Sample records for psychiatric curing process

  1. ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development (United States)

    Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne


    ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

  2. Face processing in psychiatric conditions. (United States)

    Archer, J; Hay, D C; Young, A W


    Functional models of face processing have indicated that dissociations exist between the various processes involved, e.g. between familiar face recognition and matching of unfamiliar faces, and between familiar face recognition and facial expression analysis. These models have been successfully applied to the understanding of the different types of impairment that can exist in neuropsychological patients. In the present study, aspects of face processing in psychiatric patients were investigated in relation to Bruce & Young's (1986) model. Based on this functional model different predictions can be made. We contrast here the impaired expression analysis hypothesis, which is that psychiatric patients would show a deficit in facial expression recognition, but not in facial identity recognition or unfamiliar face matching, with the generalized deficit hypothesis, that patients would be impaired on all tasks. These hypotheses were examined using three forced-choice tasks (facial recognition, facial expression recognition, and unfamiliar face matching) which were presented to schizophrenic and depressed patients, and to non-patient controls. Results showed that schizophrenic patients performed at a significantly lower level than non-patient controls on all three tasks, supporting the generalized deficit hypothesis.

  3. Effect of cure cycle on curing process and hardness for epoxy resin

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    Full Text Available A 3-dimensional finite element model is developed to simulate and analyze the temperature and degree of cure field of epoxy casting part during cure process. The present model based on general finite element software ABAQUS is verified by literature example and experimental data. The numerical results show good agreement with literature example and measured data, and are even more accurate than the simulation of literature. After modeling successfully, the influence of temperature cure cycle ramps have on the temperature and degree of cure gradient is investigated. Moreover, the effect of non-uniform temperature and degree of cure field within epoxy casting part on hardness is demonstrated. The present model provides an accurate and novel method that allows further insight into the process of cure for epoxy resin.

  4. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

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    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.


    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  5. Kinetic Analysis of Mica Tape Curing Process

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    Radek Polansky


    Full Text Available Curing program of thermoset insulating materials and its responsible setting has the key importance for assurance of high quality and reliability of electrical devices. It is possible to determine parameters of this program (temperature and time of curing by several ways in practise. There is mostly focused on methods based on kinetic analysis. The result comparison of selected methods of kinetic analysis and residual enthalpy measurement is the main aim of the paper. Two insulating tapes were chosen for the purpose of this study. These tapes correspond in their composition (glass fabric, mica and epoxy binder, but they differ in curing agent type. Simultaneous thermal analysis (STA was used during the measurements. Monitored results demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of particular methods.

  6. Accurate Cure Modeling for Isothermal Processing of Fast Curing Epoxy Resins

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    Alexander Bernath


    Full Text Available In this work a holistic approach for the characterization and mathematical modeling of the reaction kinetics of a fast epoxy resin is shown. Major composite manufacturing processes like resin transfer molding involve isothermal curing at temperatures far below the ultimate glass transition temperature. Hence, premature vitrification occurs during curing and consequently has to be taken into account by the kinetic model. In order to show the benefit of using a complex kinetic model, the Kamal-Malkin kinetic model is compared to the Grindling kinetic model in terms of prediction quality for isothermal processing. From the selected models, only the Grindling kinetic is capable of taking into account vitrification. Non-isothermal, isothermal and combined differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements are conducted and processed for subsequent use for model parametrization. In order to demonstrate which DSC measurements are vital for proper cure modeling, both models are fitted to varying sets of measurements. Special attention is given to the evaluation of isothermal DSC measurements which are subject to deviations arising from unrecorded cross-linking prior to the beginning of the measurement as well as from physical aging effects. It is found that isothermal measurements are vital for accurate modeling of isothermal cure and cannot be neglected. Accurate cure predictions are achieved using the Grindling kinetic model.

  7. A combinaison of UV curing technology with ATL process (United States)

    Balbzioui, I.; Hasiaoui, B.; Barbier, G.; L'hostis, G.; Laurent, F.; Ibrahim, A.; Durand, B.


    In order to reduce the time and the cost of manufacturing composite, UV curing technology combined with automated tape placement process (ATL) based on reverse approach by working with a fixed head was studied in this article. First, a brief description of the developed head placement is presented. Mechanical properties are then evaluated by varying process parameters, including compaction force and tape placement speed. Finally, a parametric study is carried out to identify suitable materials and process parameters to manufacture a photo composite material with high mechanical performances. The obtained results show that UV curing is a very good alternative for thermal polymerization because of its fast cure speed due to less dependency on temperature.

  8. 29 CFR 784.148 - General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General scope of processing, freezing, and curing... Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.148 General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities. Processing, freezing, and curing embrace a...

  9. Microwaves energy in curing process of water glass molding sands

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    Granat K.


    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigation of microwave heating on hardening process of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this heating process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and abrasion resistance has been found. It has been proved, that all investigated sorts of sodium water glass with a module between 2.0 and 3.3 can be used as a binder of molding sands in microwave curing process. It has been found during analysis of research results of sands with 2.5 % water glass addition that they are practically the same as in case of identical molding sands dried for 120 minutes at the temperature of 110°C, used for comparative purposes. Application of microwave curing of molding sands with water glass, however, guarantees reduction of hardening time (from 120 to 4 minutes as well as significant reduction of energy consumption. Attempts of two stage hardening of the investigated water glass molding sands have also been carried out, that is after an initial hardening during a classical CO2 process (identical sands have also been tested for comparison after CO2 blowing process and additional microwave heating. It has been found that application of this kind of treatment for curing sands with 2.5 % sodium water glass content and module from 2.0 up to 3.3 results in the improvement of properties in comparison to classical CO2 process.

  10. Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

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    Eastwood, Eric


    This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.

  11. The medication process in a psychiatric hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter


    Purpose: To investigate the frequency, type, and potential severity of errors in several stages of the medication process in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study using three methods for detecting errors: (1) direct observation; (2) unannounced control visits....... The observational unit: The individual handling of medication (prescribing, dispensing, and administering). Results: In total, 189 errors were detected in 1,082 opportunities for error (17%) of which 84/998 (8%) were assessed as potentially harmful. The frequency of errors was: prescribing, 10/189 (5%); dispensing......, 18/189 (10%); administration, 142/189 (75%); and discharge summaries, 19/189 (10%). The most common errors were omission of pro re nata dosing regime in computerized physician order entry, omission of dose, lack of identity control, and omission of drug. Conclusion: Errors throughout the medication...

  12. Toxoplasma gondii in raw and dry-cured ham: The influence of the curing process. (United States)

    Herrero, Laura; Gracia, María Jesús; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Lázaro, Regina; Herrera, Antonio; Bayarri, Susana


    The aim of this work was to analyze Toxoplasma gondii in raw hams by mouse bioassay and to evaluate the effect of curing on the viability of the parasite to assess the risk of infection from eating dry-cured ham. After a serology study of 1200 pigs in Aragón (Spain), forty-one naturally infected pigs with different serological titers against T. gondii were selected. Two cured periods (9 and 12 months) were evaluated as well as the influence of the physicochemical composition of hams on T. gondii survival. Although the parasite burden was low, a high number of seropositive pigs with Toxoplasma tissues cysts in raw hams were found (31.6%). Viability of T. gondii was influenced by the curing, with statistically significant differences between fresh and cured hams (p < 0.001). The viability was higher in hams cured for 9 months compared to those cured for 12 months. However, this period of curing resulted in the reduction but not in a complete elimination of the risk. Thus, from a public health point of view, under the conditions of this study it is safer to consume dry-cured ham with periods of curing higher than 12 months. Analysis of physicochemical results did not identify any variable with significant influence on the presence and viability of T. gondii in cured ham, but loss of viability of T. gondii was observed in hams with a lower fat content. Further research is required to validate combinations of salts concentration and time of curing that can be used as preventive measures in the HACCP system of dry-cured ham industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of alternative curing salts for processing salamis. (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Ku-Young; Jo, Cheorun; Nam, Ki-Chang


    This study was performed to determine effects of different curing salts on the quality of salamis and to assess feasibility of using NaCl-alternative salts. Various types of curing salts (KCl or MgCl2) as well as NaCl (sun-dried or refined) were incorporated for processing of salamis. The proximate composition, fatty acids, nucleotide-related compounds, and free amino acids of the salamis were analyzed during 40 days of ripening. The substitution of NaCl by KCl caused higher fat and ash content, but lower moisture content of the salami after 20 days of ripening (pcuring salts such as KCl and MgCl2 could substitute NaCl in consideration of quality factor of a fermented meat product. Especially replacement of NaCl with KCl will be a suitable strategy for developing relatively low sodium salami products without compromising product quality.

  14. their use as Accelerator in Curing Process of Rubber Compounds

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    S. taghvaee


    Full Text Available In some special cases, rubber compounds with high amounts of unsaturated elastomer are recommended with organic sulfur donors instead of mineral sulfurs. In this condition, activated sulfur is produced in situ and curingprocess is facilitated without accelerators. Organic sulfur donor compounds have low thermal stability and in the vulcanization temperature produce free and activated sulfurs. The advantages of these compounds are:1. High effectiveness of curing agent in low quantities in rubber compounds manufacturing.2. Producing activated sulfurs in controlled condition and avoiding the over curing of rubber compounds.In this report the novel synthesis of some derivatives of diamino-disulfides which can be applied as sulfur donors in vulcanization of special rubber compounds is introduced. The key process is reaction of sulfurmonochloride with amines in petroleum ether as solvent in low temperature. Dithio-dimorpholine(DTDM, dithio-dipipyridyl (DTDP, dithio-bis dibutylamine (DTBDB and dithio-bisdiisopropyl amine (DTBDI were prepared according to this method. All products thus obtained were characterized by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies. The effects of accelerating and sulfur donoring of all prepared agents were detected in rubber compounds with natural and synthetic rubber bases. All physical, chemical, reological and mechanical properties of rubber compounds based on prepared sulfur donors were characterized.

  15. Differential scanning calorimetry investigation on vinyl ester resin curing process for polymer nanocomposite fabrication. (United States)

    Guo, Zhanhu; Ng, Ho Wai; Yee, Gary L; Hahn, H Thomas


    Two different ceramic (cerium oxide and titanium oxide) nanoparticles were introduced into vinyl ester resin for nanocomposite fabrication. The curing process of the vinyl ester resin was investigated by a differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The incorporation of nanoparticles in the resin affects the curing process due to the physicochemical interaction between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. The particle loading has a significant effect on the initial and peak curing temperatures, reaction heat and curing extent. The fully cured vinyl ester resin nanocomposites reinforced with cerium oxide nanoparticles were fabricated after a 24-hour room temperature curing and a one-hour postcuring at 85 degrees C. Particle functionalization favors the composite fabrication with a higher curing extent after room-temperature curing as compared to the as-received nanoparticle filled vinyl ester resin nanocomposites. The nanofiller materials were observed to significantly affect the curing process. In comparison to cerium oxide nanoparticles, titanium oxide nanoparticles prohibit the curing process with a much higher initiating curing temperatures. The fully cured nanocomposites reinforced with titanium oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by one-hour postcuring at 85 degrees C.

  16. Variable frequency microwave (VFM) curing, processing of thermoset prepreg laminates. Final report

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    Paulauskas, F.L.


    The objective of this work was to investigate the beneficial effect of the variable frequency microwave (VFM) technology to cure thermosetting prepreg laminates. Further, it was to investigate the interrelationship and effect on the curing process of frequency, band width, and curing time with different types of laminates. Previous studies of microwave-assisted curing of neat resins (epoxy) and unidirectional glass and carbon fiber laminates with a fixed frequency of 2.45 GHz, have shown that a substantial reduction in the curing time was obtained. Results of this earlier work indicate that the microwave-assisted curing of multidirectional glass fiber laminates also show a substantial reduction of the required curing time. This may be explained by the penetration of microwave energy directly and throughout the laminate with enhancement of the kinetics of the chemical reaction. The fixed frequency microwave radiation of 2.45 GHz has been demonstrated to be a partially acceptable method to cure unidirectional carbon fiber laminates. Multidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy laminates demonstrate a lack of coupling during the curing process. A direct curing of these laminates was not possible by microwave radiation with the experimental approach used in agreement with previous work. In addition to this short coming, the unidirectional laminate samples cured with the fixed frequency are visually nonuniform. Localized areas of darker colors (burn, hot spots, overheating) are attributed to the formation of standing waves within the microwave cavity. For this reason, the laminates are subject to proper rotation while curing through fixed frequency. The present research indicates that variable frequency microwave technology is a sound and acceptable processing method to effectively cure uni-, bi- or multi-directional thermosetting glass fiber laminates. Also, this methodology will effectively cure unidirectional thermosetting carbon fiber laminates. For all these cases, this

  17. The Effect of Rubber Mixing Process on The Curing Characteristics of Natural Rubber

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    Abu Hasan


    Full Text Available This research is aimed at studying the relationship between rubber mixing processes and curing characteristics of natural rubber. The curing characteristic analysis was carried out through a natural rubber formula having been masticated and mixed, followed by curing. As many as four mastication methods were finely applied; each respected four sequences of rubber mixing process. In the first method, rubber was masticated for 5 minutes and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were  simultaneously added. In the second and the third methods, rubber was masticated for 1 minute and then carbon blacks and rubber chemicals were also simultaneously added but using different type of fillers. In the fourth method, rubber was masticated for 3 minutes and then rubber chemicals and carbon black were subsequently added. The additions of rubber chemicals and carbon blacks to the masticated rubber were distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. The carbon blacks were added in two stages by which 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In another method, ratios of the carbon blacks addition (as done in the first  and the second stages were 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The examination results showed that rubber mixing process gave an impact on the changes of curing characteristics. They were much affected by the method of carbon black addition. The mixing temperature also had an effect on both curing time and curing rate in which the higher the mixing temperature, the lower the curing time and curing rate. Vulcanization temperature also affected the curing time and curing rate in which the higher the vulcanization temperature, the lower the curing time and the higher the curing rate. Lastly, particle size of carbon black also gave an impact on the curing time and curing rate in which the smaller the particle size, the lower the curing time and the higher the curing rate.

  18. Warpage of QFN Package in Post Mold Cure Process of integrated circuit packaging (United States)

    Sriwithoon, Nattha; Ugsornrat, Kessararat; Srisuwitthanon, Warayoot; Thonglor, Panakamon


    This research studied about warpage of QFN package in post mold cure process of integrated circuit (IC) packages using pre-plated (PPF) leadframe. For IC package, epoxy molding compound (EMC) are molded by cross linking of compound stiffness but incomplete crosslinked network and leading the fully cured thermoset by post mold cure (PMC) process. The cure temperature of PMC can change microstructure of EMC in term of stress inside the package and effect to warpage of the package due to coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between EMC and leadframe. In experiment, cure temperatures were varied to check the effect of internal stress due to different cure temperature after completed post mold cure for TDFN 2×3 8L. The cure temperature were varied with 180 °C, 170 °C, 160 °C, and 150°C with cure time 4 and 6 hours, respectively. For analysis, the TDFN 2×3 8L packages were analyzed the warpage by thickness gauge and scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) after take the test samples out from the oven cure. The results confirmed that effect of different CTE between EMC and leadframe due to different cure temperature resulting to warpage of the TDFN 2×3 8L packages.

  19. Hard and soft computing models of composite curing process looking toward monitoring and control (United States)

    Rubino, F.; Carlone, P.; Aleksendrić, D.; Ćirović, V.; Sorrentino, L.; Bellini, C.


    The curing process of thermosetting resins plays a key role on the final quality of the composite material components. Soft computing techniques proved to be an efficient method to control and optimize the curing process, replacing the conventional experimental and numerical approaches. In this paper artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic control (FLC) were implemented together to predict and control the temperature and degree of cure profile during the autoclave curing process. The obtained outcomes proved the capability of ANNs and FLC with respect to the hard computing methods.

  20. Solidifying process and flame retardancy of epoxy resin cured with boron-containing phenolic resin (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Shi, Yan; Liu, Yuansen; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Qi


    For the sake of improving the charring performance and flame retardancy of epoxy resin (EP), boron-containing phenolic resin (BPR) instead of a conventional curing agent, linear phenolic resin (LPR) was employed to cure EP. Of several possible chemical structures for BPR, the existence of benzyl hydroxy groups in BPR chains has been confirmed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The resonance of these groups may reasonably explain the higher curing reactivity of BPR-cured EP than that of LPR-cured EP. Thermogravimetric analysis, observation of the morphologies of the char residues and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic were performed to characterize the charring process. Due to the presence of B2O3 produced on the char surface from decomposition of phenyl borates and the facile high self-crosslinking reaction of BPR, a more continuous and stronger char barrier was formed for BPR-cured EP compared to that for the LPR-cured EP system. Therefore the former exhibited much better flame retardancy. In addition, BPR-cured EP also displayed better dynamic mechanical properties, than those observed for LPR-cured EP. It is not subject to the significant lowering the glass transition temperature of the polymer which accompanies curing with LPR. This suggests that BPR cured resin may meet the requirement for utilization at high temperature.

  1. Modelling and simulation of cure in pultrusion processes (United States)

    Tucci, F.; Rubino, F.; Paradiso, V.; Carlone, P.; Valente, R.


    Trial and error approach is not a suitable method to optimize the pultrusion process because of the high times required for the start up and the wide range of possible combinations of matrix and reinforcement. On the other hand, numerical approaches can be a suitable solution to test different parameter configuration. One of the main tasks in pultrusion processes is to obtain a complete and homogeneous resin polymerization. The formation of cross-links between polymeric chains is thermally induced but it leads to a strong exothermic heat generation, hence the thermal and the chemical phenomena are mutually affected. It requires that the two problems have to be modelled in coupled way. The mathematical model used in this work considers the composite as a lumped material, whose thermal and mechanical properties are evaluated as function of resin and fibers properties. The numerical pattern is based on a quasi-static approach in a three-dimensional Eulerian domain, which describes both thermal and chemical phenomena. The data obtained are used in a simplified C.H.I.L.E. (Cure Hardening Instantaneous Linear Elastic) model to compute the mechanical properties of the resin fraction in the pultruded. The two combined approaches allow to formulate a numerical model which takes into account the normal (no-penetration) and tangential (viscosity/friction) interactions between die and profile, the pulling force and the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid resin to evaluate the stress and strain fields induced by the process within the pultruded. The implementation of the numerical models has been carried out using the ABAQUS finite element suite, by means of several user subroutines (in Fortran language) which improve the basic software potentialities.

  2. Analyses on curing process of electron beam radiation in epoxy resins

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    Sui Gang; Zhang Zuoguang; Chen Changqi; Zhong Weihong


    Epoxy resins have already been applied in electron beam (EB) curable composites structures extensively. The effects of different initiators and diluents on Shell Epon 828 radiation reaction were discussed in the paper, and the same radiation reaction systems were also explored using a heat treatment. The experimental results indicated cationic photoinitiator can initiate EB radiation curing of epoxy resin and traditionally heat-cured systems are not always suitable for the EB curing. The use of diluents would reduce the curing degree of resin and reactive diluents have less effect. The cationic ring-opening polymerization process including the decomposition of diaryliodonium salts under EB radiation at the initial stage and production of protonic acid that can initiate polyreaction was validated in the experiments. The characteristic of cured field and penetration process of EB in Shell Epon 828 system was also studied, and the whole cured area was found to be consisting of many lamellar structures.

  3. Numerical Simulation of the Curing Process of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites


    Hosseini, Amir Haji


    The curing process of Fiber reinforced polymer rebars using a two phase curing process is investigated in this work. These rebars are developed as an alternative reinforcing material in reinforced concrete. The chemical resistance and high specific strength and stiffness of these rebars make them an important subject for research

  4. The use of atmospheric pressure plasma as a curing process for canned ground ham. (United States)

    Lee, Juri; Jo, Kyung; Lim, Yubong; Jeon, Hee Joon; Choe, Jun Ho; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel


    This study investigated the potential use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment as a curing process for canned ground ham. APP treatment for 60min while mixing increased the nitrite content in the meat batters from 0.64 to 60.50mgkg(-1) while the pH and the total content of aerobic bacteria in the meat batters were unchanged. The canned ground hams cured by the APP treatment for 30min displayed no difference in their physicochemical qualities, such as nitrosyl hemochrome, color, residual nitrite, texture, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation, compared with those of canned ground hams cured with sodium nitrite or celery powder at 42mgkg(-1) of nitrite. The canned ground hams cured by the APP treatment received a higher score in taste and overall acceptability than those cured with sodium nitrite. Canned ground ham can be cured by the APP treatment without nitrite additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of the different atmospheric steam curing processes on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper an attempt has been made to study the use of microsilica on the properties of self-compacting-concrete (SCC) such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and micro-hardness when exposed to different atmospheric steam curing temperatures.

  6. Processing-property relationships in autocalve-cured graphite-fiber/epoxy-resin composites

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    Wang, H.T.


    Research was conducted to model processing and investigate relationships between processing and physical/mechanical properties in autoclave-cured unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites. Particular attention was given to the cure kinetics, the temperature distribution inside the composite during cure, the chemorheology, the resin flow, and the physical/mechanical properties of the neat resin and its composites. The TGDDM/DDS epoxy system and unidirectional graphite fiber-reinforced composites were chosen for the study. The kinetics of neat resin and its prepreg were evaluated. Changes in temperature distribution in a composite during cure as a function of cure time and position were predicted by solving an energy-balance equation. A modified WLF equation was proposed as a theoretical model to predict changes of the chemoviscosity during cure; experimental data were generated from a cone-and-plate rheometer. Resin flow during cure was characterized by investigating the cross-section area of the composite. Finally, the effect of the curing process on the physical/mechanical properties of neat resin and composite was evaluated. Matrix-dominated failure mode was assessed. Both strength characterization and fracture mechanics test methods were performed.

  7. An Optimal Cure Process to Minimize Residual Void and Optical Birefringence for a LED Silicone Encapsulant

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    Min-Jae Song


    Full Text Available Silicone resin has recently attracted great attention as a high-power Light Emitting Diode (LED encapsulant material due to its good thermal stability and optical properties. In general, the abrupt curing reaction of the silicone resin for the LED encapsulant during the curing process induces reduction in the mechanical and optical properties of the LED product due to the generation of residual void and moisture, birefringence, and residual stress in the final formation. In order to prevent such an abrupt curing reaction, the reduction of residual void and birefringence of the silicone resin was observed through experimentation by introducing the multi-step cure processes, while the residual stress was calculated by conducting finite element analysis that coupled the heat of cure reaction and cure shrinkage. The results of experiment and analysis showed that it was during the three-step curing process that the residual void, birefringence, and residual stress reduced the most in similar tendency. Through such experimentation and finite element analysis, the study was able to confirm that the optimization of the LED encapsulant packaging process was possible.

  8. [The process of institutional transformation of San Luis Psychiatric Hospital]. (United States)

    Pellegrini, Jorge L


    This article focuses on the human and institutional contradictions involved in the transformation process of a classic psychiatric hospital in the province of San Luis, Argentina. This process has to resolve clinical, cultural, ideological, political conflicts, in the heart of the chosen path, in order to affirm the existence of the mental illness, the need to find new treatments for the new sufferings involved in leaving enclosure opting for freedom and the accompaniment of those who suffer.

  9. PERBEDAAN KANDUNGAN SENYAWA VOLATIL DAUN SALAM (Eugenia polyantha Wight PADA BEBERAPA PROSES CURING The Difference of Volatile Compounds of Bay Leaf (Eugenia polyantha Wight. in Several Curing Processes

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    Ni Made Wartini


    Full Text Available The influence of curing process toward flavour substances of bay leaf has been conducted. Bay leaves were cured with three different time of process: 0, 2 and 4 days and extracted by simultaneous distillation-extraction using n- hexane. Flavour extract was evaporated by vacuum rotary evaporator and remained solvent was flushed with nitrogen gas. Flavour compounds of the bay leaf extract were analysed using GC-MS. The result showed that curing process affected the composition of bay leaf flavour. Extracted flavour from cured bay leaves for 0, 2 and 4 days consisted of 29, 32 and 26 components respectively, whereas α-ocimene, octanal, cis-4-decenal, α-humulene and decanal were the main components of extract. ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai pengaruh proses curing terhadap senyawa yang memberi kontribusi terhadap flavor daun salam. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan kandungan senyawa flavor dalam daun salam segar dan daun yang telah mengalami proses curing. Proses curing dilakukan pada kondisi alami, dengan perlakuan lama proses yaitu 0, 2 dan 4 hari. Daun salam hasil proses curing selanjutnya diekstrak dengan metode simultan distilasi-ekstraksi menggunakan pelarut n-heksana. Hasil ekstrak yang mengandung pelarut diuapkan den- gan vakum rotary evaporator dan sisa pelarut dihilangkan dengan mengalirkan gas nitrogen pada ekstrak. Senyawa penyusun ekstrak flavor daun salam dianalisis dengan GC-MS. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa senyawa penyusun ekstrak flavor daun salam baik jumlah maupun persentase relatifnya dipengaruhi oleh lama proses curing. Ekstrak fla- vor hasil proses curing 0, 2 dan 4 hari berturut-turut mengandung 29, 32 dan 26 senyawa dengan kandungan dominan α-osimen, oktanal, cis-4-dekenal, α-humulen dan dekanal dengan persentase relatif yang berbeda-beda pada masing- masing ekstrak.

  10. Process Modelling of Curing Process-Induced Internal Stress and Deformation of Composite Laminate Structure with Elastic and Viscoelastic Models (United States)

    Li, Dongna; Li, Xudong; Dai, Jianfeng


    In this paper, two kinds of transient models, the viscoelastic model and the linear elastic model, are established to analyze the curing deformation of the thermosetting resin composites, and are calculated by COMSOL Multiphysics software. The two models consider the complicated coupling between physical and chemical changes during curing process of the composites and the time-variant characteristic of material performance parameters. Subsequently, the two proposed models are implemented respectively in a three-dimensional composite laminate structure, and a simple and convenient method of local coordinate system is used to calculate the development of residual stresses, curing shrinkage and curing deformation for the composite laminate. Researches show that the temperature, degree of curing (DOC) and residual stresses during curing process are consistent with the study in literature, so the curing shrinkage and curing deformation obtained on these basis have a certain referential value. Compared the differences between the two numerical results, it indicates that the residual stress and deformation calculated by the viscoelastic model are more close to the reference value than the linear elastic model.

  11. Simulation of Injection Molding Process Including Mold Filling and Compound Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Erfanian


    Full Text Available The present work reports and discusses the results of a 3D simulation of the injection molding process of a rubber compound that includes the mold flling stage and  material curing, using the computer code is developed in “UDF” part of the Fluent 6.3 CAE software. The data obtained from a rheometer (MDR 2000 is used to characterize the rubber material in order to fnd the cure model parameters which exist in curing model. Because of non-newtonian behavior of rubber, in this work the non-newtonian model for viscosity was used and viscosity parameters were computed by mean of viscometry test by RPA. After calculation of the physical and curing properties, vulcanization process was simulated for a complex rubber article with non-uniform thickness by solving the continuity, momentum, energy and curing process equations. Predicted flling and curing time in a complex and 3D rubber part is compared with experimentally measured data which confrmed  the accuracy and applicability of the method.

  12. Targeting memory processes with drugs to prevent or cure PTSD. (United States)

    Cain, Christopher K; Maynard, George D; Kehne, John H


    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder resulting from exposure to a severe traumatic stressor and an area of great unmet medical need. Advances in pharmacological treatments beyond the currently approved SSRIs are needed. Background on PTSD, as well as the neurobiology of stress responding and fear conditioning, is provided. Clinical and preclinical data for investigational agents with diverse pharmacological mechanisms are summarized. Advances in the understanding of stress biology and mechanisms of fear conditioning plasticity provide a rationale for treatment approaches that may reduce hyperarousal and dysfunctional aversive memories in PTSD. One challenge is to determine if these components are independent or reflect a common underlying neurobiological alteration. Numerous agents reviewed have potential for reducing PTSD core symptoms or targeted symptoms in chronic PTSD. Promising early data support drug approaches that seek to disrupt dysfunctional aversive memories by interfering with consolidation soon after trauma exposure, or in chronic PTSD, by blocking reconsolidation and/or enhancing extinction. Challenges remain for achieving selectivity when attempting to alter aversive memories. Targeting the underlying traumatic memory with a combination of pharmacological therapies applied with appropriate chronicity, and in combination with psychotherapy, is expected to substantially improve PTSD treatment.

  13. Targeting memory processes with drugs to prevent or cure PTSD (United States)

    Cain, Christopher K.; Maynard, George D.; Kehne, John H.


    Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder resulting from exposure to a severe traumatic stressor and an area of great unmet medical need. Advances in pharmacological treatments beyond the currently approved SSRIs are needed. Areas covered Background on PTSD, as well as the neurobiology of stress responding and fear conditioning, is provided. Clinical and preclinical data for investigational agents with diverse pharmacological mechanisms are summarized. Expert opinion Advances in the understanding of stress biology and mechanisms of fear conditioning plasticity provide a rationale for treatment approaches that may reduce hyperarousal and dysfunctional aversive memories in PTSD. One challenge is to determine if these components are independent or reflect a common underlying neurobiological alteration. Numerous agents reviewed have potential for reducing PTSD core symptoms or targeted symptoms in chronic PTSD. Promising early data support drug approaches that seek to disrupt dysfunctional aversive memories by interfering with consolidation soon after trauma exposure, or in chronic PTSD, by blocking reconsolidation and/or enhancing extinction. Challenges remain for achieving selectivity when attempting to alter aversive memories. Targeting the underlying traumatic memory with a combination of pharmacological therapies applied with appropriate chronicity, and in combination with psychotherapy, is expected to substantially improve PTSD treatment. PMID:22834476

  14. Measurement and analysis of thickness change in the curing and drying processes of polyimide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, H.J.; Kim, D.J. [Sung Kyun Kwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    The thickness change of semirigid polyimide, pyromellitic dianhydride-4,4`-oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA), films during the curing and drying processes was monitored using laser interferometer system and the effects of scanning rate and pre-baking time on it were analyzed. The variation of imidization extent in the curing process for different temperature scanning rates was investigated using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. As the pre-baking time increased, the initial film thickness in the curing process decreased significantly. As the temperature scanning rate increased, the temperatures at which the variation of film thickness and imidization extent started and completed increased. The values of film thickness were higher for higher scanning rates at the same temperatures in the curing process. The thermal expansion coefficient of cured polyimide film was determined from measurement of the temperature dependence of film thickness. In the drying process of swelled polyimide films, the temperature dependence of solvent diffusion coefficient was determined from the curve fitting of the theoretical time dependent fractional solvent mass residue in the film to the experimental results obtained at varying temperatures,with the extraction of the activation energy from it.

  15. How common are errors in the medication process in a psychiatric hospital?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Mainz, Jan; Lisby, Marianne

    How common are errors in the medication process in a psychiatric hospital? Background and purpose: Medication errors in psychiatric care is a problem in need of attention in Denmark. Studies are sparse and does not investigate all stages of the medication process. There is an urgent need...... for clarifying studies concerning prevalence and nature of medication errors in psychiatric care, as well as studies concerning associations related to medication errors. This is the basis for quality improving interventions in relation to medication safety in psychiatric care. The aim of this study was to asses...... frequency, type and potential clinical consequences of errors in all stages of the medication process in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Methods and materials: A cross-sectional study in two general psychiatric wards and one acute psychiatric ward. Participants were eligible psychiatric in...

  16. Student nurses' learning processes in interaction with psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Linda


    When the Danish government converted the national practice-oriented nursing qualification from a vocational course to a bachelor’s degree in 2002, the clinical training component was scaled back. Accordingly, mentors needed to optimise students’ learning from this curtailed clinical practice....... A fuller understanding of how student nurses function and learn during clinical training is vital. This article presents the findings of a qualitative investigation of student nurses’ learning processes during their clinical placement in psychiatric nursing practice. An explorative and qualitative...... to understanding and analysing the content of student nurses’ learning processes. Data was generated from qualitative, semi-structured interviews with, observations of, and obser-views with, eleven students. The obser-view process is my development. It is a common reflection between researcher and research...

  17. Application of mass spectrometry to process control for polymer material in autoclave curing (United States)

    Smith, A. C.


    Mass spectrometer analysis of gas samples collected during a cure cycle of polymer materials can be used as a process control technique. This technique is particularly helpful in studying the various types of solvents and resin systems used in the preparation of polymer materials and characterizing the chemical composition of different resin systems and their mechanism of polymerization.

  18. Optimal temperature profiles for minimum residual stress in the cure process of polymer composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gopal, AK


    Full Text Available Manufacturing of polymer composites using a curing process requires the specification of the temperature as a function of time, i.e., the temperature profile. It is of utmost importance that the selected profile satisfies a number of criteria which...

  19. Composite Cure Process Modeling and Simulations using COMPRO(Registered Trademark) and Validation of Residual Strains using Fiber Optics Sensors (United States)

    Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Hudson, Tyler B.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Grimsley, Brian W.


    Composite cure process induced residual strains and warping deformations in composite components present significant challenges in the manufacturing of advanced composite structure. As a part of the Manufacturing Process and Simulation initiative of the NASA Advanced Composite Project (ACP), research is being conducted on the composite cure process by developing an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms by which the process induced factors influence the residual responses. In this regard, analytical studies have been conducted on the cure process modeling of composite structural parts with varied physical, thermal, and resin flow process characteristics. The cure process simulation results were analyzed to interpret the cure response predictions based on the underlying physics incorporated into the modeling tool. In the cure-kinetic analysis, the model predictions on the degree of cure, resin viscosity and modulus were interpreted with reference to the temperature distribution in the composite panel part and tool setup during autoclave or hot-press curing cycles. In the fiber-bed compaction simulation, the pore pressure and resin flow velocity in the porous media models, and the compaction strain responses under applied pressure were studied to interpret the fiber volume fraction distribution predictions. In the structural simulation, the effect of temperature on the resin and ply modulus, and thermal coefficient changes during curing on predicted mechanical strains and chemical cure shrinkage strains were studied to understand the residual strains and stress response predictions. In addition to computational analysis, experimental studies were conducted to measure strains during the curing of laminated panels by means of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) embedded in the resin impregnated panels. The residual strain measurements from laboratory tests were then compared with the analytical model predictions. The paper describes the cure process

  20. The software package for solving problems of mathematical modeling of isothermal curing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tikhomirov


    Full Text Available Summary. On the basis of the general laws of sulfur vulcanization diene rubbers the principles of the effective cross-linking using a multi-component agents was discussed. It is noted that the description of the mechanism of action of the complex cross-linking systems are complicated by the diversity of interactions of components and the influence of each of them on the curing kinetics, leading to a variety technological complications of real technology and affects on the quality and technical and economic indicators of the production of rubber goods. Based on the known theoretical approaches the system analysis of isothermal curing process was performed. It included the integration of different techniques and methods into a single set of. During the analysis of the kinetics of vulcanization it was found that the formation of the spatial grid parameters vulcanizates depend on many factors, to assess which requires special mathematical and algorithmic support. As a result of the stratification of the object were identified the following major subsystems. A software package for solving direct and inverse kinetic problems isothermal curing process was developed. Information support “Isothermal vulcanization” is a set of applications of mathematical modeling of isothermal curing. It is intended for direct and inverse kinetic problems. When solving the problem of clarifying the general scheme of chemical transformations used universal mechanism including secondary chemical reactions. Functional minimization algorithm with constraints on the unknown parameters was used for solving the inverse kinetic problem. Shows a flowchart of the program. An example of solving the inverse kinetic problem with the program was introduced. Dataware was implemented in the programming language C ++. Universal dependence to determine the initial concentration of the curing agent was applied . It allowing the use of a model with different properties of multicomponent

  1. Bacterial succession during curing process of a skate (Dipturus batis) and isolation of novel strains. (United States)

    Reynisson, E; Thornór Marteinsson, V; Jónsdóttir, R; Magnússon, S H; Hreggvidsson, G O


    To study the succession of cultivated and uncultivated microbes during the traditional curing process of skate. The microbial diversity was evaluated by sequencing 16Sr RNA clone libraries and cultivation in variety of media from skate samples taken periodically during a 9-day curing process. A pH shift was observed (pH 6·64-9·27) with increasing trimethylamine (2·6 up to 75·6 mg N per 100 g) and total volatile nitrogen (TVN) (from 58·5 to 705·8 mg N per 100 g) but with relatively slow bacterial growth. Uncured skate was dominated by Oceanisphaera and Pseudoalteromonas genera but was substituted after curing by Photobacterium and Aliivibrio in the flesh and Pseudomonas on the skin. Almost 50% of the clone library is derived from putative undiscovered species. Cultivation and enrichment strategies resulted in isolation of putatively new species belonging to the genera Idiomarina, Rheinheimera, Oceanisphaera, Providencia and Pseudomonas. The most abundant genera able to hydrolyse urea to ammonia were Oceanisphaera, Psychrobacter, Pseudoalteromonas and isolates within the Pseudomonas genus. The curing process of skate is controlled and achieved by a dynamic bacterial community where the key players belong to Oceanisphaera, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacterium, Aliivibrio and Pseudomonas. For the first time, the bacterial population developments in the curing process of skate are presented and demonstrate a reservoir of many yet undiscovered bacterial species. No Claim to Norwegian Government works Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Single-component and fast-curing epoxy resin for liquid composite molding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiru


    Full Text Available Development of single-component and fast-curing epoxy resins is highly desired for many industry applications. In this work, we report an epoxy system based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA and 1-(2-cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4- methylimidazole (1C2E4MIM. The inductive effect of electron-withdrawing cyano group distinctly increases the latency of 1C2E4MIM without sacrificing the curing rate. The results of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA measurements indicate DGEBA/1C2E4MIM epoxy system can be fully cured in 15 min. The rheological, thermal and mechanical properties of DGEBA/1C2E4MIM epoxy system were studied in detail. The results show that the shelf life of this epoxy system is more than 4 days at room temperature and more than 6 months at -18 °C. The cured epoxy resins show high glass transition temperature (>155 °C, tensile strength (>80 MPa as well as excellent moist heat resistance. Finally, carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs were fabricated using this epoxy system as matrix via vacuum assisted resin infusion (VARI process. The mechanical properties of CFRPs, including tensile, flexural, compressive and interlaminar shear properties, were investigated.

  3. Beyond celery and starter culture: advances in natural/organic curing processes in the United States. (United States)

    Sebranek, J G; Jackson-Davis, A L; Myers, K L; Lavieri, N A


    Over the past 10years there has been ongoing development of curing processes with natural ingredients designed to meet consumer demand and regulatory requirements for natural and organic processed meats. Initially, these processes utilized celery concentrates with a high nitrate content combined with a nitrate-reducing starter culture. Subsequent advances included celery concentrates with the nitrate converted to nitrite by suppliers. Further, as questions developed concerning reduced concentration of preservatives and the microbiological safety of these processed meats, additional advances have resulted in a wide variety of ingredients and processes designed to provide supplementary antimicrobial effects for improved product safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Paclitaxel Release from Polyether-Anhydrides Prepared with UV-Curing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Dong


    Full Text Available Polyanhydrides have been used as drug delivery systems to achieve a long-term delivery due to its hydrophobicity and surface erosion degradation behavior. In order to develop a simple, economical, and rapid approach to synthesize polyanhydrides, we prepared a series of polyether-anhydride membranes composed of different mass fractions of sebacic acid, polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and poly(tetramethylene oxide dimethacrylate by ultraviolet curing process. The chemical structure and thermal properties of target polyanhydrides were characterized, while the paclitaxel releases from the polymer matrix were evaluated by HPLC. The results demonstrated that the UV-curing process is a good method to synthesize the target polymers in a short time, and the paclitaxel release procedure can be controlled by changing the component in the copolymers.

  5. The effect of dry-cured salt contents on accumulation of non-volatile compounds during dry-cured goose processing. (United States)

    Zhou, C Y; Wang, Y; Cao, J X; Chen, Y J; Liu, Y; Sun, Y Y; Pan, D D; Ou, C R


    Twenty-four Eastern Zhejiang White Geese were slaughtered, dry-cured by 2 different kinds of salt contents (12 geese with 4% low salt level [LS]; 12 geese with 8% high salt level [HS]) for one d, marinated in brine for one d, and air dry-ripened at 16 °C for 7 d. The effect of dry-curing salt contents on the changes in myofibril proteins, potential proteolysis activities, and total free amino acid (TFAA) in dry-cured goose was investigated. Compared to the raw, cathepsin B+L and calpains activities decreased at the end of dry-curing and the third d of dry-ripening. At the final products, the activities of cathepsin B+L and calpains were about half of those in raw meat. There was no difference in proteolysis activities except for the end of dry-curing (P curing (P < 0.05) for calpains (P < 0.05) between groups. Myosin light chain (MLC) and troponin-I were cleaved. Compared to the raw, TFAA increased by 36.64 and 31.82% in the final products for HS (P < 0.001) and LS (P < 0.01), respectively. The increase of TFAA could be attributed to the proteolysis of myofibril proteins and retained proteolysis activities. No significant difference on TFAA and MLC and troponin-I bands was observed between groups in final products. This means that different proteolysis activities during processing did not cause the difference in quality of final products between groups, and that 4% low salt can be used in future applications. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Optimized Deep UV Curing Process for Metal-Free Dry-Etching of Critical Integrated Optical Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengo, G.; Sengo, G.; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Driessen, A.

    In this paper we present results of Deep UV-curing of resist followed by thermal treatment at temperatures up to 280°C. The curing process was optimized for positive resist profiles of Fujifilm with thicknesses from 0.3 to 3.0 µm. The procedure was for the first time employed to etch critical

  7. Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for monitoring Parma dry-cured ham processing. (United States)

    Fantazzini, P; Gombia, M; Schembri, P; Simoncini, N; Virgili, R


    Protocols were developed to apply Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the dry-curing of Italian Parma ham. NMR relaxation analyses were performed on dry-cured hams at different processing stages to evaluate the ranges of variation of (1)H relaxation times T(1) and T(2) in representative ham muscle tissues, due to dehydration and salt uptake. MRI maps of the same ham sections were acquired, allowing T(1) and T(2) average values to be computed in selected Regions of Interest (ROI) inside muscle Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus and Biceps femoris. Chloride and moisture were determined by conventional chemical methods on the same ROIs, and MRI T(1) and T(1)/T(2) ratio were selected in a model (R(2)=0.90, Phams, but on fresh samples only, a bright image, displaying a clear separation between lean and fat tissue, was obtained.

  8. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Coatings Through Dual-Cure Processes: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic (O/I coatings obtained through the exploitation of dual-cure processes, which involve a photo-induced polymerization followed by a thermal treatment: this latter allows the occurrence of sol-gel reactions of suitable alkoxy precursors already embedded in the UV-curable system. After a brief introduction on hybrid organic-inorganic coatings, the first part of the review is focused on the design and feasibility issues provided by the dual-cure method, emphasizing the possibility of tuning the structure of the final hybrid network on the basis of the composition of the starting liquid mixture. Then, some recent examples of hybrid organic-inorganic networks are thoroughly described, showing their potential advances and the application fields to which they can be addressed.

  9. Nonthermal combined ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet curing process for organosilicate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, H.; Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Li, W.; Blatz, J.; Hsu, K.; Benjamin, D.; Shohet, J. L., E-mail: [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Lin, Y.-H.; Fung, H.-S.; Chen, C.-C. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Nishi, Y. [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    Porous SiCOH films are of great interest in semiconductor fabrication due to their low-dielectric constant properties. Post-deposition treatments using ultraviolet (UV) light on organosilicate thin films are required to decompose labile pore generators (porogens) and to ensure optimum network formation to improve the electrical and mechanical properties of low-k dielectrics. The goal of this work is to choose the best vacuum-ultraviolet photon energy in conjunction with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons without the need for heating the dielectric to identify those wavelengths that will have the most beneficial effect on improving the dielectric properties and minimizing damage. VUV irradiation between 8.3 and 8.9 eV was found to increase the hardness and elastic modulus of low-k dielectrics at room temperature. Combined with UV exposures of 6.2 eV, it was found that this “UV/VUV curing” process is improved compared with current UV curing. We show that UV/VUV curing can overcome drawbacks of UV curing and improve the properties of dielectrics more efficiently without the need for high-temperature heating of the dielectric.

  10. Thermo-mechanical performance of a novel composite liner used in cured-in-place pipe renovation process


    Saidpour, Hossein; Razmara, Mohammad


    This paper aims to describe the latest developments in the cured-in-place lining process and present the results of an investigation into the thermomechanical properties of a novel composite material used in the process of cured-in-place pipe renovation. The results include the effect of catalyst content on the dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of the felt liner polyester composites. In this study a novel type of pipe liner was prepared using a special feltpolyester material. It has b...

  11. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.


    Gilles, Gandemer


    Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subj...

  12. Evolution of oxidised peptides during the processing of 9months Spanish dry-cured ham. (United States)

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Toldrá, Fidel


    Sensory and nutritional properties of dry-cured ham can be negatively affected due to oxidative modifications of muscle proteins during its processing. In this study, a peptidomic approach has been used in order to study the evolution of oxidised peptides generated throughout the dry-curing process (0, 2, 3.5, 5, 6.5 and 9months), focusing on those derived from major myofibrillar proteins. A total of 67 peptides showing methionine, proline, and tryptophan oxidations were identified in common in all samples by nano liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for their relative quantification using a label-free methodology, showing the hydrolysis of some of the peptides during the process. So, the peptidomics strategy used in this work has resulted to be very useful as a complementary tool to the methods currently used to study protein oxidation, allowing a better understanding of the oxidation at peptide level and the influence of ham processing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of the mechanical properties of photo-cured epoxy resin fabricated by stereolithography process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapon Chantarapanich


    Full Text Available Stereolithography process enables various freeform geometries to be manufactured, which are beneficial to manyresearch and development fields, particularly on medicine. The mechanical properties of stereolithography models can begenerally but not only influenced by the material characteristics, but also by the method of manufacturing. Since thestereolithography process involves building three dimensional objects by depositing material layer-by-layer as well as thepost-curing by ultraviolet light, it is therefore possible for stereolithography models to exhibit a directional dependence of themechanical properties. The objectives of the study focused on the influence of build orientations and ultraviolet post-curingperiod on the mechanical properties. In the experiments, Watershed 11122 commercial epoxy photo-curable resin was used.The in-house developed stereolithography machine of the National Metal and Materials Technology Center of Thailand wasused to fabricate tensile test specimens (American Society for Testing Materials Standard D638 with different build orientations. Main build orientations included flat and edge. Each main build orientation contained three sub-build orientationswhich were 0 degree, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees to the x-axis. The mechanical properties including elastic modulus, ultimatetensile strength, elongation at ultimate tensile strength, and elongation at break were evaluated by tensile test with a universal testing machine. The results indicated that the mechanical properties of specimens were slightly different among thesub-build orientations. The larger differences of mechanical properties of specimens were found between main build orientations. The mechanical strength of specimens improved corresponding to the increase of UV post-curing period ranged from0 to 4 hours whereas the post-curing period using 4 hours onward, the mechanical properties of specimens were nearlyconstant.

  14. Effect of tiger nut fibre addition on the quality and safety of a dry-cured pork sausage ("Chorizo") during the dry-curing process. (United States)

    Sánchez-Zapata, E; Zunino, V; Pérez-Alvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J


    There is a growing interest in the revalorization of co-products from the food industry. Co-products from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) milk production are a suitable fibre source. "Chorizo" is the most popular dry-cured meat product in Spain. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the tiger nut fibre addition (0, 5, and 7.5%) on the quality (composition, physicochemical, and sensorial properties) and safety (oxidation and microbial quality) of a Spanish dry-cured sausage, during the 28days of its dry-curing process. Tiger nut fibre (TNF) addition decreased fat and increased moisture content. The addition of TNF significantly increased (p<0.05) the total dietary fibre content of "Chorizo". Lightness (L*), yellowness (b*) and redness index (a*/b*) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the fibre content. The addition of 5% and 7.5% TNF to chorizo provided rich fibre and a healthier product. Although there were slight changes in the physicochemical properties, its quality (traditional characteristics) and its safety remained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of excipients and curing process on the abuse deterrent properties of directly compressed tablets. (United States)

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Zidan, Ahmed S; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Yang, Yang; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Shakleya, Diaa; Khan, Mansoor A; Cruz, Celia; Ashraf, Muhammad


    The objective of the present investigation was to understand the effects of excipients and curing process on the abuse deterrent properties (ADP) of Polyox™ based directly compressible abuse deterrent tablet formulations (ADFs). The excipients investigated were lactose (monohydrate or anhydrous), microcrystalline cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. The ADPs studied were tablet crush resistance or hardness, particle size distribution following mechanical manipulation, drug extraction in water and alcohol, syringeability and injectability. Other non-ADPs such as surface morphology and tablet dissolution were also studied. It was found that presence of 50% or more of water soluble or swellable excipient in the ADF tablets significantly affected the tablet hardness, particle size distribution following mechanical manipulation and drug extraction while small amount (5%) of excipients had either minimal or no effect on ADPs of these tablets. Addition of high molecular weight HPMC (K 100M) affected syringeability and injectability of ADF. Curing process was found to affect ADPs (hardness, particle size distribution, drug extraction and syringeability and injectability) when compared with uncured tablet. In conclusion, addition of large amount of excipients, especially water soluble ones in Polyox™ based ADF tablets increase the risk of abuse by various routes of administration. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Spectral characterisation of red pigment in Italian-type dry-cured ham. Increasing lipophilicity druing processing and maturation


    Møller,Jens K. S.; Adamsen, Christina E.; Skibsted, Leif H.


    Spectroscopic studies of Parma ham during processing revealed a gradual transformation of muscle myoglobin, initiated by salting and continuing during ageing. Electron spin resonance spectra did, however, conclusively show that the pigment in dry-cured Parma ham at no stage is a nitrosyl complex of ferrous myoglobin as found in brine-cured ham and Spanish Serrano hams. Both near-infra red reflectance spectra of sliced ham and UV/visible absorption spectra of extract of hams, obtained with aqu...

  17. Effects of drying pretreatment and particle size adjustment on the composting process of discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves. (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Hong; Yu, Yan-Ling; Zhou, Xiang-Tong; Lu, Bin-Yu; Li, Zi-Mu; Feng, Yu-Jie


    The main characteristic of discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves is their high nicotine content. Aerobic composting is an effective method to decrease the nicotine level in tobacco leaves and stabilize tobacco wastes. However, high levels of nicotine in discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves complicate tobacco waste composting. This work proposes a drying pretreatment process to reduce the nicotine content in discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves and thus enhance its carbon-to-nitrogen ratio to a suitable level for composting. The effect of another pretreatment method, particle size adjustment, on composting efficiency was also tested in this work. The results indicated that the air-dried (nicotine content: 1.35%) and relatively long discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves (25 mm) had a higher composting efficiency than damp (nicotine content: 1.57%) and short discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves (15 mm). When dry/25 mm discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves mixed with tobacco stems in an 8:2 ratio was composted at a temperature above 55 °C for 9 days, the nicotine content dropped from 1.29% to 0.28%. Since the discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves was successfully composted to a fertile and harmless material, the germination index values increased to 85.2%. The drying pretreatment and particle size adjustment offered ideal physical and chemical conditions to support microbial growth and bioactivity during the composting process, resulting in efficient conversion of discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves into a high quality and mature compost.

  18. The influence of the processing temperature on gamma curing of epoxy resins for the production of advanced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail:; Parlato, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare (DIN), Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 (Italy); Dispenza, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sui Materiali Compositi (CIRMAC), Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); De Maria, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Spadaro, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sui Materiali Compositi (CIRMAC), Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)


    Gamma radiation curing of an epoxy monomer, in the presence of an iodonium salt, as initiator, is studied. Systems have been polymerized at the same irradiation dose and dose rate and at different processing temperatures. The experimental results show that all the irradiated materials exhibit a latent reactivity, undergoing toward an increase of crosslinking density if they are thermally cured after irradiation. The results indicate that the processing temperature affects both the crosslinking density after irradiation and the sensibility to the post-irradiation thermal treatment.

  19. Computer Simulation of Cure Process of an Axisymmetric Rubber Article Reinforced by Metal Plates Using Extended ABAQUS Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.R. Ghoreishy


    Full Text Available Afinite element model is developed for simulation of the curing process of a thick axisymmetric rubber article reinforced by metal plates during the molding and cooling stages. The model consists of the heat transfer equation and a newly developed kinetics model for the determination of the state of cure in the rubber. The latter is based on the modification of the well-known Kamal-Sourour model. The thermal contact of the rubber with metallic surfaces (inserts and molds and the variation of the thermal properties (conductivity and specific heat with temperature and state-of-cure are taken into consideration. The ABAQUS code is used in conjunction with an in-house developed user subroutine to solve the governing equations. Having compared temperature profile and variation of the state-of-cure with experimentally measured data, the accuracy and applicability of the model is confirmed. It is also shown that this model can be successfully used for the optimization of curing process which gives rise to reduction of the molding time.

  20. Monitoring chemical changes of dry-cured Parma ham during processing by surface autofluorescence spectroscopy. (United States)

    Møller, Jens K S; Parolari, Giovanni; Gabba, Laura; Christensen, Jakob; Skibsted, Leif H


    Parma hams at various processing stages were investigated by surface autofluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence "landscapes" of raw meat and salted (3 months), matured (11 and 12 months), and aged (15 and 18 months) Parma hams were obtained, and a three-dimensional data array (sample x emission x excitation) was used to develop a PARAFAC model including five components, which all exhibited characteristics of pure fluorophores regarding both excitation and emission spectra. The relative amount of each component related strongly to the processing stage, and sample age showed good correlation to fluorescence data (R = 0.98), with a relative error of prediction of approximately 1 month. Fluorescence measurements from samples of either semimembranosus or biceps femoris were used to predict chemical or sensory reference data, yielding good correlation for biceps femoris data, thereby enabling moisture content, sensory and instrumental color, and proteolysis value to be fairly well predicted. Overall, surface autofluorescence of Parma hams proved to hold relevant information, relating to major chemical/physical changes during processing. It is concluded that fluorescence spectroscopy has potential as an innovative method of quality control in dry-cured ham.

  1. Effects of Processing Temperature on Color Properties of Dry-Cured Hams Made without Nitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Parolari


    Full Text Available Dry cured hams were investigated for their ability to develop red color even at low temperature (3–4 °C and in the absence of added nitrites; results were compared with those obtained from nitrite-free hams made at conventional warm maturing temperatures. Colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, and hue and concentration of the main pigments Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP and heme were measured at three stages of preparation (six, nine, and 12 months, showing that red color was successfully formed at low temperatures, though at a slower rate and less intensively than under warm conditions. Major differences in the pattern of color development were found with the two processing temperatures. While the typical features of an enzyme-dependent mechanism, with a progressive drop in enzyme activity paralleling the synthesis of Zn protoporphyrin IX, were observed at warm temperatures, the same did not occur in cold-made hams, where the enzyme activity was almost unchanged throughout the process. These results, along with data from a descriptive sensory analysis, are supportive of a non-enzymatic mechanism leading to ZnPP (hence the red color under cold conditions, with an estimated three-month delay compared with nitrite-free hams manufactured in a warm maturing regimen.

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-11 - Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes. (United States)


    ..., vegetables, nuts, and legumes. 319.56-11 Section 319.56-11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-11 Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits...

  3. Effects of marketing group on the quality of fresh and cured hams sourced from a commercial processing facility. (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Kroscher, K A; Peterson, B C; Stites, C R; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D


    The objective was: 1) to characterize the effect of marketing group on fresh and cured ham quality, and 2) to determine which fresh ham traits correlated to cured ham quality traits. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons (hot and cold) and 2 production focuses (lean and quality) were used. Three groups were marketed from each barn. A total of 7,684 carcasses were used for data collection at the abattoir. Every tenth carcass was noted as a select carcass for in-depth ham quality analyses. Leg primal weight and instrumental color were measured on 100% of the population. On the select 10% of the population, hams were fabricated into sub-primal pieces, and 3-piece hams were manufactured to evaluate cured ham quality and processing yield. Data were analyzed as a split-plot design in the MIXED procedure of SAS with production focus as the whole-plot factor, and marketing group as the split-plot factor. Pearson correlation coefficients between fresh and cured ham traits were computed. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.15) in instrumental color or ultimate pH ( ≥ 0.14) among fresh ham muscles from any marketing group. The only exception was the semimembranosus of marketing group 2 was lighter than marketing group 1 ( = 0.03) and the dark portion of the semitendinosus muscle from group 1 was lighter than from group 3 ( = 0.01). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.33) in ultimate pH of fresh ham muscles between production focuses, but several muscles from quality focus pigs were lighter in color than ham muscles from lean focus pigs. The lack of differences in fresh ham quality lead to few differences in cured ham quality. Cured hams from the quality focus pigs had greater lipid content ( marketing group 1 and 2 were 1.52 units lighter than hams from marketing group 3 ( 0.01). Overall, marketing group did not impact ham quality. Fresh ham quality was not strongly related to cured ham quality. Some correlations were present between fresh and cured ham traits, but

  4. Simulation of Air Entrapment and Resin Curing During Manufacturing of Composite Cab Front by Resin Transfer Moulding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppusamy Raghu Raja Pandiyan


    Full Text Available Mould filling and subsequent curing are the significant processing stages involved in the production of a composite component through Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM fabrication technique. Dry spot formation and air entrapment during filling stage caused by improper design of filling conditions and locations that lead to undesired filling patterns resulting in defective RTM parts. Proper placement of inlet ports and exit vents as well as by adjustment of filling conditions can alleviate the problems during the mould filling stage. The temperature profile used to polymerize the resin must be carefully chosen to reduce the cure time. Instead of trial and error methods that are expensive, time consuming, and non-optimal, we propose a simulation-based optimization strategy for a composite cab front component to reduce the air entrapment and cure stage optimization. In order to be effective, the optimization strategy requires an accurate simulation of the process utilizing submodels to describe the raw material characteristics. Cure reaction kinetics and chemo-rheology were the submodels developed empirically for an unsaturated polyester resin using experimental data. The simulations were performed using commercial software PAM RTM 2008, developed by ESI Technologies. Simulation results show that the use of increase in injection pressure at the inlet filling conditions greatly reduce the air entrapped. For the cab front, the alteration of injection pressure with proper timing of vent opening reduced the air entrapped during mould filling stage. Similarly, the curing simulation results show that the use of higher mould temperatures effectively decreases the cure time as expected.

  5. Structure-Processing-Property Relationships at the Fiber-Matrix Interface in Electron-Beam Cured Composite Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C.J.


    The objective of this project was to characterize the properties of the resin and the fiber- resin interface in electron beam cured materials by evaluating several structural and processing parameters. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently determined that the interlaminar shear strength properties of electron beam cured composites were 19-28% lower than for autoclave cured composites. Low interlaminar shear strength is widely acknowledged as the key barrier to the successfid acceptance and implementation of electron beam cured composites in industry. In this project we found that simple resin modification and process improvements are unlikely to substantially improve the interlaminar shear strength properties of electron beam cured composites. However, sizings and coatings were shown to improve these properties and there appears to be significant potential for further improvement. In this work we determined that the application of epoxy-based, electron beam compatible sizings or coatings onto surface- treated, unsized carbon fibers improved the composite interlaminar shear strength by as much as 55% compared to composites fabricated from surface-treated, unsized carbon fibers and 11 YO compared to composites made from surface-treated, GP sized carbon fibers. This work has identified many promising pathways for increasing the interlaminar shear strength of electron beam cured composites. As a result of these promising developments we have recently submitted a U.S. Department of Energy-Energy Research (DOE-ER) sponsored Laboratory Technical Research-Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (LTR- CRADA) proposal entitled, "Interracial Properties of Electron Beam Cured Composites", to continue this work. If funded, ORNL will lead a 3-year, $2.6 million effort involving eight industrial partners, NASA-Langley, and the U.S. Air Force. The principal objective of this CRADA is to significantly improve the interracial properties of carbon

  6. The Curing Process of Epoxy/Amino-Functionalized MWCNTs: Calorimetry, Molecular Modelling, and Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Prolongo


    Full Text Available Curing kinetic of an epoxy resin reinforced with amino-functionalized MWCNTs has been studied by DSC and the obtained results were explained through morphological studies carried out by SEM, TEM, FEG-SEM, and molecular simulation tools. The presence of MWCNTs in the curing reaction induces a retardation effect of curing reaction and a decrease of the reaction heat. Both are associated with the adsorption of curing agent molecules inside carbon nanotubes, which was proved through the application of electron microscopic techniques and molecular simulation tools. It has been also demonstrated that there is a chemical reaction between amine groups anchored to the nanotubes and oxirane rings of epoxy monomer, which improves the nanoreinforcement/matrix interfacial adhesion, appearing a chemical interphase. The glass transition temperature (Tg of epoxy matrix increases by the addition of MWCNTs due to the restriction of its mobility.

  7. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process. (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria


    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How Immune-inflammatory Processes Link CNS and Psychiatric Disorders: Classification and Treatment Implications. (United States)

    Anderson, George; Maes, Michael


    In this article the emerging biological overlaps of CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions are reviewed. Recent work has highlighted how immune-inflammatory processes and their interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress, couple to drive changes in neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolites, with consequences for serotonin availability, including as a precursor for the melatonergic pathways. Subsequent alterations in the regulation of local melatonin synthesis are likely to have direct impacts on the reactivity of immune cells, both centrally and systemically. These inflammatory processes also lead to the activation of wider immune processes. Such wider processes can include the production of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgM antibody responses, including to tryptophan catabolites, emphasizing the importance of immune responses, and their interactions with inflammatory processes, in the etiology and course of an array of medical conditions, including CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions. Such work poses questions as to the validity and utility of current, non-biologically based classification systems for psychiatric and CNS disorders. In this article, the biological underpinnings of CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions are reviewed in the context of how recent data, in reconceptualizing key processes in these classically-conceived brain-associated disorders, provides scope for novel, and hopefully more clinically useful, treatments. These processes are looked at in detail in Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder. One important treatment target is the gut. Alterations in the gut, including gut permeability and the composition of the microbiome, have now become an important target for treatment across an array of medical conditions, emphasizing the importance of targeting regulators of the immune system in developing novel treatments that are based on a more comprehensive and 'wholistic' understanding of currently poorly managed medical conditions

  9. Dual cure low-VOC coating process. Final technical report, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzer, K.E.


    US EPA is implementing increasingly stringent environmental regulations on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which amount to about 7 {times} 10{sup 9} lb/year, largely from paints and other coating systems in industry. Objective of this project is to develop Dual Cure Photocatalyst coating technology for aerospace topcoats (urethane/acrylate), aerospace primers (epoxy/acrylate), and solventless tape backings. Some problems (moisture etc.) were encountered in the primer area. Cost, economic, and energy analyses were conducted. The dual cure technology has already been commercialized in 3M`s flexible diamond resin products. Tabs.

  10. Curing of Concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use it economically. Curing of concrete involves the retention of sufficient free water in the cement paste so that the process of cement hydration may readily proceed. It also involves favorable temperature, humidity, and wind speed. No part of the process of making good concrete is more important than thorough curing.

  11. Consumer perception of dry-cured sheep meat products: Influence of process parameters under different evoked contexts. (United States)

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; Nalério, Elen Silveira; Giongo, Citieli; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires


    The development of high-quality air-dried cured sheep meat products adapted to meet consumer demands represent an interesting option to add value to the meat of adult animals. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of process parameters on consumer choice of two products from sheep meat under different evoked contexts, considering product concepts. A total of 375 Brazilian participants completed a choice-based conjoint task with three 2-level variables for each product: maturation time, smoking, and sodium reduction for dry-cured sheep ham, and natural antioxidant, smoking, and sodium reduction for sheep meat coppa. A between-subjects experimental design was used to evaluate the influence of consumption context on consumer choices. All the process parameters significantly influenced consumer choice. However, their relative importance was affected by evoked context. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Water and Oil Repellent Finishing of Textiles by UV Curing: Evaluation of the Influence of Scaled-Up Process Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Ferrero


    Full Text Available In this work, various textile fabrics were coated with silicone and fluorocarbon-based resins by photo-curing using ultraviolet irradiation. A great number of large fabric samples were impregnated by padding with commercial finishing agents and then irradiated in air with a high power, semi-industrial UV source. The add-on of various finishing agents was kept low to reduce the treatment cost. White and dyed samples of different textile composition were treated and evaluated in terms of conferred repellency, yellowing, or color changes. Most relevant process parameters were investigated, utilizing the thermal process normally adopted at industrial level as reference. The results were statistically evaluated by ANOVA using Minitab 16 software, in order to identify the most influential parameters and to evaluate the real possibility of replacing the thermal treatment with UV curing.

  13. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles, Gandemer


    Full Text Available Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subjected to oxidation which forms many volatile compounds. These volatiles affect in the aroma of dry-cured hams and are associated with aroma notes such as rancid, aged meat or dry-cured. According to the genotype and the rearing conditions of pigs and the parameters of processing, dry-cured hams have specific sensory profiles. This paper reviews the present knowledge on lipids and dry-cured ham quality.Los lípidos desempeñan un papel fundamental en las características sensoriales de los jamones curados. Tanto la cantidad como la composición de los lípidos de las materias primas afectan a la calidad de los jamones. Las características de los lípidos dependen en gran medida de los sistemas de crianza desarrollados en las diferentes zonas de Europa. Durante el proceso, los lípidos sufren reacciones como la lipolisis y la oxidación. La lipolisis genera ácidos grasos libres a lo largo de todo el proceso, siendo los más abundantes los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. Los lípidos también están sujetos a la oxidación, la cual genera muchos compuestos volátiles. Estos volátiles afectan al aroma de los jamones curados asociándose a notas tales como la rancidez, carne vieja o curado. De acuerdo con el genotipo y las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y los parámetros del proceso, los jamones curados tienen un perfil sensorial específico. En este artículo se examinan los conocimientos actuales sobre los lípidos y la calidad del jamón curado.

  14. Effect of curing agents on the oxidative and nitrosative damage to meat proteins during processing of fermented sausages. (United States)

    Villaverde, A; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M


    The effect of increasing concentrations of curing agents, ascorbate (0, 250, and 500 ppm), and nitrite (0, 75, and 150 ppm), on the oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins during processing of fermented sausages was studied. The potential influence of these reactions on color and texture of the fermented sausages was also addressed. Nitrite had a pro-oxidant effect on tryptophan depletion and promoted the formation of protein carbonyls and Schiff bases. The nitration degree in the fermented sausages was also dependent on nitrite concentration. On the other hand, ascorbate acted as an efficient inhibitor of the oxidative and nitrosative damage to meat proteins. As expected, nitrite clearly favored the formation of the cured red color and ascorbate acted as an enhancer of color formation. Nitrite content was positively correlated with hardness. The chemistry behind the action of nitrite and ascorbate on muscle proteins during meat fermentation is thoroughly discussed. The results suggest that ascorbate (500 ppm) may be required to compensate the pro-oxidant impact of nitrite on meat proteins. This study provides insight on the action of curing agents on meat proteins during processing of fermented sausages. This chemistry background provides understanding of the potential influence of the oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins on the quality of processed muscle foods. The study provides novel information on the impact of the combination of nitrite and ascorbate on the chemical deterioration of proteins and the influence on particular quality traits of fermented sausages. These data may be of interest for the design of cured muscle foods of enhanced quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. From ideals to resignation - interprofessional teams perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care. (United States)

    Molin, Jenny; Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Ringnér, Anders; Lindgren, Britt-Marie


    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychiatric inpatient care has been described by both ward staff and patients as being demanding and disorganized, lacking opportunities for quality interactions in everyday life through joint activities. Qualitative research on interprofessional teams' perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care is lacking. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Staff have ideals about care and collaboration, but the obstacles they face in everyday life, such as a poor environment, power asymmetry, lacking structure and the demands of managing chaos, mean that they appear to resign and shift focus from the patients' best interests to self-survival. Different professions in general describe the same obstacles in everyday life on the wards but there are also profession-specific perspectives on distancing and feelings of abandonment. To our knowledge, these findings have not been reported in the international evidence. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Given these findings we suggest interventions such as Protected Engagement Time as well as reflective dialogues within interprofessional teams. This would help staff to resume their caring role in everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care and put their ideals into practice. Introduction Patients and ward staff describe psychiatric inpatient care as demanding, characterized by unpredictable events, yet research on interprofessional teams perspectives of everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care lacks. Aim This study aims to explore everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care, as reported by staff in interprofessional teams. Method A grounded theory design was used and 36 participants were interviewed. Results The analysis resulted in a process-oriented core category From ideals to resignation. Related to this core category were three further categories: Knowing where to go, Walking a path of obstacles and Shifting focus from the patient's best

  16. In situ measurement using FBGs of process-induced strains during curing of thick glass/epoxy laminate plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    For large composite structures, such as wind turbine blades, thick laminates are required to withstand large in-service loads. During the manufacture of thick laminates, one of the challenges met is avoiding process-induced shape distortions and residual stresses. In this paper, embedded fibre...... Bragg grating sensors are used to monitor process-induced strains during vacuum infusion of a thick glass/epoxy laminate. The measured strains are compared with predictions from a cure hardening instantaneous linear elastic (CHILE) thermomechanical numerical model where different mechanical boundary...

  17. Processes of In-Hospital Psychiatric Care and Subsequent Criminal Behaviour Among Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Charlotte Gjørup; Olrik Wallenstein Jensen, Signe; Johnsen, Søren Paaske


    Objectives: It is unknown whether evidence-based, in-hospital processes of care may influence the risk of criminal behaviour among patients with schizophrenia. Our study aimed to examine the association between guideline recommended in-hospital psychiatric care and criminal behaviour among patients...... with schizophrenia. Methods: Danish patients with schizophrenia (18 years or older) discharged from a psychiatric ward between January 2004 and March 2009 were identified using a national population-based schizophrenia registry (n = 10 757). Data for in-hospital care and patient characteristics were linked with data...... on criminal charges obtained from the Danish Crime Registry until November 2010. Results: Twenty per cent (n = 2175) of patients were charged with a crime during follow-up (median = 428 days). Violent crimes accounted for 59% (n = 1282) of the criminal offences. The lowest risk of crime was found among...

  18. Toward a topological description of the therapeutic process: part 2. Practitioner and patient perspectives of the "journey to cure". (United States)

    Milgrom, Lionel R


    The discourse of quantum theory has been used to describe (1) the homeopathic therapeutic process (in terms of three-way macro-entanglement between patient, practitioner, and remedy, called PPR entanglement), and (2) the homeopathic concept of the vital force. Combining these two approaches leads to a semiotic (i.e., pertaining to the theory of sign systems in language) geometry that illustrates the nature of this entanglement and how it could facilitate the patient's journey to cure. Here, this geometry is extended further to gain insight into both practitioner and patient perspectives of the process. From the practitioner's perspective, the semiotic geometry predicts PPR entanglement, generating a number of distinguishable therapeutic outcomes that depend on the various patient-, disease-, and remedy-based "contributions" to the overall symptom picture of the remedy arrived at holistically. Furthermore, these outcomes may be seen as different facets of a more generalized PPR entangled state whose semiotic geometrical representation is hyperdimensional. Likewise, the patient's perspective of the journey to cure can also be represented semiotically, this time as a series of cross-sections through a hyperdimensional figure of similar symmetry, entering and leaving the patient's notional "dis-ease" space. The semiotic geometries representing practitioner and patient experiences of the therapeutic process ultimately converge. Where they differ is that in elaborating the patient's journey to cure, the practitioner's perspective may be seen as from the outside of a whole process. As it is the patient who ultimately is traveling this journey, the patient's perspective is necessarily from the inside, of stages or cross-sections of the whole process.

  19. In-Process Cure Monitoring of Composites via Fiber-Optic Fluorescence (United States)


    and Emission Studies of Cure, Water and Oxidation/Degradation in Polymers", ACS Polymer Preprints, 33-1, 848, 1992. 2. Kailani , M.H., C.S.P. Sung and...Naphthyl Diamine Based Poly(Amic Acid)", ACS Polymer Preprints, 31-1 574, 1990. 11. Kailani , M. H., Sung, C.S.P. and S. J. Huang, "Synthesis...Personnal: ,__, . .. C.S.P. Sung ’.riL J.C. Song (Ph.D. expected in 1993) : , M.H. Kailani (Ph.D. expected in 1993) .. P. Dickinson (Ph.D. 1990) N,1. Sung

  20. Development and Validation of a Constitutive Model for Dental Composites during the Curing Process (United States)

    Wickham Kolstad, Lauren

    Debonding is a critical failure of a dental composites used for dental restorations. Debonding of dental composites can be determined by comparing the shrinkage stress of to the debonding strength of the adhesive that bonds it to the tooth surface. It is difficult to measure shrinkage stress experimentally. In this study, finite element analysis is used to predict the stress in the composite during cure. A new constitutive law is presented that will allow composite developers to evaluate composite shrinkage stress at early stages in the material development. Shrinkage stress and shrinkage strain experimental data were gathered for three dental resins, Z250, Z350, and P90. Experimental data were used to develop a constitutive model for the Young's modulus as a function of time of the dental composite during cure. A Maxwell model, spring and dashpot in series, was used to simulate the composite. The compliance of the shrinkage stress device was also taken into account by including a spring in series with the Maxwell model. A coefficient of thermal expansion was also determined for internal loading of the composite by dividing shrinkage strain by time. Three FEA models are presented. A spring-disk model validates that the constitutive law is self-consistent. A quarter cuspal deflection model uses separate experimental data to verify that the constitutive law is valid. Finally, an axisymmetric tooth model is used to predict interfacial stresses in the composite. These stresses are compared to the debonding strength to check if the composite debonds. The new constitutive model accurately predicted cuspal deflection data. Predictions for interfacial bond stress in the tooth model compare favorably with debonding characteristics observed in practice for dental resins.

  1. Social attribution processes and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica A.; Mundy, Peter C.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Durocher, Jennifer Stella


    The factors that place children with Asperger syndrome at risk for comorbid psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, remain poorly understood. We investigated the possibility that the children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties are associated with social information and attribution processing. Participants were children with either Asperger syndrome (n = 31) or typical development (n = 33).To assess social information and attribution processing, children responded to hypothetical social vignettes.They also completed self-report measures of social difficulties and psychological functioning. Their parents provided information on social competence and clinical presentation. Children with Asperger syndrome showed poor psychosocial adjustment, which was related to their social information and attribution processing patterns. Cognitive and social-cognitive abilities were associated with aspects of social information processing tendencies, but not with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Results suggest that the comorbid symptoms of children with Asperger syndrome may be associated with their social perception, understanding, and experience. PMID:16908481

  2. The effect of NaCl-free processing and high pressure on the fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella on sliced smoked dry-cured ham. (United States)

    Stollewerk, Katharina; Jofré, Anna; Comaposada, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Garriga, Margarita


    NaCl is an important multifunctional ingredient applied in dry-cured ham elaboration. However, its excessive intake has been linked to serious cardiovascular diseases causing a recent increase in the development of reduced salt products. In the present study Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, food-borne pathogens which can cross-contaminate post processed products, were spiked with smoked dry-cured ham. Although L. monocytogenes and Salmonella counts decreased faster in S ham, pathogens were present in both types of non-pressure treated ham during the entire refrigerated storage period (112 days). Pressurisation at 600 MPa for 5 min caused the elimination of both pathogens in S ham after 14 days. In contrast, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were present in F ham until days 28 and 56, respectively, indicating that the NaCl-free processed dry-cured ham had lower stability than standard smoked dry-cured ham. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychiatric service staff perceptions of implementing a shared decision-making tool: a process evaluation study. (United States)

    Schön, Ulla-Karin; Grim, Katarina; Wallin, Lars; Rosenberg, David; Svedberg, Petra


    Shared decision making, SDM, in psychiatric services, supports users to experience a greater sense of involvement in treatment, self-efficacy, autonomy and reduced coercion. Decision tools adapted to the needs of users have the potential to support SDM and restructure how users and staff work together to arrive at shared decisions. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the implementation process of an SDM intervention for users of psychiatric services in Sweden. The implementation was studied through a process evaluation utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods. In designing the process evaluation for the intervention, three evaluation components were emphasized: contextual factors, implementation issues and mechanisms of impact. The study addresses critical implementation issues related to decision-making authority, the perceived decision-making ability of users and the readiness of the service to increase influence and participation. It also emphasizes the importance of facilitation, as well as suggesting contextual adaptations that may be relevant for the local organizations. The results indicate that staff perceived the decision support tool as user-friendly and useful in supporting participation in decision-making, and suggest that such concrete supports to participation can be a factor in implementation if adequate attention is paid to organizational contexts and structures.

  4. The Influence of Postnatal Psychiatric Disorder on Child Development: Is Maternal Preoccupation One of the Key Underlying Processes?


    Stein, Alan; Lehtonen, Annukka; Harvey, Allison G.; Nicol-Harper, Rosie; Craske, Michelle


    There is considerable evidence that maternal postnatal psychiatric disorder has an adverse influence on infant development. In attempting to examine the pathways of intergenerational transmission, most research has concentrated on genetic factors or on maternal behaviours during mother-child interaction and attachment. However, researchers have largely ignored the possible role of maternal cognition underlying behaviour, especially the thought and attentional processes involved in psychiatric...

  5. The roles of valuation and reward processing in cognitive function and psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Hélie, Sébastien; Shamloo, Farzin; Novak, Keisha; Foti, Dan


    In neuroeconomics, valuation refers to the process of assigning values to states and actions on the basis of the animal's current representation of the environment, while reward processing corresponds to processing the feedback received from the environment to update the values of states and actions. In this article, we review the brain circuits associated with valuation and reward processing and argue that these are fundamental processes critical to many cognitive functions. Specifically, we focus on the role of valuation and reward processing in attention, memory, decision making, and learning. Next, the extant neuroimaging literature on a number of psychiatric disorders is reviewed (i.e., addiction, pathological gambling, schizophrenia, and mood disorders), and an argument is made that associated deficits in cognitive functions can be explained in terms of abnormal valuation and reward processing. The review concludes with the impact of this framework in clinical settings and prescriptions for future research, in particular with regard to the conversions of qualitatively different valuation systems into a system of common currency. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Changes in physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds throughout the manufacturing process of dry-cured foal loin. (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Carballo, J


    Physico-chemical, textural, lipolytic and volatile compound changes that occur during the manufacture of dry-cured foal loin were studied. Hardness and chewiness increased significantly (P<0.001) from 1.67 kg and 0.48 kg ∗ mm to 18.33 kg and 5.01 kg∗mm, respectively during ripening process. The total average content of free fatty acid increased significantly (P<0.001), from 768.8 mg/100g of fat in the loins immediately after the seasoning period to 1271.1mg/100g of fat at the end of the drying-ripening period. In the final product, aldehydes became the dominant volatile compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vocal acoustic analysis as a biometric indicator of information processing: implications for neurological and psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Cohen, Alex S; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Donovan, Neila J; Brown, Caitlin E; Morrison, Sean C


    Vocal expression reflects an integral component of communication that varies considerably within individuals across contexts and is disrupted in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is reason to suspect that variability in vocal expression reflects, in part, the availability of "on-line" resources (e.g., working memory, attention). Thus, understanding vocal expression is a potentially important biometric index of information processing, not only across but within individuals over time. A first step in this line of research involves establishing a link between vocal expression and information processing systems in healthy adults. The present study employed a dual attention experimental task where participants provided natural speech while simultaneously engaged in a baseline, medium or high nonverbal processing-load task. Objective, automated, and computerized analysis was employed to measure vocal expression in 226 adults. Increased processing load resulted in longer pauses, fewer utterances, greater silence overall and less variability in frequency and intensity levels. These results provide compelling evidence of a link between information processing resources and vocal expression, and provide important information for the development of an automated, inexpensive and uninvasive biometric measure of information processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat


    Full Text Available This article presents results of the experimental trial of combination of the chemical method of water glass molding sands’ curing, used in foundry industry, with an innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to indicate at new areas of microwave energy application. The sands prepared, according to recommendations for curing technology, with the use of ethylene glycol diacetate, have been subject to microwave influence. The attempt at determination of microwave influence on qualitative changes of the binding bridges created during the curing process concerned such parameters as: bending and tensile strength, permeability as well as wear resistance. Moreover,we also determined the influence of microwave curing on the phenomena accompanying the process as well as bond stability (storage time of the prepared molding and core sands. It has been found, basing on the result analysis, that the innovative microwave heating might constitute a very good supplementation of the ester curing method. The advantages of the combined chemical and microwave gelation process include, among others, improvement of the described resistance and technological parameters as well as significant decrease of preparation time of foundry moulds and cores. The subject discussed in this article will be continued in its second part.

  9. Curing Pressure Influence of Out-of-Autoclave Processing on Structural Composites for Commercial Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drakonakis, Vasileios M; Seferis, James C; Doumanidis, Charalambos C


    ...) composite structures used in aviation. During the autoclave process, consolidation of prepreg laminas through simultaneous elevated pressure and temperature results in a uniform high-end material system...

  10. Care, Closeness, and Becoming "Better": Transformation and Therapeutic Process in American Adolescent Psychiatric Custody

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katie Rose Hejtmanek


      In the United States, young people are remanded to psychiatric custody for the institutionalized treatment of mental illness, behavior disorders, and emotional disturbances, and forced to participate...

  11. Effects of marketing group on the quality of fresh and cured hams sourced from a commercial processing facility (United States)

    The objective was: 1) to characterize the effect of marketing 30 group on fresh and cured ham quality, and 2) to determine which fresh ham traits correlated to cured ham quality traits. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing two seasons (hot and cold) and two production focuses (lean and quality) were ...

  12. Factors, process and outcomes of recovery from psychiatric disability: the unity model. (United States)

    Song, Li-Yu; Shih, Chaiw-Yi


    Despite the fruitful findings on related issues of recovery in the West, some researchers have called for more studies on the factors that facilitate recovery and international literature on recovery to be made available. Moreover, to date, a united model that integrates outcome, component process and contextual factors of recovery has not yet been developed. Thus, this study explored the recovery experiences of persons with psychiatric disabilities (hereinafter called consumers) in Taiwan and extracted the key facilitators for developing a preliminary unity theory of recovery. In-depth qualitative interviews of 15 consumers in recovery and their caregivers were held. Over a research period of two years, consumers were interviewed twice. The dialogue of each interview was transcribed into text and a narrative summary of the storyline for each participant was also prepared. For most consumers, the journey of recovery was an incremental process of progress, yet few of them mentioned a turning point and its significant change on their life. Regaining social roles seemed to be a necessary but not sufficient outcome indicator for recovery. While symptom remission, mental strength and parental support were the cornerstones for recovery, the treatment model and professionals got the credit for it too. The recovery process occurs within a complex context of various stages and multi-facilitators. The forces of three cornerstones, essential components and contextual facilitators all influx into the river of recovery and emerge as one united mechanism that supports the consumer's spiral progress through the journey of striving for autonomy.

  13. [Effect of organic tin on the morphology and mechanical properties during polyurethane-urea curing process]. (United States)

    Li, Z; Yang, G; Zhao, D; Gao, Z; Li, D


    The mechanical properties and morphology of crosslined PUU in bulk quasi-prepolymer process was studied by in situ FTIR. From the quantitative change of carbonyl FTIR spectra, the development of morphology between noncatalyzed and catalyzed polymerization process was discussed in detail. The effect of organic tin concentration on the mechanical properties was investigated. It showed that urea carbonyl splitted many small weak bands at different sites with increasing of organic tin concentration, and the catalyst played an important role in controlling the morphology and mechanical properties. It also showed that the mechanical properties reached extreme value when the rate constant of -NCO/-OH reaction equate the rate constant of -NCO/-OH reaction.

  14. Study of a Particle Based Films Cure Process by High-Frequency Eddy Current Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Patsora


    Full Text Available Particle-based films are today an important part of various designs and they are implemented in structures as conductive parts, i.e., conductive paste printing in the manufacture of Li-ion batteries, solar cells or resistive paste printing in IC. Recently, particle based films were also implemented in the 3D printing technique, and are particularly important for use in aircraft, wind power, and the automotive industry when incorporated onto the surface of composite structures for protection against damages caused by a lightning strike. A crucial issue for the lightning protection area is to realize films with high homogeneity of electrical resistance where an in-situ noninvasive method has to be elaborated for quality monitoring to avoid undesirable financial and time costs. In this work the drying process of particle based films was investigated by high-frequency eddy current (HFEC spectroscopy in order to work out an automated in-situ quality monitoring method with a focus on the electrical resistance of the films. Different types of particle based films deposited on dielectric and carbon fiber reinforced plastic substrates were investigated in the present study and results show that the HFEC method offers a good opportunity to monitor the overall drying process of particle based films. Based on that, an algorithm was developed, allowing prediction of the final electrical resistance of the particle based films throughout the drying process, and was successfully implemented in a prototype system based on the EddyCus® HFEC device platform presented in this work. This prototype is the first solution for a portable system allowing HFEC measurement on huge and uneven surfaces.

  15. Controlled but not cured: Structural processes and explanatory models of Chagas disease in tropical Bolivia. (United States)

    Forsyth, Colin


    Dressler (2001:456) characterizes medical anthropology as divided between two poles: the constructivist, which focuses on the "meaning and significance that events have for people," and the structuralist, which emphasizes socioeconomic processes and relationships. This study synthesizes structuralist and constructivist perspectives by investigating how structural processes impact explanatory models of Chagas disease in a highly endemic area. The research took place from March-June 2013 through the Centro Medico Humberto Parra, a non-profit clinic servicing low income populations in Palacios, Bolivia and surrounding communities. Semistructured interviews (n = 68) and consensus analysis questionnaires (n = 48) were administered to people dealing with Chagas disease. In the interview narratives, respondents link Chagas disease with experiences of marginalization and rural poverty, and describe multilayered impediments to accessing treatment. They often view the disease as incurable, but this reflects inconsistent messages from the biomedical system. The consensus analysis results show strong agreement on knowledge of the vector, ethnomedical treatment, and structural factors related to Chagas disease. In interpreting Chagas disease, respondents account for the structural factors which place them at risk and impede access to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of high-pressure treatment on taste and metabolite profiles of ducks with two different vinasse-curing processes. (United States)

    Lou, Xiaowei; Ye, Yangfang; Wang, Ying; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Cao, Jinxuan


    The effect of high-pressure (HP) (0.1, 150 and 300MPa, 15min) on taste profiles of vinasse-cured ducks was investigated; the metabolite profiles were determined using 1 H NMR. HP at 150MPa increased the taste intensity of products compared with the controls, while HP at 300MPa did not further improve their taste compared with 150MPa treated samples. The metabonome of vinasse-cured ducks was dominated by 27 metabolites. HP increased amino acids, glucose, alkaloids and organic acids, but decreased inosine monophosphate and its derivatives, compared with the controls. The increments of metabolites in vinasse-dry-cured duck were higher than those in vinasse-wet-cured duck. The change of metabolites could be related to the enzyme activity, the degradations of proteins, sugars and nucleotides, and the permeation from vinasse-curing agents to duck meat. These findings suggest that 150MPa treatment was effective to improve the taste of vinasse-cured duck. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis. (United States)

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela; Pongolini, Stefano


    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  18. Fat Reduction and Replacement in Dry-Cured Fermented Sausage by Using High Pressure Processing Meat as Fat Replacer and Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolumar Tomas


    Full Text Available The present paper describes the modification of the lipid fraction of dry-cured fermented sausage through fat reduction (35% and fat replacement of animal fat with olive oil (up to 10%. High pressure processing (HPP treated meat was employed as a novel fat replacer to reduce the fat content and as a new strategy to enable a stable incorporation of olive oil in dry-cured fermented sausages. Chemical (proximate composition and fatty acid profile, physical (water retention, structure formation and colour and sensorial (appearance, texture and flavour properties were evaluated. It is concluded that 35% of fat reduction is possible without reduction of consumer acceptability. Moreover, the addition of HPP-treated meat as a fat replacer resulted in good mimic of the fat particles together with good physical and sensory properties. Therefore, it resulted in an effective and clean alternative (no added-additives for fat reduction. However, the incorporation of olive oil either by direct addition (4.3% oil or within a HPP-created protein network (10% oil resulted in unacceptable products since the oil was not properly retained inside the sausage matrix. Further studies are needed to find processing strategies that permit a stable incorporation of liquid plant oils to dry-cured fermented sausage for the development of healthier and more sustainable dry-cured fermented meat products.

  19. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats (United States)

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F


    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar non nitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar non oxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make non promoting processed meat. PMID:20530708

  20. Tracking the curing process of automotive paint by moving-window two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy and principal component analysis (United States)

    Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Qun


    Moving-window two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (MW2DCOS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were combined to interpret the time serial infrared spectra. The curing process of an automotive paint sample was tracked by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Score plots of the first and second principal components showed that the curing process contained three stages. Meanwhile, the loading spectra indicated that the solvent was a mixture of aromatic compounds. Absorption peaks which changed significantly in each stage were revealed by auto-peak MW2DCOS. Furthermore, point-line and point-point MW2DCOS demonstrated the time-resolved relationship between absorption peaks from toluene, xylene and resin. In summary, the evaporation of toluene was the first stage of the curing process of this automotive paint sample. Next, the mixture of o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene began to evaporate in the second stage. After the evaporation of the solvent, the solid paint membrane was formed. For the interpretation of the time serial spectra, PCA is useful to estimate the number of significant chemical components and to find out the important turning points of the process, while MW2DCOS can show the changes of the spectral peaks and the relationship between them step by step. The combination of PCA and MW2DCOS is very interesting to extract and display the time-resolved information in the time serial spectra.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Toroman


    Full Text Available As it is well known, traditional production of smoked meat products requires technological processes, which carry some food safety hazards (e.g. content of Benzo[a]pyrene. (B[a]P. “OMEGA COMERC Ltd.”, a member of the meat industry in Visoko region, has implemented food safety management system according to the recommendations from Codex Alimentarius CAC-RCP (9, recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene. By implementing HACCP system, the Company established adequate control measures in producing Bosnian dry cured ham (bosanski pršut on traditional way including the smoking process in the chambers. By doing this, they have created conditions to measure B[a]P content in the Bosnian dry cured ham and implement HACCP system without impairing traditional production and food safety of the final product.The aim of this study is to present the effect of the specific production process onto the meat smoking in order to preserve hygienic, nutritional and sensory values, and also to control B[a]P content in the final product.Key words: Bosnian dry cured ham, traditional production, smoking process, Benzo[a]pyrene, HACCP

  2. Preparation of chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol blended films containing sulfosuccinic acid as the crosslinking agent using UV curing process. (United States)

    Yun, Yeon-Hum; Lee, Chang-Moon; Kim, Youn-Sop; Yoon, Soon-Do


    This paper reports on a method of preparing chitosan-based films to which sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) is added for crosslinking agent with/without UV curing treatment and applications of a coating materials for foods. The physical, thermal, and optical properties of the UV cured chitosan-based films are investigated including their tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (%E), degree of swelling (DS), solubility (S), and water vapor absorption as well as their biodegradability in soil and applicability of the coating on a fruit. We also evaluated the physical properties of the prepared films to which glycerol (GL), xylitol (XL), and sorbitol (SO) are added to be used as plasticizers. The surface and topography of the prepared films are investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM). The results indicate that the films UV cured for 20min possess optimal physical and thermal properties compared to that of non-cured films. The mechanical, thermal, and water barrier properties of SO-added film are also found to be superior to other films with added GL and XL. The degree of biodegradability revealed that the films are degraded by about 40-65% after 220days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone marrow injury in lithographers exposed to glycol ethers and organic solvents used in multicolor offset and ultraviolet curing printing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, M.R.; Rado, T.; Waldron, J.A.; Sparer, J.; Welch, L.S.

    Prompted by referral of a printer with aplastic anemia, a study of possible marrow toxicity of workplace substances was undertaken. Dermal and respiratory exposures to dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and a range of aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons used for offset and ultraviolet cured multicolor printing were documented. Evaluation of seven co-workers revealed normal peripheral blood pictures, but bone marrow specimens demonstrated clear patterns of injury in three while the others had nonspecific signs of a marrow effect. These changes could not be explained by known risk factors. The authors conclude that further evaluation of possible bone marrow toxicity resulting from exposure to glycol ethers and ultraviolet curing printing processes is warranted. More generally, they have provided data demonstrating that peripheral blood counts may be an insensitive tool for the study of hematologic toxins acting at the bone marrow level. 12 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues. (United States)

    Sutton, Eliza L


    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Narratives of change and reform processes: global and local transactions in French psychiatric hospital reform after the Second World War. (United States)

    Henckes, Nicolas


    As with the rest of biomedicine, psychiatry has, since the Second World War, developed under the strong influence of the transnational accumulation of a whole series of practices and knowledge. Anthropology has taught us to pay attention to the transactions between local-level actors and those operating at the global level in the construction of this new world of medicine. This article examines the role played by the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee of Mental Health in the reform of the French mental health system during the 1950s. Rooted in the experience of practitioners and administrators participating in the process of reforming local psychiatric systems, the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee developed a new vision of regulating psychiatry, based on professionalism and an idea of a normativity of the doctor-patient relation. This article shows how, by mobilizing the WHO reports' recommendations, French administrators and doctors succeeded in creating a typically French object: "the psychiatric sector", founded on elaborating a new mandate for the psychiatric profession. The article thus questions the deinstitutionalization model as an explanation of transformations of the structure of the French psychiatry system in the post-war period.

  6. [The Therapy Process of Accompanying Mothers in Multiple Family Therapy Groups: Evidence from a German Child Psychiatric Setting]. (United States)

    von der Lippe, Holger; Radloff, Josefine; Schadow, Jeanette; Röttger, Ulrike; Flechtner, Hans-Henning


    The Therapy Process of Accompanying Mothers in Multiple Family Therapy Groups: Evidence from a German Child Psychiatric Setting This study provides an empirical contribution to the understanding of parents that accompany their children in psychiatric multiple family therapy settings (MFT). To this end, we conducted qualitative interviews with mothers that had successfully participated, with their diagnosed children (ages 3 to 9), in disorder-independent, age-homogeneous, and open family groups (the "Magdeburg Model") for several months. We performed a theoretical coding approach to the extensive interview material (n = 6 interviews, duration = 70 to 100 minutes each) according to Grounded Theory and extracted seven main and 29 sub-categories. These categories yield a coherent, complete, and specific subjective therapy model for this setting. One of the central findings is a profound understanding of to what extent and by which means the family group as a social arena paves and supports the arrival of the mothers in the group, their engagement into the therapy process, and their motivational and volitional steps during therapy. Another relevant result is a reconstruction of what we termed Arriving Home, which is the epitome of the positive cognitive, affective, and behavioral therapeutic development that mothers perceive. Conclusions for clinical practice as well as for qualitative and mixed methods therapy research are discussed.

  7. It Is Not Just in Faces! Processing of Emotion and Intention from Biological Motion in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Okruszek


    Full Text Available Social neuroscience offers a wide range of techniques that may be applied to study the social cognitive deficits that may underlie reduced social functioning—a common feature across many psychiatric disorders. At the same time, a significant proportion of research in this area has been conducted using paradigms that utilize static displays of faces or eyes. The use of point-light displays (PLDs offers a viable alternative for studying recognition of emotion or intention inference while minimizing the amount of information presented to participants. This mini-review aims to summarize studies that have used PLD to study emotion and intention processing in schizophrenia (SCZ, affective disorders, anxiety and personality disorders, eating disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Two main conclusions can be drawn from the reviewed studies: first, the social cognitive problems found in most of the psychiatric samples using PLD were of smaller magnitude than those found in studies presenting social information using faces or voices. Second, even though the information presented in PLDs is extremely limited, presentation of these types of stimuli is sufficient to elicit the disorder-specific, social cognitive biases (e.g., mood-congruent bias in depression, increased threat perception in anxious individuals, aberrant body size perception in eating disorders documented using other methodologies. Taken together, these findings suggest that point-light stimuli may be a useful method of studying social information processing in psychiatry. At the same time, some limitations of using this methodology are also outlined.

  8. Child Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity Among Chinese Adolescents: Emotional Processing as Mediator and PTSD from Past Trauma as Moderator. (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Chen, Zhuo Sheng


    This study investigated whether child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity in a group of Chinese adolescents, and whether this association would be mediated by emotional processing difficulties and moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas in the past. Four hundred seventy-four adolescents participated in the study. They completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, General Health Questionnaire-28, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Emotional processing scale-25. The results showed that after adjusting for the total number of traumatic events and how long ago the most traumatic event occurred, child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. This association was not moderated by the severity of PTSD from past traumas but mediated by emotion processing difficulties. To conclude, adolescents who experience child abuse can develop emotional processing difficulties which in turn impact on psychiatric symptoms. Experience of past trauma does not influence these psychological processes.

  9. The effect of hot-boning and reduced added phosphate on the processing and sensory properties of cured beef prepared from two forequarter muscles. (United States)

    Keenan, D F; Desmond, E M; Hayes, J E; Kenny, T A; Kerry, J P


    The functionality of pre-rigor beef was investigated in terms of the effects of phosphate reduction and curing of hot-boned meat on the processing and sensory properties of relatively low-value muscles, M. infraspinatus (IS) and M. pectoralis profundus (PP), from the forequarter. Muscles were excised within 90 min post-mortem (HB) or, from chilled carcasses, 24 h post-mortem (CB), and were injected to 115% of green weight with brine containing phosphate and were vacuum tumbled continuously for 2 h. Hot-boning gave lower total yield of cooked meat for both muscles. Hot-boned PP joints had slightly higher (Pcold-boned. Reduction of added phosphate (from sodium tri-polyphosphate) from 0.3% to 0.15% of cured meat had detrimental effects on colour; joints containing the conventional 0.3% were lighter (PHot-boning gave PP joints which were rated less tender by sensory panels, corresponding with higher (Phot-boning gave products that were rated by sensory panel as slightly more tender but there was no effect on TPA or WBSF values. Furthermore, total yields from hot-boned products did not reflect the expected increase in functionality and reducing added phosphate during processing had a detrimental effect in binding and forming of joints. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of high pressure processing to enhance the quality and shelf life of reduced sodium naturally cured restructured cooked hams. (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Johnston, S P


    The combined effect of partial salt replacement with modified potassium chloride and high pressure processing (600 MPa for 3 min at 8°C) on the quality and shelf life of naturally-cured restructured hams was investigated over a 12 week storage period. Instrumental, microbiological and consumer acceptability testing was performed. A partial salt substitution with modified potassium chloride adversely affected textural and water binding characteristics of hams and led to a decrease in the consumer acceptance compared to regular salt hams. Celery powder used as a curing agent had beneficial effects on water holding and moisture retention and improved bind of restructured hams; however the consumer acceptability of flavor and aftertaste received significantly lower scores compared to nitrite. No significant differences in all consumer acceptability parameters resulted for hams subjected to HPP compared to non-HPP for all storage periods indicating that HPP can effectively extend shelf-life of restructured ham without compromising eating quality. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using iterative learning to improve understanding during the informed consent process in a South African psychiatric genomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Campbell

    Full Text Available Obtaining informed consent is a great challenge in global health research. There is a need for tools that can screen for and improve potential research participants' understanding of the research study at the time of recruitment. Limited empirical research has been conducted in low and middle income countries, evaluating informed consent processes in genomics research. We sought to investigate the quality of informed consent obtained in a South African psychiatric genomics study. A Xhosa language version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent Questionnaire (UBACC was used to screen for capacity to consent and improve understanding through iterative learning in a sample of 528 Xhosa people with schizophrenia and 528 controls. We address two questions: firstly, whether research participants' understanding of the research study improved through iterative learning; and secondly, what were predictors for better understanding of the research study at the initial screening? During screening 290 (55% cases and 172 (33% controls scored below the 14.5 cut-off for acceptable understanding of the research study elements, however after iterative learning only 38 (7% cases and 13 (2.5% controls continued to score below this cut-off. Significant variables associated with increased understanding of the consent included the psychiatric nurse recruiter conducting the consent screening, higher participant level of education, and being a control. The UBACC proved an effective tool to improve understanding of research study elements during consent, for both cases and controls. The tool holds utility for complex studies such as those involving genomics, where iterative learning can be used to make significant improvements in understanding of research study elements. The UBACC may be particularly important in groups with severe mental illness and lower education levels. Study recruiters play a significant role in managing

  12. "It's the day-to-day living that matters": the meaning and process of community in the lives of a couple with significant psychiatric disabilities. (United States)

    Royce-Davis, J C


    This study attempts to define and describe the experience and process of community and community participation using a qualitative case study of a couple labeled with significant psychiatric disabilities. Findings indicate that important influences on perceptions and the process of community belonging include (a) the opportunity to personally define the meaning, limitations, and level of care associated with receiving a psychiatric label; (b) a reciprocal, central relationship; and (c) recognized opportunities for intentional participation in and access to meaningful relationships with other community members, including in the role of coworker or colleague.

  13. [Comprehensive Assessment of Psychiatric Residents: An Addition to the Program Admission Process]. (United States)

    Luis, E Jaramillo G; Elena, Martín C


    The training of medical specialists is a long and complex process. Its purpose is to guarantee the society that they are the right professionals to meet the health needs of the population. The first step to ensure this objective is the admission process. In psychiatry this process, monitoring resident students and the criteria for each one are different in each country. Admission in Colombia is a heterogeneous process, not standardized, which varies greatly from one university to another, even between private and public universities. At the National University of Colombia, the admissions process is handled by the Admissions Office and includes: a written test for which you must obtain a minimum score, a resume rating and an interview. The Teaching Committee and the Department of Psychiatry considered the admission procedure in general to be good, but in need of refinement. Due to the experience of some teachers and given the current rules, a "comprehensive assessment" for master and doctoral students was required and in 1996 it was decided that this method of assessment for admission to a specialization in Psychiatry would serve to complement the admission process. The article describes the experience of the process and its outcomes, strengths and weaknesses. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Process-driven bacterial community dynamics are key to cured meat colour formation by coagulase-negative staphylococci via nitrate reductase or nitric oxide synthase activities. (United States)

    Sánchez Mainar, María; Leroy, Frédéric


    The cured colour of European raw fermented meats is usually achieved by nitrate-into-nitrite reduction by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), subsequently generating nitric oxide to form the relatively stable nitrosomyoglobin pigment. The present study aimed at comparing this classical curing procedure, based on nitrate reductase activity, with a potential alternative colour formation mechanism, based on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, under different acidification profiles. To this end, meat models with and without added nitrate were fermented with cultures of an acidifying strain (Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494) and either a nitrate-reducing Staphylococcus carnosus strain or a rare NOS-positive CNS strain (Staphylococcus haemolyticus G110), or by relying on the background microbiota. Satisfactory colour was obtained in the models prepared with added nitrate and S. carnosus. In the presence of nitrate but absence of added CNS, however, cured colour was only obtained when L. sakei CTC 494 was also omitted. This was ascribed to the pH dependency of the emerging CNS background microbiota, selecting for nitrate-reducing Staphylococcus equorum strains at mild acidification conditions but for Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains with poor colour formation capability when the pH decrease was more rapid. This reliance of colour formation on the composition of the background microbiota was further explored by a side experiment, demonstrating the heterogeneity in nitrate reduction of a set of 88 CNS strains from different species. Finally, in all batches prepared with S. haemolyticus G110, colour generation failed as the strain was systematically outcompeted by the background microbiota, even when imposing milder acidification profiles. Thus, when aiming at colour formation through CNS metabolism, technological processing can severely interfere with the composition and functionality of the meat-associated CNS communities, for both nitrate reductase and NOS activities

  15. Processes of In-Hospital Psychiatric Care and Subsequent Criminal Behaviour Among Patients With Schizophrenia: A National Population-Based, Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Charlotte Gjørup; Olrik Wallenstein Jensen, Signe; Johnsen, Søren Paaske


    Objectives: It is unknown whether evidence-based, in-hospital processes of care may influence the risk of criminal behaviour among patients with schizophrenia. Our study aimed to examine the association between guideline recommended in-hospital psychiatric care and criminal behaviour among patien...

  16. Evaluation of Degreasers as Brine Curing Additives (United States)

    The length of time needed for brine curing of raw hides and skins, a minimum of 18 h, is a time-consuming and expensive process. In this paper we initially report the results of an investigation of the stratigraphic distribution of sodium chloride and water in fleshed hides cured for varying interv...

  17. Cure Chemistry of Phenylethynyl Terminated Oligomers (United States)

    Wood, Karen H.; Orwoll, Robert A.; Young, Philip R.; Jensen, Brian J.; McNair, Harold M.


    The ability to process high performance polymers into quality, void-free composites has been significantly advanced using oligomers terminated with reactive groups which cure or crosslink at elevated temperature without the evolution of volatile byproducts. Several matrix resin systems of considerable interest to the aerospace community utilize phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) technology to achieve this advantage. The present paper addresses the cure chemistry of PETI oligomers. The thermal cure of a low molecular weight model compound was studied using a variety of analytical techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The studies indicate an extremely complex cure process. Many stable products were isolated and this paper reports current work on identification of those products. The intent of this research is to provide fundamental insight into the molecular structure of the cured PETI engineering materials so that performance and durability can be more fully assessed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Steinhaus


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the evaluation of a dielectric analysis (DEA method monitoring the curing behaviour of a light curing dental filling material in real-time. The evaluation is to extract the influence of light intensity on the photo-curing process of dental composite filling materials. The intensity change is obtained by measuring the curing process at different sample depth. It could be shown that increasing sample thickness, and therefore exponentially decreasing light intensity, causes a proportional decrease in the initial curing rate. Nevertheless, the results give rise to the assumption that lower illumination intensities over a long period cause higher overall conversion, and thus better mechanical properties. This would allow for predictions of the impact of different curing-rates on the final mechanical properties.

  19. A comparison of facial emotion processing in neurological and psychiatric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eBediou


    Full Text Available Investigating the relative severity of emotion recognition deficit across different clinical and high-risk populations has potential implications not only for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, but also for our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of emotion perception itself. We reanalyzed data from 4 studies in which we examined facial expression and gender recognition using the same tasks and stimuli. We used a standardized and bias-corrected measure of effect size (Cohen’s D to assess the extent of impairments in frontotemporal dementia (FTD, Parkinson’s disease treated by L-DOPA (PD-ON or not (PD-OFF, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI, Alzheimer’s disease at mild dementia stage (AD, major depressive disorder (MDD, remitted schizophrenia (SCZ-rem, first-episode schizophrenia before (SCZ-OFF and after (SCZ-ON medication, as well as unaffected siblings of partients with schizophrenia (SIB. Analyses revealed a pattern of differential impairment of emotion (but not gender recognition, consistent with the extent of impairment of the fronto-temporal neural networks involved in the processing of faces and facial expressions. Our transnosographic approach combining clinical and high-risk populations with the impact of medication brings new information on the trajectory of impaired emotion perception in neuropsychiatric conditions, and on the neural networks and neurotransmitter systems subserving emotion perception.

  20. Changes in Zn-porphyrin and proteinous pigments in italian dry-cured ham during processing and maturation. (United States)

    Adamsen, Christina E; Møller, Jens K S; Parolari, Giovanni; Gabba, Laura; Skibsted, Leif H


    Substitution of iron with zinc in myoglobin during maturation of Parma ham to yield zinc porphyrin extractable by 75% vol/vol acetone/water solution and detectable by fluorescence spectroscopy, was found to occur concomitant with protein modification in myoglobin. The content of zinc porphyrin increases throughout the whole processing and maturation of Parma ham, from I(fl) 0.1±0.06 for green ham to I(fl) 84.4±48.8 for fully matured Parma ham. In an aqueous extract of Parma ham with pH 6.0 protein alteration in myoglobin, as detected by size-exclusion chromatography, is initiated during the resting period following salting and seems to precede formation of zinc porphyrin. During maturation the results indicate that the modified myoglobin could undergo polymerization, and it is suggested that initial protein denaturation or degradation facilitates substitution of iron with zinc. The pigment polymerization may be a result of non-covalent protein association to zinc porphyrin in denatured or partly degraded myoglobin.

  1. Effect of origin, breeding and processing conditions on the isotope ratios of bioelements in dry-cured ham. (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Camin, Federica; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Piasentier, Edi


    The stable isotope ratios (SIR) of the bioelements ((2)H/(1)H, (13)C/(12)C, (15)N/(14)N, (18)O/(16)O, (34)S/(32)S) of the defatted dry matter and marbling and subcutaneous fat fractions, were assessed on 86 ham samples belonging to six different types, with the aim of ascertaining the effect of origin and production system on 11 isotopic ratios. The ham types were obtained from pigs reared in three regions, examining in every location one different production factor at two levels of expression: pig genotype (local breed vs. industrial hybrid) in Friuli (Italy), pig feeding regime (Bellota vs. Campo) in Extremadura (Spain) and ham seasoning time (mid vs. end) in Emilia (Italy). The isotopic composition of meteoric water and the dietary abundance of C(4) plants allowed to distinguish Italian PDO from Spanish hams. The contrasting treatments within the regional batches generated promising differences in SIR, potentially useful for tracing the whole ham production system, including the processing procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Cook


    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12. Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4 were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  3. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid. (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin L; Progovac, Ana M; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry; Baca-Garcia, Enrique


    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, "how do you feel today?" We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  4. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Dave [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Norris, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  5. The prevention of losses in cured fish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The paper reviews problems of the post-harvest losses in cured fish. The importance of this commodity in the tropics and existing methods of its handling, processing, storage and distribution are discussed...

  6. Tracking Polymer Cure Via Embedded Optical Fibers (United States)

    Dean, David L.; Davidson, T. Fred


    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy applied in interior of specimen of material by bringing infrared light through specimen in optical fiber. Light interacts with material via evanescent-wave effect. Spectra obtained in this way at various times during curing process also combined with data from ultrasonic, thermographic, and dielectric-impedance monitoring, and other measurement techniques to obtain more complete characterization of progress of curing process.

  7. Psychiatric Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M


    into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can...... then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691...

  8. "Treat me with respect". A systematic review and thematic analysis of psychiatric patients' reported perceptions of the situations associated with the process of coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingleff, E B; Bradley, S K; Gildberg, F A


    Introduction: There is a lack of research into psychiatric patients' perceptions of coercion that discriminates between different types of coercive measures, while also investigating patients' perceptions of undergoing coercion as a process. This knowledge is required to improve our understanding......' individual needs. Professionals also need to articulate concern and empathy towards the patient and to improve communication skills before, during and after a coercive incident. Use of de-escalation and noncoercive strategies is required....

  9. Effect of processing variables on the outgrowth of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores in comminuted meat cured with sorbic acid and sodium nitrite. (United States)

    Robach, M C


    The effects of the initial pH and a "short pump" on the outgrowth of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores in comminuted cured pork were studied. Fresh ground pork was cured with salt, sugar, phosphate, ascorbate, and varying amounts of sodium nitrite and sorbic acid. The product was comminuted and inoculated with 1,000 spores of C. sporogenes per g. The meat was stuffed into 1-ounce (ca. 28.4-g) aluminum tubes, cooked to 58.5 degrees C, cooled, and incubated at 27 degrees C to observe for swells. Product cured with 0.2% sorbic acid in combination with 40 ppm sodium nitrite (40 microgram/g) had better clostridium inhibition than did product cured with 120 ppm nitrite within a pH range of 5.0 to 6.7. The sorbic acid-40 ppm nitrite combination also gave better clostridial protection than did the 120 ppm nitrite alone when reduced amounts of curing ingredients were present. PMID:44445

  10. Processes of In-Hospital Psychiatric Care and Subsequent Criminal Behaviour Among Patients With Schizophrenia: A National Population-Based, Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C. G.; Jensen, S. O. W.; Johnsen, S. P.


    Objectives: It is unknown whether evidence-based, in-hospital processes of care may influence the risk of criminal behaviour among patients with schizophrenia. Our study aimed to examine the association between guideline recommended in-hospital psychiatric care and criminal behaviour among patients...... patients receiving the most processes of in hospital care (top quartile of received recommended care, compared with bottom quartiles, adjusted hazard ratio = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99). The individual processes of care associated with the lowest risk of criminal behaviour were antipsychotic treatment...

  11. Freud's psychoanalysis: a moral cure. (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan


    That psychoanalytical treatment in its classical Freudian sense is primarily a moral or ethical cure is not a very controversial claim. However, it is far from obvious how we are to understand precisely the moral character of psychoanalysis. It has frequently been proposed that this designation is valid because psychoanalysis strives neither to cure psychological symptoms pharmaceutically, nor to superficially modify the behaviour of the analysand, but to lead the analysand through an interpretive process during which he gradually gains knowledge of the unconscious motives that determine his behaviour, a process that might ideally liberate him to obtain, in relation to his inner desires, the status of a moral agent. There resides something appealing in these claims. But it is the author's belief that there is an even deeper moral dimension applying to psychoanalytical theory and praxis. Freudian psychoanalysis is a moral cure due to its way of thematizing psychological suffering as moral suffering. And this means that the moral subject - the being that can experience moral suffering - is not primarily something that the psychoanalytical treatment strives to realize, but rather the presupposition for the way in which psychoanalysis theorizes psychological problems as such. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  12. Study on the heat-resistant EB curing composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Jianwen; Li Yang [Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing (China); Li Fengmei [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China)


    There are many advantages in the EB-curing process of composites. Heat-resistant EB-curing composites could substitute for polyimide composites used in aeronautical engine. The effects of catalyst and dose on the cured resin were investigated. The heat-resistance of the resin cured by EB was evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The experiment result shows that the mechanical property of the composites cured by EB could meet the needs of the aeronautical engine in 250degC. (author)

  13. Polymerization and polymerization shrinkage stress: fast cure versus conventional cure. (United States)

    Strydom, C


    Dentists nowadays have a choice of conventional halogen lights, halogen lights with more sophisticated curing cycles (step-cure, rapid-cure, ramp-cure & pulse-cure), fast halogen lights, laser lights, plasma arc lights (PAC) and, lately, LED lights. While the manufacturers of some of the curing units try to improve on the operational reliability of their lights with a slower initial rate of cure, other manufacturers simply wish to offer as fast a curing time as possible. The conventional approach to cure accepts that sufficient light intensity of at least 400 mW/cm2 at a wavelength of 400-500 nm, and an exposure time of at least 40 seconds is needed to cure a 2-mm layer of composite. When a halogen light with higher or very high intensity is used, alternative curing strategies provide for an initial slower cure to allow flow, and after that a higher-intensity cure to improve the degree of cure. In contrast, in the fast-cure or rapid-cure approach it is suggested that a layer of composite can be cured for only 5- 10 seconds at >2000 mW/cm2. Some go so far as to say that an exposure time of 3 seconds per layer may be enough. This contradictory approach is compounded by the fact that this support for fast cure does not seem to consider the negative consequences. Therefore, to address these concerns, this review discusses the possible effects of a fast cure approach compared to a more conventional approach in polymerization and polymerization shrinkage, and the consequences there-off. Other factors that play an influencing role in polymerization shrinkage stress are also included in the discussion.

  14. Curing kinetics of visible light curing dental resin composites investigated by dielectric analysis (DEA). (United States)

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Großgarten, Mandy; Möginger, Bernhard


    During the curing process of light curing dental composites the mobility of molecules and molecule segments is reduced leading to a significant increase of the viscosity as well as the ion viscosity. Thus, the kinetics of the curing behavior of 6 different composites was derived from dielectric analysis (DEA) using especially redesigned flat sensors with interdigit comb electrodes allowing for irradiation at the top side and measuring the ion viscosity at the bottom side. As the ion viscosities of dental composites change 1-3 orders of magnitude during the curing process, DEA provides a sensitive approach to evaluate their curing behavior, especially in the phase of undisturbed chain growth. In order to determine quantitative kinetic parameters a kinetic model is presented and examined for the evaluation of the ion viscosity curves. From the obtained results it is seen that DEA might be employed in the investigation of the primary curing process, the quality assurance of ingredients as well as the control of processing stability of the light curing dental composites. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in the Total Lipid, Neutral Lipid, Phospholipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipid Fractions during Pastırma Processing, a Dry-Cured Meat Product. (United States)

    Aksu, Muhammet Irfan; Dogan, Mehmet; Sirkecioglu, Ahmet Necdet


    Pastırma is a dry-cured meat product, produced from whole beef or water buffalo muscles. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of production stages (raw meat, after curing, after 2(nd) drying and pastırma) on the total lipid, neutral lipid, phospholipid and fatty acid composition of phospholipid fraction of pastırma produced from beef M. Longissimus dorsi muscles. The pH and colour (L*, a* and b*) analyses were also performed in raw meat and pastırma. It was found that pastırma production stages had significant effects (pmeat. Pastırma production stages affected pentadecanoic acid (15:1) (pmeat.

  16. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cured ready-to-eat processed meat products by manipulation of sodium chloride, sodium diacetate, potassium lactate, and product moisture content. (United States)

    Seman, D L; Borger, A C; Meyer, J D; Hall, P A; Milkowski, A L


    A central composite second-order response surface design was employed to determine the influences of added sodium chloride (0.8 to 3.6%), sodium diacetate (0 to 0.2%), potassium lactate syrup (0.25 to 9.25%), and finished-product moisture (45.5 to 83.5%) on the predicted growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in cured ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. Increased amounts of both sodium diacetate (P meat products (wieners, smoked-cooked ham, light bologna, and cotto salami). The final model will be useful to food technologists in determining formulations that will result in finished cured RTE meat products in which L. monocytogenes is not likely to grow.

  17. The Clay that Cures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Hydrotalcite - The Clay that Cures. N Bejoy. General Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 57-61. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  18. Miraculous cures in gynaecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammes, F. B.


    As a gynaecologist-oncologist one will quite often have been confronted with patients who have informed one of fairly impressive results of methods of alternative medicine. These convincing stories must have been impressive. Very often one may wonder about these 'cures'. There are, however, patients

  19. Curing the queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, Maartje Elisabeth


    In this dissertation we study several problems related to the management of healthcare and the cure of disease. In each chapter a hospital capacity distribution problem is analyzed using techniques from operations research, also known as mathematical decision theory. The problems considered are

  20. Curing Children's Cancer (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Curing Children's Cancer Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents ... transplants a blunt, toxic tool for fragile young children. "They represent ... high-risk leukemias, like Madelen's. But developments have not been fast ...

  1. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas


    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  2. Curing of Thick Thermoset Composite Laminates: Multiphysics Modeling and Experiments (United States)

    Anandan, S.; Dhaliwal, G. S.; Huo, Z.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Apetre, N.; Iyyer, N.


    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used in high-performance aerospace applications as they are resistant to fatigue, corrosion free and possess high specific strength. The mechanical properties of these composite components depend on the degree of cure and residual stresses developed during the curing process. While these parameters are difficult to determine experimentally in large and complex parts, they can be simulated using numerical models in a cost-effective manner. These simulations can be used to develop cure cycles and change processing parameters to obtain high-quality parts. In the current work, a numerical model was built in Comsol MultiPhysics to simulate the cure behavior of a carbon/epoxy prepreg system (IM7/Cycom 5320-1). A thermal spike was observed in thick laminates when the recommended cure cycle was used. The cure cycle was modified to reduce the thermal spike and maintain the degree of cure at the laminate center. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the effect of air flow in the oven, post cure cycles and cure temperatures on the thermal spike and the resultant degree of cure in the laminate.

  3. Natural glues and fouling management by interfering with glue curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rittschof


    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary approaches and modern technology provide insights to glue curing that are stimulatingand controversial. Our team applies classic and modern theory and techniques to the study of barnacle glue. Techniques include physical measures, bacteriology, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, microscopy, spectroscopy, tomography, tandem mass spectrometry, molecular biology and proteomics. Theory is grounded in evolution and previous literature. Here, we use data from these techniques to support the hypothesis that barnacle glue curing is similar toblood clotting and propose a model for how glue cures. Similar to blood clotting, barnacle glue curing involves enzymatic activation of precursors and rearrangement of structural molecules to form a crosslinked material. Barnacle larval settlement, bacteriology and biochemical data show glue contains large amounts of small peptides. Their role in glue curing has been overlooked. The peptides comprise 15 to 30% of partially cured glue. Because they have little secondary structure, the peptides can associate with binding domains on the substrate and interface with the larger, well-described structural proteins known in barnacle glue. Enzymes participate in curing of barnacle glue. Siloxanes impact glue-curing enzymes. They potentiate trypsin activity and inhibit transglutaminase activity. Changing enzymeactivity impacts how glue cures. Disrupting the curing process of biological glues is central to effective cleaning strategies for fouling management. Thus silicones that interfere with enzyme activity have potential as additives in easy cleansurfaces. The environmental impacts of organosilicones that are generated by biological processes need to be addressed

  4. Cure shrinkage effects in epoxy and polycyanate matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spellman, G.P.


    A relatively new advanced composite matrix, polycyanate ester, was evaluated for cure shrinkage. The chemical cure shrinkage of composites is difficult to model but a number of clever experimental techniques are available to the investigator. In this work the method of curing a prepreg layup on top of a previously cured laminate of identical ply composition is utilized. The polymeric matrices used in advanced composites have been primarily epoxies and therefore a common system of this type, Fiberite 3501-6, was used as a base case material. Three polycyanate matrix systems were selected for the study. These are: Fiberite 954-2A, YLA RS-3, and Bryte Technology BTCy-1. The first three of these systems were unidirectional prepreg with carbon fiber reinforcement. The Bryte Technology material was reinforced with E-glass fabric. The technique used to evaluate cure shrinkage results in distortion of the flatness of an otherwise symmetric laminate. The first laminate is cured in a conventional fashion. An identical layup is cured on this first laminate. During the second cure all constituents are exposed to the same thermal cycles. However, only the new portion of the laminate will experience volumetric changes associate with matrix cure. The additional strain of cure shrinkage results in an unsymmetric distribution of residual stresses and an associated warpage of the laminate. The baseline material, Fiberite 3501-6, exhibited cure shrinkage that was in accordance with expectations. Cure strains were {minus}4.5E-04. The YLA RS-3 material had cure strains somewhat lower at {minus}3.2E-04. The Fiberite 954-2A cure strain was {minus}1.5E-04 that is 70% lower than the baseline material. The glass fabric material with the Bryte BTCy-1 matrix did not result in meaningful results because the processing methods were not fully compatible with the material.

  5. Light-Cured Self-Etch Adhesives Undergo Hydroxyapatite-Triggered Self-Cure. (United States)

    Liu, Y; Bai, X; Liu, Y W; Wang, Y


    Light cure is a popular mode of curing for dental adhesives. However, it suffers from inadequate light delivery when the restoration site is less accessible, in which case a self-cure mechanism is desirable to salvage any compromised polymerization. We previously reported a novel self-cure system mediated by ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoate (4E) and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The present work aims to investigate if such self-cure phenomenon takes place in adhesives that underwent prior inadequate light cure and to elucidate if HAp released from the dental etching process is sufficient to trigger it. Model self-etch adhesives were formulated with various components, including bis[2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-phosphate (2MP) as acidic monomer and trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) as photoinitiator. In vitro evolution of degree of conversion (DC) of HAp-incorporated adhesives was monitored by infrared spectroscopy during light irradiation and dark storage. Selected adhesives were allowed to etch and extract HAp from enamel, light-cured in situ, and stored in the dark, after which Raman line mapping was used to obtain spatially resolved DC across the enamel-resin interface. Results showed that TPO+4E adhesives reached DC similar to TPO-only counterparts upon completion of light irradiation but underwent another round of initiation that boosted DC to ~100% regardless of HAp level or prior light exposure. When applied to enamel, TPO-only adhesives had ~80% DC in resin, which gradually descended to ~50% in enamel, whereas TPO+4E adhesives consistently scored ~80% DC across the enamel-resin interface. These observations suggest that polymerization of adhesives that underwent insufficient light cure is salvaged by the novel self-cure mechanism, and such salvaging effect can be triggered by HAp released from dental substrate during the etching process. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  6. Light-Cured Self-Etch Adhesives Undergo Hydroxyapatite-Triggered Self-Cure (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Bai, X.; Liu, Y.W.; Wang, Y.


    Light cure is a popular mode of curing for dental adhesives. However, it suffers from inadequate light delivery when the restoration site is less accessible, in which case a self-cure mechanism is desirable to salvage any compromised polymerization. We previously reported a novel self-cure system mediated by ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoate (4E) and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The present work aims to investigate if such self-cure phenomenon takes place in adhesives that underwent prior inadequate light cure and to elucidate if HAp released from the dental etching process is sufficient to trigger it. Model self-etch adhesives were formulated with various components, including bis[2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-phosphate (2MP) as acidic monomer and trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) as photoinitiator. In vitro evolution of degree of conversion (DC) of HAp-incorporated adhesives was monitored by infrared spectroscopy during light irradiation and dark storage. Selected adhesives were allowed to etch and extract HAp from enamel, light-cured in situ, and stored in the dark, after which Raman line mapping was used to obtain spatially resolved DC across the enamel-resin interface. Results showed that TPO+4E adhesives reached DC similar to TPO-only counterparts upon completion of light irradiation but underwent another round of initiation that boosted DC to ~100% regardless of HAp level or prior light exposure. When applied to enamel, TPO-only adhesives had ~80% DC in resin, which gradually descended to ~50% in enamel, whereas TPO+4E adhesives consistently scored ~80% DC across the enamel-resin interface. These observations suggest that polymerization of adhesives that underwent insufficient light cure is salvaged by the novel self-cure mechanism, and such salvaging effect can be triggered by HAp released from dental substrate during the etching process. PMID:26635279

  7. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips


    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  8. Critical parameters for electron beam curing of cationic epoxies and property comparison of electron beam cured cationic epoxies versus thermal cured resins and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C.J.; Norris, R.E.; Yarborough, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology; Havens, S.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Lopata, V.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.


    Electron beam curing of composites is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process offering the following advantages compared to conventional thermal curing: substantially reduced manufacturing costs and curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvements in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance electron beam curing of composites. The CRADA has successfully developed hundreds of new toughened and untoughened resins, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility. Several patent applications have been filed for this work. Composites made from these easily processable, low shrinkage material match the performance of thermal cured composites and exhibit: low void contents comparable to autoclave cured composites (less than 1%); superb low water absorption values in the same range as cyanate esters (less than 1%); glass transition temperatures rivaling those of polyimides (greater than 390 C); mechanical properties comparable to high performance, autoclave cured composites; and excellent property retention after cryogenic and thermal cycling. These materials have been used to manufacture many composite parts using various fabrication processes including hand lay-up, tow placement, filament winding, resin transfer molding and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding.

  9. Strength of Geopolymer Cement Curing at Ambient Temperature by Non-Oven Curing Approaches: An Overview (United States)

    Wattanachai, Pitiwat; Suwan, Teewara


    At the present day, a concept of environmentally friendly construction materials has been intensively studying to reduce the amount of releasing greenhouse gases. Geopolymer is one of the cementitious binders which can be produced by utilising pozzolanic wastes (e.g. fly ash or furnace slag) and also receiving much more attention as a low-CO2 emission material. However, to achieve excellent mechanical properties, heat curing process is needed to apply to geopolymer cement in a range of temperature around 40 to 90°C. To consume less oven-curing energy and be more convenience in practical work, the study on geopolymer curing at ambient temperature (around 20 to 25°C) is therefore widely investigated. In this paper, a core review of factors and approaches for non-oven curing geopolymer has been summarised. The performance, in term of strength, of each non-oven curing method, is also presented and analysed. The main aim of this review paper is to gather the latest study of ambient temperature curing geopolymer and to enlarge a feasibility of non-oven curing geopolymer development. Also, to extend the directions of research work, some approaches or techniques can be combined or applied to the specific properties for in-field applications and embankment stabilization by using soil-cement column.

  10. "Treat me with respect". A systematic review and thematic analysis of psychiatric patients' reported perceptions of the situations associated with the process of coercion. (United States)

    Tingleff, E B; Bradley, S K; Gildberg, F A; Munksgaard, G; Hounsgaard, L


    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychiatric patients have generally negative experiences of being exposed to coercive measures. Existing research has generally not investigated coercion as a process; that is, it does not address issues that arise before, during and after exposure to coercion. A part of existing research within the area does not clarify and define the type of coercive measure(s) investigated. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Patients place great significance on the link between the positive and negative perceived impact of a coercive situation and the professionals' ability and willingness to interact and communicate respectfully. Psychiatric patients associate the use of seclusion, physical restraint/holding, mechanical restraint and forced medication with strong negative perceptions and wish to be treated with respect by professionals, rather than being subjected to the professionals' control. What patients perceive as moderating factors in regard to the use of coercive measures is currently under-researched. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Increased sensitivity to the patient's views of the situation at each point in the coercive process would help professionals to respond to the patients' individual needs. Professionals need to articulate concern and empathy towards patients and to improve communication skills before, during and after a coercive incident. Greater emphasis should be placed on de-escalation and the use of non-coercive strategies or coping skills before the initiation of coercive measures. Introduction There is a lack of research into psychiatric patients' perceptions of coercion that discriminates between different types of coercive measures, while also investigating patients' perceptions of undergoing coercion as a process. This knowledge is required to improve our understanding and provide a foundation for improving clinical practice. Aims To review existing research literature in order to investigate adult

  11. Rheology of Semi-Cured Silicone Rubber Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Salarifar


    Full Text Available The rheology and swelling behavior of a silicone rubber was studied at various cure states using bis(2,4-dichlorobenzoyl peroxide as the curing agent. To this end, first an optimization was carried out on the percentage of crosslinking agent, the time and temperature of curing process. Then, samples, at various cured states, were prepared at zero (uncured sample, gel point, 5%, 15%, 30%, 60% and 100% gel content using a moving die rheometer RPA2000. The moving die rheometer RPA2000 offered obvious priorities over the old oscillating disc rheometers and it was able to measure the behavior of rubber compounds prior, during and after cure in a single test. The results of frequency sweep tests indicated that the modulus of semi-cured samples increased with increasing the frequency and cure state. The increase in frequency was ineffective on the storage modulus of samples of higher cure states, exhibiting a plateau throughout the whole frequency range. The samples with lower percentage of the crosslinking exhibited a shoulder at low frequencies resembling the behavior commonly observed for immiscible polymer blends at frequency sweep tests. The viscosity behavior versus frequency for all semi-cured compounds obeyed the power law model with a power law index being quite far from Newtonian behavior. The crosslink density was determined using the Flory-Rhener equation. The swelling magnitude, the weight decreasing rate as a result of the extraction of the sol part and the swelling rate decreased with increasing the cure state.

  12. Talking Cure Models: A Framework of Analysis. (United States)

    Marx, Christopher; Benecke, Cord; Gumz, Antje


    Psychotherapy is commonly described as a "talking cure," a treatment method that operates through linguistic action and interaction. The operative specifics of therapeutic language use, however, are insufficiently understood, mainly due to a multitude of disparate approaches that advance different notions of what "talking" means and what "cure" implies in the respective context. Accordingly, a clarification of the basic theoretical structure of "talking cure models," i.e., models that describe therapeutic processes with a focus on language use, is a desideratum of language-oriented psychotherapy research. Against this background the present paper suggests a theoretical framework of analysis which distinguishes four basic components of "talking cure models": (1) a foundational theory (which suggests how linguistic activity can affect and transform human experience), (2) an experiential problem state (which defines the problem or pathology of the patient), (3) a curative linguistic activity (which defines linguistic activities that are supposed to effectuate a curative transformation of the experiential problem state), and (4) a change mechanism (which defines the processes and effects involved in such transformations). The purpose of the framework is to establish a terminological foundation that allows for systematically reconstructing basic properties and operative mechanisms of "talking cure models." To demonstrate the applicability and utility of the framework, five distinct "talking cure models" which spell out the details of curative "talking" processes in terms of (1) catharsis, (2) symbolization, (3) narrative, (4) metaphor, and (5) neurocognitive inhibition are introduced and discussed in terms of the framework components. In summary, we hope that our framework will prove useful for the objective of clarifying the theoretical underpinnings of language-oriented psychotherapy research and help to establish a more comprehensive understanding of how curative

  13. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cured meats. (United States)

    Warnekulasuriya, M R; Johnson, J D; Holliman, R E


    Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with acute maternal infection acquired during or shortly before the pregnancy. The mother's infection is initiated by the ingestion of one of the life forms of the parasite but the relative importance of the different sources of toxoplasmosis are not established. Recent epidemiological studies have confirmed ingestion of raw meats as a risk factor but also identified consumption of cured meats as being associated with acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. There is little existing information concerning the efficiency of commercial curing processes for inactivating Toxoplasma gondii. We sought to detect the presence of T. gondii in ready-to-eat cured meat samples by amplification of the parasite's P30 gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, tissue culture was used in order to isolate viable parasites. Laboratory inoculated specimens were used to assess the sensitivity of each method. PCR was able to detect parasite contamination down to a level of 5 x 10(3) trophozoites/g while viable toxoplasma could be detected in tissue culture at a level of 10(3) trophozoites/g cured meat. The high salt content of some cured meats limited sensitivity of the PCR assay by inhibition of the polymerase enzyme and reduced the sensitivity of tissue culture due to osmotic pressure causing cytopathic effect. However viable T. gondii was detected in one out of 67 ready-to-eat cured meat samples. Our results highlight the need for improved methods for detecting toxoplasma contamination of food. Health implications of consuming cured meats in pregnancy require careful consideration.

  14. A comparison of the accuracy of patterns processed from an inlay casting wax, an auto-polymerized resin and a light-cured resin pattern material. (United States)

    Rajagopal, Praveen; Chitre, Vidya; Aras, Meena A


    Traditionally, inlay casting waxes have been used to fabricate patterns for castings. Newer resin pattern materials offer greater rigidity and strength, allowing easier laboratory and intraoral adjustment without the fear of pattern damage. They also claim to possess a greater dimensional stability when compared to inlay wax. This study attempted to determine and compare the marginal accuracy of patterns fabricated from an inlay casting wax, an autopolymerized pattern resin and a light polymerized pattern resin on storage off the die for varying time intervals. Ten patterns each were fabricated from an inlay casting wax (GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan), an autopolymerized resin pattern material (Pattern resin, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and a light-cured resin pattern material (Palavit GLC, Hereaus Kulzer GmbH, Germany). The completed patterns were stored off the die at room temperature. Marginal gaps were evaluated by reseating the patterns on their respective dies and observing it under a stereomicroscope at 1, 12, and 24 h intervals after pattern fabrication. The results revealed that the inlay wax showed a significantly greater marginal discrepancy at the 12 and 24 h intervals. The autopolymerized resin showed an initial (at 1 h) marginal discrepancy slightly greater than inlay wax, but showed a significantly less marginal gap (as compared to inlay wax) at the other two time intervals. The light-cured resin proved to be significantly more dimensionally stable, and showed minimal change during the storage period. The resin pattern materials studied, undergo a significantly less dimensional change than the inlay waxes on prolonged storage. They would possibly be a better alternative to inlay wax in situations requiring high precision or when delayed investment (more than 1 h) of patterns can be expected.

  15. Model-based testing for space-time interaction using point processes: An application to psychiatric hospital admissions in an urban area

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Sebastian; Rössler, Wulf; Held, Leonhard


    Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can they account for a distance decay of interaction. We propose to use the framework of an endemic-epidemic point process model to jointly estimate a background event rate explained by seasonal and areal characteristics, as well as a superposed epidemic component representing the hypothesis of interest. We illustrate this new model-based test for space-time interaction by analysing psychiatric inpatient admissions in Zurich, Switzerland (2007-2012). Several socio-economic factors were found to be associated with the admission rate, but there was no evidence of genera...

  16. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis. (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan


    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  17. Talking Cure Models: A Framework of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Marx


    Full Text Available Psychotherapy is commonly described as a “talking cure,” a treatment method that operates through linguistic action and interaction. The operative specifics of therapeutic language use, however, are insufficiently understood, mainly due to a multitude of disparate approaches that advance different notions of what “talking” means and what “cure” implies in the respective context. Accordingly, a clarification of the basic theoretical structure of “talking cure models,” i.e., models that describe therapeutic processes with a focus on language use, is a desideratum of language-oriented psychotherapy research. Against this background the present paper suggests a theoretical framework of analysis which distinguishes four basic components of “talking cure models”: (1 a foundational theory (which suggests how linguistic activity can affect and transform human experience, (2 an experiential problem state (which defines the problem or pathology of the patient, (3 a curative linguistic activity (which defines linguistic activities that are supposed to effectuate a curative transformation of the experiential problem state, and (4 a change mechanism (which defines the processes and effects involved in such transformations. The purpose of the framework is to establish a terminological foundation that allows for systematically reconstructing basic properties and operative mechanisms of “talking cure models.” To demonstrate the applicability and utility of the framework, five distinct “talking cure models” which spell out the details of curative “talking” processes in terms of (1 catharsis, (2 symbolization, (3 narrative, (4 metaphor, and (5 neurocognitive inhibition are introduced and discussed in terms of the framework components. In summary, we hope that our framework will prove useful for the objective of clarifying the theoretical underpinnings of language-oriented psychotherapy research and help to establish a more

  18. Talking Cure Models: A Framework of Analysis (United States)

    Marx, Christopher; Benecke, Cord; Gumz, Antje


    Psychotherapy is commonly described as a “talking cure,” a treatment method that operates through linguistic action and interaction. The operative specifics of therapeutic language use, however, are insufficiently understood, mainly due to a multitude of disparate approaches that advance different notions of what “talking” means and what “cure” implies in the respective context. Accordingly, a clarification of the basic theoretical structure of “talking cure models,” i.e., models that describe therapeutic processes with a focus on language use, is a desideratum of language-oriented psychotherapy research. Against this background the present paper suggests a theoretical framework of analysis which distinguishes four basic components of “talking cure models”: (1) a foundational theory (which suggests how linguistic activity can affect and transform human experience), (2) an experiential problem state (which defines the problem or pathology of the patient), (3) a curative linguistic activity (which defines linguistic activities that are supposed to effectuate a curative transformation of the experiential problem state), and (4) a change mechanism (which defines the processes and effects involved in such transformations). The purpose of the framework is to establish a terminological foundation that allows for systematically reconstructing basic properties and operative mechanisms of “talking cure models.” To demonstrate the applicability and utility of the framework, five distinct “talking cure models” which spell out the details of curative “talking” processes in terms of (1) catharsis, (2) symbolization, (3) narrative, (4) metaphor, and (5) neurocognitive inhibition are introduced and discussed in terms of the framework components. In summary, we hope that our framework will prove useful for the objective of clarifying the theoretical underpinnings of language-oriented psychotherapy research and help to establish a more comprehensive

  19. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.


    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  20. Multibunch Instabilities and Cures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, John D


    The common approach to achieve the high luminosity needed for high precision measurements adopted by the particle factories now under construction consists in storing high current e{sup +}e{sup -} beams distributed in many bunches in separate rings. The beams are brought together to collide at one interaction point. An inconvenience of this strategy is that the performances can be seriously limited by unstable coupled-bunch oscillations excited by transients or noise and sustained by long-lasting parasitic resonating modes (high order modes-HOM) in the vacuum chamber, mainly in the RF cavities. Minimization of the HOM content and broad-band feedback systems together with the reduction of the driving transients are the complementary cures to this kind of disease. This paper introduces the subject with some examples and special emphasis on bunch-by-bunch feedback systems.

  1. Can consumers cure healthcare? (United States)

    Gruber, David


    The U.S. healthcare delivery system is in crises. Costs are too high and increasingly becoming unaffordable to federal and state governments, employers and consumers. Americans are dissatisfied with the current system and believe it should be fundamentally altered or rebuilt. A solution needs to be found, and it is not the single-payer system espoused by many in Washington and elsewhere. We believe consumers can cure healthcare if (a) professionals, providers and policy experts shift their mindset from treating diseases and conditions to taking a holistic approach to the caring of people, particularly Baby Boomers and their parents; (b) technology becomes widely available to increase engagement, personalize healthcare, share experiences, make better choices and embrace convenience and (c) a cost-effective and reimbursed primary care navigator (coordinator and/or health manager), consistent with the medical home concept espoused by the American Association of Family Practitioners (AAFP) becomes a central component of public policy.

  2. Lipolysis in dry-cured ham maturation. (United States)

    Vestergaard, C S; Schivazappa, C; Virgili, R


    Thirty light Parma hams were tested for muscle lipolytic activity (acid and neutral lipase activity) and free fatty acid (FFA) amounts in M. semimembranosus and biceps femoris, during progressive phases (0, 3, 6, 10 months) of dry-cured ham manufacturing. No correlation was found between the activities of acid and neutral lipases in fresh M. semimembranosus, while during processing the activities were positively related (pham, suggesting that FFA production could be influenced by both raw meat properties and muscle composition during processing.

  3. Novel techniques for concrete curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovler, Konstantin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    It is known that some high-strength/high-performance concretes (HSC/HPC) are prone to cracking at an early age unless special precautions are taken. The paper deals with the methods of curing as one of the main strategies to ensure good performance of concrete. Curing by both external (convention...

  4. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation. (United States)

    Sitvast, J E; Widdershoven, G A M; Abma, T A


    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and additional interviews with eight of them. Photo groups were organized within three settings of psychiatric services: ambulatory as well as clinical, all situated in the Netherlands. Data were analysed according to hermeneutic and semiotic principles. Two cases are presented. Findings show that voice and face are concepts that help to identify elements of moral learning in the rehabilitation process of persons with a psychiatric disability. During the process patients become more aware of their responsibilities towards themselves and others.

  5. [Michel Foucault and the persistence of psychiatric power]. (United States)

    Caponi, Sandra


    This article aims studying the course held by Michel Foucault at the Collège de France in 1973-1974. The records of this course were published in 2003 under the name ' Psychiatric power' . The objective was to compare the different ways in which Foucault analyzes the question of madness in ' Psychiatric power' and in ' History of Madness in the Classical Age' (1961). It is a comparative study about the different ways of analyzing madness developed by Michel Foucault during the archeological and genealogic periods of his work. The absence of the body; binary diagnosis; the description of the surface of symptoms; the classification of diseases more similar to the botanical classification than to pathology; the process of cure directly linked to restitution of behaviors and moral values; as well as the over-power of the psychiatrist, seem to speak about the persistence of an old model of power, a pre-modern and pre-capitalist model, a residue of the old sovereign power.

  6. Cure kinetics and chemorheology of EPDM/graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahbakhsh, Ahmad [Department of Polymer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 17776-13651 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazinani, Saeedeh, E-mail: [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute (ANTRI), Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalaee, Mohammad Reza [Department of Polymer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 17776-13651 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharif, Farhad [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene oxide content and dispersion as effective parameters on cure kinetics. • Graphene oxide as an effective controlling factor of crosslink density. • Interaction of graphene oxide with curing system (ZnO) during curing process. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of graphene oxide on cure behavior of ethylene–propylene–diene rubber (EPDM) nanocomposite is studied. In this regard, the cure kinetics of nanocomposite is studied employing different empirical methods. The required activation energy of nth-order cure process shows about 160 kJ/mol increments upon 5 phr graphene oxide loading compared to 1 phr graphene oxide loading. However, the required activation energy is significantly reduced followed by incorporation of graphene oxide in nanocomposites compared to neat EPDM sample. Furthermore, the effect of graphene oxide on structural properties of nanocomposites during the cure process is studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry techniques. As the results show, graphene oxide interestingly affects the structure of zinc oxide during the vulcanization process. This behavior could be probably related to high tendency of zinc oxide to react with oxidized surface of graphene oxide.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar GÜLTEKİN


    Full Text Available Purpose: Adequate polymerization is a crucial factor in obtaining optimal physical properties and a satisfying clinical performance from composite resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization efficiency of dual-cure resin cement cured with two different light curing units under zirconia structures having differing thicknesses. Materials and Methods: 4 zirconia discs framework in 4 mm diameter and in 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm thickness were prepared using computer-aided design system. One of the 0.5 mm-thick substructures was left as mono-layered whereas others were layered with feldspathic porcelain of same thickness and ceramic samples with 4 different thicknesses (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 mm were prepared. For each group (n=12 resin cement was light cured in polytetrafluoroethylene molds using Light Emitting Diode (LED or Quartz-Tungsten Halogen (QHT light curing units under each of 4 zirconia based discs (n=96. The values of depth of cure (in mm and the Vickers Hardness Number values (VHN were evaluated for each specimen. Results: The use of LED curing unit produced a greater depth of cure compared to QTH under ceramic discs with 0.5 and 1 mm thickness (p<0.05.At 100μm and 300 μm depth, the LED unit produced significantly greater VHN values compared to the QTH unit (p<0.05. At 500 μm depth, the difference between the VHN values of LED and QTH groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Light curing may not result in adequate resin cement polymerization under thick zirconia structures. LED light sources should be preferred over QTH for curing dual-cure resin cements, especially for those under thicker zirconia restorations.

  8. The effect of light curing units, curing time, and veneering materials on resin cement microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Ozakar Ilday


    Conclusion: Light-curing units, curing time, and veneering materials are important factors for achieving adequate dual cure resin composite microhardness. High-intensity light and longer curing times resulted in the highest microhardness values.

  9. The effect of microwave processing and use of antimicrobial agent on porosity of conventional heat cured denture base resin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U K Kartika


    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the addition of zeolites did not result in significant porosity and that the use of microwave processing is a viable option for denture processing.

  10. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.


    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  11. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N


    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Psychiatric conditions associated with bullying. (United States)

    Kumpulainen, Kirsti


    Bullying is a complex phenomenon moderated not only by the personal characteristics and behavioral traits of the individual but also by family rearing practices, as well as by situational factors such as the frequency and type of bullying. The phenomenon is also affected by group processes among the individuals present during the event. Bullying is a distressing experience that is often continuous over years and predicts both concurrent and future psychiatric symptoms and disorders, even in adulthood. At young ages, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and depression, as well as anxiety, are prevalent concurrently with bullying among the children involved. Later in young adulthood, male victims are at risk for anxiety, male bullies for personality disorders, and male bully-victims for both personality disorders and anxiety, and the risk is especially increased if the child is disturbed when involved in bullying at school age. Rarely does any single behavior predict future problems as clearly as bullying does, and additional assessment of psychiatric problems is always warranted, if the child is involved in bullying as a bully, victim or bully-victim. Based on our current knowledge, school-based interventions regulating the behavior of the child, increasing pro-social skills and promoting peer relationships are recommended for those without concurrent psychiatric disturbance, but those displaying psychiatric symptoms and disorders should be referred for psychiatric consultation and intervention.


    Krystal, Andrew D.


    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  14. Experimental observation of internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    Internal water curing has a significant effect on concrete. In addition to affecting hydration and moisture distribution, it influences most concrete properties, such as strength, shrinkage, cracking, and durability. The following paper is an overview of experimental methods to study internal water...... curing of concrete and its consequences. The special techniques needed to study internal water curing are dealt with along with the consequences of this process. Examples of applications are given and new measuring techniques that may potentially be applied to this field are addressed....

  15. Accelerated Hazards Mixture Cure Model (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajia; Peng, Yingwei


    We propose a new cure model for survival data with a surviving or cure fraction. The new model is a mixture cure model where the covariate effects on the proportion of cure and the distribution of the failure time of uncured patients are separately modeled. Unlike the existing mixture cure models, the new model allows covariate effects on the failure time distribution of uncured patients to be negligible at time zero and to increase as time goes by. Such a model is particularly useful in some cancer treatments when the treat effect increases gradually from zero, and the existing models usually cannot handle this situation properly. We develop a rank based semiparametric estimation method to obtain the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the model. We compare it with existing models and methods via a simulation study, and apply the model to a breast cancer data set. The numerical studies show that the new model provides a useful addition to the cure model literature. PMID:19697127

  16. The effect of psychiatric rehabilitation on the activity and participation level of clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, T.F. van; Felling, A.J.A.; Persoon, J.M.G.


    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation

  17. The Effect of Psychiatric Rehabilitation on the Activity and Participation Level of Clients with Long-Term Psychiatric Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, Tom van; Felling, Albert; Persoon, Jean


    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation

  18. Epoxy foams using multiple resins and curing agents (United States)

    Russick, Edward M.; Rand, Peter B.


    An epoxy foam comprising a plurality of resins, a plurality of curing agents, at least one blowing agent, at least one surfactant and optionally at least one filler and the process for making. Preferred is an epoxy foam comprising two resins of different reactivities, two curing agents, a blowing agent, a surfactant, and a filler. According to the present invention, an epoxy foam is prepared with tailorable reactivity, exotherm, and pore size by a process of admixing a plurality of resins with a plurality of curing agents, a surfactant and blowing agent, whereby a foamable mixture is formed and heating said foamable mixture at a temperature greater than the boiling temperature of the blowing agent whereby said mixture is foamed and cured.

  19. Cold-Curing Structural Epoxy Resins: Analysis of the Curing Reaction as a Function of Curing Time and Thickness. (United States)

    Corcione, Carola Esposito; Freuli, Fabrizio; Frigione, Mariaenrica


    The curing reaction of a commercial cold-curing structural epoxy resin, specifically formulated for civil engineering applications, was analyzed by thermal analysis as a function of the curing time and the sample thickness. Original and remarkable results regarding the effects of curing time on the glass transition temperature and on the residual heat of reaction of the cold-cured epoxy were obtained. The influence of the sample thickness on the curing reaction of the cold-cured resin was also deeply investigated. A highly exothermal reaction, based on a self-activated frontal polymerization reaction, was supposed and verified trough a suitable temperature signal acquisition system, specifically realized for this measurement. This is one of the first studies carried out on the curing behavior of these peculiar cold-cured epoxy resins as a function of curing time and thickness.

  20. Self-Healing Performance of Heavyweight Concrete with Steam Curing


    Hideki Igawa; Yoshinori Kitsutaka; Takashi Yokomuro; Hideo Eguchi


    In this study, the crack self-healing performance of the heavyweight concrete used in the walls of containers and structures designed to shield radioactive materials was investigated. A steam curing temperature that preserves self-healing properties and demolding strength was identified. The presented simultaneously mixing method using the expanding material and the fly ash in the process of admixture can maximize the self-curing performance. Also adding synthetic fibers in the heavyweight co...

  1. Characterization of Moisture Diffusion in Cured Concrete Slabs at Early Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the characterization of moisture diffusion inside early-age concrete slabs subjected to curing. Time-dependent relative humidity (RH distributions of three mixture proportions subjected to three different curing methods (i.e., air curing, water curing, and membrane-forming compounds curing and sealed condition were measured for 28 days. A one-dimensional nonlinear moisture diffusion partial differential equation (PDE based on Fick’s second law, which incorporates the effect of curing in the Dirichlet boundary condition using a concept of curing factor, is developed to simulate the diffusion process. Model parameters are calibrated by a genetic algorithm (GA. Experimental results show that the RH reducing rate inside concrete under air curing is greater than the rates under membrane-forming compound curing and water curing. It is shown that the effect of water-to-cement (w/c ratio on self-desiccation is significant. Lower w/c ratio tends to result in larger RH reduction. RH reduction considering both effect of diffusion and self-desiccation in early-age concrete is not sensitive to w/c ratio, but to curing method. Comparison between model simulation and experimental results indicates that the improved model is able to reflect the effect of curing on moisture diffusion in early-age concrete slabs.

  2. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    The Henkel technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation was motivated by (1) a desire to cure at a single temperature for ease of manufacture and (2) a desire to keep the cure temperature low (to minimize residual stress build-up associated with the cooldown from the cure temperature to room temperature) without excessively limiting the cure reaction due to vitrification (i.e., material glass transition temperature, Tg, exceeding cure temperature).

  3. The cure for employee malaise--motivation. (United States)

    Dawson, K M; Dawson, S N


    Although working conditions, hours, pay, and advancement opportunities are better now than in the 1950s--the "golden age" of American business--today's workers are significantly less satisfied. Why? The authors believe the cause of this malaise is lack of motivation. This article examines several techniques to cure employee malaise and discusses the long-term benefits of these techniques, which include empowerment, recognition, career development, the Pygmalion effect, incentives, and rewards. By making a commitment to these motivational techniques, managers will boost the morale and enthusiasm of their employees and their organization. This motivational process is not quick and easy; developing your employees is an ongoing process.

  4. Efficiency of Sodium Polyacrylate to Improve Durability of Concrete under Adverse Curing Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Manzur


    Full Text Available The conventional external curing process requires supply of large amount of water in addition to mixing water as well as strict quality control protocol. However, in a developing country like Bangladesh, many local contractors do not have awareness and required knowledge on importance of curing which often results in weaker concrete with durability issues. Moreover, at times it is difficult to maintain proper external curing process due to nonavailability of water and skilled laborer. Internal curing can be adopted under such scenario since this method is simple and less quality intensive. Usually, naturally occurring porous light weight aggregates (LWA are used as internal curing agent. However, naturally occurring LWA are not available in many countries like Bangladesh. Under these circumstances, Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP can be utilized as an alternative internal curing agent. In this study, sodium polyacrylate (SP as SAP has been used to produce internally cured concrete. Desorption isotherm of SP has been developed to investigate its effectiveness as internal curing agent. Test results showed that internally cured concrete with SP performed better in terms of both strength and durability as compared to control samples when subjected to adverse curing conditions where supply of additional water for external curing was absent.

  5. Mixture proportioning for internal curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Pietro, Lura; Roberts, John W.


    less than that of bulk water, a hydrating cement paste will imbibe water (about 0.07 g water/g cement) from an available source. While in higher w/c concretes, this water can be, and often is, supplied by external (surface) curing, in low w/c concretes, the permeability of the concrete quickly becomes...... of additional internal water that is not part of the mixing water.” The additional internal water is typically supplied by using relatively small amounts of saturated, lightweight, fine aggregates (LWA) or superabsorbent polymer (SAP) particles in the concrete. Benefits of internal curing include increased...... too low to allow the effective transfer of water from the external surface to the concrete interior. This is one justification for internal curing. Additional water that can be distributed somewhat uniformly throughout the concrete will be more readily able to reach unhydrated cement....

  6. Psychiatric services in Algeria. (United States)

    Benmebarek, Zoubir


    The paper describes the current provision of psychiatric services in Algeria - in particular, in-patient and out-patient facilities, child psychiatry and human resources. Education, training, associations and research in the field of mental health are also briefly presented. The challenges that must dealt with to improve psychiatric care and to comply with international standards are listed, by way of conclusion.

  7. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh


    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  8. Primary Psychiatric Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Mercan


    Full Text Available The etiology of these dermatological diseases is entirely psychiatric origin. These patients show overconcern to their skin or self inflicted dermatoses unconsciously instead of facing with their real problems. In this group, delusions, dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder can be seen. They use denial as defence mechanism to their real psychiatric problems and prefer to apply dermatology instead of psychiatry. Dermatologist should be very careful before asking psychiatric consultation. Denial mechanism help patients to overcome agressive impulses like suicide or prevent further psychiatric damage like psychosis. Dermatologist should see these patients with short and frequent intervals with a good empathic approach. This will help to progress a powerful patient doctor relationship which will lead to a psychiatric evaluation.

  9. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M


    and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...

  10. Efficiency of Sodium Polyacrylate to Improve Durability of Concrete under Adverse Curing Condition


    Tanvir Manzur; Shohana Iffat; Munaz Ahmed Noor


    The conventional external curing process requires supply of large amount of water in addition to mixing water as well as strict quality control protocol. However, in a developing country like Bangladesh, many local contractors do not have awareness and required knowledge on importance of curing which often results in weaker concrete with durability issues. Moreover, at times it is difficult to maintain proper external curing process due to nonavailability of water and skilled laborer. Interna...

  11. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  12. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing (United States)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.


    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  13. Monitoring the Cure State of Thermosetting Resins by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Maffezzoli


    Full Text Available The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and scattering in the curing resin. The paper reviews the results obtained by the authors’ research group in the last decade by means of in-house made ultrasonic set-ups for both contact and air-coupled ultrasonic experiments. The basics of the ultrasonic wave propagation in polymers and examples of measurements of the time-evolution of ultrasonic longitudinal modulus and chemical conversion of different thermosetting resins are presented. The effect of temperature on the cure kinetics, the comparison with rheological, low frequency dynamic mechanical and calorimetric results, and the correlation between ultrasonic modulus and crosslinking density will be also discussed. The paper highlights the reliability of ultrasonic wave propagation for monitoring the physical changes taking place during curing and the potential for online monitoring during polymer and polymer matrix composite processing.

  14. Light curing through glass ceramics: effect of curing mode on micromechanical properties of dual-curing resin cements. (United States)

    Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta


    The aim of this study was to investigate micromechanical properties of five dual-curing resin cements after different curing modes including light curing through glass ceramic materials. Vickers hardness (VH) and indentation modulus (Y HU) of Panavia F2.0, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, SpeedCEM, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA were measured after 1 week of storage (37 °C, 100 % humidity). The resin cements were tested following self-curing or light curing with the second-generation light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit Elipar FreeLight 2 in Standard Mode (1,545 mW/cm(2)) or with the third-generation LED curing unit VALO in High Power Mode (1,869 mW/cm(2)) or in XtraPower Mode (3,505 mW/cm(2)). Light curing was performed directly or through glass ceramic discs of 1.5 or 3 mm thickness of IPS Empress CAD or IPS e.max CAD. VH and Y HU were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α = 0.05). RelyX Unicem 2 Automix resulted in the highest VH and Y HU followed by BeautiCem SA, BisCem, SpeedCEM, and finally Panavia F2.0. Self-curing of RelyX Unicem 2 Automix and SpeedCEM lowered VH and Y HU compared to light curing whereas self-curing of Panavia F2.0, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA led to similar or significantly higher VH and Y HU compared to light curing. Generally, direct light curing resulted in similar or lower VH and Y HU compared to light curing through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. Light curing through 3-mm-thick discs of IPS e.max CAD generally reduced VH and Y HU for all resin cements except SpeedCEM, which was the least affected by light curing through ceramic discs. The resin cements responded heterogeneously to changes in curing mode. The applied irradiances and light curing times adequately cured the resin cements even through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. When light curing resin cements through thick glass ceramic restorations, clinicians should consider to prolong the light curing times even with LED curing units providing high

  15. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say


    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  16. Use of natural ingredients to control growth of Clostridium perfringens in naturally cured frankfurters and hams. (United States)

    Jackson, Armitra L; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sullivan, Gary A; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S


    A major concern for processed meats marketed as natural/organic is that they do not contain nitrite in concentrations known to be most effective for inhibiting foodborne pathogens. Supplemental treatments to increase the level and consistency of antimicrobial protection in these products may be important to provide consumers with the degree of safety that they have come to expect from conventionally cured meats. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and test ingredients that might improve processed meat product safety without altering their natural/organic status. Eight treatments of hams and frankfurters were prepared: (A) uncured control (typical ingredients except nitrite and nitrate); (B) conventionally cured control (erythorbate, nitrite, and a lactate-diacetate blend); (C) natural nitrate cure (including starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus); (D) natural nitrate cure (culture and natural antimicrobial A containing a vinegar, lemon, and cherry powder blend); (E) natural nitrate cure (culture and antimicrobial B containing a cultured sugar and vinegar blend); (F) natural nitrite cure without additional antimicrobials; (G) natural nitrite cure with natural antimicrobial A; and (H) natural nitrite cure with antimicrobial B. For the hams, treatments C, D, E, and H impacted growth of Clostridium perfringens to the same extent (P growth over time than uncured control). For frankfurters, treatments D, G, and H had an effect (approximately 1 log) on growth equivalent to that of the conventionally cured control (P growth than conventionally cured products, but supplemental natural ingredients offer safety improvement.

  17. Effect of curing mode on the micro-mechanical properties of dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements. (United States)

    Ilie, Nicoleta; Simon, Alexander


    Light supplying to luting resin cements is impeded in several clinical situations, causing us to question whether materials can properly be cured to achieve adequately (or adequate) mechanical properties. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the effect of light on the micro-mechanical properties of eight popular dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements by comparing them with two conventional, also dual-cured, resin cements. Four different curing procedures were applied: auto-polymerisation (dark curing) and light curing (LED unit, Freelight 2, 20 s) by applying the unit directly on the samples' surface, at a distance of 5 and 10 mm. Twenty minutes after curing, the samples were stored for 1 week at 37°C in a water-saturated atmosphere. The micro-mechanical properties-Vickers hardness, modulus of elasticity, creep and elastic/plastic deformation-were measured. Data were analysed with multivariate ANOVA followed by Tukey's test and partial eta-squared statistics (p cement-conventional or self-adhesive-was generally low. The influence of light on the polymerisation process was material dependent, with four different behaviour patterns to be distinguished. As a material category, significantly higher micro-mechanical properties were measured for the conventional compared to the self-adhesive resin cements, although this difference was low. Within the self-adhesive resin cements group, the variation in micro-mechanical properties was high. The selection of suitable resin cements should be done by considering, besides its adhesive properties, its micro-mechanical properties and curing behaviour also.

  18. Shrug ambivalence and disagreement; search commonalities in psychiatric phenomena(**). (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R


    social psychopathology;Of goals - that of unravelling the aetiopathology of psychiatric disorders; finding precision in diagnostics and investigative tests; finding biomarkers; and finding precise therapies for precise disorders that control such disorders; and not just control, but finally cure them; finding methods of primary prevention; of moving from mental disorder to mental health; and, further, of progress to individual actualisation and personal and collective well-being with longevity;Of practice - a) in therapy: By synergising psychopharmacology/somatic therapies with psychotherapy/therapies, social therapies and pharmacogenetics; b) in diagnostics: By identifying the phenotype-genotype-endophenotype axis; and (c) by promoting such therapy and diagnostics as brings about control, and finally, cure/primary prevention of psychiatric disorders.The future course for psychiatry involves a goal oriented forward movement - while allowing for diversity in practice and theory, stressing on unity of purpose, goals, and practice.

  19. Influence of the curing cycles on the fatigue performance of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüther, Jonas; Brøndsted, Povl


    During the manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polymers the curing reaction of the resin results in shrinkage of the resin and introduces internal stresses in the composites. When curing at higher temperatures in order to shorten up the processing time, higher curing stresses and thermal...... stresses are built up and frozen, as residual stresses occur. In the present work, a glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminate with an unidirectional architecture based on non-crimp fabrics with backing fibers is investigated. Three different curing cycles (time-temperature cycles) are used, leading...

  20. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis (United States)

    ... content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Toggle navigation Search form Search Connect Volunteer Donate ... to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  1. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation (United States)

    ... Guide - Table of Contents Facts For Families Guide - View by Topic Chinese Facts for Families Guide ... Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate for any child or adolescent ...

  2. Definitions and diagnoses: cultural implications of psychiatric help-seeking and psychiatrists' definitions of the situation in psychiatric emergencies. (United States)

    Gaines, A D


    This paper explores lay and psychiatric actors' definitions of mental illness by focusing on several aspects of emergency psychiatric diagnosis. First, it considers psychiatric diagnosis as a social and cultural process in which mental illnesses are defined with increasing specificity as individuals move from lay to psychiatric contexts. Second, the paper considers variation in psychiatric residents' conceptions of mental illness, their role in emergency contexts, and lastly, their diagnostic styles. Diagnostic styles are shown to exist and to be grounded in residents' definitions of the situation. It is suggested that the variation in psychiatrists' definitions of the psychiatric situation, especially as regards etiology, plays a prominent, but as yet unnoted, role in producing variability in psychiatric diagnosis. It is also argued that actors' definitions are cultural, grounded in non-professional lay ideology, and are not products of secondary professional socialization.

  3. Survival of selected foodborne pathogens on dry cured pork loins. (United States)

    Morales-Partera, Ángela M; Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Jurado-Martos, Francisco; Astorga, Rafael J; Huerta, Belén; Luque, Inmaculada; Tarradas, Carmen; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime


    The safety of ready-to-eat products such as cured pork loins must be guaranteed by the food industry. In the present study, the efficacy of the dry curing process of pork loins obtained from free-range pigs in the reduction of three of the most important foodborne pathogens is analysed. A total of 28 pork loin segments, with an average weight of 0.57±0.12kg, were divided into four groups with three being inoculated by immersion with 7logCFU/ml of either Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli or Listeria innocua and the last one inoculated by immersion with sterile medium (control group). The loin segments were treated with a seasoning mixture of curing agents and spices, packed in a synthetic sausage casing and cured for 64days. Microbiological analysis, pH and water activity (a w ) were assessed at four stages. The values of pH and a w decreased with curing time as expected. S. Typhimurium and C. coli dropped significantly (3.28 and 2.14 log units, respectively), but limited reduction of L. innocua (0.84 log unit) was observed along the curing process. In our study, three factors were considered critical: the initial concentration of the bacteria, the progressive reduction of pH and the reduction of a w values. Our results encourage performing periodic analysis at different stages of the manufacturing of dry cured pork loins to ensure the absence of the three evaluated foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis


    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan


    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopat...

  5. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind


    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  6. Cidadania: instrumento e finalidade do processo de trabalho na reforma psiquiátrica Citizenship: instrument and finality of the working process in psychiatric reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Guimarães Bottaro de Oliveira


    Full Text Available A reforma psiquiátrica apresentou a necessidade de resgate dos direitos de cidadania para os doentes mentais, no contexto brasileiro, a partir do final do século 20. Busca-se analisar a cidadania como instrumento e finalidade do processo de trabalho das equipes de seis instituições de atenção extra-hospitalar em saúde mental, da rede pública de Cuiabá (MT, no segundo semestre de 2001. Utiliza-se a dialética marxista como referencial teórico-metodológico. Apesar de se afirmar os direitos de cidadãos para os "pacientes", agora denominados "usuários" dos serviços, o paradoxo entre o conceito de cidadania e "doente mental" não foi problematizado e, portanto, não resulta em atitudes terapêuticas que possibilitem ou assegurem a participação cidadã de profissionais e usuários. A cidadania corresponde a uma abstração, excluída da esfera de trabalho e/ou tratamento. No trabalho alienado não se explicita a situação contraditória na qual os trabalhadores são agentes que operam saberes e práticas tradicionalmente excludentes e, simultaneamente, necessitam superar esse papel e produzir práticas de atenção psicossocial que respeitem o cidadão portador de transtorno mental.Within the Brazilian context, starting at the end of the 20th century, the psychiatric reform presented the necessity to rescue the rights of citizenship for the mentally ill. The objective was to analyze citizenship as an instrument and an end of the team work process at six institutions of extra-hospital mental health care belonging to the public network of Cuiabá (MT, in the second semester of 2001. Marxist dialectics was used as the theoretical-methodological framework. It was observed that, even though citizen rights are affirmed for "patients", now called service "users", the paradox between the concept of citizenship and the "mentally ill patient" has not been discussed as a problem and consequently has not resulted in therapeutic attitudes that

  7. Photothermal radiometry monitoring of light curing in resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano-Arjona, M A [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Merida, 97310 (Mexico); Medina-Esquivel, R [Cinvestav-Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000 Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, CP 76230, Queretaro (Mexico); Alvarado-Gil, J J [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Merida, 97310 (Mexico)


    Real time measurement of thermal diffusivity during the evolution of the light curing process in dental resins is reported using photothermal radiometry. The curing is induced by a non-modulated blue light beam, and at the same time, a modulated red laser beam is sent onto the sample, generating a train of thermal waves that produce modulated infrared radiation. The monitoring of this radiation permits to follow the time evolution of the process. The methodology is applied to two different commercially available light curing resin-based composites. In all cases thermal diffusivity follows a first order kinetics with similar stabilization characteristic times. Analysis of this kinetics permits to exhibit the close relationship of increase in thermal diffusivity with the decrease in monomer concentration and extension of the polymerization in the resin, induced by the curing light. It is also shown that the configuration in which the resin is illuminated by the modulated laser can be the basis for the development of an in situ technique for the determination of the degree of curing.

  8. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    The Emerson & Cuming technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation uses one of the schedules within the TDS and adds a “post cure” to obtain full reaction.

  9. The curing behavior and properties of phthalonitrile resins using ionic liquids as a new class of curing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cheng


    Full Text Available Binary blends composed of 1,3-bis (3,4-dicyanophenoxy benzene (3BOCN and ionic liquids (ILs with different molecular structures were prepared. The curing behavior of these 3BOCN/ILs blends were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and rheological analysis. The study suggested that the blends possessed a wide processing window and the structures of ILs (anion, cation and alkyl chain length at cation had an effect on curing behavior. The 3BOCN/[EPy]BF4 resins were prepared at elevated temperature. IR spectra of the resins showed that there were triazine and isoindoline formed in curing process. The TGA and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA revealed that the resins have excellent thermal stability together with high storage modulus and high glass transition temperature (Tg. Dielectric properties, long term oxidative aging and water uptake measurements of the resins suggested the IL brought some unique properties to the resins.

  10. Experimental and mumerical validation of the technique for concrete cure monitoring using piezoelectric admittance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wan Cheol; Park, Gyu Hae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents a new technique for monitoring the concrete curing process using embedded piezoelectric transducers via admittance measurements. When a piezoelectric transducer is embedded in a structure, the electrical impedance (admittance) of the transducer is coupled with the mechanical impedance of the host structure, which allows monitoring of the structural condition. In this study, the admittance signatures are used for monitoring the concrete curing process. This new method is based on an admittance-based sensor diagnostic process, in which the capacitance values of the piezoelectric transducers are dependent on the strength of the host structure. We numerically and experimentally investigated the variations in capacitive value during the curing process. The results demonstrate that there is a clear relationship between the concrete curing status and the slope, this indicates that the proposed method could be efficiently used for monitoring the curing status of a concrete structure.

  11. Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites (United States)

    Hayes, Brian S.


    As the size of aerospace composite parts exceeds that of even the largest autoclaves, the development of new out-of-autoclave processes and materials is necessary to ensure quality and performance. Many out-of-autoclave prepreg systems can produce high-quality composites initially; however, due to long layup times, the resin advancement commonly causes high void content and variations in fiber volume. Applied Poleramic, Inc. (API), developed an aerospace-grade benzoxazine matrix composite prepreg material that offers more than a year out-time at ambient conditions and provides exceptionally low void content when out-of-autoclave cured. When compared with aerospace epoxy prepreg systems, API's innovation offers significant improvements in terms of out-time at ambient temperature and the corresponding tack retention. The carbon fiber composites developed with the optimized matrix technology have significantly better mechanical performance in terms of hot-wet retention and compression when compared with aerospace epoxy matrices. These composites also offer an excellent overall balance of properties. This matrix system imparts very low cure shrinkage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low density when compared with most aerospace epoxy prepreg materials.

  12. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin


    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  13. Sensory and physicochemical characteristics of salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Lilge Kawski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory and physicochemical quality of colonial salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients as potential enhancers of quality products. Salamis were produced according to three treatments: (A Control: 0.1% curing salt; (B rosemary: 0.05% curing salt + 0.5% rosemary extract (RE; and (C RE+celery: 0.14% Veg 503 + 0.27% Veg 504 (sea salt plus celery, nitrate and nitrite supplies, respectively + 0.5% of RE. No significant differences were observed (P>0.05 among the three treatments for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, ether extract (EE and gross energy (GE. Sensory analysis was performed by applying the preference test and multiple comparison between the three treatments. Salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients were sensory equivalent to conventional level of curing salts. Vegetable extracts allowed the development of the sensory features of salami and did not interfere in the fermentation process. Results suggested that the extracts can serve as effective natural curing ingredients for the ripening process and cured meat color as well as adequate shelf-life replacing the commercial curing salts in meat and meat products. After 30 days of ripening, salami from the control treatment (conventional levels of nitrite and nitrate and the treatments with added vegetable-based curing ingredients and low nitrite and nitrate content (RE and RE + celery were equivalent in sensory quality.

  14. Realtime 3D stress measurement in curing epoxy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Hyldgård, A.; Birkelund, Karen


    This paper presents a novel method to characterize stress in microsystem packaging. A circular p-type piezoresistor is implemented on a (001) silicon chip. We use the circular stress sensor to determine the packaging induced stress in a polystyrene tube filled with epoxy. The epoxy curing process...... is monitored by stress measurements. From the stress measurements we conclude that the epoxy cures in 8 hours at room temperature. We find the difference in in-plane normal stresses to be sigmaxx-sigmayy=6.7 MPa and (sigmaxx+sigmayy-0.4sigmazz)=232 MPa....

  15. Psychiatric patient and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Pal Attri


    Full Text Available Many patients with psychiatric illnesses are prescribed long-term drug treatment, and the anaesthesiologist must be aware of potential interactions with anaesthetic agents. Psychotropic drugs often given in combination with each other or with other non-psychiatric drugs generally exert profound effects on the central and peripheral neurotransmitter and ionic mechanisms. Hence, prior intake of these drugs is an important consideration in the management of the patient about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. This article highlights the effects of anaesthetics on patients taking antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and lithium carbonate. The risk that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of surgery, the patient′s physical state, anaesthesia, the direct and indirect effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms and risk of psychiatric recurrence and relapse.

  16. Study on lipolysis-oxidation and volatile flavour compounds of dry-cured goose with different curing salt content during production. (United States)

    Ying, Wang; Ya-Ting, Jiang; Jin-Xuan, Cao; Yin-Ji, Chen; Yang-Ying, Sun; Xiao-Qun, Zeng; Dao-Dong, Pan; Chang-Rong, Ou; Ning, Gan


    The effect of dry-curing salt content (4% low salt (LS), 8% high salt (HS)) on lipolysis, lipid oxidation and volatile compounds in dry-cured goose was investigated in our study. The activities of acid lipase and neutral lipase increased during dry-curing, while phospholipase reached its maximum at the end of marinating. Lipoxygenase (LOX) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values increased during dry-curing and marinating then decreased during dry-ripening. Total free fatty acids (TFFA) increased at dry-curing and dry-ripening points and decreased during marinating. Total peak area of lipids derived volatile compounds (TPALDVC) and total peak area increased during entire stages. Compared to LS, HS group has higher lipolytic and LOX activities, TBARS, TFFA, unsaturated fatty acids and TPALDVC. The higher TPALDVC in HS could be attributed to higher lipid hydrolysis and oxidation during processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermosets of epoxy monomer from Tung oil fatty acids cured in two synergistic ways (United States)

    A new epoxy monomer from tung oil fatty acids, glycidyl ester of eleostearic acid (GEEA), was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and FT-IR were utilized to investigate the curing process of GEEA cured by both dienophiles...

  18. The study of the curing of the polyurethane coating by method of IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Korshunova


    Full Text Available The results of the study of the curing process of polyurethane compositions with participation of two different catalysts by the method of IR spectroscopy are given. The time dependences of curing of polyurethane coatings from concentrations of catalysts were determined, on the basis of which the most effective catalyst was selected.

  19. Influence of curing agents on gelation and exotherm behaviour of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A judicious choice of curing agents such as initiator and promoter and their ratio to the resin can avoid reduced gel-time and shortened exothermic reactions in applications such as liquid compositemoulding processes. In this study, effects of different ratio of initiator and promoter to the unsaturated polyester resin on curing ...

  20. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G


    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service......, and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics...

  1. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G


    , and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics......A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  2. Conceptions of mobile emergency service health professionals concerning psychiatric emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bonfada


    Full Text Available Under the Brazilian Psychiatric Reformation, assistance to psychological seizures represents a challenge for the emergency services. Therefore, the objective of this paper is the analysis of the conceptions of health professionals who work at the Mobile Emergency Service in Natal on psychiatric emergency care. This paper is, then, a qualitative study that used interviews as tools for collecting information. By using thematic analysis, the speeches were grouped into three categories: the stigma on patients and the professionals' fear of services interventions in psychiatric emergencies; having psychiatric emergencies regarded as harmful to patients and others' security; psychiatric emergencies being taken as patients' aggressiveness or severe depression. The data collected indicate that the interviewed professionals' ideas are supported by elements associated with the ideology that insanity implies social segregation and dangerousness. Thus, the survey prompted reflection on relevant issues to the process of psychiatric reformation implementation.

  3. Seasonality of suicides with and without psychiatric illness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yip, P.S.; Yang, K.C.; Qin, Ping


    This paper studied the seasonality of suicides among persons with and without psychiatric illness in Denmark from 1970 to 1999. A non-homogenous Poisson process was used to examine the data. The seasonality of suicides was shown to be associated with gender and their psychiatric histories...... with a declining trend of suicide incidence noted over the captured period. A mild seasonal component was reported in the period of the late 70s to early 80s (1975-1984) among females who did not have any psychiatric treatment history, while in the 80s the significant seasonality was mainly contributed by male...... suicides without a psychiatric history. Another mild possible invoked seasonality in the 90s was in males who suffered from psychiatric illness. The rest could be treated as random events. Apparently, the seasonality among suicides with psychiatric illness exists but its effect could vary in different...

  4. [Psychiatric care in South Tyrol -- an example of coordination]. (United States)

    Pycha, Roger; Conca, Andreas


    The Tyrol's division after the two World Wars cut the South Tyrol off from every relevant aspect of psychiatric care. First attempts towards a community psychiatric system weren't sufficiently sustained by politicians. Only in the 90 ty's was the association of relatives of mentally ill people able to sensitize public and politicians to the need for an adequate psychiatric care system. Since 1996 an excellent psychiatric plan has been in existence, 80 % of which has to date been able to be put into practice. Since 1997 mentally ill people have founded their own self-help-organization and influenced the planning process.

  5. Psychiatric care in the German prison system. (United States)

    Lehmann, Marc


    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.

  6. Recent developments in radiation curing in the USA (United States)

    Nablo, Sam V.

    Radiation curing activities in the USA continue to focus strongly on the use of both UV and EB for the polymerization of silicone release coatings on paper and film. The high speeds of cure (200 m/minute) achievable at "room temperature" continue to make this the process of choice for the siliconization of both film and paper. Some of the process difficulties peculiar to this chemistry will be discussed. The success of the multi-color lithographic printing of web using single station electron curing has resulted in a major market for electron processors. The aesthetic and physical properties of the overprint varnishes used in this application are important and will be discussed. The relatively high costs of both the inks and varnishes will probably limit this application to folding carton use for foodstuffs and high quality products, with UV continuing to dominate in lower speed, less demanding applications. The application of electron initiated graft modification of polymer materials, particularly for biological/medical device application, is showing a good rate of development as is the use of selective treatment of materials for functional modification of packaging films, particularly for gas permeability control. Some examples of these applications will be reviewed. Continued work with "deep" curing or vulcanization of composite structures, particularly in the elastomers field, will be discussed with a brief review of the continuing growth of electron processing in this industry, particularly for tires and roofing products.

  7. Simulation-Based Optimization of Cure Cycle of Large Area Compression Molding for LED Silicone Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jae Song


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional heat transfer-curing simulation was performed for the curing process by introducing a large area compression molding for simultaneous forming and mass production for the lens and encapsulants in the LED molding process. A dynamic cure kinetics model for the silicone resin was adopted and cure model and analysis result were validated and compared through a temperature measurement experiment for cylinder geometry with cure model. The temperature deviation between each lens cavity could be reduced by implementing a simulation model on the large area compression mold and by optimizing the location of heat source. A two-step cure cycle was constructed to reduce excessive reaction peak at the initial stage and cycle time. An optimum cure cycle that could reduce cycle time by more than 29% compared to a one-step cure cycle by adjusting dwell temperature, heating rate, and dwell time was proposed. It was thus confirmed that an optimization of large area LED lens molding process was possible by using the present experiment and the finite element method.

  8. Psychiatric impairment and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 3, 2002 ... Impairment and disability assessment on psychiatric grounds has always been subjective, controversial ... informed medical advisors doing their disability assessments. Many of these advisors have expressed ..... that will empower the affected employee and that is non- stigma- tising. In order to do so it is ...

  9. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil


    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated wh...

  10. Psychiatric genetics:AJP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    their caregivers in South Africa. The heritability of the majority of the psychiatric disorders is ... linkage analyses in a cohort of Bantu-speaking black South. Africans.17-22 Areas of implied linkage to schizophrenia ... one of the studies of a Bantu-speaking schizophrenia cohort. Table I. Glossary of genetic terminology. Allele.

  11. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders


    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda,Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski,Andrea Parolin


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  12. Evaluating the efficacy of curing lights. (United States)

    Solomon, C S; Osman, Y I


    The use of light curing units has increased tremendously over the past few years with the introduction of photoactivated composite restorative resins. The advantages of light-cured composites are well documented especially the ease of placement of restorations as a result of extended working time and control of setting. Many of the advantages of these composites are dependent on the adequate polymerisation and therefore the source of the visible light, especially the wavelength and the intensity of the light source. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the intensity output of curing lights in state clinics, private dental practices and dental clinics run by trade unions using a radiometer and (ii) to relate their output to various factors that may affect the intensity of the light produced by each unit. The light intensity of each light curing unit was measured using the Efos Cure Rite radiometer (Cure Rite, Efos model #8000; Efos Inc, Mississauga, Canada). Mean readings ranged from a high of 448 to a low of 22 mW/cm2 for curing lights at the time of evaluation. Nineteen (54.3%) of the light curing units were functioning at optimal intensities, followed by 10 (28.6%) functioning at levels between 150 and 300 mW/cm2 and 6 (17.1%) functioning at levels far below that required to achieve adequate photocuring. No statistically significant differences were found when comparing intensity readings with age, last maintenance service and bulb replacement (P > 0.05). All of the clinicians interviewed (100%) expressed subjective satisfaction with the performance of the light curing units, even though 45.7% functioned below optimal intensities (P > 0.05). Not one of the clinicians expressed dissatisfaction with the performance of any of the light curing units. The results of this study showed that the light intensities f light curing units used within private dental practices, state and trade union dental clinics were inadequate for optimum curing.

  13. Psychiatric behaviors associated with cytoskeletal defects in radial neuronal migration. (United States)

    Fukuda, Toshifumi; Yanagi, Shigeru


    Normal development of the cerebral cortex is an important process for higher brain functions, such as language, and cognitive and social functions. Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, are thought to develop owing to various dysfunctions occurring during the development of the cerebral cortex. Radial neuronal migration in the embryonic cerebral cortex is a complex process, which is achieved by strict control of cytoskeletal dynamics, and impairments in this process are suggested to cause various psychiatric disorders. Our recent findings indicate that radial neuronal migration as well as psychiatric behaviors is rescued by controlling microtubule stability during the embryonic stage. In this review, we outline the relationship between psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, and radial neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex by focusing on the cytoskeleton and centrosomes. New treatment strategies for psychiatric disorders will be discussed.

  14. Curing of epoxy matrix composite in stratosphere (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela

    Large structures for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories are needed for next stage of space exploitation. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the polymerization technology of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment. The polymerisation process is proposed for the material exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, space plasma, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The stratospheric flight experiments are directed to an investigation of the curing polymer matrix under the stratospheric conditions on. The unique combination of low atmospheric pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short wavelength UV and diurnal temperature variations associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. The first flight experiment with uncured composites was a part of the NASA scientific balloon flight program realised at the NASA stratospheric balloon station in Alice Springs, Australia. A flight cassette installed on payload was lifted with a “zero-pressure” stratospheric balloon filled with Helium. Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provided the launch, flight telemetry and landing of the balloon and payload. A cassette of uncured composite materials with an epoxy resin matrix was exposed 3 days in the stratosphere (40 km altitude). The second flight experiment was realised in South Australia in 2012, when the cassette was exposed in 27 km altitude. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the space irradiations are responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The first prepreg in the world was cured successfully in stratosphere. The investigations were supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, NASA and RFBR (12-08-00970) grants.

  15. Stratospheric experiments on curing of composite materials (United States)

    Chudinov, Viacheslav; Kondyurin, Alexey; Svistkov, Alexander L.; Efremov, Denis; Demin, Anton; Terpugov, Viktor; Rusakov, Sergey


    Future space exploration requires a large light-weight structure for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories and other constructions. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of polymerization of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment on Erath orbit. In orbit, the material is exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, plasma of free space due to cosmic rays, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The development of appropriate polymer matrix composites requires an understanding of the chemical processes of polymer matrix curing under the specific free space conditions to be encountered. The goal of the stratospheric flight experiment is an investigation of the effect of the stratospheric conditions on the uncured polymer matrix of the composite material. The unique combination of low residual pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short-wave UV component, cosmic rays and other aspects associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. We have done the stratospheric flight experiments with uncured composites (prepreg). A balloon with payload equipped with heater, temperature/pressure/irradiation sensors, microprocessor, carrying the samples of uncured prepreg has been launched to stratosphere of 25-30 km altitude. After the flight, the samples have been tested with FTIR, gel-fraction, tensile test and DMA. The effect of cosmic radiation has been observed. The composite was successfully cured during the stratospheric flight. The study was supported by RFBR grants 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011.

  16. Optical and Thermal Analysis of the Time Evolution of Curing in Resins by Photothermal Techniques (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, P.; Zambrano-Arjona, M.; Aguilar, G.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.


    Four shades of a commercial visible-light curing dental resin are analyzed using photothermal techniques. The thermal effusivities of the dental resin shades before curing are measured using a variant of the conventional photoacoustic technique. The thermal diffusivities before and after curing are measured using infrared photothermal radiometry in the forward emission configuration. The time evolution process of the photocuring resin is monitored by photothermal radiometry in the forward and backward emission configurations. Inversion of the time evolution signal of the different configurations used permits one to obtain the time evolution of the thermal and optical properties during the photocuring. The thermal effusivity and thermal diffusivity exhibit exponential growth, while the optical absorption decreases exponentially due to the curing process. The relationship of these phenomena with the decrease of monomer concentration induced by the curing is discussed.

  17. Curing efficiency of three light emitting diode units at different curing profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma


    Conclusions: Reduction of exposure time to 6 s with high-intensity curing light seemed to be clinically acceptable and should be recommended. Curing of metal brackets with single exposure from buccal side showed lower shear bond strength values.

  18. Prevention is better than cure

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Throughout the year, members of the Safety Inspections Services section of HSE Unit devote themselves to ensuring the safety of all infrastructure and equipment that represent a specific hazard within the Organization. They regularly comb through all CERN's infrastructure to forestall any accidents and their potential impact, true to the adage that prevention is better than cure.   This site has a few (!) slight safety problems... Spot the mistakes! (Details of the game below.) Ensuring that an HV electrical installation is properly earthed, that a system under pressure has no weak points, that an item of lifting equipment can be used without risk, that safety valves operate at the right pressure threshold as well as checking that a heavy object that could inflict injury if it fell is not stored on top of a cupboard: such are the types of inspections performed by the Safety Inspection Service (DGS-SEE-SIS). "These checks reassure those in charge of equipment and infrastruct...

  19. Cure monitoring of epoxy resin by using fiber bragg grating sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuk [KEPCO, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Hyun [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In several industrial fields, epoxy resin is widely used as an adhesive for co-curing and manufacturing various structures. Controlling the manufacturing process is required for ensuring robust bonding performance and the stability of the structures. A fiber optic sensor is suitable for the cure monitoring of epoxy resin owing to the thready shape of the sensor. In this paper, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor was applied for the cure monitoring of epoxy resin. Based on the experimental results, it was demonstrated that the FBG sensor can monitor the status of epoxy resin curing by measuring the strain caused by volume shrinkage and considering the compensation of temperature. In addition, two types of epoxy resin were used for the cure-monitoring; moreover, when compared to each other, it was found that the two types of epoxy had different cure-processes in terms of the change of strain during the curing. Therefore, the study proved that the FBG sensor is very profitable for the cure-monitoring of epoxy resin.

  20. Psychiatric Disability in Law Enforcement Officers. (United States)

    Price, Marilyn


    Law enforcement officers all across the world are exposed to violence, confrontation, and traumatic incidents. They regularly witness death and suffering and are at risk of personal injury. Psychiatric sequelae include an increased risk for trauma-related symptoms, depression, alcohol-use disorders, and stress-related medical conditions. Law enforcement officers have been applying for early disability retirement pensions at an increased rate for stress-related psychiatric and medical conditions. As a result, law enforcement agencies are prematurely losing valuable resources, officers with training and experience. Departments have become proactive in trying to address mental health issues to prevent psychiatric disability by implementing employee wellness plans and stress reduction interventions. Programs have been developed to mitigate the effects of stress on law enforcement personnel. Many law enforcement agencies have developed strategies to encourage early confidential referral for psychiatric treatment. They utilize peer support groups and employee assistance programs and develop alliances with mental health professionals. When these approaches fail, a fitness for duty process can be used to identify impairment in work functioning due to psychiatric factors with the prospect of later returning the officer to full duty. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tunel


    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  2. Psychiatric specialty training in Greece. (United States)

    Margariti, M; Kontaxakis, V; Ploumpidis, D


    The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system. This multifaceted role requires the continuous education of modern psychiatrists, but above all a broad, substantial and comprehensive training regime in the initial stage of their professional career, that is to say during specialization. Training in Psychiatry, as indeed has happened in all other medical specialties, has evolved considerably in recent decades, both in the content of education due to scientific advances in the fields of neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience, genetics, psychopharmacology, epidemiology and psychiatric nosology, and also because of advances in the educational process itself. Simple apprenticeship next to an experienced clinician, despite its importance in the clinical training of young psychiatrists, is no longer sufficient to meet the increased demands of the modern role of psychiatrists, resulting in the creation of educational programs defined by setting and pursuing minimum, though comprehensive educational objectives. This development has created the global need to develop organizations intended to supervise training programs. These organizations have various forms worldwide. In the European Union, the competent supervising body for medical specialties is the UEMS (European Union of Medical Specialities) and particularly in the case of the psychiatric

  3. Translating Genomic Discoveries to Cure Ultrahypermutant ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Translating Genomic Discoveries to Cure Ultrahypermutant Mismatch Repair Deficient Brain Tumours. Malignant brain tumours are the most common cause of death among children with cancer, but there is no known cure. This project will advance research in this important field. Inherited mutations and childhood cancer.

  4. Magnetoactive elastomeric composites: Cure, tensile, electrical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cure characteristics, mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties were experimentally determined for different volume fractions of magnetoactive filler. The cure time decreases sharply for initial filler loading and the decrease is marginal for additional loading of filler. The tensile strength and modulus at 100% strain was ...

  5. [Rheumatic fibromyalgia: psychiatric features]. (United States)

    Sarró Alvarez, S


    Rheumatic fibromyalgia, also known as fibrositis or myofascial pain, is a common syndrome whose diagnoses, founded mainly on physical examination, usually delays due to symptom unspecificity, amount of complementary tests requested and intercourse with psychiatric disorders. Psychyatrists and psychologists get often involved in fibromyalgia treatment. Its proper knowledge prevents not only physicians and patients' psychological discourage but also development of depression and mental health expenses, as well as allows designing a treatment plan according to the main symptoms which may offer improvement chances to fibromyalgia patients. This article intends to offer an up-to-date and complete information about this entity, focused on psychiatric aspects, to better identify and manage such a puzzling disease.

  6. Composite cements benefit from light-curing. (United States)

    Lührs, Anne-Katrin; De Munck, Jan; Geurtsen, Werner; Van Meerbeek, Bart


    To investigate the effect of curing of composite cements and a new ceramic silanization pre-treatment on the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS). Feldspathic ceramic blocks were luted onto dentin using either Optibond XTR/Nexus 3 (XTR/NX3; Kerr), the silane-incorporated 'universal' adhesive Scotchbond Universal/RelyX Ultimate (SBU/RXU; 3M ESPE), or ED Primer II/Panavia F2.0 (ED/PAF; Kuraray Noritake). Besides 'composite cement', experimental variables were 'curing mode' ('AA': complete auto-cure at 21°C; 'AA*': complete auto-cure at 37°C; 'LA': light-curing of adhesive and auto-cure of cement; 'LL': complete light-curing) and 'ceramic surface pre-treatment' ('HF/S/HB': hydrofluoric acid ('HF': IPS Ceramic Etching Gel, Ivoclar-Vivadent), silanization ('S': Monobond Plus, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and application of an adhesive resin ('HB': Heliobond, Ivoclar-Vivadent); 'HF/SBU': 'HF' and application of the 'universal' adhesive Scotchbond Universal ('SBU'; 3M ESPE, only for SBU/RXU)). After water storage (7 days at 37°C), ceramic-dentin sticks were subjected to μTBS testing. Regarding the 'composite cement', the significantly lowest μTBSs were measured for ED/PAF. Regarding 'curing mode', the significantly highest μTBS was recorded when at least the adhesive was light-cured ('LA' and 'LL'). Complete auto-cure ('AA') revealed the significantly lowest μTBS. The higher auto-curing temperature ('AA*') increased the μTBS only for ED/PAF. Regarding 'ceramic surface pre-treatment', only for 'LA' the μTBS was significantly higher for 'HF/S/HB' than for 'HF/SBU'. Complete auto-cure led to inferior μTBS than when either the adhesive (on dentin) or both adhesive and composite cement were light-cured. The use of a silane-incorporated adhesive did not decrease luting effectiveness when also the composite cement was light-cured. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz


    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  8. Curing agent for polyepoxides and epoxy resins and composites cured therewith. [preventing carbon fiber release (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D. (Inventor)


    A curing for a polyepoxide is described which contains a divalent aryl radical such as phenylene a tetravalent aryl radical such as a tetravalent benzene radical. An epoxide is cured by admixture with the curing agent. The cured epoxy product retains the usual properties of cured epoxides and, in addition, has a higher char residue after burning, on the order of 45% by weight. The higher char residue is of value in preventing release to the atmosphere of carbon fibers from carbon fiber-epoxy resin composites in the event of burning of the composite.

  9. Psychiatric Assessment and Rehabilitation of Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu


    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.

  10. Sodium nitrite: the "cure" for nitric oxide insufficiency. (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Deepa K; Bryan, Nathan S


    This process of "curing" food is a long practice that dates back thousands of years long before refrigeration or food safety regulations. Today food safety and mass manufacturing are dependent upon safe and effective means to cure and preserve foods including meats. Nitrite remains the most effective curing agent to prevent food spoilage and bacterial contamination. Despite decades of rigorous research on its safety and efficacy as a curing agent, it is still regarded by many as a toxic undesirable food additive. However, research within the biomedical science community has revealed enormous therapeutic benefits of nitrite that is currently being developed as novel therapies for conditions associated with nitric oxide (NO) insufficiency. Much of the same biochemistry that has been understood for decades in the meat industry has been rediscovered in human physiology. This review will highlight the fundamental biochemistry of nitrite in human physiology and highlight the risk benefit evaluation surrounding nitrite in food and meat products. Foods or diets enriched with nitrite can have profound positive health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dielectric response of epoxy-amine compositions during isothermal curing (United States)

    Rodin, D. L.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Yablokova, M. Yu.


    The change in electric conductivity and dielectric permittivity during the curing of epoxy-amine compositions in a mixture with the thermoplastic Ultem 1000 polyetherimide at 180°C is studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy. TGDDM epoxy resin and DADPS, MDEA, and MIPA amine curing agents are used as the epoxy-amine composition. The times of the gel and glass transition are determined from the time and frequency dependences of the dielectric response of the investigated mixtures. At a certain step of curing of epoxy-amine compositions, the separation of a new phase enriched with the thermoplastic is detected. This separation is accompanied by charge accumulation along the phase boundary and its interaction with the external electric field. In the dielectric spectrum, this effect of phase separation appears as an individual relaxation process with characteristic parameters of dielectric relaxation. It is found that at the final step of isothermal curing, there is a glass transition of the polymer, leading to a sharp drop in the reaction rate and stabilization of the dielectric response with respect to time. The detected steps of the reaction and the corresponding changes in the structure and rheology of the investigated polymer systems are characterized and confirmed by methods of viscometry and optical microscopy.

  12. Role of Oxides of Nitrogen in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation in Flue-Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor TB


    Full Text Available Tobacco is known to contain a class of nitrosamines known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines or TSNA. Nitrosation of naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids is commonly accepted as the mechanism of TSNA formation in tobacco. Because green and freshly harvested tobaccos are virtually free of TSNA, formation and accumulation of TSNA are generally considered to occur during the curing process. Most recent hypotheses have focused on microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and other oxides of nitrogen (NOcompounds that react with tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA during curing. This natural microbial process remains the prevalent hypothesis for TSNA formation in burley and other air-cured tobaccos. However, a different mechanism for the formation of TSNA in flue-cured tobacco, independent of microbial activity, is documented in this paper. It is common practice to flue-cure Virginia or blonde tobacco in bulk barns that incorporate forced air ventilation and temperature control. For the last thirty-five years, many modern bulk barns in North America generally have used liquid propane gas (LPG with direct-fired burners that exhaust combustion gases directly into the barn where the tobacco is exposed to those gases. Our studies indicate that LPG combustion by-products in the exhaust stream, namely NO, react with naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA. Heat exchange curing methods preclude exposure of the tobacco to combustion gases and by-products, thereby eliminating this significant source of TSNA formation, without degrading leaf quality or smoking character. Research findings from 1998 and 1999 are presented to demonstrate the role of NOgases in TSNA formation and the significance of direct-fired curing as a primary source of TSNA formation in flue-cured tobacco. Also, data from an extensive barn conversion program in 2000, which resulted in a 94% average reduction in TSNA levels in cured flue-cured leaf, are presented.

  13. [Forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark]. (United States)

    Larsen, Tina Gram; Valbak, Lone; Perto, Gurli; Reinert, Kjeld


    In Denmark the number of forensic psychiatric patients is increasing. The objective of this study was to explore whether the increased number of forensic psychiatric patients has been reflected in the use of psychiatric inpatient facilities. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate differences in the treatment of various diagnostic groups of forensic patients and of forensic and non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Information about admissions and outpatient contact was extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register for all Danish patients sentenced to psychiatric treatment in the period 1994-2003. Furthermore, a group of first-admission forensic patients suffering from schizophrenia was compared to a control group of first-admission non-forensic patients with schizophrenia, matched for sex, age and time of admission. The number of forensic psychiatric patients increased markedly in the period 1994-2003; at the same time, the use of inpatient facilities for this group of patients did not increase to a similar degree but actually decreased. Forensic patients in the group F20-F29 spent more time in hospital than did forensic patients with affective disorders and personality disorders. Forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia had significantly longer periods of hospitalization than did non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Forensic psychiatric patients' use of psychiatric inpatient facilities during the last 10 years did not increase to the extent expected relative to the increasing number of forensic psychiatric patients. This raises the question of whether these patients are receiving necessary and sufficient treatment.

  14. Hypoxanthine enhances the cured meat taste. (United States)

    Ichimura, Sayaka; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito


    We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat-stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate-related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine-5'-monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose-dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Hypoxanthine enhances the cured meat taste (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito


    Abstract We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat‐stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate‐related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine‐5′‐monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose‐dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste. PMID:27169902

  16. A real case of steam-cured concrete track slab premature deterioration due to ASR and DEF


    Kunlin Ma; Guangcheng Long; Youjun Xie


    Deterioration mechanisms of some premature damaged steam-cured concrete track slabs (CTS) in Chinese railway less than 4 years were investigated. Field investigation, raw materials test and suspicious products analysis were carried out. Results show that steam-cured heat damage (SCHD) of concrete takes place in steam-cured process. Expansion products are ettringite in hydrated products and alkali-silica gels between the interface of hydrated products and coarse aggregate. SCHD makes CTS surfa...

  17. [Psychiatric complications of abortion]. (United States)

    Gurpegui, Manuel; Jurado, Dolores


    The psychiatric consequences of induced abortion continue to be the object of controversy. The reactions of women when they became aware of conception are very variable. Pregnancy, whether initially intended or unintended, may provoke stress; and miscarriage may bring about feelings of loss and grief reaction. Therefore, induced abortion, with its emotional implications (of relief, shame and guilt) not surprisingly is a stressful adverse life event. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: There is agreement among researchers on the need to compare the mental health outcomes (or the psychiatric complications) with appropriate groups, including women with unintended pregnancies ending in live births and women with miscarriages. There is also agreement on the need to control for the potential confounding effects of multiple variables: demographic, contextual, personal development, previous or current traumatic experiences, and mental health prior to the obstetric event. Any psychiatric outcome is multi-factorial in origin and the impact of life events depend on how they are perceived, the psychological defence mechanisms (unconscious to a great extent) and the coping style. The fact of voluntarily aborting has an undeniable ethical dimension in which facts and values are interwoven. No research study has found that induced abortion is associated with a better mental health outcome, although the results of some studies are interpreted as or Some general population studies point out significant associations with alcohol or illegal drug dependence, mood disorders (including depression) and some anxiety disorders. Some of these associations have been confirmed, and nuanced, by longitudinal prospective studies which support causal relationships. With the available data, it is advisable to devote efforts to the mental health care of women who have had an induced abortion. Reasons of the woman's mental health by no means can be invoked, on empirical bases, for inducing an abortion.

  18. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer G; Gitlin, Michael J; Altshuler, Lori L


    Owing to the prevalence of medication side effects and treatment resistance, prescribers often consider off-label uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for the treatment of persistent symptoms. The authors review the available literature on the FDA-approved and non-FDA-approved uses of lamotrigine in adults with psychiatric disorders. We used PubMed, MEDLINE, and a hand search of relevant literature to find studies published between 1990 and 2012 and available in English language. The following keywords were searched: lamotrigine, psychiatric, mood disorders, depression, personality disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, side effects, and rash. Data were selected from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When RCTs were not available, open-label trials (6), retrospective case reviews (10), and case series (4) were summarized. We extracted results of monotherapy and augmentation trials of lamotrigine on primary and secondary outcome measures. Lamotrigine is generally well tolerated, with the best evidence for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, particularly in prevention of depressive episodes. In acute bipolar depression, meta-analyses suggested a modest benefit, especially for more severely depressed subjects, with switch rates similar to placebo. In unipolar depression, double-blind RCTs noted benefit on subsets of symptoms and improved response in more severely depressed subjects. Data are limited but promising in borderline personality disorder. Use of lamotrigine in schizophrenia and anxiety disorders has little supportive evidence. Lamotrigine is recommended in bipolar maintenance when depression is prominent. It also has a role in treating acute bipolar depression and unipolar depression, though the latter warrants more research. Data are too limited in other psychiatric disorders to recommend its use at this time. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Parricide: Psychiatric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunjić Bojana


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Parricide is defined as a murder of parents by their children; the patricide is murder of father, while matricide is murder of mother. This entity is classified as homicide, but it differs in the fact that victims are parents and the killers are their children. Mostly, it is associated with psychiatric morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of parricide committers and to analyze circumstances of parricide and psychiatric morbidity in order to achieve better recognition and prevention of risks. METHOD This retrospective study included all homicide autopsy records (1991-2005 performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Belgrade. For further analyses, all parricide records were selected out. The study analyzed all available parameters, which concerned parricide committers, victims and the act itself. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS Between 1991 and 2005, there were 948 cases of homicide; of these, 3.5% were parricides. The committers of parricide were on average 31.2±11.9 years old, 87.8% were males, 60.6% with psychiatric symptoms most commonly with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, personality disorder etc. Victims were on average 63.7±11.9 years old, 54.5% males, and 21.2% had a diagnosed mental illness. CONCLUSION Parricide is a rare kind of homicide accounting for 3% of all homicides. Committers are mostly unemployed males in early adulthood who have mental disorder. The phenomenon of parricide deserves a detailed analysis of the committer (individual bio-psycho-social profile and the environ- mental factors (family, closely related circumstances to enable a precise prediction of the act and prevention of the fatal outcome, which logically imposes the need of further studies.

  20. Psychiatric aspects of dwarfism. (United States)

    Brust, J S; Ford, C V; Rimoin, D L


    Sixteen adult dwarfs - 11 with achondroplasia and 5 with hypopituitarism - were studied by means of psychiatric interviews and psychological tests. There were no significant differences between the two groups; in general, the subjects had achieved a satisfactory life adjustment despite the stress of having bodies uniquely different from those of the general population. They had secure identities as "little people" and successfully used coping mechanisms such as a sense of humor and a pleasant interpersonal style. Male dwarfs tended to experience more emotional distress than female dwarfs.

  1. Small peptides hydrolysis in dry-cured meat


    Mora, Leticia; Gallego, Marta; Escudero, Elizabeth; Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, María Concepción; Toldrá Vilardell, Fidel


    Large amounts of different peptides are naturally generated in dry-cured meats as a consequence of the intense proteolysis mechanisms which take place during their processing. In fact, meat proteins are extensively hydrolysed by muscle endo-peptidases (mainly calpains and cathepsins) followed by exo-peptidases (mainly, tri- and di-peptidyl peptidases, dipeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases). The result is a large amount of released free amino acids and a pool of numerous peptides...

  2. [Mineral water as a cure]. (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz


    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  3. Inorganic polymers from alkali activation of metakaolin: Effect of setting and curing on structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancellotti, Isabella, E-mail: [Deparment of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/A, Modena I-41125 (Italy); Catauro, Michelina [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) I-81031 (Italy); Ponzoni, Chiara [Deparment of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/A, Modena I-41125 (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) I-81031 (Italy); Leonelli, Cristina [Deparment of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/A, Modena I-41125 (Italy)


    Geopolymers, obtained by chemical reaction between aluminosilicate oxides and silicates under highly alkaline conditions, are studied in this paper. The proposed mechanism of geopolymer setting and hardening or curing consists of a dissolution, a transportation or an orientation, as well as a polycondensation step. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the curing time and temperature, the relative humidity and the reagents temperature on the geopolymerization process in order to obtain a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous wastes. The evolution of the process from the precursors dissolution to final geopolymer matrix hardening has been followed by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, SEM/EDS and leaching tests. The results show the significant influence of both curing temperature in the curing stage and of the mould materials on the matrix stability. The easy-to-run preparation procedure for a chemically stable metakaolin geopolymer individuated can be summarized as reagents setting and curing at room temperature and material mould which permits moisture level around 40%. - Graphical abstract: Chemical stability as a function of curing conditions. Highlights: ► Metakaolin in highly alkaline solutions produced solid materials at room temperature. ► Curing time and temperature, relative humidity, reagents temperature were optimized. ► Leaching tests were used to confirm final hardening. ► FTIR spectroscopy, SEM analysis and X-ray diffractometry were used to interpret matrix stability.

  4. Polymerization and curing kinetics of furan resins under conventional and microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Vergara, Unai, E-mail: [Plastics and Composites Department, Gaiker IK4 Research Centre, Parque Tecnológico, Ed. 202, 48170 Zamudio Spain (Spain); Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Manufacturing Department, Mondragón Unibertsitatea, Loramendi 4, 20500 Mondragón Spain (Spain); Sarrionandia, Mariasun [Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Manufacturing Department, Mondragón Unibertsitatea, Loramendi 4, 20500 Mondragón Spain (Spain); Gondra, Koldo [Plastics and Composites Department, Gaiker IK4 Research Centre, Parque Tecnológico, Ed. 202, 48170 Zamudio Spain (Spain); Aurrekoetxea, Jon [Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Manufacturing Department, Mondragón Unibertsitatea, Loramendi 4, 20500 Mondragón Spain (Spain)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The furan resin structure was investigated using IR and RMN techniques. • The polymerization of furan resins was developed based on multistage kinetics. • Vyazovkin numerical analysis was found the most accurate kinetic method. • Microwave curing of furan resins was much faster than thermal curing. - Abstract: The challenge of this work is the microwave curing study of low free-furfuryl alcohol content furan resins. The chemical characterization of the furan resins has been made by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the resin and its reactions with p-toluensulfonic acid are proposed, with the aim of understanding the mechanism responsible for the main reactions. The results show the presence of methyl and ether bridges between the furan rings, and the formation of ketone and conjugated structures. Furthermore, the curing kinetics of the furan resins has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Different methods have been applied in order to obtain and compare the activation energy of the process. Vyazovkin numerical analysis was found the most accurate method. Finally, microwave and conventional curing processes has been compared. The analysis showed that microwave curing of furan resins was twice faster than thermal curing.

  5. Is There a Cure for Cushing's Syndrome? (United States)

    ... Pinterest Email Print Is there a cure for Cushing syndrome? Untreated Cushing syndrome can be life-threatening—fortunately, most people ... their previous strength. People who no longer have Cushing syndrome might be more likely to develop diabetes, ...

  6. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin


    The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electronic search was done up to April 2008. Structural and functional cerebellar abnormalities have been reported in many psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported smaller total cerebellar and vermal volumes in schizophrenia, mood disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using cognitive paradigms have shown alterations in cerebellar activity in schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In dementia, the cerebellum is affected in later stages of the disease. Contrasting with early theories, cerebellum appears to play a major role in different brain functions other than balance and motor control, including emotional regulation and cognition. Future studies are clearly needed to further elucidate the role of cerebellum in both normal and pathological behavior, mood regulation, and cognitive functioning.

  7. Effect of Curing Agent and Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Epoxy Resin Systems


    Lei Zhao; Chenhui Zhao; Guangcheng Zhang


    The effect of curing agent (6610) content and temperature on the rheological behavior of the epoxy resin CYD-128 was studied by DSC analysis and viscosity experiments. The results show that the resin system meets the requirements of processing technology. A complete reaction occurs when the curing agent content (40 parts per hundred resin, phr) is a little higher than the theoretical value (33.33 phr), while the degree of reaction of the resin system is reduced when the curing agent content i...

  8. Phthalocyanine Tetraamine Epoxy-Curing Agents (United States)

    Fohlen, G. M.; Achar, B. N.; Parker, J. A.


    Tough fire- and chemical-resistant epoxies produced by using metalphthalocyanine tetraamines (MPT's) of copper, cobalt, or nickel as curing agents. Synthesis of MPT's commercially realizable and gives pure compounds with almost 90-percent yield. Synthesis applicable for metals with atomic radii of about 1.35 angstroms, including Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pt, Al, and V. Possible to use metal phthalocyanines to cure epoxy resins in homogeneous reaction.

  9. [To be cured of breast cancer]. (United States)

    Bobin, Jean-Yves; Guiochet, Nicole; Saez, Simone


    Can we say the magic word "cured", "cancer free" for breast cancer patients or can we say only survivors? This litterature review was focused on what mean cured of breast cancer with the long term effects on quality of life of locoregional and systemic therapies and the role of breast reconstruction. Finally changes in the intimacy, sex and love live and psychosocial live were stressed.

  10. HIV cure research: a formidable challenge


    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Fauci, Anthony S.


    Abstract The ultimate goal of HIV cure research is to allow HIV-infected individuals to be free of disease in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. We discuss current directions and future opportunities aimed at achieving sustained virological remission, and possibly eradication. A multidisciplinary approach to HIV cure research will be important, and ethical, social and behavioural research should be conducted in parallel with basic and clinical research.

  11. Thermal Aging Behaviors of Rubber Vulcanizates Cured with Single and Binary Cure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung Seen; Ha, Sung Ho [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Chang Su [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In general, an accelerated sulfur cure system consists of elemental sulfur, one or two cure accelerators, and cure activators. Crosslink density of a rubber vulcanizate determines the physical properties. By increasing the crosslink density, the modulus, hardness, resilience, and abrasion resistance increase, whereas the elongation at break, heat build-up, and stress relaxation decrease. Sulfur linkages are composed of monosulfide, disulfide, and polysulfides. Sulfur linkages, especially polysulfides, are dissociated by heating and this brings about decrease of the crosslink density.

  12. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert


    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  13. Influence of aromatic amine hardeners in the cure kinetics of an epoxy resin used in advanced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Leali Costa


    Full Text Available Composite structures for aerospace applications are mainly made by the well-known prepreg technology. In order to achieve adequate prepreg processing schedules, and consequently maximum fiber strength utilization, one has to know in deep the cure kinetics of matrix, which held the fibers together. This work describes a procedure to study the cure kinetic and has as example how aromatic amine hardeners influence the cure kinetics of an epoxy resin used in advanced composites. The investigation was carried out by using the DSC technique and it was found that depending on the system used the cure kinetics of the formulation obeys order n or autocatalytic order.

  14. Cure fraction estimation from the mixture cure models for grouped survival data. (United States)

    Yu, Binbing; Tiwari, Ram C; Cronin, Kathleen A; Feuer, Eric J


    Mixture cure models are usually used to model failure time data with long-term survivors. These models have been applied to grouped survival data. The models provide simultaneous estimates of the proportion of the patients cured from disease and the distribution of the survival times for uncured patients (latency distribution). However, a crucial issue with mixture cure models is the identifiability of the cure fraction and parameters of kernel distribution. Cure fraction estimates can be quite sensitive to the choice of latency distributions and length of follow-up time. In this paper, sensitivity of parameter estimates under semi-parametric model and several most commonly used parametric models, namely lognormal, loglogistic, Weibull and generalized Gamma distributions, is explored. The cure fraction estimates from the model with generalized Gamma distribution is found to be quite robust. A simulation study was carried out to examine the effect of follow-up time and latency distribution specification on cure fraction estimation. The cure models with generalized Gamma latency distribution are applied to the population-based survival data for several cancer sites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Several cautions on the general use of cure model are advised. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Shared Decision Making for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services Before Discharge from Psychiatric Hospitals. (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Roe, David; Elwyn, Glyn; Kupermintz, Haggai; Patya, Noa; Peleg, Ido; Karnieli-Miller, Orit


    Shared decision making (SDM) is an effective health communication model designed to facilitate patient engagement in treatment decision making. In mental health, SDM has been applied and evaluated for medications decision making but less for its contribution to personal recovery and rehabilitation in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effect of SDM in choosing community psychiatric rehabilitation services before discharge from psychiatric hospitalization. A pre-post non-randomized design with two consecutive inpatient cohorts, SDM intervention (N = 51) and standard care (N = 50), was applied in two psychiatric hospitals in Israel. Participants in the intervention cohort reported greater engagement and knowledge after choosing rehabilitation services and greater services use at 6-to-12-month follow-up than those receiving standard care. No difference was found for rehospitalization rate. Two significant interaction effects indicated greater improvement in personal recovery over time for the SDM cohort. SDM can be applied to psychiatric rehabilitation decision making and can help promote personal recovery as part of the discharge process.

  16. Curing and diffusion coefficient study in pastırma, a Turkish traditional meat product. (United States)

    Akköse, Ahmet; Aktaş, Nesimi


    Changes in water activity (a(w)), moisture and salt contents and salt effective diffusion coefficients (D(eff)) of pastırma samples during the curing process were determined. At the end of the curing stage, a(w) values decreased to 0.942. The average initial moisture content of the samples decreased from 74.56% to 66.64%, depending on the curing time and the average salt content increased to 15.65 g NaCl/100 g dry matter at the end of the 48-hour curing process. Pastırma samples were assumed the geometry of endless slices, and the analytical solution of Fick's second equation was used for determination of salt D(eff) values. Salt D(eff) values were found to vary between 1.49×10(-9)-4.08×10(-9) m(2)/s. © 2013.

  17. The electron beam cure of epoxy paste adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.D. [Air Force Advanced Composites Program office, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Janke, C.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology; Lopata, V.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.


    Recently developed epoxy paste adhesives were electron beam cured and experimentally explored to determine their suitability for use in an aerospace-quality aircraft component. There were two major goals for this program. The first was to determine whether the electron beam-curable past adhesives were capable of meeting the requirements of the US Air Force T-38 supersonic jet trainer composite windshield frame. The T-38 windshield frame`s arch is currently manufactured by bonding thin stainless steel plies using an aerospace-grade thermally-cured epoxy film adhesive. The second goal was to develop the lowest cost hand layup and debulk process that could be used to produce laminated steel plies with acceptable properties. The laminate properties examined to determine adhesive suitability include laminate mechanical and physical properties at room, adhesive tack, out-time capability, and the debulk requirements needed to achieve these properties. Eighteen past adhesives and four scrim cloths were experimentally examined using this criteria. One paste adhesive was found to have suitable characteristics in each of these categories and was later chosen for the manufacture of the T-38 windshield frame. This experimental study shows that by using low-cost debulk and layup processes, the electron beam-cured past adhesive mechanical and physical properties meet the specifications of the T-38 composite windshield frame.

  18. Controlling pests in dry-cured ham: A review. (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Amoah, B; Phillips, T W; Schilling, M W


    Dry-cured hams can become infested with ham mites, red-legged beetles, cheese skippers, and larder beetles during the aging process. Though other methods may be used for beetles and cheese skippers, methyl bromide is the only available fumigant that is effective at controlling ham mites in dry-cured ham plants in the United States. However, methyl bromide will be phased out of all industries by approximately 2015. This paper will review and explore potential alternatives that have been investigated to determine their feasibility for replacing methyl bromide to control pest infestations in dry-cured ham plants in the United States. Potential alternatives include: 1) fumigants such as phosphine and sulfuryl fluoride; 2) physical control approaches through cold treatment, modified atmosphere, inert dusts, etc.; 3) pesticides and bioactive compounds; 4) food-grade processing aids. The most promising potential alternatives to date include the use of propylene glycol on the ham surface, the exploration of alternative fumigants, and implementation of an integrated pest management plan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treating the disconfirmed psychiatric client. (United States)

    Heineken, J


    Frequent disconfirmation behaviors have been documented in psychiatric clients. Individuals who demonstrate maladaptive patterns of disconfirmation can learn to understand and modify this dysfunctional sequence. Through one to one interactions and group discussions, psychiatric nurses can help clients learn more positive communication behaviors. This accomplishment will positively affect the client's interpersonal responsiveness and self-esteem.

  20. Psychiatric comorbidity : fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes

    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus

  1. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.


    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  2. Nitrite-cured color and phosphate-mediated water binding of pork muscle proteins as affected by calcium in the curing solution. (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Xiong, Youling L


    Calcium is a mineral naturally present in water and may be included into meat products during processing thereby influencing meat quality. Phosphates improve myofibril swelling and meat water-holding capacity (WHC) but can be sensitive to calcium precipitation. In this study, pork shoulder meat was used to investigate the impact of calcium at 0, 250, and 500 ppm and phosphate type [sodium pyrophosphate (PP), tripolyphosphate (TPP), and hexametaphopshate (HMP)] at 10 mM on nitrite-cured protein extract color at various pH levels (5.5, 6.0, and 6.5) and crude myofibril WHC at pH 6.0. Neither calcium nor phosphates present in the curing brines significantly affected the cured color. Increasing the pH tended to promote the formation of metmyoglobin instead of nitrosylmyoglobin. The ability of PP to enhance myofibril WHC was hampered (P water binding by myofibrils. The depressed muscle fiber swelling responding to added calcium as evidenced by phase contrast microscopy substantiated, to a certain extent, the deleterious effect of calcium, suggesting that hardness of curing water can significantly affect the quality of cured meat products. Although not affecting nitrite-cured color, calcium hampers the efficacy of phosphates to promote water binding by muscle proteins, underscoring the importance of water quality for brine-enhanced meat products. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Caring Science and the Development of Forensic Psychiatric Caring. (United States)

    Hörberg, Ulrica


    This study aimed to discuss how caring science can contribute and provide a theoretical foundation for the development of caring within forensic psychiatric care. It is not only a challenge but also a great opportunity to use caring science theory within forensic psychiatric care when caring for the patients and supporting their health processes. There is a need for more knowledge about, understanding of, and willingness to care for patients within forensic psychiatric settings in a "true caring" way. In order to achieve this, a caring culture is required, one that supports carers and provides them with opportunities to further develop a caring attitude. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G


    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef


    that are historically rooted in logical positivism and behaviorism. These theoretical approaches marked decisively the so-called "operational revolution in psychiatry" leading to the creation of DSM-III. This paper attempts to examine the theoretical assumptions that underlie the use of a fully structured psychiatric...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...... faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully...

  6. Polymerization of a dual-cured cement through ceramic: LED curing light vs halogen lamp. (United States)

    Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Name Neto, Abrão; Herrera, Francyle S; Kurachi, Cristina; Castañeda-Espinosa, Juan C; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of light source, LED unit and halogen lamp (HL), on the effectiveness of Enforce dual-cured cement cured under a ceramic disc. Three exposure times (60, 80 and 120 s) were also evaluated. Two experimental groups, in which the polymerization of the dual-cured cement was performed through a ceramic disc, and two control groups, in which the polymerization of the dual-cured cement was performed directly without presence of ceramic disc were subdivided into three subgroups (three different exposure times), with five specimens each: G1A- HL 60s; G1B- HL 80s; G1C- HL 120s; G2A- LED 60s; G2B- LED 80s; G2C- LED 120s; and control groups: G3A- HL 60s; G3B- HL 80s; G3C- HL 120s; G4A- LED 60s; G4B- LED 80s and G4C- LED 120s. Cement was applied in a steel matrix (4mm diameter, 1.2mm thickness). In the experimental groups, a ceramic disc was placed on top. The cement was light-cured through the ceramic by a HL and LED, however, the control groups were cured without the ceramic disc. The specimens were stored in a light-proof container at 37ºC for 24 hours, then Vickers hardness was determined. A four-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p£ 0.05) were performed. All specimens cured by LED for 60s showed inferior values compared with the halogen groups. In general, light-curing by LED for 80s and 120s was comparable to halogen groups (60s and 80s) and their control groups. LED technology can be viable for light-curing through conventional ceramic indirect restorations, when curing time is increased in relation to HL curing time.

  7. Determinant of flexible Parametric Estimation of Mixture Cure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cure models are survival models basically developed to estimate the proportion of patients cured in a clinical trial. These models estimate the cured proportion and also the probability of survival. Cure models are a special type of survival analysis model where it is assumed that there are a proportion of subjects who will ...

  8. Accelerated cure of phenol-formaldehyde by the addition of cure accelerators : studies with model compounds (United States)

    Linda F. Lorenz; Anthony C. Conner


    Fast curing phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins could potentially allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures than those currently used commercially. Recent reports in the literature have shown that the addition of esters, lactones, or organic carbonates increased the curing rate of PF resins. Several mechanisms have been proposed to...

  9. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders: where we are now. (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel R; Ozpinar, Alp; Raslan, Ahmed M; Ko, Andrew L


    Fossil records showing trephination in the Stone Age provide evidence that humans have sought to influence the mind through physical means since before the historical record. Attempts to treat psychiatric disease via neurosurgical means in the 20th century provided some intriguing initial results. However, the indiscriminate application of these treatments, lack of rigorous evaluation of the results, and the side effects of ablative, irreversible procedures resulted in a backlash against brain surgery for psychiatric disorders that continues to this day. With the advent of psychotropic medications, interest in invasive procedures for organic brain disease waned. Diagnosis and classification of psychiatric diseases has improved, due to a better understanding of psychiatric patho-physiology and the development of disease and treatment biomarkers. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of patients remain refractory to multiple modes of treatment, and psychiatric disease remains the number one cause of disability in the world. These data, along with the safe and efficacious application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders, in principle a reversible process, is rekindling interest in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disorders with stimulation of deep brain sites involved in emotional and behavioral circuitry. This review presents a brief history of psychosurgery and summarizes the development of DBS for psychiatric disease, reviewing the available evidence for the current application of DBS for disorders of the mind.

  10. Teaching safe sex practices to psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Sladyk, K


    An occupational therapist presented her 45-minute program called AIDS Education and Safe Sex 5 times to female mental patients in the locked ward of Cedarcrest Regional Hospital in Newington, Connecticut, to inform them about safe-sex practices and AIDS. She first administered a pretest then spoke briefly about AIDS and safe-sex practices. The lecture emphasized various important points such as no cure for AIDS exist, casual contact (e.g., kiss on the cheek, handshake) cannot transmit HIV, and effectiveness of using latex condoms. The occupational therapist spent much of her time addressing myths about AIDS and what safe-sex practices are. The patients discussed sexual abuse and dishonest partners. She administered a posttest which was the same as the pretest. Some sessions attracted more people than did other sessions. Test scores increased for every patient and for every session. They ranged from a 5% (68-73%) increase for the 3rd session to a 24% (67-91%) increase for the last session. She was not able to determine, however, whether the increased knowledge would translate into positive behavioral changes. Patients' psychiatric symptoms may have interfered with learning resulting in less than ideal improvements in knowledge. These symptoms were hypomanic behavior, restlessness, and distractibility. Perhaps other sessions with experiential techniques (e.g., putting condoms on dummies) would increase their understanding. This program helps fill the information gap not provided by the mass media which avoid mentioning safe-sex practices.

  11. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels. (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S


    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić


    Full Text Available In this paper, the curing and mechanical properties of two series of prepared blends, i.e., chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM/isobutylene-co-isoprene (IIR rubber blends and chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM/chlorinated isobutylene-co-isoprene (CIIR rubber blends were carried out. Blends were prepared using a two-roll mill at a temperature of 40-50 °C. The curing was assessed using a Monsanto oscillating disc rheometer R-100. The process of vulcanization accelerated sulfur of pure rubbers and their blends was carried out in an electrically heated laboratory hydraulic press under a pressure of about 4 MPa and 160 °C. The stress-strain experiments were performed using a tensile tester machine (Zwick 1425. Results indicate that the scorch time, ts2, and optimum cure time, tc90, increase with increasing CSM content in both blends. The value of modulus at 100 and 300% elongation and tensile strength increases with increasing CSM content, whereas elongation at break shows a decreasing trend. The enhancement in mechanical properties was supported by data of crosslink density in these samples obtained from swelling measurement and scanning electron microscopy studies of the rubber blends fractured surfaces

  13. Current views on HIV-1 latency, persistence, and cure. (United States)

    Melkova, Zora; Shankaran, Prakash; Madlenakova, Michaela; Bodor, Josef


    HIV-1 infection cannot be cured as it persists in latently infected cells that are targeted neither by the immune system nor by available therapeutic approaches. Consequently, a lifelong therapy suppressing only the actively replicating virus is necessary. The latent reservoir has been defined and characterized in various experimental models and in human patients, allowing research and development of approaches targeting individual steps critical for HIV-1 latency establishment, maintenance, and reactivation. However, additional mechanisms and processes driving the remaining low-level HIV-1 replication in the presence of the suppressive therapy still remain to be identified and targeted. Current approaches toward HIV-1 cure involve namely attempts to reactivate and purge HIV latently infected cells (so-called "shock and kill" strategy), as well as approaches involving gene therapy and/or gene editing and stem cell transplantation aiming at generation of cells resistant to HIV-1. This review summarizes current views and concepts underlying different approaches aiming at functional or sterilizing cure of HIV-1 infection.

  14. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Inés Ybarra


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  15. [Qualitative methods in psychiatric research]. (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide


    This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.

  16. Acceleration of curing period of pastrami manufactured from buffalo meat: Chemical and microbiological properties. (United States)

    Ibrahim, H M


    Usually the curing period of meat used for pastrami manufacture is three weeks at room temperature. In the present work a trial aimed to accelerate the curing period of pastrami (dry cured meat) prepared from buffalo lean round muscles by heat treatment (approximately 71 degrees C--internal; for partial drying) was carried out to investigate the probable changes during processing and in quality parameters of the end product. Results showed that pH value and the residual NaNO2 content decreased, while lactic acid and conversion in meat pigment percentages were increased. The determined data indicated remarkable decrease of moisture content during aging and curing periods, while the NaCl content in the investigated product was noticeably increased. During pastrami processing soluble proteins were decreased; the sarcoplasmic protein fraction denatured more rapidly than myofibrillar protein. On the other hand, the non-protein nitrogen and the insoluble protein nitrogen were increased gradually during ageing and after the heat treatment step. Slight variations in their values were observed during ripening of pastrami (complete curing and drying in air at room temperature up to 6 days). Heat treatment caused apparent decrease in Aerobic Plate Count (APC). Salmonella and Coliform bacteria were not detected through meat curing and in the end product. The suggested heat-treated pastrami was of good quality and nearly similar to the traditional sample.

  17. X-ray-cured carbon-fiber composites for vehicle use (United States)

    Herer, Arnold; Galloway, Richard A.; Cleland, Marshall R.; Berejka, Anthony J.; Montoney, Daniel; Dispenza, Dan; Driscoll, Mark


    Carbon-fiber-reinforced composites were cured in molds using X-rays derived from a high-energy, high-current electron beam. X-rays could penetrate the mold walls as well as the fiber reinforcements and polymerize a matrix system. Matrix materials made from modified epoxy-acrylates were tailored to suitably low viscosity so that fiber wetting and adhesion could be attained. Techniques similar to vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) and conventional vacuum bagging of wet lay-ups were used. Inexpensive reinforced polyester molds were used to fabricate vehicle fenders. Moderately low-dose X-ray exposure was sufficient to attain functional properties, such as resistance to heat distortion at temperatures as high as 180 °C. The matrix system contained an impact additive which imparted toughness to the cured articles. "Class A" high gloss surfaces were achieved. Thermo-analytical techniques were used on small-sized samples of X-ray-cured matrix materials to facilitate selection of a system for use in making prototypes of vehicle components. X-rays-penetrated metal pieces that were placed within layers of carbon-fiber twill, which were cured and bonded into a structure that could be mechanically attached without concern over fracturing the composite. X-ray curing is a low temperature process that eliminates residual internal stresses which are imparted by conventional thermo-chemical curing processes.

  18. Recent advances in electron-beam curing of carbon fiber-reinforced composites (United States)

    Coqueret, Xavier; Krzeminski, Mickael; Ponsaud, Philippe; Defoort, Brigitte


    Cross-linking polymerization initiated by high-energy radiation is a very attractive technique for the fabrication of high-performance composite materials. The method offers many advantages compared to conventional energy- and time-consuming thermal curing processes. Free radical and cationic poly-addition chemistries have been investigated in some details by various research groups along the previous years. A high degree of control over curing kinetics and material properties can be exerted by adjusting the composition of matrix precursors as well as by acting on process parameters. However, the comparison with state-of-the-art thermally cured composites revealed the lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured composites and the higher brittleness of the radiation-cured matrix. Improving fiber-matrix adhesion and upgrading polymer network toughness are thus two major challenges in this area. We have investigated several points related to these issues, and particularly the reduction of the matrix shrinkage on curing, the wettability of carbon fibers, the design of fiber-matrix interface and the use of thermoplastic toughening agents. Significant improvements were achieved on transverse strain at break by applying original surface treatments on the fibers so as to induce covalent coupling with the matrix. A drastic enhancement of the K IC value exceeding 2 MPa m 1/2 was also obtained for acrylate-based matrices toughened with high T g thermoplastics.

  19. Rabeprazole and psychiatric symptoms. (United States)

    Polimeni, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Paola; Gallo, Adele; Gallo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Caputi, Achille P


    To report the case of a patient who developed marked anxiety associated with episodes of panic attacks after starting rabeprazole therapy. An otherwise healthy 55-year-old woman was prescribed rabeprazole 20 mg/day administered in the morning for persistent symptoms of dyspepsia. Ten days later, she presented with a 7 day history of marked anxiety associated with panic attacks, night terror (pavor nocturnus), episodic mental confusion, and attention deficit. Within 2 days of discontinuing rabeprazole, the patient recovered completely from the neuropsychiatric manifestations. Subsequent esomeprazole therapy did not cause psychiatric symptoms. Rabeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia may have played a role in this neuropsychiatric adverse reaction. Several lines of evidence have indicated that gastrin-releasing peptide, whose release is mediated by proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced secretion of gastrin, is involved in regulating aspects of behavior that might be altered in disorders such as anxiety, depression, and dementia. The fact that rabeprazole has the highest capacity of inducing gastrin increase compared with other PPIs might explain why our patient's panic symptoms disappeared after switching to esomeprazole. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, rabeprazole was the probable cause of the adverse reaction. Specific studies are needed to investigate the potential role of PPI-induced hypergastrinemia in neuropsychiatric adverse reactions.

  20. Curing mechanism of flexible aqueous polymeric coatings. (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Kolter, Karl; Bodmeier, Roland; Dashevskiy, Andriy


    The objective of this study was to explain curing phenomena for pellets coated with a flexible polymeric coating based on poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat® SR 30D) with regard to the effect of starter cores, thickness of drug layer, adhesion of coating to drug-layered-cores as well as coating properties. In addition, appropriate approaches to eliminate the curing effect were identified. Sugar or MCC cores were layered with the model drugs carbamazepine, theophylline, propranolol HCl, tramadol HCl and metoprolol HCl using HPMC (5 or 25% w/w, based on drug) as a binder. Drug-layered pellets were coated with Kollicoat® SR 30D in a fluidized bed coater using TEC (10% w/w) as plasticizer and talc (35-100% w/w) as anti-tacking agent. Drug release, pellet properties (morphology, water uptake-weight loss and osmolality) and adhesion of the coating to the drug layer were investigated as a function of curing at 60°C or 60°C/75% RH for 24h. The film formation of the aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat® SR 30D was complete, and therefore, a strong curing effect (decrease in drug release) at elevated temperature and humidity (60°C/75% RH) could not be explained by the well-known hydroplasticization and the further gradual coalescence of the colloidal polymer particles. According to the provided mechanistic explanation, the observed curing effect was associated with (1) high flexibility of coating, (2) adhesion between coating and drug layer, (3) water retaining properties of the drug layer, and (4) osmotically active cores. Unwanted curing effects could be minimized/eliminated by the addition of talc or/and pore-forming water soluble polymers in the coating, increasing binder amount or applying an intermediate coating, by increasing the thickness of drug layer or using non-osmotic cores. A new insight into curing phenomena mainly associated with the adhesion between drug layer and coating was provided. Appropriate approaches to avoid unwanted curing effect were identified

  1. Lesion procedures in psychiatric neurosurgery. (United States)

    Patel, Shaun R; Aronson, Joshua P; Sheth, Sameer A; Eskandar, Emad N


    Lesion procedures for psychiatric indications have a history that spans more than a century. This review provides a brief history of psychiatric surgery and addresses the most recent literature on lesion surgery for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Relevant data described in publications from the early 1900 s through the modern era regarding lesion procedures for psychiatric indications, both historical and current use, are reported. The early procedures of Burkhardt, Moniz, and Freeman are reviewed, followed by descriptions of the more refined techniques of Leksell, Knight, Foltz, White, and Kelly. The application of lesion procedures to obsessive-compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and addiction are discussed. Lesioning procedures have informed modern deep brain stimulation targets. Recent lesioning studies demonstrate the efficacy and durability of these procedures in severely disabled patients. Judicious application of these techniques should continue for appropriately selected patients with severe, refractory psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  3. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity


    J Gordon Millichap


    The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  4. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly. (United States)

    Skoog, Ingmar


    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  5. Social mobility and psychiatric disabilities: an assessment of the social causation and social selection hypotheses. (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Uk; Han, Chang-Wan; Kohzuki, Masahiro


    Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families and groups from one social position to another. Researchers indicate that people with psychiatric disabilities tend to come from lower socioeconomic status groups, and that the causal relationship between lower socioeconomic status and mental illness occurs through social mobility process. The purpose of this study was to examine the occupational social mobility process of a sample of self-identified psychiatrically disabled individuals who have been active members of the labor force for most of their adult lives. A total of 200 participants were recruited from the customers of a One-Stop Career Center in Gloucester County, New Jersey. The social mobility pattern of persons with psychiatric disabilities was compared to that of persons without psychiatric disabilities (n = 100 for each group). That is, the social selection and the social causation hypotheses were applied to the social mobility patterns of people with psychiatric disabilities. It was revealed that the social class distribution for fathers of people with psychiatric disabilities was not different from that of people without psychiatric disabilities and also there was no significant social mobility difference between the two groups. These findings do not support the social causation and the social selection hypotheses. Specifically, the findings demonstrate that occupational capabilities and skills of people with psychiatric disabilities have been stabilized and are similar to those of people without psychiatric disabilities. Furthermore, these results may dispute several biases and prejudices with regard to social mobility process of persons with psychiatric disabilities.

  6. Effect of curing protocol on the polymerization of dual-cured resin cements. (United States)

    Pereira, Sónia G; Fulgêncio, Rogério; Nunes, Teresa G; Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how curing protocol affects the extent of polymerization of dual-cured resin cements. Four commercial resin cements were used (DuoLink, Panavia F 2.0, Variolink II and Enforce). The extent of polymerization of the resin cements cured under different conditions was measured using a (1)H Stray-Field MRI method, which also enabled to probe molecular mobility in the kHz frequency range. Resin cements show well distinct behaviours concerning chemical cure. Immediate photo-activation appears to be the best choice for higher filler loaded resin cements (Panavia F 2.0 and Variolink). A photo-activation delay (5 min) did not induce any significant difference in the extent of polymerization of all cements. The extent of polymerization of dual-cured resin cements considerably changed among products under various curing protocols. Clinicians should optimize the materials choice taking into account the curing characteristics of the cements. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of hardness of three temporary filling materials cured by two light-curing devices. (United States)

    Bodrumlu, E; Koçak, M M; Hazar Bodrumlu, E; Ozcan, S; Koçak, S


    Polymerization ability of light-curing devices can affect the light-cured material hardness. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the hardness of three temporary filling materials that had been light-cured by either a light emitting diode (LED) or a halogen light-curing unit. The temporary filling materials, First Fill, Voco Clip and Bioplic, were placed in wells in a Teflon plate. The 24 specimens of each material were divided into two groups (N.=12/group) for photo-activation by either of the two light-curing units. The LED or halogen device was applied for 40s to the top surface of each specimen. A Knoop hardness test was performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen, with five measurements per specimen. The highest hardness values for both the LED and halogen treated groups were observed for First Fill and the lowest values were for Voco Clip in top and bottom surfaces. The hardness obtained for the three materials with the halogen unit were significantly higher than the values obtained with the LED unit in both surfaces (Phardness values on the top and bottom surfaces than Voco Clip and Bioplic temporary materials. The hardness of light-cured temporary filling materials can be affected by the type of light-curing unit.

  8. Curing characteristics of a composite - part 1: cure depth relationship to conversion, hardness and radiant exposure. (United States)

    Erickson, Robert L; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Halvorson, Rolf H


    As the first part of a larger study on curing characteristics of a resin-based composite (RBC), the major objectives were to create an energy-hardness relationship (EHR) that relates Knoop hardness (KHN) with radiant exposure (H), and to do the same for degree of conversion (DC) in the form of an energy-conversion relationship (ECR). Both of these are meant to be universal relationships that satisfy reciprocity between irradiance and time for a given H value. RBC specimens were made by curing the material in 6mm diameter, stainless steel molds for 10-40s and allowing the material to cure for 24h. Cure depths were determined by a scrape-back method. KHN and DC values were determined along the central axis of the specimens, and these values were related to the internal H values using a measured transmission relationship, T(d), for the RBC. Suitable EHR and ECR relationships were developed for the RBC material that can be used to describe the curing characteristics under various curing conditions. However, predictive accuracy is affected for incident radiant exposures below about 12J/cm(2) to some extent. A relationship between KHN and DC was established. For the RBC examined, KHN measurements can be used as an alternate method or in conjunction with DC for describing the curing characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases. (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S


    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  10. Psychiatric characteristics of homicide defendants. (United States)

    Martone, Christine A; Mulvey, Edward P; Yang, Suzanne; Nemoianu, Andrei; Shugarman, Ryan; Soliman, Layla


    The authors examined the rate of mental disorders in an unselected sample of homicide defendants in a U.S. jurisdiction, seeking to identify psychiatric factors associated with offense characteristics and court outcomes. Defendants charged with homicide in a U.S. urban county between 2001 and 2005 received a psychiatric evaluation after arrest. Demographic, historical, and psychiatric variables as well as offense characteristics and legal outcomes were described. Bivariate analyses examined differences by age group and by race, and logistic models examined predictors of multiple victims, firearm use, guilty plea, and guilty verdict. Fifty-eight percent of the sample had at least one axis I or II diagnosis, most often a substance use disorder (47%). Axis I or II diagnoses were more common (78%) among defendants over age 40. Although 37% of the sample had prior psychiatric treatment, only 8% of the defendants with diagnosed axis I disorders had outpatient treatment during the 3 months preceding the homicide; African Americans were less likely than non-African Americans to be in treatment. African American males were more likely to use a firearm and to have a male victim. In exploratory analyses, psychiatric factors did not predict multiple victims, firearm use in the crime, or a guilty verdict. Rates of axis I disorders were lower than reported in previous studies. Few homicide defendants were in psychiatric treatment at the time of the crime, suggesting limited opportunities for prevention by mental health providers.

  11. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion. (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L


    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.



    V.Sreevidya; Anuradha, R.; D. Dinakar; Dr. R.Venkatasubramani


    An Experimental study was conducted to assess the Acid resistance of flyash based geopolymer mortar specimens of size 50x50x50mm with a ratio of flyash to sand as 1:3.The ratio between solution(Sodiumhydroxide and Sodium silicate solution) to flyash were 0.376,0.386,0.396 and 0.416. After casting the specimens were subjected to both ambient curing and heat curing. In heat curing the specimens were kept continuously at 60oC for 24 hrs. Durability of specimens was assessed by immersing them in...

  13. Translating genomic discoveries to cure ultrahypermutant mismatch ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Translating genomic discoveries to cure ultrahypermutant mismatch repair deficient brain tumours. Les tumeurs malignes au cerveau sont la cause la plus courante de décès chez les enfants atteints du cancer, mais il n'y a pas de traitement connu. Ce projet permettra de faire avancer la recherche dans ce domaine ...

  14. Helping African American Males: The Cure. (United States)

    Gill, Walter


    Looks at the current plight of the African-American male, exploring the role of the dominant culture, mass media, and low self-esteem. Describes a possible cure, citing five areas for action, calling for year-round school in some urban areas, exploring Afrocentric curricula, and considering rites of passage programs. (JB)

  15. Creep measurements on curing epoxy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Charlotte; Szabo, Peter


    The chemical curing of a stoichiometric mixture of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and a 1,3-bis-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexane is studied.Creep experiments are combined with measurements in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) to determine the change in bulk viscosity due to network formation....

  16. Enhanced microactuation with magnetic field curing of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incorporation of nanoparticles of iron in a natural rubber matrix leads to flexible magnetorheolog- ical (MR) materials. Rod-shaped MR elastomers based on natural rubber and nanosized iron have been moulded both with and without the application of an external magnetic field during curing. These MR elastomer rods ...

  17. Enhanced microactuation with magnetic field curing of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incorporation of nanoparticles of iron in a natural rubber matrix leads to flexible magnetorheological (MR) materials. Rod-shaped MR elastomers based on natural rubber and nanosized iron have been moulded both with and without the application of an external magnetic field during curing. These MR elastomer rods ...

  18. Adhesive curing options for photonic packaging (United States)

    Martin, Steven C.; Hubert, Manfred; Tam, Robin


    Varying the intensity of illumination used to cure photoactivated adhesives has been applied in medical and dental applications to improve the performance of polymer materials. For example, it has been observed that dental polymer composite materials express reduced shrinkage, important for durability of non-amalgam restorations, by introducing a phased time-intensity cure schedule. This work identified that curing conditions could influence the final properties of materials, and suggested the possibility of extending the characteristics that could be influenced beyond shrinkage to humidity resistance, Tg, outgassing and other important material properties. Obviously, these results have important ramifications for the photonic industry, with current efforts focused on improved manufacturing techniques. Improvement in low cost packaging solutions, including adhesives, will have to be made to bring the component cost down to address the needs of Metro and similar markets. However, there are perceived problems with the widespread use of adhesives, the most prevalent of these involving long term durability of the bond. Devices are typically aligned to sub-micron precision using active feedback and then must be locked in position to maintain performance. In contrast to traditional fastening methods, adhesive bonding is a highly attractive option due to the ease of deployment, lower equipment costs, and improved flexibility. Moreover, using methods analogous to those employed in dental applications, materials properties of photonic adhesives may be tailored using a programmed cure approach.

  19. Mechanical characterization and modeling of curing thermosets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van 't Hof, C.


    Chemical shrinkage and simultaneous build-up of mechanical properties in curing thermosets leads to the build-up of residual stresses and strains. Depending on the constraints these may cause interface failure, dimensional inaccuracy or failure in the thermoset or its surrounding structure. The

  20. Prospective study of cured meats consumption and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in men (United States)

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Jiang, Rui; Barr, R Graham; Willett, Walter C.; Camargo, Carlos A.


    Cured meats are high in nitrites. Nitrites generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause damage to the lung. The objective is to assess the relation between frequent consumption of cured meats and the risk of newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Between 1986 and 1998, we identified 111 self-reported cases of newly diagnosed COPD among 42,915 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. The cumulative average intake of cured meats consumption (processed meats, bacon, hot dogs) was calculated from food frequency questionnaires administrated in 1986, 1990 and 1994, and divided according to servings per week (never/almost never, cured meats was positively associated with the risk of newly diagnosed COPD: RR for highest vs. lowest intake = 2.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.39 – 5.00), p for trend = 0.002. In contrast to these findings, the consumption of cured meats was not associated with the risk of adult-onset asthma. These data suggest that cured meat may worsen the adverse effects of smoking on risk of COPD. PMID:17785711

  1. Color Developing Capacity of Plasma-treated Water as a Source of Nitrite for Meat Curing. (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Yong, Hae In; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun


    The interaction of plasma with liquid generates nitrogen species including nitrite (NO(-) 2). Therefore, the color developing capacity of plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source for meat curing was investigated in this study. PTW, which is generated by surface dielectric barrier discharge in air, and the increase of plasma treatment time resulted in increase of nitrite concentration in PTW. The PTW used in this study contains 46 ppm nitrite after plasma treatment for 30 min. To evaluate the effect of PTW on the cured meat color, meat batters were prepared under three different conditions (control, non-cured meat batter; PTW, meat batter cured with PTW; Sodium nitrite, meat batter cured with sodium nitrite). The meat batters were vacuum-packaged and cooked in a water-bath at 80℃ for 30 min. The typical color of cured meat developed in cooked meat batter treated with sodium nitrite or PTW. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values were similar in all conditions, whereas, the redness (a*) values of cooked meat batter with PTW and sodium nitrite (pcuring process of meat without addition of other nitrite sources.

  2. Combined Effects of Curing Temperatures and Alkaline Concrete on Tensile Properties of GFRP Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-rui Yang


    Full Text Available A significant number of studies have been conducted on the tensile properties of GFRP bars embedded in concrete under different environments. However, most of these studies have been experimentally based on the environmental immersion test after standard-curing and the lack of influence on the tensile properties of GFRP bars embedded in concrete during the curing process of concrete. This paper presents the results of the microscopic structures through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and tensile properties of GFRP bars, which were employed to investigate the combined effects of curing temperatures and alkaline concrete on tensile properties of GFRP bars. The results showed that the higher curing temperature aggravated the influence of the alkaline concrete environment on GFRP bars but did not change the mechanisms of mechanical degradation of the GFRP bars. The influence of different curing temperatures on the tensile strength of GFRP bars was different between the bare bar and bars in concrete. Finally, the exponential correlation equation of two different test methods was established, and the attenuation ratio of the tensile strength of GFRP bars embedded in concrete under different curing temperatures was predicted by the bare test.

  3. About the cure kinetics in natural rubber/styrene Butadiene rubber blends at 433 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansilla, M.A., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marzocca, A.J. [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Vulcanized blends of elastomers are employed in several goods mainly to improve physical properties and reduce costs. One of the most used blends of this kind is that composed by natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The cure kinetic of these blends depends mainly on the compound formulation and the cure temperature and time. The preparation method of the blends can influence the mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds. In this work the cure kinetic at 433 K of NR/SBR blends vulcanized with the system sulfur/TBBS (N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) is analyzed in samples prepared by mechanical mixing and solution blending. The two methods produce elastomer domains of NR and SBR, which present different microstructure due to the cure level attained during vulcanization. The cure kinetics is studied by means of rheometer tests and the model proposed by Kamal and Sourour. The analysis of the cure rate is presented and is related to the structure obtained during the vulcanization process.

  4. Effect of Curing Agent and Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Epoxy Resin Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao


    Full Text Available The effect of curing agent (6610 content and temperature on the rheological behavior of the epoxy resin CYD-128 was studied by DSC analysis and viscosity experiments. The results show that the resin system meets the requirements of processing technology. A complete reaction occurs when the curing agent content (40 parts per hundred resin, phr is a little higher than the theoretical value (33.33 phr, while the degree of reaction of the resin system is reduced when the curing agent content is lower (25.00 phr than theoretical value. However, excessive curing agent (50.00 phr results in a lower reaction rate. Curing agent content has little influence on gel time when curing agent content exceeded 33.33 phr and the temperature was less than 70 °C. The isothermal viscosity-time curves shift towards the –x axis when the temperature rises from 50 °C to 80 °C. Meanwhile, higher temperature results in higher reaction rates.

  5. Effect of curing agent and temperature on the rheological behavior of epoxy resin systems. (United States)

    Zhao, Chenhui; Zhang, Guangcheng; Zhao, Lei


    The effect of curing agent (6610) content and temperature on the rheological behavior of the epoxy resin CYD-128 was studied by DSC analysis and viscosity experiments. The results show that the resin system meets the requirements of processing technology. A complete reaction occurs when the curing agent content (40 parts per hundred resin, phr) is a little higher than the theoretical value (33.33 phr), while the degree of reaction of the resin system is reduced when the curing agent content is lower (25.00 phr) than theoretical value. However, excessive curing agent (50.00 phr) results in a lower reaction rate. Curing agent content has little influence on gel time when curing agent content exceeded 33.33 phr and the temperature was less than 70 °C. The isothermal viscosity-time curves shift towards the -x axis when the temperature rises from 50 °C to 80 °C. Meanwhile, higher temperature results in higher reaction rates.

  6. Monitoring cure properties of out-of-autoclave BMI composites using IFPI sensor (United States)

    Kaur, Amardeep; Anandan, Sudharshan; Yuan, Lei; Watkins, Steve E.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Xiao, Hai; Phan, Nam


    A non-destructive technique for inspection of a Bismaleimide (BMI) composite is presented using an optical fiber sensor. High performance BMI composites are used for Aerospace application for their mechanical strength. They are also used as an alternative to toughened epoxy resins. A femtosecond-laser-inscribed Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) sensor is used to perform real time cure monitoring of a BMI composite. The composite is cured using the out-of-autoclave (OOA) process. The IFPI sensor was used for in-situ monitoring; different curing stages are analyzed throughout the curing process. Temperature-induced-strain was measured to analyze the cure properties. The IFPI structure comprises of two reflecting mirrors inscribed on the core of the fiber using a femtosecond-laser manufacturing process. The manufacturing process makes the sensor thermally stable and robust for embedded applications. The sensor can withstand very high temperatures of up to 850 °C. The temperature and strain sensitivities of embedded IFPI sensor were measured to be 1.4 pm/μepsilon and 0.6 pm/μepsilon respectively.

  7. Rheological Properties and Curing Characteristics of Al2O3-SiO2 Foam Slurries Containing Organic Gelling Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xin


    Full Text Available The direct foaming method combined with gelcasting was employed to prepare mullite ceramic foam. Triacetin, polyimide and hydroxypropyl cellulose were creatively proposed as gelling agent for gelcasting process, respectively. The influence of gelling agent on rheological properties and the correlation rule with the curing time were studied. The results show that different kinds of gelling agent have different influence on rheological properties. It is considered that the rheological properties have significant influence on the curing time. Ameliorating the thixotropy, improving the rate of viscosity growth, and enlarging the linear viscoelastic domain of foam slurry are conducive to shorten the curing time of foam slurry. Among these three gelling agents, the triacetin obtains the optimal effects, the initial curing time and curing time of foam slurry is both shortest.

  8. Survey of naturally and conventionally cured commercial frankfurters, ham, and bacon for physio-chemical characteristics that affect bacterial growth. (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Schrader, Kohl D; Xi, Yuan; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S


    Natural and organic food regulations preclude the use of sodium nitrite/nitrate and other antimicrobials for processed meat products. Consequently, processors have begun to use natural nitrate/nitrite sources, such as celery juice/powder, sea salt, and turbinado sugar, to manufacture natural and organic products with cured meat characteristics but without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to compare physio-chemical characteristics that affect Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes growth in naturally cured and traditionally cured commercial frankfurters, hams, and bacon. Correlations of specific product characteristics to pathogen growth varied between products and pathogens, though water activity, salt concentration, and product composition (moisture, protein and fat) were common intrinsic factors correlated to pathogen growth across products. Other frequently correlated traits were related to curing reactions such as % cured pigment. Residual nitrite and nitrate were significantly correlated to C. perfringens growth but only for the ham products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of end groups in hyperbranched polyesters used as modifiers in the characteristics of epoxy thermosets cured by adipic dihydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Serra


    Full Text Available Mixtures of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA resin and different ratios of aliphatic-aromatic hyperbranched polyester (HBP were cured by a latent curing agent, adipic dihydrazide (AH. The HBPs prepared have hydroxyl groups or 10-undecenoyl or allyl groups as chain ends. The curing mixtures were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC to study the curing process and to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the different formulations. These studies suggest that HBPs decrease the curing rate of epoxy/AH in the case of vinyl terminated HPB, whereas OH terminated HBP accelerates the first stages and delays the lasts. The thermosets obtained showed an improvement in microhardness and impact strength without any reduction of the Tg and thermal parameters. Microparticle phase separation was observed with the undecenoyl HBP derivatives or when a 10% of allyl HBP derivative was in the formulation.

  10. Alkali-activated fly ash: Effect of thermal curing conditions on mechanical and microstructural development - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Kovalchuk; A. Fernandez-Jimenez; A. Palomo [V.D. Glukhovskiy Scientific Research Institute on Binders and Materials, Kiev (Ukraine)


    The development of mechanical strength and the mineral and microstructural characteristics of the alkali activated fly ash (AAFA), reveal the importance of the role played by the curing conditions prevailing during setting and hardening process: curing in a covered mould (CCM) at 95{sup o}C; dry curing (DC) at 150{sup o}C, or steam curing (ST) at 95{sup o}C. CCM yields the highest compressive strength (up to 102 MPa after 8 h of curing) and can be readily used in any AAFA system. DC is only recommended for NaOH-based systems (low SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio), since waterglass-based mixes tend to retard reaction kinetics. SC, in turn, has an intermediate effect on strength development, between CCM and DC. 26 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, W.G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY, (United States). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons; Laruelle, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Inst.


    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  12. Acoustic Imaging of Microstructure and Evaluation of the Adhesive's Physical, Mechanical and Chemical Properties Changes at Different Cure States (United States)

    Severina, I. A.; Fabre, A. J.; Maeva, E. Yu.

    Epoxy thermoset adhesives transform during cure from liquid state into the highly cross-linked solid. Cure state of the material depends on condition of the reaction (temperature, pressure, time etc.) and resin/hardener ratio. It is known that the cure degree of the adhesive correlates with adhesion strength, which is critical for structural adhesives used in automotive, aerospace and marine industries. In this work, characterization of cure process of the adhesive with acoustic methods is presented. Evolution of the acoustic and elastic properties (attenuation, sound velocity, density, elastic moduli) during cure reaction was monitored in relation to the substantial physical and chemical changes of the material. These macro parameters of the adhesive were compared with the material's microstructure obtained by high-resolution acoustic microscopy technique in frequencies range of 50-400 MHz. Development of the microstructure of the adhesive as it cures at different conditions has been investigated. Appearance and development of the granular structure on the adhesive interface during cure reaction has been demonstrated. Acoustic images were analyzed by mathematical method to quantitatively characterize distribution of the adhesive's components. Statistical analysis of such images provides an accurate quantitative measure of the degree of cure of such samples. Research results presented in this paper can be useful as a basis for non-destructive evaluation of the adhesive materials

  13. Cured-in-place pipe reconstruction of existing underground systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knasel, J. [Kenny Construction Co., Wheeling, IL (United States)


    This paper describes InLiner USA{reg_sign} which is a cost effective process that allows pipes to be rebuilt without digging and avoids disturbing the area surrounding the pipe. This cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) technology is a unique process for reconstructing deteriorated pipe line systems in municipal and industry applications, which includes powerplants. The process uses a resin that coats and rebuilds th interior of the pipe to improve its structural integrity and corrosion resistance. CIPP creates continuous, seamless construction which increases flow capacities, stops infiltration, improves structural strength, resists long term corrosion and forms its own pipe within a pipe. It can be installed in a matter of hours or days and can be utilized in gravity and pressure pipes for storm sewers, sanitary sewers, combined sewers, water mains, gas mains and process piping.

  14. Understanding interpersonal function in psychiatric illness through multiplayer economic games. (United States)

    King-Casas, Brooks; Chiu, Pearl H


    Interpersonal factors play significant roles in the onset, maintenance, and remission of psychiatric conditions. In the current major diagnostic classification systems for psychiatric disorders, some conditions are defined by the presence of impairments in social interaction or maintaining interpersonal relationships; these include autism, social phobia, and the personality disorders. Other psychopathologies confer significant difficulties in the social domain, including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychotic disorders. Still other mental health conditions, including substance abuse and eating disorders, seem to be exacerbated or triggered in part by the influence of social peers. For each of these and other psychiatric conditions, the extent and quality of social support is a strong determinant of outcome such that high social support predicts symptom improvement and remission. Despite the central role of interpersonal factors in psychiatric illness, the neurobiology of social impairments remains largely unexplored, in part due to difficulties eliciting and quantifying interpersonal processes in a parametric manner. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging, combined with multiplayer exchange games drawn from behavioral economics, and computational/quantitative approaches more generally, provide a fitting paradigm within which to study interpersonal function and dysfunction in psychiatric conditions. In this review, we outline the importance of interpersonal factors in psychiatric illness and discuss ways in which neuroeconomics provides a tractable framework within which to examine the neurobiology of social dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Could Switching to a Vegetarian Diet Cure My Diabetes? (United States)

    ... my diabetes? Could switching to a vegetarian diet cure my diabetes? Answers from M. Regina Castro, M.D. A vegetarian diet probably won't cure your diabetes. But it may offer some benefits over a ...

  16. Cues for Cure; From within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nature's innate ability to effect the process of healing after any type of injury, is a phenomena known to be existing across phylogeny. However, the processes, mechanisms and the outcome differ between organisms, organs, tissues and other relevant biological and environmental factors. The maintenance and repair of adult tissues are dependent on tissue-resident stem cells [1]. Studies now reveal that the regeneration of damaged or dysfunctional or lost tissues and cells which occur after transplantation of exogenous stem cells and adult cells are mainly due to paracrine effects of these transplanted cells stimulating the tissue resident stem cells [2]. Thus, based on the available evidence, it is the body's natural endogenous regenerative mechanisms which gain more significance in regenerative biology. This could be enhanced by the exogenously applied cells for the best outcome. Two studies presented in this issue have reiterated this faith. Takeuchi et al [1] have tested the hypothesis that electro-resection of bladder tissue induces resident stem cells to participate in tissue repair. They have studied the levels of stem cell markers such as Oct4, CD90, and CD73 after bladder electro-resection. They have concluded that CD90 and CD73, which are markers of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, are upregulated and thus, these MSCs participate in the tissue repair process [3]. The other study by Jones and Connor has authenticated the transient recruitment of migratory neuroblasts and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC from the subventricular zone (SVZ during endogenous repair in a rodent model and the interaction that occurs between signals released from the environment of the lesion and gene expression in the recruited cells following excitotoxic brain Injury [4]. The common theme to both the studies is the recruitment of tissue resident stem cells or precursors for contribution to regeneration after tissue injury. Clinical applications using

  17. Fast curing of restorative materials through the soft light energy release. (United States)

    De Santis, R; Gloria, A; Prisco, D; Amendola, E; Puppulin, L; Pezzotti, G; Rengo, S; Ambrosio, L; Nicolais, L


    The effect of a novel light curing process, namely soft light energy release (SLER), on shrinkage, mechanical strength and residual stress of four dental restorative materials (DEI experience, Gradia Direct, Enamel Plus HFO and Venus) was investigated. Composite specimens were fast cured through high level of power density and soft light energy release. Temperature, linear shrinkage and light power measurements were acquired in parallel in order to assess the effect of light modulation on temperature and shrinkage profiles during the light curing process and the following dark reaction phase. The small punch test and Raman spectroscopy were adopted to investigate the effect of SLER on mechanical strength and on internal stress, respectively. The soft light energy release photo-polymerization allows to reduce of about 20% the shrinkage rate and to increase the strength of fast light cured specimens. In addition, a more relaxed and homogeneous internal stress distribution was observed. Properties of fast cured restorative materials can be improved by adopting the soft light energy release process. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cure Cycle Effect on High-Temperature Polymer Composite Structures Molded by VARTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khattab


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical and experimental investigation of cure cycle effect on carbon-fiber reinforced high-temperature polymer composite structures molded by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM. The molded composite structure consists of AS4-8 harness carbon-fiber fabrics and a high-temperature polymer (Cycom 5250-4-RTM. Thermal and resin cure analysis is performed to model the cure cycle of the VARTM process. The temperature and cure variations with time are determined by solving the three-dimensional transient energy and species equations within the composite part. Several case studies were investigated by the developed analytical model. The same cases were also experimentally investigated to determine the ultimate tensile strength for each case. This study helps in developing a science based technology for the VARTM process for the understanding of the process behavior and the effect of the cure cycle on the properties of the molded high-temperature polymer composites.

  19. Curing conditions to inactivate Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae in ready-to-eat pork sausage (United States)

    Curing processes for ready to eat (RTE) pork products currently require individual validation of methods to demonstrate inactivation of Trichinella spiralis. This is a major undertaking for each process; currently no model of meat chemistry exists that can be correlated with inactivation of Trichin...

  20. On the Assessment of Susceptor-Assisted Induction Curing of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severijns, C.P.A.; Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Poulis, J.A.


    The autoclave/oven curing process is known to be the current manufacturing technique that provides the best quality of composite laminates and bonded joints. However, this process implies high acquisition cost and a large ecological footprint. Furthermore, with the current complete aeroplane


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.

  2. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke and...

  3. "A Roadmap for Flue-curing Tobacco Barns: Towards Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main conclusion was that there is urgent need for improving energy efficiency in tobacco curing. In the short term, high fuel consumption can be reduced by optimizing the thermal efficiency of curing structures, particularly for smallholder tobacco growers in Zimbabwe. Keywords: tobacco, flue-curing, smallholder farmers ...

  4. Techniques and materials for internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lura, Pietro


    This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal water curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and selfdesiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price of the i...

  5. INTRODUCTION Curing is holding fruits at temperatures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fruits are difficult to harvest without some minor damage, and most postharvest fungi are wound pathogens taking advantage of harvest injuries. Curing is presently used for ... Colour change to yellow was faster with sun curing and fruits initially cured to 7% weight ..... on green mold and stem-end rot of citrus fruit and its ...

  6. Transposable elements and psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Guffanti, Guia; Gaudi, Simona; Fallon, James H; Sobell, Janet; Potkin, Steven G; Pato, Carlos; Macciardi, Fabio


    Transposable Elements (TEs) or transposons are low-complexity elements (e.g., LINEs, SINEs, SVAs, and HERVs) that make up to two-thirds of the human genome. There is mounting evidence that TEs play an essential role in genomic architecture and regulation related to both normal function and disease states. Recently, the identification of active TEs in several different human brain regions suggests that TEs play a role in normal brain development and adult physiology and quite possibly in psychiatric disorders. TEs have been implicated in hemophilia, neurofibromatosis, and cancer. With the advent of next-generation whole-genome sequencing approaches, our understanding of the relationship between TEs and psychiatric disorders will greatly improve. We will review the biology of TEs and early evidence for TE involvement in psychiatric disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing. (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pumice aggregates for internal water curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietro, Lura; Bentz, Dale P.; Lange, David A.


    A novel concept in internal curing of High Performance Concrete is based on dispersing very small, saturated lightweight aggregates (LWA) in the concrete, containing sufficient water to counteract self-desiccation. With this approach, the amount of water in the LWA can be minimized, thus economiz...... is saturation of the particles, which can be achieved only by immersion in boiling water or by vacuum saturation.......A novel concept in internal curing of High Performance Concrete is based on dispersing very small, saturated lightweight aggregates (LWA) in the concrete, containing sufficient water to counteract self-desiccation. With this approach, the amount of water in the LWA can be minimized, thus...... water absorption, but they release a greater percentage of their absorbed water at the equilibrium relative humidity of practical interest in early-age concrete, above 90%. Additionally, early-age properties of mortars with different contents of saturated pumice were investigated: a reference mix...

  9. Light-Curing Adhesive Repair Tapes (United States)

    Allred, Ronald; Haight, Andrea Hoyt


    Adhesive tapes, the adhesive resins of which can be cured (and thereby rigidized) by exposure to ultraviolet and/or visible light, are being developed as repair patch materials. The tapes, including their resin components, consist entirely of solid, low-outgassing, nonhazardous or minimally hazardous materials. They can be used in air or in vacuum and can be cured rapidly, even at temperatures as low as -20 C. Although these tapes were originally intended for use in repairing structures in outer space, they can also be used on Earth for quickly repairing a wide variety of structures. They can be expected to be especially useful in situations in which it is necessary to rigidize tapes after wrapping them around or pressing them onto the parts to be repaired.

  10. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus. (United States)

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V


    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions.

  11. Small peptides hydrolysis in dry-cured meats. (United States)

    Mora, Leticia; Gallego, Marta; Escudero, Elizabeth; Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel


    Large amounts of different peptides are naturally generated in dry-cured meats as a consequence of the intense proteolysis mechanisms which take place during their processing. In fact, meat proteins are extensively hydrolysed by muscle endo-peptidases (mainly calpains and cathepsins) followed by exo-peptidases (mainly, tri- and di-peptidyl peptidases, dipeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases). The result is a large amount of released free amino acids and a pool of numerous peptides with different sequences and lengths, some of them with interesting sequences for bioactivity. This manuscript is presenting the proteomic identification of small peptides resulting from the hydrolysis of four target proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta-enolase, myozenin-1 and troponin T) and discusses the enzymatic routes for their generation during the dry-curing process. The results indicate that the hydrolysis of peptides follows similar exo-peptidase mechanisms. In the case of dry-fermented sausages, most of the observed hydrolysis is the result of the combined action of muscle and microbial exo-peptidases except for the hydrolysis of di- and tri-peptides, mostly due to microbial di- and tri-peptidases, and the release of amino acids at the C-terminal that appears to be mostly due to muscle carboxypeptidases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen


    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  13. An investigation on the effect of light cure and self cure composite resins on bonding strength of light cure glass ionomer to dentin (In-vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahlavan A


    Full Text Available Composite reins have recently become popular for posterior teeth restorations. Gap"nformation and subsequent microleakage are of the complications resulting from such restorations. One of the"ntechniques to overcome polymerization shrinkage of composite resins is sandwich technique (application of"nglass ionomer as a base beneath the composite resin. Since polymerization patterns in two types of composite"nresins (light cure and self cure differ from each other, various effects on the bond strength between glass"nionomer and dentin are expected."nPurpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of self- cure and light- cure composite"nresins in sandwich technique on the bond strength of light cure glass ionomer and dentin."nMaterials and Methods: 40 extracted human premolars were selected and divided into four groups:"nGroup 1: Light cure glass ionomer of 1mm thickness was placed on dentin."nGroup 2: 1mm thickness of light cure glass ionomer plus a mass of self cure composite resin of 2mm"nthickness were placed."nGroup 3: 1mm thickness of light cure glass ionomer plus light cure composite resin as two separate 1mm layer"nwere placed."nGroup 4: 1mm thickness of light cure glass ionomer with 37% phosphoric acid etching followed by two"nseparate layers of light cure composite resin of 1 mm thickness were placed."nSEM was used to determine gap size ai Gl- dentin and Gi- composite interlaces. The findings were analyzed"nby ANOVA and t-student tests."nResults: Groups 1 and 2 showed no gap at Gl-dentm interface and also cracks were not observed in all these"nspecimens. In group 3, there was gap between light cure GI and light cure composite resin and cracks were"nseen in GI, too. Group 4 showed gap at both interfaces and more cracks were seen in GI. Groups I and 2"nshowed the least gap formation and group 4 showed the most. Statistically significant difference was found"nbetween groups 3, 4 and group 1 (control, 2."nConclusion: Base

  14. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin


    characteristics. RESULTS: Affective disorders were found to be associated with an almost twofold higher risk of suicide among psychiatric inpatients than other types of disorders (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-2.6). Patients with dementia had a significantly lower risk ratio of 0.2 (95% CI: 0......OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...

  15. Effect of mixing sequence on the curing of amine-hardened epoxy/ alumina nanocomposites as assessed by optical refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available High performance refractometry has been proven to be a useful tool to elucidate the isothermal curing process of nanocomposites. As a model system an amine-hardening epoxy filled with non-surface-treated alumina nanoparticles was selected. The tremendous resolution of this experimental technique is used to study morphological changes within nanocomposites via the refractive index. It is shown that these morphological changes are not simply due to the curing process but also depend on the sequence of mixing the nanoparticles either first into the resin or first into the hardener. Independent of the resin/hardener composition, the type of the mixing sequence discriminates systematically between two distinct refractive index curves produced by the curing process. The difference between the two refractive index curves increases monotonically with curing time, which underlines the importance of the initial molecular environment of the nanoparticles.

  16. Mathematical Model For Autoclave Curing Of Unsaturated Polyester Based Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan A. Abdul Razak


    Full Text Available Heat transfer process involved in the autoclave curing of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites is investigated numerically. A model for the prediction of the temperature and the extent of the reaction across the laminate thickness during curing process in the autoclave of unsaturated polyester based composite has been developed. The governing equation for one dimensional heat transfer, and accounting for the heat generation due to the exothermic cure reaction in the composites had been used.  It was found that the temperature at the central of the laminate increases up to the external imposed temperature, because of the thermal conductivity of the resin and fiber. The heat generated by the exothermic reaction of the resin is not adequately removed; the increase in the temperature at the center increases the resins rate reaction, which in turn generates more heat.

  17. Nitrosylation of myoglobin and nitrosation of cysteine by nitrite in a model system simulating meat curing. (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary A; Sebranek, Joseph G


    Demand is growing for meat products cured without the addition of sodium nitrite. Instead of the direct addition of nitrite to meat in formulation, nitrite is supplied by bacterial reduction of natural nitrate often added as vegetable juice/powder. However, the rate of nitrite formation in this process is relatively slow, and the total ingoing nitrite is typically less than in conventional curing processes. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the rate of addition of nitrite and the amount of nitrite added on nitrosylation/nitrosation reactions in a model meat curing system. Myoglobin was preferentially nitrosylated as no decrease in sulfhydryl groups was found until maximum nitrosylmyoglobin color was achieved. The cysteine-myoglobin model retained more sulfhydryl groups than the cysteine-only model (p 0.05). These data suggest that the amount of nitrite but not the rate of addition impacts the nitrosylation/nitrosation reactions this system.

  18. Proteomic Identification of Small (<2000 Da Myoglobin Peptides Generated in Dry-Cured Ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Mora


    Full Text Available Myoglobin is a very important sarcoplasmic protein responsible for the colour of meat and meat products. This protein is degraded during post-mortem period (ageing as well as during longer processes such as dry curing. In the present study, a total of eleven naturally generated fragments of myoglobin detected at the end of the processing of dry-cured ham have been identified for the first time and the intense proteolysis of myoglobin during dry curing has been confirmed. This study was carried out using one-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with nano liquid chromatography and an electrospray ionization source coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Paragon and Mascot search engines with the databases NCBInr and Swiss-Prot were used for the identification based on raw MS/MS data from one or more peptides, and the possible enzymes involved in myoglobin hydrolysis have also been discussed.

  19. [Social psychiatric service as a cornerstone of psychiatric community care]. (United States)

    Hoffmann, P; Tiggemann, H G


    Psychiatric care has gradually been shifting in Germany from its original inpatient basis to outpatient and complementary treatment. This shift of emphasis resulted in a transfer of psychiatry-political responsibility to communal bodies and hence also to communal public health services. Sociopsychiatric service ranks high in communal psychiatric care setups, since it promotes cooperation and helps to coordinate efforts in individual cases in respect of focal points on which such care is centered. For the future, an expert commission has suggested that the various institutions actively engaged in community psychiatric care should team up in each region. This applies in particular to mobile services visiting the patients in their homes, and to the offices providing contracts to sociopsychiatric services of public health offices. Despite positive outlooks there are also quite a few negative aspects of present-day practice. One of them is poor definition of tasks and functions of communal sociopsychiatric services, whereas another one are the unsatisfactory quantitative and qualitative means at their disposal. It is also too often overlooked that psychiatric patients and disabled persons are entitled to compensation insurance payments to promote their rehabilitation, as provided for by individual legislation in the various German laender. To tap these sources sufficiently well, sociopsychiatric services must be better equipped in every respect. The professional competence of social workers and physicians, as well as of the relevant staff, must be safeguarded by continuing education and specialist training measures.

  20. Lack of viable parasites in cured 'Parma Ham' (PDO), following experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection of pigs. (United States)

    Genchi, Marco; Vismarra, Alice; Mangia, Carlo; Faccini, Silvia; Vicari, Nadia; Rigamonti, Sara; Prati, Paola; Marino, Anna Maria; Kramer, Laura; Fabbi, Massimo


    Twelve Large White pigs were experimentally infected with 1000 Toxoplasma gondii oocysts/each. Serology was carried out at different time points post infection (p.i.) and animals were slaughtered at four months p.i. One of two thighs was examined for T. gondii infection status by PCR and bioassay in mice. The other thigh was processed for Parma ham production. Four thighs were examined after twelve months of curing, four after fourteen months and four were examined after sixteen months. Cured hams were analyzed by PCR, bioassay and in-vitro cultivation on Vero cells followed by real-time PCR. Pigs seroconverted from day 21 p.i. Bioassays were positive for all fresh thighs, but negative for cured hams. PCR was positive for parasite DNA from most thighs both at slaughter and post curing, but parasite growth was not observed following in vitro cultivation and real-time PCR. Results indicate that the curing process of Parma Ham (PDO), when carried out according to the Parma Ham consortium regulations, can inactivate T. gondii tissue cysts. Results would suggest that food-borne transmission of T. gondii to consumers from Parma ham can be excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inorganic polymers from alkali activation of metakaolin: Effect of setting and curing on structure (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Catauro, Michelina; Ponzoni, Chiara; Bollino, Flavia; Leonelli, Cristina


    Geopolymers, obtained by chemical reaction between aluminosilicate oxides and silicates under highly alkaline conditions, are studied in this paper. The proposed mechanism of geopolymer setting and hardening or curing consists of a dissolution, a transportation or an orientation, as well as a polycondensation step. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the curing time and temperature, the relative humidity and the reagents temperature on the geopolymerization process in order to obtain a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous wastes. The evolution of the process from the precursors dissolution to final geopolymer matrix hardening has been followed by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, SEM/EDS and leaching tests. The results show the significant influence of both curing temperature in the curing stage and of the mould materials on the matrix stability. The easy-to-run preparation procedure for a chemically stable metakaolin geopolymer individuated can be summarized as reagents setting and curing at room temperature and material mould which permits moisture level around 40%.

  2. Curing kinetics, mechanism and chemorheological behavior of methanol etherified amino/novolac epoxy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Zhao


    Full Text Available The curing kinetics and mechanism of epoxy novolac resin (DEN and modified epoxy novolac resin (MDEN with methanol etherified amino resin were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transforminfrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and chemorheological analysis. Their kinetics parameters and models of the curing were examined utilizing isoconversional methods, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Friedman methods. For the DEN mixture, its average activation energy (Ea was 71.05 kJ/mol and the autocatalytic model was established to describe the curing reaction. The MDEN mixture exhibited three dominant curing processes, termed as reaction 1, reaction 2 and reaction 3; and their Ea were 70.05, 106.55 and 101.91 kJ/mol, respectively. Besides, Ea of reaction 1 was similar to that of DEN mixture, while Ea of reactions 2 and 3 corresponded to that of the etherification reaction between hydroxyl and epoxide group. Moreover, these three dominant reactions were nth order in nature. Furthermore, their curing mechanisms were proposed from the results of DSC and FTIR. The chemorheological behavior was also investigated to obtain better plastics products via optimizing the processing schedules.

  3. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham. (United States)

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa


    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (piron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (pproperties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

  4. Silencing Huntington's chorea: Is RNA Interference a Potential Cure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinde A. Metz


    Full Text Available In 1872, George Huntington described Huntington's disease as characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairments. Huntington's disease is a dominant and autosomal mutation on chromosome 4 featuring the insertion of numerous CAG repeats. CAG codes for the amino acid, glutmanine that forms part of the Huntingtin protein (htt. Excess glutamine attachments make htt prone to accumulate in neurons. Three genes can be considered when developing therapies for Huntington's disease. They include targeting the symptoms of the disease, the progression of the disease and the cause of the disease. By using RNA interference (RNAi, the cause of the disease can be targeted. RNAi is a method that could potentially silence the formation of abnormal htt. This paper will discuss how RNAi could potentially cure Huntington's disease, by describing the genetic and proteinomic basis of Huntington's disease, the function of RNAi in Huntington's disease and the problems of benefits of RNAi. Preliminary work using RNAi in transgenic mice has shown a decrease in the behavioural expression of the mutant Huntington gene. There are several limitations associated with using RNAi as a gene therapy. For example, the effects of RNAi are short lived. A transposition system such as Sleeping Beauty can be used to increase the integration of the gene, however, for patients who currently have Huntington's disease, RNAi may potentially be used in combination with drugs or other treatments to target both symptoms and the underlying cause of Huntington's disease. This combination could eventually alleviate many painful symptoms associated with Huntington's disease and could even stop the progressive neurodegeneration of Huntington's disease. This review concludes that a substantial amount of new research is still necessary before RNAi is directly applicable to human patients with Huntington's disease.

  5. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nam Seong


    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP, crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire♀×Duroc♂ (LYD, Berkshire (Ber, and Duroc (Du pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05. It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05. Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05. Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05. Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05. The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

  6. Modeling and time-dependent dynamics of processes of stimulated depolymerization, auto-repairing, degradation and radiation curing of DNA macromolecules and biopolymers at separated and combined actions of ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vysotskii, Vladimir I. E-mail:; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.; Kornilova, Alla A.; Samoylenko, Igor I


    The time-dependent dynamics of the formation, relaxation and auto-repairing of double breaks of DNA macromolecules at the combined radiation action and non-radiation processes of degradation (e.g. by free radicals) were considered. The auto-repairing of DNA double breaks is connected with the peculiarities of long-range interaction of nucleotide charges, atoms and molecules in the intracellular milieu. The properties of intracellular liquid and the characteristics of force interaction between the end-pairs of nucleotides in the area of DNA break in response to radiation are changed. Each kind of radiation is characterized by a certain effectiveness of the double DNA break formation but simultaneously one creates the conditions for their liquidation. On the basis of the analysis and correlation of these processes the time-dependent theory for DNA degradation was created, including hormesis phenomenon, radiation antagonism, the validity of anomaly influence of low and large doses at sharp and chronic radiation and other effects. The qualitative and quantitative correspondences of the theory and experimental results of radiation biology were obtained.

  7. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  8. Residual-based model diagnosis methods for mixture cure models. (United States)

    Peng, Yingwei; Taylor, Jeremy M G


    Model diagnosis, an important issue in statistical modeling, has not yet been addressed adequately for cure models. We focus on mixture cure models in this work and propose some residual-based methods to examine the fit of the mixture cure model, particularly the fit of the latency part of the mixture cure model. The new methods extend the classical residual-based methods to the mixture cure model. Numerical work shows that the proposed methods are capable of detecting lack-of-fit of a mixture cure model, particularly in the latency part, such as outliers, improper covariate functional form, or nonproportionality in hazards if the proportional hazards assumption is employed in the latency part. The methods are illustrated with two real data sets that were previously analyzed with mixture cure models. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Paraphilias in adult psychiatric inpatients. (United States)

    Marsh, Patrick J; Odlaug, Brian L; Thomarios, Nick; Davis, Andrew A; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Meyer, Craig S; Grant, Jon E


    The goal of the present study was to examine the prevalence of paraphilias in an adult inpatient psychiatric population. One hundred twelve consecutive, voluntarily admitted, adult male psychiatric inpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Sexual Disorders Module, Male Version, to assess the rates of DSM-IV paraphilias. Fifteen patients (13.4%) reported symptoms consistent with at least one lifetime DSM-IV paraphilia. The most common paraphilias were voyeurism (n = 9 [8.0%]), exhibitionism (n = 6 [5.4%]), and sexual masochism (n = 3 [2.7%]). Patients who screened positive for a paraphilia had significantly more psychiatric hospitalizations (P = .006) and, on a trend level, were more likely to have attempted suicide. In addition, patients with paraphilias were significantly more likely to report having been sexually abused than patients without a paraphilia (P = paraphilia. Paraphilias appear to be more common in adult male psychiatric inpatients than previously estimated. The study also demonstrated that these disorders were not screened for by the treating physician and thus may go untreated. Further, larger-scale studies are necessary in order to further examine the rates of these disorders in the general population.

  10. Genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Tsuang, D W; Faraone, S V; Tsuang, M T


    Like other medical conditions, some psychiatric disorders are inherited, whereas others are not. Human genetics research is moving at a rapid pace. Genes for over 450 genetic disorders have been cloned and many disease-causing mutations have also been identified. The explosion of this new knowledge has created many new exciting opportunities in the diagnosis of these heritable disorders. The rapid pace of gene discovery will aid the identification of susceptibility genes for psychiatric disorders. Indeed, we can look forward to answers to many clinical and research questions. These are some of the gifts that the expanding field of human genetics research will continue to bring to medical science. However, as genetic tests for the detection of psychiatric disorders become available, many ethical, legal, and social implications will need to be considered. In this article, we review the principles of genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders, as well as the social and ethical dilemmas that genetic testing may bring. Although medical and scientific advances may bring many gifts, we should approach this new knowledge with caution, as one of the gifts may be a Pandora's box.

  11. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitvast, J.E.; Widdershoven, G.G.A.M.; Abma, T.A.


    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and

  12. Therapeutic abortion on psychiatric grounds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 23, 1983 ... those with psychiatric disorder; severe reactive depression was found in 27,5% and 50% were considered to have personality disorders sufficient to be identified as pathological. Such assessments were based on a record of longstanding neurotic or habitually maladaptive behaviour characterized by ...

  13. Predictors of psychiatric readmissions to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identification of early symptoms of relapse, application of immediate and appropriate measures, and adequate record-keeping by health institutions are ... hospitalization, resulting from the policy of de-institutionalization in. Nigeria has led to ..... adolescent psychiatric care Aust N Z ] Psychiatry 2005; 39: 600-606. 3. vaett C.

  14. Dyspepsia in chronic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E.J.; Meijs, V.M.M.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Leufkens, H.G.M.


    Introduction: We report on dyspeptic complaints among patients hospitalized in the long-stay ward of a general psychiatric hospital. Methods: A representative sample of the patients was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results: Eighty percent of the patients reported one or more

  15. Kinetic study by FTIR and DSC on the cationic curing of a DGEBA/{gamma}-valerolactone mixture with ytterbium triflate as an initiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasa, M. [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. C/ Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Ramis, X. [Laboratori de Termodinamica, ETSEIB. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:; Salla, J.M. [Laboratori de Termodinamica, ETSEIB. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mantecon, A.; Serra, A. [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. C/ Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)


    A mixture of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and {gamma}-valerolactone ({gamma}-VL) was cured in the presence of ytterbium triflate as an initiator to obtain poly(esther-ether) thermosets. The kinetics of the various elemental reactions, which take place during the curing process, was studied by means of isothermal curing in the FTIR spectrometer. The kinetic parameters were calculated by means of the isoconversional procedure and the best-fit kinetic model was determined with the so-called compensation effect (isokinetic relationship). The isothermal kinetic analysis was compared with that obtained by dynamic curing in DSC.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to compare the difference between microwave heating and conventional thermal heating in fabricating carbon/epoxy composites. Two types of epoxy resin systems were used as matrices, LY5052-HY5052 and DGEBA-HY917-DY073. All composite samples were fabricated using resin transfer moulding (RTM technique. The curing of the LY5052-HY5052-carbon and the DGEBA-HY917-DY073-carbon composite systems, were carried out at 100 °C and 120 °C, respectively. Microwave heating showed better temperature control than conventional heating, however, the heating rate of the microwave cured samples were slower than the conventionally cured samples. This was attributed to the lower power (250 W used when heating with microwaves compared to 2000 W used in conventional heating. Study of thermal characteristics as curing progressed showed that the polymerisation reaction occurred at a faster rate during microwave curing than in conventional curing for both the DGEBA and the LY/HY5052 carbon composite systems. The actual cure cycle was reduced from 60 minutes to 40 minutes when using microwaves for curing DGEBA-carbon composites. As for LY/HY5052-carbon composites, the actual cure cycle was reduced from 3 hours to 40 minutes. Both conventional and microwave heating yielded similar glass transition temperatures (120 °C for DGEBA systems and 130 °C for LY/HY5052 systems. Microwave cured composites had higher void contents than conventionally cured composites (2.2-2.8% and 1.8-2.4% for DGEBA and LY/HY5052 microwave cured composites, respectively, compared to 0.2-0.4% for both DGEBA and LY/HY5052 thermally cured composites. C-scan traces showed that all composites, regardless of methods of curing, had minimal defects.

  17. Experimental Study on the Curing Effect of Dredged Sediments with Three Types of Curing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lei-Ming


    Full Text Available Sediment solidification technology is widely used to dispose dredged sediment, three types of curing agents were used in this study to solidified the dredged sediment from shallows in Nantong with three types of curing agents: JY, ZL and FJ. The results showed that the optimal additive amounts of these three curing agents were 140g JY, 16g ZL, 2.0g FJ per 1000g of the dredged sediment respectively, their 28d USC were up to 2.48 MPa, 2.96 MPa and 3.00 MPa. JY has obvious early strength effect, which of FJ is not that obvious, but the later-stage strength of sediment solidified by FJ are relatively higher.

  18. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka


    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  19. Emergency presentations to an inner-city psychiatric service for children and adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dil, L.M.; Vuijk, P.J.


    Psychiatric emergency services for children and adolescents vary in process, structure and outcome. There are few systematic studies on the type and prevalence of psychiatric problems encountered, related circumstances or resulting interventions. Evidence in these areas is important in evaluation of

  20. [Quality of the psychiatric care in social welfare houses]. (United States)

    Kopińiska, Ewa


    The aim of the research is a diagnosis of the level of the psychiatric help in social welfare houses. The research was conducted in the form of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent at random to 60 houses of social welfare for people with psychic disorders on the whole territory of Poland. 37 responses were received. All the houses in question provide their inhabitants with regular contact with a psychiatrist, 86% inside the social welfare house. 92% of inhabitants have no problems with obtaining referral to psychiatric hospital, however, 70% inhabitants of the social welfare houses have problems with being admitted to hospital. Half of the houses in question use direct compulsion. All the places studied possess therapeutic-caring teams, in 97% of the houses treatment is based on the individual plan. 14% of the houses do not allow the patients to have access to the medical documentation concerning them. In every house integrated pharmacotherapy is used together with various forms of therapy, 76% of the houses involve the family of the patient into the therapeutic process. 78% of those studied note the existence of different factors reducing the quality of the psychiatric care offered. The level of psychiatric care in the social welfare houses is adjusted to the health needs of the patients in the majority of the houses studied. However, the inhabitants have to face the difficulties connected with being admitted to psychiatric hospitals and can have problems with gaining access to medical documentation concerning them. Treatment and rehabilitation of psychic disorders is based on individualized and multi-directional therapeutic interaction. Preparation of the staff providing psychiatric care, especially therapeutic-caring ones, is diversified in individual houses (half of the therapeutic teams do not have a psychiatrist, whose presence seems to be indispensable). The most essential factors reducing the quality of psychiatric care include insufficient financial

  1. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishimoto Kayo


    and frequent SB repetition in the lifetime history. Gender and age appeared to have an influence on SB method selection and SB-preceding processes. The findings have important implications for assessment and treatment of psychiatric suicidal patients.

  2. Antimicrobial finish of textiles by chitosan UV-curing. (United States)

    Ferrero, Franco; Periolatto, Monica


    The purpose of this research work was to develop a textile finish based on the radical UV-curing of chitosan on textiles to confer antimicrobial properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer with unique properties such as biodegradability, non-toxicity, antimicrobial activity. In this work cotton or silk fabrics and synthetic filter fabrics were impregnated with an acid solution of chitosan added of the photoinitiator in the proper amount and cured at room temperature by exposure to UV lamp. Process conditions such as percentage add-on, dilution, chitosan-fabric contact time, irradiation time and power, were optimized. The antimicrobial activity of finished fabrics was tested according to ASTM E 2149-01 standard test performed with Escherichia Coli ATCC 8739. Moreover dyeing test with Turquoise Telon dye were carried out to evaluate the treatment homogeneity while the amino group content was determined by ninhydrin assay. Moreover on cotton and silk fabrics the treatment fastness to domestic laundering was tested, according to UNI EN ISO105-C01. Obtained results showed a strong antimicrobial activity conferred by the treatment, homogeneous on fabric surface. It is evident already at low add-on, without affecting the hand properties of natural fabrics and the filtration characteristics of the synthetic filter fabrics. Finally, washing fastness was better for samples prepared with a better penetration of chitosan inside the fibers.

  3. Why have we failed to cure Alzheimer's disease? (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D


    There is widespread recognition in the urgency to understand the causes and mechanisms of senile dementia. Attempts to find cures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have, however, failed so far, in spite of enormous investments, intellectual and financial. We therefore have to reconsider the problem from new angles. AD is regarded as a disease because of its clinical manifestations and underlying pathology. However, this combination does not define a disease but rather a syndrome, just like hepatic cirrhosis in which liver pathology causes metabolic changes, but which can result from many different etiologies. It is unlikely that attacking a downstream phenomenon, like apoptosis or amyloid-β accumulation, can cure AD, or prevent the progression of the disease. It is probable that senile dementia is the result of a combination of several processes, working differently in each person. Epidemiological studies have identified many risk factors for "senile dementia of the Alzheimer type", some genetic but most environmental and therefore modifiable. Thus, a concerted action to fight the dementia epidemic must be made by aggressive action against its risk factors, and this battle must begin in midlife, not in old age.

  4. Study on the non-isothermal curing kinetics of a polyfurfuryl alcohol bioresin by DSC using different amounts of catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez Toribio, Juan Carlos; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Madsen, Bo


    The curing kinetics of a biomass-based polyfurfuryl alcohol resin with three different amounts of catalyst was studied by DSC non-isothermal measurements using seven heating rates. The change of the activation energy of the curing process was obtained by the isoconversional methods of Kissinger...... and gelling of the resin which leads to a constrained mobility of the polymer chains; and a final stage, where the activation energy decreases more rapidly due to the formation of a rigid molecular network that restricts diffusion processes. Altogether, the obtained knowledge of the curing kinetics will form...... a valuable contribution to the design of improved cure cycles for manufacturing of composite materials with a polyfurfuryl alcohol matrix....

  5. The influence of montmorillonite content on the kinetics of curing of epoxy nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.


    Full Text Available In this work, the attention was paid at the investigation of montmorillonite dispersion in epoxy/amine systems due to improved final properties of the nanocomposites. The influence of different montmorillonite content on the kinetics of curing of epoxy/Jeffamine D-230 systems was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The curing of epoxy nanocomposites was performed using dynamic regime at three different heating rates: 5, 10 and 20°C/min. Three isoconversional methods were applied: two integral (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods and one differential (Friedman method. The presence of montmorillonite (MMT causes the beginning of curing at lower temperatures. The shape of the DSC curves has been changed by the addition of MMT, supporting the hypothesis of a change in the reaction mechanism. For hybrids with 3 and 5 wt.% of MMT, the Eα dependence is very similar to those found for the reference system (epoxy/Jeffamine D-230 for the curing degree less than 60%. The hybrid with 10 wt.% of MMT has lower energy activation in regard to the referent system without montmorillonite. Greater differences are observed in the second part of the reaction, where it is known that the curing process is more controlled by diffusion (α>0.60. The Ea value increases at the end of the reaction (α→1, which was observed for all systems, and is more pronounced in the presence of montmorillonite. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45022

  6. Single-sided NMR for the measurement of the degree of cross-linking and curing


    Halmen, Norbert; Kugler, Christoph; Kraus, Eduard; Baudrit, Benjamin; Hochrein, Thomas; Bastian, Martin


    The degree of cross-linking and curing is one of the most important values concerning the quality of cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) and the functionality of adhesives and resin-based components. Up to now, the measurement of this property has mostly been time-consuming and usually destructive. Within the shown work the feasibility of single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the non-destructive determination of the degree of cross-linking and curing as process moni...

  7. Nanopigmented Acrylic Resin Cured Indistinctively by Water Bath or Microwave Energy for Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Acosta-Torres


    Full Text Available The highlight of this study was the synthesis of nanopigmented poly(methyl methacrylate nanoparticles that were further processed using a water bath and/or microwave energy for dentures. The experimental acrylic resins were physicochemically characterized, and the adherence of Candida albicans and biocompatibility were assessed. A nanopigmented acrylic resin cured by a water bath or by microwave energy was obtained. The acrylic specimens possess similar properties to commercial acrylic resins, but the transverse strength and porosity were slightly improved. The acrylic resins cured with microwave energy exhibited reduced C. albicans adherence. These results demonstrate an improved noncytotoxic material for the manufacturing of denture bases in dentistry.

  8. Imbedded fiber optic pressure and temperature sensors enable cure monitoring of pultruded composite materials (United States)

    Cable, David


    The application of fiberoptic multifunction sensing system for the measurement of temperature and pressure during the curing of fiberglass/epoxy composite structure is described. The system employs interferometric principles to measure temperature, pressure, and refractive index of liquids as well as other physical parameters. Fiberoptic pressure and temperature sensors have been employed in monitoring composites pultrusion and molding. The system is ideally suited for monitoring a variety of composite curing processes because of the sensor's microminiature size, tolerance of moderately high temperatures, non-metallic construction, and inherent immunity to electromagnetic and radio frequency signals.

  9. The mycobiota of three dry-cured meat products from Slovenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Ličen, Mia; Frisvad, Jens Christian


    The surface mycobiota of three types of Slovenian dry-cured meat products were isolated from a total of 75 items of product that were sampled periodically during the drying/ripening stage of processing. The predominant filamentous fungal genus isolated was Penicillium. Eurotium spp., Aspergillus...... “milanense” was isolated from 21 items. The other penicillia were rarely isolated. Of the isolated and identified species, those that can produce mycotoxins are: A. versicolor, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. nordicum, and Penicillium polonicum. Their growth on dry-cured meat products...

  10. Psychiatric sequelae of Amok. (United States)

    Tan, E K; Carr, J E


    The authors present evidence of an indigenous diagnostic system by which Malay culture defines Amok, and of the disparate relations between individual conceptualization, behavior, and tradition which contributes to the labeling process. Amok is viewed as a cultural prescription for violent behavior in response to a given set of conditions. It is not a disease but rather a behavioral sequence, perceived as illness, that may be precipitated by various etiological factors. Finally, evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that traditional forms of Amok are being replaced by new variants in which psychopathology is increasingly evident.

  11. Single-sided NMR for the measurement of the degree of cross-linking and curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Halmen


    Full Text Available The degree of cross-linking and curing is one of the most important values concerning the quality of cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X and the functionality of adhesives and resin-based components. Up to now, the measurement of this property has mostly been time-consuming and usually destructive. Within the shown work the feasibility of single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR for the non-destructive determination of the degree of cross-linking and curing as process monitoring was investigated. First results indicate the possibility of distinguishing between PE-X samples with different degrees of cross-linking. The homogeneity of the samples and the curing kinetics of adhesives can also be monitored. The measurements show good agreement with reference tests (wet chemical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric analysis. Furthermore, the influence of sample temperature on the characteristic relaxation times can be observed.

  12. Beliefs and attitudes of butchers and consumers towards dry-cured ham. (United States)

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Claret, A; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P


    The objectives were to evaluate the attitude of butcher and consumer towards soft and pasty texture problems in dry-cured ham and to assess the butcher and consumer behaviour when selecting and purchasing this product. Ninety-nine butchers and 200 consumers were interviewed with 17-question and 20-question surveys, respectively. The texture problems (softness and pastiness) were highly important for both butchers and consumers. The characteristics most frequently considered "important" or "very important" by butchers were processing time, smell/aroma and texture as selection criteria and salty taste and aged/matured flavour as sensory indicators of dry-cured ham quality. According to butchers' opinion, salty taste and their own advice are the factors most frequently considered "important" or "very important" as affecting the consumer's decision to purchase. For the consumer, the sensory attributes were considered more important than extrinsic characteristics when purchasing dry-cured ham.

  13. Turmeric: A condiment, cosmetic and cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hima Gopinath


    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is an integral part of Asian culture and cuisine. It has been used in traditional medicine since centuries. A myriad of health benefits have been attributed to it. Curcumin, the most biologically active curcuminoid in turmeric, is being investigated in pre-clinical and clinical trials for its role in disease prevention and cure. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, anti-proliferative and antimicrobial effects. We review the chemistry of this plant, its cultural relevance in Indian skin care, and its uses in dermatology.

  14. Care not cure: dialogues at the transition. (United States)

    Gordon, Geoffrey H


    Physicians and patients find it hard to communicate when treatment fails to cure or control cancer. Communication barriers include fear of "giving up," losing the medical team, and discussing death. The quality of physician-patient communication affects important outcomes including patient distress, coping, and quality of life, and physician burnout. Communication skills that can be taught, learned, and maintained for physicians at all levels of training, and effective educational programs have been described. Research on communication skills training should focus on the best method of delivery, the "dose-response" effect, and how to measure success of training in complex health care environments.

  15. First Do No Harm: An Analysis of the Risk Aspects and Side Effects of Clinical Holistic Medicine Compared With Standard Psychiatric Biomedical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available Clinical holistic medicine (CHM is short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP complemented with bodywork and philosophical exercises, to be more efficient in treating patients with severe mental and physical illness. STPP has already been found superior to psychiatric treatment as usual (TAU and thus able to compete with psychiatric standard treatment as the treatment of choice for all non-organic mental illnesses; we have found the addition of bodywork and philosophy of life to STPP to accelerate the process of existential healing and recovery (salutogenesis. In this paper we compare the side effects, suicidal risk, problems from implanted memory and implanted philosophy of CHM with psychopharmacological treatment. Method: Qualitative and quantitative comparative review. Results: In all aspects of risks, harmfulness, and side effects, we have been considering, CHM was superior to the standard psychiatric treatment. The old principle of “first do no harm“ is well respected by CHM, but not always by standard psychiatry. CHM seems to be able to heal the patient, while psychopharmacological drugs can turn the patient into a chronic, mentally ill patient for life. Based on the available data CHM seems another alternative to patients with mental illness. There seem to be no documentation at all for CHM being dangerous, harmful, having side effects of putting patients at risk for suicide. As CHM uses spontaneous regression there is no danger for the patient developing psychosis as, according to some experts, has been seen with earlier intensive psychodynamic methods. CHM is an efficient, safe and affordable cure for a broad range of mental illnesses.

  16. Influence of curing agents on gelation and exotherm behaviour of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reduced gel-time and shortened exothermic reactions in applications such as liquid composite moulding processes. ... A nonlinear regression analysis of all gel- .... perature are profiled with the levels of cure ingredients dependence. 2. Materials. A commercially available medium reactive unsaturated polyester resin with a ...

  17. Effect of curing time on ph and time dependant coated pellets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: Theophylline loaded pellets were coated with a non aqueous time and pH dependant eudragit solution. The coated pellets were cured at constant process parameters (45°C) for different time periods (05, 10, or 20 min) and the drug release profile and other characteristics of formulation were evaluated.

  18. Single Vacuum Bagging and Autoclave Curing System Influence on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Phenolic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mirzapour


    Full Text Available Industrial production of thermoset composite components involves the application of a vacuum bagging and autoclave pressure to minimize void percentage, usually to less than 5%. Phenolic resin systems generate water as a reaction byproduct via condensation reactions during curing at elevated temperatures. In this paper, vacuum bagging and simple manufactured autoclave curing systems are used for manufacturing of asbestos/phenolic composites and the effects of processing conditions on manufactured composites are investigated. The traditional single-vacuum-bag process is unable to manage the volatiles effectively, resulting in inferior laminates having voids. The autoclave process cure cycle (temperature/pressure profiles for the selected composite system is designed to emit volatiles during curing reactions effectively and produce composites with low void contents and excellent mechanical properties. Laminate consolidation quality is characterized by optical photomicrography for the cross-sections and measurements of void content and mechanical properties. The void content of phenolic composites as opposed to other composites increases as pressure increases up to 3 bar and it is then decreased beyond it. A product of 124% lower void content, 13% higher density, 24% higher flexural strength and 27% higher flexural modulus can be fabricated in composites obtainedby autoclave processing.

  19. Potential Mechanization in the Flue-Cured Tobacco Industry--with Emphasis on Human Resource Adjustment. (United States)

    McElroy, Robert C.; And Others

    Large numbers of people are still employed in production, marketing, and processing of flue-cured tobacco in eight agricultural subregions in five southeastern states. Mechanization and new technology which is being introduced could result in substantial economic and social problems unless new economic opportunities are developed. However,…

  20. Electron-beam curing of epoxy resins: effect of alcohols on cationic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron-beam (e-beam) induced polymerization of epoxy resins proceeds via cationic mechanism in presence of suitable photoinitiator. Despite good thermal properties and significant processing advantages, epoxy-based composites manufactured using e-beam curing suffer from low compressive strength, poor ...

  1. Using bio-based polymers for curing cement-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Picken, S.J.


    Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from the surface of cement based materials. It is the final stage in the production of cement-based materials and it is the essential part for achieving continuous hydration of cement, while avoiding cracking due to drying

  2. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reko, Amra; Bech, Per; Wohlert, Cathrine


    predominantly male and married. The group consisted primarily (61%) of failed asylum seekers. Most patients (81%) presented with relevant mental health problems. The main reasons for presenting to the acute psychiatric emergency service were suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (60%). The most frequent diagnosis...... by asylum seekers in Denmark shows some of the acute mental health needs asylum seekers present with. The findings of high levels of suicidal ideation and possible diagnostic difficulties are discussed, as well as possible improvements of the referral and psychiatric evaluation processes....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Batta


    Full Text Available Background. Huntington disease occurrs rarely, it can be encountered not only by neurologists and psychiatrists but also by other medical practitioners. Its characteristic features are involuntary movements, cognitive disorders and gradual development of dementia. Diagnosis is given on the basis of these clinical features, positive familial anamnesis, with the laboratory exclusion of other neuropsychiatric diseases and with the help of neuroimaging methods (in particular NMR. The disease can be only confirmed by means of genetic analysis.Patients and methods. In this article, four cases of patients with Huntington disease and diverse psychiatric disorders that were hospitalised at the psychiatric department of the Maribor General Hospital between October 2002 and March 2003 are described. All the patients fulfilled the valid criteria for the diagnosis of Huntington disease. However, they differed according to their accompanying psychiatric psychopathology, age and social problems.Conclusions. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to different psychiatric symptoms and clinical manifestations of Huntington disease that are often misleading in the diagnostic process. In addition, exigency of early diagnostics, guidelines for referrals to genetic testing and psychiatric monitoring of these patients are emphasised.

  4. Addressing psychiatric education in Latin America: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Fahrer, Rodolfo; Jorge, Miguel R; Ruiz, Pedro


    This article is about the psychiatric educational components in the field of psychiatry. Currently the training and educational objectives focus on five major areas: undergraduate education (medical students); graduate education (psychiatric residents); psychiatric education for primary care physicians, as well as physicians in other medical specializations (psychosomatic training); public health and public education at large, and patient and family education, and the promotion of 'mental health' at a community level. Given the strong globalization process observed in all regions of the world in the past two or three decades, it is very important for Latin America to constantly review and update its psychiatric and behavioural sciences curriculum across all medical institutions and universities of the continent. New methods of teaching and novel approaches to education in the field of psychiatry are currently based on models that are also in use in other parts of the world, especially in the USA. Boards of certification for psychiatrists are being implemented all over the continent. Sound certification guarantees that the professional has followed and passed an educational training plan to make him/her qualified to start practising the profession. The future of psychiatric training will be closely bound to the future of the practice of psychiatry, and will have to get ahead of the challenges the specialism will face during the next decades.

  5. National-scale precision medicine for psychiatric disorders in Sweden. (United States)

    Bergen, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F


    Since psychiatric disorders have genetic architectures dominated by common variants of small effects, successful elucidation in psychiatric genetics necessitates large sample sizes. Collaboration and unconventional ascertainment methods are required to fulfill this need. Electronic health records have been increasingly seen as holding great potential for research, although they often pose substantial technical, legal and ethical challenges. Universal health care and national-scale registers with comprehensive medical, developmental, demographic, and geographic information make the Nordic countries ideal for psychiatric genetic epidemiology. The Genomic Aggregation Project in Sweden is gathering genetic data from subjects with and without complex genetic diseases in a single location for standardized processing and use in a wide variety of scientific investigations. Thirty groups with >160 K genotyped samples have joined GAPS. Although GAPS is general across medicine, many psychiatric disorders are represented within GAPS, and initial studies will focus on major depressive disorder. Through in-depth genetic investigations, the genes and pathways that will be identified can be leveraged for predictive and drug-development purposes. Sweden offers exceptional possibilities for psychiatric genetics, and GAPS aims to harness the wealth of available information for research to improve human health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome among psychiatric patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal illness characterized by abdominal pain, bloating and bowel disturbance, which may either be constipation or diarrhea with no detectable organic pathologic process. About 70-90% of patients with IBS have psychiatric comorbidity, such as depression, ...

  7. A multi-stage curing technique toward improved dimensional infidelity of curve-shaped composites manufactured with vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (United States)

    Teoh, Kai Jin

    The occurrence of dimensional infidelity during the curing process is detected as curved composites are being released from the mold after full consolidation. On the other hand, the lengthy cure cycle, thermal spiking and non-uniform consolidation in thick composite manufacturing are often strong deterrents to widespread industrial implementation. Therefore, a multi-stage curing technique is implemented and its outcome toward the spring-in phenomenon is investigated in this research. The composite processing technique of stage curing is useful for assessing the effects of thermal spiking, non-uniform consolidation and fiber wrinkling on mechanical integrity for thick composite structures. However, the prediction of spring-in behavior for a multi-stage curing process is still a relatively unexplored area in engineering research. As a result, a compatibility model based on the residual stress that builds up at each curing stage is performed in our study. Since the resin provides a lubricant effect between each curing stage, a partial slipping interface factor w is introduced to our numerical simulation model. The newly developed multi-stage curing model shows good agreement with the experimental results under Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process.

  8. Reflexivity and countertransference in a psychiatric cultural consultation clinic. (United States)

    Good, B J; Herrera, H; Good, M J; Cooper, J


    A Mexican-American woman who complained of persistent head pain and a bothersome "voice" was seen by a team consisting of a psychiatrist, social scientists, and spiritualist healers in a Cultural Consultation Clinic of a Psychiatric Consultation Liaison Service. This single case is analyzed to provide an understanding of the interpretive dimensions of psychiatric practice. It is argued that a hermeneutic analysis of clinical phenomena focuses attention on three distinct aspects of interpretation: on the interpretation by clinicians and clients of the discourse of the other in terms of their own clinical models; on the influence of deeply embedded personal meanings on this interpretive process; and on the role of the observer in clinical ethnography. It is argued that to sustain a hermeneutic analysis of psychiatric practice, an account of transference and countertransference in terms of interpretation theory will have to be developed.

  9. Analysis and simulation of heat transfer in human tooth during the curing of orthodontic appliance and food ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Velazquez-Lopez


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze and simulate the heat transfer in the human tooth undergoing fixed orthodontic appliances and food intake. An in vivo representative mathematic model of a layered thermographic profile was developed during the LED curing of Gemini bracket 0.022 in slot (conventional ligating system and Transbond XT adhesive. The characterization of the layered thermic response allowed to identify if during the LED curing process, according to manufacturer's specification (light curing unit, adhesive can induce pulpar necrosis. The profile's thermographic model was the simulation basis of many conditions such as food intake, due to in vivo metrology is affected by the impossibility of a correct apparatus position and the physiologic function of the oral cavity which is exposed to uncontrollable temperature changes. The metrology was carried out with a T-440 thermographic camera during LED curing bracket, using a LED curing light (Elipar S10 placed at 3 ± 1 mm for 5 s at each mesial and distal surface. The thermography outcomes were analyzed in the FLIR Tools Software, Microsoft Excel 2013 and SPSS 22. To adjust the mathematic model error, in vitro studies were performed on third molars for the purpose of realizing extreme exposition temperature condition tests caused by the LED curing unit without jeopardizing the human tooth vitality as would it be on in vivo experimentation. The bracket curing results according to manufacturer's conditions reached 39°C in vivo temperatures and 47°C on in vitro tests, which does not jeopardize human tooth vitality as said by previous researches, although, an LED curing precise protocol established by the manufacturer's LED curing light is sustained.

  10. New curing system of urea-formaldehyde resind with polyhydrazides. I. Curing with dihydrazie compounds (United States)

    Bunichiro Tomita; Hideaki Osawa; Chung-Yun Hse; George E. Myers


    A nonconventional curing system was developed using a simple mixing of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins with polyfunctional hydrazide compounds under neutral contition. Several kinds of low molecular-weight dihydrazide compounds were investigated as hardners of the UF resins. Results were as follows: 1) As the minimum gelation times were observed in the range of molar...

  11. Influence of curing protocol on selected properties of light-curing polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewaele, Magali; Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on degree of conversion (DC), volume contraction (C), elastic modulus (E), and glass transition temperature (T(g)) as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with each other....

  12. Mentoring psychiatric trainees' first paper for publication. (United States)

    Lambert, M T; Garver, D L


    The authors describe their experience supervising and collaborating on projects that led to the first publications of several medical students and psychiatric residents. Rather than mandating a research project of all the residents, the faculty focus effort on the trainees with a sincere interest in writing a scholarly paper for publication. The authors break down the procedure of developing a published project into manageable steps that reflect and teach the scientific process. The mentoring required for these trainee-faculty publications is involved and time consuming, but the process is extremely rewarding. Four successful projects illustrate different levels of publication possibilities for trainees and demonstrate the positive effects the experiences had on their academic aspirations.

  13. Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew. (United States)

    David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N


    The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.

  14. [Psychiatric emergencies in drug addiction]. (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Bouchez, Jacques; Rahioui, Hassan; Reynaud, Michel


    The practitioner is very frequently confronted by emergencies in drug-addicted patients also having psychiatric symptomatology. In this article the authors will address emergencies related to alcohol (notably intoxication, pre-DTs and the encephalopathies); emergencies related to cannabis (notably intoxication, psychotic states and panic attacks); and emergencies related to other psycho-active substances (overdoses, drug-withdrawal, psychiatric complications related to cocaine or amphetamines). In the domain of drug addiction, as in psychiatry, the practitioner must give as much importance to the organisation of the long-term healthcare plan for the drug addict, ulterior to the management of the immediate emergency. For example, whereas 90% of subjects presenting to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication have a pathological consumption of alcohol (abuse or dependance), management of the alcoholism is proposed in only 2% of them.

  15. Radiation curing of carbon fibre composites (United States)

    Spadaro, G.; Alessi, S.; Dispenza, C.; Sabatino, M. A.; Pitarresi, G.; Tumino, D.; Przbytniak, G.


    Epoxy/carbon fibre reinforced composites were produced by means of e-beam irradiation through a pulsed 10 MeV electron beam accelerator. The matrix consisted of a difunctional epoxy monomer (DGEBA) and an initiator of cationic polymerisation, while the reinforcement was a unidirectional high modulus carbon fibre fabric. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis was carried out in order to determine the cross-linking degree. The analysis pointed out a nonuniformity in the cross-linking degree of the e-beam cured panels, with the formation of clusters at low Tg (glass transition temperature) and clusters at high Tg. An out-of-mould post irradiation thermal treatment on e-beam cured samples provides a higher uniformity in the network although some slight degradation effects. Mode I delamination fracture toughness and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ISS) were also investigated by means of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and Short Beam Shear tests, respectively. Results from this mechanical characterisation allowed to correlate fracture toughness of the bulk matrix resin, cross-linking density and fibre/matrix interaction to the delamination fracture behaviour of the fibre reinforced material.

  16. Comparison of the shear bond strength of brackets using the led curing light and plasma arc curing light: polymerization time. (United States)

    Yu, Hyung-Seong; Lee, Kee-Joon; Jin, Guang-Chun; Baik, Hyoung-Seon


    The xenon plasma arc curing light and the LED curing light have substantially decreased the time required for polymerizing a bracket bonding composite. However, the expense and size of the plasma arc curing light has limited its use. The LED curing light is less expensive, smaller in size, and easier to handle. This study compared the bond strength afforded by the plasma arc curing light with that produced by the LED curing light, according to the polymerization time. In addition, the polymerization time required for adequate adhesion of the bracket was examined. After positioning the orthodontic brackets with the composite resin onto 120 human premolars, the plasma arc curing light and the LED curing light were used to polymerize the composite resin at 4-, 6-, and 8-second timepoints. The results showed that the LED curing light produces a bond strength sufficient for maintaining the orthodontic bracket even with a short burst of polymerization. Therefore, it is expected that the LED curing light will be readily accepted by orthodontists.

  17. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies. (United States)

    Marcos, L R


    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  18. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*


    Ravi Abhyankar


    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  19. Treatment Adherence in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Demirkol


    Full Text Available Despite developments in treatment options there is no significant increase in treatment adherence ratios. Inadherence in psychiatric disorders is higher than the other diseases. Loss of insight, drugs' side effects, sociodemographic features, personality traits are major factors affecting the treatment adherence. Determining and overcoming these factors for each disorder will help to improve adherence and reduce the treatment costs and hospitalization. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 85-93

  20. Psychiatric thoughts in ancient India. (United States)

    Abhyankar, Ravi


    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  1. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India* (United States)

    Abhyankar, Ravi


    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  2. Dissociative Experiences in Psychiatric Inpatients


    Ali Firoozabadi; Nooshin Reza Alizadeh


    Dissociative disorders are conditions that involve disruptions of memory, awareness, identity, or perception. Data collected in diverse geographic locations underline the consistency in clinical symptoms of dissociative disorders. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, prevalence of dissociative experiences has been screened in hospitalized patients in psychiatric wards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. One hundred and sixty patients in two hospitals entered the study. Our...

  3. Psychiatric aspects of bariatric surgery (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Chieh; Huang, Chih-Kuan; Tai, Chi-Ming


    Purpose of review Bariatric surgery has been consistently shown to be effective in long-term marked weight loss and in bringing significant improvement to medical comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome. Empirical data suggest a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among bariatric surgery candidates. In this review, we focus on the studies published recently with a high impact on our understanding of the role of psychiatry in bariatric surgery. Recent findings This article reviews the specific psychopathologies before surgery, changes in psychopathologies after surgery, suicide risk related to bariatric surgery, factors associated with weight loss, and recommendations for presurgical and postsurgical assessment and management. Research indicates a decrease in certain psychiatric symptoms after weight loss with bariatric surgery. However, the risk of suicide and unsuccessful weight loss in some bariatric surgery patients make monitoring following surgery as important as careful assessment and management before surgery. Specific considerations for youth and older populations and future potential research foci are discussed. Summary Recent publications suggest new directions for psychiatric evaluation and interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Future research on outcomes of specific populations, effectiveness of psychopharmacotherapy, and underlying pathophysiology are warranted for the advancement of treating bariatric surgery patients. PMID:25036421

  4. Psychiatric trainees in Finland 2001. (United States)

    Putkonen, Hanna; Holi, Matti; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Korkeila, Jyrki; Eronen, Markku


    This study examined Finnish psychiatric trainees' views on their education. This was a survey study of nationwide data on Finnish psychiatric trainees in 2001. The quality of training was considered at least moderate by 84% of the respondents. Training on epidemiology, on taking history and status, and on psychopharmacology was considered the best. Quality was rated bad for training in leadership and administration, and educating the community. Research was done by 20%, and a personal clinical supervisor was appointed to 52% of the respondents. Offensive treatment had been experienced by 49% of the trainees in this study. Generally, studies of training also reflect strengths and weaknesses of the profession. Based on our results, it seems especially that training in leadership and in educating the community need to be improved; both of these are quintessential skills to survive in the struggle for economic and human resources. Furthermore, treatment of the trainees could still be better; attention should be paid to supervision of all trainees. Moreover, research must become more attractive. Psychiatry can be developed by the development of psychiatric training.

  5. [Psychiatric reform and social participation: a case study]. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alice Guimarães Bottaro; Conciani, Marta Ester


    The psychiatric reform in Brazil articulates several dimensions - conceptual, technical, administrative, legislative and cultural. It is aimed at overcoming the psychiatric paradigm based on isolation and exclusion of the mentally ill. The Reform makes part of the Brazilian Health System and presupposes a hierarchical system, municipality, participation and social control. Besides the advances made in the administrative dimension, in the state of Mato Grosso the reform takes place in centralized management contexts, revealing an apparent contradiction. Analyzing the participative processes in the construction of the psychiatric reform in Cuiabá and in the state of Mato Grosso by means of analyses of documents of the Health Councils and Conferences held over the period 2000 to 2005. The fragility of the political processes of the Health Councils hampers their constitution as environments for articulating new practices. The process of changes toward the psychiatric reform is in accordance with a new management, determined by new financing models - reduction of hospitalizations and not hospital-centered care. This is possible because it is not a result of criticisms to the asylum logic represented in the analyzed dimensions of the Brazilian Health System.

  6. Effect of curing time on microstructure and mechanical strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mechanical strength of alkali activated mortars cured at 65 °C was assessed for different curing times (4–168 h) using 10 molal NaOH solution as alkaline activator. Compressive strength values around 77MPa after three days of curing at 65 °C were obtained. 1.68MPa/h compressive strength gain rate was observed in the ...

  7. Effects of the different atmospheric steam curing processes on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fly ash, stone dust (limestone powder), slag (ground) and silica fume can be used (Persson 2001;. Xie et al 2015; Türkmen & Kantarcı 2006; Sonebi 2004; Aydın 2007; ..... ground granulated blast furnace slag and metakaolin as cement replacement materials. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 2(1): 52–59. EFNARC 2002 Specification ...

  8. Chemistry, Characterization and Processing of IMC Curing Polymers. (United States)


    are the geometric dispositions of such unsaturated systems, i.e., cis-trans isomerism and proximity of interacting unsaturation sites. More impor...absorption at 1680-1730 cm’, and a characteristic broad band base at 900-950 cm - which can be attributed to the lactone ring with an exocyclic double

  9. Bonding of dual-curing resin cements to dentin. (United States)

    Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne


    The purpose of the study was three-fold: 1) to determine the strength of the bond between a number of dual-curing resin cements and dentin treated with corresponding adhesive systems, 2) to determine the effect on bond strength of not light curing the cements, and 3) to investigate whether application of a solution of sodium sulfinate or ascorbic acid would increase the bond strength in the cases where the manufacturer's version of an adhesive system resulted in low bond strength with chemically cured cement, ie, cement cured without light. The adhesive systems comprised 5 simplified systems (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, ED Primer II, Excite DSC, OptiBond Solo Plus, and Prime and Bond NT), and as controls, two three-step etch and rinse systems (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and Gluma Solid Bond). The corresponding dual-curing resin cements were RelyX ARC, Panavia F 2.0, Variolink II, Nexus 2, Calibra, RelyX ARC, and 2Bond2. The cements were either light and chemically cured or only chemically cured. The adhesive systems were used as recommended by the manufacturers, which for some systems involved inclusion of a so-called activator or catalyst when used with chemically cured cement. Sodium sulfinate and ascorbic acid were applied as a 1% ethanol solution. The bond strengths were measured in shear after storing specimens for 24 h in 37 degree C water. When the dual-curing resin cements had been both light and chemically cured, the bond strengths increased in this order: Gluma Solid Bond cements decreased the bond strengths with OptiBond Solo Plus and Prime and Bond NT. The use of activator in conjunction with OptiBond Solo Plus and Prime and Bond NT increased the bond strength to chemically cured cement, but not to the level obtained when the cement was both light and chemically cured. The use of the catalyst of Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus did not increase the bond strength with chemically cured cement. Pretreatment with a solution of sodium sulfinate or

  10. Cure-dependent Viscoelastic Poisson’s Ratio of Epoxy (United States)


    Poisson’s ratio in creep and stress relaxation of EPON 828 epoxy cured with tri- ethylenetriamine using geometric moiré with gratings of 20 lines per...cure kinetics [23] and cure-dependent viscoelastic properties [24] of this material. A second system was also investigated, EPON 828 /3274, a bisphenol...Table 1. The EPON 828 /3274 specimens were cured for 48 h at room temperature followed by 10 h at 75◦C to ensure the material was fully reacted. After

  11. Accounting for Cured Patients in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. (United States)

    Othus, Megan; Bansal, Aasthaa; Koepl, Lisel; Wagner, Samuel; Ramsey, Scott


    Economic evaluations often measure an intervention effect with mean overall survival (OS). Emerging types of cancer treatments offer the possibility of being "cured" in that patients can become long-term survivors whose risk of death is the same as that of a disease-free person. Describing cured and noncured patients with one shared mean value may provide a biased assessment of a therapy with a cured proportion. The purpose of this article is to explain how to incorporate the heterogeneity from cured patients into health economic evaluation. We analyzed clinical trial data from patients with advanced melanoma treated with ipilimumab (Ipi; n = 137) versus glycoprotein 100 (gp100; n = 136) with statistical methodology for mixture cure models. Both cured and noncured patients were subject to background mortality not related to cancer. When ignoring cured proportions, we found that patients treated with Ipi had an estimated mean OS that was 8 months longer than that of patients treated with gp100. Cure model analysis showed that the cured proportion drove this difference, with 21% cured on Ipi versus 6% cured on gp100. The mean OS among the noncured cohort patients was 10 and 9 months with Ipi and gp100, respectively. The mean OS among cured patients was 26 years on both arms. When ignoring cured proportions, we found that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) when comparing Ipi with gp100 was $324,000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) (95% confidence interval $254,000-$600,000). With a mixture cure model, the ICER when comparing Ipi with gp100 was $113,000/QALY (95% confidence interval $101,000-$154,000). This analysis supports using cure modeling in health economic evaluation in advanced melanoma. When a proportion of patients may be long-term survivors, using cure models may reduce bias in OS estimates and provide more accurate estimates of health economic measures, including QALYs and ICERs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics

  12. Influence of Layup and Curing on the Surface Accuracy in the Manufacturing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Composite Space Mirrors (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jianbao; Xie, Yongjie; Zhang, Boming; Sun, Baogang; Guo, Hongjun


    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, CFRP, composite materials have been used to fabricate space mirror. Usually the composite space mirror can completely replicate the high-precision surface of mould by replication process, but the actual surface accuracy of replicated space mirror is always reduced, still needed further study. We emphatically studied the error caused by layup and curing on the surface accuracy of space mirror through comparative experiments and analyses, the layup and curing influence factors include curing temperature, cooling rate of curing, method of prepreg lay-up, and area weight of fiber. Focusing on the four factors, we analyzed the error influence rule and put forward corresponding control measures to improve the surface figure of space mirror. For comparative analysis, six CFRP composite mirrors were fabricated and surface profile of mirrors were measured. Four guiding control measures were described here. Curing process of composite space mirror is our next focus.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita de Jesús Medina-Serna


    Full Text Available Due to the environmental problem posed by the use of Portland cement as construction material, it becomes necessary the search for supplementary cementitious materials that mitigate the ecological damage caused by it. Because the chemical similarity and the high cementitious powers of the blast furnace slag, it is used in the generation of geopolymers in a cement total replacement. This research focused on the study of the influence of the curing conditions on the final properties of blast furnace slag establishing three variables: no cured process (N-C, cured of controlled temperature of 45°C (CT45-C and room temperature cure (RT-C; evaluating the mechanical behavior until 28 days of age and the water porosity index. The results show that geopolymers based on blast furnace slag has a behavior similar to hydration maturity of Portland cement and curing process decreases the porosity; On the other hand, applying a controlled temperature generates densest resistant pastes such as the variable CT45-C which reach the highest value of resistance in all curing ages.

  14. The influence of tertiary amine accelerators on the curing behaviors of epoxy/anhydride systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Chongfeng; Zhang, Junying, E-mail:; Cheng, Jue


    Highlights: • The influences of two types of accelerators (BDMA and DMP-30) on curing reaction of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems were studied comparatively. • The activation energy and kinetic parameters of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems with accelerator content of 0.2 phr and 0.5 phr were calculated, respectively. • The dependence of autocatalytic and non-autocatalytic curing reaction on the loading of accelerators was discussed. • The non-catalytic curing reaction dominated absolutely in the curing process of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems when the accelerator contents were 0.2 phr. - Abstract: Accelerators have significant effects on the curing behaviors of epoxy/anhydride (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F/methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride, DGEBF/MeHHPA) systems. Non-isothermal DSC was used to investigate the influence of dimethyl benzylamine (BDMA, 0.2 phr/0.5 phr) and Tris-(dimethyl aminomethyl) phenol (DMP-30, 0.2 phr/0.5 phr) on the curing behaviors of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems, respectively. When the amount of accelerators was kept constant, the activation energy calculated by Kissinger method changed slightly in the presence of either BDMA or DMP-30. And, with increasing the accelerator content from 0.2 phr to 0.5 phr, the value of activation energy decreased from 115 kJ/mol to 85 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the calculation results of Málek method identified that all systems in this study fitted Sesták–Berggren (SB) model and the corresponding model parameters, m and n, were obtained. It was found that the contribution of autocatalytic reaction with low accelerator content (0.2 phr) was far less than that with high accelerator content (0.5 phr)

  15. Quam bene vivas referre: curing and caring in psycho-oncology. (United States)

    Grassi, Luigi


    By examining the medical-philosophical Latin heritage, some psycho-oncology principles may be traced in Claudius Galenus and Lucius Anneus Seneca. The former hypothesized a link between depression and cancer; the latter strongly underlined the need for not wasting time, living in the present by searching for meaning and reaching well-being of the soul through virtues, even when dealing with misfortune and negative life events. On these premises, what follows here is an analysis of the first steps in the science of psychosocial care in cancer starting with the work of Arthur M. Sutherland and moving on to more recent psycho-oncology research, which has shown the centrality of a biopsychosocial approach in cancer integrating cure and care (within the double meaning of the old Latin noun cura). Studies of the biopsychosocial approach covering the psychological implications of cancer (e.g., prevalence of emotional distress, application of DSM/ICD classical, and more recent psychiatric classification systems), their psychobiological concomitants (e.g., inflammation and immune dysregulation mechanisms in depression and chronobiology of stress and cancer), and interpersonal issues (e.g., doctor-patient communication and role of neuron mirror system) are discussed. Psychosocial oncology avoids the distinction between curing and caring and includes science and compassion in a whole approach to the multidimensionality of the human being in balancing evidence-based with person-centered/narrative-based oncology (values-based oncology). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura


    Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.

  17. New curing system for urea-formaldehyde resins with polyhydrazides. I. Curing with poly(methycrylol hydrazide) (United States)

    Katsumasa Miyake; Bunichiro Tomita; Chung-Yun Hse; George E. Myers


    A new curing system for urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins was investigated using poly(methacryloyl hydrazide) as the curing reagent. Results were as follows: 1) Gel time and the water-soluble part of cured resins were determined as function of pH and molar ratio [hydrazide group/(free formaldehyde+methylol group)]. It was found that the reaction in this system proceeds for...

  18. The arsonists portrait- as seen by forensic psychiatric examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulescu Simona Delia


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim of our study is to determine the mental state of the arsonists that have undergone forensic psychiatric evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS We have examined the mental health records between years 2014-2015. Only subjects who committed fire setting crimes and were referred to the Legal Medicine Institute from Timișoara for a psychiatric evaluation were selected for the study. We analysed the following data: socio-demographic parameters, psychiatric diagnosis, motivation for the perpetrated crime, alcohol and drug addiction, the applied safety measure, the administrated neuroleptic and complementary treatment and the social support network. RESULTS The portrait of the arsonist is mainly male, young, single, poorly educated, unskilled and unemployed, living mostly in rural areas and with alcohol or drugs additction at the time of comitting the fire setting. Regarding the mental state of the patient, the most common diagnoses among the subjects were: psychoses, toxic substance delusional disorder, mixed personality disorder and intellectual disabilities. In most cases, arsonists lost discerment at the time of comitting the criminal act and they were not held accountable for it. CONCLUSIONS Our study established the most common psychiatric disturbances of arsonists as seen by forensic psychiatric examination. Different reasons for setting up fire have also been discussed. Patients were both delusional and irritated. We attempted to sketch a "portrait" of the arsonist and suggestions were included in order to ensure further "profiling" information gathering. REFERENCES 1. Rasanen P, Hakko H, Vaisanen E. The mental state of arsonists as determined by forensic psychiatric examinations. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1995;23:547-553. 2. Tyler N, Gannon TA. Explanations of firesetting in mentally disordered offenders: A review of the literature. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes. 2012;75:150-166. 3. Inciardi JA. The adult

  19. Influence of ceramic translucency on curing efficacy of different light-curing units. (United States)

    Koch, Angela; Kroeger, Mareike; Hartung, Martin; Manetsberger, Iris; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Friedl, Karl-Heinz


    The aim of the study was to examine the influence of dental ceramic translucency under different exposure conditions upon the polymerization rate of a dual-curing composite resin by measuring the depth of cure (DOC) and the Vickers microhardness (VHN). Three hundred twenty ceramic specimens (160 Empress 2, Ivoclar Vivadent, color 300, and 160 ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, 300, 114; diameter 4 mm, height 1 mm or 2 mm) were inserted into steel molds and overlayed using a composite resin (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent) with and without a self-curing catalyst. Specimens were cured either in contact with or at a 5-mm distance from a conventional halogen curing light (Elipar TriLight, 3M ESPE, exposure duration 40 s, standard mode) and a light-emitting diode (LED: Bluephase 16i, Ivoclar-Vivadent, exposure duration 20 s, high-power mode). DOC under the ceramic specimen was measured following ISO 4049:2000. The VHN of the resin composite was determined at 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm distance from the ceramic using a Vickers hardness tester. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (alpha = 0.05) and the error-rates method (ERM). Higher translucency of the ceramic restoration resulted in higher DOC and VHN values, which were statistically significant for the halogen light source and in most cases for the LED groups. The use of a self-curing catalyst generally produced an increase in DOC and VHN data, with the exception of DOC data for the highly translucent ceramic and direct contact of the tip of the light source with the ceramic. No significant differences between VHN data of the highly translucent ceramic without catalyst and the opaque ceramic with catalyst were observed in 3 out of 4 pairwise comparisons and according to the ERM. Thus, there are indications that for a highly translucent ceramic with the LED unit tested the catalyst may be waived for a ceramic thickness up to 2 mm. There are indications that for a highly translucent ceramic with the LED unit

  20. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units (United States)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.


    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  1. Internal water curing with Liapor aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro


    Internal water curing is a very efficient way to counteract self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage in high performance concrete, thereby reducing the likelihood of early-age cracking. This paper deals with early-age volume changes and moisture transport in lightweight aggregate concrete realized...... with wet lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregate concrete mixtures with different degree of saturation and different particle size of the lightweight aggregates were studied and compared to normal weight concrete. Autogenous deformations, selfinduced stresses in fully restrained conditions, elastic...... modulus and compressive strength were measured. Early-age expansion of the mixtures was greater the higher the degree of the saturation of the lightweight aggregates and the finer their particle size. The elastic properties and the earlyage expansion of the lightweight aggregate concrete were calculated...

  2. Can Increasing the Manufacturer's Recommended Shortest Curing Time of High-intensity Light-emitting Diodes Adequately Cure Sealants? (United States)

    Branchal, Caroline F; Wells, Martha H; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis


    To investigate sealant depth of cure after increasing the curing times of high-intensity light-emitting diode units (LEDs). Three sealants (opaque-unfilled, opaque-filled, and clear-filled) were light cured in a covered-slot mold with: (a) three LEDs (VALO, SmartLite, Fusion) for six to 15 seconds; and (b) a quartz-tungsten halogen (QTH) light for 40 seconds as a control (N=10). Twenty-four hours after light curing, microhardness was measured at the sealant surface and through the depth at 0.5 mm increments. Results were analyzed via analysis of variance followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (significance level 0.05). The opaque-filled and clear-filled sealants cured with VALO for six or nine seconds had hardness values that were statistically equivalent to or better than the QTH to a depth of 1.5 mm. Using Fusion for 10 seconds (exposure limit) did not adequately cure the three sealants beyond one mm. SmartLite at 15 seconds (maximum exposure period without overheating) did not adequately cure the sealants beyond 0.5 mm. Among the tested high-intensity LEDs, only VALO at double or triple the manufacturers' shortest curing time (six or nine seconds) provided adequate curing of opaque-filled and clear-filled sealants at 1.5 mm depth compared to the 40-second QTH light.

  3. The effect of curing time and curing method on microleakge of conservative adhesive resin restorations: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heidari


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Using the conservative adhesive resin restoration (CAR in uncooperative children lead to numerous problems because of being time consuming. The purpose of this study was to compare the microleakage of conservative adhesive resin restoration under separate curing and co-curing.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 120 intact premolar teeth were collected and 120 vertical grooves were prepared on them. Then the teeth were divided into four groups: group 1, separated curing of bonding agent, flowable composite and sealant; group 2, co-curing of all materials for 60 seconds; group 3,co-curing of all materials for 40 seconds and group 4, co-curing of all materials for 20 seconds. Then the specimens were thermocycled and immersed in basic fuchsin solution. The teeth were sectioned horizontally and dye penetration was evaluated with stereomicroscope. Date were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test.Results: Mean value of dye penetration in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 1.53±0.6, 2.06±0.6, 2.5±0.7 and 3.53±0.6, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between group 1 and the other groups (P=0.0001.Conclusion: Considering the problems caused by microleakage in conservative resin adhesive restorations, co-curing method should not be used. In the case of using co-curing method, 60 second curing time is suggested for sufficient polymerization.

  4. Curing behavior and thermal properties of trifunctional epoxy resin cured by 4, 4’-diaminodiphenyl sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A novel trifunctional epoxy resin 4-(3, 3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2, 4, 4-trimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl-1, 3-benzenediol glycidyl (shorted as TMBPBTH-EPOXY was synthesized in our lab to improve thermal performance. Its curing behavior and performance were studied by using 4, 4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS as hardener with the mass ratio of 100:41 of TMBPBTH-EPOXY and DDS. The curing activation energy was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC to be 64.0 kJ/mol estimated by Kissinger’s method and 68.7 kJ/mol estimated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method respectively. Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA was used to investigate the thermal decomposition of cured compounds. It was found that when curing temperature was lower than 180°C, the thermal decomposition temperature increased with the rise of curing temperature and curing time. On the other hand, when the curing temperature was higher than 180°C, the thermal decomposition temperature went down instead with the increase of curing time that might be the over-crosslinking of TMBPBTH-EPOXY and DDS hardener. The glass transition temperature (Tg of cured TMBPBTH-EPOXY/DDS compound determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is 290.1°C.

  5. Psychiatric Genomics and Mental Health Treatment: Setting the Ethical Agenda. (United States)

    Kong, Camillia; Dunn, Michael; Parker, Michael


    Realizing the benefits of translating psychiatric genomics research into mental health care is not straightforward. The translation process gives rise to ethical challenges that are distinctive from challenges posed within psychiatric genomics research itself, or that form part of the delivery of clinical psychiatric genetics services. This article outlines and considers three distinct ethical concerns posed by the process of translating genomic research into frontline psychiatric practice and policy making. First, the genetic essentialism that is commonly associated with the genomics revolution in health care might inadvertently exacerbate stigma towards people with mental disorders. Secondly, the promises of genomic medicine advance a narrative of individual empowerment. This narrative could promote a fatalism towards patients' biology in ways that function in practice to undermine patients' agency and autonomy, or, alternatively, a heightened sense of subjective genetic responsibility could become embedded within mental health services that leads to psychosocial therapeutic approaches and the clinician-patient therapeutic alliance being undermined. Finally, adopting a genomics-focused approach to public mental health risks shifting attention away from the complex causal relationships between inequitable socio-economic, political, and cultural structures and negative mental health outcomes. The article concludes by outlining a number of potential pathways for future ethics research that emphasizes the importance of examining appropriate translation mechanisms, the complementarity between genetic and psychosocial models of mental disorder, the implications of genomic information for the clinician-patient relationship, and funding priorities and resource allocation decision making in mental health.

  6. Towards a systems definition of psychiatric practice. (United States)

    Rashkis, H A; Yanovski, A


    Assessment of psychiatric practice has been difficult largely because of the apparent diversity of psychiatrists' theories, procedures, and goals. Searching for a unifying principle, we propose system identification failure (SIF), a defect in data-processing, as the unit of psychopathology underlying all psychiatric disorder (and other behavioral error). Definitive treatment must not only identify and correct the data-processing defect, but also eliminate the secondary symptoms. Emphasis is not on method of treatment but on goal or intent. Preparatory treatment includes supportive psychological and environmental measures and somatic therapies (regardless of type, duration, or intensity) which make definitive treatment possible. Palliative treatment must be frequently reviewed. Preventive treatment should prevent SIF-formation. We consider our proposal a distillate of the aims and implicit intent of experienced psychiatrists regardless of their training or theoretical orientation. The search for a functional definition of the practice of psychiatry was perhaps at one time an academic or lexicographic exercise, but, with the advent of peer review, it has become a pragmatic matter deserving of earnest attention. What is psychiatric practice? In a universe criss-crossed by psychiatrists "riding madly off in all directions." not only are the descendants of Anna O. and Dora analyzed in vivo and those of Little Hans at one remove, but also are distant figures and cultures subjected, often iv vitro, to critical scrutiny, while the "talking treatment" is applied to couples, families, groups, "networks" and communities. When one adds to this the diversity of biological therapies and institutional, environmental, and behavioral manipulations, the task of finding a common theme, much less procedure, becomes a worthy problem in hermeneutics, general semantics, or system analysis. Thus we must ask not only the operational question, "What do psychiatrists do?" BUt also, "What did

  7. Atividade de água, pH, umidade e desenvolvimento de Staphylococcus xylosus durante o processamento e armazenamento da paleta suína curada, maturada e fermentada Water activity, pH, moisture and growth of Staphylococcus xylosus during processing and storage of cured, matured and fermented pork shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcindo Nascimento Terra


    Full Text Available Dez peças de paletas suínas sem pele e sem osso, pesando em média 1,6 kg, receberam injeção de salmoura (20% p.v -1 contendo cultura de Staphylococcus xylosus e permaneceram dentro de uma câmara durante 30 dias à temperatura de 4 a 9 °C e umidade de 55 a 45% controladas. Em seguida, foram embaladas a vácuo e armazenadas durante 120 dias a 10 °C. Desde o início da produção até o final do armazenamento, as amostras foram coletadas da superfície e da parte interna das peças de paleta suína, em triplicata, para realização das análises de atividade de água, pH, umidade e contagem da cultura de S. xylosus, com objetivo de caracterizá-las e verificar as possíveis associações com ações exercidas em outros produtos cárneos fermentados. Durante a etapa de armazenamento, os valores de umidade e pH obtidos na parte interna dos tratamentos ficaram dentro dos parâmetros recomendados para presunto curado. A cultura adicionada apresentou melhor desenvolvimento na parte interna da paleta. A temperatura de armazenamento recomendada para a paleta seria entre 5 e 10 °C, uma vez que os valores de pH foram maiores que 5,2 e os de a w menores que 0,91.Ten boned and skinned pork butts weighing about 1.6 kg were injected with brine (20% w.v -1 containing a pure culture of Staphylococcus xylosus, and were stored for 30 days in a chamber with controlled moisture (45 to 55% and temperature (4 to 9 °C. After this period, the butts were vacuum-packed and stored at 10 °C for 120 days. Samples were taken in triplicate during processing and storage from the surface and internal parts of the cuts to test for water activity, pH, moisture and plate counting of pure culture, in order to characterize and associate the processed product with other fermented meat products. The internal moisture and pH of the cured, matured and fermented pork butts during storage fell within the range recommended for cured ham. The culture added to the product showed a

  8. Hardening of a dual-cure resin cement using QTH and LED curing units (United States)

    SANTOS, Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho; PASSOS, Sheila Pestana; da ENCARNAÇÃO, Monalisa Olga Lessa; SANTOS, Gildo Coelho; BOTTINO, Marco Antonio


    Objective This study evaluated the surface hardness of a resin cement (RelyX ARC) photoactivated through indirect composite resin (Cristobal) disks of different thicknesses using either a light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light source. Material and Methods Eighteen resin cement specimens were prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the type of curing unit and the thickness of resin disks interposed between the cement surface and light source. Three indentations (50 g for 15 s) were performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and a mean Vickers hardness number (VHN) was calculated for each specimen. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test was used for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. Results Increased indirect resin disk thickness resulted in decreased mean VHN values. Mean VHN values for the top surfaces of the resin cement specimens ranged from 23.2 to 46.1 (QTH) and 32.3 to 41.7 (LED). The LED curing light source produced higher hardness values compared to the QTH light source for 2- and 3-mm-thick indirect resin disks. The differences were clinically, but not statistically significant. Increased indirect resin disk thickness also resulted in decreased mean VHN values for the bottom surfaces of the resin cement: 5.8 to 19.1 (QTH) and 7.5 to 32.0 (LED). For the bottom surfaces, a statistically significant interaction was also found between the type of curing light source and the indirect resin disk thickness. Conclusions Mean surface hardness values of resin cement specimens decreased with the increase of indirect resin disk thickness. The LED curing light source generally produced higher surface hardness values. PMID:20485920

  9. Hardening of a dual-cure resin cement using QTH and LED curing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho Santos


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the surface hardness of a resin cement (RelyX ARC photoactivated through indirect composite resin (Cristobal disks of different thicknesses using either a light-emitting diode (LED or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH light source. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen resin cement specimens were prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the type of curing unit and the thickness of resin disks interposed between the cement surface and light source. Three indentations (50 g for 15 s were performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and a mean Vickers hardness number (VHN was calculated for each specimen. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test was used for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. RESULTS: Increased indirect resin disk thickness resulted in decreased mean VHN values. Mean VHN values for the top surfaces of the resin cement specimens ranged from 23.2 to 46.1 (QTH and 32.3 to 41.7 (LED. The LED curing light source produced higher hardness values compared to the QTH light source for 2- and 3-mm-thick indirect resin disks. The differences were clinically, but not statistically significant. Increased indirect resin disk thickness also resulted in decreased mean VHN values for the bottom surfaces of the resin cement: 5.8 to 19.1 (QTH and 7.5 to 32.0 (LED. For the bottom surfaces, a statistically significant interaction was also found between the type of curing light source and the indirect resin disk thickness. CONCLUSION: Mean surface hardness values of resin cement specimens decreased with the increase of indirect resin disk thickness. The LED curing light source generally produced higher surface hardness values.

  10. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan


    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  11. Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness. (United States)

    Fabrega, H


    Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed.

  12. [Gender aspects of psychiatric publications]. (United States)

    Freidl, Marion; Unger, Annemarie; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Wancata, Johannes


    Are authors of German language psychiatric journals more often male or female? Are there gender differences regarding scientific topics? Analysis of publications of two German-language journals (Neuropsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Praxis) for the period 2008-2009. We could not find any gender differences concerning the number of first authors, but the number of male co-authors was nearly double as high as of female co-authors. Qualitative research methods were used more often by female researchers, but there were no significant differences regarding scientific topics. Overall, we found fewer gender differences than expected concerning authorship.

  13. Psychiatric treatment and research unit for adolescent intensive care: the first adolescent forensic psychiatric service in Finland. (United States)

    Kahila, K; Kilkku, N; Kaltiala-Heino, R


    Finland does not have a history of providing forensic adolescent psychiatric units although the need for this kind of service has been established. According to legislation patients who are minors have to be treated separately from adults, however, this has not been possible in practice. Also, adolescent psychiatric wards have not always been able to admit the most severely ill patients, those with impulsive and aggressive behaviours, because of lack of staff resources, problems associated with protecting other vulnerable patients and a shortage of secure environments. A previous report demonstrated the significant increase in adolescent's involuntary treatment within adult psychiatric wards. Data from this report were acknowledged as an important starting point in the planning process for the psychiatric treatment and research unit for adolescent intensive care. This paper describes the background, development process, plan of action, tailor-made education programme and supporting evidence for the first Finnish adolescent forensic service opened in April 2003 in the Department of Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital. The tool used for planning the unit's activities and staff education programme was the Balanced Score Card approach, the structure and development of which is also outlined within the paper.

  14. Facing the challenges and building solutions in clinical psychiatric nursing in Iran: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Zarea, Kourosh; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Alireza; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohammadpour, Ali


    Psychiatric nurses play an important role in the process of caring for mentally ill patients and are continually faced with the numerous challenges and complex issues related to this field. This study aimed to understand the perspectives of psychiatric nurses regarding the issues they face while providing care and examine the possible solutions for improvement of inpatient care in clinical settings. The study adopted a qualitative approach that utilized a content analysis of audio taped, semi-structured interviews that had been conducted with 24 nurses. Two main themes emerged from the data. The first, Challenges in Providing Care within Psychiatric Wards, had the following subthemes: Politics and Rules of Organization, Safety and Security Issues, Uncertainty about the Role, Lack of Trained Staff, and Sociocultural Issues. The second theme, Solutions for Improving Psychiatric Care, had the subthemes of Empowerment across four domains: Psychiatric Nurses, Mentally Ill Patients and their Families, The Psychiatric Mental Health System, and the Cultural Context. The results indicated that if nurses are expected to provide optimal nursing care within a psychiatric ward, then there is a need for a stable and responsible organizational structure, skilled psychiatric nurses, and community-based care along with an anti-stigma program.

  15. Cure Characteristics and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cure characteristics and the physico-mechanical properties of natural rubber, standard Nigerian rubber, SNR10 filled with cherry seed shell (CSS) and standard carbon black CB (N330) were determined. The results showed that the scorch, cure times and the maximum torque gradually increased with increasing filler ...

  16. Rubber composites cured with sulphur and peroxide and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Besides classical applications of rubber products in tyres, conveyer belts and other products from technical rubber, ... application of sulphur curing systems leads to the forming of sulphidic bridges with various number of ... have advantages but also drawbacks, the main aim was to suppress the main negatives of both curing ...

  17. effect of curing methods on the compressive strength of concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Different curing methods are usually adopted to evaluate the compressive strength of concrete. This study reports the laboratory results of the effect of curing meth- ods on the compressive strength as well as the density of concrete. A total of 72 cubes of mix ratio 1:2:4 were investigated after subjecting them to ...

  18. Thermal Study of Anhydrides Cured Tetrafunctional Cardo Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh P. Patel


    Full Text Available Tetrafunctional cardo epoxy resin (EBCF was cured by using 10 wt% maleic anhydride (MA, pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA, phthalic anhydride (PA, tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA, tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA, and tetrachlorophthalic anhydride (TCPA as hardeners at 120°C for 40–105 min (gel time and then postcured 1 h at 130°C. Gel time is found to depend on the structure of the anhydrides used. Cured samples were found insoluble in common solvents. Cured and uncured EBCF were characterized by FTIR, DSC, and TGA techniques. Cured and uncured resins followed multistep degradation reactions. Kinetic parameters, namely, order of degradation, energy of activation, frequency factor, and entropy change, were determined according to the Anderson-Freeman method and interpreted in light of the nature of hardeners used for curing purpose. The resins followed integral or fractional order degradation kinetics. Complex degradation reactions are due to different types of linkages in cured resins. Both nature and structure of resin and hardeners affected the curing behavior and the resultant thermal properties of the cured resins.

  19. Shortest exposure time possible with LED curing lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busemann, I.; Lipke, C.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Willershausen, B.; Ernst, C.P.


    PURPOSE: To investigate the shortest exposure time of different light emitting diode (LED)-curing devices for different resin composites in a clinically relevant laboratory model. METHODS: Nine LED curing devices (Bluephase, Bluephase 16i, Bluephase G2, Bluephase 20i/Ivoclar Vivadent, DEMI/sds Kerr,

  20. Determinant of flexible Parametric Estimation of Mixture Cure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2015 ... Determinant of flexible Parametric Estimation of Mixture Cure. Fraction Model: An Application of Gastric cancer Data. Chukwu, A. U. & Folorunso, S. A *. Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. *Corresponding Author: Abstract. Cure models are survival models ...

  1. Effect of light intensity on the cure characteristics of photo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the light intensity emitted by light curing units (LCUs) and its effect on the cure characteristics of composites polymerised with it. Design: A laboratory based cross sectional study. Setting: Public and private dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Results: Thirty five (42.17%) LCUs produced light of intensity ...

  2. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.103...

  3. 9 CFR 319.104 - Cured pork products. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured pork products. 319.104 Section 319.104 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and...

  4. Influence of site curing on bond properties of reinforced lightweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the requirements for structural lightweight concrete. The developed compressive strength and pull-out strength under both site curing conditions were relatively lower than full water curing condition but still were higher than minimum requirement as per standard. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  5. effect of light curing unit characteristics on light intensity output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


  6. Preparation, translation and evaluation of face and content validity of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) in Farsi


    Sanaz Norouzi; Shahrokh Amiri; Ayyoub Malek; Homayoun Sadeghi-bazargani; Mohammadbagher Hassanzadeh


    Introduction: Childhood is the time of onset for many psychiatric disorders. Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) is developed in response to the need for a standard and reliable tool for assessment of psychiatric disorders in preschool age. The aim of this study was to translate this tool to Farsi and evaluate the face and content validity of this precious and comprehensive tool. Methods: The process was forward translation to Farsi, evaluation for face and content validity, finalizat...

  7. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprakash Chaudhury


    Full Text Available Almost half of the people suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI may later be diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. The literature (PubMed, IndMed of past 30 years on psychiatric disturbances associated with TBI is reviewed. The authors highlight the close link between head injury and psychiatry and provide an overview of the epidemiology, risk-factors, and mechanisms of psychiatric sequelae including, cognitive deficits, substance abuse, psychoses, mood disorders, suicide, anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, post-concussion syndrome, and personality changes following head injury. The various psychiatric sequelae are briefly discussed.

  8. Approaches to psychiatric nosology: A viewpoint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avasthi, Ajit; Sarkar, Siddharth; Grover, Sandeep


    Psychiatric nosology is required for communication among clinicians and researchers, understanding etiology, testing treatment efficacy, knowing the prevalence of the problems and disorders, health...

  9. Shear bond strength of acidic primer, light-cure glass ionomer, light-cure and self cure composite adhesive systems - an in vitro study. (United States)

    D, Krishnakanth Reddy; V, Kishore M S; Safeena, Safeena


    The purpose of this study was to determine shear bond strength and the effect on the bracket/ adhesive failure mode when an acidic primer and other etchants were used to condition the enamel surface before bonding. Group I: Brackets bonded with Ultimate cure-on-light Light-cure composite adhesive system. Group II: Brackets bonded with Ortho-one no-mix. Self-cure composite adhesive system. Group III: Brackets bonded with Light-cure glass ionomer adhesive system. Group IV: Brackets bonded with Transbond plus self etching primer. The results of this study indicated that the shear bond strength when using Transbond plus self etching primer showed the highest bond strength Group- IV(8.69 2.54 MPa) followed by Ultimate cure-on-light Group-I (8.62 1.84 MPa), Ortho-one no-mix (Bisco Inc. USA)Group-II (8.07 1.72 MPa), and least bond strength was seen in G.C. Fuji Ortho L.C. Group-III (6.01 1.6) MPa Conclusion: Use of self etching primer saves chairside time and satisfactory high bond strength was obtained. Care should be taken during debonding of ceramic brackets How to cite this article: Reddy K D, Kishore M S V, Safeena S. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):73-78.

  10. High performance UV and thermal cure hybrid epoxy adhesive (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Iwasaki, S.; Kanari, M.; Li, B.; Wang, C.; Lu, D. Q.


    New type one component UV and thermal curable hybrid epoxy adhesive was successfully developed. The hybrid epoxy adhesive is complete initiator free composition. Neither photo-initiator nor thermal initiator is contained. The hybrid adhesive is mainly composed of special designed liquid bismaleimide, partially acrylated epoxy resin, acrylic monomer, epoxy resin and latent curing agent. Its UV light and thermal cure behavior was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Adhesive samples cured at UV only, thermal only and UV + thermal cure conditions were investigated. By calculated conversion rate of double bond in both acrylic component and maleimide compound, satisfactory light curability of the hybrid epoxy adhesive was confirmed quantitatively. The investigation results also showed that its UV cure components, acrylic and bismalimide, possess good thermal curability too. The initiator free hybrid epoxy adhesive showed satisfactory UV curability, good thermal curability and high adhesion performance.

  11. Optimization of the performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane-electrode assemblies: Roles of curing parameters on the catalyst and ionomer structures and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Anima B.; Shaik, Ruhulla [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Mawdsley, Jennifer [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    In order to understand the origin of performance variations in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), a series of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) with identical electrode layer compositions were prepared using different electrode curing conditions, their performances were evaluated, and their morphologies determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polarization curves varied markedly primarily due to differences in morphologies of electrodes, which were dictated by the curing processes. The highest performing MEAs (1.46 W cm{sup -2} peak power density at 3.2 A cm{sup -2} and 80 C) were prepared using a slow curing process at a lower temperature, whereas those MEAs prepared using a faster curing process performed poorly (0.1948 W cm{sup -2} peak power density at 440 mA cm{sup -2} and 80 C). The slowly cured MEAs showed uniform electrode catalyst and ionomer distributions, as revealed in SEM images and elemental maps. The relatively faster cured materials exhibited uneven distribution of ionomer with significant catalyst clustering. Collectively, these results indicate that to achieve optimal performance, factors that affect the dynamics of the curing process, such as rate of solvent evaporation, must be carefully controlled to avoid solvent trapping, minimize catalyst coagulation, and promote even distribution of ionomer. (author)

  12. Nutritional pork meat compounds as affected by ham dry-curing. (United States)

    Marušić, Nives; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel


    This work is focused on the determination of compounds of nutritional interest that are naturally present in pork meat and how they are affected during the processing of dry-cured ham. Such compounds are creatine, creatinine, coenzyme Q(10), glutathione, carnosine, anserine, carnitine, taurine, cystine, cysteine and the essential amino acids. Their antioxidant and antyhipertensive functions were evaluated. Of all the assayed substances, only glutathione decreased totally during processing. Carnosine, creatinine, anserine and glutathione showed antioxidant, while cysteine, glutathione and carnosine showed antyhipertensive activity. So, dry-cured ham constitutes an excellent source of essential amino acids (all essential amino acids exhibited a large increase during processing) and other nutritionally interesting compounds such as cystine, cysteine, carnosine, anserine, taurine, carnitine and coenzyme Q(10). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Legal duties of psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Beahrs, J O


    Psychiatric practice involves an implied contract in which each party fulfills a specialized role and incurs corresponding duties and obligations to be discharged as best able. Patients incur duties at three levels. First are specific duties that arise from patients' specialized role in their own health care: (1) to provide accurate and complete information, and (2) to cooperate with treatment within the bounds of informed consent. Second are general duties that apply to all citizens, but are especially relevant within the mental health context: (1) to respect the physical integrity of self, others, and property, and (2) to obey the law. The controversial "duty to protect" is at a third level, a transcendent duty that is specific to the context at hand, but in principle can apply to more than one party. Advantages of enforcing patients' duties include better care by treating professionals, optimum level of functioning of patients, and improved systems-wide morale and safety. Breach of patients' duty has many potential consequences in the forensic sphere: termination of care, malpractice defense, criminal prosecution, and tort liability. Complicating factors include the degree and effect of patients' psychiatric impairment, patients' legal status, and the role played by psychotherapeutic transference.

  14. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S


    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  15. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity]. (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina


    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  16. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Peña, Catherine J; Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Nestler, Eric J


    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of disorders such as depression and addiction, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress or prior drug exposure are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Such exposure to environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental and adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression and addiction can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations (e.g., chronic stress, drug administration). Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models reveals new insight into disease mechanisms in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Curing Humidity on the Compressive Strength of Gypsum-Cemented Similar Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Guan


    Full Text Available The analogous simulation experiment is widely used in geotechnical and mining engineering. However, systematic errors derived from unified standard curing procedure have been underestimated to some extent. In this study, 140 gypsum-cemented similar material specimens were chosen to study their curing procedure with different relative humidity, which is 10%–15%, 40%, 60%, and 80%, respectively. SEM microstructures and XRD spectra were adopted to detect the correlation between microstructures and macroscopic mechanical strength during curing. Our results indicated that the needle-like phases of similar materials began to develop in the early stage of the hydration process through intersecting with each other and eventually transformed into mat-like phases. Increase of humidity may inhibit the development of needle-like phases; thus the compressive strength changes more smoothly, and the time required for the material strength to reach the peak value will be prolonged. The peak strength decreases along with the increase of humidity while the humidity is higher than 40%; however, the reverse tendency was observed if the humidity was lower than 40%. Finally, we noticed that the material strength usually reaches the peak value when the water content continuously reduces and tends towards stability. Based on the above observation, a curing method determination model and experimental strength predication method for gypsum-cemented similar materials were proposed.

  18. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Górska


    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively. The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene; alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane; aldehyde (hexanal; alcohol (2-furanmethanol; ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone; phenol (guaiacol; and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene. Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production.

  19. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin (United States)

    Górska, Ewa; Nowicka, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Danuta; Przybylski, Wiesław; Tambor, Krzysztof


    Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively). The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene); alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane); aldehyde (hexanal); alcohol (2-furanmethanol); ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone); phenol (guaiacol); and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene). Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production. PMID:27456422

  20. Curing kinetics and mechanical behavior of natural rubber reinforced with pretreated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, G. [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105 (United States); Zhong, W.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105 (United States)], E-mail:; Yang, X.P.; Yu, Y.H. [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)


    To significantly improve the performance of rubber materials, fundamental studies on rubber nanocomposites are necessary. The curing kinetics and vulcanizate properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were analyzed in this paper. The pretreatment of CNTs was carried out by acid bath followed by ball milling with HRH bonding systems in experiments. The CNT/NR nanocomposites were prepared through solvent mixing on the basis of pretreatment of CNTs. The surface characteristic of CNTs and physical interaction between CNTs and NR macromolecules were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The vulcanization kinetics of CNT/NR nanocomposites were studied contrasting with the neat NR. The quality of the NR vulcanizates was assessed through static and dynamic mechanical property tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Curing kinetic parameters of the neat NR and CNT/NR nanocomposites were obtained from experiments; the results indicated that the presence of CNTs affects the curing process of the NR, and additional heating is required to cure CNT/NR nanocomposites due to its higher active energy. The dispersion of pretreated CNTs in the rubber matrix and interfacial adhesion between them were obviously improved. The physical and mechanical properties of the CNT/NR nanocomposites showed considerable increases by incorporation of the pretreated CNTs compared to the neat NR and untreated CNTs-filled NR nanocomposites.

  1. Non-isothermal cure and exfoliation of tri-functional epoxy-clay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shiravand


    Full Text Available The non-isothermal cure kinetics of polymer silicate layered nanocomposites based on a tri-functional epoxy resin has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. From an analysis of the kinetics as a function of the clay content, it can be concluded that the non-isothermal cure reaction can be considered to consist of four different processes: the reaction of epoxy groups with the diamine curing agent; an intra-gallery homopolymerisation reaction which occurs concurrently with the epoxy-amine reaction; and two extra-gallery homopolymerisation reactions, catalysed by the onium ion of the organically modified clay and by the tertiary amines resulting from the epoxy-amine reaction. The final nanostructure displays a similar quality of exfoliation as that observed for the isothermal cure of the same nanocomposite system. This implies that the intra-gallery reaction, which is responsible for the exfoliation, is not significantly inhibited by the extra-gallery epoxy-amine cross-linking reaction.

  2. Study on compressive strength of self compacting mortar cubes under normal & electric oven curing methods (United States)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, G. J.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.


    In the majority of civil engineering applications, the basic building blocks were the masonry units. Those masonry units were developed as a monolithic structure by plastering process with the help of binding agents namely mud, lime, cement and their combinations. In recent advancements, the mortar study plays an important role in crack repairs, structural rehabilitation, retrofitting, pointing and plastering operations. The rheology of mortar includes flowable, passing and filling properties which were analogous with the behaviour of self compacting concrete. In self compacting (SC) mortar cubes, the cement was replaced by mineral admixtures namely silica fume (SF) from 5% to 20% (with an increment of 5%), metakaolin (MK) from 10% to 30% (with an increment of 10%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) from 25% to 75% (with an increment of 25%). The ratio between cement and fine aggregate was kept constant as 1: 2 for all normal and self compacting mortar mixes. The accelerated curing namely electric oven curing with the differential temperature of 128°C for the period of 4 hours was adopted. It was found that the compressive strength obtained from the normal and electric oven method of curing was higher for self compacting mortar cubes than normal mortar cube. The cement replacement by 15% SF, 20% MK and 25%GGBS obtained higher strength under both curing conditions.

  3. Stigmatization of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric service use: a vignette-based representative population survey. (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F; Lange, Claudia; Euler, Sebastian; Hachtel, Henning; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G


    Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent. Methods We conducted a representative survey of the general population (N = 2207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to read a vignette depicting either the psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution to which the character had been admitted, and indicate desired social distance (an indicator for stigma). Type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied between vignettes. Findings Desired social distance was significantly lower in relation to psychiatric service use than to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and the fictitious character's being male tend to increase stigmatization. Interestingly, the character's being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital and also respondent familiarity with psychiatric services tend to decrease stigmatization. Interpretation Familiarity of the general population with psychiatric patients should be increased. Furthermore, treatment in psychiatric units located within general hospitals should be promoted, as such treatment is associated with decreased stigma.

  4. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.


    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  5. The Relationship Between Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirmohammadi


    Full Text Available Objective: Premenstrual syndrome is a common disorder experienced by up to 50% of women during reproductive age. The prevalence of severe form of PMS (PMDD is 3 % to 8%. Psychiatric disorders in PMS patients have resulted in significant morbidity and in some cases caused resistance to the treatment process Material and Method: 390 participants (264 with PMS/PMDD, and 126 healthy students of University of Guilan who completed the demographic questionnaire, daily symptom rating (DSR and the checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R took part in this study. This study was conducted using a cross sectional method. Results: According to repeated measure variance, the mean scores of psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, Aggression, Interpersonal sensitivity in the PMS group were significantly higher than the healthy group (p< 0/05, and increase in severity of PMS from mild to severe was accompanied by increase in mean score of these subscales. There was a significant difference in mean score of depression, anxiety, aggression and interpersonal sensitivity between the 3rd and the 13th day of the cycle. Significant effect of the DSR grouping (PMS and Healthy group and time interaction emerged in interpersonal sensitivity and aggression, significant effect on the DSR grouping (Mild, Moderate, Severer and time interaction demonstrated in interpersonal sensitivity. Conclusion: Patients with prospective confirmed PMDD seemed to suffer from psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, recognizing co-morbid psychiatric symptoms in patients with PMDD is of prime importance. All healthcare providers should be sensitive to mental status of women with PMS.

  6. Evolutionary Conservation in Genes Underlying Human Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Michelle Ogawa


    Full Text Available Many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. Most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. One hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. Here, the molecular evolution of genes associated with these and other psychiatric disorders are compared among species. Genes associated with psychiatric disorders are drawn from the literature and orthologous sequences are collected from eleven primate species (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, baboon, marmoset, squirrel monkey, and galago and thirty one non-primate mammalian species. Evolutionary parameters, including dN/dS, are calculated for each gene and compared between disease classes and among species, focusing on humans and primates compared to other mammals and on large-brained taxa (cetaceans, rhinoceros, walrus, bear, and elephant compared to their small-brained sister species. Evidence of differential selection in primates supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia and autism are a cost of higher brain function. Through this work a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the human brain, the pathophysiology of disease, and the genetic basis of human psychiatric disease is gained.

  7. Psychiatric Nurses’ Perceptions about Physical Restraint; A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Fereidooni Moghadam, Malek; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh


    Background: The use of physical restraint as an intervention in the care of psychiatric patients dates back to the beginning of psychiatry. Although it is a challenging question, it is still one of the common procedures in psychiatry. Considering that very little research has been done in Iran in relation to physical restraint, this qualitative study aimed to investigate the experiences of  nurses working in psychiatric wards regarding physical restraint. Methods: This qualitative study was done on 14 nurses working in the psychiatric hospitals of Ahvaz city, southern Iran, during 2011-2012. The participants were selected by purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, which were continued until data saturation and emergence of themes. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Four categories emerged: (1) Restraint as a multi-purpose procedure, (2) Processing of physical restraint, (3) Restraint as a challenging subject and (4) The effects of restraint on the spectrum. Each category has several different sub-categories. Conclusion: The participants described using physical restraint as one of the main strategies to control psychiatric patients, and despite having negative consequences, it is extensively used. Given the risks and challenges of using physical restraint, nursing education should find alternative methods. PMID:25349842

  8. Efficiency of dual-cured resin cement polymerization induced by high-intensity LED curing units through ceramic material. (United States)

    Watanabe, H; Kazama, Re; Asai, T; Kanaya, F; Ishizaki, H; Fukushima, M; Okiji, T


    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of high-intensity light-emitting diode (LED) and other curing units to cure dual-cured resin cement through ceramic material. A halogen curing unit (Jetlite 3000, Morita), a second-generation LED curing unit (Demi, Kerr), and two high-intensity LED curing units (PenCure 2000, Morita; Valo, Ultradent) were tested. Feldspathic ceramic plates (VITABLOCS Mark II, A3; Vita Zahnfabrik) with thicknesses of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm were prepared. Dual-cured resin cement samples (Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray Noritake Dental) were irradiated directly or through one of the ceramic plates for different periods (5, 10, 15, or 20 seconds for the high-intensity LED units and 20, 40, 60, or 80 seconds for the others). The Knoop hardness test was used to determine the level of photopolymerization that had been induced in the resin cement. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's post-hoc test to identify test-control (maximum irradiation without a ceramic plate) differences for each curing unit (punits, the curing conditions had a statistically significant effect on the Knoop hardness numbers (KHNs) of the irradiated cement samples (punits (except for PenCure 2000 at 3.0 mm) were able to achieve control-level KHN values when the irradiation time was extended. At a plate thickness of 3.0 mm, irradiation for 20 seconds with the Valo or for 80 seconds with the Demi were the only methods that produced KHN values equivalent to those produced by direct irradiation. Regardless of the type of curing unit used, indirect irradiation of dual-cured resin cement through a ceramic plate resulted in decreased KHN values compared with direct irradiation. When the irradiation period was extended, only the LED units were able to achieve similar KHN values to those observed under direct irradiation in the presence of plates ≥2.0-mm thick. High-intensity LED units require a shorter irradiation period than halogen and second

  9. History of the Nordic psychiatric cooperation. (United States)

    von Knorring, Lars


    The Nordic countries include Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden as well the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Svalbard and Åland. The countries share much common history as well as common traits in their respective societies. As early as 1906, a Scandinavian Psychiatric Association was suggested. The first Nordic Psychiatric Congress was held in Copenhagen 1913. After the First World War, at the 6th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Stockholm 1935, a Nordic Psychiatric Association was founded and it was decided that a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry should be founded. After the Second World War, at the 8th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Copenhagen 1946, the Nordic Psychiatric Association was terminated. At this time, the most important task of the Association, to found a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, had been achieved. After 1946, there has been a close cooperation between the Nordic countries but no common Nordic Psychiatric Association. Today, the Nordic Psychiatric Cooperation is active and ongoing. The 30th Nordic Psychiatric Congress is scheduled to be held in Tromsö, in 2012. The Nordic Journal of Psychiatry is publishing its 64 th volume. The Journal is indexed in the important international databases and the impact factor is increasing. The Joint Committee of the Nordic psychiatric associations has established itself as the owner of the Journal and the organizer of the congresses. There are also a series of Nordic cooperations in a series of different fields, such as the Scandinavian Societies of Biological Psychiatry, the Scandinavian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (SCNP), the bi-annual Nordic Psychoanalytical Congresses, the Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, the Nordic Association of Psychiatric Epidemiology, NAPE, and so on.

  10. PRKAG3 and CAST genetic polymorphisms and quality traits of dry-cured hams--II. Associations in French dry-cured ham Jambon de Bayonne and their dependence on salt reduction. (United States)

    Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Robert, N; Martin, J F; Gou, P; Hortós, M; Arnau, J; Diestre, A; Candek-Potokar, M


    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of PRKAG3 Ile199Val and CAST Arg249Lys and CAST Ser638Arg polymorphisms on the quality traits of the French dry-cured ham Jambon de Bayonne and their interaction with salt reduction. Significant (p<0.05) and suggestive associations (p<0.10) between the polymorphisms and several quality traits of dry-cured ham, mainly related to processing and textural properties, were found. PRKAG3 Ile/Val and CAST 249Lys/638Arg presented the highest scores for sensory and processing properties, whatever the salt content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of curing conditions on the dentin bond strength of two dual-cure resin cements. (United States)

    Tagami, Atsuko; Takahashi, Rena; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the curing condition (i.e., the curing mode and restoration thickness) on the tensile bond strength of a dual-cure resin cement applied to dentin. Indirect composite resin disks (1, 2, and 3mm in thickness) were prepared. The irradiance of a halogen light curing unit through each disk was measured by a curing radiometer. A measurement was also taken for the condition with no disk. Following this, two dual-cure resin cements, Panavia F2.0 and Panavia V5, were polymerized in either dual-cure mode or self-cure mode to bond the composite resin disk to the flat dentin surface. The specimens were sectioned and subjected to a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test after 24h of water storage. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed with multiple comparisons by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05). The irradiance values [mW/cm(2)] measured through indirect composite resin disks were 600 (0mm), 200 (1mm), 90 (2mm), and not detected (3mm). Two-way ANOVA indicated that both the curing condition and the type of resin cement affected the μTBS (pPanavia V5 bonded to dentin were significantly higher than those of Panavia F2.0 bonded to dentin (pPanavia V5, showed higher dentin bonding than Panavia F2.0 in both dual- and self-cure modes. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing ultraviolet curing of multifunctional (meth)acrylate hard coats (United States)

    Wen, Mei

    Ultraviolet (UV) curing rapidly converts multifunctional (meth)acrylate liquid monomers into highly cross-linked, impervious, hard polymeric coatings at ambient temperature. This solidification process occurs by free-radical cross-linking polymerization. To achieve a better design of this process, it is desirable to have high conversion of functional groups, low stress, adequate mechanical properties, and low costs. To approach this design goal, the following modeling and experimental work was carried out. Firstly, a kinetic model was developed to simulate radical trapping. This model predicts a peak in the concentration of active radicals and a monotonic rise of the concentration of trapped radicals during polymerization. It also predicts a decrease in the fraction of trapped radicals at a given conversion as the UV light intensity is raised. Secondly, a kinetic gelation model, in which reaction occurs locally on a lattice, was developed. Unlike previous such models, this model accounts for free radical reaction time more accurately. It was found that a more uniform distribution of reacted sites leads to a favored propagation at a given conversion. Moreover, radical trapping and termination were found to shorten the kinetic chain length and to lower the asymptotic conversion reached when initiators are exhausted. Thirdly, elastic modulus evolution was simulated with a rigidity percolation model, in which bonds created by free-radical polymerization are represented as rigidly jointed beams. Simulations show that modulus of a network depends on the connectivity between monomer units as well as bonding structure. Finally, experimental determination of volume shrinkage of a sandwiched film was measured with a dynamic mechanical analyzer probe. A faster reaction causes more severely delayed volume shrinkage from the thermodynamic equilibrium volume required by the reaction. Nevertheless, volume shrinks more when the shrinkage of the thermodynamic volume rises. In

  13. [Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Care of Refugees by Reference of a Large Psychiatric Care Hospital in Western Germany]. (United States)

    Schaffrath, Jonas; Schmitz-Buhl, Mario; Gün, Ali Kemal; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne


    Medical and psychological care of refugees is among the most important current challenges in German health politics. Work with patients from this heterogeneous group who have often faced severe stress before, during and after their migration is currently based on a thin data foundation. Based on introductory information on current knowledge concerning psychiatric morbidity of refugees this article presents the psychiatric care of refugees at LVR Clinics Cologne - a psychiatric specialty hospital situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. A sample of 239 cases of refugee patients who were referred to in- and outpatient departments of the LVR Clinics Cologne between April 2015 and March 2016 are evaluated in respect of diagnoses, admission modalities and socio-demographic variables. The majority of principal diagnoses (40.2%) belong to the group of stress-related and somatoform disorders (F4 in ICD-10). Mood disorders (F3 in ICD-10) represented 31.0%, followed by mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F1 in ICD-10) with 15.1%. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was the most prevalent diagnose (13.0%). Among the 29 countries of the patients' origin Afghanistan (10,0%), Serbia (9.6%) and Kosovo (8.8%) were the most abundant. The diagnoses and the high rate of acute psychiatric events reflect the massive psychological pressure of the patients. The important role of interpreters and mediators specialized in language and integration in the treatment process is emphasized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 23, 2011 ... Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem and is associated with many complications. However little is known about the psychiatric sequelae of TBI in Nigeria. This study described the pattern and determinants of psychiatric sequelae among subjects with TBI. Materials and Methods: ...

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychiatric patients are considered high risked group for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This has been found to be as a result of poor judgment and irrationality associated with some of the disorders. However, there is dearth of literature on the prevalence of HIV infection among psychiatric ...

  16. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information obtained included the sociodemographic characteristics, type of injury, durations of unconsciousness (LOC) and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA), psychiatric and psychoactive substance use history. Psychiatric diagnosis was based on the criteria of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases ...

  17. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 13, 2012 ... recommendations for nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice, with the aim of reducing the readmission of ... impairment of memory, concentration, motivation, self- esteem, relationships with others and ..... at increasing nursing students' and psychiatric nurses' insight about psychiatric ...

  18. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of psychiatric patients with regard to marijuana use in Potchefstroom, North West Province, as well as to formulate recommendations for nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice, with the aim of reducing the readmission of psychiatric ...

  19. Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse Marie


    Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern......Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern...

  20. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G


    of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...