance of music and music therapy increases. In the 80ies of the 20th century the performing arts medicine was developed, which asks for the medical problems of performing musicians. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Making History Relevant to Students by Connecting Past, Present and Future: A Framework for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Straaten, Dick; Wilschut, Arie; Oostdam, Ron

    2016-01-01

    History teaching usually focuses on understanding the past as an aim in itself. Research shows that many students do not see the point of this and perceive history as not very useful. Yet history plays a major role in the orientation on present and future. If students fail to see this, the question arises whether this is due to a lack of explicit…

  6. Relevance in history teaching : Making meaningful connections between past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, D.; Wilschut, A.; Oostdam, R.

    2016-01-01

    History teaching usually focuses on understanding the past as an aim in itself. Research shows that many students don’t see the point of this and perceive history as not very useful. Yet history plays a major role in the orientation on present and future. If students fail to see this, the question

  7. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history

  8. Sensitivity to psychosocial chronic stressors and adolescents' externalizing problems: Combined moderator effects of resting heart rate and parental psychiatric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Ormel, Johan; Dietrich, Andrea; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A

    2018-04-01

    From the literature it is not clear whether low resting heart rate (HR) reflects low or high sensitivity to the detrimental effects of adverse environments on externalizing problems. We studied parental psychiatric history (PH), reflecting general vulnerability, as possible moderator explaining these inconsistencies. Using Linear Mixed Models, we analyzed data from 1914 subjects, obtained in three measurement waves (mean age 11, 13.5, and 16 years) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey population-based cohort and the parallel clinic-referred cohort. As hypothesized, more chronic stressors predicted more externalizing problems in vulnerable individuals with high resting HR but not in those with low resting HR, suggesting high vs. low sensitivity, respectively, to adverse environmental influences. Low sensitivity to adverse environmental influences in vulnerable individuals exposed to high stressor levels was additionally confirmed by high heart rate variability (Root Mean Squared Successive Difference; RMSSD). In adolescents with low vulnerability, in contrast, the association between chronic stressors and externalizing problems did not substantially differ by resting HR and RMSSD. Future research may demonstrate whether our findings extend to other adverse, or beneficial, influences. Notwithstanding their theoretical interest, the effects were small, only pertained to parent-reported externalizing problems, refer to a small subset of respondents in our sample, and are in need of replication. We conclude that HR and RMSSD are unlikely to be strong moderators of the association between stressors and externalizing problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Life History of Aggression scores are predicted by childhood hyperactivity, conduct disorder, adult substance abuse, and low cooperativeness in adult psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvander, Björn; Ståhlberg, Ola; Nydén, Agneta; Wentz, Elisabet; degl'Innocenti, Alessio; Billstedt, Eva; Forsman, Anders; Gillberg, Christopher; Nilsson, Thomas; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2011-01-30

    The prevention of aggressive behaviours is a core priority for psychiatric clinical work, but the association between the diagnostic concepts used in psychiatry and aggression remains largely unknown. Outpatients referred for psychiatric evaluations of childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders (n=178) and perpetrators of violent crimes referred to pre-trial forensic psychiatric investigations (n=92) had comprehensive, instrument-based, psychiatric assessments, including the Life History of Aggression (LHA) scales. Total and subscale LHA scores were compared to the categorical and dimensional diagnoses of childhood and adult DSM-IV axis I and II mental disorders, general intelligence (IQ), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), and personality traits according to the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Overall, the two groups had similar LHA scores, but the offender group scored higher on the Antisocial subscale. Higher total LHA scores were independently associated with the hyperactivity facet of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), childhood conduct disorder, substance-related disorders, and low scores on the Cooperativeness character dimension according to the TCI. IQ and GAF-scores were negatively correlated with the LHA subscale Self-directed aggression. Autistic traits were inversely correlated with aggression among outpatients, while the opposite pattern was noted in the forensic group. The findings call for assessments of aggression-related behaviours in all psychiatric settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (Purban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; PMexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients.

  11. Revitalizing sociology: urban life and mental illness between history and the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Des; Rose, Nikolas; Singh, Ilina

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a re-thinking of the relationship between sociology and the biological sciences. Tracing lines of connection between the history of sociology and the contemporary landscape of biology, the paper argues for a reconfiguration of this relationship beyond popular rhetorics of 'biologization' or 'medicalization'. At the heart of the paper is a claim that, today, there are some potent new frames for re-imagining the traffic between sociological and biological research - even for 'revitalizing' the sociological enterprise as such. The paper threads this argument through one empirical case: the relationship between urban life and mental illness. In its first section, it shows how this relationship enlivened both early psychiatric epidemiology, and some forms of the new discipline of sociology; it then traces the historical division of these sciences, as the sociological investment in psychiatric questions waned, and 'the social' become marginalized within an increasingly 'biological' psychiatry. In its third section, however, the paper shows how this relationship has lately been revivified, but now by a nuanced epigenetic and neurobiological attention to the links between mental health and urban life. What role can sociology play here? In its final section, the paper shows how this older sociology, with its lively interest in the psychiatric and neurobiological vicissitudes of urban social life, can be our guide in helping to identify intersections between sociological and biological attention. With a new century now underway, the paper concludes by suggesting that the relationship between urban life and mental illness may prove a core testing-ground for a 'revitalized' sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  12. Psychiatric History, Deployments, and Potential Impacts of Mental Health Care in a Combat Theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Colleen M; Haibach, Michael A; Rowan, Anderson B; Haibach, Jeffrey P

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of U.S. service members access mental health care while deployed and at home station. Multiple deployments carry with them a higher risk of exposure to combat as well as the impact of cumulative stressors associated with separation from family, hostile environments, and high operations tempo. However, mental health care resources continue to be underutilized, potentially because of higher levels of stigma regarding mental health care and concerns about career impact among service members. Some studies indicate that service members who have previously sought mental health care are likely to continue to do so proactively as needed. This study examined the associations between prior deployments, prior mental health treatment, and subsequent career-impacting recommendations (e.g., duty limitations and medical evacuation) among deployed service members seeking mental health care. Materials and. This study is a retrospective review of clinical records from three U.S. military Combat and Operational Stress Control units in Afghanistan. Data were drawn from the mental health records of 1,639 Army service members presenting for outpatient mental health services while deployed in Afghanistan from years 2006 to 2008. In an unadjusted logistic regression model, service members with at least one prior deployment had a 38% greater odds (odds ratio [OR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06, 1.80; p mental health treatment had a 57% lower odds (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.34, 0.56; p mental health treatment. After adjusting for demographics and number of prior deployments, service members with prior mental health treatment had a 58% lower odds (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33, 0.56; p mental health treatment. Among service members who had a clinical mental health encounter, prior deployment was not associated with career-impacting recommendations and prior mental health treatment appeared to be protective against career-impacting recommendations. These results are in

  13. Was Queen Victoria depressed? 1. Natural history and differential diagnosis of presenting problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powles, W E; Alexander, M G

    1987-02-01

    For some years we have speculated as to whether Queen Victoria suffered a definable psychiatric illness in her notorious and prolonged seclusion after the Prince Consort's death. We here summarize criteria for grief and depression from three authorities. Against these, we examine the natural history of the Queen's bereavement and restitution. We find that her suffering and her portrayal of the role of widow were related to her personal style and were culturally accepted. Her self-esteem, ego functions, and object relatedness were preserved. While some clinicians might favour a diagnosis of Dysthymic Disorder, we find the evidence strongly in favour of an intense, prolonged, normal human grief (Uncomplicated Bereavement of DSM III) coloured by a romantic and histrionic personal style. Intensity and duration do not, in this case, establish a diagnosis of depression.

  14. Screening for psychiatric distress and low self-esteem in patients presenting for excimer laser surgery for myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, B; Stark, C; McGhee, C N

    1997-01-01

    Patients presenting for photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) may have unusual psychological profiles. Certain psychological variables may impact treatment outcome, making early identification crucial. We report a controlled questionnaire study of psychiatric "anxiety/distress" and self-esteem in myopic patients who presented for excimer laser treatment. Ninety consecutive myopic individuals (patients) who presented for excimer laser PRK and 50 consecutive myopic individuals who presented to an optometrist for contact lens fitting (controls) were assessed using two self-completion questionnaires-the GHQ30 and Hudson Index of Self-Esteem ISE. The questionnaires were distributed during assessment for treatment. PRK patients had a 90% response rate for both questionnaires and control patients, 98% for GHQ30 and 100% for Hudson ISE. PRK patients were significantly older (p = 0.000003), had a greater myopic spherical equivalent refraction (p = 0.012) and had better spectacle-corrected visual acuity (p = 0.0096). No significant differences were demonstrated with regard to anxiety/distress in terms of absolute scores (p = 0.07), or the proportion of patients being positive or negative (p = 0.10). Similarly, self-esteem was not significantly different between the two groups (absolute scores p = 0.69; positive/negative p = 0.29). The high response rate shows that the GHQ30 and Hudson ISE are easy to use and well tolerated by myopes in a busy clinic setting. The fact that the patients were older, with a greater refractive error, may partly reflect the onset of contact lens intolerance. The psychological findings suggest that PRK patients cannot be considered more distressed or anxious than other myopic individuals. There is no evidence that their decision to undergo surgery is driven by abnormally low self-esteem.

  15. First-time first-trimester induced abortion and risk of readmission to a psychiatric hospital in women with a history of treated mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2012-02-01

    Mental health problems are associated with women's reproductive decisions and predict poor mental health outcomes after abortion and childbirth. To study whether having a first-trimester induced abortion influenced the risk of psychiatric readmission and compare findings with readmission risk in women with mental disorders giving birth. Survival analyses were performed in a population-based cohort study merging data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register from January 1,1994, to December 31, 2007. Denmark. All women born in Denmark between 1962 and 1992 with a record of 1 or more psychiatric admissions at least 9 months before a first-time first-trimester induced abortion or childbirth. Main Outcome Measure  Readmission at a psychiatric hospital with any type of mental disorder from 9 months before to 12 months after a first-time first-trimester induced abortion or childbirth. Relative risk (RR) for readmission risk 9 to 0 months before a first-trimester induced abortion was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.73-1.23) compared with the first year after the abortion. This contrasts with a reduced risk of readmission before childbirth (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with the first year post partum. Proximity to previous psychiatric admission in particular predicted rehospitalization risks in both the abortion and the childbirth group. Risk of readmission is similar before and after first-time first-trimester abortion, contrasting with a marked increased in risk of readmission post partum. We speculate that recent psychiatric episodes may influence women's decisions to have an induced abortion; however, this decision does not appear to influence the illness course in women with a history of treated mental disorders.

  16. Differences between youth with a single suicide attempt and repeaters regarding their and their parents history of psychiatric illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    , psychiatric diagnoses, and psychopharmacological medications prescribed to youth before and after the index attempt were risk factors for repeated suicide attempts. Parental diagnoses and drug prescriptions following a child's first suicide attempt moderated the risk of repeated attempts. Psychiatric illness......The objective of this study was to determine predictors of repeated suicide attempts in young people, focusing on psychiatric illness. A longitudinal population-based register study of all adolescents born in Denmark between 1984 and 2006 was conducted. Greater numbers of hospitalizations...... is a strong predictor of repeated suicide attempts in young people, and those with co-morbid diagnoses are at increased risk of repeated suicide attempts. Treatment of psychiatric illness in the parents after their child's first suicide attempt is a potential protective factor....

  17. Prevalence of elevated serum anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody titers in patients presenting exclusively with psychiatric symptoms: a comparative follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yoshihito; Shimazaki, Haruo; Shiota, Katsutoshi; Tetsuka, Syuichi; Nakao, Koichi; Shimada, Tatsuhiro; Kurata, Kazumi; Kuroda, Jinichi; Yamashita, Akihiro; Sato, Hayato; Sato, Mamoru; Eto, Shinkichi; Onishi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Keiko; Kato, Satoshi

    2016-07-08

    Increasing numbers of patients with elevated anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody titers presenting exclusively with psychiatric symptoms have been reported. The aim of the present study was to clarify the prevalence of elevated serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers in patients with new-onset or acute exacerbations of psychiatric symptoms. In addition, the present study aimed to investigate the association between elevated anti-NMDA receptor titers and psychiatric symptoms. The present collaborative study included 59 inpatients (23 male, 36 female) presenting with new-onset or exacerbations of schizophrenia-like symptoms at involved institutions from June 2012 to March 2014. Patient information was collected using questionnaires. Anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers were measured using NMDAR NR1 and NR2B co-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells as an antigen (cell-based assay). Statistical analyses were performed for each questionnaire item. The mean age of participants was 42.0 ± 13.7 years. Six cases had elevated serum anti-NMDA antibody titers (10.2 %), four cases were first onset, and two cases with disease duration >10 years presented with third and fifth recurrences. No statistically significant difference in vital signs or major symptoms was observed between antibody-positive and antibody-negative groups. However, a trend toward an increased frequency of schizophrenia-like symptoms was observed in the antibody-positive group. Serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers may be associated with psychiatric conditions. However, an association with specific psychiatric symptoms was not observed in the present study. Further studies are required to validate the utility of serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titer measurements at the time of symptom onset.

  18. Forms of presentism in the history of science. Rethinking the project of historical epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, presentism has seen a resurgence among some historians of science. Most of them draw a line between a good form of presentism and typical anachronism, but where the line should be drawn remains an open question. The present article aims at resolving this problem. In the first part I define the four main distinct forms of presentism at work in the history of science and the different purposes they serve. Based on this typology, the second part reconsiders what counts as anachronism, Whiggism and positivist history. This clarification is used as a basis to rethink the research program of historical epistemology in the third section. Throughout this article, I examine the conceptual core of historical epistemology more than its actual history, from Bachelard to Foucault or others. Its project should be defined - as Canguilhem suggested - as an attempt to account for both the contingency and the rationality of science. As such, historical epistemology is based on a complex fifth form of presentism, which I call critical presentism. The critical relation at stake not only works from the present to the past, because of the acknowledged rationality of science, but also from the past to the present because of the contingency and historicity of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The emancipatory character of action research, its history and the present state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boog, B.

    2003-01-01

    Right from the start. action research was intended to be emancipatory research, and it still is. This article will underpin this by outlining its history and the present state of the art. Though a variety of action research approaches have developed along divergent theoretical pathways, it will be

  20. Curriculum Studies in Brazil: Intellectual Histories, Present Circumstances. International and Development Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, William F., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection, comprised of chapters focused on the intellectual histories and present circumstances of curriculum studies in Brazil, is Pinar's summary of exchanges (occurring over a two-year period) between the authors and members of an International Panel (scholars working in Finland, South Africa, the United States). From these and the…

  1. [The theory of mechanical activity of lungs--a creation history, the present and development prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetenev, F F; Tetenev, K F

    2014-01-01

    In article the history of creation of the doctrine about respiratory movements of lungs, history of classical mechanics of breathing is stated. Supervision of the paradoxical facts which became a basis for hypothesis creation, then the theory of mechanical activity of lungs are presented. The facts proving mechanical activity of lungs on an inspiration and an expiration are given. Options of interaction of intra pulmonary and extra pulmonary sources of mechanical energy are considered. Theoretical justification for development of the new direction of studying of physiology of mechanical movements of the internal which does not have own skeleton is stated.

  2. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day greenlandic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed...... between the Norse Vikings who lived in Greenland for a limited period ∼600-1,000 years ago and the Inuit, we found no evidence supporting this hypothesis. Similarly, we found no evidence supporting a previously hypothesized admixture event between the Inuit in East Greenland and the Dorset people, who...

  3. Old water structures. River Kullaa as an example: their history, present state and plans for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeykkae, S.; Siirala, M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim was to make an inventory of the structures and buildings relating to the history of the use of hydropower along the River Kullaa, which runs into the River Kokemaeki, and to determine how they could be conserved and used in future. Their history and the 1990-91 status will serve as starting points for a master scheme, local plans and plans for individual rapids. The publication first gives a general account of the history of the use of hydropower and the development of hydropower plants. Information has been collected on the establishment and development of structures along the River Kullaa. The 1990-91 status has been established on the basis of inventories and measurements made in the field. The master scheme first examines the River Kullaa and its structures as a whole. Along the river there are three areas, whose development is discussed in the local plans. Finally, plans for the individual rapids are presented for three sites. (author)

  4. Brain tumors in patients primarly treated psychiatrically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović-Ristić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric symptoms are not rare manifestations of brain tumors. Brain tumors presented by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal neurological signs, or convulsions are usually first seen by the neurologist or less frequently by the neurosurgeon in routine diagnostic procedures. On the other hand, when psychiatric symptoms are the first manifestation in “neurologically silent” brain tumors, the patients are sent to the psychiatrist for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms and brain tumors are left misdiagnosed for a long period of time. Case Report. We presented three patients with the diagnosed brain tumor where psychiatrist had been the first specialist to be consulted. In all three cases neurological examination was generally unremarkable with no focal signs or features of raised intracranial pressure. CT scan demonstrated right insular tumor in a female patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; right parietal temporal tumor in a patient with delusions and depression and left frontal tumor in a patient with history of alcohol dependency. Conclusion. Psychiatric symptoms/disorders in patients with brain tumors are not specific enough and can have the same clinical presentation as the genuine psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we emphasize the consideration of neuroimaging in patients with abrupt beginning of psychiatric symptoms, in those with a change in mental status, or when headaches suddenly appear or in cases of treatment resistant psychiatric disorders regardless the lack of neurological symptoms.

  5. Does a family history of RA influence the clinical presentation and treatment response in RA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisell, Thomas; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Askling, Johan

    2016-06-01

    To assess whether family history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), among the strongest risk factors for developing RA, also carries information on the clinical presentation and treatment response. The prospective Swedish Rheumatology register was linked to family history of RA, defined as diagnosed RA in any first-degree relative, ascertained through the Swedish Multi-Generation and Patient registers. Clinical presentation was examined among patients with early RA 2000-2011 (symptom onset clinical characteristics, drug survival, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response and change in disease activity at 3 and 6 months was estimated using linear and generalised logistic regression models. Correlation in relatives' response measures was also assessed. Patients with early RA with family history of RA were more often rheumatoid factor positive, but with no other clinically meaningful differences in their clinical presentation. Family history of RA did not predict response to MTX or TNFi, with the possible exception of no versus good EULAR response to TNFi at 6 months (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7). Having a relative who discontinued TNFi within a year increased the odds of doing the same (OR=3.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 7.5), although we found no significant familial correlations in change in disease activity measures. Family history of RA did not modify the clinical presentation of RA or predict response to standard treatment with MTX or TNFi. Treatment response, particularly drug survival, may itself be familial. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Risk, treatment duration, and recurrence risk of postpartum affective disorder in women with no prior psychiatric history: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H Rasmussen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 5%-15% of all women experience postpartum depression (PPD, which for many is their first psychiatric disorder. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postpartum affective disorder (AD, duration of treatment, and rate of subsequent postpartum AD and other affective episodes in a nationwide cohort of women with no prior psychiatric history.Linking information from several Danish national registers, we constructed a cohort of 457,317 primiparous mothers with first birth (and subsequent births from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2013 (a total of 789,068 births and no prior psychiatric hospital contacts and/or use of antidepressants. These women were followed from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2014. Postpartum AD was defined as use of antidepressants and/or hospital contact for PPD within 6 months after childbirth. The main outcome measures were risk of postpartum AD, duration of treatment, and recurrence risk. We observed 4,550 (0.6% postpartum episodes of AD. The analyses of treatment duration showed that 1 year after the initiation of treatment for their first episode, 27.9% of women were still in treatment; after 4 years, 5.4%. The recurrence risk of postpartum AD for women with a PPD hospital contact after first birth was 55.4 per 100 person-years; for women with postpartum antidepressant medication after first birth, it was 35.0 per 100 person-years. The rate of postpartum AD after second birth for women with no history of postpartum AD was 1.2 per 100 person-years. After adjusting for year of birth and mother's age, women with PPD hospital contact after first birth had a 46.4 times higher rate (95% CI 31.5-68.4 and women with postpartum antidepressant medication after their first birth had a 26.9 times higher rate (95% CI 21.9-33.2 of a recurrent postpartum episode after their second birth compared to women with no postpartum AD history. Limitations include the use of registry data to identify cases and limited

  7. Clinical features and psychiatric comorbidities of borderline personality disorder patients with versus without a history of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Fisher, Amanda M; Kelliher, Caitlin H; Penner, Justin D; Goodman, Marianne; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S; Siever, Larry J; Hazlett, Erin A

    2016-12-30

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are at high risk for suicidal behavior. However, many BPD patients do not engage in suicidal behavior. In this study, we compared clinical features of BPD patients with or without a history of suicide attempts and healthy volunteers. Compared with healthy volunteers, both BPD groups had higher Affective Lability Scale (ALS), ALS - Depression-Anxiety Subscale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS), and Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA) scores and were more likely to have a history of temper tantrums. BPD suicide attempters had higher ALS, ALS - Depression-Anxiety Subscale and LHA scores and were more likely to have a history of non-suicidal self-injury or temper tantrums compared to BPD non-attempters. Also, BPD suicide attempters were more likely to have a history of comorbid major depressive disorder and less likely to have comorbid narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in comparison to BPD non-attempters. About 50% of study participants in each BPD group had a history of comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Our study indicates that BPD patients with a history of suicide attempt are more aggressive, affectively dysregulated and less narcissistic than BPD suicide non-attempters. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. 'Insane emigrants' in transit: Psychiatric patients' files as a source for the history of return migration, c. 1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, G.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights a source that can contribute to the history of migration and mental health: the case records of Eastern European emigrants who tried to enter America at the beginning of the twentieth century, but were refused entrance because of their alleged insanity. Some of these

  9. History of bystander effects research 1905-present; what is in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Rusin, Andrej; Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; Seymour, Colin

    2017-11-29

    This review, which arose from a Radiation Research Society History symposium, traces the history of 'bystander effects' or 'indirect effects'(also known as 'abscopal effects', 'clastogenic effects' and more recently 'the secretosome'). In 1905, Murphy first drew attention to effects caused by the injection of irradiated cells into animals. In the present day, bystander effects are seen as part of the secretosome, where they coordinate responses to stressors at the tissue, organism, and population level. The review considers the history and also the reasons why this process of information exchange/communication appears to have been discovered and forgotten several times. The review then considers the evolution of our understanding of the mechanisms and what relevance these effects may have in radiation protection and radiotherapy. The authors conclude that the phenomenon currently described as a 'bystander effect' has been described under a variety of different names since 1905. However recent advances in biology have made it possible to investigate mechanisms and potential impacts more fully. This has led to the current upsurge in research into this effect of radiation.

  10. Increased Sensitivity to Angiotensin II is Present Postpartum in Women with History of Hypertensive Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Aditi R.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Brown, Nancy J.; Royle, Caroline M.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Seely, Ellen W.

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by new onset hypertension are associated with increased sensitivity to angiotensin II, but it is unclear if this sensitivity persists postpartum. We studied pressor response to infused angiotensin II in 25 normotensive postpartum women in both high and low sodium balance. Ten women had history of hypertensive pregnancy (five with preeclampsia; five with transient hypertension of pregnancy) and 15 women had history of uncomplicated, normotensive pregnancy. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, aldosterone and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) levels were measured before and after angiotensin II infusion in both dietary phases. In high sodium balance, women with history of hypertensive pregnancy were normotensive but had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than controls (115 vs. 104 mmHg and 73 vs. 65 mmHg, respectively, ppregnancy had pressor response to salt loading, demonstrated by increase in systolic blood pressure on high salt diet. They also had greater systolic pressor response (10 vs. 2 mmHg, p=0.03), greater increase in aldosterone (56.8 vs. 30.8 ng/dL, p=0.03) and increase in sFlt-1 levels (11.0 vs. -18.9 pg/mL, p=0.02) after infusion of angiotensin II in low sodium balance, compared with controls. Thus, women with history of hypertensive pregnancy demonstrated salt sensitivity of blood pressure and had increased pressor, adrenal and sFlt-1 responses to infused angiotensin II in low sodium balance. Increased sensitivity to angiotensin II observed during pregnancy in women with hypertensive pregnancy is present postpartum; this feature may contribute to future cardiovascular risk in these women. PMID:20308605

  11. Increased sensitivity to angiotensin II is present postpartum in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Aditi R; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Brown, Nancy J; Royle, Caroline M; McElrath, Thomas F; Seely, Ellen W

    2010-05-01

    Pregnancies complicated by new-onset hypertension are associated with increased sensitivity to angiotensin II, but it is unclear whether this sensitivity persists postpartum. We studied pressor response to infused angiotensin II in 25 normotensive postpartum women in both high- and low-sodium balance. Ten women had a history of hypertensive pregnancy (5 with preeclampsia; 5 with transient hypertension of pregnancy), and 15 women had a history of uncomplicated, normotensive pregnancy. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, aldosterone, and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 levels were measured before and after angiotensin II infusion in both dietary phases. In high sodium balance, women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy were normotensive but had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than controls (115 versus 104 mm Hg and 73 versus 65 mm Hg, respectively; Ppregnancy had a pressor response to salt loading, demonstrated by an increase in systolic blood pressure on a high-salt diet. They also had greater systolic pressor response (10 versus 2 mm Hg; P=0.03), greater increase in aldosterone (56.8 versus 30.8 ng/dL; P=0.03), and increase in soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 levels (11.0 versus -18.9 pg/mL; P=0.02) after infusion of angiotensin II in low-sodium balance compared with controls. Thus, women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy demonstrated salt sensitivity of blood pressure and had increased pressor, adrenal, and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 responses to infused angiotensin II in low-sodium balance. Increased sensitivity to angiotensin II observed during pregnancy in women with hypertensive pregnancy is present postpartum; this feature may contribute to future cardiovascular risk in these women.

  12. Student Centredness and Learning from a Perspective of History of the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulf, Olsson; Kenneth, Petersson; Krejsler, John Benedicto

    2018-01-01

    , we draw on Foucault's concepts of genealogy and history of the present. This means that we reflect contemporary conceptions, in this case the ideas of student centredness, in relation to how similar phenomena have been practiced within other narratives about education/training. Empirically we use......) the narrative of the French teacher Joseph Jacotot, from the beginning of the nineteenth century about teaching for the intelectual liberation as retold by Jacques Rancière. The genealogical analysis shows that contemporary narrative about learning is neither more nor less pupil or student centred than...

  13. [30 years since the first AIDS cases were reported: history and the present. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brůcková, Marie

    2012-05-01

    The 30-year natural history of AIDS disease is presented from the first clinical cases reported in 1981 to the identification of the HIV as the etiological agent of the disease. The priority dispute between Robert C. Gallo and Luc Montagnier over the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus is briefly addressed. The final confirmation of the French priority was provided by the fact that the Nobel Prize in Medicine 2008 was awarded to Luc Montagnier and Francoise Barré--Sinoussi from the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

  14. History and the present of women football in the Czech Republic (Czechoslovakia)

    OpenAIRE

    Dědinová, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    Title of bachelor thesis: History and the present of organized woman's football in the Czech Republic/ Czechoslovakia Processed by: Aneta Dědinová Head of Bachelor Thesis: Doc. PhDr. Irena Slepičková, CSc. Aims of the work: Mapping the development and the current form of fiale football in the Czech Republic (hereinafter only the Czech Republic) in clubs and on a global scale. To find out how the situation in female football is perceived by representatives of local clubs and people working in ...

  15. Critical thinking and contemporary mental health care: Michel Foucault's "history of the present".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc

    2017-04-01

    In order to be able to provide informed, effective and responsive mental health care and to do so in an evidence-based, collaborative and recovery-focused way with those who use mental health services, there is a recognition of the need for mental health professionals to possess sophisticated critical thinking capabilities. This article will therefore propose that such capabilities can be productively situated within the context of the work of the French philosopher Michel Foucault, one of the most challenging, innovative and influential thinkers of the 20th century. However, rather than focusing exclusively upon the content of Foucault's work, it will be suggested that it is possible to discern a general methodological approach across that work, a methodological approach that he refers to as "the history of the present." In doing so, Foucault's history of the present can be understood as a productive, albeit provisional, framework in which to orientate the purpose and process of critical thinking for mental health professionals by emphasizing the need to both historicize and politicize the theoretical perspectives and therapeutic practices that characterize contemporary mental health care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Geographic Medical History: Advances in Geospatial Technology Present New Potentials in Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, F. S.; Finley, R. W.

    2016-06-01

    Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes) and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour), but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, "Airs, Waters, Places", yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient's medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient's "Geographic Medical History". In order to accomplish this we need information on: a) relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b) location of the individual in that person's dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual's location can be tracked in real time if

  17. Migraine: Clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a common disorder which has psychiatric sequelae. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity of migraine. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of migraine seen over a period of one year were analysed to know the sociodemographic characteristics, clinical pattern and psychiatric morbidity. Results: Maximum patients were between 31-40 years of age group (40%, females (78.0%, married (76% and housewives (56.0%. Family history of migraine was present in 12% cases. Average age of onset was 22 years. Unilateral and throbbing type of headache was most common. The commonest frequency was one to two per week. Migraine without aura was commonest sub-type (80%. Generalized anxiety disorder (F41.1 was the most common psychiatric disorder (34%, followed by mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (F41.2 (18% and depressive episode (F32 (14%. In 22% cases, no psychiatric disorder could be elicited. Conclusion: The present study confirms that majority patients with migraine had psychiatric disorders. This needs timely detection and appropriate intervention to treat and control the migraine effectively.

  18. Tokamaks: from A D Sakharov to the present (the 60-year history of tokamaks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, E A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is prepared on the basis of the report presented at the session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) at the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 25 May 2011, devoted to the 90-year jubilee of Academician Andrei D Sakharov - the initiator of controlled nuclear fusion research in the USSR. The 60-year history of plasma research work in toroidal devices with a longitudinal magnetic field suggested by Andrei D Sakharov and Igor E Tamm in 1950 for the confinement of fusion plasma and known at present as tokamaks is described in brief. The recent (2006) agreement among Russia, the EU, the USA, Japan, China, the Republic of Korea, and India on the joint construction of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) in France based on the tokamak concept is discussed. Prospects for using the tokamak as a thermonuclear (14 MeV) neutron source are examined. (conferences and symposia)

  19. A case of organophosphate poisoning presenting with seizure and unavailable history of parenteral suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate (OP poisoning is common in India. Only few case reports of parenteral OP poisoning have been described. We report a case of self-injected methyl parathion poisoning, presenting after four days with seizure, altered sensorium, and respiratory distress which posed a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Despite nonavailability of history of OP poisoning, he was treated based on suspicion and showed a good clinical response to treatment trial with atropine and pralidoxime, and had a successful recovery. Atypical presentations may be encountered following parenteral administration of OP poison, and even a slight suspicion of this warrants proper investigations and treatment for a favorable outcome. Persistently low plasma cholinesterase level is a useful marker for making the diagnosis.

  20. Changes in monthly unemployment rates may predict changes in the number of psychiatric presentations to emergency services in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Bastiampillai, Tarun; Schrader, Geoffrey; Adams, Robert; Piantadosi, Cynthia; Strobel, Jörg; Tucker, Graeme; Allison, Stephen

    2015-07-24

    To determine the extent to which variations in monthly Mental Health Emergency Department (MHED) presentations in South Australian Public Hospitals are associated with the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) monthly unemployment rates. Times series modelling of relationships between monthly MHED presentations to South Australian Public Hospitals derived from the Integrated South Australian Activity Collection (ISAAC) data base and the ABS monthly unemployment rates in South Australia between January 2004-June 2011. Time series modelling using monthly unemployment rates from ABS as a predictor variable explains 69% of the variation in monthly MHED presentations across public hospitals in South Australia. Thirty-two percent of the variation in current month's male MHED presentations can be predicted by using the 2 months' prior male unemployment rate. Over 63% of the variation in monthly female MHED presentations can be predicted by either male or female prior monthly unemployment rates. The findings of this study highlight that even with the relatively favourable economic conditions, small shifts in monthly unemployment rates can predict variations in monthly MHED presentations, particularly for women. Monthly ABS unemployment rates may be a useful metric for predicting demand for emergency mental health services.

  1. Manifesting Destiny: Re/Presentations of Indigenous Peoples in K-12 U.S. History Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Sarah B.; Knowles, Ryan T.; Soden, Gregory J.; Castro, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we use a postcolonial framework to investigate how state standards represent Indigenous histories and cultures. The research questions that guided this study include: (a) What is the frequency of Indigenous content (histories, cultures, current issues) covered in state-level U.S. history standards for K-12? (b) What is…

  2. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Daria, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prisoners are having high percentage of psychiatric disorders. Majority of studies done so far on prisoners are from Western countries and very limited studies from India. Aim: Study socio-demographic profile of prisoners of a central jail and to find out current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in them. Materials and Methods: 118 prisoners were selected by random sampling and interviewed to obtain socio-demographic data and assessed on Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule (IPIS) with additional required questions to diagnose psychiatric disorders in prisoners. Results: Mean age of prisoners was 33.7 years with 97.5% males, 57.6% from rural areas and 65.3% were married. Average education in studied years was 6.6 years and 50.8% were unskilled workers. 47.4% were murderers while 20.3% of drugs related crimes. 47.5% were convicted and history of criminal behavior in family was in 32.2% prisoners. Current prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 33%. Psychotic, depressive, and anxiety disorders were seen in 6.7%, 16.1%, and 8.5% prisoners respectively. 58.8% had history of drug abuse/dependence prior to imprisonment. Conclusion: One prison of Hadoti region of Rajasthan is full of people with mental-health problems who collectively generate significant levels of unmet psychiatric treatment need. Prisons are detrimental to mental-health. Beginning of reforms is the immediate need. PMID:24459308

  3. Psychosocial profile of male patients presenting with sexual dysfunction in a psychiatric outpatient department in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Kamath, Ravindra; Subramanyam, Alka; Shah, Henal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual dysfunction can occur due to biological problems, relationship problems, lack of proper sexual knowledge or a combination of these. India is often known as the land of Kamasutra. But as far as sexuality research is concerned, there is a paucity of relevant data from India. In view of this, we conducted a study to assess the psychosocial profile of males presenting with sexual dysfunction to psychiatry out-patient department of a tertiary medical hospital. Materials and Me...

  4. Psychosocial profile of male patients presenting with sexual dysfunction in a psychiatric outpatient department in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Kamath, Ravindra; Subramanyam, Alka; Shah, Henal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual dysfunction can occur due to biological problems, relationship problems, lack of proper sexual knowledge or a combination of these. India is often known as the land of Kamasutra. But as far as sexuality research is concerned, there is a paucity of relevant data from India. In view of this, we conducted a study to assess the psychosocial profile of males presenting with sexual dysfunction to psychiatry out-patient department of a tertiary medical hospital. Materials and Methods: Hundred consecutive male patients presenting with sexual dysfunction were screened using Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale for clinical sexual dysfunction and after obtaining their informed consent were included in this study. They were assessed using a semi-structured proforma, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results: Majority of our respondents were in the 18–30 years age group and were married. The main source of sex knowledge for 69% of them was peer group. Age of onset of masturbation was 11–13 years for 43% of them. Premature ejaculation was the most common sexual dysfunction seen in the respondents. Marital discord was seen in significantly lesser number of respondents (32.35%) as also major depressive disorder that was seen in only 16%. Discussion: Premature ejaculation was the most common sexual dysfunction in our sample. Despite the sexual dysfunction, marital discord and depression were seen less commonly in our respondents. PMID:25657457

  5. Psychosocial profile of male patients presenting with sexual dysfunction in a psychiatric outpatient department in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Kamath, Ravindra; Subramanyam, Alka; Shah, Henal

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction can occur due to biological problems, relationship problems, lack of proper sexual knowledge or a combination of these. India is often known as the land of Kamasutra. But as far as sexuality research is concerned, there is a paucity of relevant data from India. In view of this, we conducted a study to assess the psychosocial profile of males presenting with sexual dysfunction to psychiatry out-patient department of a tertiary medical hospital. Hundred consecutive male patients presenting with sexual dysfunction were screened using Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale for clinical sexual dysfunction and after obtaining their informed consent were included in this study. They were assessed using a semi-structured proforma, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4(th) Edition, Text Revision criteria, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Majority of our respondents were in the 18-30 years age group and were married. The main source of sex knowledge for 69% of them was peer group. Age of onset of masturbation was 11-13 years for 43% of them. Premature ejaculation was the most common sexual dysfunction seen in the respondents. Marital discord was seen in significantly lesser number of respondents (32.35%) as also major depressive disorder that was seen in only 16%. Premature ejaculation was the most common sexual dysfunction in our sample. Despite the sexual dysfunction, marital discord and depression were seen less commonly in our respondents.

  6. Present-day central African forest is a legacy of the 19th century human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Rivat, Julie; Fayolle, Adeline; Favier, Charly; Bremond, Laurent; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Bayol, Nicolas; Lejeune, Philippe; Beeckman, Hans; Doucet, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-17

    The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees. Currently, common logging operations do not create suitable openings for the regeneration of these species, whereas deforestation degrades landscapes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, which included paleoecological, archaeological, historical, and dendrological data, we highlight the long-term history of human activities across central African forests and assess the contribution of these activities to present-day forest structure and composition. The conclusions of this sobering analysis present challenges to current silvicultural practices and to those of the future.

  7. History before diagnosis in childhood craniopharyngioma : associations with initial presentation and long-term prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Boekhoff, Svenja; Gebhardt, Ursel; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Daubenbuechel, Anna M. M.; Eveslage, Maria; Mueller, Hermann L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood craniopharyngiomas (CP) are often diagnosed after a long duration of history (DOH). Tumor size, hypothalamic involvement (HI), and obesity are associated with reduced overall survival (OS) and functional capacity (FC). The effect of DOH and specific symptoms in history on

  8. GEOGRAPHIC MEDICAL HISTORY: ADVANCES IN GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY PRESENT NEW POTENTIALS IN MEDICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Faruque

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour, but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, “Airs, Waters, Places”, yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient’s medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient’s “Geographic Medical History”. In order to accomplish this we need information on: a relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b location of the individual in that person’s dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual’s location

  9. THE IMPRINT OF EXOPLANET FORMATION HISTORY ON OBSERVABLE PRESENT-DAY SPECTRA OF HOT JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordasini, C.; Van Boekel, R.; Mollière, P.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Benneke, Björn, E-mail: christoph.mordasini@space.unibe.ch, E-mail: boekel@mpia.de, E-mail: molliere@mpia.de, E-mail: henning@mpia.de, E-mail: bbenneke@caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    The composition of a planet’s atmosphere is determined by its formation, evolution, and present-day insolation. A planet’s spectrum therefore may hold clues on its origins. We present a “chain” of models, linking the formation of a planet to its observable present-day spectrum. The chain links include (1) the planet’s formation and migration, (2) its long-term thermodynamic evolution, (3) a variety of disk chemistry models, (4) a non-gray atmospheric model, and (5) a radiometric model to obtain simulated spectroscopic observations with James Webb Space Telescope and ARIEL. In our standard chemistry model the inner disk is depleted in refractory carbon as in the Solar System and in white dwarfs polluted by extrasolar planetesimals. Our main findings are: (1) envelope enrichment by planetesimal impacts during formation dominates the final planetary atmospheric composition of hot Jupiters. We investigate two, under this finding, prototypical formation pathways: a formation inside or outside the water iceline, called “dry” and “wet” planets, respectively. (2) Both the “dry” and “wet” planets are oxygen-rich (C/O < 1) due to the oxygen-rich nature of the solid building blocks. The “dry” planet’s C/O ratio is <0.2 for standard carbon depletion, while the “wet” planet has typical C/O values between 0.1 and 0.5 depending mainly on the clathrate formation efficiency. Only non-standard disk chemistries without carbon depletion lead to carbon-rich C/O ratios >1 for the “dry” planet. (3) While we consistently find C/O ratios <1, they still vary significantly. To link a formation history to a specific C/O, a better understanding of the disk chemistry is thus needed.

  10. Epidemiology, genetic, natural history and clinical presentation of giant cerebral aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonjon, M; Pennes, F; Sedat, J; Bataille, B

    2015-12-01

    Giant cerebral aneurysms represent 5% of intracranial aneurysms, and become symptomatic between 40 and 70 years with a female predominance. In the paediatric population, the giant aneurysm rate is higher than in the adult population. Classified as saccular, fusiform and serpentine, the natural history of giant cerebral aneurysms is characterized by thrombosis, growth and rupture. The pathogenesis of these giant aneurysms is influenced by a number of risk factors, including genetic variables. Genome-wide association studies have identified some chromosomes highlighting candidate genes. Although these giant aneurysms can occur at the same locations as their smaller counterparts, a predilection for the cavernous location has been observed. Giant aneurysms present with symptoms caused by a mass effect depending on their location or by rupture; ischemic manifestations rarely reveal the aneurysm. If the initial clinical descriptions have been back up by imagery, the clinical context with a pertinent analysis of the risk factors remain the cornerstone for the management decisions of these lesions. Five year cumulative rupture rates for patients with giant aneurysm were 40% for those located on the anterior part of circle of Willis and 50% for those on the posterior part. The poor outcome of untreated patients justifies the therapeutic risks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. History, Present, and Progress of Frontotemporal Dementia in China: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Jing Ren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to provide an overview of clinical and demographical features and neuropathological research on frontotemporal dementia (FTD from China over the past decade. We reviewed the demographic features, clinical presentations, and neuropathology of the FTD-spectrum disorders from the 49 cases in China published since 1998. On the basis of these findings, we retrospect the history and speculate on future progress in terms of FTD in China. We found that most published papers comprise case reports with a few retrospective studies with small sample sizes. Behavior variant FTD (bvFTD was the most common diagnostic subtype, of which 35% were associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or Parkinsonian syndrome. More than 47% patients with FTD had age onset before 65. There were no differences in age of onset and sex distribution between diagnostic subtypes. The spectrum of neuropathological diagnosis of bvFTD was frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD with tau protein or ubiquitin-immunopositive inclusions, and FTLD without intracellular inclusions. Median survival in bvFTD was 14 years. This paper provides an overview of the current status and pointers for future research directions of FTD in China.

  12. [History and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe and related development strategies for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Jun; Xu, Hai-Gen; Guan, Jian-Ling

    2013-09-01

    Butterfly is an important bio-indicator for biodiversity monitoring and ecological environment assessment. In Europe, the species composition, population dynamics, and distribution pattern of butterfly have been monitored for decades, and many long-term monitoring schemes with international effects have been implemented. These schemes are aimed to assess the regional and national variation trends of butterfly species abundance, and to analyze the relationships of this species abundance with habitat, climate change, and other environmental factors, providing basic data for researching, protecting, and utilizing butterfly resources and predicting environmental changes, and playing important roles in the division of butterfly' s threatened level, the formulation of related protection measures, and the protection and management of ecological environment. This paper reviewed the history and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe, with the focus on the well-known long-term monitoring programs, e. g. , the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and the Germany and European Union Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Some specific proposals for conducting butterflies monitoring in China were suggested.

  13. A retrospective chart review of the clinical and psychosocial profile of psychotic adolescents with co-morbid substance use disorders presenting to acute adolescent psychiatric services at Tygerberg Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Lachman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. A large number of adolescents meet criteria for ‘dual diagnosis’ (a psychiatric disorder plus co-morbid substance use disorder (SUD, which prolongs treatment response and complicates intervention strategies. The current service model in Cape Town divides the care of such patients into psychiatric treatment and a separate substance use intervention. Child and adolescent mental health services face the challenge of high rates of readmission of adolescents into psychiatric facilities before utilisation of community-based substance abuse services. Objective. There is a scarcity of available treatment guidelines for dual-diagnosis adolescents, and a lack of systematically documented epidemiological and clinical data in South African adolescent populations. Method. A retrospective chart review of adolescent psychiatric admissions to the Tygerberg Adolescent Psychiatric Unit during 2010 was conducted. Relevant epidemiological, clinical and demographic data for those presenting with a dual diagnosis (specifically psychotic disorders and SUD was recorded. Results. Results suggest a high prevalence of SUD among adolescents presenting with a first-episode psychosis. Statistically significant correlations with lower levels of education were found in those with ongoing substance abuse (specifically cannabis and methamphetamine, and a significant relationship between choice of debut drug and ongoing drug use was also demonstrated. Risk factors for SUD (psychosocial adversities, childhood trauma, family and community exposure to substances, early debut drug ages, risky sexual behaviours, and clinical psychiatric profiles of adolescents with dual diagnosis are described. Conclusions. This cohort had an enhanced risk as a result of genetic vulnerability and environmental availability of substances, and the findings emphasise the differences in presentation, choice of drugs of abuse and psychosocial difficulties of adolescents with a dual

  14. Energy History Chronology from World War II to the Present [1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P. C.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.

  15. Presentation of klystron history and statistics by World-Wide Web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamikubota, N.; Furukawa, K.

    2000-01-01

    A web-based system for browsing klystron histories and statistics has been developed for the KEKB e-/e+ linac. This system enables linac staffs to investigate various klystron histories, such as recent trends of ES (down frequency/reflection/high voltage), at his/her convenient PC/Mac/console, where a web-browser is available. This system started in January 2000, and now becomes an inevitable tool for the linac staffs. (author)

  16. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  17. Routledge History of Women in Modern Europe, 1700 to the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    scholars and rising stars of the discipline to provide a ground-breaking and unique contribution to the historical study of women. Chapters include:European Women's History at the Crossroads, Writing Women in(to) European History, At Home in the Family, Female Sexuality, Learning to be good girls and women......The Routledge History of Women in Europe since 1700 is a landmark publication that provides an over view of women's role and place in Western Europe, spanning three centuries. Drawing on new research and provoking valuable new insights, this comprehensive edited collection brings together renowned......, Women Workers, Working women, Women Religious and religious women, Women as citizens, Women in War and Peace, Home and Away, popular culture and Leisure, Mistresses of creation, women as producers and consumers of culture....

  18. Colonialism’s Past and Present: Performing History at a Gold Rush Theme Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Watson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The urge to seize, to claim the past in order to experience the truth of history is a powerful impulse - one full of desire for a time apart from the here and now. Conceiving and sustaining an experience of the past is today very big business. The ongoing development of the heritage, tourism and re-enactment industries inter-link with popular historical perception in ways that raise multiple questions about the relationship between popular and academic accounts of the past and the many other ways of performing history (Dening 1996. This paper takes as its starting point a gold rush theme park, Old Mogo Town in NSW Australia, and in particular, its erasure of all evidence of the Indigenous past. From here, it is my aim to develop a revised performance of that past- one that interrogates the catastrophe of colonialism and the fate of history currently expunged from the gold rush theme park of Old Mogo Town.

  19. The Parochialism of the Present: Some Reflections on the History of Educational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantock, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    Explains how the study of educational philosophy is relevant to prospective teachers, in spite of the fact that courses in educational history, philosophy, and the foundations of education have been diminishing in importance in recent years in the teacher education curriculum. Journal availability: see SO 507 421. (DB)

  20. (Re)Presentations of Islam in Albanian History Textbooks from 1990 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulstarova, Enis

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the role of Islam in representations of the self and the other in the contemporary Albanian national discourse, on the basis of an analysis of history textbooks published in postcommunist Albania between 1990 and 2013, focusing specifcally on texts used in pre-university education. Even after the dissolution of the…

  1. The history of psychology course in Spanish psychology curricula: Past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisvert-Perales, Mauricio; Monteagudo-Soto, María J; Mestre, Vicenta

    2016-05-01

    Since the university education of psychologists began in Spain in 1954, the history of psychology course has been included in the curriculum. In the first few years, only half of the curricula offered the course. From 1973 to 2007, the universities' organization and regulation underwent successive reforms that involved changes in the curricula, decreeing specific national guidelines for each degree and establishing a minimum set of common required courses, called core courses, including the history of psychology. In 2007, the European Higher Education Area was set up, transforming the 5-year bachelor's degrees into 4-year degrees and eliminating the required guidelines, with each university being able to define the content of their curricula. The Dean's Conference for Psychology agreed on some recommendations related to core courses, which continued to include the history of psychology and were adopted by the majority of the universities. In 2015, the government established a new national regulation that makes it possible for each university to voluntarily reduce the length of the bachelor's degree to 3 years. Some psychology historians believe that this hypothetical reduction in the length of the degree, along with the already existing general tendency to prioritize applied or practical courses over basic or fundamental ones, could produce an appropriate scenario for the disappearance of the history of psychology course in some universities. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Writing the history of Australian art: its past, present and possible future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Smith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the years around 1980 the history of Australian art was reconceived in a bewildering variety of ways. A historiographical revolution was underway. This was largely the result of plethora of new approaches to art history that emerged worldwide during the 1970s: contextual, feminist, populist, Marxist. Aboriginal art awaited detailed art historical consideration. This article places these changes in the context of previous efforts to chart the history of Australian art, which the author argues occurred in six phases: colonial, bourgeois nationalist, realist versus aestheticist, modernist, culturalist, and the approaches noted above. Most of these approaches developed in Australia and were applied by local authors. In recent decades, however, ‘external’ approaches are more evident, and are deeply preoccupied with the question of defining modernism in Australia, which they largely fail to do. The author surveys a number of such attempts, taking this question as the paradoxical key to unraveling the overall structure of the history of Australian art.

  3. Portal hypertensive gastropathy: A systematic review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history, and therapy of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) based on a systematic literature review. METHODS: Computerized search of the literature was performed via PubMed using the following medical subject headings or keywords: “portal” and “gastropathy”; or “portal” and “hypertensive”; or “congestive” and “gastropathy”; or “congestive” and “gastroenteropathy”. The following criteria were applied for study inclusion: Publication in peer-reviewed journals, and publication since 1980. Articles were independently evaluated by each author and selected for inclusion by consensus after discussion based on the following criteria: Well-designed, prospective trials; recent studies; large study populations; and study emphasis on PHG. RESULTS: PHG is diagnosed by characteristic endoscopic findings of small polygonal areas of variable erythema surrounded by a pale, reticular border in a mosaic pattern in the gastric fundus/body in a patient with cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Histologic findings include capillary and venule dilatation, congestion, and tortuosity, without vascular fibrin thrombi or inflammatory cells in gastric submucosa. PHG is differentiated from gastric antral vascular ectasia by a different endoscopic appearance. The etiology of PHG is inadequately understood. Portal hypertension is necessary but insufficient to develop PHG because many patients have portal hypertension without PHG. PHG increases in frequency with more severe portal hypertension, advanced liver disease, longer liver disease duration, presence of esophageal varices, and endoscopic variceal obliteration. PHG pathogenesis is related to a hyperdynamic circulation, induced by portal hypertension, characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance to flow, increased splanchnic flow, increased total gastric flow, and most likely decreased gastric mucosal flow. Gastric mucosa

  4. Financial history : lessons of the past for reformers of the present

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio Jr., Gerard; Vittas, Dimitri

    1995-01-01

    Among the lessons financial history offers: Macroeconomic stability - low inflation and sound public finance - is important for creating the right incentives for banks and for facilitating the development of securities markets. High inflation and large fiscal deficits distort economic behavior in favor of short-term speculative projects conducive to sustainable economic development. Central bank independence may contribute to economic stability. One way to increase it is by lengthening the te...

  5. The nuclear highway: a history of nuclear power in Britain and its present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stott, M.

    1979-01-01

    The history and programme of nuclear power development in Britain are summarized. The industrial organizations involved and the economics of the programme are discussed. Changes in government policy from time to time concerning the amount and type of plant to be built are outlined. The discrepancies between the forecasts of different organizations, in relation to energy supply and demand, are pointed out. (U.K.)

  6. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  7. Radium remediation - History and Present Day. A Worldwide Overview Compendium (DVD) first Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelmer, Robert; Ouzounian, Gerald; Cochard, Guillaume; Huchette, Nathalie; Fowlie, Glenna

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impact of radium remains even today. The legacy of radio-luminescent paints, radium therapy needles, mining and processing and associated contamination has long been pursued in France, Belgium, Canada, the USA and other countries. The management of these tasks provides a rich and fascinating history as well as successes and lessons learned in environmental remediation. This Compendium provides an immediate resource to those who wish to investigate these subjects further and a means of adding to the resource. It contains links, movies, documents and references

  8. From the front lines to the home front: a history of the development of psychiatric nursing in the U.S. during the World War II era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Christine M

    2008-07-01

    During World War II, psychiatric nurses learned valuable lessons on how to deal with the traumas of war. Using psychohistorical inquiry, this historian examined primary and secondary sources, beyond the facts and dates associated with historical events, to understand why and how psychiatric nurse pioneers developed therapeutic techniques to address the psychosocial and physical needs of combatants. Not only is the story told about the hardships endured as nurses ministered to soldiers, but their attitudes, beliefs, and emotions, that is, how they felt and what they thought about their circumstances, are explored. In this study the lived experiences of two psychiatric nurses, Votta and Peplau, are contrasted to explicate how knowledge development improved care and how this knowledge had an impact on the home front in nursing practice and education, as well as in mental institutions and society, long after the war was won.

  9. The Public Community College in America: Its History, Present Condition, and Future Outlook with Special Reference to Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy Joan

    The development, current status, and future prospects of community colleges are examined in this study with special emphasis on finance and funding concerns. Introductory material outlines study objectives, methodology, and purposes; defines key terms; and emphasizes the importance of college planning. Chapter 1 presents a history of the community…

  10. Psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit L Jagtap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women in the perimenopausal period are reported to be vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. Aim: To assess the psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women aged 45–55 years. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical college. The study sample consisted of consecutive women in perimenopause as diagnosed by a gynecologist and written informed consent for inclusion in the study. Women with a previous history of psychiatric illnesses, with a major medical illness, or who had undergone surgical menopause were excluded from the study. All women were evaluated with a brief questionnaire for collecting demographic and clinical information and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for assessing psychiatric disorders. Results: Of the 108 women in perimenopause included in the study, 31% had depressive disorder, 7% had anxiety, while 5% had depressive disorder with anxiety features. Psychiatric morbidity was significantly more in women having lesser education, from rural background, with a history of psychiatric illness in the family, a later age of menarche, and in the late stage of perimenopause. Conclusions: Women in the perimenopause affected by psychiatric morbidity were most commonly diagnosed with depression. As perimenopause is a time of vulnerability in women, attention to signs and symptoms of depression may be required so that they may lead a more productive life.

  11. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  12. Modeling soluble salt assemblages on Mars: past aqueous history and present-day habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

    2014-12-01

    Soluble salt assemblages formed through aqueous processes are widespread on Mars. These minerals are important for understanding the past aqueous history of Mars and indicate critical habitability parameters such as pH, temperature, water activity, and salinity. Equilibrium models have been used to determine solution chemistry and salt precipitation sequences from aqueous chemical data; however, current models are limited by a lack of experimental data for low-temperature perchlorates, and some model predictions are clearly anomalous. To address the need for accurate equilibrium models, we have developed a comprehensive model for low-temperature perchlorate-rich brines using (1) previously neglected literature data, (2) experimental solubilities determined in low-temperature perchlorate solutions, and (3) solubility and heat capacity results determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Our resulting model is a significant improvement over existing models, such as FREZCHEM, particularly for perchlorate mixtures. We have applied our model to evaporation and freezing of a nominal Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) solution measured at the Phoenix site. For a freezing WCL solution, our model indicates that ice, KClO4, hydromagnesite (3MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3H2O), calcite (CaCO3), meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O), MgCl2·12H2O, NaClO4·2H2O, and Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O form at the eutectic (209 K); whereas, KClO4, hydromagnesite, kieserite (MgSO4·H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), halite (NaCl), NaClO4·H2O, and Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O form upon complete evaporation at 298 K. In general, evaporation yields more dehydrated mineral assemblages than salts produced by freezing. Hydrated phases that form during evaporation contain 0.3 wt. % water, which compares with 1.2 wt. % during freezing. Given independent evidence for the presence of calcite and minimum water contents in Martian soils of ~1.5 wt. %, salts at the Phoenix site, and possibly elsewhere, appear more likely to have formed during

  13. Present status and history of nuclear data development for transmutation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, A

    2002-01-01

    A history of development of nuclear data from JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library)-1 to JENDL-3.3 and JENDL-HF (High energy File) and JENDL- Actinide File are stated. 5 nuclear data such as JENDL-1, JENDL-2, JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2 and JENDL-3.3 have been developed by JAERI. JENDL-1 for fast reactor (1977) has 66+6 nuclide and 15 MeV the largest energy. JENDL-2 for fast and light water reactor (1982) has 173+8 nuclide and 20 MeV. All-purpose nuclear data: JENDL-3.1 (1990) with 305+19 nuclide and 59 2nd gamma-ray data, JENDL-3.2 (1994) with 318+22 nuclide and 66 2nd gamma-ray data and JENDL-3.3 (2002) with 335+2 nuclide, 114 2nd gamma-ray data, 60 angular dependence neutron data and 20 MeV have been developed. JENDL-3.3 was opened at JAERI home page in May 2002. JENDL High Energy library consists of JENDL-HF, JENDL-Photonuclear Data File and JENDL-PKA/KERMA File. JENDL-HF includes nuclear reaction data of neutron and proton incidence, for example, total cross section, elastic scattering cross section a...

  14. Tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children: importance of accurate history and plain chest radiography in delayed presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokar, B. E-mail: btokar@ogu.edu.trbarantokar@hotmail.com; Ozkan, R.; Ilhan, H

    2004-07-01

    AIM: To evaluate the factors associated with delayed diagnosis of foreign body aspiration (FBA) in children and to compare clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic findings in the patients with suspected FBA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of 214 children who underwent bronchoscopy for suspected FBA were reviewed. The data were analysed in three groups: the patients with negative bronchoscopy for FBA (group I), early (group II) and delayed diagnosis (group III). RESULTS: The majority of the patients with FBA were between 1 and 3 years of age. Choking episodes, coughing and decreased breath sounds were determined in a significantly higher number of the patients with FBA. The plain chest radiography revealed radio-opaque foreign bodies (FBs) in 19.7% of all patients with FBA. Emphysema was more common in children with FBA. Clinical and radiological findings of pneumonia and atelectasis were significantly more common in the groups with negative bronchoscopy and with delayed diagnosis (p<0.01). The FBs were most frequently of vegetable origin, such as seeds and peanuts. A significant tissue reaction with inflammation was more common in the delayed cases. CONCLUSION: To prevent delayed diagnosis, characteristic symptoms, signs and radiological findings of FBA should be checked in all suspected cases. As clinical and radiological findings of FBA in delayed cases may mimic other disorders, the clinician must be aware of the likelihood of FBA. Regardless of radiological findings, bronchoscopy should be considered in patients with an appropriate history.

  15. The Atomic Testing Museum: Presenting the History and Preservation of a 50 Year Journey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy E, Wade II

    2009-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is one of the premier test and evaluation sites belonging to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a part of the Department of Energy. Founded in 1950, it is a major domestic location for the testing of nuclear components and nuclear weapons destined for the stockpile, the nuclear deterrent of the United States. From 1951 until 1992 there were 100 atmospheric and 828 underground nuclear tests conducted at the NTS. Those tests resulted in the development of a nuclear deterrent that helped prevent a world war and played a major role in the final defeat of the Soviet Union in the Cold War. Those tests lead to the development of yield measurement techniques that allowed the United States Government to take the lead in the negotiations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which took effect in 1992, ending the requirement to do routine nuclear tests. This paper describes the walk through the history of the NTS' Cold War battlefield. (authors)

  16. Mapuche nation: Concept, history and challenges present in Gulumapu-Araucanía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel San Juan Rebolledo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of the Mapuche nation; as a concept, as a historical view in contrast to the Chilean political nation and the current challenges of the Mapuche movement. This analysis will be performed in three stages, in the first, we will look at the importance of conceptual history as a historiographic method forgaining more precise access to the conceptual categories that relate to historical time, assessing their scope and significance. Secondly, we will carry out a thorough investigation of the literature to find out what are the different meanings of the concept of ‘nation’, the various existing trends of interpretation and the theoretical contributions in order to approach the problems of the Mapuche nation, in this space of the Andes, Gulumapu-Araucanía. Finally, we will review some of the view points of Mapuche intellectuals who address the problems of the Mapuche nation, including readings on ethnicity and colonialism, in order to quantify their theoretical contribution to the mapuche movement.

  17. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  18. The history of Latin terminology of human skeletal muscles (from Vesalius to the present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Vladimir; Suchomel, Zdenek; Malinova, Petra; Stingl, Josef; Vlcek, Martin; Vacha, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this literary search was to chart the etymology of 32 selected human skeletal muscles, representative of all body regions. In researching this study, analysis of 15 influential Latin and German anatomical textbooks, dating from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, was undertaken, as well as reference to four versions of the official Latin anatomical terminologies. Particular emphasis has been placed on the historical development of muscular nomenclature, and the subsequent division of these data into groups, defined by similarities in the evolution of their names into the modern form. The first group represents examples of muscles whose names have not changed since their introduction by Vesalius (1543). The second group comprises muscles which earned their definitive names during the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The third group is defined by acceptance into common anatomical vernacular by the late nineteenth century, including those outlined in the first official Latin terminology (B.N.A.) of 1895. The final group is reserved for six extra-ocular muscles with a particularly poetic history, favoured and popularised by the anatomical giants of late Renaissance and 1,700 s. As this study will demonstrate, it is evident that up until introduction of the B.N.A. there was an extremely liberal approach to naming muscles, deserving great respect in the retrospective terminological studies if complete and relevant results are to be achieved. Without this knowledge of the vernacular of the ages past, modern researchers can find themselves 'reinventing the wheel' in looking for their answers.

  19. A reforma e os hospitais psiquiátricos: histórias da desinstitucionalização Reform and psychiatric hospitals: histories of deinstitutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Brandão Goulart

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa investigou como o processo de Reforma da Política de saúde mental repercutiu no mais antigo hospital psiquiátrico público de Belo Horizonte, o Instituto Raul Soares, resultando em iniciativas institucionais que procuravam responder à crítica aos asilos e à cultura manicomial que emergiu desde os anos 60 (século XX, em Minas Gerais. Trata-se de um esforço historiográfico, realizado em 2007, que trabalhou com fontes documentais e orais (entrevistas com psiquiatras, psicólogos, enfermeiros e outros, recuperando informações sobre as décadas de 60, 70 e 80. O referencial teórico foi o da Análise Institucional. Foram enfocadas iniciativas instituintes que tomaram a forma de projetos assistenciais e de formação que objetivavam a reestruturação do hospital: o Ambulatório Central Roberto Resende; a Residência em Psiquiatria, o Projeto Guimarães Rosa e o Hospital Dia. São evidenciados os paradigmas de referência e o contraditório processo de desinstitucionalização.The aim of the present research is to determine how the mental health Policy Reform affected the Raul Soares Institute, the first public psychiatric hospital (asylum in Belo Horizonte, tracing institutional initiatives that aimed to respond to criticisms on the mental houses and their set of procedures in usage since the 1960s, in the state of Minas Gerais. The research became a historiographic effort, carried out in 2007, dealing with oral and documental sources (interviews with psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses and others and collecting information about facts that occurred in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Institutional analysis was taken as the theoretical support. The present study focused on initiatives that assumed the format of assisting and constitutional projects that aimed to remodel the Raul Soares Institute. In addition, paradigms of references and the contradiction-marked process of deinstitutionalization were made evident.

  20. G.N. Florov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, history and the present day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmider, J.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific activity and review of results attained at Florov Nuclear Reactions Laboratory of the Joined Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, have been presented in historical order. Especially the heavy ion cyclotron use for synthesis of new super-heavy elements as well as investigations of their physical and chemical properties have been shown. 1 fig

  1. The Brief History of Environmental Education and Its Changes from 1972 to Present in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Seyed Mohammad; Meiboudi, Hossein; Kamali, Fatemeh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates environmental education (EE) before and after Iran's Islamic Revolution. The research method is case study, and among the case study methods, historical analysis has been used in this research. A wide array of sources were employed, from government performance reports to documents, records, books, and articles…

  2. Schistosomiasis Presenting as Recurring Sigmoid Volvulus in a Danish Man With an Inconspicuous Travel History-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, Asger D; Axelsson, Johanna M; Bondgaard, Anna-Louise R; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A

    2018-04-01

    A healthy 72-year-old Danish male presenting with recurring sigmoid volvulus was found to be infested with Schistosoma mansoni . No other explanation for recurring volvulus was found. A travel history 12 years ago, which included bathing in the Botswana Okavango delta for 10 minutes, revealed the likely time and place of infection. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of recurrent sigmoid volvulus and chronic intestinal schistosomiasis in a patient from a nonendemic area.

  3. Schistosomiasis presenting as recurring sigmoid volvulus in a Danish man with an inconspicuous travel history - a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Asger D; Axelsson, Johanna M; Bondgaard, Anna-Louise R

    2018-01-01

    A healthy 72-year-old Danish male presenting with recurring sigmoid volvulus was found to be infested with Schistosoma mansoni. No other explanation for recurring volvulus was found. A travel history 12 years ago, which included bathing in the Botswana Okavango delta for 10 minutes, revealed...... the likely time and place of infection. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of recurrent sigmoid volvulus and chronic intestinal schistosomiasis in a patient from a nonendemic area....

  4. Cardiac Failure as an Unusual Presentation in a Patient with History of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Namazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most well-known form of motor neuron diseases in which both upper and lower motor neurons are involved in this disease. We presented an unusual case of ALS whom had presented with chief complaint of dyspnea. Cardiac failure was diagnosed at the final stage of the ALS disease. The pathogenetic mechanism leading to an elevated occurrence of cardiomyopathy in ALS is not comprehensible. Dilated cardiomyopathy has been explained in some previous studies. Based on the collected data, it was hypothesized that cardiomyopathy is underdiagnosed in the ALS population, probably because symptoms are masqueraded as a result of the patients’ disability. It was suggested that in all motor neuron diseases a serial cardiological evaluation should be executed, including annual echocardiography.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL MUSEUM INCLUDING A 4D PRESENTATION OF BUILDING HISTORY IN VIRTUAL REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. Kersten; F. Tschirschwitz; S. Deggim

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades the definition of the term “virtual museum” changed due to rapid technological developments. Using today’s available 3D technologies a virtual museum is no longer just a presentation of collections on the Internet or a virtual tour of an exhibition using panoramic photography. On one hand, a virtual museum should enhance a museum visitor's experience by providing access to additional materials for review and knowledge deepening either before or after the real ...

  6. Histories of the Present: Giovanni Arrighi & the Long Duree of Geohistorical Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Reifer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the more telling features of the present conjuncture is the scarcity of analysis able to squarely place today’s global turbulence and the current crises in geohistorical perspective. In terms of the longue duree of capitalism since its late medieval and early modern origins right up to the present, arguably no intellectual has developed a more formidable analysis of the present crisis than Giovanni Arrighi. Arrighi of course, along with Immanuel Wallerstein (1974, 1980, 1989 and the late Terence Hopkins, was one of the originators and foremost proponents of the world-systems perspective on European domination, global capitalism, global income inequalities and “development” (see Arrighi, Hopkins & Wallerstein, 1989. The world-systems perspective itself – challenging as it did the dominance of post-World War II modernization theory - came out the movements of the 1960s and brought together fruitful synthesis of Marxism, Third World radicalism, and critical currents in social science, from the work of the French Annales school to that of the German historical school (see Goldfrank 2000.

  7. Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis in Critically Ill Patients: Clinical Presentation, Cholangiographic Features, Natural History, and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Silke; Veltzke-Schlieker, Wilfried; Adler, Andreas; Schott, Eckart; Eurich, Dennis; Faber, Wladimir; Neuhaus, Peter; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SSC-CIP) is an important differential diagnosis in patients presenting with cholestasis and PSC-like cholangiographic changes in endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). As a relatively newly described entity, SSC-CIP is still underdiagnosed, and the diagnosis is often delayed. The present study aims to improve the early detection of SSC-CIP and the identification of its complications. A total of 2633 records of patients who underwent or were listed for orthotopic liver transplantation at the University Hospital Charité, Berlin, were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical presentation and outcome (mean follow-up 62.7 months) of the 16 identified SSC-CIP cases were reviewed. Cholestasis was the first sign of SSC-CIP. GGT was the predominant enzyme of cholestasis. Hypercholesterolemia occurred in at least 75% of the patients. SSC-CIP provoked a profound weight loss (mean 18 kg) in 94% of our patients. SSC-CIP was diagnosed by ERC in all patients. The 3 different cholangiographic features detected correspond roughly to the following stages: (I) evidence of biliary casts, (II) progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, and (III) picture of pruned tree. Biliary cast formation is a hallmark of SSC-CIP and was seen in 87% of our cases. In 75% of the patients, the clinical course was complicated by cholangiosepsis, cholangitic liver abscesses, acalculous cholecystitis, or gallbladder perforation. SSC-CIP was associated with worse prognosis; transplant-free survival was ∼40 months (mean). Because of its high rate of serious complications and unfavorable prognosis, it is imperative to diagnose SSC-CIP early and to differentiate SSC-CIP from other types of sclerosing cholangitis. Specific characteristics enable identification of SSC-CIP. Early cooperation with a transplant center and special attention to biliary complications are required after diagnosis of SSC-CIP. PMID:26656347

  8. Status of barium studies in the present era of oncology: Are they a history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Abhishek; Desai, Subash; Sable, Nilesh Pandurang; Thakur, Meenakshi Haresh

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of the modern imaging technologies, the present era of oncology is seeing steady decline in requests for barium studies due to the many reasons. It is prudent to mention here, that, barium examinations cannot be made obsolete! Our aim to preserve the age old technique of barium studies not only to keep it going on but also for the betterment and appropriate management of the patient. Our goal is not to "save" barium studies simply to keep this technology alive, per se, but rather to preserve barium radiology for the quality in patient care.

  9. THE INSTITUTION OF ACCOUNTING NORMALISATION IN ROMANIA – HISTORY AND PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The institution of accounting normalization at a national level can essentially be as public, private and mixed. On its nature depend the way of accepting/imposing the accounting norms and also the character of these norms, character which can be more or less restrictive. The present article is a study regarding the institution of normalization of accounting in Romania from the beginning (when the process of normalizing the Romanian accounting began to present, following its changes through two stages which have marked the evolution of our country in the second half of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century: the stage of socialism, having a centralized economy, and the stage of transition to a market economy, which started right after the 1989 Revolution. Within post-revolutionary stage, under the Ministry of Finances, the institution of accounting normalization in Romania, a mixed organism was created, which sums up a large series of “actors” interested in the accounting information and has the role of allowing those actors to involve into the process of normalization, which would let the Romanian accounting normalization pass from an exclusively public approach to a mixed one.

  10. Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-24

    May 24, 2018 ... psychiatric disorders, including other anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders ... psychiatric comorbidities present among adults at a tertiary ..... clinical files as well as unclear handwriting and missing.

  11. A history of haemovigilance South Infirmary Victoria University Hospital 2000 - Present

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The Haemovigilance speciality defines itself as nursing and subscribes to the overall purpose, functions and ethical standards of nursing. The clinical practice role may be divided into direct and indirect care. Direct care comprises the assessment, planning, delivery and evaluation of care to patients. Indirect care relates to activities that influence others in their provision of direct care. The Haemovigilance Officer as a clinical professional in the Irish healthcare environment is required to maintain professional competency and this is achieved through continuous ongoing education and training, attending in-service study days, conferences locally and nationally. While attending various conferences numerous posters have been presented which have showcased the hospital’s work. Evidence of continuous professional development is contained in Appendix 1.\\r\

  12. ASSOCIATIONS OF MOTHERS IN PROTECTION AND SUPPORTING OF BREAST FEEDING: HISTORY AND PRESENT TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Abol’yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a data on creation of social associations of mothers — groups of maternal supporting of breast feeding in continuation with international initiative «Baby-Friendly Hospital» of WHO/UNICEF in Russia. As breast feeding is mostly a medical problem usual for medical personnel in obstetrical and children’s medical institution (obstetricians-gynecologists, neonatologists, pediatricians, there is a question on legality of such groups’ presence and its competence, relations to medical personnel, forms of work. The Soviet public health had wide experience of successful collaboration of public activists of Russian Red Cross Society and Health Care Administrations in performance of prophylactic and health-improving measures and hygienic education among population. Successful activity of voluntary associations supporting breast feeding depends on collaboration with medical personnel, development of scientifically-based programs of mothers-consultants education, and presence of informational, methodical and hygienical educational materials.Key words: breast feeding, groups of maternal support.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:15-18

  13. Development of a Virtual Museum Including a 4d Presentation of Building History in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Deggim, S.

    2017-02-01

    In the last two decades the definition of the term "virtual museum" changed due to rapid technological developments. Using today's available 3D technologies a virtual museum is no longer just a presentation of collections on the Internet or a virtual tour of an exhibition using panoramic photography. On one hand, a virtual museum should enhance a museum visitor's experience by providing access to additional materials for review and knowledge deepening either before or after the real visit. On the other hand, a virtual museum should also be used as teaching material in the context of museum education. The laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has developed a virtual museum (VM) of the museum "Alt-Segeberger Bürgerhaus", a historic town house. The VM offers two options for visitors wishing to explore the museum without travelling to the city of Bad Segeberg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Option a, an interactive computer-based, tour for visitors to explore the exhibition and to collect information of interest or option b, to immerse into virtual reality in 3D with the HTC Vive Virtual Reality System.

  14. White supremacism and Islamic astronomy in history of astronomy texts from the eighteenth century to the present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Joe

    2018-04-01

    This paper reviews manifestations of racism in European and American histories of Arab and Persian astronomy from the eighteenth century to the present day. Its first section discusses representation of Islamic astronomy from Adam Smith to late Victorian writers, particularly tracing ideas of Arab unoriginality and scientific incapacity. The second section first relates the appearance of scientific racism in the early twentieth-century historiography of astronomy, then how the rise of scientifically and linguistically competent scholarship in the latter twentieth century provided much-improved information on Islamic achievements in astronomy. The paper’s conclusion underlines the importance of avoiding ethnic supremacism and integrating research on Islamic astronomy into teaching and publishing on the history of astronomy.

  15. Encounters with History: Dealing with the ‘Present Past’ in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Oettler

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade the truth commission has  risen to prominence as a key instrument of transitional justice. In this article, the Guatemalan  ‘Commission for Historical Clarification’ (CEH  and the Catholic ‘Project for the Recovery of  Historical Memory’ (REMHI are taken as examples in demonstrating the limitations as well as the  benefits of this political instrument that customarily must serve a variety of aims. The importance  of the official CEH must be seen within the context of its support for the fragile peace and reform process. Moreover, the CEH presented a historical  narrative corresponding to the concomitant need  for a multicultural national project. Threatened by  still existing local structures of repression,  REMHI used methods aimed at facilitating a social process of memory work with a fairly longterm perspective. The influence that CEH and  REMHI had or could have had on communicative  and cultural memory is described, and the politics  of reparation and persistent structures of impunity  are dealt with as well.  Resumen: Encuentros con la historia: Tratando con el ‘pasado presente’ en GuatemalaEn la última década, la comisión de la verdad ha  alcanzado una posición de prominencia como  instrumento clave de una justicia transicional. En  la demostración, en este artículo, de las limitaciones y ventajas de este instrumento político,  que sirve habitualmente a una variedad de objetivos, utilizaremos como ejemplos a la ‘Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico’ (CEH  guatemalteca y el ‘Proyecto para la Recuperación  de la Memoria Histórica’ (REMHI católico. La importancia del CEH oficial debe ser vista en el  contexto de su apoyo a los frágiles procesos de  paz y reformas. Además, la CEH presentó una  narrativa histórica que corresponde con la concomitante necesidad de un proyecto multicultural nacional. Amenazado por estructuras locales de  represión todav

  16. A short history of Japanese historical seismology: past and the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsu'ura, Ritsuko S.

    2017-12-01

    Since seismicity in Japan is fairly high, Japanese interest in historical seismicity can be traced back to the nineth century, only a few centuries after the formation of the ancient ruling state. A 1000 years later, 2 years earlier than the modern seismological society was founded, the research on historical seismology started in Japan in 1878. By the accumulation for the recent 140 years, the present Japanese seismologists can read many historical materials without reading cursive scripts. We have a convenient access to the historical information related to earthquakes, in the modern characters of 27,759 pages. We now have 214 epicenters of historical earthquakes from 599 ad to 1872. Among them, 134 events in the early modern period were assigned hypocentral depths and proper magnitudes. The intensity data of 8700 places by those events were estimated. These precise intensity data enabled us to compare the detailed source areas of pairs of repeated historical earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake with the 1923 Kanto earthquake, and the 1707 Hoei earthquake with the summation of the 1854 Ansei Tokai and Ansei Nankai earthquakes. It is revealed that the focal area of the former larger event cannot completely include those of the latter smaller earthquakes, although those were believed to be typical sets of characteristic interplate earthquakes at the Sagami trough and at the Nankai trough. Research on historical earthquakes is very important to assess the seismic hazard in the future. We still have one-fifth events of the early modern period to be analyzed in detail. The compilation of places experienced high intensities in the modern events is also necessary. For the ancient and medieval periods, many equivocal events are still left. The further advance of the interdisciplinary research on historical seismology is necessary.

  17. Safety culture in the Finnish and Swedish nuclear industries - history and present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (RiskPilot AB (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The report presents results from an interview study that examined the characteristics of the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The study also tested the theoretical model of safety culture developed by the authors. The interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16). Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). The study gave insight into the nature of safety culture in the nuclear industry. It provided an overview on the variety of factors that people in the industry consider important for safety. The respondents rather coherently saw such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and safety and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Some of the respondents described a certain Nordic orientation towards safety. One characteristic was a sense of personal responsibility for safety. However, there was no clear agreement on the existence of a shared Nordic nuclear safety culture. Sweden and Finland were seen different for example in the way the co-operation between plants and nuclear safety authorities was arranged and re-search activities organized. There were also perceived differences in the way everyday activities like decision making were carried out in the organizations. There are multiple explanations for the differences. The industry in Sweden has been driven by the strong supplier. In Finland the regulator's role in shaping the culture has been more active. Other factors creating differences are e.g. national culture and company culture and the type of the power plant. Co-operation between Nordic nuclear power organizations was viewed valuable yet challenging from safety point of view. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide under-standing of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as

  18. Safety culture in the Finnish and Swedish nuclear industries - history and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E.; Kahlbom, U.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2010-03-01

    The report presents results from an interview study that examined the characteristics of the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The study also tested the theoretical model of safety culture developed by the authors. The interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16). Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). The study gave insight into the nature of safety culture in the nuclear industry. It provided an overview on the variety of factors that people in the industry consider important for safety. The respondents rather coherently saw such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and safety and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Some of the respondents described a certain Nordic orientation towards safety. One characteristic was a sense of personal responsibility for safety. However, there was no clear agreement on the existence of a shared Nordic nuclear safety culture. Sweden and Finland were seen different for example in the way the co-operation between plants and nuclear safety authorities was arranged and re-search activities organized. There were also perceived differences in the way everyday activities like decision making were carried out in the organizations. There are multiple explanations for the differences. The industry in Sweden has been driven by the strong supplier. In Finland the regulator's role in shaping the culture has been more active. Other factors creating differences are e.g. national culture and company culture and the type of the power plant. Co-operation between Nordic nuclear power organizations was viewed valuable yet challenging from safety point of view. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide under-standing of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a

  19. The natural history of autoimmune Addison's disease with a non-classical presentation: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Jacopo; Pezzani, Raffaele; Scarpa, Riccardo; Gallo, Nicoletta; Betterle, Corrado

    2018-05-24

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is the most frequent cause of adrenocortical insufficiency. The natural history of AAD usually comprises five consecutive stages with the first stage characterized by the increase of plasma renin consistent with the impairment of pars glomerulosa, which is usually the first affected layer of the adrenal cortex. We describe a 19-year-old female with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who underwent an autoantibody screening due to having the personal and family history of other autoimmune diseases in the absence of relevant clinical manifestations. She was positive for adrenal cortex autoantibodies (ACA) and steroid 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies (21-OH Ab) at high titers. She had increased basal levels of ACTH with normal basal cortisol not responding to ACTH stimulation, reduced levels of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but normal levels of orthostatic renin and aldosterone. This scenario was consistent with a subclinical AAD presenting with first impairments in pars fasciculata and reticularis and conserved pars glomerulosa function. Only subsequently, progressive deficiency in pars glomerulosa function has become evident. Review of the literature showed that there was only one case, reported to date, with a similar atypical natural history of AAD. The strategies for screening for ACA/21-OH Ab in patients with HT are discussed.

  20. Juror Decision-making in Death Penalty Sentencing when Presented with Defendant's History of Child Abuse or Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell Holleran, Lisa L; Vaughan, Tyler J; Vandiver, Donna M

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design. Using vignettes and two large samples (students and jurors), defendant histories were found to mitigate the probability that the hypothetical defendant received the death penalty, with sexual abuse having the most salient effect. Further, the effects were conditioned by preference for the death penalty - larger mitigating effects were observed among individuals who favor the death penalty. These findings suggest that initial judgments of abuse and neglect are related to juror leniency, and further research on the interaction of jury instructions and defendant histories is needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Psychiatric Boarding in the Pediatric Inpatient Medical Setting: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Katherine A S; Bujoreanu, I Simona; Cheung, Priscilla; Choi, Christine; Golden, Sara; Brodziak, Kerry; Andrade, Gabriela; Ibeziako, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Psychiatric concerns are a common presenting problem for pediatric providers across many settings, particularly on inpatient medical services. The volume of youth requiring intensive psychiatric treatment outnumbers the availability of psychiatric placements, and as a result many youth must board on pediatric medical units while awaiting placement. As the phenomenon of boarding in the inpatient pediatric setting increases, it is important to understand trends in boarding volume and characteristics of pediatric psychiatric boarders (PBs) and understand the supports they receive while boarding. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted as PBs to a medical inpatient unit at a large northeastern US pediatric hospital during 2013. Four hundred thirty-seven PBs were admitted to the medical service from January to December 2013, representing a more than 50% increase from PB admissions in 2011 and 2012. Most PBs were admitted for suicidal attempt and/or ideation. Average length of boarding was 3.11 ± 3.34 days. PBs received a wide range of mental health supports throughout their admissions. PBs demonstrated modest but statistically significant clinical improvements over the course of their stay, with only a small proportion demonstrating clinical deterioration. Psychiatric boarding presents many challenges for families, providers, and the health care system, and PBs have complex psychiatric histories and needs. However, boarding may offer a valuable opportunity for psychiatric intervention and stabilization among psychiatrically vulnerable youth. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 2: Papers and presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and panels. This volume contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.). Individual papers in this volume were abstracted and indexed for the database.

  3. Migraine and its psychiatric comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minen, Mia Tova; Begasse De Dhaem, Olivia; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley; Powers, Scott; Schwedt, Todd J; Lipton, Richard; Silbersweig, David

    2016-07-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling neurological disorder associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the link between migraine and several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We present data on psychiatric risk factors for migraine chronification. We discuss the evidence, theories and methods, such as brain functional imaging, to explain the pathophysiological links between migraine and psychiatric disorders. Finally, we provide an overview of the treatment considerations for treating migraine with psychiatric comorbidities. In conclusion, a review of the literature demonstrates the wide variety of psychiatric comorbidities with migraine. However, more research is needed to elucidate the neurocircuitry underlying the association between migraine and the comorbid psychiatric conditions and to determine the most effective treatment for migraine with psychiatric comorbidity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Psychiatric event in multiple sclerosis: could it be the tip of the iceberg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa A. Chalah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Psychiatric comorbidities are highly prevalent in patients with MS, and can have drastic impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Despite this high prevalence, whether psychiatric manifestations may represent the first signs of MS is still debatable. This constitutes an important issue, since early diagnosis of “psychiatric-onset MS” would result in prompt management, which usually ameliorates long-term prognosis. Here, we discuss clinical and radiological hints that suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric-onset MS. Briefly, this entity should be considered in healthy patients presenting with late-onset psychiatric symptoms, with or without cognitive decline, and with negative family history of psychiatric diseases. A thorough neurological exam is crucial to detect any subtle neurological signs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is recommended to rule out frontotemporal lesions that might explain the clinical picture. Poor response to standard psychiatric treatments provides additional evidence for the diagnosis of an organic disease (e.g., MS. Combining psychopharmaceuticals with intravenous corticosteroids would result in good outcomes, but patients should be monitored carefully for possible psychiatric exacerbation, a common side effect of steroids.

  5. Psychiatric features in perpetrators of homicide-unsuccessful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The high rate of psychiatric disorders diagnosed is in keeping with court referrals occurring ... was collected if available, and included gender, age, employment history, marital ... psychiatric symptoms and of psychiatric illness and treatment, as reported by the ... The identity of alleged perpetrators was kept ...

  6. Psychiatric Nursing Care for Adult Survivors of Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yvonne van der Zalm; Willem Nugteren; Thóra Hafsteinsdóttir; Cokky van der Venne; Nienke Kool; prof Berno van Meijel

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to

  7. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation ... with serious emotional and behavioral problems need a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Comprehensive psychiatric evaluations usually require a ...

  8. How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James H; Hilton, Denis J

    2005-12-01

    Socially shared representations of history have been important in creating, maintaining and changing a people's identity. Their management and negotiation are central to interethnic and international relations. We present a narrative framework to represent how collectively significant events become (selectively) incorporated in social representations that enable positioning of ethnic, national and supranational identities. This perspective creates diachronic (temporal) links between the functional (e.g. realistic conflict theory), social identity, and cognitive perspectives on intergroup relations. The charters embedded in these representations condition nations with similar interests to adopt different political stances in dealing with current events, and can influence the perceived stability and legitimacy of social orders. They are also instrumental in determining social identity strategies for reacting to negative social comparisons, and can influence the relationships between national and ethnic identities.

  9. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  10. Predictors of violent behavior among acute psychiatric patients: clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Mario; Menchetti, Marco; Tonti, Cristina; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Lundgren, Eva; Esposito, William; Berardi, Domenico

    2008-06-01

    Violence risk prediction is a priority issue for clinicians working with mentally disordered offenders. The aim of the present study was to determine violence risk factors in acute psychiatric inpatients. The study was conducted in a locked, short-term psychiatric inpatient unit and involved 374 patients consecutively admitted in a 1-year period. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained through a review of the medical records and patient interviews. Psychiatric symptoms at admission were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Psychiatric diagnosis was formulated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Past aggressive behavior was evaluated by interviewing patients, caregivers or other collateral informants. Aggressive behaviors in the ward were assessed using the Overt Aggression Scale. Patients who perpetrated verbal and against-object aggression or physical aggression in the month before admission were compared to non-aggressive patients, moreover, aggressive behavior during hospitalization and persistence of physical violence after admission were evaluated. Violent behavior in the month before admission was associated with male sex, substance abuse and positive symptoms. The most significant risk factor for physical violence was a past history of physically aggressive behavior. The persistent physical assaultiveness before and during hospitalization was related to higher BPRS total scores and to more severe thought disturbances. Higher levels of hostility-suspiciousness BPRS scores predicted a change for the worse in violent behavior, from verbal to physical. A comprehensive evaluation of the history of past aggressive behavior and psychopathological variables has important implications for the prediction of violence in psychiatric settings.

  11. Urban Aboriginal Creation Stories and History: contesting the past and the present. The Eleventh Doireann MacDermott Lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Everett

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the 11th annual Doireann MacDermott public lecture presented at the Universitat de Barcelona in November, 2010. It is a critique of discourses and representations in Australian society, and indeed, embedded in all western societies (and many non-western societies I suspect which support and reinforce artificial binary oppositions which make up social structures and institutions. Binary oppositions reinforce oppositional power dynamics, making one term positive and the other negative, not recognizing categories in-between. Linguistically, for example, the terms ‘Indigenous’ and ‘non-Indigenous’ articulate a false dichotomy between people who, empirically, are not two discrete groups, but rather, multiple groups within each category which interact within and between groups in complex and fluid engagements. The discourses and representations I discuss in this paper articulate imaginary binary oppositions out of social processes and identities which are, in fact, very similar. However, because these discourses and representations are constructed by different social groups with unequal power relationships they are treated as opposites, one with a higher value than the other. In this paper I am primarily concerned with history and myth, and in two related ‘stories’, the Lachlan Macquarie story, classified as history because it is primarily written and ‘belongs’ to the dominant Australian society, and the Maria Locke story, classified as myth because it is primarily oral, and explains the emergence and characteristics of a group of Aboriginal people who claim traditional Aboriginal ownership of a large part of what is today called Sydney.

  12. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  13. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with initial supradiaphragmatic presentation: natural history and patterns of disease progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Zhongxing; Ha, Chul S.; McLaughlin, Peter; Manning, John T.; Hess, Mark; Cabanillas, Fernando; Cox, James D.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma commonly presents in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Supradiaphragmatic MALT lymphoma is less common and its natural history is not well defined. This study was conducted to understand the natural history, to determine the frequency of synchronous disease in the GI tract, and to understand the patterns of disease progression after treatment for supradiaphragmatic MALT lymphoma. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 39 patients who presented with supradiaphragmatic MALT lymphoma between 1991 and 1997. Results: The median age of patients was 58 years (range, 25-90 years) with 16 male and 23 female patients. The most common primary site was salivary gland followed by ocular adnexa, lung, oral cavity, and others. Sixteen patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy (EGD + Bx) and 4 were found to have gastric involvement. Ann Arbor stages were the following: IEA, 17; IIEA, 5, IIEB, 1; and IVA, 16. The initial treatments were: involved field radiation therapy (n = 10), chemotherapy (n = 14), combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy (n = 9), observation after biopsy (n = 4), antibiotics only (n = 1), and patient refusal of further intervention (n = 1). Seven patients received antibiotics as a part of the initial treatment. Every patient except for 1 was alive at a median follow-up of 39.5 months (range, 3-83 months). Thirty-six patients achieved complete response (CR) to the initial treatment. The actuarial 5-year progression-free survival rate was 83%. Progression of the disease occurred in 4 patients, with 2 in the stomach. Salvage attempts were made to 4 and were successful in 3. Of the 2 patients who relapsed in the stomach, 1 had negative EGD + Bx at the time of initial diagnosis. An EGD + Bx was not done in the second patient. Conclusion: Supradiaphragmatic MALT lymphoma appears to have a favorable prognosis. However, routine evaluation of the stomach

  14. Children with a history of prematurity presenting with snoring and sleep-disordered breathing: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Anura; Witmans, Manisha; El-Hakim, Hamdy

    2013-08-01

    To report on the prevalence of premature (PM) birth in a consecutive series of children treated for snoring and sleep-disordered breathing (S/SDB), the parameters specific to their management and variables predictive of disease severity. A retrospective study was undertaken at a tertiary pediatric hospital. Children with history of PM and presenting with S/SDB were identified from a prospectively kept surgical database. We set out to determine the prevalence of PM among the patients presenting with S/SDB who required airway evaluations and surgery. Pulse oximetry is overnight recordable oxygen saturation and heart rate tracing that provides information about hypoxemia during sleep. This was performed on all children preoperatively. The pulse oximetry findings were used to plan for perioperative monitoring and care. A multivariable analysis was used to identify factors predictive of abnormal pulse oximetry studies. We evaluated the associated diagnoses, surgical procedures required, and response to treatment in these selected children. Fifty-seven out of 1,038 patients were PM (33 males; mean age, 62.09 ± 34.91 months; range, 4-190 months). The mean gestational age was 30.3 ± 4.0 weeks. The prevalence rate of PM among patients treated surgically for SDB is 5.5% (95% CI 5.2-5.8) at our center. Comorbid pulmonary and gastrointestinal disorders were encountered on 23 (40%) and 17 (29.8%) occasions, respectively, and were the most commonly encountered comorbid diagnostic categories. Large airway abnormalities were encountered in 11 (19.3%) children, and the most common were subglottic stenosis (four) and laryngeal paralysis (four). Comorbid respiratory disease was negatively predictive of abnormal pulse oximetry (coefficient -0.35, P<.05). Postoperative respiratory outcomes correlated with abnormal pulse oximetry (coefficient 0.3; P<.05). Our findings suggest children with PM presenting to pediatric otolaryngology require a comprehensive evaluation for S/SDB. A

  15. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  16. Pedagogy, Politics and the Profession: A Practical Perusal of Past, Present and Future Developments in Teaching History in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    History curriculum reform proposals and debates are a persistent feature of the contemporary educational landscape in England and, very probably, a "sign of the times" that can reveal a great deal about contemporary predicaments and concerns. History curriculum controversy is also a global phenomenon and one that can fruitfully--and,…

  17. Psychiatric adult-onset of urea cycle disorders: A case-series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Bigot

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult onset urea cycle disorders (UCD may present with psychiatric symptoms, occasionally as the initial presentation. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients presenting with a psychiatric adult-onset of UCDs, to discuss which signs could suggest this diagnosis in such a situation, and to determine which tests should be conducted. A survey of psychiatric symptoms occurring in teenagers or adults with UCD was conducted in 2010 among clinicians involved in the French society for the study of inborn errors of metabolism (SFEIM. Fourteen patients from 14 to 57 years old were reported. Agitation was reported in 10 cases, perseveration in 5, delirium in 4, and disinhibition in 3 cases. Three patients had pre-existing psychiatric symptoms. All patients had neurological symptoms associated with psychiatric symptoms, such as ataxia or dysmetria, psychomotor slowing, seizures, or hallucinations. Fluctuations of consciousness and coma were reported in 9 cases. Digestive symptoms were reported in 7 cases. 9 patients had a personal history suggestive of UCD. The differential diagnoses most frequently considered were exogenous intoxication, non-convulsive status epilepticus, and meningoencephalitis. Hyperammonemia (180–600 μmol/L was found in all patients. The outcome was severe: mechanical ventilation was required in 10 patients, 5 patients died, and only 4 patients survived without sequelae. Adult onset UCDs can present with predominant psychiatric symptoms, associated with neurological involvement. These patients, as well as patients presenting with a suspicion of intoxication, must have UCD considered and ammonia measured without delay.

  18. Aminoglucósidos: mirada actual desde su historia Aminoglycosides: a present look based on their history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Aliño Santiago

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere la historia, mecanismos de acción y eficacia de los aminoglucósidos en los pacientes pediátricos, así como las limitaciones de su utilidad por el surgimiento de resistencias bacterianas originadas por empleo abusivo. Se presenta la estrategia de administración de monodosis, como alternativa frente al método tradicional de dosis fraccionadas, y también las complicaciones más frecuentes y graves de los aminoglucósidos y su sinergismo con otras familias de antimicrobianos. Y se citan investigaciones realizadas en el país en materia de terapia antibiótica.We referred to history, mechanisms of action and efficacy of aminoglycosides in pediatric patients as well as limitations in their use because of the emergence of bacterial resistance caused by overuse. The one-dose administration strategy as an alternative to the traditional methods of fractioned doses, the most frequent and serious complictions of aminoglycosides and their sinergism with other antimicrobial families were presented. We quoted research studies on antibiotic therapy made in the country.

  19. Gun Violence Following Inpatient Psychiatric Treatment: Offense Characteristics, Sources of Guns, and Number of Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J

    2017-10-01

    This study presents data on the relative contribution to gun violence by people with a history of inpatient psychiatric treatment and on federal efforts to deter presumptively dangerous persons from obtaining firearms, information useful for analyzing the potential public health benefits of gun policies targeting people with serious mental illness. The study also estimates the reduction in gun violence victims that would be expected if individuals with a previous psychiatric hospitalization were prohibited from purchasing firearms. Data from 838 violent gun offenders from a nationally representative sample of state prison inmates were analyzed. Those with and without a history of psychiatric hospitalization were compared on a range of offense characteristics, including relationship to the victim, number of victims, location of the offense, and source of firearms. Inmates with a history of hospitalization constituted 12% of all violent gun offenders and accounted for 13% of the sample's victims. They were less likely than those without a previous hospitalization to victimize strangers (odds ratio=.52) and were no more likely to commit gun violence in public or to have multiple victims. Among those with previous hospitalizations, 78% obtained guns from sources not subject to federal background checks. Of the total 1,041 victims of gun violence, only 3% were victimized by participants with a history of hospitalization who obtained guns from currently regulated sources. Prohibiting all individuals with a history of psychiatric hospitalization from purchasing firearms, absent expanded background checks, was estimated to reduce the number of gun violence victims by only 3%.

  20. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  1. The association of cannabis use on inpatient psychiatric hospital outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Melanie; Winston, Helena R; Medlin, Haley; Hull, Madelyne; Nussbaum, Abraham

    2018-01-01

    The associations between cannabis use and psychosis are well documented in numerous studies. There is a need to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on inpatient psychiatric utilization and outcomes. To evaluate the impact of cannabis use on psychiatric hospital outcomes. This study was conducted between April 20, 2015 and October 20, 2015. All patients (n = 120) admitted to Denver Health with psychotic symptoms were administered a urine toxicology screening testing for the presence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH, the active metabolite of cannabis). Patients with positive tests were compared to those with negative tests on several measures, including length of stay, presence or lack of 30-day readmission, Brief Psychotic Rating Scale (BPRS) score, and use of antipsychotics and/or sedatives/anxiolytics. There were 120 patients. Twenty nine were women and 91 were men. Patients testing positive for THC-COOH had a shorter length of stay compared to patients testing negative for THC-COOH, after adjusting for age, prior psychiatric admissions, history of a psychotic-spectrum disorder, and comorbid additional substance use (p = 0.02). There were no differences in 30-day readmissions, 30-day post-discharge presentation to the Denver Health psychiatric emergency department, BPRS scores, and medication administration. Patients presenting with psychotic symptoms and cannabis use require shorter inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations. This study is the first to quantify this observation and highlights the need for future clinical decision-making tools that would ideally correlate cannabis use with the degree of potential need for expensive and scarce mental health resources, such as psychiatric hospitalization.

  2. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  3. Two Cases Of Multiple Sclerosis Accompanying Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Şengel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific bacground: It has been reported that; Multiple Sclerosis (MS may be presented with many psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, depression, mania and psychosis. MS cases, presented with psychiatric symptoms were also reported. Cases: Two MS cases, diagnosed as psychotic and bipolar disorder respectively, were reported in this paper. Both of the cases were responded to the steroid treatment, and neurological and psychiatric examinations were found to be normal after one month. CONCLUSION: MS cases might be presented with psychiatric complaints and symptoms except neurological ones. We conclude that; psychiatric evaluation as well as the neurological evaluation is important in the MS cases presented with psychiatric symptoms

  4. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  5. Sleep problems and daily functioning in children with ADHD: An investigation of the role of impairment, ADHD presentations, and psychiatric comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    , the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, and the ADHD Rating Scale. RESULTS: We found a moderate, positive correlation between sleep problems and impaired functioning in both children with ADHD and in typically developed children. ADHD presentations did not differ significantly with respect to sleep......OBJECTIVE: Little systematic information is available regarding how sleep problems influence daytime functioning in children with ADHD, as the role of ADHD presentations and comorbidity is unclear. METHOD: In total, 397 children were assessed with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire...... problem profile, but having a comorbid internalizing or autistic disorder lead to higher sleep problem score. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems and impaired daily functioning were more common in children with ADHD, but the overall association between sleep problems and impaired daily functioning was similar...

  6. An historical framework for psychiatric nosology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S

    2009-12-01

    This essay, which seeks to provide an historical framework for our efforts to develop a scientific psychiatric nosology, begins by reviewing the classificatory approaches that arose in the early history of biological taxonomy. Initial attempts at species definition used top-down approaches advocated by experts and based on a few essential features of the organism chosen a priori. This approach was subsequently rejected on both conceptual and practical grounds and replaced by bottom-up approaches making use of a much wider array of features. Multiple parallels exist between the beginnings of biological taxonomy and psychiatric nosology. Like biological taxonomy, psychiatric nosology largely began with 'expert' classifications, typically influenced by a few essential features, articulated by one or more great 19th-century diagnosticians. Like biology, psychiatry is struggling toward more soundly based bottom-up approaches using diverse illness characteristics. The underemphasized historically contingent nature of our current psychiatric classification is illustrated by recounting the history of how 'Schneiderian' symptoms of schizophrenia entered into DSM-III. Given these historical contingencies, it is vital that our psychiatric nosologic enterprise be cumulative. This can be best achieved through a process of epistemic iteration. If we can develop a stable consensus in our theoretical orientation toward psychiatric illness, we can apply this approach, which has one crucial virtue. Regardless of the starting point, if each iteration (or revision) improves the performance of the nosology, the eventual success of the nosologic process, to optimally reflect the complex reality of psychiatric illness, is assured.

  7. [The suspicion of simulation. A psychiatric case history between appropriation and disciplinary action at the end of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretthauer, Annett; Hess, Volker

    2009-01-01

    This case history explores how the question of agency was dealt with historically in two developing, normative orders of deviant behaviour. Examining the institutional career of the supposed adulterer, marriage swindler, and craft baker, we can trace the different observation regimes and systems of knowledge acquisition in the prison and in psychiatry, in both institutions there was talk of simulated madness; the explanations, however, were different. For the prison doctors and civil servants, the baker was a criminal; his deviant behaviour was a matter of consciously planned-out deception. For the examining psychiatrist, on the other hand, he was mentally ill and could not be held responsible for his own behaviour. The case also shows how the suspicion of simulated madness stabilized an intermediate space between the two regimes that can be seen in the incoherence of the historical sources. This conflict was never resolved; the very indecisiveness marked the defiance and agency of the historical actor that could not be clearly decided within the institutional observation regimes and their methods of recording.

  8. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. Animal cruelty and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, Roman; Felthous, Alan R; Holzer, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Animal cruelty in childhood, although generally viewed as abnormal or deviant, for years was not considered symptomatic of any particular psychiatric disorder. Although animal cruelty is currently used as a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorder, research establishing the diagnostic significance of this behavior is essentially nonexistent. In the current study, investigators tested the hypothesis that a history of substantial animal cruelty is associated with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and looked for associations with other disorders commonly diagnosed in a population of criminal defendants. Forty-eight subjects, criminal defendants who had histories of substantial animal cruelty, were matched with defendants without this history. Data were systematically obtained from the files by using four specifically designed data retrieval outlines. A history of animal cruelty during childhood was significantly associated with APD, antisocial personality traits, and polysubstance abuse. Mental retardation, psychotic disorders, and alcohol abuse showed no such association.

  10. The history, present status and prospects of the availability of Artemia cysts for aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the history of Artemia cyst provision worldwide since the 1950s. It allows a better assessment of the current situation, characterized by poor yields from the main harvest site, the Great Salt Lake in Utah, USA, and to make prognoses about future supplies and demands.

  11. Accountability Practices in the History of Danish Primary Public Education from the 1660s to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydesen, Christian; Andreasen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on primary education accountability as a concept and as an organizational practice in the history of Danish public education. Contemporary studies of education policy often address questions of accountability, but the manifestations of school accountability differ significantly between different national settings. Furthermore,…

  12. Information Services; A Survey of the History and Present Status of the Field. MOREL Regional Information System for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, George

    This document is one of a series describing the background, functions, and utilization of the Regional Information System (RIS) developed by the Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Laboratory (MOREL). The continuing history of the field of librarianship and information services is reviewed in this report. The first part covers ancient times to the…

  13. HISTORY OF AMPHIBIAN DECLINE AND THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH WITH UV LIGHT AND OTHER STRESSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk is an overview of the history of amphibian decline and the lab research and field monitoring results generated by MED and other agencies. Included are the general field observations leading up to our research initiation, UV-light exposures to the Northern Leopard Frog...

  14. Clinical Overlap and Psychiatric Comorbidity in Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adulthood: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Picoito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is an early neurodevelopmental disorder that accompanies the individual throughout life. There is a significant clinical overlap of ASD with other psychiatric disorders including personality disorders, psychotic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression. Additionally, the presence of high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, often with atypical presentations, delays the ASD diagnosis and makes it more difficult to manage. Aims: To illustrate the complexity of ASD diagnosis and approach in adults. Methods: Report of a clinical case and review of the literature. Results and Conclusion: This paper presents the case of a 46-year-old patient, with ASD, with a long history of interpersonal difficulties and psychiatric symptomatology. Over the years, different diagnoses have been made, particularly schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders, psychosis not otherwise specified and paranoid schizophrenia, which led to poor adherence to treatment, and prevented a full understanding of the patient’s clinical presentation and lifelong struggles.

  15. Review of two years of experiences with SPECT among psychiatric patients in a rural hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William; Thurber, Steven

    2008-09-01

    We summarize single proton emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings from 63 psychiatric patients in a small rural hospital in western Minnesota. SPECT scans were ordered only for patients in whom documentation of hypoperfusion and functional deficits might be helpful in clarifying diagnoses and treatment planning. The patients referred for SPECT scans had histories of traumatic brain injuries, atypical psychiatric symptom presentations, or conditions that were refractory to standard treatments. In the context of strict referral guidelines and close psychiatrist-radiologist collaboration, a much higher yield of significant findings was obtained compared with those noted in other reports in the literature.

  16. Importance of Video-EEG Monitoring in the Diagnosis of Epilepsy in a Psychiatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool F. Kirmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic medical condition which is disabling to both patients and caregivers. The differential diagnosis of epilepsy includes psychogenic nonepileptic spells or “pseudoseizures.” Epilepsy is due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain, and pseudoseizure is a form of conversion disorder. The brain waves remain normal in pseudoseizures. The problem arises when a patient with significant psychiatric history presents with seizures. Pseudoseizures become high on the differential diagnosis without extensive work up. This is a case of woman with significant psychiatric issues which resulted in a delay in the diagnosis of epilepsy.

  17. Psychiatry and the Necker Cube. Neurological and Psychological Conceptions of Psychiatric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rogers

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychological conceptions of psychiatric disorder are in conflict at the present time. This conflict is considered in the context of the history of psychiatry and the philosophy of science. Its practical consequences are considered for the motor disorder of schizophrenia, the cognitive impairment in psychiatric illnesses, the use of the terms organic and functional and the association of neurological disorder with psychotic and neurotic disorders. The conflict is also examined in individual cases and the implications for treatment assessed.

  18. Dissociative disorders in acute psychiatric inpatients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chui-De; Meg Tseng, Mei-Chih; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Ross, Colin A

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative disorders have been documented to be common psychiatric disorders which can be detected reliably with standardized diagnostic instruments in North American and European psychiatric inpatients and outpatients (20.6% and 18.4%, respectively). However, there are concerns about their cross-cultural manifestations as an apparently low prevalence rate has been reported in East Asian inpatients and outpatients (1.7% and 4.9%, respectively). It is unknown whether the clinical profile of dissociative disorders in terms of their core symptomatic clusters, associated comorbid disorders, and environmental risk factors that has emerged in western clinical populations can also be found in non-western clinical populations. A standardized structured interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and a history of interpersonal victimization was administered in a sample of Taiwanese acute psychiatric inpatients. Our results showed that 19.5% of our participants met criteria for a DSM-IV dissociative disorder, mostly dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. More importantly, the western clinical profile of dissociative disorders also characterized our patients, including a poly-symptomatic presentation and a history of interpersonal trauma in both childhood and adulthood. Our results lend support to the conclusion that cross-cultural manifestations of dissociative pathology in East Asia are similar to those in North America and Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. OCCUPATIONAL ROLE AFTER PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH.R GHASSEMI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.

  20. The Use of Virtual Reality Technology in the Treatment of Anxiety and Other Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Bunnell, Brian E; Kim, Sae-Jin; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate the literature regarding the effectiveness of incorporating virtual reality (VR) in the treatment of psychiatric disorders• Assess the use of exposure-based intervention for anxiety disorders ABSTRACT: Virtual reality (VR) allows users to experience a sense of presence in a computer-generated, three-dimensional environment. Sensory information is delivered through a head-mounted display and specialized interface devices. These devices track head movements so that the movements and images change in a natural way with head motion, allowing for a sense of immersion. VR, which allows for controlled delivery of sensory stimulation via the therapist, is a convenient and cost-effective treatment. This review focuses on the available literature regarding the effectiveness of incorporating VR within the treatment of various psychiatric disorders, with particular attention to exposure-based intervention for anxiety disorders. A systematic literature search was conducted in order to identify studies implementing VR-based treatment for anxiety or other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the history of the development of VR-based technology and its use within psychiatric treatment, the empirical evidence for VR-based treatment, and the benefits for using VR for psychiatric research and treatment. It also presents recommendations for how to incorporate VR into psychiatric care and discusses future directions for VR-based treatment and clinical research.

  1. História da enfermagem psiquiátrica e a dependência química no Brasil: atravessando a história para reflexão Historia de la enfermería psiquiátrica y la dependencia química en el Brasil: atravesando la historia para la reflexión History of the psychiatric nursing and chemical dependency in Brazil: crossing the history for reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Márcia dos Santos Reinaldo

    2007-12-01

    ón del enfermero profesional. Ambas temáticas encuentran puntos de aproximación y alejamiento conforme el contexto en que son analizadas.The nursing education in psychiatric nursing and in the area of chemical dependency guides the discussion of this article towards the complexity of problems related to the nursing, mental health, psychiatric and alcohol and drugs teaching. It is a literature review where the authors compiled primary and secondary sources on the theme. Analyses and reflections on historical crossings that permeate the history of the psychiatric nursing and chemical dependency in Brazil were performed on the bibliographic material. The results point to an evolution of the theme alcohol and drugs given the magnitude of the problem in the contemporaneous society. Regarding the psychiatric nursing, the teaching presents changes due to the historical evolution of the psychiatry that must be considered during the education of the nursing professional. Both themes had common and distinctive points according to the context in which they were analyzed.

  2. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  3. Tunnel Vision and Blind Spots: What the Past Tells Us about the Present; Reflections on the Twentieth-Century History of American Librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history of United States librarianship. Suggests that the profession has failed to analyze the meaning of library service and its significance to users. Argues that this has limited the ability to understand the present role of the U.S. library and thus affects efforts to plan for the future. Contains 131 references. (Author/LRW)

  4. Psychiatric Patient History Taking and Nomenclature,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    these can prove most important in diagnosing developmental disorders such as mental retardation and infantile autism. Age at turning over, crawling...psychological stress factors have been identified in asthma, doudenal ulcer, and other so-called "psychosomatic" illnesses. Even diabetes can be greatly

  5. Recent Demographic History and Present Fine-Scale Structure in the Northwest Atlantic Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) Turtle Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfetti, Érica; Torres Vilaça, Sibelle; Georges, Jean-Yves; Plot, Virginie; Delcroix, Eric; Le Scao, Rozen; Lavergne, Anne; Barrioz, Sébastien; dos Santos, Fabrício Rodrigues; de Thoisy, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    The leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea is the most widely distributed sea turtle species in the world. It exhibits complex life traits: female homing and migration, migrations of juveniles and males that remain poorly known, and a strong climatic influence on resources, breeding success and sex-ratio. It is consequently challenging to understand population dynamics. Leatherbacks are critically endangered, yet the group from the Northwest Atlantic is currently considered to be under lower risk than other populations while hosting some of the largest rookeries. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity and the demographic history of contrasted rookeries from this group, namely two large nesting populations in French Guiana, and a smaller one in the French West Indies. We used 10 microsatellite loci, of which four are newly isolated, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of the control region and cytochrome b. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed that the Northwest Atlantic stock of leatherbacks derives from a single ancestral origin, but show current genetic structuration at the scale of nesting sites, with the maintenance of migrants amongst rookeries. Low nuclear genetic diversities are related to founder effects that followed consequent bottlenecks during the late Pleistocene/Holocene. Most probably in response to climatic oscillations, with a possible influence of early human hunting, female effective population sizes collapsed from 2 million to 200. Evidence of founder effects and high numbers of migrants make it possible to reconsider the population dynamics of the species, formerly considered as a metapopulation model: we propose a more relaxed island model, which we expect to be a key element in the currently observed recovering of populations. Although these Northwest Atlantic rookeries should be considered as a single evolutionary unit, we stress that local conservation efforts remain necessary since each nesting site hosts part of the genetic

  6. Psychiatric Services • In Matabeleland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-05-04

    May 4, 1974 ... To provide some basis for planning psychiatric services in Matabeleland, a ... medicine. and at the same time up-grade mental health services.' Tn the .... We present a survey of some of the changes in a population of African ...

  7. Seasonality of suicides with and without psychiatric illness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yip, P.S.; Yang, K.C.; Qin, Ping

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the seasonality of suicides among persons with and without psychiatric illness in Denmark from 1970 to 1999. A non-homogenous Poisson process was used to examine the data. The seasonality of suicides was shown to be associated with gender and their psychiatric histories...

  8. Writing women into medical history in the 1930s: Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead and "medical women" of the past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Toby A

    2014-01-01

    Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead (1867–1941), a leader among second-generation women physicians in America, became a pioneer historian of women in medicine in the 1930s. The coalescence of events in her personal life, the declining status of women in medicine, and the growing significance of the new and relatively open field of history of medicine all contributed to this transformation in her career. While she endeavored to become part of the community of male physicians who wrote medical history, her primary identity remained that of a “medical woman.” For Hurd-Mead, the history of women in the past not only filled a vital gap in scholarship but served practical ends that she had earlier pursued by other means—those of inspiring and advancing the careers of women physicians of the present day, promoting organizations of women physicians, and advocating for equality of opportunity in the medical profession.

  9. A Cross-sectional study of common psychiatric morbidity in children aged 5 to 14 years in an Urban Slum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh N Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Study of the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in children aged 5 to 14 years in a health post area of an urban slum. Objectives: (1 To study frequency of specific psychiatric disorders in the study population, (2 To study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and psychiatric morbidity. Settings and Design: The present study was conducted in one of the five health posts of an urban slum, which is a field practice area of the teaching medical institute. It was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Sample size was estimated by using 20% as a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity which was obtained from previous studies done in developing countries. Household was used as a sampling unit and systematic random sampling method was used for selecting household. Total 257 children aged 5 to 14 years were included in the study. A pre-designed, semi-structured diagnostic interview schedule based on DSM-IV criteria was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests of significance used were Chi-square and Logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in this study was 14.8%. Non-organic enuresis, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Conduct disorder, and Mental retardation were identified as the common mental health problems. Conclusions: Factors like nuclear family, parents not living together, large family size, and positive family history of psychiatric disorder were associated with psychiatric morbidity in children.

  10. Understanding psychiatric nursing care with nonsuicidal self-harming patients in acute psychiatric admission units: the views of psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Aine; Gijbels, Harry

    2006-08-01

    Self-harm in the absence of suicidal intent is an underexplored area in psychiatric nursing research. This article reports on findings of a study undertaken in two acute psychiatric admission units in Ireland. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the practices of psychiatric nurses in relation to people who self-harm but who are not considered suicidal. Semistructured interviews were held with eight psychiatric nurses. Content analysis revealed several themes, some of which will be presented and discussed in this article, namely, the participants' understanding of self-harm, their approach to care, and factors in the acute psychiatric admission setting, which impacted on their care. Recommendations for further research are offered.

  11. Maternal history of autoimmune disease in children presenting with tics and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T K; Storch, E A; Turner, A; Reid, J M; Tan, J; Lewin, A B

    2010-12-15

    A commonality across a number of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders is a higher than typical rate of familial - and especially maternal - autoimmune disease. Of recent interest, a subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders known collectively as Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS) is believed to be secondary to central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity that occurs in relation to group A streptococcal infection. Thus, we hypothesized that a sample of children with OCD and/or tics would have an increased maternal risk for an autoimmune response relative to population norms. We also expected maternal prevalence of various autoimmune diseases to be higher among those participants that met the putative criteria for PANDAS. We examined, via structured interview, the medical history of the biological mothers of 107 children with OCD and/or tics. Autoimmune disorders were reported in 17.8% of study mothers, which is significantly greater than the general prevalence among women in the United States (approximately 5%). Further, study mothers were more likely to report having an autoimmune disease if their children were considered "likely PANDAS" cases versus "unlikely PANDAS" cases. The results offer preliminary support for hypothesized links between maternal autoimmune disease and both OCD/tics and PANDAS in youth. Further research is necessary to clarify these general associations; links to specific autoimmune disease; and relevance of autoimmune disease in other family members (e.g., fathers). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Utility of CSF biomarkers in psychiatric disorders: a national multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Claire; Magnin, Eloi; Wallon, David; Troussière, Anne-Cécile; Dumurgier, Julien; Jager, Alain; Bellivier, Frank; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Blanc, Frédéric; Beaufils, Emilie; Miguet-Alfonsi, Carole; Quillard, Muriel; Schraen, Susanna; Pasquier, Florence; Hannequin, Didier; Robert, Philippe; Hugon, Jacques; Mouton-Liger, François

    2016-06-13

    Affective and psychotic disorders are mental or behavioural patterns resulting in an inability to cope with life's ordinary demands and routines. These conditions can be a prodromal event of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prevalence of underlying AD lesions in psychiatric diseases is unknown, and it would be helpful to determine them in patients. AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (amyloid β, tau and phosphorylated tau) have high diagnostic accuracy, both for AD with dementia and to predict incipient AD (mild cognitive impairment due to AD), and they are sometimes used to discriminate psychiatric diseases from AD. Our objective in the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of CSF biomarkers in a group of patients with psychiatric disease as the main diagnosis. In a multicentre prospective study, clinicians filled out an anonymous questionnaire about all of their patients who had undergone CSF biomarker evaluation. Before and after CSF biomarker results were obtained, clinicians provided a diagnosis with their level of confidence and information about the treatment. We included patients with a psychiatric disorder as the initial diagnosis. In a second part of the study conducted retrospectively in a followed subgroup, clinicians detailed the psychiatric history and we classified patients into three categories: (1) psychiatric symptoms associated with AD, (2) dual diagnosis and (3) cognitive decline not linked to a neurodegenerative disorder. Of 957 patients, 69 had an initial diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Among these 69 patients, 14 (20.2 %) had a CSF AD profile, 5 (7.2 %) presented with an intermediate CSF profile and 50 (72.4 %) had a non-AD CSF profile. Ultimately, 13 (18.8 %) patients were diagnosed with AD. We show that in the AD group psychiatric symptoms occurred later and the delay between the first psychiatric symptoms and the cognitive decline was shorter. This study revealed that about 20 % of patients with a primary

  13. The use of restraints in psychiatric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-17

    Sep 17, 2009 ... In South Africa, according to the Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002 .... and staff composition, type of ward and ward atmosphere. The type of ... (e.g. psychiatric diagnosis, strengths, family history), and restraint should be ...

  14. Psychiatric trainees in Finland 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, Hanna; Holi, Matti; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Korkeila, Jyrki; Eronen, Markku

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Finnish psychiatric trainees' views on their education. This was a survey study of nationwide data on Finnish psychiatric trainees in 2001. The quality of training was considered at least moderate by 84% of the respondents. Training on epidemiology, on taking history and status, and on psychopharmacology was considered the best. Quality was rated bad for training in leadership and administration, and educating the community. Research was done by 20%, and a personal clinical supervisor was appointed to 52% of the respondents. Offensive treatment had been experienced by 49% of the trainees in this study. Generally, studies of training also reflect strengths and weaknesses of the profession. Based on our results, it seems especially that training in leadership and in educating the community need to be improved; both of these are quintessential skills to survive in the struggle for economic and human resources. Furthermore, treatment of the trainees could still be better; attention should be paid to supervision of all trainees. Moreover, research must become more attractive. Psychiatry can be developed by the development of psychiatric training.

  15. From the past to the present: Wolf phylogeography and demographic history based on the mitochondrial control region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ersmark

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The global distribution of the grey wolf (Canis lupus is a complex assembly consisting of a large number of populations and described subspecies. How these lineages are related to one another is still not fully resolved, largely due to the fact that large geographical regions remain poorly sampled both at the core and periphery of the species’ range. Analyses of ancient wolves have also suffered from uneven sampling, but have shown indications of a major turnover at some point during the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary in northern North America. Here we analyze variation in the mitochondrial control region in 122 contemporary wolves from some of the less studied populations, as well as six samples from the previously unstudied Greenland subspecies (Canis l. orion and two Late Pleistocene samples from Siberia. Together with the publicly available control region sequences of both modern and ancient wolves, this study examines genetic diversity on a wide geographical and temporal scale that includes both Eurasia and North America. We identify 13 new haplotypes, of which the majority is found in northern and eastern Asia. The results show that the Greenland samples are all represented by one haplotype, previously identified in North American wolves, among which this population seems to trace its maternal lineage. The phylogeny and network analyses show a wide spatial distribution of several lineages, but also some clusters with more distinct geographical affiliation. In North America, we find support for an end-Pleistocene population bottleneck through coalescent simulations under an approximate Bayesian framework in contrast to previous studies that suggested an extinction-replacement event. However, we find no support for a similar bottleneck in Eurasia. Overall, this global analysis helps to clarify our understanding of the complex history for wolves in Eurasia and North America.

  16. [Psychiatric Hospital San Juan de Dios. One hundred years later].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocula-León, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and psychiatric diseases have always attracted people's and health authorities' attention due to its magical approach, the lack of knowledge that surrounds them, and, at the same time, the religious fear they provoke. Both have played an important role in the history of humanity, of public health politics, and of physicians. The places where psychiatric patients were treated are of historical interest, because through the historical knowledge we can identify an approach from the science and the health policies that prevailed in each age. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was developed in México a new model of hospital care attention to psychiatric patients. La Casa de Salud San Juan de Dios para Pacientes Alienados is an example; the concept "alienated patients" suggests a social and cultural perspective. This paper presents a chronological type description of one of the major institutions involved in mental health care in México. Similarly, it shows a review of the events that affected the religious order San Juan de Dios from 1901 to 2012, when the hospitaller order was reinstated in México and established the Casa de Salud San Juan de Dios para Pacientes Alienados in the town of Zapopan, Jalisco, institution that exists up to the present day and keeps participating in the mental health care in the state of Jalisco, with the current name of Servicios de Salud San Juan de Dios.

  17. Tangled ruptures: discursive changes in Danish psychiatric nursing 1965-75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, N

    2001-01-01

    Psychiatric nursing and psychiatric nurses have been referred to in various ways over the course of history. These articulations reflect and constitute the ways in which nursing is comprehended during specific periods. A rupture in these descriptions and conceptions of Danish psychiatric nursing ...

  18. Psychiatric nursing care for adult survivors of child maltreatment: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zalm, Y.C.; Nugteren, W.A.; Hafsteinsdottir, T.B.; van der Venne, C.G.J.M.; Kool, N.; van Meijel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. Conclusions: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to ask

  19. Theophylline toxicity leading to suicidal ideation in a patient with no prior psychiatric illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kapoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior is a common psychiatric emergency and is associated with psychiatric illness and history of prior suicide attempts. Neuropsychiatric manifestations related to theophylline toxicity are well described in literature. We report a case of theophylline toxicity manifesting as suicidal ideation in a patient with no prior psychiatric illness.

  20. An historical framework for psychiatric nosology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    This essay, which seeks to provide an historical framework for our efforts to develop a scientific psychiatric nosology, begins by reviewing the classificatory approaches that arose in the early history of biological taxonomy. Initial attempts at species definition used top-down approaches advocated by experts and based on a few essential features of the organism chosen a priori. This approach was subsequently rejected on both conceptual and practical grounds and replaced by bottom-up approaches making use of a much wider array of features. Multiple parallels exist between the beginnings of biological taxonomy and psychiatric nosology. Like biological taxonomy, psychiatric nosology largely began with ‘expert’ classifications, typically influenced by a few essential features, articulated by one or more great 19th-century diagnosticians. Like biology, psychiatry is struggling toward more soundly based bottom-up approaches using diverse illness characteristics. The underemphasized historically contingent nature of our current psychiatric classification is illustrated by recounting the history of how ‘Schneiderian’ symptoms of schizophrenia entered into DSM-III. Given these historical contingencies, it is vital that our psychiatric nosologic enterprise be cumulative. This can be best achieved through a process of epistemic iteration. If we can develop a stable consensus in our theoretical orientation toward psychiatric illness, we can apply this approach, which has one crucial virtue. Regardless of the starting point, if each iteration (or revision) improves the performance of the nosology, the eventual success of the nosologic process, to optimally reflect the complex reality of psychiatric illness, is assured. PMID:19368761

  1. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  2. Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial stressors ... were present for 98.1% of patients and 36.9% had multiple anxiety disorders. ... and the comorbidity of anxiety and personality disorders should receive further attention.

  3. Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis in Critically Ill Patients: Clinical Presentation, Cholangiographic Features, Natural History, and Outcome: A Series of 16 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Silke; Veltzke-Schlieker, Wilfried; Adler, Andreas; Schott, Eckart; Eurich, Dennis; Faber, Wladimir; Neuhaus, Peter; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SSC-CIP) is an important differential diagnosis in patients presenting with cholestasis and PSC-like cholangiographic changes in endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). As a relatively newly described entity, SSC-CIP is still underdiagnosed, and the diagnosis is often delayed. The present study aims to improve the early detection of SSC-CIP and the identification of its complications.A total of 2633 records of patients who underwent or were listed for orthotopic liver transplantation at the University Hospital Charité, Berlin, were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical presentation and outcome (mean follow-up 62.7 months) of the 16 identified SSC-CIP cases were reviewed.Cholestasis was the first sign of SSC-CIP. GGT was the predominant enzyme of cholestasis. Hypercholesterolemia occurred in at least 75% of the patients. SSC-CIP provoked a profound weight loss (mean 18 kg) in 94% of our patients. SSC-CIP was diagnosed by ERC in all patients. The 3 different cholangiographic features detected correspond roughly to the following stages: (I) evidence of biliary casts, (II) progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, and (III) picture of pruned tree. Biliary cast formation is a hallmark of SSC-CIP and was seen in 87% of our cases. In 75% of the patients, the clinical course was complicated by cholangiosepsis, cholangitic liver abscesses, acalculous cholecystitis, or gallbladder perforation. SSC-CIP was associated with worse prognosis; transplant-free survival was ∼40 months (mean).Because of its high rate of serious complications and unfavorable prognosis, it is imperative to diagnose SSC-CIP early and to differentiate SSC-CIP from other types of sclerosing cholangitis. Specific characteristics enable identification of SSC-CIP. Early cooperation with a transplant center and special attention to biliary complications are required after diagnosis of SSC-CIP.

  4. Psychiatric Symptomatology in Early-Onset Binswanger’s Disease: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Lawrence

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of Binswanger's disease of pre-senile onset which presented with affective and psychotic symptoms well before the appearance of cognitive deterioration and neurological signs, initially evading an accurate diagnosis. Psychiatrists should be aware of white matter disease and its role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illness. Particular attention should be given to a history of hypertension as a risk factor in the early identification of these cases.

  5. Trauma history is associated with prior suicide attempt history in hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A; Armey, Michael A; Sejourne, Corinne; Miller, Ivan W; Weinstock, Lauren M

    2016-09-30

    Although the relationships between PTSD, abuse history, and suicidal behaviors are well-established in military and outpatient samples, little data is available on this relationship in inpatient samples. This study examines the relationships between these variables and related demographic and clinical correlates in a sample of psychiatric inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder using electronic medical record (EMR) data. Controlling for relevant demographic and clinical variables, PTSD diagnosis and history of abuse were both significantly associated with history of suicide attempt, but in a combined model, only history of abuse remained as a significant predictor. Whereas history of abuse was associated with a history multiple suicide attempts, PTSD diagnosis was not. Both insurance status and gender acted as significant moderators of the relationship between history of abuse and history of suicide attempt, with males and those with public/no insurance having greater associations with history of suicide attempts when an abuse history was present. These data indicate the importance of documentation of PTSD, abuse history, and history of suicide attempts. The results also suggest that in the presence of an abuse history or PTSD diagnosis, additional time spent on safety and aftercare planning following hospital discharge may be indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The history, development and the present status of the radon measurement programme in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A C

    2015-11-01

    The US radon measurement programme began in the late 1950s by the US Public Health Service in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah during the uranium frenzy. After the 1967 Congressional Hearings on the working conditions in uranium mines, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was asked to conduct studies in active uranium mines to assess the exposure of the miners on the Colorado Plateau and in New Mexico. From 1967 to 1972, the Health and Safety Laboratory of the US AEC in New York investigated more than 20 uranium mines for radon and radon decay product concentrations and particle size in 4 large uranium mines in New Mexico. In 1970, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established and took over some of the AEC radon measurement activities. Between 1975 and 1978, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy conducted the first detailed indoor radon survey in the USA. Later in 1984, the very high concentrations of radon found in Pennsylvania homes set the wheels in motion and gave birth to the US Radon Industry. The US EPA expanded its involvement in radon issues and assumed an active role by establishing the National Radon Proficiency Program to evaluate the effectiveness of radon measurement and mitigation methods. In 1998, due to limited resources EPA privatised the radon programme. This paper presents a personal perspective of past events and current status of the US radon programme. It will present an update on radon health effects, the incidence rate of lung cancer in the USA and the number of radon measurements made from 1988 to 2013 using short-term test methods. More than 23 million measurements were made in the last 25 y and as a result more than 1.24 million homes were mitigated successfully. It is estimated that USA are made using long-term testing devices. The number of homes above the US action level of 148 Bq m(-3) (4 pCi l(-1)) may be ∼8.5 million because ∼50 million homes were added since 1990 to the home

  7. The history, development and the present status of the radon measurement programme in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The US radon measurement programme began in the late 1950's by the US Public Health Service in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah during the uranium frenzy. After the 1967 Congressional Hearings on the working conditions in uranium mines, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was asked to conduct studies in active uranium mines to assess the exposure of the miners on the Colorado Plateau and in New Mexico. From 1967 to 1972, the Health and Safety Laboratory of the US AEC in New York investigated more than 20 uranium mines for radon and radon decay product concentrations and particle size in 4 large uranium mines in New Mexico. In 1970, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established and took over some of the AEC radon measurement activities. Between 1975 and 1978, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy conducted the first detailed indoor radon survey in the USA. Later in 1984, the very high concentrations of radon found in Pennsylvania homes set the wheels in motion and gave birth to the US Radon Industry. The US EPA expanded its involvement in radon issues and assumed an active role by establishing the National Radon Proficiency Program to evaluate the effectiveness of radon measurement and mitigation methods. In 1998, due to limited resources EPA privatised the radon programme. This paper presents a personal perspective of past events and current status of the US radon programme. It will present an update on radon health effects, the incidence rate of lung cancer in the USA and the number of radon measurements made from 1988 to 2013 using short-term test methods. More than 23 million measurements were made in the last 25 y and as a result more than 1.24 million homes were mitigated successfully. It is estimated that <2 % of the radon measurements performed in the USA are made using long-term testing devices. The number of homes above the US action level of 148 Bq m -3 (4 pCi l -1 ) may be ∼8.5 million because ∼50

  8. Attitudes towards patient gender among psychiatric hospital staff: results of a case study with focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Silvia; Kilian, Reinhold; Becker, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    There is an increasing awareness of gender-related issues in psychiatry. However, empirical findings on attitudes of psychiatric staff towards patient gender are limited. Gender-related issues are particularly relevant in the debate about mixed versus segregated sex wards, yet while the appropriateness of mixed-sex wards is questioned in Great Britain this is not the case in Germany. To investigate attitudes of psychiatric staff towards both patient gender and mixed versus segregated sex wards, we conducted a case study using focus groups with members of professional teams. We evaluated the transition process from two single-sex wards to two mixed-sex wards in a 330-bed psychiatric hospital in a rural area in south Germany. Staff described female patients as more externally oriented, motivating of others, demanding, and even sexually aggressive. Male patients, on the other hand, were described as more quiet, modest, or lazy. Furthermore, participants described the mixing process as a positive development whereas they did not see a need for gender-separated wards in order to protect vulnerable female patients. Some gender descriptions by professionals are "reversed" in comparison with gender stereotypes supposed to be present in wider society. The perception of crossed gender norms may affect staff attitudes towards the vulnerability of female patients in psychiatric settings and the provision of single-sex wards in in-patient psychiatric care. Practical implications are discussed against the background of a high rate of female patients with sexual abuse histories.

  9. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  10. Psychiatric morbidity in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis-an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of stigma and misconceptions about pulmonary tuberculosis still persist, in spite of the advances in treatment. Thus, a mere diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis can be a psychological trauma to an individual. The situation has aggravated with the association of tuberculosis with HIV infection. Aim: To study the psychiatric morbidity due to the various psychological stresses faced by a patient of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 inpatients admitted to pulmonary ward with diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The control group consisted of 100 inpatients admitted to pulmonary ward with nontuberculous pulmonary diseases. Psychiatric history and mental status were recorded on a specially designed proforma and diagnosis of any psychiatric illness, if present, arrived at as per International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The psychiatric tests applied were beck's depression inventory (BDI and Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS. Results: Of the patients of pulmonary tuberculosis, 24% could be given a diagnostic category, as per ICD-10, as compared to only 8% of the controls (P < 0.005. On BDI, 44% of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis showed depression as compared to 27% of the controls (P < 0.02. On TMAS, 38% of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis showed anxiety as compared to 24% of controls (P < 0.05. A greater incidence of depression (on BDI and anxiety (on TMAS was seen in those with longer duration of illness (P < 0.02 and in those with greater severity of illness (P < 0.02. Conclusion: In view of the high psychiatric morbidity associated with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is enough scope for psychiatric services to be made available to these patients. In addition, personnel involved in the treatment of these patients should be trained for early detection of psychiatric symptoms.

  11. Comparison of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Performance-Enhancing Drug Users and Nonuser Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Ostovar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported.Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ information, including demographic characteristics, sports’ status and performance-enhancing drug use. According to the condition of performance-enhancing drug use, the participants were divided into current users, non-current users, and nonusers. The psychiatric status of the participants was evaluated using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. We also asked about the acute psychotic disturbances after using performance-enhancing drugs, alcohol use, and history of aggressive behavior in bodybuilders. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests.Results: Prevalence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the bodybuilders was 19.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, 16.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. After using performance-enhancing drugs, 33% of the bodybuilders had experienced acute psychological disturbances. There were no significant differences between current, non-current, and nonuser bodybuilding athletes in the measured psychiatric disorders.Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was not significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do not increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.

  12. Comparison of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Performance-Enhancing Drug Users and Nonuser Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovar, Afshin; Haerinejad, Mohammad Javad; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Keshavarz, Mojtaba

    2017-10-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported. Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants' information, including demographic characteristics, sports' status and performance-enhancing drug use. According to the condition of performance-enhancing drug use, the participants were divided into current users, non-current users, and nonusers. The psychiatric status of the participants was evaluated using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. We also asked about the acute psychotic disturbances after using performance-enhancing drugs, alcohol use, and history of aggressive behavior in bodybuilders. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Results: Prevalence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the bodybuilders was 19.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, 16.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. After using performance-enhancing drugs, 33% of the bodybuilders had experienced acute psychological disturbances. There were no significant differences between current, non-current, and nonuser bodybuilding athletes in the measured psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was not significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do not increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.

  13. Suicidal attempts in psychiatric institutions: a report of two cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jiménez Genchi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 5% of suicides occur inside of the psychiatric institutions. This report describes two cases of suicide inside of a psychiatric hospital which illustrate, on one hand, the characteristics of suicidal risk among psychiatric inpatients, and on the other hand, the limitations, we may have, to prevent suicide. The rate of suicides inside psychiatric hospitals are explained by the very low presentation of this behavior, among patients and the poor specificity for suicidal risk, that may provide the clinical evaluation with standard clinical criteria . Nevertheless, hospitalization in psychiatric institutions avoids more suicide attempts and suicides than those are committed inside of them.

  14. Psychiatric disorders in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.G.; Irfan, M.; Shamsi, T.S.; Hussain, M.

    2007-01-01

    To identify the psychiatric illnesses in patients with hematological/oncological disorders encountered during blood and bone marrow transplantation. All consecutive patients, aged 15 years and above, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and underwent blood and bone marrow transplantation, were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric assessment comprised of a semi-structured interview based on Present Status Examination (PSE). The psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system of classification devised by W.H.O. Eighty patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were inducted in this study. Thirty (37.5%) cases were found to have psychiatric disorders. Out of the total, 60 (75%) were males and 20 (25%) females. Adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis (n=12), followed by major depression (n=7). Rest of the diagnoses made were generalized anxiety disorder, acute psychotic disorder, delirium and depressive psychosis. High psychiatric morbidity associated with blood and bone marrow transplantation was observed. It indicates the importance of psychiatric intervention during the isolation period of BMT as well as pre-transplant psychiatric assessment and counseling regarding procedure. (author)

  15. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  16. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  17. [Refusal of food and fluids of a psychiatric patient in order to hasten death: obstacles for patient, family and care-team].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this case-report we present a patient with a psychiatric history of a chronic depressive disorder. After a period of several years of ambivalence, he decided to refuse nutrition and hydration because he--in the words of the Royal Dutch Medical Association--was "suffering from life". There was no

  18. Impact of boarding pediatric psychiatric patients on a medical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudius, Ilene; Donofrio, J Joelle; Lam, Chun Nok; Santillanes, Genevieve

    2014-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders account for an increasing number of pediatric hospitalizations. Due to lack of psychiatric beds, patients on involuntary psychiatric holds may be admitted to medical units. Our objectives were to evaluate the rate of admission of psychiatric patients to a medical unit, psychiatric care provided, and estimated cost of care. The study involved retrospective chart review of all patients on involuntary psychiatric holds presenting to 1 pediatric emergency department from July 2009 to December 2010. We determined the rate of admission to a medical unit, the rate of counseling or psychiatric medication administration, and the estimated cost of nonmedical admissions (boarding) of patients on the medical unit. A total of 555 (50.1%) of 1108 patients on involuntary psychiatric holds were admitted to the pediatric medical unit. The majority (523 [94.2%]) were admitted for boarding because no psychiatric bed was available. Thirty-two (6.1%) patients admitted for isolated psychiatric reasons had counseling documented, and 105 (20.1%) received psychiatric medications. Patients admitted to an affiliated psychiatric hospital were significantly more likely to receive counseling and medications. Psychiatric patients were boarded in medical beds for 1169 days at an estimated cost of $2 232 790 or $4269 per patient over the 18-month period. We found high admission rates of patients on involuntary psychiatric holds to a pediatric medical unit with little psychiatric treatment in 1 hospital. Further research in other centers is required to determine the extent of the issue. Future studies of longer term outcomes (including readmission rates and assessments of functioning) are needed.

  19. THE PRESENT STATE OF THE KNOWLEDGE AND THE STUDY OF HISTORY OF THE GEOLOGICAL, MINERALOGICAL AND DEPOSIT ORIENTED RESEARCH IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herčko Ivan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Slovakia, with its interesting geological structure and many various ore deposits and minerals, has been the centre of the scientific interest both of domestic extensiv get geologists foreign. It is not only chance that there were preserved hundreds short as well as various studies from this region dealing with different subjects and specific problems. The slovak historiography has not evaluated them properly untill now. The first step was done only recently. The aim of the article is to offer a detailed summary of present study of sthe developing views and investigationd of some practical questions in the geological research in Slovakia. The present literature, related to the problems of the history of the geological, mineralogical and deposit research is very modest compared with how the other scientifical literature was presenting the different field of the natural science in Slovakia, especially the historiography of the geological science is still far behind.

  20. Psychiatric Genomics: An Update and an Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M; Andreassen, Ole A; Børglum, Anders D; Breen, Gerome; Cichon, Sven; Edenberg, Howard J; Faraone, Stephen V; Gelernter, Joel; Mathews, Carol A; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Smoller, Jordan W; O'Donovan, Michael C

    2018-01-01

    The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) is the largest consortium in the history of psychiatry. This global effort is dedicated to rapid progress and open science, and in the past decade it has delivered an increasing flow of new knowledge about the fundamental basis of common psychiatric disorders. The PGC has recently commenced a program of research designed to deliver "actionable" findings-genomic results that 1) reveal fundamental biology, 2) inform clinical practice, and 3) deliver new therapeutic targets. The central idea of the PGC is to convert the family history risk factor into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691 twin pairs was the largest in the field for nearly four decades. (Am J Psychiatry 1946; 103:309-322 )].

  1. [General considerations on psychiatric interconsultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinacci, J A

    1975-03-01

    This paper attempts to follow the evolution of some general ideas on Psychiatric Interconsulting. It is the result of six years' work at Ramos Mejía Hospital, Buenos Aires. Progressive transformations were imposed by daily practice on our team's theoretical and technical conceptions. We started with an individualistic-phenomenical approach, and we were forced to switch to a dynamical-situational one. The general working model we use at present is briefly summarized, emphasizing the important role played by Psychiatric Interconsulting in the change of the medical cultural patterns prevailing at present in our milieu. Two main factors for the role of privilege played by the Interconsulting team are set forth: one is conceptual, the other is pragmatic. From a conceptual standpoint, the theoretical basis of Psychiatric Interconsulting is much broader than those of other specialities, like clinical practice or surgery, for it includes, besides Biology, the Psychological and Socio-Historical determinants of the disturbance the diseases man suffers. From a pragmatic standpoint, the boundaries of human and physical fields within which Psychiatric Interconsulting is operating, go beyond the scope of daily medical practice. Their place could be located in between formal traditional wefts, relating to institutional structures as well as to specific medical practice. Professionals working at Interconsulting are usually required at general wards, at consulting offices, at emergency wards, in corridors, or even at the bar. They are interested not only in specific medical problems; they encompass the whole range of personal and institutional framework, and consider the whole situation in a comprehensive approach. Knowledge acquired in this widened professional field, together with actual experience in dealing with people in distress, are the main sources for theoretical conceptualization of new activities, as well as for building pragmatic tools to modify the official medical

  2. History of science and technology in the 20th century and super-technologies at present. 20 seiki no kagaku gijutsushi to genzai no (cho) gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futami, S. (Yasukawa Electric Mfg. Co. Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    Technologies whose names are prefixed with super are discussed from a viewpoint of history of science and technology. A chronology for super-prefixed sciences and technologies in the 20th century is presented. Since Bohr's quantum theory and Einstein's fundamental formula for atomic energy: E = mc[sup 2] that rank as two heads of super-science, were published in the begining of the 20th century, their theories have been playing roles as a foundation of the development of science and technology in this century. Namely, on the basis of quantum theory, semi-conductors were invented and super-conduction has been developed. The Einstein's fundamental formula has led to atomic bombs and commercial power reactors. Development to super-technologies in various fields of sciences and technologies is explained. When a nation's history of science and technology is assumed as a process from mimicry to self-sustenance that is composed of the following four steps: (1) import of products, (2)initiation of production and transfer of technology, (3)transit to technological self-sustain, (4) establishment of creative technology. Japan is in a process between(3) and(4). Further, super-technologies under research and development for the present in Japan are enumerated. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as affective mood disorder with chronic tension type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnarpan Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a common parasitic infection in India presenting usually with seizues, headache, focal neurological deficits. Neurocysticercosis presenting as a psychiatric illness is rare. Disseminated cysticercosis with involvement of central nervous system and head and neck muscles is rare even in endemic areas. We present a case of disseminated cysticercosis, which presented with chronic tension type headache and affective mood disorder. Treatment with cysticidal drugs led to complete remission of psychiatric complaints. In endemic areas history suggestive of mood disorder should not be used as supportive evidence of a primary headache syndome like tension type headche without ruling out secondary causes. Making an early diagnosis can prevent morbidity.

  4. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  5. Occupational disability on psychiatric grounds in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 81 school-teachers in the Cape Town area who had been declared permanently medically disabled as a consequence of psychiatric disorders. Results: Patients were relatively young (44±6.1 yrs), had experienced symptoms for 5.2±3.8 yrs, and had been treated for 4±3.5 yrs. Almost half had a family history of psychiatric ...

  6. About the practice of psychiatric euthanasia: a commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Euthanasia motivated by mental disorders is legal in only a few countries and has a short history. In a recent report of all psychiatric euthanasia cases in Belgium between 2002 and 2013, Dierickx and colleagues suggest that the number of these cases is increasing, and provide a profile of the applicants. To date, knowledge of the practice of psychiatric euthanasia is limited, but rising public awareness might increase the number of requests. The authors reveal several shortcomings in cases o...

  7. About the practice of psychiatric euthanasia: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge

    2017-06-27

    Euthanasia motivated by mental disorders is legal in only a few countries and has a short history. In a recent report of all psychiatric euthanasia cases in Belgium between 2002 and 2013, Dierickx and colleagues suggest that the number of these cases is increasing, and provide a profile of the applicants. To date, knowledge of the practice of psychiatric euthanasia is limited, but rising public awareness might increase the number of requests. The authors reveal several shortcomings in cases of psychiatric euthanasia and open avenues for future research.Please see related article: https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-017-1369-0.

  8. Practice Parameter for the Psychiatric Assessment and Management of Physically Ill Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An introduction for any medical health clinician on the knowledge and skills that are needed for the psychiatric assessment and management of physically ill children and adolescents is presented. These parameters are presented to assist clinicians in psychiatric decision making.

  9. Valuing psychiatric patients' stories: belief in and use of the supernatural in the Jamaican psychiatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl C A B; Carpenter, Karen A; Peltzer, Karl; Weaver, Steve

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine illness presentation and understand how psychiatric patients make meaning of the causes of their mental illnesses. Six Jamaican psychiatric patients were interviewed using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview Schedule. Of the 6, 3 representative case studies were chosen. The hermeneutic phenomenological approach and the common sense model were used in the formulation of patients' explanatory models. Results indicate that psychiatric patients actively conceptualized the causes and resultant treatment of their mental illnesses. Patients' satisfaction and compliance with treatment were dependent on the extent to which practitioners' conceptualization matched their own, as well as practitioners' acknowledgement of patients' concerns about causation, prognosis, and treatment.

  10. Panorama actual de las políticas de bienestar y la reforma psiquiátrica en España The present scene of welfare policies and psychiatric reform in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Desviat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la situación de la reforma psiquiátrica después de tres décadas de desarrollo en España. Se pregunta por los logros y fracasos; por el grado de implantación del modelo comunitario y de salud pública que inspiraron en su origen el proceso. Trata de explicar el por qué de las insuficiencias asistenciales, normativas y formativas. Las fortalezas, el gran desarrollo de recursos alternativos, y la pérdida de hegemonía del Hospital psiquiátrico; y las amenazas: los cambios producidos en la gestión de los servicios sociales y sanitarios, la creciente privatización de los servicios, la precarización teórica y los cambios en la demanda de la población.The paper analyzes the situation of psychiatric reform after three decades of development in Spain. The achievements and failures are reviewed and the degree of implementation of the community model and public health, that originally inspired the process, is examinated. It tries to explain the reasons for care, policies and training deficiencies. The strengths are: the great development of alternative resources, and the loss of hegemony of the Psychiatric Hospital; and the threats: the changes in the management of the social and health services, the increasing privatization of services, the theoretical impoverishment and the changes in the demand of the population.

  11. Suicide in Castellon, 2009-2015: Do sociodemographic and psychiatric factors help understand urban-rural differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso-Ribera, Carlos; Mora-Marín, Rafael; Hernández-Gaspar, Carmen; Pardo-Guerra, Lidón; Pardo-Guerra, María; Belda-Martínez, Adela; Palmer-Viciedo, Ramón

    Studies have pointed to rurality as an important factor influencing suicide. Research so far suggests that several sociodemograpic and psychiatric factors might influence urban-rural differences in suicide. Also, their contribution appears to depend on sex and age. Unfortunately, studies including a comprehensive set of explanatory variables altogether are still scare and most studies have failed to present their analyses split by sex and age groups. Also, urban-rural differences in suicide in Spain have been rarely investigated. The present study aimed at explaining rural-urban differences in suicidality in the province of Castellon (Spain). A comprehensive set of sociodemographic and psychiatric factors was investigated and analyses were split by sex and age. The sample comprised all suicides recorded in the province of Castellon from January 2009 to December 2015 (n=343). Sociodemographic data included sex, age, and suicide method. Psychiatric data included the history of mental health service utilization, psychiatric diagnosis, suicide attempts, and psychiatric hospitalization. Consistent with past research, suicide rates were highest in rural areas, especially in men and older people. We also found that urban-rural differences in sociodemographic and psychiatric variables were sensitive to sex and age. Our results indicated that specialized mental health service use and accessibility to suicide means might help understand urban-rural differences in suicide, especially in men. When exploring urban-rural differences as a function of age, general practitioner visits for psychiatric reasons were more frequent in the older age group in rural areas. Study implications for suicide prevention strategies in Spain are discussed. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [The attitudes nurses working at psychiatric hospitals in Turkey have towards forensic psychiatric patients and the associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysan Arabacı, Leyla; Çam, M Olcay

    2013-01-01

    To determine the attitudes nurses working at psychiatric hospitals in Turkey have towards forensic psychiatric patients and the associated factors. This cross-sectional study included 620 nurses working at 8 psychiatric hospitals in Turkey that completed ≥80% of the Nurses' Attitudes Towards Forensic Psychiatric Patients Scale (NAFPPS). Data were evaluated based on number-percentage distribution, and the relationship between variables was examined via t-test, variance analysis, and correlation analysis. Mean age of the nurses was 34.37 ± 7.48 years and 79.4% were female. Mean NAFPPS total and subscale scores were as follows: Xtotal = 69.07 ± 12.46 (max: 125); Xfeelingthreatened = 15.98 ± 3.61 (max: 30); Xtrust = 20.49 ± 5.24 (max: 20); Xsocialdistance = 10.45 ± 3.33 (max: 20); Xwillingnesstoprovidecare = 22.31 ± 4.25 (max: 40). Gender, place of employment, method of obtaining current position, employment status, level of satisfaction working as a psychiatric nurse, history of providing treatment to forensic psychiatric patients, having knowledge of Turkish laws regarding the treatment of forensic psychiatric patients, and thinking that nurses should treat forensic psychiatric patients were correlated with the nurses' attitudes towards forensic psychiatric patients, whereas age, marital status, place of longest residence, level of education, duration of working in the profession, and duration at current hospital were not. Despite the fact that the nurses working at 8 psychiatric hospitals in Turkey considered forensic psychiatric patients threatening, didn't trust them, and had a tendency to be socially distant with them, they had a moderate level of willingness to provide them proper care.

  13. Why study the history of psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R T

    1993-12-01

    The history of psychiatry is being neglected. The major psychiatric textbooks no longer offer any overview of psychiatric history. Possible reasons for this indifference are discussed. It is suggested that a knowledge of our history is not only necessary in a general intellectual sense, but also specifically in enabling us to more easily tolerate the incompleteness and ambiguity of many of our concepts. Furthermore, it may help psychiatry to more convincingly explain the reality and consequences of mental illness to a sceptical public.

  14. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...

  15. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...

  16. Eponymous Psychiatric Syndromes Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguy, Ahmed

    2018-02-22

    This report provides an anthology of psychiatric eponyms. Clinically, many of these described syndromes represent valid diagnostic constructs and may accommodate the atypical cases that defy the official diagnostic designation in the current classificatory systems in psychiatry. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  17. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Legal Issues Search for: About PADs A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is a legal document that ... decisions during a mental health crisis. Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  18. Psychiatric Evaluation of the Agitated Patient: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA Psychiatric Evaluation Workgroup

    OpenAIRE

    Stowell, Keith R; Florence, Peter; Harman, Herbert J; Glick, Rachel L

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to fully assess an agitated patient, and the complete psychiatric evaluation usually cannot be completed until the patient is calm enough to participate in a psychiatric interview. Nonetheless, emergency clinicians must perform an initial mental status screening to begin this process as soon as the agitated patient presents to an emergency setting. For this reason, the psychiatric evaluation of the agitated patient can be thought of as a 2-step process. First, a brief evaluati...

  19. American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Task Force on Medical Clearance of Adult Psychiatric Patients. Part II: Controversies over Medical Assessment, and Consensus Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Wilson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED, usually termed “medical clearance,” often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. Methods: The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus. Consensus was achieved by group discussion as well as iterative revisions of the written document. The document was reviewed and approved by the AAEP Board of Directors. Results: Eight recommendations were formulated. These recommendations cover various topics in emergency medical examination of psychiatric patients, including goals of medical screening in the ED, the identification of patients at low risk for co-existing medical disease, key elements in the ED evaluation of psychiatric patients including those with cognitive disorders, specific language replacing the term “medical clearance,” and the need for better science in this area. Conclusion: The evidence indicates that a thorough history and physical examination, including vital signs and mental status examination, are the minimum necessary elements in the evaluation of psychiatric patients. With respect to laboratory testing, the picture is less clear and much more controversial.

  20. American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Task Force on Medical Clearance of Adult Psychiatric Patients. Part II: Controversies over Medical Assessment, and Consensus Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P; Nordstrom, Kimberly; Anderson, Eric L; Ng, Anthony T; Zun, Leslie S; Peltzer-Jones, Jennifer M; Allen, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED), usually termed "medical clearance," often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP), consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus. Consensus was achieved by group discussion as well as iterative revisions of the written document. The document was reviewed and approved by the AAEP Board of Directors. Eight recommendations were formulated. These recommendations cover various topics in emergency medical examination of psychiatric patients, including goals of medical screening in the ED, the identification of patients at low risk for co-existing medical disease, key elements in the ED evaluation of psychiatric patients including those with cognitive disorders, specific language replacing the term "medical clearance," and the need for better science in this area. The evidence indicates that a thorough history and physical examination, including vital signs and mental status examination, are the minimum necessary elements in the evaluation of psychiatric patients. With respect to laboratory testing, the picture is less clear and much more controversial.

  1. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT): An update on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and natural history in North American and European cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkos, Bradley M.; Pan, Zenggang; Gru, Alejandro A.; Freud, Aharon G.; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Otto, Brad; Barrionuevo, Carlos; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Rochford, Rosemary; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is an aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma most commonly occurring in East Asia and Latin America but with increasing incidence in the U.S. Data on epidemiology, disease presentation, and outcome for European and North American (“Western”) cases are very limited. We review published landmark clinical studies on ENKTL-NT in the West and report in detail recent data, including our institutional experience. We highlight key observations in its epidemiology, natural history, and trends in clinical management. In the U.S., ENKTL-NT is more common among Asian Pacific Islanders (API) and Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites. Published studies indicate less heterogeneity in clinical presentation in Western ENKTL-NT compared to Asian patients. While there is variation in age at diagnosis, presence of antecedent lymphoproliferative disorders, and outcomes among racial/ethnic groups, the universal association of ENKTL-NT with EBV and the poor response of this neoplasm to anthracycline-based therapy are consistent across all geographic areas. PMID:27778143

  2. "Journey to the Stars": Presenting What Stars Are to Global Planetarium Audiences by Blending Astrophysical Visualizations Into a Single Immersive Production at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, Carter; Mac Low, M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Kinzler, R.; Paglione, T. A. D.; Abbott, B. P.

    2010-01-01

    "Journey to the Stars" is the latest and fourth space show based on storytelling from data visualization at the Rose Center for Earth and Space at the American Museum of Natural History. This twenty five minute, full dome movie production presents to planetarium audiences what the stars are, where they come from, how they vary in type and over time, and why they are important to life of Earth. Over forty scientists from around the world contributed their research to what is visualized into roughly fifteen major scenes. How this production is directed into a consolidated immersive informal science experience with learning goals is an integrative process with many inputs and concerns for scientific accuracy. The goal is a seamless merger of visualizations at varying spatial and temporal scales with acuity toward depth perception, revealing unseen phenomena, and the layering of concepts together to build an understanding of stars; to blend our common experience of them in the sky with the uncommon meaning we have come to know through science. Scripted by Louise Gikow who has worked for Children's Television Workshop, narrated by Whoopie Goldberg, and musically scored by Robert Miller, this production strives to guide audiences through challenging scientific concepts by complimenting the natural beauty the subject matter presents with understandable prose and musical grandeur. "Journey to the Stars" was produced in cooperation with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Heliophysics Division and is in release at major planetariums, worldwide.

  3. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to faith healers in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alshehri, Youssef; Alfraih, Ibrahim; Alghamdi, Ayedh; Aldahash, Saleh; Alkhuzayem, Haifa; Albeeeshi, Haneen

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to Faith Healers (FHs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We also studied the sociodemographic profiles for these visitors, in addition to their past psychiatric history, reason(s) for seeking FH help, and past and current treatment experience with FHs. We conducted a cross-sectional study among the visitors (n=321) to a number of faith healing settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using a specially designed questionnaire and validated Arabic version of The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Most of the participants were young adults (35.1±10.8 years) and males with intermediate and secondary levels of education who had not sought medical help prior to their visits. A high proportion of the FH visitors have diagnosable mental illnesses. Depressive and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent among the study participants; few visitors were affected by psychotic or bipolar disorders. The present study provides insight for understanding the type of patients with psychiatric disorders who visit Faith Healers.(FHs). The study highlights the tendency of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia to visit FHs, which could reflect the importance of further studies to clarify the impact of FHs on the management of those patients.

  4. [The William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History of the American Urological Association: new exciting approaches in presenting urologic history, not only in the USA - a personal guided tour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, R M

    2011-04-01

    The Didusch Center for Urologic History encompasses a rich and varied collection of drawings, photographs, and instruments of historical importance to urology, many displayed in the urological exhibits during the American Urological Association (AUA) conventions. The Center also houses a library devoted to urological and early medical texts and the AUA archives and is the institution of research in all fields of urologic history in the USA. The museum collection features most of Didusch's original drawings, as well as an impressive instrument collection acquired primarily through donations by urologists. The original William P. Didusch Museum (now known as the William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History) was originally housed in the AUA's Baltimore City headquarters building. Upon the association's move to Linthicum, MD in 2003, the museum has evolved into the William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History and taken on new tasks and responsibilities that include the topic of research in urologic history.

  5. Who's boarding in the psychiatric emergency service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott A; Joesch, Jutta M; West, Imara I; Pasic, Jagoda

    2014-09-01

    When a psychiatric patient in the emergency department requires inpatient admission, but no bed is available, they may become a "boarder." The psychiatric emergency service (PES) has been suggested as one means to reduce psychiatric boarding, but the frequency and characteristics of adult PES boarders have not been described. We electronically extracted electronic medical records for adult patients presenting to the PES in an urban county safety-net hospital over 12 months. Correlative analyses included Student's t-tests and multivariate regression. 521 of 5363 patient encounters (9.7%) resulted in boarding. Compared to non-boarding encounters, boarding patient encounters were associated with diagnoses of a primary psychotic, anxiety, or personality disorder, or a bipolar manic/mixed episode. Boarders were also more likely to be referred by family, friends or providers than self-referred; arrive in restraints; experience restraint/seclusion in the PES; or be referred for involuntary hospitalization. Boarders were more likely to present to the PES on the weekend. Substance use was common, but only tobacco use was more likely associated with boarding status in multivariate analysis. Boarding is common in the PES, and boarders have substantial psychiatric morbidity requiring treatment during extended PES stays. We question the appropriateness of PES boarding for seriously ill psychiatric patients.

  6. The Hippest History: The Detritus of Your Library's Past Can Help with Your Present-Day Marketing, Fundraising, and Professional Pride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Bernadette A.

    2005-01-01

    The author of this article studies the history of libraries. Few libraries capitalize on their own organizational history, however, even though it can be, at minimum, a resource of images and factoids for everything from answering administrative questions to crafting fundraising and marketing pieces. It can also be a reservoir of professional…

  7. Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type (ENKTL-NT): An Update on Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, and Natural History in North American and European Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkos, Bradley M; Pan, Zenggang; Gru, Alejandro A; Freud, Aharon G; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Otto, Brad; Barrionuevo, Carlos; Baiocchi, Robert A; Rochford, Rosemary; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-12-01

    Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is an aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma most commonly occurring in East Asia and Latin America but with increasing incidence in the United States. Data on epidemiology, disease presentation, and outcome for European and North American ("Western") cases are very limited. We review published landmark clinical studies on ENKTL-NT in the West and report in detail recent data, including our institutional experience. We highlight key observations in its epidemiology, natural history, and trends in clinical management. In the USA, ENKTL-NT is more common among Asian Pacific Islanders (API) and Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites. Published studies indicate less heterogeneity in clinical presentation in Western ENKTL-NT compared to Asian patients. While there is variation in age at diagnosis, presence of antecedent lymphoproliferative disorders, and outcomes among racial/ethnic groups, the universal association of ENKTL-NT with EBV and the poor response of this neoplasm to anthracycline-based therapy is consistent across all geographic areas. Data on epidemiology, disease presentation, and clinical outcomes in mature T cell and NK cell (T/NK cell) neoplasms, including ENKTL-NT, in Europe and North America are very limited. As the classification and diagnostic characterization of the currently recognized T/NK cell lymphoma disease entities continue to evolve, gaps and inconsistencies in data reporting across different studies are being recognized. Despite these limitations, several studies from the USA suggest that the incidence of ENKTL-NT is higher in Asian Pacific Islanders (API) and non-white Hispanics and that outcomes may be worse in non-whites. However, the universal association of ENKTL-NT with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) across all ethnic groups suggests a common pathogenesis. Given the overlap between the entities included in the category of T/NK cell neoplasms, there is a need to further define

  8. Body dysmorphic disorder: history and curiosities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Katlein; Roccia, Maria Grazia; Castillo, David; ALHarbi, Mana; Tchernev, Georgi; Chokoeva, Anastasia; Lotti, Torello; Fioranelli, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with an absent or minimal physical deformity. It causes severe distress and impairs normal functioning. In the last centuries, this disorder has been mentioned in the medical literature by important mental health practitioners by different names, such as "dysmorphophobia" or "dermatologic hypochondriasis". However, not until the last century was it included among the obsessive-compulsive disorders, although its classification has changed over time.Patients with body dysmorphic disorder constantly seek cosmetic treatments in order to improve their physical appearance, which more often deteriorates their mental condition. The high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in cosmetic medical practice has led in this field of study to the new science "cosmetic psychodermatology". This paper presents a summary of important facts about body dysmorphic disorder and its description throughout the history of medicine.

  9. What the iberian conquest bequeathed to us: the fruit trees introduced in argentine subtropic-their history and importance in present traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampella, Pablo C; Lambaré, Daniela Alejandra; Hilgert, Norma I; Pochettino, María Lelia

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents information about the history of introduction, establishment, and local appropriation of Eurasian fruit trees-species and varieties of the genera Prunus and Citrus-from 15th century in two rural areas of Northern Argentina. By means of an ethnobotanical and ethnohistorical approach, our study was aimed at analysing how this process influenced local medicine and the design of cultural landscape that they are still part of. As a first step, local diversity, knowledge, and management practices of these fruit tree species were surveyed. In a second moment, medicinal properties attributed to them were documented. A historical literature was consulted referring to different aspects on introduction of peaches and citric species into America and their uses in the past. The appropriation of these fruit-trees gave place to new applications and a particular status for introduced species that are seen as identitary and contribute to the definition of the communities and daily life landscapes. Besides, these plants, introduced in a relatively short period and with written record, allow the researcher to understand and to design landscape domestication, as a multidimensional result of physical, social, and symbolic environment.

  10. What the Iberian Conquest Bequeathed to Us: The Fruit Trees Introduced in Argentine Subtropic—Their History and Importance in Present Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampella, Pablo C.; Lambaré, Daniela Alejandra; Hilgert, Norma I.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents information about the history of introduction, establishment, and local appropriation of Eurasian fruit trees—species and varieties of the genera Prunus and Citrus—from 15th century in two rural areas of Northern Argentina. By means of an ethnobotanical and ethnohistorical approach, our study was aimed at analysing how this process influenced local medicine and the design of cultural landscape that they are still part of. As a first step, local diversity, knowledge, and management practices of these fruit tree species were surveyed. In a second moment, medicinal properties attributed to them were documented. A historical literature was consulted referring to different aspects on introduction of peaches and citric species into America and their uses in the past. The appropriation of these fruit-trees gave place to new applications and a particular status for introduced species that are seen as identitary and contribute to the definition of the communities and daily life landscapes. Besides, these plants, introduced in a relatively short period and with written record, allow the researcher to understand and to design landscape domestication, as a multidimensional result of physical, social, and symbolic environment. PMID:24348725

  11. What the Iberian Conquest Bequeathed to Us: The Fruit Trees Introduced in Argentine Subtropic—Their History and Importance in Present Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo C. Stampella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents information about the history of introduction, establishment, and local appropriation of Eurasian fruit trees—species and varieties of the genera Prunus and Citrus—from 15th century in two rural areas of Northern Argentina. By means of an ethnobotanical and ethnohistorical approach, our study was aimed at analysing how this process influenced local medicine and the design of cultural landscape that they are still part of. As a first step, local diversity, knowledge, and management practices of these fruit tree species were surveyed. In a second moment, medicinal properties attributed to them were documented. A historical literature was consulted referring to different aspects on introduction of peaches and citric species into America and their uses in the past. The appropriation of these fruit-trees gave place to new applications and a particular status for introduced species that are seen as identitary and contribute to the definition of the communities and daily life landscapes. Besides, these plants, introduced in a relatively short period and with written record, allow the researcher to understand and to design landscape domestication, as a multidimensional result of physical, social, and symbolic environment.

  12. CONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE PRESENTED IN THE TEXTBOOKS OF THE EARLY YEARS IN THE STATE OF GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenyffer Soares Estival Murça

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The approach of the History of Science (HC in science teaching and textbooks (LD has been gaining ground in discussions involving teacher training, may be one way to combat naive conceptions about the Nature of Science (NDC. The present study sought to identify and analyze the presence of HC in the collection of Sciences textbook intended for the early years of elementary school (1st to 5th year, the largest acquisition for public schools in the state of Goiás. The collection of LDs used was approved in PNLD 2013-2015 collection, Open Door Collection (2011. Insertion of HC, by using categorization information for HC were analyzed. The analysis revealed eight inserted in the collection (Human Body, Energy, Evolution, Interaction, Environment, Health, Technology and Universe Theme, where were possible to identify only 17 inserts HC, surface and related mode of knowledge production. Thus, it is concluded that the insertion of the HC in the early years still gives a very modest way, should be reconsidered and discussed in training courses for teachers.

  13. [Tinnitus and psychiatric comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, G

    2015-04-01

    Tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon characterized by the sensation of sounds without objectively identifiable sound sources. To date, its causes are not well understood. The perceived severity of tinnitus correlates more closely to psychological and general health factors than to audiometric parameters. Together with limbic structures in the ventral striatum, the prefrontal cortex forms an internal "noise cancelling system", which normally helps to block out unpleasant sounds, including the tinnitus signal. If this pathway is compromised, chronic tinnitus results. Patients with chronic tinnitus show increased functional connectivity in corticolimbic pathways. Psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients who seek help for tinnitus or hyperacusis. Clinicians need valid screening tools in order to identify patients with psychiatric disorders and to tailor treatment in a multidisciplinary setting.

  14. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third......There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...

  15. Newly identified psychiatric illness in one general practice: 12-month outcome and the influence of patients' personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A F; Anderson, A J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Relatively little is known about the natural history and outcome of psychological problems in patients who present to general practitioners. Only a small proportion of such patients are seen by specialists. Clinical experience suggests that patient personality is one of the factors influencing outcome in patients diagnosed as having psychiatric illness. AIM. This study set out to examine prospectively the progress and 12-month outcome of patients with newly identified psychiatric illness, and the association of patients' personality with outcome. METHOD. One hundred and seventy one patients with clinically significant psychiatric illness attending one practice in a Scottish new town were followed up prospectively (96 presented with psychological symptoms and 75 with somatic symptoms), and were compared with a group of 127 patients with chronic physical illness. Patients were assessed in terms of psychiatric state, social problems and personality using both computer-based and pencil and paper tests in addition to clinical assessments at each consultation during the follow-up year and structured interview one year after recruitment. RESULTS. Most of the improvement in psychiatric state scores on the 28-item general health questionnaire occurred in the first six months of the illness. Of the 171 patients with psychiatric illness 34% improved quickly and remained well, 54% had an intermittent course but had improved at 12-month follow up while 12% pursued a chronic course without improvement. The mean number of consultations in the follow-up year was 8.4 for patients presenting with psychological symptoms, 7.2 for those presenting with somatic symptoms and 6.6 for patients with chronic physical illness. The Eysenck N score proved a strong predictor of the outcome of new psychiatric illness. CONCLUSION. Only one in three patients with newly identified psychiatric illness improved quickly and and remained well, reflecting the importance of continuing care of

  16. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi [National Institute of Mental Health, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Histoire, mémoire et identité nationale History, memory and national identity. A German triptych confronted by present-day social evolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Rambour

    2009-06-01

    identity seem to be intertwined in this specific context, aspirations for a kind of “normality” in the manner of living this past and to express oneself in the present appear. The fall of the Berlin Wall and Reunification have placed the topic of national identity at the core of debates; thus reviving the dilemma between a guilt feeling in the face of history and the desire for a “normalized” relationship with the German nation. However, the changes in Germany over the last decade make it necessary to remain vigilant. A situation of economic and social unrest, as time threatens to alleviate the weight of a heavy past, reminds us that memories also condition the way a reunified nation will consider its future and experience its own identity.

  18. Psychiatric Morbidity Patterns in Referred Inpatients of Other Specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: Psychiatric consultation was sought mostly by medical ward that had maximum number of patients presenting with self-poisoning. The commonest diagnosis seen in the referred in-patients was depression and anxiety disorder. Keywords: consultation-liaison psychiatry; in-patient referral; psychiatric morbidity.

  19. Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Changes in psychiatric symptoms related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 224 adults 45 years of age or older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are a prevalent feature of dementia in the population with Down syndrome and that clinical presentation is qualitatively similar to that seen in Alzheimer's…

  20. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  1. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  2. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

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    Munevver Tunel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  3. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among cancer patients – hospital-based, cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Roy Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above, having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7% had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6% of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients.

  4. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among cancer patients – hospital-based, cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Mohan Roy; Karunakaran, Vidhukumar; Prabhakaran, Anil; Jayakumar, Krishnannair Lalithamma

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above), having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7%) had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6%) of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients. PMID:28066004

  5. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  6. Psychiatric specialty training in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Kontaxakis, V; Ploumpidis, D

    2017-01-01

    specialty, the European Board of Psychiatry. In the US, the supervising bodies are the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, in the United Kingdom the Royal College of Psychiatrists, in Canada the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, etc. In our country, the debate on the need to reform the institutional framework for Psychiatric training has been underway since the mid-90s, with initiatives especially by the Hellenic Psychiatric Association, aiming to raise awareness and concern among psychiatrists while responding to requests from competent central bodies of the state, as well as establishing Panhellenic training programs for psychiatric trainees and continuing education programs. But what is the situation of the educational map in the country today, what would be the objectives, and how might we proceed? These questions we will try to answer in an effort initiated by Hellenic Psychiatric Association (HPA) and the journal "Psychiatriki" with the publication of thematic articles starting by presenting in the next issue of "Psychiatriki"a comparative study of the training in the specialty of psychiatry at two distinct periods of time (2000 and 2014). These time-frames are of great importance, since the first is a period that in retrospect can be considered as wealthier yet missing robust priorities, while the second, at the peak of the economic crisis, constitutes a difficult environment with limited resources. Already in the year 2000, psychiatric residency training in our country had major difficulties due to its outdated framework and its fragmentation. All areas in which training is assessed (clinical experience, theoretical training and training in psychotherapy exhibited inadequacies and limited convergence with European golden standards, in the absence of a plan and the implementation of a national education curriculum. Certain university clinics constituted an important exception, though

  7. What can the Cretaceous-to-present latitude history of the Lhasa terrane tell us about plate-scale deformation in the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Huang, W.

    2013-12-01

    Published paleomagnetic data from well-dated sedimentary and volcanic rocks from the Lhasa terrane have been re-evaluated in a statistically consistent framework to assess the latitude history of southern Tibet from ~110 Ma to the present. We apply a methodology similar to the one used by the Time-Averaged geomagnetic Field Initiative to each paleomagnetic data set to establish coherency within and between paleomagnetic data from Tibet (see Session T023 for more details). Moreover, we use only sedimentary data that have been evaluated for and, where necessary, corrected for sedimentary inclination shallowing. The resulting apparent polar wander path (APWP) shows that the southern margin of the Lhasa terrane at the longitudes of Nepal remained at 20×4°N latitude from ~110 to at least 50 Ma and subsequently drifted northward to its present latitude of 29°N. This latitude history provides a paleomagnetically-determined collision age between the Tibetan Himalaya and the southern margin of Asia that is 49.5×4.5 Ma at 21×4° N latitude. The paleomagnetic age and latitude of this collision may be a few millions of years earlier and ~2° lower if estimates for shortening within the suture zone are considered. When compared to the global APWP of Torsvik et al. (2012) in Eurasian coordinates, the Lhasa APWP indicates that at most 1100×560 km of post-50 Ma India-Asia convergence was partitioned into Asian lithosphere. The lower bound of these paleomagnetic estimates is consistent with the magnitude of upper crustal shortening within Asia calculated from orogen-scale geological reconstructions. An implication is that 1700×560 km or more post-50 Ma India-Asia convergence was partitioned into Greater India. Paleomagnetic data from the Tibetan Himalaya are consistent with >2000 km of extension of Greater Indian lithosphere after break-up from Gondwana but prior to collision with the southern margin of Asia. Cenozoic subduction of this Cretaceous extensional basin following

  8. Clinical Presentation and Course of Depression in Youth: Does Onset in Childhood Differ from Onset in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmaher, Boris; Williamson, Douglas E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Kaufman, Joan; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To simultaneously and prospectively compare the clinical presentation, course, and parental psychiatric history between children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. Method: A group of prepubertal children (n = 46) and postpubertal adolescents (n = 22) were assessed with structured interviews for psychopathology and parental…

  9. Chronic psychiatric status and satisfaction with life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch; Luteijn, F.

    The present study represents the first to administer the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) as part of a. semi-structured interview to a large sample of psychiatric patients with severe mental illness. psychometric appraisal of the SWLS demonstrated that figures on its internal structure were quite

  10. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  11. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  12. Onconeural Antibodies in Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Sverre Georg; Schou, Morten; Stoecker, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    , GLRA1B, DPPX, GRM1, GRM5, DNER, Yo, ZIC4, GAD67, amphiphysin, CV2, Hu, Ri, Ma2, and recoverin. Only one sample was positive (antirecoverin IgG). The present findings suggest that serum onconeural antibody positivity is rare among patients acutely admitted for inpatient psychiatric care. The clinical...

  13. Sociodemographic Characteristic, Oath Taking and Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is common knowledge that Nigeria is a source and route of transit for victims of human trafficking. Yet studies on psychiatric morbidity among the victims in the country are rare. In addition, previous studies were among post destination victims. The present study is aimed at determining the prevalence of ...

  14. Prenatal Pregnancy Complications and Psychiatric Symptoms: Children with ASD versus Clinic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the association between prenatal pregnancy complications (PPC) and childhood psychiatric symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD children who were referred to a psychiatric clinic (Controls). Parents completed a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale and developmental history questionnaire.…

  15. Community psychiatric nursing in the Netherlands: a survey of a thriving but threatened profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, B.W.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Schene, A.H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the Dutch community psychiatric nursing profession. In spite of their large numbers, estimated at 2900, Dutch community psychiatric nurses (CPNs) have contributed little to the international literature. The history of the profession reveals a

  16. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  17. Sociodemographic profile and psychiatric diagnosis of patients referred to consultation-liaison psychiatric services of general hospital psychiatric unit at a Tertiary Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri Gopal Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Previous studies have reported high psychiatric comorbidity with physical illness. However, referral rate to consultation-liaison (C-L psychiatry from other departments is very low. There is a paucity of literature from India in this subspecialty of psychiatry. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the sociodemographic profile and psychiatric diagnosis of patients referred to C-L psychiatric services at a tertiary care center. Settings and Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care multispecialty teaching institution. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised all the patients who were referred for psychiatric consultation from other departments to C-L services of psychiatry department for 2 months. Information was collected using semi-structured pro forma, and diagnosis was made based on the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. Results: A total of 160 patients were referred for C-L psychiatric services. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 31–45 years, married, educated matriculation or beyond, belonged to Hindu religion, nuclear family, and residing in urban area. The maximum referrals were from internal medicine department (17.5 followed by nephrology (15.0% and neurology (10.6%. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was depression (12% followed by delirium (8%. The most common reason for seeking psychiatric consultation was psychiatric clearance of prospective kidney donor and bone marrow transplant/stem cell transplant recipient. Conclusions: Psychiatric comorbidity may present with chronic physical illness. The C-L psychiatry would play a major role in the management of psychiatric comorbidity.

  18. Birth order and postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Jones, Ian; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2014-05-01

    Primiparity is a well-established and significant risk factor for postpartum psychosis and especially bipolar affective disorders. However, no studies have, to our knowledge, quantified the risk of psychiatric disorders after the first, second, or subsequent births. The overall aim of the present study was to study the risk of first-time psychiatric episodes requiring inpatient treatment after the birth of the first, second, or third child. A cohort comprising 750,127 women was defined using information from Danish population registries. Women were followed individually from the date of birth of their first, second, or third child through the following 12 months over the period 1970-2011. The outcome of interest was defined as first-time admissions to a psychiatric hospital with any type of psychiatric disorder. Women who had a first psychiatric episode which required inpatient treatment after their first (n = 1,327), second (n = 735), or third (n = 238) delivery were included. The highest risk was found in primiparous mothers 10-19 days postpartum [relative risk (RR) = 8.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.89-10.85]. After the second birth, the highest risk was at 60-89 days postpartum (RR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.52-2.65), and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The effect of primiparity was strongest for bipolar disorders. Primiparity is a significant risk factor for experiencing a first-time episode with a psychiatric disorder, especially bipolar disorders. A second birth was associated with a smaller risk, and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The risk of postpartum episodes after the second delivery increased with increasing inter-pregnancy intervals, a result which warrants further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Psychiatric Evaluation of the Agitated Patient: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA Psychiatric Evaluation Workgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith R. Stowell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to fully assess an agitated patient, and the complete psychiatric evaluation usually cannot be completed until the patient is calm enough to participate in a psychiatric interview. Nonetheless, emergency clinicians must perform an initial mental status screening to begin this process as soon as the agitated patient presents to an emergency service. For this reason, the psychiatric evaluation of the agitated patient can be thought of as a two-step process. First a brief evaluation must be aimed at determining the most likely cause of agitation, so as to guide preliminary interventions to calm the patient. Once the patient is calmed, more extensive psychiatric assessment can be completed. The goal of the emergency assessment of the psychiatric patient is not necessarily to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Rather, ascertaining a differential diagnosis, determining safety, and developing an appropriate treatment and disposition plan are the goals of the assessment. This article will summarize what components of the psychiatric assessment can and should be done at the time the agitated patient presents. The complete psychiatric evaluation of the patient whose agitation has been treated successfully is beyond the scope of this paper and Project BETA, but will be outlined briefly to give the reader an understanding of what a full psychiatric assessment would entail. Other issues related to the assessment of the agitated patient in the emergency setting will also be discussed. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(1:11–16.

  20. Psychiatric evaluation of the agitated patient: consensus statement of the american association for emergency psychiatry project Beta psychiatric evaluation workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Keith R; Florence, Peter; Harman, Herbert J; Glick, Rachel L

    2012-02-01

    It is difficult to fully assess an agitated patient, and the complete psychiatric evaluation usually cannot be completed until the patient is calm enough to participate in a psychiatric interview. Nonetheless, emergency clinicians must perform an initial mental status screening to begin this process as soon as the agitated patient presents to an emergency setting. For this reason, the psychiatric evaluation of the agitated patient can be thought of as a 2-step process. First, a brief evaluation must be aimed at determining the most likely cause of agitation, so as to guide preliminary interventions to calm the patient. Once the patient is calmed, more extensive psychiatric assessment can be completed. The goal of the emergency assessment of the psychiatric patient is not necessarily to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Rather, ascertaining a differential diagnosis, determining safety, and developing an appropriate treatment and disposition plan are the goals of the assessment. This article will summarize what components of the psychiatric assessment can and should be done at the time the agitated patient presents to the emergency setting. The complete psychiatric evaluation of the patient whose agitation has been treated successfully is beyond the scope of this article and Project BETA (Best practices in Evaluation and Treatment of Agitation), but will be outlined briefly to give the reader an understanding of what a full psychiatric assessment would entail. Other issues related to the assessment of the agitated patient in the emergency setting will also be discussed.

  1. Present-day genetic composition suggests contrasting demographic histories of two dominant chaetognaths of the Nort-East Atlantic, Sagitta elegans and S. setosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; van Haastrecht, E.K.; Fauvelot, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Sagitta elegans and S. setosa are the two dominant chaetognaths in the North-East (NE) Atlantic. They are closely related and have a similar ecology and life history, but differ in distributional ranges. Sagitta setosa is a typical neritic species occurring exclusively above shelf regions, whereas

  2. "A Respect for the Past, a Knowledge of the Present, and a Concern for the Future": The Role of History in English Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. L.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that ELA teacher candidates and inservice ELA teachers need historical perspectives in their coursework and their practice. Using the life and career of Lou LaBrant, the author examines the value of placing current practice in the context of practice throughout the history of the field of teaching ELA. Patterns examined in…

  3. Molecular pathways towards psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1987-07-01

    The observed fibrillar-neuronal organization of the cerebral cortex suggests that in the aetiology of certain psychiatric disorders the genomic response of the neuron to the challenge presented by stress or insults at various stages of development, is to set off a programmed chain of molecular events (or ''pathways''), as demonstrated in previous genetic studies. The understanding of these pathways is important in order to enhance our ability to influence these illnesses, and are hypothesized to be initiated by a nucleolar mechanism for inducing abnormal synthesis of the nerve growth factor (NGF). The hypothesis is used to approach tentatively the still open question regarding the pathogenesis of mental retardation (MR) and senile dementia (SD). (author). 25 refs

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea: management considerations in psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taryn Heck,1 Monica Zolezzi21Pharmacy Department, University of Alberta Hospital, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, QatarAbstract: Psychiatric disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are often comorbid. However, there is limited information on the impact of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms, on how to manage psychiatric pharmacotherapy in patients presenting with OSA, or on the effectiveness and challenges of OSA treatments in patients with comorbid mental illness. As such, the objective of this article is to provide an overview of some epidemiological aspects of OSA and treatment considerations in the management of OSA in individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Predefined keywords were used to search for relevant literature in electronic databases. Data show that OSA is particularly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. The medical care that patients with these comorbidities require can be challenging, as some of the psychiatric medications used by these patients may exacerbate OSA symptoms. As such, continuous positive airway pressure continues to be the first-line treatment, even in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. However, more controlled studies are required, particularly to determine continuous positive airway pressure compliance in patients with mental illness, the impact of treating OSA on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of the use of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms.Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, psychotropic medications

  5. Influence of history of head trauma and epilepsy on delinquents in a juvenile classification home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hideki; Fujiki, Masumi; Shibata, Arihiro; Ishikawa, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    Juvenile delinquents often show poor impulse control and cognitive abnormalities, which may be related to disturbances in brain development due to head trauma and/or epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of head trauma and/or epilepsy on delinquent behavior. We examined 1,336 juvenile delinquents (1,151 males and 185 females) who had been admitted to the Nagoya Juvenile Classification Home, Aichi, Japan. Among them, 52 subjects with a history of epilepsy, convulsion or loss of consciousness, head injury requiring neurological assessment and/or treatment, or neurosurgical operation (head trauma/epilepsy group), were examined by electroencephalography and compared to subjects without these histories (control group) with respect to types of crime, history of amphetamine use, psychiatric treatment, child abuse, and family history. Among the 52 subjects, 43 (82.7%) showed abnormal findings. The head trauma/epilepsy group had significantly higher rates of psychiatric treatment (Phistory of drug abuse (Pdelinquents who had a history of head trauma and/or epilepsy showed a high prevalence of electroencephalograph abnormality, and higher rates of psychiatric treatment and family history of drug abuse, and were more likely to be sent to juvenile training school by the family court.

  6. Psychiatric outcomes after pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Ritchie, Lesley J; Koltek, Mark; Hosain, Shahid; Cordingley, Dean; Chu, Stephanie; Selci, Erin; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the prevalence of emotional symptoms among children and adolescents with a sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and (2) to examine the prevalence, clinical features, risk factors, and management of postinjury psychiatric outcomes among those in this clinical population. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with SRC referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and October 2014. Clinical assessments carried out by a single neurosurgeon included clinical history, physical examination, and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scoring. Postinjury psychiatric outcomes were defined as a subjective worsening of symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder or new and isolated suicidal ideation or diagnosis of a novel psychiatric disorder (NPD). An NPD was defined as a newly diagnosed psychiatric disorder that occurred in a patient with or without a lifetime preinjury psychiatric disorder after a concussion. Clinical resources, therapeutic interventions, and clinical and return-to-play outcomes are summarized. One hundred seventy-four patients (mean age 14.2 years, 61.5% male) were included in the study. At least 1 emotional symptom was reported in 49.4% of the patients, and the median emotional PCSS subscore was 4 (interquartile range 1-8) among those who reported at least 1 emotional symptom. Overall, 20 (11.5%) of the patients met the study criteria for a postinjury psychiatric outcome, including 14 patients with an NPD, 2 patients with isolated suicidal ideation, and 4 patients with worsening symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder. Female sex, a higher initial PCSS score, a higher emotional PCSS subscore, presence of a preinjury psychiatric history, and presence of a family history of psychiatric illness were significantly associated with postinjury psychiatric outcomes

  7. [Introducing computer units into the reception office as part of the Vrapce Psychiatric Hospital Information System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdancić, Zeljko; Jukić, Vlado; Bojić, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Computerized medical record has become a necessity today, because of both the amount of present-day medical data and the need of better handling and processing them. In more than 120 years of the Vrapce Psychiatric Hospital existence, the most important changes in the working concept of the reception office took place when computer technology was introduced into the routine use. The reception office of the Hospital is the vital place where administrative activities intersect with medical care for a patient presenting to the Hospital. The importance of this segment of the Hospital is emphasized by the fact that the reception office is in function and at patients' disposition round-the-clock, for 365 days a year, with great frequency of patients. The shift from the established way of registering medical data on patient admission in handwriting or, later, typescript, to computer recording was a challenging and demanding task (from the aspects of hardware, software, network, education) for the development team as well as for the physicians because it has changed the concept (logic of the working process) of previous way of collecting the data from the patient (history, status, diagnostic procedures, therapy, etc.). The success in the development and implementation of this project and the confirmation of its usefulness during the four-year practice at Vrapce Psychiatric Hospital are best illustrated by the fact that other psychiatric hospitals in Croatia have already introduced or are introducing it in their daily practice.

  8. Handover of patient information from the crisis assessment and treatment team to the inpatient psychiatric unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Amanda; Sands, Natisha; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Henderson, Kathryn

    2015-06-01

    Handover, or the communication of patient information between clinicians, is a fundamental component of health care. Psychiatric settings are dynamic environments relying on timely and accurate communication to plan care and manage risk. Crisis assessment and treatment teams are the primary interface between community and mental health services in many Australian and international health services, facilitating access to assessment, treatment, and admission to hospital. No previous research has investigated the handover between crisis assessment and treatment teams and inpatient psychiatric units, despite the importance of handover to care planning. The aim of the present study was to identify the nature and types of information transferred during these handovers, and to explore how these guides initial care planning. An observational, exploratory study design was used. A 20-item handover observation tool was used to observe 19 occasions of handover. A prospective audit was undertaken on clinical documentation arising from the admission. Clinical information, including psychiatric history and mental state, were handed over consistently; however, information about consumer preferences was reported less consistently. The present study identified a lack of attention to consumer preferences at handover, despite the current focus on recovery-oriented models for mental health care, and the centrality of respecting consumer preferences within the recovery paradigm. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. Characteristics associated with family money management for persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis

    2018-05-11

    Persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) commonly have their money officially or unofficially managed by others, with money managers most commonly being family members. (i) Identify characteristics of persons with PD, adult family members, and interactions with each other significantly associated with family money management (FMM). (ii) Identify significant differences in aforementioned characteristics between official versus unofficial FMM. Five hundred and seventy-three adults residing in USA with an adult relative with PD completed a survey. Among persons with PD, FMM was positively associated with lower income, diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective or bipolar disorder, psychiatric hospitalization, and arrest history. FMM was negatively associated with family members having a mental health diagnosis. FMM was positively associated with interaction characteristics of co-residence, financial assistance, caregiving, and use of limit-setting practices. Compared to official FMM, when unofficial FMM was present, persons with PD were less likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized or to have regularly attended mental health treatment. When unofficial FMM was present, adult family members were less likely to be a parent of the person with PD. Practitioners should assess the level of burden experienced by family money managers and assess and address with family money managers the use of limit-setting practices.

  10. The Co-evolution of Neuroimaging and Psychiatric Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyster, Timothy G; Mikell, Charles B; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-01-01

    The role of neuroimaging in psychiatric neurosurgery has evolved significantly throughout the field's history. Psychiatric neurosurgery initially developed without the benefit of information provided by modern imaging modalities, and thus lesion targets were selected based on contemporary theories of frontal lobe dysfunction in psychiatric disease. However, by the end of the 20th century, the availability of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allowed for the development of mechanistic theories attempting to explain the anatamofunctional basis of these disorders, as well as the efficacy of stereotactic neuromodulatory treatments. Neuroimaging now plays a central and ever-expanding role in the neurosurgical management of psychiatric disorders, by influencing the determination of surgical candidates, allowing individualized surgical targeting and planning, and identifying network-level changes in the brain following surgery. In this review, we aim to describe the coevolution of psychiatric neurosurgery and neuroimaging, including ways in which neuroimaging has proved useful in elucidating the therapeutic mechanisms of neuromodulatory procedures. We focus on ablative over stimulation-based procedures given their historical precedence and the greater opportunity they afford for post-operative re-imaging, but also discuss important contributions from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) literature. We conclude with a discussion of how neuroimaging will transition the field of psychiatric neurosurgery into the era of precision medicine.

  11. Association Between Allergies and Psychiatric Disorders in Patients Undergoing Invasive Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, Dwight; Wu, Stephanie E; Oklu, Rahmi; Erinjeri, Joseph; Deipolyi, Amy R

    Associations between allergies and psychiatric disorders have been reported in the context of depression and suicide; psychiatric disorders may affect pain perception. To investigate the relationship of allergies with psychiatric disorders and pain perception in the context of invasive procedures, specifically during tunneled hemodialysis catheter placement. We identified 89 patients (51 men, 38 women), mean age 66 years (range: 23-96), who underwent tunneled hemodialysis catheter placement (1/2014-2/2015), recording numeric rating scale pain scores, medications, psychiatric history, allergies, and smoking status. Of 89 patients, 47 patients had no allergies, and 42 had ≥1 allergy. Patients with allergies were more likely to have a pre-existing psychiatric disorder compared to those without allergies, odds ratio 2.6 (95% CI: 1.0-6.8). Having allergies did not affect procedural sedation or postprocedural pain scores. Multiple logistic regression with age, sex, smoking, presence of allergies, psychiatric history, inpatient/outpatient status, procedure time, and procedural sedation administration as inputs and postprocedural pain as the outcome showed that the only independent predictor was receiving procedural sedation (P = 0.005). Findings corroborate anecdotal reports of allergies as a marker for psychiatric history. However, having allergies was not associated with increased pain or need for more sedation. Further studies could prospectively assess whether allergies and psychiatric disorders affect patient/doctor perceptions beyond pain during invasive procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  13. Psychiatric comorbidity : fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes

    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus

  14. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schwarzbold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Schwarzbold1, Alexandre Diaz1, Evandro Tostes Martins2, Armanda Rufino1, Lúcia Nazareth Amante1,3, Maria Emília Thais1, João Quevedo4, Alexandre Hohl1, Marcelo Neves Linhares1,5,6, Roger Walz1,61Núcleo de Pesquisas em Neurologia Clínica e Experimental (NUPNEC, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 2Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 3Departamento de Enfermagem, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 4Laboratório de Neurociências, UNESC, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 5Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 6Centro de Cirurgia de Epilepsia de Santa Catarina (CEPESC, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, BrazilAbstract: Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, neuropsychiatry, diagnostic, epidemiology, pathophysiology

  15. Self-Esteem Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients

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    Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.

  16. STUDY ON PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PSORIASIS

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    Shrikant B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is relatively common , chronic inflammatory and hyper - proliferative skin disease that affects 1.4% to 2.0% of the population. Presence of itching , chronic recurrent course of disease and incomplete cure may contribute to great deal of psychiatric co - morbidity in these patients. the most persuasive indications of a link between stress and psoriasis comes from patients themselves , with studies illustrating that the majority of patients believe that stress or psychological distress is a factor in the manifestations of their condition . Depression and anxiety are the most common disorders that are associated with psoriasis , but the proportion of patient also having other psychiatric co - morbid diseases which include social phobia , generalize anxiety disorder , panic disorder , psychotic diso rder , etc. Moreover , symptoms of psoriasis , especially pruritus , are related to depression. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate different psychiatric illnesses their prevalence and severity in psoriasis patients. METHODOLOGY : This was cross - sectional observational stu dy comprised of 70 consecutive patients of psoriasis attending the out - patient department of Dermatology. All the patients were subjected to detailed examinations including the elicitation of dermatological and psychiatric profile after getting written con sent for study . Data was collected using self - developed , pre tested , semi structured Pro format by interview method. RESULTS : The profile of psychiatric diagnoses obtained in the present study depressive disorder 31.4% {18.57% depression , 12.85% Depression with anxiety symptoms} , anxiety disorder 25.7% (7.14% GAD , 8.17% panic disorder , 5.71% social phobia , 4.28 specific phobia. Severity of major depressive disorder was determined with HAM - D score 53.8% had mild depression , 30.7% moderate depression and 15. 5% severe depression. Similarly when HAM - A scale was used to determined severity of generalized

  17. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...

  18. Promoting editorial capacity in psychiatric journals in low and middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5Asean Journal of Psychiatr, Malaysia. 6Journal of Pakistan ... aspects that comprise requirements for selection, the political and strategic components of an ... content, review process, editorial structure and funding. Each presentation.

  19. Predictive and associated factors of psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Kate Rachel; Ponsford, Jennie Louise; Johnston, Lisa; Schönberger, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common and often debilitating following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is little consensus within the literature regarding the risk factors for post-injury psychiatric disorders. A 1-year prospective study was conducted to examine which pre-injury, injury-related, and concurrent factors were associated with experiencing a psychiatric disorder, diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, at 1 year post-injury. Participants were 122 adults with TBI and 88 proxy informants. Psychiatric disorders were common both pre-injury (54.1%) and at 12 months post-injury (45.9%). Results of regression analyses indicated individuals without a pre-injury psychiatric disorder or psychiatric symptomatology in the acute post-injury period were less likely to have a psychiatric disorder at 12 months post-injury. These findings confirm the importance of pre-injury history for the prediction of post-injury psychiatric disorders. Limb injury also emerged as a useful early indicator of later psychiatric disorder. Post-injury psychiatric disorders were associated with concurrent unemployment, pain, poor quality of life, and use of unproductive coping skills. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. THE HISTORY AND THE PRESENT OF THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE XVI – XVIII CENTURIES ON THE TERRITORY OF DNIPROPETROVSK IN THE EYES OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYSENKO G. I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Statement of the problem. With the enactment of the Law of Ukraine "About the condemnation of the Communist and national socialist (Nazi totalitarian regimes in Ukraine and the prohibition of propaganda of their symbolism", by minimum historical counting, about 800 localities of which at least 24 cities including Dnipropetrovs’k need to be renamed. But the views of residents of the city are divided: some support to keep the old name of the city, changing its semantic load, and there are a lot of people willing to rename the city in Sicheslav, Dniproslav, Kodak and the like. Now it is important to know the opinion of young people in the city and region who create their future and that of their children. The analysis of the research. The history of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on the territory of the future Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k became the subject of study of many scientists since the nineteenth century. In the years of independence more and more historians declare the necessity of the revision of the chronology of the history of our city, taking into account the earlier settlements, which undoubtedly influenced both the development of the region and the future provincial city. The purpose of this article is to determine the degree of influence of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on later (including modern history of Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k in the minds of the youth of the city. Conclusion. The analysis of the settlements of the XVI-XVIII centuries testifies to the active urban processes that took place in our region in the Cossack-Hetman days. This important stage in the history of our city enriches us, its current inhabitants, with facts about the distant past which we should not only remember and pass on to our descendants, but also recover through the reconstruction of the defining architectural features. The results of a survey among students to determine their views regarding the

  1. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

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    Ishimoto Kayo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal behavior (SB are considered to be especially at high risk of suicide. However, the number of studies that have addressed this patient population remains insufficient compared to that of studies on suicidal patients in emergency or medical settings. The purpose of this study is to seek features of a sample of newly admitted suicidal psychiatric patients in a metropolitan area of Japan. Method 155 suicidal patients consecutively admitted to a large psychiatric center during a 20-month period, admission styles of whom were mostly involuntary, were assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I CV and SCID-II and SB-related psychiatric measures. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses and SB-related characteristics with gender and age were examined. Results The common DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were affective disorders 62%, anxiety disorders 56% and substance-related disorders 38%. 56% of the subjects were diagnosed as having borderline PD, and 87% of them, at least one type of personality disorder (PD. SB methods used prior to admission were self-cutting 41%, overdosing 32%, self-strangulation 15%, jumping from a height 12% and attempting traffic death 10%, the first two of which were frequent among young females. The median (range of the total number of SBs in the lifetime history was 7 (1-141. Severity of depressive symptomatology, suicidal intent and other symptoms, proportions of the subjects who reported SB-preceding life events and life problems, and childhood and adolescent abuse were comparable to those of the previous studies conducted in medical or emergency service settings. Gender and age-relevant life-problems and life events were identified. Conclusions Features of the studied sample were the high prevalence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and borderline PD, a variety of SB methods used prior to admission

  2. Effects of a psychiatric intensive care unit in an acute psychiatric department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaler, A E; Morken, G; Fløvig, J C; Iversen, V C; Linaker, O M

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatric acute units use different levels of segregation to satisfy needs for containment and decrease in sensory input for behaviourally disturbed patients. Controlled studies evaluating the effects of the procedure are lacking. The aim of the present study was to compare effects in acutely admitted patients with the use of a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and not in a psychiatric acute department. In a naturalistic study, one group of consecutively referred patients had access only to the PICU, the other group to the whole acute unit. Data were obtained for 56 and 62 patients using several scales. There were significant differences in reduction of behaviour associated with imminent, threatening incidents (Broset Violence Checklist), and actual number of such incidents (Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised) in favour of the group that was treated in a PICU. The principles of patient segregation in PICUs have favourable effects on behaviours associated with and the actual numbers of violent and threatening incidents.

  3. Registration, psychiatric evaluation and adherence to psychiatric treatment after suicide attempt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Søgaard, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Persons who are treated at hospital after attempted suicide comprise a high-risk group for suicide. The proposal for a National Programme for Prevention of Suicide and Suicide Attempt in Denmark recommends that all persons who attempt suicide should be offered treatment and that treatment should....... Only few patients were not referred to any treatment at all, but among the patients referred to psychiatric treatment, only those admitted involuntarily received treatment in 100% of the planned cases. For outpatient treatment in the suicide prevention clinic, the percentage that attended planned...... be implemented, using a supportive and guiding principle. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether patients receive psychiatric evaluation after a suicide attempt, and whether they receive the psychiatric treatment to which they are referred. In the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation in four emergency...

  4. The relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, M S; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Bailey, P E

    2003-03-01

    To examine the relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Seventy-six adolescents (mean age: 16.02 years; range: 12-20) treated in an inpatient unit and presenting with DSM-IV psychotic disorder, depressive disorder, anxious disorder, anorexia nervosa, personality disorder, or conduct disorder were compared with a control group of 119 adolescents drawn from a normal population. All the subjects were assessed with the French translation of the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory (SEI). Self-esteem was significantly higher in the control than in the clinical population (P = 0.0001). Female patients showed significantly lower SEI scores than male patients. Self-esteem increased significantly after 12 weeks in patients with a first psychotic episode who responded successfully to antipsychotic drug treatment. In the clinical group, a history of suicide attempts and sexual abuse was associated with significantly lower SEI scores. Lack of boy- or girlfriend, dropping out of school, and social withdrawal were also associated with lower self-esteem. The presence of a psychiatric disorder in adolescents is associated with decreased self-esteem. This decrease in self-esteem varies according to the psychiatric disorder. Appropriate treatment can enhance self-esteem in adolescent patients.

  5. From mental disorder to iatrogenic hypogonadism: dilemmas in conceptualizing gender identity variants as psychiatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

    2010-04-01

    The categorization of gender identity variants (GIVs) as "mental disorders" in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association is highly controversial among professionals as well as among persons with GIV. After providing a brief history of GIV categorizations in the DSM, this paper presents some of the major issues of the ongoing debate: GIV as psychopathology versus natural variation; definition of "impairment" and "distress" for GID; associated psychopathology and its relation to stigma; the stigma impact of the mental-disorder label itself; the unusual character of "sex reassignment surgery" as a psychiatric treatment; and the consequences for health and mental-health services if the disorder label is removed. Finally, several categorization options are examined: Retaining the GID category, but possibly modifying its grouping with other syndromes; narrowing the definition to dysphoria and taking "disorder" out of the label; categorizing GID as a neurological or medical rather than a psychiatric disorder; removing GID from both the DSM and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD); and creating a special category for GIV in the DSM. I conclude that-as also evident in other DSM categories-the decision on the categorization of GIVs cannot be achieved on a purely scientific basis, and that a consensus for a pragmatic compromise needs to be arrived at that accommodates both scientific considerations and the service needs of persons with GIVs.

  6. Understanding migraine and psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Seng, Cynthia D

    2016-06-01

    This article describes recent trends in our understanding of the role of psychiatric disorders in the experience and treatment of migraine, and the role of migraine in the experience and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the majority of studies evaluating psychiatric comorbidity in migraine have focused on depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorders are highly associated with migraine and relevant for prognosis and treatment planning. Comorbid psychiatric disorders may be associated with poorer treatment response for some acute pharmacotherapies; however, people with comorbid migraine and mood or anxiety disorders can achieve large responses to preventive pharmacologic and behavioral therapies. Emerging research is developing and evaluating behavioral treatments designed to manage cooccurring migraine and mood or anxiety disorders. Stigma related to psychiatric disorders has been well characterized, and could exacerbate extant migraine-related stigma. Anxiety and mood disorders are prevalent in people with migraine, although not ubiquitous. Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with greater migraine symptoms and disability; however, people with comorbid depression or anxiety are amenable to preventive migraine treatment. Research regarding migraine treatment strategies optimized for people with comorbid psychiatric disorders is critical to advancing care and reducing stigma for this important subpopulation of people with migraine.

  7. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  8. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  9. Care systematization in psychiatric nursing within the psychiatric reform context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdes, A; Kantorski, L P

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to approach care systematization in psychiatric nursing in two psychiatric disorder patients who attended 'Nossa Casa', São Lourenço do Sul, RS, Brazil. Nossa Casa services psychiatric patients in the community, focussing on: (i) permanence in their environment, allowing patients to remain close to their families and social spheres; (ii) integral attendance to meet individual needs; (iii) respecting individual differences; (iv) rehabilitation practices; and (v) social reinsertion. Concepts and assumptions of the psychiatric reform and the Irving's nursing process were used as theoretical-methodological references to elaborate this systematization. A therapeutic project for the psychiatric patient was elaborated, in accordance with the interdisciplinary proposal accepted by Nossa Casa. Interdisciplinary team intervention, guided by a previously discussed common orientation and defined through an individualized therapeutic project, allowed for an effective process of psychosocial rehabilitation. The authors concluded that a therapeutic project based on the mentioned premises leads to consistent, comprehensive, dialectical and ethical assistance in mental health, thereby reinstating the citizenship of psychiatric patients.

  10. Psychiatric diagnoses, trauma, and suicidiality

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    Elklit Ask

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the associations between psychiatric diagnoses, trauma and suicidiality in psychiatric patients at intake. Methods During two months, all consecutive patients (n = 139 in a psychiatric hospital in Western Norway were interviewed (response rate 72%. Results Ninety-one percent had been exposed to at least one trauma; 69 percent had been repeatedly exposed to trauma for longer periods of time. Only 7% acquired a PTSD diagnosis. The comorbidity of PTSD and other psychiatric diagnoses were 78%. A number of diagnoses were associated with specific traumas. Sixty-seven percent of the patients reported suicidal thoughts in the month prior to intake; thirty-one percent had attempted suicide in the preceding week. Suicidal ideation, self-harming behaviour, and suicide attempts were associated with specific traumas. Conclusion Traumatised patients appear to be under- or misdiagnosed which could have an impact on the efficiency of treatment.

  11. Negative and positive childhood experiences across developmental periods in psychiatric patients with different diagnoses – an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Margarete

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high frequency of childhood abuse has often been reported in adult psychiatric patients. The present survey explores the relationship between psychiatric diagnoses and positive and negative life events during childhood and adulthood in psychiatric samples. Methods A total of 192 patients with diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders (n = 45, schizophrenic disorders (n = 52, affective disorders (n = 54, and personality disorders (n = 41 completed a 42-item self-rating scale (Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire, TAQ. The TAQ assesses personal positive experiences (competence and safety and negative experiences (neglect, separation, secrets, emotional, physical and sexual abuse, trauma witnessing, other traumas, and alcohol and drugs abuse during four developmental periods, beginning from early childhood to adulthood. Patients were recruited from four Psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Switzerland, and Romania; 63 subjects without any history of mental illness served as controls. Results The amount of positive experiences did not differ significantly among groups, except for safety scores that were lower in patients with personality disorders as compared to the other groups. On the other side, negative experiences appeared more frequently in patients than in controls. Emotional neglect and abuse were reported in patients more frequently than physical and sexual abuse, with negative experiences encountered more often in late childhood and adolescence than in early childhood. The patients with alcohol-related and personality disorders reported more negative events than the ones with schizophrenic and affective disorders. Conclusions The present findings add evidence to the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences and psychiatric diagnoses, and emphasize the fact that a emotional neglect and abuse are the most prominent negative experiences, b adolescence is a more 'sensitive' period for negative

  12. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Suicide Attempters Who Needed ICU Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MMA Shalahuddin Qusar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a tragic and serious but preventable public health problem all over the world including Bangladesh. Committing suicide has become a burning issue and mortality rate increases especially in young females. Psychiatric evaluation is needed in suicide attempted patients for better management plan to reduce such unnatural mortality, as well as the impairment related to suicidal thought and psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To assess the psychiatric disorders and conditions that needed sufficient clinical attention among the suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a private hospital of Dhaka City from July 2008 to December 2008. Total forty four subjects of attempted suicide were included in the study and psychiatric diagnosis was made by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV by psychiatrists after initial physical problems subsided. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis was Major Depressive Disorder. Female suffered more and among them attention-seeking behaviors were frequent. Thirty-four patients (77.3% had previous history of psychiatric disorder. Chemicals (like; organophosphorous, kerosene, harpic and other medicine overdose ingestion was the most frequently used method by the suicide attempters. Conclusion: This study may be helpful for further research regarding suicide attempters and its' association with mental problems. In primary health care setting, the physicians may get a clue to design a system for preventing, early recognition and managing suicidal ideas, thoughts and attempts. Psychiatric consultation should be made mandatory for all patients admitted following attempted suicide. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4761 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 73-77

  13. Inpatient Suicide in a Chinese Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Guo, Yangbo; Su, Jinghua; Lu, Huixian

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the risk factors for suicide among psychiatric inpatients in China. In this study we identified the risk factors of suicide among psychiatric inpatients at Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital. All psychiatric inpatients who died by suicide during the 1956-2005 period were included in this study. Using a case-control design, 64…

  14. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  15. Cannabis Use and Risk of Psychiatric Disorders: Prospective Evidence From a US National Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos; Hasin, Deborah S; Wall, Melanie M; Flórez-Salamanca, Ludwing; Hoertel, Nicolas; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T; Olfson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    With rising rates of marijuana use in the general population and an increasing number of states legalizing recreational marijuana use and authorizing medical marijuana programs, there are renewed clinical and policy concerns regarding the mental health effects of cannabis use. To examine prospective associations between cannabis use and risk of mental health and substance use disorders in the general adult population. A nationally representative sample of US adults aged 18 years or older was interviewed 3 years apart in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (wave 1, 2001-2002; wave 2, 2004-2005). The primary analyses were limited to 34 653 respondents who were interviewed in both waves. Data analysis was conducted from March 15 to November 30, 2015. We used multiple regression and propensity score matching to estimate the strength of independent associations between cannabis use at wave 1 and incident and prevalent psychiatric disorders at wave 2. Psychiatric disorders were measured with a structured interview (Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV). In both analyses, the same set of wave 1 confounders was used, including sociodemographic characteristics, family history of substance use disorder, disturbed family environment, childhood parental loss, low self-esteem, social deviance, education, recent trauma, past and present psychiatric disorders, and respondent's history of divorce. In the multiple regression analysis of 34 653 respondents (14 564 male [47.9% weighted]; mean [SD] age, 45.1 [17.3] years), cannabis use in wave 1 (2001-2002), which was reported by 1279 respondents, was significantly associated with substance use disorders in wave 2 (2004-2005) (any substance use disorder: odds ratio [OR], 6.2; 95% CI, 4.1-9.4; any alcohol use disorder: OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9-3.8; any cannabis use disorder: OR, 9.5; 95% CI, 6.4-14.1; any other drug use disorder: OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.4; and

  16. Venlafaxine-induced REM sleep behavioral disorder presenting as two fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ryan Williams

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavioral disorder is characterized by the absence of muscular atonia during REM sleep. In this disorder, patients can violently act out their dreams, placing them at risk for traumatic fractures during these episodes. REM sleep behavioral disorder (RBD can be a sign of future neurodegenerative disease and has also been found to be a side effect of certain psychiatric medications. We present a case of venlafaxine-induced RBD in a 55 year old female who presented with a 13 year history of intermittent parasomnia and dream enactment in addition to a recent history of two fractures requiring intervention.

  17. Venlafaxine-induced REM sleep behavioral disorder presenting as two fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Williams, R; Sandigo, Gustavo

    2017-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavioral disorder is characterized by the absence of muscular atonia during REM sleep. In this disorder, patients can violently act out their dreams, placing them at risk for traumatic fractures during these episodes. REM sleep behavioral disorder (RBD) can be a sign of future neurodegenerative disease and has also been found to be a side effect of certain psychiatric medications. We present a case of venlafaxine-induced RBD in a 55 year old female who presented with a 13 year history of intermittent parasomnia and dream enactment in addition to a recent history of two fractures requiring intervention.

  18. The revolution in psychiatric diagnosis: problems at the foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Galatzer-Levy, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    The third edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III; 1974) not only revolutionized psychiatric diagnosis, it transformed and dominated American psychiatry. The nosology of psychiatry had been conceptually confusing, difficult to apply, and bound to widely questioned theories. Psychiatry and clinical psychology had been struggling with their scientific status. DSM attempted to solve psychiatry's problems by making psychiatry more like its authors' perception of general medicine. It tried to avoid theory, especially psychoanalytic theories, by discussing only observable manifestations of disorders. But DSM is actually highly theory-bound. It implicitly and powerfully includes an exclusively "medical" model of psychological disturbance, while excluding other psychiatric ideas. Its authors tried to meet what they saw as "scientific standards." To a surprising extent, DSM reflects its creators' personal distaste for psychoanalysis. The result is that DSM rests on a narrow philosophical perspective. The consequences of its adoption are widespread: it has profoundly affected drug development and other therapeutic studies, psychiatric education, attitudes toward patients, the public perception of psychiatry, and administrative and legal decisions. This article explores how DSM's most problematic features arise from its history in psychiatric controversies of the 1960s and its underlying positivistic philosophy.

  19. How psychiatric patients perceive the public's stereotype of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, M; Lang, T; Scherer, M

    2003-05-01

    It is well established that the general public has devaluating attitudes towards psychiatric patients. In order to avoid rejection, many of these patients develop coping strategies, such as withdrawal and concealing their treatment history. These efforts are in themselves stressing, which might have negative consequences for the course of the disorder. It is not clear, however, how many and which patients do actually perceive the public's stereotype as threatening and, therefore, expect rejection. Ninety psychiatric patients and a sample of 1042 persons of the Austrian general population were asked whether they agreed with five devaluating statements about mental patients contained in a questionnaire developed by Link et al. Matched pairs comparisons and multiple logistic regression were employed in order to find out whether patients agreed with these statements to the same extent as the general population did. For the statements that most people believe that psychiatric patients are "less intelligent", "less trustworthy" and "taken less seriously", patients thought significantly less often than the general population that most people devalue mental patients. For two statements ("personal failure", "think less of") no difference was found. It seems that some psychiatric patients are less convinced than the general population that most people devalue psychiatric patients in specific respects; these patients might fear rejection less than other patients do. Those who actually fear rejection might need antistigma assistance more urgently than the first group.

  20. Focusing on Presentation Instead of Representation: Perspectives on Representational and Non-Representational Language-Games for Educational History and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, Lynn; Smeyers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Debates in science seem to depend on referential language-games, but in other senses they do not. This article addresses non-representational theory. It is a branch of newer approaches to cultural geography that strive to get a handle on spatial relationships not by representing them, but rather by presenting them. In this case, present connotes…

  1. A study of psychiatric morbidity in patients of peptic ulcer diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Singh Klair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among patients of peptic ulcer disease and to study the patients of peptic ulcer disease with psychiatric morbidity in comparison to patients of peptic ulcer disease without psychiatric morbidity on following variables: sociodemographic variables and attributes/risk factors of peptic ulcer disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of clinically proven acid peptic diseases and 30 cases of the control group were screened in department of General Medicine, outdoor as well as indoor patients. Instruments applied for the purpose of the study were Personal Bio-data Performa (Appendix-I, (SCL- 80 (Appendix-II, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety and depression, (P.S.L.E.; clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders was made as per ICD- 10 criteria. Data collected shall be subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Findings: The psychiatric morbidity was significantly (P10 years, compared to 23.80% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Lastly, 48.27% of patients with psychiatric morbidity had significantly (P<0.01 stronger family history of acid peptic disease compared to 9.52% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the peptic ulcer disease and the various psychiatric morbidity factors as illustrated from the findings of this study.

  2. Form of presentation, natural history and course of postoperative venous thromboembolism in patients operated on for pelvic and abdominal cancer. Analysis of the RIETE registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Merlo, Ana Belén; Arcelus Martínez, Juan Ignacio; Turiño Luque, Jesús Damián; Valero, Beatriz; Villalobos, Aurora; Aibar, Miguel Ángel; Monreal Bosch, Manuel

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents a serious complication after oncologic surgery. Recent studies have shown that the risk of VTE persists several weeks after surgery. This study assesses the form of presentation and time course of VTE after abdominal and pelvic cancer surgery. Prospective, multicenter, observational study that analyzes data from an international registry (RIETE) that includes consecutive patients with symptomatic VTE. Our study assesses the form and time of presentation of postoperative VTE, as well as main outcomes, in patients operated for abdominopelvic cancer 8 weeks prior to VTE diagnosis. Variables related to the presentation of VTE after hospital discharge are identified. Out of the 766 analyzed patients with VTE, 395 (52%) presented pulmonary embolism (PE). Most VTE cases (84%) were detected after the first postoperative week, and 38% after one month. Among patients with VTE in the first postoperative week, 70% presented PE. VTE presented after hospital discharge in 54% of cases. Colorectal, urologic, and gynecologic tumors, the use of radiotherapy, and blood hemoglobin levels were independently associated with VTE diagnosis after hospital discharge. Complications (thrombosis recurrence, bleeding, and death) occurred in 34% of patients with VTE detected before hospital discharge, compared to 24% in VTE after hospital discharge (P<0.01). VTE occurs after hospital discharge in most patients, particularly in those operated for colorectal, urologic, and gynecologic cancer. Pulmonary embolism is more frequent in patients who develop early VTE, who also have worse prognosis. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychiatric comorbidity of headache in a medical relief camp in a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Himanshu; Shah, Savan

    2006-07-01

    Headache is one of the most common complaints seen by primary care physicians, but very few well-planned studies have been conducted to know its prevalence. To study the prevalence of headache and associated psychiatric morbidity. A medical relief camp was held in village Mavta (near Ratlam in Madhya Pradesh) in 2002. Of a total of 1350 registered subjects, 80 with primary complaints of headache were referred to our expert team of psychiatrists. Sixty-nine subjects (86.25%) had psychiatric morbidity-mainly affective disorders (depression) and panic disorder, dysthymia, alcohol and nicotine dependence. Subjects with migraine and depression were mostly women with onset of symptoms at an early age. Subjects with less education; who were unmarried or had lost a spouse; those with a nuclear family; who were unemployed and those with a family history and past history of mental illness, were all susceptible to headache and depression. Disturbed sleep, free floating anxiety, sad mood, lack of pleasure, body ache and fatigue were the main presenting complaints along with headache.

  4. Improving the smoking patterns in a general hospital psychiatric unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Iglesias García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the effects of a smoking ban in a general hospital psychiatric unit. Methods: We study the effects of smoking ban in 40 consecutive psychiatric inpatients. The staff registered socio-demographic and tobacco-related variables. We also registered any kind of behavioral effects of smoking ban.Results: The patients were willing to stop smoking during their hospital stay (with or without nicotine replacement with two mild behavioural incidences registered throughout the study. Conclusions: The benefits of non-smoking policy in a psychiatric unit can be significant. The introduction of smoking bans in psychiatric inpatients settings is possible and safe.

  5. Molecular Pathways Bridging Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eZanardini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The overlap of symptoms between neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases has been reported. Neuropsychiatric alterations are commonly observed in dementia, especially in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, which is the most common clinical FTD subtype. At the same time, psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, can display symptoms of dementia, including features of frontal dysfunction with relative sparing of memory. In the present review we discuss common molecular features in these pathologies with a special focus on FTD. Molecules like Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and progranulin are linked to the pathophysiology of both neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In these brain-associated illnesses, the presence of disease-associated variants in BDNF and progranulin (GRN genes cause a reduction of circulating proteins levels, through alterations in proteins expression or secretion. For these reasons, we believe that prevention and therapy of psychiatric and neurological disorders could be achieved enhancing both BDNF and progranulin levels thanks to drug discovery efforts.

  6. Pattern of adult psychiatric emergency cases presenting at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , current episode manic without psychotic symptoms constituted 17.2% of the cases, while 9.4% were cases of Mental and Behavioural Disorder due to Psychoactive Substance Use. Other cases included depressive illness, mania and delirium.

  7. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  8. Work-related stress disorders: variability in clinical expression and pitfalls in psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buselli, Rodolfo; Veltri, Antonello; Baldanzi, Sigrid; Bozzi, Silvia; Marino, Riccardo; Chiumiento, Martina; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Cristaudo, Alfonso

    2016-03-24

    Putative occupational stress-related psychiatric disorders are Adjustment Disorders (AD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Mood Disorders (MD) are not excluded but are unlikely to be identified as occupational diseases. The differential diagnosis between AD and MD is not easy and is based on strict categorical criteria. The aim of this study  was to explore differences in personality and mood spectrum symptoms among workers investigated for occupational stress suffering from AD or MD. Sixty-two patients with AD and 43 with MD were recruited and evaluated by means of rating scales for psychosocial occupational risk and work-related stress (WHS, CDL, OSQ), for sleep disturbances (PSQI), for personality disorders (SCID-II) and for mood spectrum symptoms (MOODS-SR). The diagnostic groups did not differ for WHS, OSQ and PSQI scores. The duration of exposure to stressful/adversative work situations was significantly higher in the MD group (p=0.03). Positive family psychiatric history (p=0.005), personality disorders (p=0.009) and pathological personality traits (p<0.0001) were significantly more frequent in the MD group. The MOODS-SR questionnaire total score (p=0.019) and the manic component score (p=0.001) but not the depressive score were significantly higher in the MD group. The present study suggests that  positive family psychiatric history, pathological personality traits and  spectrum manic symptoms represent markers of vulnerability and low resilience for workers exposed to occupational stress. These characteristics could weaken the etiological relationship between work-related stress and an initial  major depressive episode when it is under investigation as a possible occupational disease.

  9. [Psychiatric disturbances in five patients with MELAS syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Martin; Honzik, Tomas; Tesarova, Marketa; Dvorakova, Veronika; Hansiková, Hana; Raboch, Jiři; Zeman, Jiři

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders of energetic metabolism (MD) represent a heterogeneous group of diseases manifesting at any age with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms, including psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to characterize psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses in five patients with MELAS syndrome between the ages of 17 and 53 years. Four of MELAS patients them harbored the prevalent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation 3243A>G, and one patient had the mtDNA mutation 12706T>C. Three patients had positive family histories for MELAS syndrome. In one patient, depression was diagnosedas the first symptom ofMELAS syndrome. Depression also preceded a stroke-like episode in one patient. Four patients had disturbed cognitive functions, confusional states occurred in three patients. One patient manifested psychotic (schizophrenia-like) symptoms. Mitochondrial disorders deserve consideration as part of the differential diagnosis, especially, if there is suspected involvement of other organ groups or positive family history of MD.

  10. Self-esteem and psychiatric features of Turkish adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: a comparative study with epilepsy and healthy control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Gokçe N; Tasdemir, Haydar A; Akbas, Seher; Yüce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and epilepsy are known to have psychosocial problems. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychosocial difficulties, history of stressful life events/abuse, psychiatric diagnosis, and self-esteem of adolescents with PNES to the ones with epilepsy and healthy controls at a tertiary care center in Turkey. Thirty-four adolescents with PNES diagnosed by video-EEG were compared with 23 adolescents that have epilepsy and 35 healthy volunteers. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses of participants were examined by semi-structured interviews using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). Self-esteem of adolescents was evaluated by Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). No differences in sociodemographic features were observed between the groups. The PNES group showed significantly higher rates of parental conflicts, difficulties in relationship with siblings/peers, school under-achievement, and history of stressful events/abuse. The rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders were 64.7% in PNES and 47.8% in epilepsy group. The most common disorders in both groups were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorder. The rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly increased in the PNES group. Additionally, adolescents with PNES displayed significantly lower levels of self-esteem than the other groups. It could be concluded that both disorders involved a high risk for developing psychiatric disorders; additionally, adolescents with PNES have higher rates of stressors and lower levels of self-esteem. Findings from this investigation point to the importance of psychiatric interventions in pediatric PNES and also epilepsy.

  11. Psychiatric referrals in two general hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doongaji D

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was undertaken to compare the patterns of psychiatric referrals in two general hospitals in Bombay viz. the King Edward Memorial Hospital (64 cases and the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre (62 cases. It was observed that depressive symptoms were the most common presenting symptoms in these patients attending either of the hospitals. Similarly, the commonest diagnoses were depression and organic mental disorder. Attempted suicide with organophosphorous compounds was the commonest reason for hospitalization at K.E.M. Hospital (p less than 0.001. A significant number of these patients were females (p less than 0.05. The psychiatric referrals at Jaslok had been hospitalized mainly for suspected medical or neurological illness (p less than 0.001. These patients belonged to higher economic strata and hence had a better paying capacity compared to patients at KEM hospital, a significant number of whom were unemployed (p less than 0.001. The duration of pre-referred illness of patients and their stay at Jaslok hospital were longer as compared to those at KEM Hospital (p less than 0.01. The number of non-relevant special investigations carried out on patients in Jaslok was more (p less than 0.01. Further analysis of diagnoses revealed that a significant number of patients at KEM Hospital were admitted as primary psychiatric illness (p less than 0.05.

  12. Psychiatric disorder associated with vacuum-assisted breast biopsy clip placement: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografos George C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a minimally invasive technique that has been used increasingly in the treatment of mammographically detected, non-palpable breast lesions. Clip placement at the biopsy site is standard practice after vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. Case presentation We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with suspicious microcalcifications in her left breast. The patient was informed about vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, including clip placement. During the course of taking the patient's history, she communicated excellently, her demeanor was normal, she disclosed no intake of psychiatric medication and had not been diagnosed with any psychiatric disorders. Subsequently, the patient underwent vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (11 G under local anesthesia. A clip was placed at the biopsy site. The pathological diagnosis was of sclerosing adenosis. At the 6-month mammographic follow-up, the radiologist mentioned the existence of the metallic clip in her breast. Subsequently, the woman presented complaining about "being spied [upon] by an implanted clip in [her] breast" and repeatedly requested the removal of the clip. The patient was referred to the specialized psychiatrist of our breast unit for evaluation. The Mental State Examination found that systematized paranoid ideas of persecutory type dominated her daily routines. At the time, she believed that the implanted clip was one of several pieces of equipment being used to keep her under surveillance, the other equipment being her telephone, cameras and television. Quite surprisingly, she had never had a consultation with a mental health professional. The patient appeared depressed and her insight into her condition was impaired. The prevalent diagnosis was schizotypal disorder, whereas the differential diagnosis comprised delusional disorder of persecutory type, affective disorder with psychotic features or comorbid delusional disorder with major depression

  13. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Talih, Farid; Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of ou...

  14. Continuity and Admixture in the Last Five Millennia of Levantine History from Ancient Canaanite and Present-Day Lebanese Genome Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Marc; Doumet-Serhal, Claude; Scheib, Christiana; Xue, Yali; Danecek, Petr; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Youhanna, Sonia; Martiniano, Rui; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Szpak, Michał; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Schutkowski, Holger; Mikulski, Richard; Zalloua, Pierre; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2017-08-03

    The Canaanites inhabited the Levant region during the Bronze Age and established a culture that became influential in the Near East and beyond. However, the Canaanites, unlike most other ancient Near Easterners of this period, left few surviving textual records and thus their origin and relationship to ancient and present-day populations remain unclear. In this study, we sequenced five whole genomes from ∼3,700-year-old individuals from the city of Sidon, a major Canaanite city-state on the Eastern Mediterranean coast. We also sequenced the genomes of 99 individuals from present-day Lebanon to catalog modern Levantine genetic diversity. We find that a Bronze Age Canaanite-related ancestry was widespread in the region, shared among urban populations inhabiting the coast (Sidon) and inland populations (Jordan) who likely lived in farming societies or were pastoral nomads. This Canaanite-related ancestry derived from mixture between local Neolithic populations and eastern migrants genetically related to Chalcolithic Iranians. We estimate, using linkage-disequilibrium decay patterns, that admixture occurred 6,600-3,550 years ago, coinciding with recorded massive population movements in Mesopotamia during the mid-Holocene. We show that present-day Lebanese derive most of their ancestry from a Canaanite-related population, which therefore implies substantial genetic continuity in the Levant since at least the Bronze Age. In addition, we find Eurasian ancestry in the Lebanese not present in Bronze Age or earlier Levantines. We estimate that this Eurasian ancestry arrived in the Levant around 3,750-2,170 years ago during a period of successive conquests by distant populations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The reliability of child psychiatric diagnosis. A comparison among Danish child psychiatrists of traditional diagnoses and a multiaxial diagnostic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Isager, T; Jørgensen, O S

    1988-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare an experimental multiaxial diagnostic system (MAS) with traditional multicategorical diagnoses in child psychiatric work. Sixteen written case histories were circulated to 21 child psychiatrists, who made diagnoses independently of one another, using two different...

  16. To do good might hurt bad : Exploring nurses' understanding and approach to suffering in forensic psychiatric settings

    OpenAIRE

    Vincze, M.; Fredriksson, L.; Wiklund Gustin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Patients in forensic psychiatric settings not only have to deal with their mental illness, but also memories of criminal activities and being involuntarily hospitalized. The aim of the present study was to explore how nurses working in forensic psychiatric services understand and approach patients' experiences of suffering. Data were generated by semistructured interviews with psychiatric nurses from two different forensic psychiatric units in Sweden. Data were analysed by means of a hermeneu...

  17. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Maria Rita Teixeira; Campos, Lorenza Nogueira; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n=2145). More than one quarter of the sample (25.8%) reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Patients Presenting to the Emergency Unit with Gynaecological Lower Abdominal Pain, with and without Pathological Clinical Findings - Service Utilisation, Pain History, Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedentopf, F; Wowro, E; Möckel, M; Kentenich, H; David, M

    2016-09-01

    Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the utilisation of emergency gynaecological services, although lower abdominal pain (LAP) is one of the most common symptoms prompting emergency presentation. Although such pain may be caused by potentially life-threatening gynaecological diseases, very often no clinical cause is found. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of emergency presentations in order to enable quicker identification of real emergencies in routine clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Standardised, so-called first aid cards of 1066 consecutive patients with LAP presenting acutely to one emergency unit were analysed in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. Results: Over one third of cases did not constitute actual medical emergencies on objective criteria, with investigations yielding "no pathological findings". Parameters were identified that more often lead to hospital admission, e.g. palpation of a mass/resistance or at least one pathological ultrasound finding. In addition, it was found that symptoms of longer duration (average 8 days), and not only acute LAP, were also often experienced by patients as emergencies. Conclusion: A diagnosis of "no pathological findings", which was common in our study, suggests a subjective experience of an emergency from the patient's point of view, although the possibility of unrecognised pathology has to be borne in mind. Apart from functional disorders, the origins of symptoms may include psychosomatic causes and psychosocial problems, which cannot be further defined in the emergency care setting. Also, the phenomenon of increased utilisation of emergency services parallel to the assumed opening hours of routine outpatient care facilities must be seen in a critical light.

  19. [Psychiatric disorders in patients with Cushing's disease before and after neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjidiae, Zivko; Karloviae, Dalibor; Buljan, Danijel; Malencia, Masa; Kovak-Mufiae, Ana; Kostanjsak, Lidija

    2011-01-01

    Cushing's disease which is a consequence of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma leads to hypercortisolism. Cushing's disease is associated with several psychiatric disturbances. The aim of the present study was to identify which psychiatric disorders were present in patients with Cushing's disease over a 2-year period and to monitor their general psychiatric condition. Additionally, the study aimed to examine the relationship between the duration of Cushing's disease, and the severity of psychiatric conditions based on psychiatric rating scales. The study included 39 patients with Cushing's disease that underwent neurosurgery for ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. The transsphenoidal approach (the standard microsurgery technique) was performed in all patients. ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas were confirmed based on immunohistochemistry in all patients. Psychiatric conditions in the patients were identified using the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) and ICD 10 diagnostic criteria at 3 time points: prior to surgery, and 6 and 48 months post surgery. The Cushing's disease patients exhibited statistically significant improvement in their psychiatric condition, according to the CGI, 6 and 48 months post surgery. There wasn't any significant correlation between the duration of Cushing's disease and psychiatric status, as measured by the CGI prior to surgery, 6 months post surgery, or 48 months post surgery. Patients with Cushing's disease had a significant level psychiatric disturbance that remitted after surgery. There wasn't a significant correlation between the duration of Cushing's disease and psychiatric status.

  20. The progression of coeliac disease: its neurological and psychiatric implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Giovanna; Pesce, Mirko; Tatangelo, Raffaella; Rizzuto, Alessia; La Fratta, Irene; Grilli, Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to show the various neurological and psychiatric symptoms in coeliac disease (CD). CD is a T cell-mediated, tissue-specific autoimmune disease which affects genetically susceptible individuals after dietary exposure to proline- and glutamine-rich proteins contained in certain cereal grains. Genetics, environmental factors and different immune systems, together with the presence of auto-antigens, are taken into account when identifying the pathogenesis of CD. CD pathogenesis is related to immune dysregulation, which involves the gastrointestinal system, and the extra-intestinal systems such as the nervous system, whose neurological symptoms are evidenced in CD patients. A gluten-free diet (GFD) could avoid cerebellar ataxia, epilepsy, neuropathies, migraine and mild cognitive impairment. Furthermore, untreated CD patients have more symptoms and psychiatric co-morbidities than those treated with a GFD. Common psychiatric symptoms in untreated CD adult patients include depression, apathy, anxiety, and irritability and schizophrenia is also common in untreated CD. Several studies show improvement in psychiatric symptoms after the start of a GFD. The present review discusses the state of the art regarding neurological and psychiatric complications in CD and highlights the evidence supporting a role for GFD in reducing neurological and psychiatric complications.

  1. Psychiatric symptoms and CAG expansion in Huntington`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.W.; Schmid, W.; Spiegel, R. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-02-16

    The mutation responsible for Huntington`s disease (HD) is an elongated CAG repeat in the coding region of the IT15 gene. A PCR-based test with high sensitivity and accuracy is now available to identify asymptomatic gene carriers and patients. An inverse correlation between CAG copy number and age at disease onset has been found in a large number of affected individuals. The influence of the CAG repeat expansion on other phenotypic manifestations, especially specific psychiatric symptoms has not been studied intensively. In order to elucidate this situation we investigated the relation between CAG copy number and distinct psychiatric phenotypes found in 79 HD-patients. None of the four differentiated categories (personality change, psychosis, depression, and nonspecific alterations) showed significant differences in respect to size of the CAG expansion. In addition, no influence of individual sex on psychiatric presentation could be found. On the other hand in patients with personality changes maternal transmission was significantly more frequent compared with all other groups. Therefore we suggest that clinical severity of psychiatric features in HD is not directly dependent on the size of the dynamic mutation involved. The complex pathogenetic mechanisms leading to psychiatric alterations are still unknown and thus genotyping does not provide information about expected psychiatric symptoms in HD gene carriers. 40 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Factors Relating to Self-Efficacy Among Psychiatric Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Hironori; Kobayashi, Mako; Odachi, Ryo; Yamane, Toshie

    This study aimed to clarify the factors related to self-efficacy experienced by psychiatric nurses. Analysis of qualitative descriptive data from a free self-description questionnaire administered to 16 psychiatric nurses working in psychiatric hospitals revealed 24 codes across the following 8 categories as factors that increase self-efficacy: A1. possibility of practical use in nursing, A2. nursing judgment, A3. improvement of psychiatric symptoms, A4. the patients presenting a positive attitude, A5. building a relationship of trust with the patients, A6. building a relationship of trust with other nurses, A7. work progressing according to plan and A8. team medical practice. Twenty-five codes across the following 10 categories were identified as factors that decrease self-efficacy: B1. lack of communication, B2. uncertainty in caregiving, B3. recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, B4. feeling overpowered by a patient, B5. sense of being too busy to work adequately, B6. difficulty in bringing about self-improvement, B7. sense of loss regarding one's role as a nurse, B8. lack of physical strength, B9. mechanical performance of nursing and B10. fluctuating view of nursing due to mistakes. These factors require intervention for psychiatric nurses' self-efficacy.

  3. Cannabis use and family history in adolescent first episode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical correlates of cannabis use in adolescents with first episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: Inpatient psychiatric records provided demographic, lifetime cannabis use, family history of mental illness, and clinical data on 45 FEP adolescents, aged 12–18 years, admitted to a psychiatric unit in ...

  4. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph E.; Strauss, John; Strohmaier, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium: a......: autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia.......Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium...

  6. Prototype diagnosis of psychiatric syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESTEN, DREW

    2012-01-01

    The method of diagnosing patients used since the early 1980s in psychiatry, which involves evaluating each of several hundred symptoms for their presence or absence and then applying idiosyncratic rules for combining them for each of several hundred disorders, has led to great advances in research over the last 30 years. However, its problems have become increasingly apparent, particularly for clinical practice. An alternative approach, designed to maximize clinical utility, is prototype matching. Instead of counting symptoms of a disorder and determining whether they cross an arbitrary cutoff, the task of the diagnostician is to gauge the extent to which a patient’s clinical presentation matches a paragraph-length description of the disorder using a simple 5-point scale, from 1 (“little or no match”) to 5 (“very good match”). The result is both a dimensional diagnosis that captures the extent to which the patient “has” the disorder and a categorical diagnosis, with ratings of 4 and 5 corresponding to presence of the disorder and a rating of 3 indicating “subthreshold” or “clinically significant features”. The disorders and criteria woven into the prototypes can be identified empirically, so that the prototypes are both scientifically grounded and clinically useful. Prototype diagnosis has a number of advantages: it better captures the way humans naturally classify novel and complex stimuli; is clinically helpful, reliable, and easy to use in everyday practice; facilitates both dimensional and categorical diagnosis and dramatically reduces the number of categories required for classification; allows for clinically richer, empirically derived, and culturally relevant classification; reduces the gap between research criteria and clinical knowledge, by allowing clinicians in training to learn a small set of standardized prototypes and to develop richer mental representations of the disorders over time through clinical experience; and can help

  7. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reko, Amra; Bech, Per; Wohlert, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    predominantly male and married. The group consisted primarily (61%) of failed asylum seekers. Most patients (81%) presented with relevant mental health problems. The main reasons for presenting to the acute psychiatric emergency service were suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (60%). The most frequent diagnosis...... by asylum seekers in Denmark shows some of the acute mental health needs asylum seekers present with. The findings of high levels of suicidal ideation and possible diagnostic difficulties are discussed, as well as possible improvements of the referral and psychiatric evaluation processes....

  8. Experiences of psychiatric nurses exposed to hostility from patients in a forensic ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, T R; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H

    2011-10-01

    Hostile behaviour is becoming a way of life in South Africa. Hostility prevails at all settings, including in the health sector. In a forensic ward psychiatric nurses are subjected to hostile behaviour by the patients. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe the psychiatric nurses' experiences of hostile behaviour by patients in a forensic ward and make recommendations for nurse managers to empower these psychiatric nurses to cope with the patients' aggression. Qualitative, in-depth, phenomenological interviews were conducted with nine psychiatric nurses exposed to hostility from patients in a forensic ward. Recommendations were derived from the results from nurse managers to assist psychiatric nurses. It became apparent from the findings that psychiatric nurses in a forensic ward work in a stressful environment. Hostile behaviour in the forensic ward is consistently experienced by the psychiatric nurses as hindering therapeutic relationships. The psychiatric nurses experienced being disempowered. Psychiatric nurses experience hostile behaviour by patients in a forensic ward as disempowering. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSE MANAGEMENT: Nurse managers can facilitate psychiatric nurses' empowerment by providing them access to: information, support, resources, opportunity and growth. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Job satisfaction in psychiatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M; Cowman, S

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, mental health services across Europe have undergone major organizational change with a move from institutional to community care. In such a context, the impact of change on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses has received little attention in the literature. This paper reports on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses and data were collected in 2003. The population of qualified psychiatric nurses (n = 800) working in a defined geographical health board area was surveyed. Methodological triangulation with a between-methods approach was used in the study. Data were collected on job satisfaction using a questionnaire adopted from the Occupational Stress Indicator. A response rate of 346 (43%) was obtained. Focus groups were used to collect qualitative data. Factors influencing levels of job satisfaction predominantly related to the nurses work location. Other factors influencing job satisfaction included choice of work location, work routine, off duty/staff allocation arrangements, teamwork and working environment. The results of the study highlight to employers of psychiatric nurses the importance of work location, including the value of facilitating staff with choices in their working environment, which may influence the recruitment and retention of nurses in mental health services.

  10. [Insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.

  11. Management of Current Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnel, François; David, Michel; Norton, Joanna; Bourrel, Gérard; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe and analyse the experience of family physicians in managing current psychiatric disorders to obtain a better understanding of the underlying reasons of under-detection and inadequate prescribing identified in studies. Methods: A qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Sample of 15 practicing family physicians, recruited by telephone from a precedent cohort (Sesame1) with a maximum variation: sex, age, single or group practice, urban or rural. Qualitative method is inspired by the completed grounded theory of a verbatim semiopragmatic analysis from 2 experts in this approach. Results: Family physicians found that current psychiatric disorders were related to psychological symptoms in reaction to life events. Their role was to make patients aware of a psychiatric symptom rather than establish a diagnosis. Their management responsibility was considered in contrasting ways: it was claimed or endured. They defined their position as facilitating compliance to psychiatrist consultations, while assuring a complementary psychotherapeutic approach. Prescribing medication was not a priority for them. Conclusions: The identified under-detection is essentially due to inherent frontline conditions and complexity of clinical forms. The family physician role, facilitating compliance to psychiatrist consultations while assuring a support psychotherapy is the main result of this study. More studies should be conducted to define more accurately the clinical reality, management and course of current psychiatric disorders in primary care.

  12. Workplace culture in psychiatric nursing described by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjenluoma, K; Rantanen, A; McCormack, B; Slater, P; Hahtela, N; Suominen, T

    2017-12-01

    This study looks to describe the workplace culture from the viewpoints of stress, job satisfaction and practice environment. Data were collected from nurses (n = 109) using a web-based survey, The Person-Centred Nursing Index, from two purposefully selected hospital districts in Finland. Data were statistically analysed. Nurses described their workplace culture in slightly positive terms. Nurses only occasionally experienced stress (mean = 2.56, SD = 0.55) and were fairly satisfied with their job (mean = 4.75, SD = 0.66) and their practice environment (mean = 4.42, SD = 0.81). Demographic variables such as the nurses' age, length of time in nursing, time at their present hospital, working shifts and their use of patient restriction were more frequently associated with their perceived workplace culture. Older nurses and those with a longer work history in the nursing profession tended to be more satisfied with their workplace culture in psychiatric nursing. Young and/or newly graduated nurses felt more negatively on their workplace culture; this issue should be recognised and addressed with appropriate support and mentoring. Nurses who used restrictive measures were more often less satisfied with their workplace culture. Continuous efforts are needed to reduce the use of coercive measures, which challenge also the managers to support nursing practice to be more person-centred. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... in Psychiatrry, Department of Behavioural Sciences,University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria,. M. K. Jimba ... Psychiatric diagnosis was based .... The second stage: Clinical psychiatric interview was.

  14. Skin disorders in chronic psychiatric illness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Hovens, J.E.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic psychiatric patients are prone to develop skin diseases. However, epidemiological data are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of skin complaints and dermatological disorders in residential psychiatric patients. METHODS: Ninety-one randomly chosen patients of the

  15. Skin disorders in chronic psychiatric illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E. J.; van de Kerkhof, P. C. M.; Hovens, J. E. J. M.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; Loonen, A. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic psychiatric patients are prone to develop skin diseases. However, epidemiological data are scarce. Objective To describe the prevalence of skin complaints and dermatological disorders in residential psychiatric patients. Methods Ninety-one randomly chosen patients of the

  16. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders,

  17. Regionalised tertiary psychiatric residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain; Groden, David; Goldner, Elliot M; Gelinas, Daniel; Arnold, Leslie M

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitals remain the main venue for long-term mental health care and, despite widespread closures and downsizing, no country that built asylums in the last century has done away with them entirely--with the recent exception of Italy. Differentiated community-based residential alternatives have been developed over the past decades, with staffing levels that range from full-time professional, to daytime only, to part-time/on-call. This paper reviews the characteristics of community-based psychiatric residential care facilities as an alternative to long-term care in psychiatric hospitals. It describes five factors decision makers should consider: 1. number of residential places needed; 2. staffing levels; 3. physical setting; 4. programming; and 5. governance and financing. In Italy, facilities with full-time professional staff have been developed since the mid-1990s to accommodate the last cohorts of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals. In the United Kingdom, experiments with hostel wards since the 1980s have shown that home-like, small-scale facilities with intensive treatment and rehabilitation programming can be effective for the most difficult-to-place patients. More recently in Australia, Community Care Units (CCUs) have been applying this concept. In the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), Tertiary Psychiatric Residential Facilities (TPRFs) have been developed as part of an effort to regionalise health and social services and downsize and ultimately close its only psychiatric hospital. This type of service must be further developed in addition to the need for forensic, acute-care and intermediate-level beds, as well as for community-based care such as assertive community treatment and intensive case management. All these types of services, together with long-term community-based residential care, constitute the elements of a balanced mental health care system. As part of a region's balanced mental health care plan, these Tertiary

  18. A Case of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Presenting as Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegya-Raman, Nikhil; Aziz, Rehan; Schneider, Daniel; Tobia, Anthony; Leitch, Megan; Nwobi, Onyi

    2017-01-01

    Background . Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare disorder of the central nervous system. Its initial diagnosis may be obscured by its variable presentation. This case report illustrates the complexity of diagnosing this disease early in the clinical course, especially when the initial symptoms may be psychiatric. It offers a brief review of the literature and reinforces a role for consultation psychiatry services. Methods . PUBMED/MEDLINE was searched using the terms "Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease", "psychiatric symptoms", "conversion disorder", "somatic symptom disorder", "functional movement disorder", and "functional neurologic disorder". Case . The patient was a 64-year-old woman with no prior psychiatric history who was initially diagnosed with conversion disorder and unspecified anxiety disorder but soon thereafter was discovered to have Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Discussion . This case highlights the central role of psychiatric symptoms in early presentations of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Still, few other cases in the literature report functional neurological symptoms as an initial sign. The consultation psychiatrist must remain alert to changing clinical symptoms, especially with uncharacteristic disease presentations.

  19. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  20. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity in adult eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J; Romanos, M; Pfennig, A; Leopold, K; Meurer, M

    2009-10-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a common dermatological condition that causes significant problems in everyday life and high levels of illness-related stress in substantial proportions of patients. The extent to which adult AE is associated with clinically relevant psychiatric morbidity is unclear. To investigate the association between adult AE and major psychiatric/psychosomatic disorders. Case-control study utilizing the GKV database Saxony, an interdisciplinary administrative outpatient database from Germany. All patients documented as having AE at least twice within the study period (2003-2004) (n = 3769, mean age 44 years) were individually matched by age and sex to 3769 controls without AE. Logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the relationship of AE with affective, stress-related, behaviour and schizophrenic disorders, considering sociodemographic characteristics, consulting behaviour and allergic comorbidities as potential confounding factors. Eczema was independently associated with affective [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.79], stress-related (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.35-1.77), behaviour (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.23) and schizophrenic disorders (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.22-3.71). For each psychiatric condition the likelihood of being affected significantly increased with each physician visit due to AE, suggesting that the risk of psychiatric comorbidity increases with the severity of AE. This study indicates psychiatric comorbidity of adults with AE. Collaboration between dermatologists and mental health specialists may optimize medical care for a significant subgroup of patients with AE.

  2. Excited delirium: Consideration of selected medical and psychiatric issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Edith Samuel1, Robert B Williams1, Richard B Ferrell21Department of Psychology, Atlantic Baptist University, Moncton, New Brunswick Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USAAbstract: Excited delirium, sometimes referred to as agitated or excited delirium, is the label assigned to the state of acute behavioral disinhibition manifested in a cluster of behaviors that may include bizarreness, aggressiveness, agitation, ranting, hyperactivity, paranoia, panic, violence, public disturbance, surprising physical strength, profuse sweating due to hyperthermia, respiratory arrest, and death. Excited delirium is reported to result from substance intoxication, psychiatric illness, alcohol withdrawal, head trauma, or a combination of these. This communication reviews the history of the origins of excited delirium, selected research related to its causes, symptoms, management, and the links noted between it and selected medical and psychiatric conditions. Excited delirium involves behavioral and physical symptoms that are also observed in medical and psychiatric conditions such as rhabdomyolysis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and catatonia. A useful contribution of this communication is that it links the state of excited delirium to conditions for which there are known and effective medical and psychiatric interventions.Keywords: excited delirium, excited states, cocaine misuse, restraint or in custody deaths

  3. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms of young adult female indoor tanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Online, except for the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which was completed over the telephone. Participants were 306 female university students aged 18 to 25 years. MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Descriptive statistics, χ(2) analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions.

  4. [Creativity and psychiatric disorders: exploring a marginal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, E; Sabbe, B; De Hert, M

    2012-01-01

    Creativity is an important human quality on which many of man’s achievements are based. To give a historical and cultural context, to facilitate meaningful scientific research into the link between creativity and psychiatric disorders. Review of relevant literature. The possibility of a link between creativity and psychiatric vulnerability was first discussed in antiquity. Modern interest in the subject stems from the romantic era and acquired a scientific aura in the 19th century. In the 20th century creativity and psychopathology became still further entangled as a result of the influence that mentally disturbed artists exerted on art. The history of the Prinzhorn collection illustrates many aspects of this interaction. Psychometric, psychodiagnostic and genetic research supports a link between creativity and psychiatric illness within the bipolar-psychotic continuum, with schizotypy/thymotypy as prototypes of creativity-related disorders. Evolutionary hypotheses connect the schizophrenia paradox to a survival advantage obtained as a result of enhanced creative ability. Neuro-aesthetics explains the neurologic correlates of the aesthetic experience on the basis of the features of the visual system. A specific challenge for scientific research in this complex and heterogeneous area is appropriate operationalisation of creativity and psychiatric illness within an truly artistic context. There is a continuing need for meaningful definitions and measurement instruments and for a multidisciplinary collaboration.

  5. Associations between Familial Rates of Psychiatric Disorders and De Novo Genetic Mutations in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyleen Luhrs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the confluence of genetic and familial risk factors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD with distinct de novo genetic events. We hypothesized that gene-disrupting mutations would be associated with reduced rates of familial psychiatric disorders relative to structural mutations. Participants included families of children with ASD in four groups: de novo duplication copy number variations (DUP, n=62, de novo deletion copy number variations (DEL, n=74, de novo likely gene-disrupting mutations (LGDM, n=267, and children without a known genetic etiology (NON, n=2111. Familial rates of psychiatric disorders were calculated from semistructured interviews. Results indicated overall increased rates of psychiatric disorders in DUP families compared to DEL and LGDM families, specific to paternal psychiatric histories, and particularly evident for depressive disorders. Higher rates of depressive disorders in maternal psychiatric histories were observed overall compared to paternal histories and higher rates of anxiety disorders were observed in paternal histories for LGDM families compared to DUP families. These findings support the notion of an additive contribution of genetic etiology and familial factors are associated with ASD risk and highlight critical need for continued work targeting these relationships.

  6. Instructional Cost Analysis: History and Present Inadequacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, David A.

    The cost analysis of instruction is conducted according to principles of teaching and learning that have often become historically dated. Using today's costing systems prevents determination of whether cost effectiveness actually exists. The patterns of instruction in higher education and the systems employed for instructional cost analysis are…

  7. Continuity of pharmaceutical care for psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdullah-Koolmees, Heshu

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diseases are common. The effective treatment of a psychiatric disease, its (somatic) side effects and any concurrent somatic diseases is important for the patient’s overall health and wellbeing. The studies conducted in psychiatric patients generally focus on the continuation of

  8. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Psychiatric services. 415.184 Section 415.184 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Psychiatric services. To qualify for physician fee schedule payment for psychiatric services furnished under...

  9. acute psychiatric readmissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atric institutions and long hospital admissions towards acute, short hospital stays and ... large urban environments.8,9. Illness-related variables ... admissions, and if more than one diagnosis was present in the ... Both the full model and a ...

  10. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: rate of referral for neurorehabilitation and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, D

    2012-04-01

    Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients continue to present with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) which may be associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. We audited our patients with HAND referred for psychiatric assessment against the National Service Framework guidelines that they should receive neurorehabilitation. We found that despite these patients posing a risk to themselves and others due to poor insight and medication adherence, high rates of psychiatric co-morbidity and severely challenging behaviour, few were referred for neurorehabilitation. We recommend that clear referral pathways for psychiatric intervention and neurorehabilitation are established in HIV treatment centres.

  11. Who’s Boarding in the Psychiatric Emergency Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott A.; Joesch, Jutta M.; West, Imara I.; Pasic, Jagoda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction When a psychiatric patient in the emergency department requires inpatient admission, but no bed is available, they may become a “boarder.” The psychiatric emergency service (PES) has been suggested as one means to reduce psychiatric boarding, but the frequency and characteristics of adult PES boarders have not been described. Methods We electronically extracted electronic medical records for adult patients presenting to the PES in an urban county safety-net hospital over 12 months. Correlative analyses included Student’s t-tests and multivariate regression. Results 521 of 5363 patient encounters (9.7%) resulted in boarding. Compared to non-boarding encounters, boarding patient encounters were associated with diagnoses of a primary psychotic, anxiety, or personality disorder, or a bipolar manic/mixed episode. Boarders were also more likely to be referred by family, friends or providers than self-referred; arrive in restraints; experience restraint/seclusion in the PES; or be referred for involuntary hospitalization. Boarders were more likely to present to the PES on the weekend. Substance use was common, but only tobacco use was more likely associated with boarding status in multivariate analysis. Conclusion Boarding is common in the PES, and boarders have substantial psychiatric morbidity requiring treatment during extended PES stays. We question the appropriateness of PES boarding for seriously ill psychiatric patients. PMID:25247041

  12. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders amongst Adolescents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahrivar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.

  13. Who’s Boarding in the Psychiatric Emergency Service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Simpson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When a psychiatric patient in the emergency department requires inpatient admission, but no bed is available, they may become a “boarder.” The psychiatric emergency service (PES has been suggested as one means to reduce psychiatric boarding, but the frequency and characteristics of adult PES boarders have not been described. Methods: We electronically extracted electronic medical records for adult patients presenting to the PES in an urban county safety-net hospital over 12 months. Correlative analyses included Student’s t-tests and multivariate regression. Results: 521 of 5363 patient encounters (9.7% resulted in boarding. Compared to non-boarding encounters, boarding patient encounters were associated with diagnoses of a primary psychotic, anxiety, or personality disorder, or a bipolar manic/mixed episode. Boarders were also more likely to be referred by family, friends or providers than self-referred; arrive in restraints; experience restraint/ seclusion in the PES; or be referred for involuntary hospitalization. Boarders were more likely to present to the PES on the weekend. Substance use was common, but only tobacco use was more likely associated with boarding status in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Boarding is common in the PES, and boarders have substantial psychiatric morbidity requiring treatment during extended PES stays. We question the appropriateness of PES boarding for seriously ill psychiatric patients. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:669-674

  14. Predicting psychiatric readmission: sex-specific models to predict 30-day readmission following acute psychiatric hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lucy Church; Gruneir, Andrea; Fung, Kinwah; Herrmann, Nathan; Kurdyak, Paul; Lin, Elizabeth; Rochon, Paula A; Seitz, Dallas; Taylor, Valerie H; Vigod, Simone N

    2018-02-01

    Psychiatric readmission is a common negative outcome. Predictors of readmission may differ by sex. This study aimed to derive and internally validate sex-specific models to predict 30-day psychiatric readmission. We used population-level health administrative data to identify predictors of 30-day psychiatric readmission among women (n = 33,353) and men (n = 32,436) discharged from all psychiatric units in Ontario, Canada (2008-2011). Predictor variables included sociodemographics, health service utilization, and clinical characteristics. Using derivation data sets, multivariable logistic regression models were fit to determine optimal predictive models for each sex separately. Results were presented as adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The multivariable models were then applied in the internal validation data sets. The 30-day readmission rates were 9.3% (women) and 9.1% (men). Many predictors were consistent between women and men. For women only, personality disorder (aOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03-1.42) and positive symptom score (aOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.82 for score of 1 vs. 0; aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.26-1.64 for ≥ 2 vs. 0) increased odds of readmission. For men only, self-care problems at admission (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.36) and discharge (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.26-1.64 for score of 1 vs. 0; aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.17-2.74 for 2 vs. 0), and mild anxiety rating (score of 1 vs. 0: aOR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.64, derivation model only) increased odds of readmission. Models had moderate discriminative ability in derivation and internal validation samples for both sexes (c-statistics 0.64-0.65). Certain key predictors of psychiatric readmission differ by sex. This knowledge may help to reduce psychiatric hospital readmission rates by focusing interventions.

  15. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  16. Physical disorders among Southeast Asian refugee outpatients with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, K; Westermeyer, J; Neider, J

    1996-09-01

    The study assessed the prevalence and duration of axis III physical disorders and the resulting level of disability among Southeast Asian refugee outpatients with axis I psychiatric disorders. A total of 266 consecutive patients who were evaluated in a psychiatric outpatient clinic were assessed for the presence of axis III conditions through questions about physical symptoms, a medical history and review of records, physical examination, and laboratory screening. The sample included 158 Hmong, 58 Laotian, 43 Vietnamese, and seven Cambodian patients. Fifty-five percent of the patients had one or more axis III disorders, most of which were chronic and were not associated with extreme disability. Neurological conditions were most common, and the sequelae of war-related trauma were prominent. No associations were found between the presence of axis III conditions and age, gender, marital status, or ethnic group. In 48 cases, the axis III condition may have caused or exacerbated the axis I condition. Routine medical history and a physical examination, including a neurological examination, are recommended for all psychiatric patients, including outpatients.

  17. Screening of alcohol use disorders in psychiatric outpatients: influence of gender, age, and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Autet, Mónica; Garriga, Marina; Zamora, Francisco Javier; González, Idilio; Usall, Judith; Tolosa, Leticia; Benítez, Concepción; Puertas, Raquel; Arranz, Belén

    2017-07-14

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are 2 times higher among psychiatric patients than in the general population. The under-recognition of this dual diagnosis can entail several negative outcomes. Early assessment with a screening tool like the CAGE questionnaire could be an opportunity to improve patients' prognoses. The objective of this study is to assess AUD risk in an outpatient psychiatric sample with a modified CAGE, considering the influence of age, gender and clinical psychiatric diagnosis. An observational, multicentric, descriptive study was carried out. The 4-item CAGE scale, camouflaged in a healthy lifestyle questionnaire, was implemented, using a cut-off point of one. 559 outpatients were assessed. 54% were female and the average age was 50.07 years. 182 patients presented a CAGE score ≥1 (45.1% of men and 21.9% of women). Gender was the strongest predictor of a positive result in CAGE, as men were 3.03 times more likely to score ≥1 on the CAGE questionnaire (p < .001, 95% CI: 0.22-0.49). Patients with bipolar and personality disorders had the highest rates of CAGE scores ≥1 (45.2 and 44.9%, respectively), with a significant association between diagnosis and a positive score (p = .002). Patients above 60 years were 2.5 times less likely to score ≥1 on the CAGE (p = .017, 95% CI: 0.19-0.85). Specific screening questionnaires, like the CAGE scale, can be an easy and useful tool in the assessment of AUD risk in psychiatric outpatients. Male patients with a bipolar or personality disorder present a higher risk of AUD.

  18. Psychiatric disorders in cases of completed suicide in a hospital area in Spain between 2007 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Forti-Buratti, M Azul; Gutiérrez-López, Beatriz; Belmonte-Ibáñez, Anna; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an important Public Health problem. One of the most relevant known risk factors for suicide is suffering from a mental health disorder, identified in up to 90-95% of completed suicides, with this risk being increased if comorbidity is present. Findings from international research on the most common psychiatric disorders are dichotomous, divided into mood disorders and psychotic disorders. In Spain, data of this kind are scarce. This study describes the psychiatric and forensic characteristics of completed suicide cases (n=79) ocurred in a psychiatric hospital healthcare area (in Spain), between 2007 and 2010. The forensic data were obtained from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Catalonia and the clinical data by reviewing the clinical records. Most of the subjects in this sample were males (78.5%, 95% CI; 68.4%-87.3%). Almost half of the sample (45.4%, 95% CI; 33.8%-57.1%, 35/77) had records in the Mental Health Services Network (including substance misuse services). Two of the 79 were under 18, so we were not able to access the records. More than half (54.3%, 95% CI; 37.1%-71.4%) of those with psychiatric history suffered from a mood disorder; 37.1% (95% CI; 22.9%-51.4% from a depressive disorder; 14.3% (95% CI; 2.9%-25.7%) from a bipolar disorder, and 17.1% (95% CI; 5.7%-31.4%) suffered from a psychotic disorder. With regard to substance misuse, 42.9% (95% CI; 25.7%-60.0%) presented substance misuse, and 48.6% did not. Psychiatric and forensic characteristics of completed suicide in this Spanish sample confirm previous findings from international studies: there is a high rate of psychiatric disorders in those who complete suicide, and there is a specific pattern as regards the method used to complete it. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. History of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to history page Back Particle Physics Timeline For over two thousand years people have thought the Standard Model. We invite you to explore this history of particle physics with a focus on the : Quantum Theory 1964 - Present: The Modern View (the Standard Model) back to history page Back Sections of

  20. Pragmatism rules: the intervention and prevention strategies used by psychiatric nurses working with non-suicidal self-harming individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, A

    2007-02-01

    Self harm in the absence of expressed suicidal intent is an under explored area in psychiatric nursing research. This paper reports on findings of a study undertaken in two acute psychiatric inpatient units in Ireland. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the practices of psychiatric nurses in relation to people who self harm, but who are not considered suicidal. Semi structured interviews were held with eight psychiatric nurses. Content analysis revealed several themes. For the purpose of this paper the prevention and intervention strategies psychiatric nurses engage in when working with non-suicidal self harming individuals are presented. Recommendations for further research are offered.

  1. Opening of Psychiatric Observation Unit Eases Boarding Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Vivek; Tinloy, Bradford; Ulrich, Andrew; D'Onofrio, Gail; Goldenberg, Matthew; Rothenberg, Craig; Patel, Amitkumar; Venkatesh, Arjun K

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a psychiatric observation unit in reducing emergency department (ED) boarding and length of stay (LOS) for patients presenting with primary psychiatric chief complaints. A secondary outcome was to determine the effect of a psychiatric observation unit on inpatient psychiatric bed utilization. This study was a before-and-after analysis conducted in a 1,541-bed tertiary care academic medical center including an adult ED with annual census over 90,000 between February 2013 and July 2014. All adult patients (age > 17 years) requiring evaluation by the acute psychiatry service in the crisis intervention unit (CIU) within the ED were included. Patients who left without being seen, left against medical advice, or were dispositioned to the pediatric hospital, hospice, or court/law enforcement were excluded. In December 2013, a 12-bed locked psychiatric observation unit was opened that included dedicated behavioral health staff and was intended for psychiatric patients requiring up to 48 hours of care. The primary outcomes were ED LOS, CIU LOS, and total LOS. Secondary outcomes included the hold rate defined as the proportion of acute psychiatry patients requiring subsequent observation or inpatient admission and the inpatient psychiatric admission rate. For the primary analysis we constructed ARIMA regression models that account for secular changes in the primary outcomes. We conducted two sensitivity analyses, first replicating the primary analysis after excluding patients with concurrent acute intoxication and second by comparing the 3-month period postintervention to the identical 3-month period of the prior year to account for seasonality. A total of 3,501 patients were included before intervention and 3,798 after intervention. The median ED LOS for the preintervention period was 155 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 19-346 minutes), lower than the median ED LOS for the postintervention period of 35

  2. Psychiatric effects of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunving, K

    1985-09-01

    That cannabis use may provoke mental disturbances is well known to Scandinavian psychiatrists today. A review of the psychiatric aspects of cannabis use is given, and the clinical signs of 70 cases of cannabis psychoses collected in Sweden are described. The bluntness and "amotivation" following chronic cannabis use are discussed. Anxiety reactions, flashbacks, dysphoric reactions and an abstinence syndrome are all sequels of cannabis use. Three risk groups begin to emerge: a) Young teenage cannabis users who lose some of their capacity to learn complex functions and who flee from reality to a world of dreams. With its sedative effect, cannabis could modify such emotions as anger and anxiety and slow down the liberation process of adolescence. b) Heavy daily users, often persons who cannot cope with depression or their life circumstances. c) Psychiatric patients whose resistance to relapses into psychotic reactions might be diminished according to the psychotropic effects of cannabis.

  3. Psychiatric disorders in opioid dependants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Toobaee, Shahin; Kharras, Mohammad; Radmehr, Mohammad

    2003-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common among substance dependants. The objectives of this study were to assess the rate of neurotic disorders among opioid addicts, and reassess the rate of those neurotic disorders two weeks after complete detoxification of the patients. Data were gathered from 500 (496 men and 4 women) opioid dependants, using DSM-IV criteria. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ) was used to measure free-floating anxiety, depression, phobia, obsession, hysteria and somatization. Four hundred and ninety-six (99.2%) of the subjects were men of whom the majority (65.2%) were married, 26.4% single and the others were divorced or separated. Three hundred and thirty-four (66.8%) were in age range of 20 to 39 years. Of the subjects 154 (30.8) were self-employed, 116 (23.2%) were factory workers, 100 (20%) unemployed, 64 (12.8%) employees and 32 (6.4%) retailers. The majority, 322 (64.4%), reported elementary and high school as their level of education and only 20 (4%) were illiterate. The means for neurotic disorders (using the MHQ) before and two weeks after detoxification were 10.12 and 9.98 for anxiety, 7.54 and 7.41 for phobia, 10.10 and 9.76 for depression, 11.11 and 11.05 for obsession, 8.47 and 8.49 for hysteria and 9.82 and 9.46 for somatization, respectively. The mean difference was significant only for depression. Present findings indicated that the rate of neurotic disorders in opioid dependants is high and (except for depression) was not significantly different before detoxification and two weeks after detoxification. Opium was found to be the most prevalent form of opioid used. Also it can be concluded that during the last years some demographic characteristics of Iranian opioid addicts in this sample have changed. Cultural attitudes toward substance use quite likely affect the pattern of substance use. These findings can be considered when planning preventive and therapeutic programs.

  4. Assessment of Perceived Stress Related to Migration and Acculturation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders (MIGSTR10)-Development, Reliability, and Dimensionality of a Brief Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias J; Zink, Sabrina; Koch, Eckhardt

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of stressors related to migration and acculturation in patients with psychiatric disorder and migration background could help improve culturally sensitive concepts of psychiatry and psychotherapy for diagnosis and treatment. The present overview delineates development and psychometric properties of an instrument (MIGSTR10) for assessment of stressors related to migration and acculturation, particularly for application in patients with psychiatric disorders. Ten migration-related stressors were derived from a qualitative content analysis of case histories of patients with psychiatric disorder and migration background and put into a suitable interview and questionnaire format (MIGSTR10; 10 questions, answer format: categorical yes/no, and dimensional 0-10) for self-assessment and observer ratings in several languages. Reliability (interrater agreement, internal consistency) and dimensionality (multi-dimensional scaling, MDS) were investigated in n = 235 patients with migration background and n = 612 indigenous German patients. Interrater agreement (ICC) for MIGSTR10 single items and sum scores (categorical and dimensional) was sufficiently high (≥.58); internal consistency (Cronbach's α) reached medium to high values (.56-.73). MDS revealed a two-dimensional solution with two item clusters (A: communication, migration history, forced marriage, homesickness, discrimination, other stressors; B: family conflicts, loss of status, feelings of shame, guilt feelings). The MIGSTR10 is a rationally developed, straightforward 10-item screening instrument with satisfactory psychometric properties for the assessment of individual and specific stressors related to migration and acculturation.

  5. Psychiatric hospitalisation and suicide among the very old in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Vach, Werner

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very old people have higher suicide rates than the younger elderly population. Psychiatric disorders are known to have a strong association with suicide among elderly people. AIMS: To analyse the analyse the suicide risk associated with psychiatric hospitalisation among the very old...... (> or =80 years) compared with the middle-aged (50-64 years) and old (65-79 years) populations. METHOD: Individual-level data on the entire Danish population aged 50 years or over were analysed for the period 1994-1998. Relative suicide risks were calculated using event-history analysis. RESULTS: Among 1978...... 527 persons, 2323 died by suicide. Although the very old group exhibited a four-fold to five-fold increase in risk of suicide for those previously hospitalised, we noted an inverse interaction effect: the increase is distinctly smaller compared with that in the middle-aged and old groups. CONCLUSIONS...

  6. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, L R

    1988-03-01

    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  7. Parasitic Diseases and Psychiatric Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Mitchell Gralnick

    1994-01-01

    Distinguishing parasitic diseases from other infections and tropical medical disorders based on microbiological classification is a matter of convenience. Organic brain syndromes are associated with both protozoan and helminthic infections; side-effects of drugs commonly used to treat parasitoses may impair mood and cause anxiety, agitation or psychosis. Emotional states may in turn affect the experience of medical illness. Psychiatrically significant features of medical illness are determine...

  8. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  9. Death of Dementia Patients in Psychiatric Hospitals and Regional Supply of Psychiatric Services: Study of the National Data from 1996 to 2014 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Niimura, Junko; Yamasaki, Syudo; Nishida, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Japan designates psychiatric inpatient care for behavior management of individuals with dementia and for helping dementia patients discharge to home. However, there has been no examination of the effectiveness of this strategy. The present study investigated the association between dementia and the discharge destination of patients in psychiatric hospitals. Data from the National Patient Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of inpatient care, were used. The 96,420 patients with dementia or other mental illness who were discharged from psychiatric hospitals in September of every 3 years from 1996 to 2014 were included in analyses. Of the 96,420 discharged patients, 13,823 had dementia as the primary disease. Of the 13,823 dementia patients, 3,865 (28.0%) were discharged to home, 3,870 (28.0%) were admitted to a facility or other care settings, 3,574 (25.9%) were admitted to another hospital, and 2,514 (18.2%) died. Patients were more likely to die in psychiatric hospital if their primary disease was dementia, and they had resided in a region that provided fewer home visits for psychiatric nursing care or had available a larger number of psychiatric hospital beds per capita. Psychiatric inpatient care may be ineffective as a treatment for the challenging behaviors of dementia. A community mental health system for behavior management should be constructed in parallel with a reduction in the number of hospital beds allotted for psychiatric care.

  10. The copycat phenomenon after two Finnish school shootings: an adolescent psychiatric perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Nina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two school shootings with altogether 18 victims took place in Finland in November 2007 and September 2008. Homicides and suicides are both associated with the copycat phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to characterize adolescent copycats who had threatened to carry out a school massacre. Methods The nation-wide study evaluated 77 13- to 18-year-old adolescents who were sent for adolescent psychiatric evaluations between 8.11.2007 and 30.6.2009, one of the reasons for evaluation being a threat of massacre at school. The medical files of the copycats were retrospectively analysed using a special data collection form. Data on demographics, family- and school-related issues, previous psychiatric treatment and previous delinquency, current symptoms, family adversities and psychiatric diagnoses were collected. The severity of the threat expressed and the risk posed by the adolescent in question were evaluated. The Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version was used to assess psychopathic traits. Results All of the copycats were native Finns with a mean age of 15.0 years. Almost two thirds of them had a history of previous mental health treatment before the index threat. Almost two thirds of the copycats suffered from anxiety and depressive symptoms, and almost half of the sample expressed either suicidal ideation or suicidal plans. Behavioural problems including impulse control problems, aggressive outbursts, the destruction of property as well as non-physical and physical violence against other persons were common. The diagnosis groups highlighted were behavioural and emotional disorders, mood disorders as well as schizophrenia-related disorders. The prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders was high. Only one of the copycats was assessed as expressing high traits of psychopathy. Conclusion The copycats with school massacre threats were characterized with a high prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders. Like

  11. The copycat phenomenon after two Finnish school shootings: an adolescent psychiatric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Sailas, Eila; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2012-07-28

    Two school shootings with altogether 18 victims took place in Finland in November 2007 and September 2008. Homicides and suicides are both associated with the copycat phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to characterize adolescent copycats who had threatened to carry out a school massacre. The nation-wide study evaluated 77 13- to 18-year-old adolescents who were sent for adolescent psychiatric evaluations between 8.11.2007 and 30.6.2009, one of the reasons for evaluation being a threat of massacre at school. The medical files of the copycats were retrospectively analysed using a special data collection form. Data on demographics, family- and school-related issues, previous psychiatric treatment and previous delinquency, current symptoms, family adversities and psychiatric diagnoses were collected. The severity of the threat expressed and the risk posed by the adolescent in question were evaluated. The Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version was used to assess psychopathic traits. All of the copycats were native Finns with a mean age of 15.0 years. Almost two thirds of them had a history of previous mental health treatment before the index threat. Almost two thirds of the copycats suffered from anxiety and depressive symptoms, and almost half of the sample expressed either suicidal ideation or suicidal plans. Behavioural problems including impulse control problems, aggressive outbursts, the destruction of property as well as non-physical and physical violence against other persons were common. The diagnosis groups highlighted were behavioural and emotional disorders, mood disorders as well as schizophrenia-related disorders. The prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders was high. Only one of the copycats was assessed as expressing high traits of psychopathy. The copycats with school massacre threats were characterized with a high prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders. Like actual school shooters, they showed psychotic symptoms and traumatic

  12. ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY AMONG ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshimi Borgohain

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT among adolescent psychiatric patient is rarely used and studies in this regard are also rare, while its need is of great importance. Aim of this study was to study the prevalence of ECT in common psychiatric illnesses among adolescent age group, where it is indicated and outcome of ECT in those psychiatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS All data were collected retrospectively from the chart review for those adolescents aged between 12 to 18 years who received ECT during the period of 2008 - 2012. During the study period a total of 554 patients received ECT, among whom 104 were adolescents. RESULTS Adolescent patients were 18.77% in the whole ECT sample; the average age of the adolescents was 16.33 years and number of patients were more with older age. Among all the patients, 48.08% had positive family history of mental illness and 81.73% were from lower Socioeconomic Class. The use of ECT was more with schizophrenia (n= 63, 60.57% and acute and transient psychotic disorder (n= 30, 28.85%. The most common indication was agitation and aggression (n= 29, 27.88% followed by poor medication response (n= 19, 18.27%. Good response is found in most of the cases (n= 88, 84.62%, only a few percentage of cases showed minor and transient adverse event. CONCLUSION The result of our study suggests that prevalence of ECT among adolescent psychiatric patients is quite high and ECT is a safe and effective method of treatment in the adolescent psychiatric patients, especially those patients who are severely ill and poorly responding to medication.

  13. Psychiatric morbidity among inmates of center for destitutes: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra B Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: One percent of the population in India is homeless (destitutes which include beggars, commercial sex workers, homeless mentally ill, elderly women with dependent children, street children, and persons with disability. Psychiatric disorders are generally seen to be common among homeless individuals. The data are limited regarding psychiatric morbidity and its prevalence in this populace in Indian context. Aim: The aim was to study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among the inmates of a center for destitutes. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study included all the residents (n = 50 of a center of destitutes. Psychiatric evaluation was done by qualified practicing psychiatrist. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning instruments were used to assess the severity of psychiatric symptoms and general functioning of the individuals with mental disorders. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: All residents (n = 50 of center of destitutes were evaluated for psychiatric co-morbidity. 42 (84% inmates were suffering from psychiatric disorders. Most common psychiatric disorder among them was psychotic disorders in 19 (38%, followed by affective disorders, mainly depression in 16 (32%, somatoform disorders in 5 (10%, and anxiety disorders in 2 (4%. No significant gender differences were noted (P = 0.335. Substance abuse was present in 22 (44% of the inmates. A significant negative correlation between psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the subject was seen, (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Psychiatric disorders and in particular substance abuse, are common among the homeless people who stay in the center of destitutes. Psychiatric disorders are likely to be the cause significant functional impairment.

  14. [THE PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSIS GUIDE - DSM-5 - INNOVATIONS AND CRITICISM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Shmuel; Zemishlany, Zvi

    2015-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) as a guide for diagnosing psychiatric diseases and enables the alignment of psychiatric diagnoses with those of the psychologists, the social workers, the nursing staff and other mental health professionals. In addition, it helps bring cohesion to research, public health policy, education, the field of insurance and compensation and the legal system. After 14 years of hard work, the updated version of the DSM, the DSM-5, was published on May 2013. The current review aims to update the readers on the essence of the DSM and the methods of psychiatric diagnosing and to present the main changes in the field, as expressed in the 5th edition of the guide. In addition to details of those changes we included discussions of the criticisms brought against them. We hope that the review will contribute to broadening the readers' knowledge, broaden exposure and familiarity with the psychiatric lingo and to strengthening the professional ties between psychiatrists and professionals in other, tangential, medical fields.

  15. Comorbid psychiatric disorders in 201 cases of encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Fatih; Pehlivantürk, Berna

    2004-01-01

    Although encopresis is a common and complex disorder, relatively few studies have evaluated the comorbid psychiatric disorders in this condition. This study was performed to investigate the comorbid psychiatric disorders in encopresis. One hundred and sixty boys (79.6%) and 41 girls (20.4%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for encopresis according to DSM-IV. There was at least one comorbid diagnosis in 149 (74.1%) patients. The most frequent comorbid diagnosis was enuresis (55.2%). Clinical and demographical data were compared between patients with comorbid disorders and others. Primary encopresis was significantly more frequent in patients with comorbid disorders, and the mean age at admission was lower in these patients. The mean interval between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis was significantly shorter in secondary encopretic patients with comorbid disorders. Furthermore, there were significantly more psychiatric disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with comorbid disorders. Encopresis is frequently accompanied with a psychiatric disorder. Clinicians need to inquire about symptoms of other psychiatric disorders in patients who present with encopresis and vice versa.

  16. Governing the captives: forensic psychiatric nursing in corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dave

    2005-01-01

    TOPIC/PROBLEM: Since 1978, the federal inmates of Canada serving time have had access to a full range of psychiatric care within the carceral system. Five psychiatric units are part of the Federal Correctional Services. Nursing practice in forensic psychiatry opens up new horizons in nursing. This complex professional nursing practice involves the coupling of two contradictory socio-professional mandates: to punish and to provide care. The purpose of this article is to present the results of a grounded theory doctoral study realized in a multi-level security psychiatric ward of the Canadian Federal Penitentiary System. The theoretical work of the late French philosopher, Michel Foucault, and those of sociologist, Erving Goffman, are used to illuminate the qualitative data that emerged from the author's fieldwork. A Foucauldian perspective allows us to understand the way forensic psychiatric nursing is involved in the governance of mentally ill criminals through a vast array of power techniques (sovereign, disciplinary, and pastoral) which posited nurses as "subjects of power". These nurses are also "objects of power" in that nursing practice is constrained by formal and informal regulations of the penitentiary context. As an object of "governmental technologies", the nursing staff becomes the body onto which a process of conforming to the customs of the correctional milieu is dictated and inscribed. The results of this qualitative research, from a nursing perspective, are the first of their kind to be reported in Canada since the creation of the Regional Psychiatric Correctional Units in 1978.

  17. Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism: pathophysiology and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Robertas; Prange, Arthur J

    2006-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Other symptoms associated with the disease are goitre, ophthalmopathy, and psychiatric manifestations such as mood and anxiety disorders and, sometimes, cognitive dysfunction. Graves' hyperthyroidism may result in these latter manifestations via the induction of hyperactivity of the adrenergic nervous system. This review addresses the psychiatric presentations, and their pathophysiology and treatment, in patients with hyperthyroidism, based on literature identified by a PubMed/MEDLINE database search. Although the focus is on mental symptoms associated with Graves' disease, it is not always clear from the literature whether patients had Graves' disease: in some studies, the patients were thought to have Graves' disease based on clinical findings such as diffuse goitre or ophthalmopathy or on measurements of thyroid antibodies in serum; however, in other studies, no distinction was made between Graves' hyperthyroidism and hyperthyroidism from other causes. Antithyroid drugs combined with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists are the treatments of choice for hyperthyroidism, as well as for the psychiatric disorders and mental symptoms caused by hyperthyroidism. A substantial proportion of patients have an altered mental state even after successful treatment of hyperthyroidism, suggesting that mechanisms other than hyperthyroidism, including the Graves' autoimmune process per se and ophthalmopathy, may also be involved. When psychiatric disorders remain after restoration of euthyroidism and after treatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, specific treatment for the psychiatric symptoms, especially psychotropic drugs, may be needed.

  18. Psychiatric Morbidity in HIV-infected Male Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Lee, Ming-Been; Morisky, Donald Edward; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Farabee, David; Lan, Yu-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose The seroincidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Taiwan has drastically increased since 2004, particularly among injection drug users and prisoners. The major purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among HIV-infected male prisoners. Methods In 2006, data were collected from all of HIV-infected male prisoners (n = 535) in seven prisons in Taiwan. This collection was performed using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire in group settings directed by our interviewers. Psychiatric morbidity was measured using the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale in 535 participants, which represented an 85% response rate. After excluding incomplete data, 479 participants were included in the analysis. Results Psychiatric morbidity was present in 46% of participants. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that correlates of the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale defined cases included the following: being a recidivist, having poor self-rated health status, and having experienced psychiatric symptoms in one’s lifetime (e.g. significant physical pain or discomfort, depression for 2 weeks or longer, serious anxiety or tension, trouble understanding, concentrating, or remembering, and serious thoughts of suicide), with a Nagelkerke R2 equal to 0.365. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is prevalent among HIV-infected male prisoners. Tailored HIV/AIDS education related to mental health is therefore suggested for inclusion as part of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS training program among incarcerated populations. PMID:20434025

  19. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the triad of impairments experienced by children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they often present with symptoms of psychiatric disorders. To date, very few studies have examined gender differences in regards to psychiatric symptoms in children and adolescents diagnosed with an ASD. Thus, the current…

  20. Psychiatric Disorders in Smokers Seeking Treatment for Tobacco Dependence: Relations with Tobacco Dependence and Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fleming, Michael F.; Bittrich, Amy A.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Leitzke, Cathlyn J.; Zehner, Mark E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with…

  1. Psychiatric disorders and leukocyte telomere length: Underlying mechanisms linking mental illness with cellular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S; Mellon, Synthia H; Penninx, Brenda W; Révész, Dóra; Verhoeven, Josine E; Reus, Victor I; Lin, Jue; Mahan, Laura; Hough, Christina M; Rosser, Rebecca; Bersani, F Saverio; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Wolkowitz, Owen M

    2015-08-01

    Many psychiatric illnesses are associated with early mortality and with an increased risk of developing physical diseases that are more typically seen in the elderly. Moreover, certain psychiatric illnesses may be associated with accelerated cellular aging, evidenced by shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which could underlie this association. Shortened LTL reflects a cell's mitotic history and cumulative exposure to inflammation and oxidation as well as the availability of telomerase, a telomere-lengthening enzyme. Critically short telomeres can cause cells to undergo senescence, apoptosis or genomic instability, and shorter LTL correlates with poorer health and predicts mortality. Emerging data suggest that LTL may be reduced in certain psychiatric illnesses, perhaps in proportion to exposure to the psychiatric illnesses, although conflicting data exist. Telomerase has been less well characterized in psychiatric illnesses, but a role in depression and in antidepressant and neurotrophic effects has been suggested by preclinical and clinical studies. In this article, studies on LTL and telomerase activity in psychiatric illnesses are critically reviewed, potential mediators are discussed, and future directions are suggested. A deeper understanding of cellular aging in psychiatric illnesses could lead to re-conceptualizing them as systemic illnesses with manifestations inside and outside the brain and could identify new treatment targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropsychological profile of a male psychiatric patient with a Morgagni-Stewart-Morel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Aksel; Engelhardt, Liliana; Pleschutznig, Wolfgang; Dammann, Gerhard; Vietze, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    In 1765 Giovanni Morgagni described a syndrome consisting of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), obesity and hirsutism. In 1928 Stewart and in 1930 Morel added neuropsychiatric symptoms, e.g. depression and dementia, which led to the definition of the Morgagni-Stewart-Morel Syndrome (MSM). Although mostly women were characterized in literature no gender specifity is demanded. This case report presents the rare case of a 66 year old male psychiatric patient with Morgagni-Stewart-Morel Syndrome. The patient complained of loss of concentration and difficulties with activities of daily living. Admission diagnosis was an opioid misuse on the basis of a chronic pain syndrome. In this case report we are describing clinical features, the patient history and technical (MRI) and neuropsychological tests. Although severe psychiatric symptoms and neuropsychological deficits are commonly seen in these patients, our patient showed only mild symptoms. This case reports shows the possibility of a male patient with MSM. If MSM is a separate entity or just an epiphenomena of hormone dysregulation should be investigated in further studies.

  3. Association between childhood abuse and psychiatric morbidities among hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood abuse has been linked with increased risk of adult psychiatric disorders including major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. However, only a few from India attempted to study long-term consequences of childhood abuse. Our study aimed to understand the role of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse along with psychiatric co-morbidities in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to psychiatric inpatient services in the age group of 14-45 years for the 1 st time were evaluated for a history of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse on the basis of retrospective chart review. Semi-structured Performa was used to evaluate the patient with a history of child abuse, and they were diagnosed according to International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic criteria. Result: The prevalence of child abuse in our inpatient services was 43.29%; emotional abuse (61.9% was most commonly reported among patient followed by physical (21.43% and sexual abuse (16.67%. We observed a significant difference in terms of length of hospital stay between abuse (10.29 ± 6.01 days and nonabuse group (5.90 ± 2.43 days (t = 4.902, df = 95, P < 0.0001. The boys experienced physical abuse at a younger age (7.43 ± 2.50 years than girls (13.50 ± 0.70 years. The sexual abuse and emotional abuse were reported at a younger age in girls than boys. We found high prevalence of substance use disorders (40.47%, psychosis (19.04%, and mood disorder (28.57% among abuse group. Conclusions: The study findings highlight the developing importance of the different forms of abuse on adult psychiatric diagnosis in India. The abused patients are at high risk of the development of psychiatric disorder than the nonabuse group. The increased length of hospitalization among abused group reflects severity and complexity of child abuse. The early detection of social factors

  4. Self-Employment for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: Advantages and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Nemec, Patricia B; Smith, Carina

    2018-05-29

    Self-employment is an alternative to wage employment and an opportunity to increase labor force participation by people with psychiatric disabilities. Self-employment refers to individuals who work for themselves, either as an unincorporated sole proprietor or through ownership of a business. Advantages of self-employment for people with psychiatric disabilities, who may have disrupted educational and employment histories, include opportunities for self-care, additional earning, and career choice. Self-employment fits within a recovery paradigm because of the value placed on individual preferences, and the role of resilience and perseverance in business ownership. Self-employment creates many new US jobs, but remains only a small percentage of employment closures for people with psychiatric disabilities, despite vocational rehabilitation and Social Security disability policies that encourage it. This commentary elucidates the positive aspects of self-employment in the context of employment challenges experienced by individuals with psychiatric disabilities and provides recommendations based on larger trends in entrepreneurship.

  5. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women presenting in the OPD of a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niaz, S.; Izhar, N.; Bhatti, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Recent research has shown that psychiatric disorders are more common during pregnancy. This study was done to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in females presenting in the antenatal clinic. The study also tried to find out risk factors associated with anxiety and depression in pregnancy in the above-mentioned population. Subjects and methods: Study sample consisted of 200 consecutive outpatients presenting in the antenatal clinic. Pregnant women who agreed to be interviewed were included in the study. Demo- graphic details were noted. PSE was used as an interviewing instrument and ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Results: According to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria 34.5% of females were suffering from anxiety and 25% were suffering from depression. Young age, loss of parent during childhood, past history of psychiatric illness, family history of psychiatric illness was identified as possible risk factors to develop anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Conclusion: Prevalence of anxiety and depression was similar to many studies reported from the West. Pregnant females with possible risk factors should be specially screened for anxiety and depression. Locally prepared and validated instruments need to be developed for use in Pakistan. (author)

  6. Psychiatric mental health evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Michael J

    2008-05-01

    This article is the first in a new column focusing on evidence-based practice (EBP) in psychiatric mental health nursing. The EBP movement was strongly influenced by a British epidemiologist, Dr. Cochrane, who advocated care based on randomized clinical controlled trials in the late 1900s. Although the majority of the EBP movement is directed toward developing clinical guidelines, the critical element focuses on the therapeutic relationship and clinical judgment associated with providing care. This column will address a clinical problem, define PICO questions, report knowledge base searches, and present existing evidence. Recommendations will be offered for potential interventions and suggestions for evaluating clinical outcomes. Nurses can no longer view clinical studies as academic exercises discarded on graduation and not applied to the clinical setting. Conscientiously applying what is known about treatments and interventions of ethical, if not legal, value is consistent with the professional definition of care. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2008; 14(2), 107-111. DOI: 10.1177/1078390308315798.

  7. Life expectancies for individuals with psychiatric diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, H; Borgå, P; Borritz, M

    2001-09-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate life expectancies in different diagnostic groups for individuals treated as inpatients at Swedish psychiatric clinics. All individuals, older than 18 y and alive on the first of January 1983, who had been registered in the National Hospital Discharge Registry by a psychiatric clinic in 1978-82, were monitored for mortality during 1983 by using the National Cause of Death Registry. The study group consisted of 91 385 men and 77 217 women. The patients were divided into nine diagnostic groups according to the principal diagnosis registered at the latest discharge. Actuarial mathematics was used to construct life expectancy tables, which present the number of years expected to live, by gender and diagnostic group. Expectancies of life were significantly shortened for both genders and in all nine diagnostic groups (with one exception). Mental disorders in general are life shortening. This fact should be recognised in community health when setting health priorities. It should also be addressed in curricula as well as in treatment and preventive programmes.

  8. Suicide with psychiatric diagnosis and without utilization of psychiatric service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Paul WC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been focused on the study of suicides among those who have received help from healthcare providers. However, little is known about the profiles of suicide deceased who had psychiatric illnesses but made no contact with psychiatric services prior to their death. Behavioural model of health service use is applied to identify factors associated with the utilization of psychiatric service among the suicide deceased. Methods With respect to completed suicide cases, who were diagnosed with a mental disorder, a comparison study was made between those who had (contact group; n = 52; 43.7% and those who had not made any contact (non-contact group; n = 67; 56.3% with a psychiatrist during the final six months prior to death. A sample of 119 deceased cases aged between 15 and 59 with at least one psychiatric diagnosis assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID I were selected from a psychological autopsy study in Hong Kong. Results The contact and non-contact group could be well distinguished from each other by "predisposing" variables: age group & gender, and most of the "enabling", and "need" variables tested in this study. Multiple logistic regression analysis has found four factors are statistically significantly associated with non-contact suicide deceased: (i having non-psychotic disorders (OR = 13.5, 95% CI:2.9-62.9, (ii unmanageable debts (OR = 10.5, CI:2.4-45.3, (iii being full/partially/self employed at the time of death (OR = 10.0, CI:1.6-64.1 and (iv having higher levels of social problem-solving ability (SPSI (OR = 2.0, CI:1.1-3.6. Conclusion The non-contact group was clearly different from the contact group and actually comprised a larger proportion of the suicide population that they could hardly be reached by usual individual-based suicide prevention efforts. For this reason, both universal and strategic suicide prevention measures need to be developed specifically in non

  9. Influence of psychiatric diagnosis on treatment uptake and interferon side effects in patients with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Yuan J; Shadbolt, Bruce; Teoh, Narci; Blunn, Anne; To, Caroline; Rodriguez-Morales, Ilys; Chitturi, Shivakumar; Kaye, Graham; Rodrigo, Kalyana; Farrell, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Pegylated-interferon-α/ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) treatment can cure hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection but has frequent neuropsychiatric side-effects. Patients with pre-existing psychiatric illness may not be offered therapy. We established prevalence of self-reported psychiatric comorbidity among HCV-infected patients in a hospital-liver clinic, and determined the impact of such diagnoses on uptake and tolerance to PEG-IFN/RBV. All HCV cases referred for assessment in Australian Capital Territory/surrounding regions April 2004-March 2012 were entered into a clinical database. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses of variables correlating with uptake of antiviral therapy and frequency of treatment-related side-effects. Of 773 referred patients, 235 (30%) described pre-existing psychiatric illness. Among these, 26% received antiviral therapy, compared with 30% of 538 without psychiatric comorbidity. History of depression (usually validated by liaison psychiatry) was associated with higher incidence of treatment-related neuropsychiatric side-effects (odds ratio 2.79 [1.35-5.70], P schizophrenia: three (11%) received antiviral therapy, compared with 30% admitting depression and 20% with bipolar affective disorder (all assessed by psychiatrist). In most schizophrenia cases, the reason for not offering antiviral treatment was psychological illness, yet none of five treated (these three plus two others in a psychiatric rehabilitation facility) experienced worsening psychiatric symptoms. A history of depression is common with hepatitis C but does not affect initiation of antiviral treatment, despite substantially increased risk of psychiatric side-effects. In contrast, pre-existing schizophrenia appears to influence treatment decisions, despite little evidence that PEG-IFN/RBV exacerbates the psychiatric condition, and well-supervised antiviral therapy can have good outcomes.

  10. What do bodily symptoms in African psychiatric patients mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the various bodily symptoms presented by African psychiatric patients and attempt to understand them. Method: The literature on bodily (somatic) symptoms is surveyed with special reference to Africans and examples are drawn from a focused group discussion in one African rural community.

  11. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims.

  12. Demographic, criminal, and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims.

  13. Correlates of Length of Stay and Boarding in Florida Emergency Departments for Patients With Psychiatric Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph L; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Storch, Eric A; Langland-Orban, Barbara; Pracht, Etienne; Petrila, John

    2016-11-01

    Length of stay (LOS) and boarding in the emergency department (ED) for psychiatric patients have been the subject of concern, given the problems with crowding and excessive wait times in EDs. This investigation examined correlates of LOS and boarding in Florida EDs for patients presenting with psychiatric complaints from 2010 to 2013. Utilizing the Florida ED discharge database, the authors examined the association of LOS and boarding with hospital and encounter factors for adult patients presenting with a primary psychiatric diagnosis (N=597,541). The mean LOS was 7.77 hours. Anxiety disorders were the most frequent psychiatric complaint and were associated with the lowest mean LOS compared with other diagnoses (pboarding (a stay of more than six or more hours in the ED). Extended LOS was endemic for psychiatric patients in Florida EDs.

  14. Trends in suicide risk associated with hospitalized psychiatric illness: a case-control study based on danish longitudinal registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping; Nordentoft, Merete; Hansen Høyer, Eyd

    2006-01-01

    longitudinal registers. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: This study shows that the reduction in suicide rate is generally faster among individuals with a history of psychiatric admission than among individuals without such a history. However, this substantial reduction...... at the time of suicide or the index date, the reduction in suicide rate is relatively slower. Such trends hold for all diagnostic groups. Further analyses stratified by age indicate that the faster reduction in suicide rate associated with history of hospitalized psychiatric illness is more pronounced among...

  15. Symptom characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity among males with muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Olivardia, Roberto; Thompson, J Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia has been described as a disorder in which individuals are pathologically preoccupied with their muscularity. This study was designed to further investigate the symptom characteristics and psychiatric conditions associated with the disorder. Weight lifting males meeting current criteria for muscle dysmorphia (n = 15), past muscle dysmorphia (n = 8), and no history of muscle dysmorphia (n = 28) responded to advertisements placed in gymnasium and nutrition stores. Structured and semistructured interviews were administered, as well as survey measures. Relative to controls, males with current muscle dysmorphia experienced more aversive symptoms related to the appearance of their bodies, including more often thinking about their muscularity, dissatisfaction with appearance, appearance checking, bodybuilding dependence, and functional impairment. Higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders were found among individuals with a history of muscle dysmorphia relative to individuals with no history of muscle dysmorphia. The findings suggest that muscle dysmorphia can be distinguished from normal weight lifting on a number of clinical dimensions. Muscle dysmorphia appears to be comorbid with other psychiatric conditions. Limitations of the current study and directions for future research are considered.

  16. [Psychiatric manifestations of lupus erythematosus systemic and Sjogren's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampélas, J F; Wattiaux, M J; Van Amerongen, A P

    2001-01-01

    We present one case of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with predominant psychiatric manifestations, treated with success by cyclophosphamide. From this case, we review the psychiatric aspects of these two autoimmune diseases as described in the literature and we present the etiopathogenic hypothesis and treatment of the psychiatric disorders. Case report--In August 1996, a 38 year old man was admitted in our psychiatric department for agitation. Primary SS had been diagnosed in July 1996. He had previously attempted to suicide but was never hospitalized in a psychiatric department. During the hospitalization in our department, the patient had auditive hallucinations and felt persecuted. He received loxapine 400 mg/day and was remitted in a few days. He was discharged to a convalescent home with the diagnosis of brief psychotic disorder. In October 1996, he was readmitted to our department for agitation. He had shown agitated behavior and aggression in the convalescent home. There were no hallucinations and no affective disorders. He became calm rapidly and was discharged home a few days later. In November 1996, he was found in a coma by a neighbor. He was admitted to an intensive care unit. The lumbar punction revealed blood cells. Cerebral computer tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage. The diagnosis was meningeal hemorrhage due to vasculitis. After regaining consciousness, the patient complained of reduced visual acuity. This was believed to be due to retrobulbar neuritis and the patient's vision improved slightly with corticosteroids. The third hospitalization in our department occurred in February 1997 for depression. The patient had shut himself away for days in his apartment. He had suicidal ideas. His mood improved progressively under fluoxetine 40 mg/day. He was discharged to a convalescent home with the diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The fourth and last admission in our department occurred in June 1997

  17. Adverse life events increase risk for postpartum psychiatric episodes: A population-based epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Brody, S; Larsen, J T; Petersen, L; Guintivano, J; Florio, A Di; Miller, W C; Sullivan, P F; Munk-Olsen, T

    2018-02-01

    Trauma histories may increase risk of perinatal psychiatric episodes. We designed an epidemiological population-based cohort study to explore if adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in girls increases risk of later postpartum psychiatric episodes. Using Danish registers, we identified women born in Denmark between January 1980 and December 1998 (129,439 childbirths). Exposure variables were ACE between ages 0 and 15 including: (1) family disruption, (2) parental somatic illness, (3) parental labor market exclusion, (4) parental criminality, (5) parental death, (6) placement in out-of-home care, (7) parental psychopathology excluding substance use, and (8) parental substance use disorder. Primary outcome was first occurrence of in- or outpatient contact 0-6 months postpartum at a psychiatric treatment facility with any psychiatric diagnoses, ICD-10, F00-F99 (N = 651). We conducted survival analyses using Cox proportional hazard regressions of postpartum psychiatric episodes. Approximately 52% of the sample experienced ACE, significantly increasing risk of any postpartum psychiatric diagnosis. Highest risks were observed among women who experienced out-of-home placement, hazard ratio (HR) 2.57 (95% CI: 1.90-3.48). Women experiencing two adverse life events had higher risks of postpartum psychiatric diagnosis HR: 1.88 (95% CI: 1.51-2.36), compared to those with one ACE, HR: 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03-49) and no ACE, HR: 1.00 (reference group). ACE primarily due to parental psychopathology and disability contributes to increased risk of postpartum psychiatric episodes; and greater numbers of ACE increases risk for postpartum psychiatric illness with an observed dose-response effect. Future work should explore genetic and environmental factors that increase risk and/or confer resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Selective cognitive and psychiatric manifestations in Wolfram Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Allison N; Reiersen, Angela M; Buttlaire, Anna; Al-Lozi, Amal; Doty, Tasha; Marshall, Bess A; Hershey, Tamara

    2015-05-30

    Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) is known to involve diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic nerve atrophy, vision loss, hearing impairment, motor abnormalities, and neurodegeneration, but has been less clearly linked to cognitive, sleep, and psychiatric abnormalities. We sought to determine whether these abnormalities are present in children, adolescents, and young adults with WFS compared to age- and gender-matched individuals with and without type 1 diabetes using standardized measures. Individuals with genetically-confirmed WFS (n = 19, ages 7-27) were compared to age- and gender- equivalent groups of individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM; n = 25), and non-diabetic healthy controls (HC: n = 25). Cognitive performance across multiple domains (verbal intelligence, spatial reasoning, memory, attention, smell identification) was assessed using standardized tests. Standardized self- and parent-report questionnaires on psychiatric symptoms and sleep disturbances were acquired from all groups and an unstructured psychiatric interview was performed within only the WFS group. The three groups were similar demographically (age, gender, ethnicity, parental IQ). WFS and T1DM had similar duration of diabetes but T1DM had higher HbA1C levels than WFS and as expected both groups had higher levels than HC. The WFS group was impaired on smell identification and reported sleep quality, but was not impaired in any other cognitive or self-reported psychiatric domain. In fact, the WFS group performed better than the other two groups on selected memory and attention tasks. However, based upon a clinical evaluation of only WFS patients, we found that psychiatric and behavioral problems were present and consisted primarily of anxiety and hypersomnolence. This study found that cognitive performance and psychological health were relatively preserved WFS patients, while smell and sleep abnormalities manifested in many of the WFS patients. These findings contradict past case and

  19. The effect of menstruation on psychiatric hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Jaclyn; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Ellis, Terri; Daniel, Marlon G

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of menstruation on psychiatric hospitalization. We conducted a retrospective chart review of the medical records of 177 women who met the eligibility criteria. Data collected included demographic details, primary and secondary diagnoses, date of last menstrual period (LMP), medication adherence, psychiatric hospitalization length of stay, previous psychiatric admissions (including those related to menstruation), discharge referrals, and readmissions. The majority of women were admitted for major depression, were single, Caucasian, and had a mean age of 34. A disproportionate percentage (37%) of women had their LMP within 5 days of psychiatric hospitalization (p = 0.0006). The overall average length of stay was 4.37 days, and 48.3% had a previous psychiatric admission. Medication adherence was routinely not documented (77.4%). Psychiatric hospitalizations for women are significantly greater within 5 days of their LMP. Nursing education and improved documentation are warranted to decrease the potential for readmission. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Encopresis: a guide for psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lyons T

    2009-10-01

    Encopresis is an elimination disorder that involves symptoms of fecal incontinence in children. It affects an estimated 1.5% to 7.5% of children ages 6 to 12 and accounts for approximately 3% to 6% of psychiatric referrals. The etiology of encopresis is thought to be related to physiologic problems such as constipation; however, it is also a psychiatric diagnosis and anecdotally may have some association with psychiatric problems. Publications on this association and publications directed toward psychiatric nurses are limited. Encopresis is typically treated with nutritional and medical management along with behavioral modification. Psychiatric nurses working with patients who have encopresis in inpatient settings will have unique concerns and challenges. This article gives an overview of published literature from the past 10 years on the etiology and treatment of encopresis. Specific suggestions for inpatient psychiatric nurses based on published literature and the author's professional experience are provided.

  1. Frequency and correlates of comorbid psychiatric illness in patients with heroin use disorder admitted to Stikland Opioid Detoxification Unit, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Dannatt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a lack of studies addressing the frequency and correlates of comorbidities among heroin users admitted for treatment in South Africa (SA. Objective. To assess the frequency and correlates of psychiatric comorbidity among patients with heroin use disorder admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape, SA. Method. Participants (N=141 were assessed for psychiatric illness (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, comorbid substance use disorders (World Health Organization’s Alcohol Smoking Substance Involvement Screening Tool, and legal and social problems (Maudsley Addiction Profile. Demographic, personal, psychiatric and substance-use history, in addition to mental state examination on admission, were collected from the case notes. Results. The largest group of patients (n=56, 40% had not been abstinent from heroin use since drug debut, and most had been arrested for drug-related activities (n=117, 83% and had family conflicts related to use (n=135, 96%. Nicotine was the most common comorbid substance of dependence (n=137, 97% and methamphetamine was the most common comorbid substance abused (n=73, 52%. The most common comorbid psychiatric illness was previous substance-induced psychosis (n=42, 30% and current major depressive disorder (n=37, 26%. Current major depressive disorder was significantly associated with females (p=0.03, intravenous drug use (p=0.03, alcohol use (p=0.02, and a higher number of previous rehabilitation attempts (p=0.008. Conclusion. Patients with heroin use disorders present with high rates of psychiatric comorbidities, which underscores the need for substance treatment services with the capacity to diagnose and manage these comorbidities.

  2. [Gender aspects of psychiatric publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Marion; Unger, Annemarie; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Wancata, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Are authors of German language psychiatric journals more often male or female? Are there gender differences regarding scientific topics? Analysis of publications of two German-language journals (Neuropsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Praxis) for the period 2008-2009. We could not find any gender differences concerning the number of first authors, but the number of male co-authors was nearly double as high as of female co-authors. Qualitative research methods were used more often by female researchers, but there were no significant differences regarding scientific topics. Overall, we found fewer gender differences than expected concerning authorship.

  3. Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H

    1989-07-01

    Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed.

  4. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  5. Psychopathology and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylé, Franck J; Caci, Hervé; Millet, Bruno; Richa, Sami; Olié, Jean-Pierre

    2003-08-01

    This study compared patients with kleptomania, patients with alcohol abuse or dependence, and psychiatric patients without impulse-control disorders or substance-related disorders on several key psychopathological dimensions. In addition, the comorbidity of kleptomania with other psychiatric disorders was examined. Eleven patients with kleptomania recruited over a cumulative 2-year period and 60 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and 29 psychiatric comparison patients recruited over a consecutive 6-month period participated in structured clinical interviews to determine the presence of impulse-control and substance-related disorders and of other psychiatric disorders that were comorbid with kleptomania. Psychopathological dimensions were measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the anxiety and depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Significant group effects were found for the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total and cognitive impulsivity scores, with the patients with kleptomania having higher impulsivity scores than the other groups. Significant group differences were found on the Sensation Seeking Scale total and disinhibition scores. No significant group effects were found for the mood and anxiety measures. Patients with kleptomania had high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, other impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse or dependence (mainly nicotine dependence). Kleptomania presented a specific psychopathological profile that distinguished patients with this disorder from patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and other psychiatric comparison patients. Impulsivity was the major psychopathological feature of kleptomania. A link between kleptomania and affective disorder was supported by the high rate of comorbid affective disorders in patients with kleptomania and a specific pattern of variation in

  6. [Philanthropic general hospitals: a new setting for psychiatric admissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrobla, Cristina; Botega, Neury José

    2006-12-01

    To understand the process that led Brazilian philanthropic general hospitals to implement psychiatric units and to describe the main characteristics and therapeutic approaches of these services. Ten institutions in three Brazilian states (Minas Gerais, São Paulo e Santa Catarina) were assessed in 2002. Forty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with health professionals who worked at the hospitals to collect data on service implementation process, therapeutic approaches and current situation. The interviews were audio-recorded and their content was analyzed. There was no mental hospital in the cities where the institutions were located. In five hospitals, psychiatric patients were admitted to general medical wards because there was no psychiatric unit. The therapeutic approach in six hospitals was based on psychopharmacological treatment. Due to lack of resources and more appropriate therapeutic planning, the admission of patients presenting psychomotor agitation increases resistance against psychiatric patients in general hospitals. Financial constraints regarding laboratory testing is still a challenge. There is no exchange between local authorities and hospital administrators of these institutions that are compelled to exceed the allowed number of admissions to meet the demand of neighboring cities. The need for mental health care to local populations combined with individual requests of local authorities and psychiatrists made possible the implementation of psychiatric units in these localities. In spite of the efforts and flexibility of health professional working in these institutions, there are some obstacles to be overcome: resistance of hospital community against psychiatric admissions, financial constraints, limited professional training in mental health and the lack of a therapeutic approach that goes beyond psychopharmacological treatment alone.

  7. Psychiatric aspects of acute withdrawal from gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogue gamma-butyrolactone (GBL): implications for psychiatry services in the general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Debajeet; Cross, Sean; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M; Ranjith, Gopinath

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the psychiatric symptoms, management and outcomes in a consecutive series of patients being managed medically for symptoms of withdrawal from gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogue gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in a general hospital setting. A toxicology database was used to identify patients presenting with a history suggestive of withdrawal from GHB and analogues. Electronic and paper medical records were searched for demographic features, neuropsychiatric symptoms, psychiatric management while in hospital and overall outcome. There were 31 presentations with withdrawal from the drugs involving 20 patients. Of these 17 (54%) were referred to and seen by the liaison psychiatry team. Anxiety (61.3%) and agitation (48.4%) were the most common symptoms. Of the 17 cases seen by the liaison psychiatry team, 52.9% required close constant observation by a mental health nurse and 29.4% required to be detained in hospital under mental health legislation. The significant proportion of patients presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms and requiring intensive input from the liaison psychiatry team during withdrawal from GHB and its analogues points to the importance of close liaison between medical and psychiatric teams in managing these patients in the general hospital.

  8. Psychiatric aspects of contempt of court among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Orbán, P T

    1985-08-01

    The case histories of 72 women admitted to prison for contempt of court in 1979-83 were reviewed. The sample included 45% of all women imprisoned for contempt in England and Wales over the 5-year period. The contemnors were significantly older than other sentenced prisoners, one third were foreign born and 37.5% were suffering from psychiatric disorder. Two thirds of the mentally disordered group had a paranoid disorder, litigiousness was a prominent feature of their illness, and 52% committed contempt in the context of a matrimonial dispute or a dispute with neighbours. Recent legislation may help to prevent the imprisonment of mentally ill contemnors.

  9. Psychiatric symptomatology in persons with organic solvent exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, L A; Kamis, H; Hodgson, M J

    1993-02-01

    This study investigated psychiatric symptomatology, self-concept, locus of control, and daily events in persons with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents. Exposed subjects were more likely than controls to report depression, anxiety, fatigue, confusion, and somatic concerns, which in turn were associated with certain exposure-related variables (e.g., cacosmia). There were no differences between the groups in self-concept, locus of control, or ratings of daily hassles and uplifts. Exposed persons may be able to accurately identify what they perceive as changes that are due to the exposure (e.g., anxiety) without attributing these specific adverse outcomes to dispositional variables.

  10. Head Injury as Risk Factor for Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlovska, Sonja; Pedersen, Michael Skaarup; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2014-01-01

    . METHOD: The authors used linkable Danish nationwide population-based registers to investigate the incidence of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and organic mental disorders in 113,906 persons who had suffered head injuries. Data were analyzed by survival analysis...... and adjusted for gender, age, calendar year, presence of a psychiatric family history, epilepsy, infections, autoimmune diseases, and fractures not involving the skull or spine. RESULTS: Head injury was associated with a higher risk of schizophrenia (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.65, 95% CI=1...

  11. Dissociation, shame, complex PTSD, child maltreatment and intimate relationship self-concept in dissociative disorder, chronic PTSD and mixed psychiatric groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; McGurrin, Patrick; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Whilst a growing body of research has examined dissociation and other psychiatric symptoms in severe dissociative disorders (DDs), there has been no systematic examination of shame and sense of self in relationships in DDs. Chronic child abuse often associated with severe DDs, like dissociative identity disorder, is likely to heighten shame and relationship concerns. This study investigated complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline and Schneiderian symptoms, dissociation, shame, child abuse, and various markers of self in relationships (e.g., relationship esteem, relationship depression, fear of relationships). Participants were assessed via clinical interview with psychometrically sound questionnaires. They fell into three diagnostic groups, dissociative disorder (n=39; primarily dissociative identity disorder), chronic PTSD (Chr-PTSD; n=13) or mixed psychiatric presentations (MP; n=21; primarily mood and anxiety disorders). All participants had a history of child abuse and/or neglect, and the groups did not differ on age and gender. The DD group was higher on nearly all measured variables than the MP group, and had more severe dissociative, borderline and Schneiderian symptoms than the Chr-PTSD sample. Shame and complex PTSD symptoms fell marginally short of predicting reductions in relationship esteem, pathological dissociative symptoms predicted increased relationship depression, and complex PTSD symptoms predicted fear of relationships. The representativeness of the samples was unknown. Severe psychiatric symptoms differentiate DDs from chronic PTSD, while dissociation and shame have a meaningful impact on specific markers of relationship functioning in psychiatric patients with a history of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychiatric Cultures Compared : Psychiatry and Mental Health Care in the Twentieth Century: Comparisons and Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt-Hofstra, Marijke; Oosterhuis, Harry; Vijselaar, Joost; Freeman, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    The history of mental health care in the twentieth century is a relatively uncharted territory. Exemplifying a new emphasis on the comparative approach, this volume offers overviews of various national psychiatric cultures and explores new research subjects. By confronting Dutch psychiatry with

  13. Anhedonia and Amotivation in Psychiatric Outpatients with Fully Remitted Stimulant Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Ray, Lara A.; Stone, Kristen; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated whether psychiatric outpatients with a past stimulant use disorder in full remission for ≥ 2 months (STIM+, n = 204) and those with no history of stimulant use disorder (STIM−, n = 2070) differed in the prevalence of current anhedonia and amotivation. Results showed that a significantly greater proportion of STIM+ participants reported anhedonia and amotivation than STIM− participants. The relation between stimulant use disorder history and anhedonia remained robust after...

  14. Aggersborg through history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2014-01-01

    Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages......Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages...

  15. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  16. Satisfaction of patients hospitalised in psychiatric hospitals: a randomised comparison of two psychiatric-specific and one generic satisfaction questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléopas Agatta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is interest in measuring the satisfaction of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals, it might be important to determine whether surveys of psychiatric patients should employ generic or psychiatry-specific instruments. The aim of this study was to compare two psychiatric-specific and one generic questionnaires assessing patients' satisfaction after a hospitalisation in a psychiatric hospital. Methods We randomised adult patients discharged from two Swiss psychiatric university hospitals between April and September 2004, to receive one of three instruments: the Saphora-Psy questionnaire, the Perceptions of Care survey questionnaire or the Picker Institute questionnaire for acute care hospitals. In addition to the comparison of response rates, completion time, mean number of missing items and mean ceiling effect, we targeted our comparison on patients and asked them to answer ten evaluation questions about the questionnaire they had just completed. Results 728 out of 1550 eligible patients (47% participated in the study. Across questionnaires, response rates were similar (Saphora-Psy: 48.5%, Perceptions of Care: 49.9%, Picker: 43.4%; P = 0.08, average completion time was lowest for the Perceptions of Care questionnaire (minutes: Saphora-Psy: 17.7, Perceptions of Care: 13.7, Picker: 17.5; P = 0.005, the Saphora-Psy questionnaire had the largest mean proportion of missing responses (Saphora-Psy: 7.1%, Perceptions of Care: 2.8%, Picker: 4.0%; P P Conclusion Despite differences in the intended target population, content, lay-out and length of questionnaires, none appeared to be obviously better based on our comparison. All three presented advantages and drawbacks and could be used for the satisfaction evaluation of psychiatric inpatients. However, if comparison across medical services or hospitals is desired, using a generic questionnaire might be advantageous.

  17. Suicide in a large population of former psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Gabriele; Tondo, Leonardo; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Reginaldi, Daniela; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Manfredi, Giovanni; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Simonetti, Alessio; Ambrosi, Elisa; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of completed suicide in a wide sample of psychiatric inpatients receiving retrospective and prospective DSM-IV diagnoses. We followed up 4441 severe psychiatric patients who were hospitalized for some time during a 35-year period in a private hospital setting. We collected sociodemographic, clinical and temperamental data. Ninety-six patients from the sample committed suicide. There were no sex differences in suicide completion and no differences between major psychiatric disorders, but people who had been hospitalized for anxiety disorders did not commit suicide and people with bipolar disorders were more likely to commit suicide than people with unipolar major depression. Shorter-term treatment with lithium and anticonvulsants, longer-term treatment with antidepressants, history of suicide attempts, suicidal thinking, and single status positively predicted completed suicide. Suicide tended to occur after a mean period of about 14 years of duration of disease. Patients' symptoms during the period preceding suicide were assessed through interviewing patients' physicians or family members. Symptoms occurring in >10% of cases were, in decreasing order, inner tension, racing/crowded thoughts, aggressive behavior, guilt, psychomotor agitation, persecutory ideation, anxiety, and hallucinations. Surprisingly, cyclothymic temperament was less associated with completed suicide as compared to other temperaments. Suicide is likely to occur in a milieu of agitation, mixed anxiety and depression, and psychosis. Longer-term mood stabilizer treatment may reduce the rate of completed suicide. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  19. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-06-01

    American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services.

  20. Psychiatric rehabilitation education for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham; Eastwood, Diane

    2013-06-01

    As part of a rapidly spreading reform toward recovery-oriented services, mental health care systems are adopting Psychiatric/Psychosocial Rehabilitation (PSR). Accordingly, PSR education and training programs are now available and accessible. Although psychiatrists and sometimes other physicians (such as family physicians) provide important services to people with serious mental illnesses and may, therefore, need knowledge and skill in PSR, it seems that the medical profession has been slow to participate in PSR education. Based on our experience working in Canada as academic psychiatrists who are also Certified Psychiatric Rehabilitation Practitioners (CPRPs), we offer descriptions of several Canadian initiatives that involve physicians in PSR education. Multiple frameworks guide PSR education for physicians. First, guidance is provided by published PSR principles, such as the importance of self-determination (www.psrrpscanada.ca). Second, guidance is provided by adult education (andragogy) principles, emphasizing the importance of addressing attitudes in addition to knowledge and skills (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2011). Third, guidance in Canada is provided by Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) principles, which delineate the multiple roles of physicians beyond that of medical expert (Frank, 2005) and have recently been adopted in Australia (Boyce, Spratt, Davies, & McEvoy, 2011). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).