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Sample records for pss calculations show

  1. PSS Case Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, Line Maria; Mougaard, Krestine; Andersen, Jakob Bejbro

    The transformation process towards a PSS-oriented company is describes, through the presentation of the best practice cases. Each case describes motivations, challenges, business models and PSS offerings....

  2. Pulse Synchronization System (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    This document is intended to serve as an operations manual, as well as a documentation of the backup analyses pertinent to the design as delivered. A history of earlier unsuccessful versions of the Pulse Synchronization System (PSS) is not included. The function of the PSS is to synchronize the time of arrival at the fusion target of laser pulses that are propagated through the 20 amplifier chains of the SHIVA laser. The positional accuracy requirement is +-1.5 mm (+-5 psec), and is obtained by the PSS with a wide margin factor

  3. Energy level and thickness control on PEDOT:PSS layer for efficient planar heterojunction perovskite cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Chujun; Tong, Sichao; Xia, Huayan; Wang, Lijuan; Xie, Haipeng; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang

    2018-01-01

    Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ-PSCs) with an architecture of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM/Al were fabricated by controlling the energy level and thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer, where the PEDOT:PSS precursor was diluted with deionized water (H2O) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), i.e. W-PEDOT:PSS and I-PEDOT:PSS. The performance parameters of the PHJ-PSCs showed soaring enhancement after employing W-PEDOT:PSS or I-PEDOT:PSS instead of pristine PEDOT:PSS (P-PEDOT:PSS), resulting in an increase of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of W-PEDOT:PSS-based PHJ-PSCs to 15.60% from 11.95% for P-PEDOT:PSS-based PHJ-PSCs. The performance improvement results from two aspects. On the one hand, as compared to P-PEDOT:PSS, the occupied molecular orbital energy (HOMO) level of dilute PEDOT:PSS showed an impressive decrease and can well match the valence band of CH3NH3PbI3 film, resulting in less energy loss and a significant improvement in the open-circuit voltage (V oc). On the other hand, the dilute PEDOT:PSS could produce a thinner film as compared with the P-PEDOT:PSS, which also played an important role in the performance of the PHJ-PSCs. Furthermore, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results indicated that the interface between perovskite and PEDOT:PSS was greatly improved by employing W-PEDOT:PSS or I-PEDOT:PSS, leading to an obvious decrease in the series resistance (R s) and an increase in the recombination resistance (R rec). The research demonstrated that diluting PEDOT:PSS with a common solvent, such as H2O and IPA, is a feasible low-temperature way of achieving efficient PHJ-PSCs.

  4. The Optical Properties of Thin Film Reduced Graphene Oxide/Poly (3,4 Ethylenedioxtriophene):Poly (Styrene Sulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) Fabricated by Spin Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokmana, Arinta W.; Asriani, A.; Suhendar, H.; Triyana, K.; Kusumaatmaja, A.; Santoso, I.

    2018-04-01

    Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) has been successfully synthesized from Graphite powder through chemical process using modified Hummers method by removing NaNO3 from reaction formula. Hydrazine hydrate 80 wt% has been chosen as reductor to eliminate the epoxy group in GO. FTIR and Uv-Vis spectroscopy result showed that Graphene Oxide (GO) and rGO were formed. Our produced rGO then used to fabricated the composite thin film rGO/PEDOT:PSS by spin coating at room temperature. The optical constant of thin film rGO/PEDOT:PSS were calculated from the absorbance spectrum of Uv-Visible spectra. The result showed that the value of coefficient absorbance of rGO dropped from 4.7×106 m-1 to 1.3×106 m-1 after doped with 0.02 mL PEDOT:PSS, then increase with the addition volume concentration of PEDOT:PSS. The value of extinction coefficient decrease from 0.31 to 0.08 after rGO doped with 0.02 ml PEDOT:PSS and then increase with the addition concentration of PEDOT:PSS. Our result show that thin film rGO/PEDOT:PSS was more transparent than that of thin film rGO.

  5. PSS: beyond the implementation gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertman, S.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last couple of decades, a large number of papers on planning support systems (PSS) have been published in national and international, scientific and professional journals. What is remarkable about PSS is that for quite some time their history has been dominated by an implementation gap, that

  6. Deciding on PSS: A Framework for PSS Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, Line Maria; Mougaard, Krestine; Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro

    2013-01-01

    Product/Service-Systems (PSS) are a strategic approach wherein the value proposition covers the performance of a system throughout the whole life cycle. Many industrial companies are challenged on many levels in the transition process towards a PSS oriented approach. Much of the literature has...... until now focused on PSS from a design object perspective, and less focus has been on how the business model of the company must be designed simultaneously with the offering, covering topics as organisational restructuring, value chain collaboration plus a change management focus. This paper presents...

  7. Renal diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Blitz, H.; Kuester, W.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1989-02-01

    The involvement of kidneys in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS) is one of the most frequent causes of death in this disease. Using clinical criteria and laboratory tests only the frequency of kidney involvement would be clearly underestimated. Invasive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy and angiography can not be applied in those patients. Nuclear medicine techniques (hippurate clearance, DMSA-scan), however, offer non invasive and sensitive methods in the diagnosis of renal involvement in PSS patients. In our study 46 of 76 patients (60%) revealed pathologic findings. The mentioned diagnostic techniques show a high sensitivity and are in agreement with pathological findings described in PSS.

  8. Renal diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Blitz, H.; Kuester, W.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of kidneys in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS) is one of the most frequent causes of death in this disease. Using clinical criteria and laboratory tests only the frequency of kidney involvement would be clearly underestimated. Invasive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy and angiography can not be applied in those patients. Nuclear medicine techniques (hippurate clearance, DMSA-scan), however, offer non invasive and sensitive methods in the diagnosis of renal involvement in PSS patients. In our study 46 of 76 patients (60%) revealed pathologic findings. The mentioned diagnostic techniques show a high sensitivity and are in agreement with pathological findings described in PSS. (orig.) [de

  9. Pressure suppression system (PSS) for nuclear ships. Experimental results obtained at the GKSS PSS-test-facillity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Niemann, H.R.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1978-01-01

    The PSS-test facility is shortly presented which was designed to show experimentally the operation of the pressure suppression containment for the NCS 80 concept. The results of the experimental LOCA-simulation tests in the PSS-test facility are illustrated by diagrams. The observed phenomena as chugging and pessure oscillations immediately after vent clearing are reported as well as the thermohydraulic loadings of the total system. Finally a short view is given on the future test program

  10. Assessing product service systems (PSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; McAloone, Tim C.; Neugebauer, Line

    We apply a management tool to classify different integrated PSS within the context of Danish maritime industry. We investigate how a firm should organize its operations to manage the transition from being a manufacturing to a servitizing company, and to provide a guideline for strategic positioni...... and planning of the balance between product sales and service activities....

  11. Align and random electrospun mat of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/RGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi, Ghazale Asghari; Latifi, Masoud; Bagherzadeh, Roohollah

    2018-01-01

    In this research work we fabricated two ultrafine conductive nanofibrous layers to investigate the materilas composition and their properties for the preparation of supercapacitor materials application. In first layer, a polymer and a conductive polymer were used and second layer was a composition of polymer, conductive polymer and carbon-base material. In both cases align and randomized mat of conductive nanofibers were fabricated using electrospinning set up. Conductive poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/ polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nanofibers were electrospun by dissolving fiber-forming polymer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in an aqueous dispersion of PEDOT:PSS. The effect of addition of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was considered for nanocomposite layer. The ultrafine conductive polymer fibers and conductive nanocomposite fibrous materials were also fabricated using an electrospinning process. A fixed collector and a rotating drum were used for random and align nanofibers production, respectively. The resulted fibers were characterized and analyzed by SEM, FTIR and two-point probe conductivity test. The average diameter of nanofibers measured by ImageJ software indicated that the average fiber diameter for first layer was 100 nm and for nanocomposite layer was about 85 nm. The presence of PEDOT:PSS and RGO in the nanofibers was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The conductivity of align and random layers was characterized. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS nanofibers showed higher enhancement by addition of RGO in aqueous dispersion. The obtained results showed that alignment of fibrous materials can be considered as an engineering tool for tuning the conductivity of fibrous materials for many different applications such as supercapacitors, conductive and transparent materials.

  12. Preparation of Composited Graphene/PEDOT:PSS Film for Its Possible Application in Graphene-based Organic Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Yue; LI; Meicheng; CHU; Lihua; YU; Hakki; Wodtke; A.M.; ZHAO; Yan; ZHANG; Zhongmo

    2015-01-01

    The interface between graphene and organic layers is a key factor responsible for the performance of graphene-based organic solar cells(OSCs). In this paper, we focus on coating PEDOT:PSS onto the surface of graphene. We demonstrate two approaches, applying UV/Ozone treatment on graphene and modifying PEDOT:PSS with Zonyl, to get a PEDOT:PSS well-coated graphene film. Our results prove that both methods can be effective to solve the interface issue between graphene and PEDOT: PSS. Thereby it shows a positive application of the composited graphene/PEDOT:PSS film on graphene-based OSCs.

  13. Preparation of Composited Graphene/PEDOT:PSS Film for Its Possible Application in Graphene-based Organic Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yue; LI Meicheng; CHU Lihua; YU Hakki; Wodtke A M; ZHAO Yan; ZHANG Zhongmo

    2015-01-01

    The interface between graphene and organic layers is a key factor responsible for the performance of gra-phene-based organic solar cells (OSCs). In this paper, we focus on coating PEDOT:PSS onto the surface of graphene. We demonstrate two approaches, applying UV/Ozone treatment on graphene and modifying PEDOT:PSS with Zonyl, to get a PEDOT:PSS well-coated graphene film . Our results prove that both methods can be effective to solve the interface issue between graphene and PEDOT: PSS. Thereby it shows a positive application of the composited gra-phene/PEDOT:PSS film on graphene-based OSCs.

  14. Entropy Calculation of Reversible Mixing of Ideal Gases Shows Absence of Gibbs Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Borodiouk

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We consider the work of reversible mixing of ideal gases using a real process. Now assumptions were made concerning infinite shifts, infinite number of cycles and infinite work to provide an accurate calculation of entropy resulting from reversible mixing of ideal gases. We derived an equation showing the dependence of this entropy on the difference in potential of mixed gases, which is evidence for the absence of Gibbs' paradox.

  15. Entropy Calculation of Reversible Mixing of Ideal Gases Shows Absence of Gibbs Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Borodiouk; Vasili Tatarin

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: We consider the work of reversible mixing of ideal gases using a real process. Now assumptions were made concerning infinite shifts, infinite number of cycles and infinite work to provide an accurate calculation of entropy resulting from reversible mixing of ideal gases. We derived an equation showing the dependence of this entropy on the difference in potential of mixed gases, which is evidence for the absence of Gibbs' paradox.

  16. Electrical characterization of the ITO/NiPc/PEDOT : PSS junction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Mutabar; Sayyad, M H; Karimov, Kh S; Wahab, Fazal, E-mail: mutabar_shah@hotmail.co, E-mail: mutabarshah@gmail.co [Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi, District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 23640 (Pakistan)

    2010-10-13

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of an ITO/NiPc/PEDOT : PSS junction diode. A thin film of nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) was deposited by the thermal vacuum deposition method on indium tin oxide (ITO) used as a substrate. The current-voltage characteristics of the diode were measured at room temperature under dark condition and showed rectifying behaviour. The values of several electrical parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, conductivity, and series and shunt resistances were calculated.

  17. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shi Guan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD at 250 nm (excitation and 435 nm (emission using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (PSS-NP in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP. Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability.

  18. Effect of incorporation of silver nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS layer on performance of organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Joginder; Nirwal, Varun Singh; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Peta, Koteswara Rao

    2018-05-01

    Solution processable organic solar cells have attracted significant interest in scientific community due to their easy processability, flexibility and eco friendly fabrication. In these organic solar cells structure, PEDOT:PSS layer has major importance as it used as hole transporting layer. In the present work, we have analyzed the effect of incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in PEDOT:PSS layer for P3HT:PCBM based organic solar cells. The presence of Ag nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS film is confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. It has been observed that PEDOT:PSS layer with AgNPs has ˜5.4% more transmittance than PEDOT:PSS layer in most of the visible region, which helps in reaching more light on active layer. Finally, solar cell with structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS:AgNPs/Al is fabricated and J-V characteristics are plotted under illumination. It is observed that there is a significant (˜10%) enhancement in short circuit current and slight increment in open circuit voltage with addition of AgNPs in PEDOT:PSS layer. The calculated value of power conversion efficiency (PCE) of fabricated device without AgNPs in PEDOT:PSS was 1.67%, which increased to 2.02% after addition of AgNPs in PEDOT:PSS layer.

  19. Immobilization of lipases in PSS/PEO blends and applications in esters synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchia, Roberto D.; Nascimento, Maria G.; Soldi, Valdir

    2001-01-01

    Various lipases were immobilized in PSS/PEO blends and used as bio catalysts in the esterification reaction of lauric acid with n-pentanol, in hexane as a solvent for 24 h at 35 deg C. The best results in the ester conversion, were obtained by using lipase from Rhryzopus oryzae immobilized in PSS/PEO 80:20 blend. The data are in agreement with DSC and TGA values, which showed that these systems (blend/lipase) were very stable with low mass loss. No product was obtained by using lipase FAP-15 immobilized in PSS film , showing the strong influence of the polymer on enzyme activity. (author)

  20. Facile Preparation and Enhanced Capacitance of the Ag-PEDOT:PSS/Polyaniline Nanofiber Network for Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Dipali S.; Pawar, Sachin A.; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Patil, Pramod S.; Shin, Jae Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Fig. shows the steps involved in the development of the AgNW-PEDOT:PSS/PANI electrode. The bright silver nanocubes were observed onto the PANI nanofibers. This means that during the electrodeposition of PANI, there is an electrostatic interaction between AgNWs and PANI; the AgNWs are segmented into the small nanocubes. These nanocubes are distributed equally all over the interconnected network of the PANI nanofibers. This provides a continuous path for the electrons during the charge/discharge process. - Highlights: • Ag-PEDOT:PSS/PANI hybrid nanostructure was prepared. • Dip coating and electrodeposition techniques are used for electrodes preparation. • Symmetric supercapacitor based on AgNW-PEDOT:PSS/PANI was developed. • The positive synergistic effect of AgNW, PEDOT:PSS and PANI was observed. - Abstract: This paper reports the synthesis of a silver − Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)/Polyaniline(Ag-PEDOT:PSS/PANI)hybrid nanostructure using a simple dip coating technique followed by potentiodynamic electrodeposition to achieve an electrochemical supercapacitor with excellent electrochemical performance. In this sandwich type structure, the Ag nanostructure-blended PEDOT: PSS acts as a current collector, where electrons can be transferred easily through this network to the PANI nanofibers and vice versa. The AgNW-PEDOT:PSS/PANI showed a specific capacitance of 643 Fg −1 at 10 mVs −1 and an energy density of 86.19 Whkg −1 at 0.1 mA, indicating the positive synergistic effect of silver nanowires (AgNW), PEDOT:PSS and PANI. The Ag nanostructure incorporated PEDOT:PSS helps to improve the electronic conductivity and the electrochemical stability of the PANI electrodes. Promising electrochemical properties achieved from the measurement of symmetric device demonstrate the ideal capacitive behavior of our prepared electrodes.

  1. PEDOT:PSS-Containing Nanohydroxyapatite/Chitosan Conductive Bionanocomposite Scaffold: Fabrication and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Lari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(4-styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS was incorporated into nanohydroxyapatite/chitosan (nHA/CS composite scaffolds through a freezing and lyophilization technique. The bionanocomposite conductive scaffold was then characterized using several techniques. A scanning electron microscope image showed that the nHA and PEDOT:PSS were dispersed homogeneously in the chitosan matrix, which was also confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. The conductive properties were measured using a digital multimeter. The weight loss and water-uptake properties of the bionanocomposite scaffolds were studied in vitro. An in vitro cell cytotoxicity test was carried out using mouse fibroblast (L929 cells cultured onto the scaffolds. Using a freezing and lyophilization technique, it was possible to fabricate three-dimensional, highly porous, and interconnected PEDOT:PSS/nHA/CS scaffolds with good handling properties. The porosity was 74% and the scaffold’s conductivity was 9.72±0.78 μS. The surface roughness was increased with the incorporation of nHA and PEDOT:PSS into the CS scaffold. The compressive mechanical properties increased significantly with the incorporation of nHA but did not change significantly with the incorporation of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS-containing nHA/CS scaffold exhibited significantly higher cell attachment. The PEDOT:PSS/nHA/CS scaffold could be a potential bionanocomposite conductive scaffold for tissue engineering.

  2. Assessing health-related quality of life in primary Sjögren's syndrome-The PSS-QoL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Angelika; Stradner, Martin H; Hermann, Josef; Unger, Julia; Stamm, Tanja; Graninger, Winfried B; Dejaco, Christian

    2017-11-27

    To develop a questionnaire for the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS), and to test its psychometric properties. Based on the concepts of a previous qualitative study, a questionnaire for the assessment of HRQL in PSS (PSS-QoL) was developed. Psychometric testing of PSS-QoL was performed after revising the first draft with feedback of patients (n = 6) and clinicians (n = 4). Convergent construct validity was assessed by correlating the score with the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI), EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) and Euro-QoL 5D (EQ-5D). Reliability was examined by asking patients to complete the questionnaire twice 1-2 weeks apart. An English Version of the PSS-QoL was developed by using standard methodology with forward and back translation. Out of the 75 PSS patients, 91% were female, mean (±SD) age was 58.5 ± 12.5 years. PSS-QoL consists of 25 questions and can be divided into two main categories: physical (discomfort and dryness) and psychosocial. The internal consistency of the PSS-QoL revealed a Crohnbach's α of 0.892. Strong and moderate correlations were found between the PSS-QoL and ESSPRI (corr coeff = 0.755) and EQ. 5D-pain/discomfort (corr coeff = 0.531). Reproducibility of the PSS-QoL was high, yielding an ICC of 0.958 (95% CI: 0.926-0.981). The PSS-QoL is the first specific tool for the assessment of patients' HRQL in PSS and showed good psychometric properties. It may serve as a novel patient-reported outcome measure in future clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of doped PEDOT: PSS and its influence on the performance and degradation of organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vinamrita; Sharma, Vishal; Tandon, R P; Arora, Swati; Arora, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The present work is a detailed study of the optical, morphological and electrical properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, films doped with ethylene glycol (EG) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS films doped with EG and MWCNT is higher than pristine PEDOT:PSS film. The optical transparency of PEDOT:PSS film decreases insignificantly after addition of MWCNT and EG. The films were further studied using atomic force microscopy,  x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Kelvin probe work function measurement, after which films of PEDOT:PSS with EG and MWCNT were optimized for the fabrication of solar cells. The optimized film was used as a hole extracting layer in a typical ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al solar cell. The suitable concentration for an optimized film was found to be 4% MWCNT and 1:4 ratio of EG to PEDOT:PSS. The performance of the device with doped PEDOT:PSS was found to improve in terms of short circuit current density (J SC ) and efficiency (η). The solar cell with a doped PEDOT:PSS layer showed higher J SC  and η due to the increase in the interchains among PEDOT chains along with the introduction of MWCNT channels in PEDOT:PSS matrix. The degradation behavior of the cells was studied and it was found that both pristine and doped PEDOT:PSS cells showed similar trends of degradation. The performance degradation with time was also studied under variable environmental conditions, which showed different aging rates for the two devices. (paper)

  4. Towards a Lean Product Service Systems (PSS) Design: State of the Art, Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sassanelli, Claudio; Pezzotta, Giuditta; Rossi, Monica; Terzi, Sergio; Cavalieri, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    As for conventional products, the profit generation and the market success of Product Service Systems (PSS) critically depend on the decisions taken during the initial lifecycle stages, when PSSs are conceptualized, designed, developed and engineered. Successful cases show the adoption of lean techniques in the early stages of products development, impelling the authors to assess the application of the same approaches also to PSS development. For this reasons the paper aims to report the stat...

  5. PSS: An approach to sustainable innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    produktionsomkostninger. Produkt/Service-systemer by-der på en oplagt mulighed for at virksomheder kan sikre sig deres fremtid. Introduktion til Produkt/Service-systemer Produkt/service-systemer (PSS) er en innovationsstrategi, hvor en større integration af produkter og services har potentiale til at afkoble den...... eneste mål for PSS. Der hvor de store effekter kan høstes af PSS, er imidlertid at denne tankegang giver flere frihedsgrader i udviklingsarbejdet. Ved at integrere udvikling af produkter og services kan man få øje på nye måder at opfylde kundernes behov kan opfyldes og grundlag dannes for nye produkter......, services og for-retningsmuligheder....

  6. Nonvolatile write-once-read-many-times memory device with functionalized-nanoshells/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Nino, J.A.; Segura-Cardenas, E.; Sustaita, A.O.; Cruz-Cruz, I.; Lopez-Sandoval, R.; Reyes-Reyes, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the memory effect of the nanocomposites of functionalized carbon nanoshells (f-CNSs) mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) polymer. The f-CNSs were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis method and functionalized in situ with functional groups (OH, COOH, C-H, C-OH) with the aim of improving their compatibility in the aqueous dispersion of PEDOT:PSS. The current-voltage (I-V) sweep curves at room temperature for the Al/f-CNSs, for certain concentrations range, embedded in a PEDOT:PSS layer/Al devices showed electrical bistability for write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices. The memory effect observed in the devices can be explained due to the existence of trapped charges in the f-CNSs/PEDOT:PSS layer. The carrier transport mechanisms for the memory devices is studied and discussed.

  7. Nonvolatile write-once-read-many-times memory device with functionalized-nanoshells/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila-Nino, J.A.; Segura-Cardenas, E. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Alvaro Obregon 64 Zona Centro, 78000 SLP (Mexico); Sustaita, A.O. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Cruz-Cruz, I. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Alvaro Obregon 64 Zona Centro, 78000 SLP (Mexico); Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Reyes-Reyes, M., E-mail: reyesm@iico.uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Alvaro Obregon 64 Zona Centro, 78000 SLP (Mexico)

    2011-03-25

    We have investigated the memory effect of the nanocomposites of functionalized carbon nanoshells (f-CNSs) mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) polymer. The f-CNSs were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis method and functionalized in situ with functional groups (OH, COOH, C-H, C-OH) with the aim of improving their compatibility in the aqueous dispersion of PEDOT:PSS. The current-voltage (I-V) sweep curves at room temperature for the Al/f-CNSs, for certain concentrations range, embedded in a PEDOT:PSS layer/Al devices showed electrical bistability for write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices. The memory effect observed in the devices can be explained due to the existence of trapped charges in the f-CNSs/PEDOT:PSS layer. The carrier transport mechanisms for the memory devices is studied and discussed.

  8. Understanding the Capacitance of PEDOT:PSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, Anton V.; Wijeratne, Kosala; Mitraka, Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is the most studied and explored mixed ion-electron conducting polymer system. PEDOT:PSS is commonly included as an electroactive conductor in various organic devices, e.g., supercapacitors, displays, transistors, and energy......-converters. In spite of its long-term use as a material for storage and transport of charges, the fundamentals of its bulk capacitance remain poorly understood. Generally, charge storage in supercapacitors is due to formation of electrical double layers or redox reactions, and it is widely accepted that PEDOT...

  9. A Tool for Conceptualising in PSS development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a tool for conceptualising in the development of product/servicesystems (PSS), based upon the modelling of service activities. Our argumentation is built on two previous articles by the same author, previously presented at the 16. Symposium “Design for X” [1] and the 9th Int...... the integrated consideration of the customers’ activities, possible PSS offerings and beneficial partnering options (i.e. between different supplier companies) within the delivery value chain.......This paper introduces a tool for conceptualising in the development of product/servicesystems (PSS), based upon the modelling of service activities. Our argumentation is built on two previous articles by the same author, previously presented at the 16. Symposium “Design for X” [1] and the 9th...... International Design Conference [2]. In this contribution, we take the step from a fundamental understanding of the phenomenon to creating a normative exploitation of this understanding for PSS concept development. The developed modelling technique is based on the Customer Activity Cycle (CAC) model...

  10. Preparation of 2D MoSe2/PEDOT:PSS composite and its thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Tongzhou; Wang, Wenfang; Wang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Qinglin; Jiang, Fengxing; Xu, Jingkun

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, inorganic/polymer composites have attracted significant interest in thermoelectric field, since the composite materials usually achieve their respective advantages complementary to each other. In this work, molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Solution processible two-dimensional (2D) MoSe2 nanosheets (NSs) were successfully obtained using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent or lithium intercalation procedure. Combined with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), MoSe2/PEDOT:PSS composite thin films were fabricated by direct vacuum-filtration method. Thermoelectric properties of composite thin films were investigated systematically and found that 2D MoSe2 NSs and PEDOT:PSS have the synergistic effect on improving thermoelectric properties. The maximum power factor was calculated to be 48.6 µW m-1 K-2 with 5 wt% 2D MoSe2 NSs embedding into PEDOT:PSS matrix, which is almost 69% higher than that of pure PEDOT:PSS. These results demonstrate that 2D inorganic/polymer composite method is one of promising strategies to get high-performance polymer-based thermoelectric composites.

  11. Pseudospark switches (PSS) for pulsed power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, F; Prucker, U; Frank, K; Goertler, A; Schwandner, A; Tkotz, R; Hoffmann, D H.H.; Christiansen, J [Univ. of Erlangen (Germany). Physics Dept. I

    1997-12-31

    Based on the pseudospark discharge, a low pressure gas discharge in a special geometry, fast closing switches for different pulsed power applications have been designed. Medium power PSS ({<=} 30 kA peak current) were used in laser circuits whereas high current PSS are tested successfully in high current pulsed power applications ({<=} 200 kA). For currents of a few kA the discharge is supported by cathode spots on the cold cathode surface. For higher currents, anode activity is observed too. Inserting semiconductor material seems not only to suppress high erosive spot formation but to support diffuse large-area electrode emission. A different approach to solving the problem of lowering the erosion rate is the multichannel PSS (MUPS). In order to distribute the discharge current to more than one single channel, three or more discharge channels are radial or coaxial arranged. With regard to high voltage applications the maximum hold-off voltage was increased by adding an intermediate electrode. (author). 1 figs., 12 refs.

  12. Spray-deposited PEDOT:PSS for inverted organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weickert, Jonas; Sun, Haiyan; Palumbiny, Claudia; Hesse, Holger Christian; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Amalienstr. 54, 80799 Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The method of spray-depositing PEDOT:PSS allows the fabrication of thin films with controlled thickness on polymer layers. PEDOT:PSS is used in inverted ITO/TiO{sub 2}/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag solar cells to optimize the work function of the hole-collecting electrode. The interlayer is also found to protect the organic layer during metal top deposition and improve the contact between P3HT-PCBM and the Ag electrode, which is confirmed using two different metal-deposition techniques; thermal evaporation and sputtering. Cells with PEDOT:PSS show full V{sub OC} and efficiency immediately after fabrication, whereas devices without PEDOT:PSS exhibit low performance in the beginning and improve significantly during the first 10 days after production. Devices are long-term stable if stored in the dark and in ambient air and show no significant performance decrease after 80 days. No inert nitrogen atmosphere is needed for any fabrication step, thus reducing the potential production costs since no glove box has to be used. (author)

  13. Low-Temperature Cross-Linking of PEDOT:PSS Films Using Divinylsulfone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantione, Daniele; Del Agua, Isabel; Schaafsma, Wandert; ElMahmoudy, Mohammed; Uguz, Ilke; Sanchez-Sanchez, Ana; Sardon, Haritz; Castro, Begoña; Malliaras, George G; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-05-31

    Recent interest in bioelectronics has prompted the exploration of properties of conducting polymer films at the interface with biological milieus. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) from a commercially available source has been used as a model system for these studies. Different cross-linking schemes have been used to stabilize films of this material against delamination and redispersion, but the cost is a decrease in the electrical conductivity and/or additional heat treatment. Here we introduce divinylsulfone (DVS) as a new cross-linker for PEDOT:PSS. Thanks to the higher reactiveness of the vinyl groups of DVS, the cross-linking can be performed at room temperature. In addition, DVS does not reduce electronic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS but rather increases it by acting as a secondary dopant. Cell culture studies show that PEDOT:PSS:DVS films are cytocompatible and support neuroregeneration. As an example, we showed that this material improved the transconductance value and stability of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) device. These results open the way for the utilization of DVS as an effective cross-linker for PEDOT:PSS in bioelectronics applications.

  14. Determining Factors for Stress Perception Assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) in Spanish and Other European Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Miguel A; Vallejo-Slocker, Laura; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G; Mañanes, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Stress perception depends on cultural and social aspects that vary from one country to another. One of the most widely disseminated methods of assessing psychological stress is the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4). Therefore, in order to identify these factors and their impact on mental health, the present study compares the PSS-4 results among three European countries (Great Britain, France and Spain). This study focuses on PSS-4 results within a Spanish sample to determine: (1) normative data, reliability and validity of PSS-4 in a Spanish sample and (2) how stress perception changes depending on cultural and social factors. Methods: The data were obtained from a website representing a service of a smoking cessation program, the study represented a service that was open to all individuals. The number of participants were 37,451. They reported their age, gender, nationality, marital status, education and employment status, and completed two psychological questionnaires (PPS-4 and the anxiety and depression scales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, SCL 90-R). Results: The PSS-4 scores could differentiate between relevant sociodemographic variables (such as sex, age, nationality, marital status, education, parental status, employment status, and income class). The PSS-4 scores showed a positive correlation with the SCL 90-R anxiety and depression scales. The normed values for interpreting the PSS-4 scores are presented. The PSS-4 showed adequate internal consistency and reliability. Conclusions: The PSS-4 is a useful instrument for assessing stress perception levels in the general population in different countries. Its internal consistency is sufficient for a 4-item scale.

  15. NiS(NPs)-PEDOT-PSS composite counter electrode for a high efficiency dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiaugree, Wasan [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Center for Alternative Energy Research and Development, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimparue, Pachara; Jarernboon, Wirat [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpang, Samuk [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Center for Alternative Energy Research and Development, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2017-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure(a) and (b) represent models depict PEDOT-PSS counter electrodes of DSSC without and with NiS NPs modification, respectively. The active surface area of PEDOT-PSS polymer can be improved by combining with NiS(NPs). The I-V curves in figure (c) show the superior photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 8.18% for NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS DSSC. - Highlights: • Active surface area of PEDOT-PSS CE can be improved by mixing with NiS(NPs). • Electrocatalytic activity of mixed NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS polymer is also improved. • NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS CE shows a very low charge transfer resistance of 0.46 Ω. • In this work, the high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 8.18% is achieved. - Abstract: Nickel sulfide (NiS) nanoparticles (NPs) (NiS(NPs)) were prepared by the hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate the hexagonal structure of NiS(NPs). SEM micrographs reveal the agglomeration of irregular hexagonal – shaped NiS(NPs) with estimated particle size in the range of 50–150 nm. Counter electrodes (CEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared by coating the composite slurry of different NiS(NPs) loadings and Poly (3, 4-Ethylendioxythiophene) – Poly (Styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) on fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using a doctor blading technique. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) results indicate that the composites of NiS(NPs) and PEDOT-PSS (NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS) films could function as a catalyst for I{sub 3}{sup −} reduction with a maximum cell efficiency of 8.18% for a cell of 0.3 g NiS(NPs) loading.

  16. Determining Factors for Stress Perception Assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4 in Spanish and Other European Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Vallejo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stress perception depends on cultural and social aspects that vary from one country to another. One of the most widely disseminated methods of assessing psychological stress is the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4. Therefore, in order to identify these factors and their impact on mental health, the present study compares the PSS-4 results among three European countries (Great Britain, France and Spain. This study focuses on PSS-4 results within a Spanish sample to determine: (1 normative data, reliability and validity of PSS-4 in a Spanish sample and (2 how stress perception changes depending on cultural and social factors.Methods: The data were obtained from a website representing a service of a smoking cessation program, the study represented a service that was open to all individuals. The number of participants were 37,451. They reported their age, gender, nationality, marital status, education and employment status, and completed two psychological questionnaires (PPS-4 and the anxiety and depression scales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, SCL 90-R.Results: The PSS-4 scores could differentiate between relevant sociodemographic variables (such as sex, age, nationality, marital status, education, parental status, employment status, and income class. The PSS-4 scores showed a positive correlation with the SCL 90-R anxiety and depression scales. The normed values for interpreting the PSS-4 scores are presented. The PSS-4 showed adequate internal consistency and reliability.Conclusions: The PSS-4 is a useful instrument for assessing stress perception levels in the general population in different countries. Its internal consistency is sufficient for a 4-item scale.

  17. Fabrication of water-dispersible and highly conductive PSS-doped PANI/graphene nanocomposites using a high-molecular weight PSS dopant and their application in H2S detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghun; Lee, Jun Seop; Jun, Jaemoon; Kim, Sung Gun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2014-11-01

    This work describes the fabrication of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PSS-doped PANI/graphene) nanocomposites and their use as sensing elements for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection. PSS with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.96 × 106 was synthesized using low-temperature free-radical polymerization. The PSS was used as both a doping agent and a binding agent for the polymerization of aniline monomers in a biphasic system (water-chloroform) at -50 °C. The high Mw of PSS resulted in relatively large particle sizes and smooth surfaces of the PSS-doped PANI. These physical characteristics, in turn, resulted in low interparticle resistance and high conductivity. In addition, the PSS allowed homogeneous dispersion of reduced graphene sheets through electrostatic repulsion. The prepared PSS-doped PANI/graphene solutions showed good compatibility with flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates, making them suitable for flexible sensor electrodes. Changes in the charge-transport properties, such as protonation level, conjugation length, crystalline structure, and charge-transfer resistance, of the electrode materials were the main factors influencing the electrical and sensor performance of the PSS-doped PANI-based electrodes. PSS-doped PANI/graphene composites containing 30 wt% graphene showed the highest conductivity (168.4 S cm-1) and the lowest minimum detection level (MDL) for H2S gas (1 ppm). This result is consistent with the observed improvements in charge transport in the electrode materials via strong π-π stacking interactions between the PANI and the graphene sheets.This work describes the fabrication of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PSS-doped PANI/graphene) nanocomposites and their use as sensing elements for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection. PSS with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.96 × 106 was synthesized using low-temperature free-radical polymerization. The PSS was

  18. Results of RNV studies and /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy in patients with progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Biltz, H.; Kuester, W.

    1988-12-01

    Prognosis of progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS) depends directly on the extent of visceral organ involvement, and in particular, on the cardiac, renal and pulmonary appearance. Therapeutic approaches therefore require periodic followup with non-invasive methods to evaluate the actual course of disease and the success of therapy. Tl-201 scintigraphy showed pathologic heart abnormalities in 47% and RNV in 23% of the PSS patients. Our results and published data reveal the sensitivity of both myocardial scans and RNV in the evaluation of patients with PSS. Other current methods for the diagnosis of heart diseases, however, such as echocardiography should also be performed. In patients with PSS coronary angiography, however, usually shows normal coronary vessels.

  19. Effect of Pedot-Pss on Electrical and Photovoltaic Properties of ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al Organic Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunduz, B.

    2008-01-01

    The photovoltaic and electrical properties of ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT-PSS/MEHPPV:PCBM/Al organic diodes have been investigated. The ideality factor, series resistance and shunt resistance values of ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT-PSS/MEHPPV:PCBM/Al diodes were found to be 4.6, 6.84x10 6 Ω, 2.2x10 8 Ω and 4.02, 5.8x10 5 Ω, 2x10 7 Ω respectively. The electronic parameters of the ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al diode were improved using PEDOT-PSS conducting polymer. ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT-PSS/MEHPPV:PCBM/Al organic diodes indicate a photovoltaic behaviour with a maximum open circuit voltage V o c and short-circuit current I s c. The photoconductivity sensitivity and responsivity properties of the organic diodes have been characterized by transient-current measurements. The obtained electrical and photovoltaic results indicate that ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT-PSS/MEHPPV:PCBM/Al structures are the organic photodiodes with calculated electronic parameters and the electrical properties of the ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al diode have been improved with PEDOT-PSS conducting polymer

  20. Directives to support the design of changeable (I)PSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira Pessoa, Marcus Vinicius; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Maier, Anja; Skec, Stanko; Kim, Harrison; Kokkolaras, Michael; Oehmen, Josef; Fadel, Georges; Salustri, Filippo; Van der Loos, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Product service models (PSM) benefits are not limited to its providers and costumers, but the whole society might also take advantage from its sustainability impact. Achieving these benefits, though, require changeable product service systems ((I)PSS). Changeability means the (I)PSS' modules have

  1. The Curious Out-of-Plane Conductivity of PEDOT : PSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ruit, Kevin; Katsouras, Ilias; Bollen, Dirk; van Mol, Ton; Janssen, Rene A. J.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Kemerink, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    For its application as transparent conductor in light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivity of PEDOT:PSS are important. However, studies into the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS rarely address the out-of-plane conductivity and those that do, report widely

  2. The empowerment potential of public sector software (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Ninan Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the potential for public sector software (PSS to empower citizens are at a very nascent stage. This article explores the theoretical basis for, and practical advantages of, PSS, in the making of an informed and pro-active citizenry. Using the example of the emerging PSS movement in India and in particular the ICT literacy movement in Kerala, South India, it argues, that access to and use of software based on the principles of free and open source has the potential to contribute to an empowered citizenry. However the very concept of PSS is contested by major private software companies given that they stand to lose from public investments that are based on open standards. The article argues that PSS can contribute to the making of an ‘information commons’ and that the need of the hour is for innovative and creative solutions to the information deficits faced by communities in India and elsewhere.

  3. Damping Torsional Torques in Turbine-Generator Shaft by Novel PSS Based on Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Shoulaie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Torsional torques on turbine-generator shaft which are yields of disturbances in power systems, can reduce the useful lifetime of shaft. In this paper, these oscillations will be damped and controlled by novel Power System Stabilizers (PSSs. Complex PSS which is used in this paper will act on the excitation system in generator set and also on the controller of in High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC system. This PSS uses three terms (generator angle deviation, frequency oscillation and capacitor voltage deviation in HVDC system of the study system which includes two ties AC and DC. This is the reason that this PSS is named novel one against the conventional PSSs. In order to adjust the PSS parameters to damp the oscillations, genetic algorithm is used. To improve the application of this PSS, fuzzy logic control methods are also used which has notable effect on controlling the oscillations in study system. The simulation results show the effectiveness of designed PSS in controlling the torsional torques in turbine-generator shaft.

  4. Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Films with 1,3-Dimethyl-2-Imidazolidinone as Transparent Electrodes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Joo, Chul Woong; Lee, Jonghee; Seo, Yoon Kyung; Han, Joo Won; Oh, Ji Yoon; Kim, Jong Su; Yu, Seunggun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Yun, Changhun; Choi, Bum Ho; Kim, Yong Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) films as transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are doped with a new solvent 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) and are optimized using solvent post-treatment. The DMI doped PSS films show significantly enhanced conductivities up to 812.1 S cm(-1) . The sheet resistance of the PSS films doped with DMI is further reduced by various solvent post-treatment. The effect of solvent post-treatment on DMI doped PSS films is investigated and is shown to reduce insulating PSS in the conductive films. The solvent posttreated PSS films are successfully employed as transparent electrodes in white OLEDs. It is shown that the efficiency of OLEDs with the optimized DMI doped PSS films is higher than that of reference OLEDs doped with a conventional solvent (ethylene glycol). The results present that the optimized PSS films with the new solvent of DMI can be a promising transparent electrode for low-cost, efficient ITO-free white OLEDs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. PSS and TCSC damping controller coordinated design using PSO in multi-machine power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayeghi, H., E-mail: hshayeghi@gmail.co [Technical Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safari, A.; Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The paper develops a new design procedure for simultaneous coordinated designing of the thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) damping controller and power system stabilizer (PSS) in multi-machine power system. The coordinated design problem of PSS and TCSC damping controllers over a wide range of loading conditions is converted to an optimization problem with the time domain-based objective function that is solved by a particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique which has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. By minimizing the proposed fitness function in which oscillatory characteristics between areas are included and thus the interactions among the TCSC controller and PSS under transient conditions in the multi-machine power system are improved. To ensure the robustness of the proposed stabilizers, the design process takes a wide range of operating conditions into account. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through the nonlinear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results of these studies show that the proposed coordinated controllers have an excellent capability in damping power system inter-area oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power system. Moreover, it is superior to both the uncoordinated designed stabilizers of the PSS and the TCSC damping controller.

  6. Impact of PSS and SVC on the Power System Transient Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Omar Benaissa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Static Var Compensator (SVC is used to improve the stability of the power system because of its role in injecting or absorbing the reactive power in the electrical transmission lines. The Power System Stabilizer (PSS is also a control device which ensures maximum power transfer and thus the stability of the power system enhancement. The PSS has been widely used to damp electromechanical oscillations occur in power systems. If no adequate damping is available, the oscillations will increase leading to instability. The present work is an original contribution to the problem of transient stability in the electrical power system, the authors have made some efforts to illustrate the flexibility and the importance of inserting the SVC alone or with the PSS the fact that maintain the characteristics of the system within acceptable limits in a very short time. The results show that the system has been developed successfully in terms of transient stability in a bi-machine transmission system only with the presence of PSS when a single-phase fault has been occurred, while the presence of SVC is more than essential when a three-phase fault is occurred.

  7. Framing design research for service orientation through PSS approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh; Matzen, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development......, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research...... fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas....

  8. Sheet resistance, transmittance, and chromatic property of CNTs coated with PEDOT:PSS films for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates hybrid-type transparent electrodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that possess characteristics desirable for touch screen panels. This has been accomplished by depositing CNTs via spray-coating and then depositing thin conductive polymer (such as PEDOT:PSS) films on the CNTs via spin-coating. For all of the samples such as CNTs, PEDOT:PSS, and hybrid (i.e., PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs), their surface morphologies, sheet resistances, visible transmittances, and chromatic properties are characterized as functions of their preparation conditions. In the PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs, the PEDOT:PSS particles fill up the voids between tubes in CNTs, forming a conduction bridge for electron transfer and eventually decreasing the sheet resistance of the hybrid electrode. Also, the hybrid electrode reveals a superior color property compared with that of CNTs or the PEDOT:PSS single electrode due to the complementary color relation between CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. Experimental results show that the fabricated hybrid-type electrodes can simultaneously satisfy the requirements necessary for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels such as the sheet resistance requiring to be lower than 100 Ω/sq, visible transmittance higher than 80%, and yellowness approaching to zero. - Highlights: • Hybrid-type (PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs) electrodes for touch panels are fabricated. • PEDOT:PSS films are coated via spin-coating on spray-deposited CNTs. • Hybrid electrodes are fabricated by varying the thickness of CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. • The resistance, transmittance, and color properties have been analyzed. • Hybrid electrodes satisfy electrical and optical properties for touch panels

  9. Sheet resistance, transmittance, and chromatic property of CNTs coated with PEDOT:PSS films for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Seok

    2014-12-01

    This study demonstrates hybrid-type transparent electrodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that possess characteristics desirable for touch screen panels. This has been accomplished by depositing CNTs via spray-coating and then depositing thin conductive polymer (such as PEDOT:PSS) films on the CNTs via spin-coating. For all of the samples such as CNTs, PEDOT:PSS, and hybrid (i.e., PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs), their surface morphologies, sheet resistances, visible transmittances, and chromatic properties are characterized as functions of their preparation conditions. In the PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs, the PEDOT:PSS particles fill up the voids between tubes in CNTs, forming a conduction bridge for electron transfer and eventually decreasing the sheet resistance of the hybrid electrode. Also, the hybrid electrode reveals a superior color property compared with that of CNTs or the PEDOT:PSS single electrode due to the complementary color relation between CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. Experimental results show that the fabricated hybrid-type electrodes can simultaneously satisfy the requirements necessary for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels such as the sheet resistance requiring to be lower than 100 Ω/sq, visible transmittance higher than 80%, and yellowness approaching to zero. - Highlights: • Hybrid-type (PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs) electrodes for touch panels are fabricated. • PEDOT:PSS films are coated via spin-coating on spray-deposited CNTs. • Hybrid electrodes are fabricated by varying the thickness of CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. • The resistance, transmittance, and color properties have been analyzed. • Hybrid electrodes satisfy electrical and optical properties for touch panels.

  10. Is College Affordable? Are Loans Manageable? What Do Colleges' Net Price Calculators Show? Policy Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A review of net price calculators--a financial aid tool mandated by the "Higher Education Opportunity Act" of 2008--reveals that students from low-, moderate-, and middle-income families face record-level net prices at 4-year public colleges today. These net prices will translate into levels of average total loan burden far in excess of…

  11. Autoclave Sterilization of PEDOT:PSS Electrophysiology Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, Ilke; Ganji, Mehran; Hama, Adel; Tanaka, Atsunori; Inal, Sahika; Youssef, Ahmed; Owens, Roisin M; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ghestem, Antoine; Bernard, Christophe; Dayeh, Shadi A; Malliaras, George G

    2016-12-01

    Autoclaving, the most widely available sterilization method, is applied to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrophysiology devices. The process does not harm morphology or electrical properties, while it effectively kills E. coli intentionally cultured on the devices. This finding paves the way to widespread introduction of PEDOT:PSS electrophysiology devices to the clinic. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS and Tellurium-PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Composites by Simple Chemical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Bae, Eun; Hun Kang, Young; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Yun Cho, Song

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and tellurium-PEDOT:PSS (Te-PEDOT:PSS) hybrid composites were enhanced via simple chemical treatment. The performance of thermoelectric materials is determined by their electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. Significant enhancement of the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites from 787.99 and 11.01 to 4839.92 and 334.68 S cm-1, respectively was achieved by simple chemical treatment with H2SO4. The power factor of the developed materials could be effectively tuned over a very wide range depending on the concentration of the H2SO4 solution used in the chemical treatment. The power factors of the developed thermoelectric materials were optimized to 51.85 and 284 μW m-1 K-2, respectively, which represent an increase of four orders of magnitude relative to the corresponding parameters of the untreated thermoelectric materials. Using the Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites, a flexible thermoelectric generator that could be embedded in textiles was fabricated by a printing process. This thermoelectric array generates a thermoelectric voltage of 2 mV using human body heat.

  13. Silicon surface passivation by PEDOT: PSS functionalized by SnO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tecedor, M; Karazhanov, S Zh; Vásquez, G C; Haug, H; Maestre, D; Cremades, A; Taeño, M; Ramírez-Castellanos, J; González-Calbet, J M; Piqueras, J; You, C C; Marstein, E S

    2018-01-19

    In this paper, we present a study of silicon surface passivation based on the use of spin-coated hybrid composite layers. We investigate both undoped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly-(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), as well as PEDOT:PSS functionalized with semiconducting oxide nanomaterials (TiO 2 and SnO 2 ). The hybrid compound was deposited at room temperature by spin coating-a potentially lower cost, lower processing time and higher throughput alternative compared with the commonly used vacuum-based techniques. Photoluminescence imaging was used to characterize the electronic properties of the Si/PEDOT:PSS interface. Good surface passivation was achieved by PEDOT:PSS functionalized by semiconducting oxides. We show that control of the concentration of semiconducting oxide nanoparticles in the polymer is crucial in determining the passivation performance. A charge carrier lifetime of about 275 μs has been achieved when using SnO 2 nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.5 wt.% as a filler in the composite film. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray in an SEM, and μ-Raman spectroscopy have been used for the morphological, chemical and structural characterization. Finally, a simple model of a photovoltaic device based on PEDOT:PSS functionalized with semiconducting oxide nanoparticles has been fabricated and electrically characterized.

  14. Theoretical considerations regarding the existence of PsO and PsS+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farazdel, A.; Cade, P.E.

    1977-01-01

    It has been proposed from experimental studies and in analogy with hydrogen compounds that PsO may be an entity of some importance, or an intermediate, in the reaction of positronium, Ps, with aqueous oxyacid species such as H 2 PO 4 - , HSO 4 - , ClO 4 - , and NO 3 - . This communication explores the stability of PsO and PsS, or [O - :e + ] and [S - :e + ], respectively, relative to dissociation into Ps and O( 3 P) or S( 3 P) on the basis of restricted Hartree-Fock calculations for the PsO and PsS systems and certain correlation correction arguments. A reasonable lower estimate of the dissociation energy to Y+Ps of >-0.47 eV for PsO and >0.70 eV for PsS is obtained. It is suggested that a modest correlation correction to the positron affinity (PA) of O - would very probably lead to a bound state system for PsO. (Auth.)

  15. Decohesion Kinetics of PEDOT:PSS Conducting Polymer Films

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Novoa, Fernando; Voroshazi, Eszter; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2013-01-01

    The highly conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS is a widely used hole transport layer and transparent electrode in organic electronic devices. To date, the mechanical and fracture properties of this conductive polymer layer are not well understood. Notably, the decohesion rate of the PEDOT:PSS layer and its sensitivity to moist environments has not been reported, which is central in determining the lifetimes of organic electronic devices. Here, it is demonstrated that the decohesion rate is highly sensitive to the ambient moisture content, temperature, and mechanical stress. The kinetic mechanisms are elucidated using atomistic bond rupture models and the decohesion process is shown to be facilitated by a chemical reaction between water molecules from the environment and strained hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are the predominant bonding mechanism between individual PEDOT:PSS grains within the layer and cause a significant loss in cohesion when they are broken. Understanding the decohesion kinetics and mechanisms in these films is essential for the mechanical integrity of devices containing PEDOT:PSS layers and yields general guidelines for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices. Decohesion rate in PEDOT:PSS conducting films is studied under varied environmental conditions. The moisture content in the environment is the most important factor accelerating the decohesion in the PEDOT:PSS layer, which is detrimental for device reliability. The findings on the decohesion rate and mechanisms, elucidated by atomic kinetic models, are essential for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices containting PEDOT:PSS layers. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Decohesion Kinetics of PEDOT:PSS Conducting Polymer Films

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2013-10-17

    The highly conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS is a widely used hole transport layer and transparent electrode in organic electronic devices. To date, the mechanical and fracture properties of this conductive polymer layer are not well understood. Notably, the decohesion rate of the PEDOT:PSS layer and its sensitivity to moist environments has not been reported, which is central in determining the lifetimes of organic electronic devices. Here, it is demonstrated that the decohesion rate is highly sensitive to the ambient moisture content, temperature, and mechanical stress. The kinetic mechanisms are elucidated using atomistic bond rupture models and the decohesion process is shown to be facilitated by a chemical reaction between water molecules from the environment and strained hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are the predominant bonding mechanism between individual PEDOT:PSS grains within the layer and cause a significant loss in cohesion when they are broken. Understanding the decohesion kinetics and mechanisms in these films is essential for the mechanical integrity of devices containing PEDOT:PSS layers and yields general guidelines for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices. Decohesion rate in PEDOT:PSS conducting films is studied under varied environmental conditions. The moisture content in the environment is the most important factor accelerating the decohesion in the PEDOT:PSS layer, which is detrimental for device reliability. The findings on the decohesion rate and mechanisms, elucidated by atomic kinetic models, are essential for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices containting PEDOT:PSS layers. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A facile micropatterning method for a highly flexible PEDOT:PSS on SU-8

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul; Diekhans, Justin; Steward, Malia; Bakr, Osman; Choi, Seungkeun

    2016-01-01

    We report the micropatterning of conducting polymer on the epoxy-based photoresist to demonstrate fully organic, conducting and flexible electrodes. We show that polystyrene sulfonic acid can be covalently linked to the surface of the photoresist (SU-8) by forming sulfonyl ester at the interfaces. We also present an application of the patterned PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate)/SU-8 to the electroplating of metal electrodes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  18. A facile micropatterning method for a highly flexible PEDOT:PSS on SU-8

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-04-17

    We report the micropatterning of conducting polymer on the epoxy-based photoresist to demonstrate fully organic, conducting and flexible electrodes. We show that polystyrene sulfonic acid can be covalently linked to the surface of the photoresist (SU-8) by forming sulfonyl ester at the interfaces. We also present an application of the patterned PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate)/SU-8 to the electroplating of metal electrodes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Towards assessing Product/Service-Systems (PSS) within the Danish maritime industry: A PSS positioning map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro; Bey, Niki

    2012-01-01

    In response to requirements resulting from a changing business landscape from solely physical-product-based value creation towards performance-based value creation, this paper presents a questionnaire-based matrix, the PSS Categorization Matrix, that is developed in order to help organizations find...... their position in terms of the balance between product-related and service-related activities. Judging from a workshop carried out with companies from the maritime industry and researchers in the area, the approach seems promising, but requires improvements on questionnaire and Matrix. These need to incorporate...... further improvements regarding the factor of time and the applicability related to product/service portfolios, as opposed to single product/services. The authors already plan further research on the identified issues....

  20. The kinesin AtPSS1 promotes synapsis and is required for proper crossover distribution in meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Duroc

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic crossovers (COs shape genetic diversity by mixing homologous chromosomes at each generation. CO distribution is a highly regulated process. CO assurance forces the occurrence of at least one obligatory CO per chromosome pair, CO homeostasis smoothes out the number of COs when faced with variation in precursor number and CO interference keeps multiple COs away from each other along a chromosome. In several organisms, it has been shown that cytoskeleton forces are transduced to the meiotic nucleus via KASH- and SUN-domain proteins, to promote chromosome synapsis and recombination. Here we show that the Arabidopsis kinesin AtPSS1 plays a major role in chromosome synapsis and regulation of CO distribution. In Atpss1 meiotic cells, chromosome axes and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs appear to form normally but only a variable portion of the genome synapses and is competent for CO formation. Some chromosomes fail to form the obligatory CO, while there is an increased CO density in competent regions. However, the total number of COs per cell is unaffected. We further show that the kinesin motor domain of AtPSS1 is required for its meiotic function, and that AtPSS1 interacts directly with WIP1 and WIP2, two KASH-domain proteins. Finally, meiocytes missing AtPSS1 and/or SUN proteins show similar meiotic defects suggesting that AtPSS1 and SUNs act in the same pathway. This suggests that forces produced by the AtPSS1 kinesin and transduced by WIPs/SUNs, are required to authorize complete synapsis and regulate maturation of recombination intermediates into COs. We suggest that a form of homeostasis applies, which maintains the total number of COs per cell even if only a part of the genome is competent for CO formation.

  1. Preparation of graphene oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxytriophene): Poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrospun nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efelina, Vita; Widianto, Eri; Rusdiana, Dadi; Nugroho, A. A.; Kusumaatmaja, Ahmad; Triyana, Kuwat; Santoso, Iman

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)/Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxytriophene):Poly (styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique to develop conductive nanofibers with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) act as a carrier solution. Graphene oxide has been synthesized by Hummer’s method and has been confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy, FTIR and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. GO/PEDOT:PSS composite nanofibers. The structural and morphological properties were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of SEM show that GO/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers has a relatively uniform morphology nanofiber with diameter between 180 nm - 340 nm with smooth nanofiber surface. The produced nanofibers from this study can be utilized for various applications such as flexible, conductive and transparent electrode.

  2. Impact of PSS and STATCOM Devices to the Dynamic Performance of a Multi-Machine Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shahgholian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of leveraging both static syn­ch­ron­ous compensator (STATCOM and power system stabilizer (PSS on multi-machine power systems. Considering a sta­ndard IEEE 9-bus test power network, classic and intelligent controllers are applied to achieve the desirable system performance. Simulated tests show the usefulness of STATCOM on network power quality in terms of voltage profile. In addition, it is shown that it can significantly improve the damping oscillations of synchronous generator under normal and abnormal network conditions. As shown, the PSS also contributes to improving the synch­ron­o­u­s generator parameters. It is also observed that using intelligent controllers with STATCOM and PSS leads to a better perfor­ma­nc­e relative to the classic controllers.

  3. Preparation of graphene oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxytriophene): Poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrospun nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efelina, Vita; Widianto, Eri [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS.21 Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Rusdiana, Dadi [Department of Physical Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung (Indonesia); Nugroho, A. A. [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Kusumaatmaja, Ahmad; Triyana, Kuwat; Santoso, Iman, E-mail: iman.santoso@ugm.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS.21 Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Nanomaterials Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada,, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Graphene oxide (GO)/Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxytriophene):Poly (styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique to develop conductive nanofibers with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) act as a carrier solution. Graphene oxide has been synthesized by Hummer’s method and has been confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy, FTIR and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. GO/PEDOT:PSS composite nanofibers. The structural and morphological properties were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of SEM show that GO/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers has a relatively uniform morphology nanofiber with diameter between 180 nm - 340 nm with smooth nanofiber surface. The produced nanofibers from this study can be utilized for various applications such as flexible, conductive and transparent electrode.

  4. Electromechanical properties of polyamide/lycra fabric treated with PEDOT:PSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, M. G.; Mengistie, D. A.; Loghin, C.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Catalin, D.; Müller, C.; Nierstrasz, V.

    2017-10-01

    One of the challenges in smart textiles is to develop suitable multifunctional materials that can address simultaneously several characteristics such as durability, stretchability, lightweight, and conductivity. Conductive polymers which showed success in different technological fields like polymer solar cells and light emitting diodes are promising in many smart textile applications. In this work, we treated a common polyamide/lycra knitted fabric with PEDOT:PSS for stretchable e-textiles. PEDOT:PSS, with DMSO as a conductivity enhancer and different ratios of water-based polyurethane dispersions as a binder, was applied to the fabric with simple immersion and coating applications. The effect of different application methods and binder ratio on the surface resistance of the fabric was monitored with four point probe electrical surface resistance measurement systems. Samples prepared by immersion technique are more uniform and have higher conductivity than those prepared by a coating technique. SEM images showed that PEDOT:PSS is incorporated into the structure in the immersion method while in the coating it is majorly present on the surface of the fabric. The tensile measurement showed that the acidic PEDOT:PSS and polyurethane dispersion coating has no adverse effect on the tensile strength of the fabric. The coated samples can be stretched up to 700% while still reasonably conductive. The resistance increases only by a small amount when samples were stretched cyclically by stretching 100%. Generally, samples prepared by the immersion method maintained better conductivity while stretching than those by a coating method. The washing fastness of the samples was also assessed.

  5. MnO2-Graphene Oxide-PEDOT:PSS Nanocomposite for an Electrochemical Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipali S.; Pawar, Sachin A.; Shin, Jae Cheol; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2018-04-01

    A ternary nanocomposite with poly (3,4 ethylene dioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-MnO2 nanowires-graphene oxide (PMn-GO) was synthesized by using simple chemical route. The formation of the nanocomposite was analyzed by using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Field-emission scanning microscopy (FESEM) revealed the formation of MnO2 nanowires and graphene oxide nanosheets. The highest specific capacitance (areal capacitance) of 841 Fg -1 (177 mFcm -2) at 10 mVs -1 and energy density of 0.593 kWhkg -1 at 0.5 mA were observed for PMn-GO, indicating a constructive synergistic effect of PEDOT:PSS, MnO2 nanowires and graphene oxide. The achieved promising electrochemical characteristics showed that this ternary nanocomposite is a good alternative as an electrode material for supercapacitor.

  6. Durability of PEDOT: PSS-pentacene Schottky diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K S; Lim, H K; Cho, K Y; Han, K J; Kim, Jaehwan

    2008-01-01

    The durability and failure cause of a polymer Schottky diode made with PEDOT : PSS-pentacene were investigated. A polymer Schottky diode was fabricated by dissolving pentacene in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and mixing with PEDOT : PSS. Pentacene solution having a maximum concentration of approximately 9.7 mmoles was prepared by simply stirring the solution at room temperature for 36 h. As the pentacene concentration increased, the absorption of the broad UV regime increased dramatically. However, absorption peaks of pentacene at 301 and 260 nm were not observed for the PEDOT : PSS-pentacene. A three-layered polymer Schottky diode was fabricated and its current-voltage (I-V) characteristic was evaluated. The current was reduced by 7% in the first 50 min and then stabilized during biased electrical field sweeps. After 500 and 800 min, catastrophic failure occurred. FESEM images revealed that the electrode damage caused catastrophic failure of the Schottky diode. (fast track communication)

  7. P-doped organic semiconductor: Potential replacement for PEDOT:PSS in organic photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrbach, J.; Revaux, A., E-mail: amelie.revaux@cea.fr [University of Grenoble Alpes, CEA-LITEN, Grenoble 38000 (France); Vuillaume, D. [IEMN, CNRS, University of Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq 59652 (France); Kahn, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we present an alternative to the use of PEDOT:PSS as hole transport and electron blocking layers in organic photodetectors processed by solution. As Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is known to be sensitive to humidity, oxygen, and UV, removing this layer is essential for lifetime improvements. As a first step to achieving this goal, we need to find an alternative layer that fulfills the same role in order to obtain a working diode with similar or better performance. As a replacement, a layer of poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo(1,2-b:4,5-b′)dithiophene)-2, 6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-c) p-doped with the dopant tris-[1-(trifluoroethanoyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolene] (Mo(tfd-COCF{sub 3}){sub 3}) is used. This p-doped layer effectively lowers the hole injection barrier, and the low electron affinity of the polymer prevents the injection of electrons into the active layer. We show similar device performance under light and the improvements of detection performance with the doped layer in comparison with PEDOT:PSS, leading to a detectivity of 1.9 × 10{sup 13} cm (Hz){sup 1/2} (W){sup −1}, competitive with silicon diodes used in imaging applications. Moreover, contrary to PEDOT:PSS, no localization of the p-doped layer is needed, leading to a diode active area defined by the patterned electrodes.

  8. Analysis of the PEDOT:PSS/Si nanowire hybrid solar cell with a tail state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kuan-Ying; Li, Chi-Kang; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lai, Yi; Lin, Ching-Fuh; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the electrical properties of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/silicon nanowire hybrid solar cell have been analyzed and an optimized structure is proposed. In addition, the planar PEDOT:PSS/c-Si hybrid solar cell is also modeled for comparison. We first developed a simulation software which is capable of modeling organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by including Gaussian shape density of states into Poisson and drift-diffusion solver to present the tail states and trap states in the organic material. Therefore, the model can handle carrier transport, generation, and recombination in both organic and inorganic materials. Our results show that at the applied voltage near open-circuit voltage (Voc), the recombination rate becomes much higher at the PEDOT:PSS/Si interface region, which limits the fill factor and Voc. Hence, a modified structure with a p-type amorphous silicon (a-Si) layer attached on the interface of Si layer and an n+-type Si layer inserted near the bottom contact are proposed. The highest conversion efficiency of 16.10% can be achieved if both structures are applied.

  9. Layered composites of PEDOT/PSS/nanoparticles and PEDOT/PSS/phthalocyanines as electron mediators for sensors and biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia García-Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensing properties of electrodes chemically modified with PEDOT/PSS towards catechol and hydroquinone sensing have been successfully improved by combining layers of PEDOT/PSS with layers of a secondary electrocatalytic material such as gold nanoparticles (PEDOT/PSS/AuNPs, copper phthalocyanine (PEDOT/PSS/CuPc or lutetium bisphthalocyanine (PEDOT/PSS/LuPc2. Layered composites exhibit synergistic effects that strongly enhance the electrocatalytic activity as indicated by the increase in intensity and the shift of the redox peaks to lower potentials. A remarkable improvement has been achieved using PEDOT/PSS/LuPc2, which exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of catechol. The kinetic studies demonstrated diffusion-controlled processes at the electrode surfaces. The kinetic parameters such as Tafel slopes and charge transfer coefficient (α confirm the improved electrocatalytic activity of the layered electron mediators. The peak currents increased linearly with concentration of catechol and hydroquinone over the range of 1.5 × 10−4 to 4.0 × 10−6 mol·L−1 with a limit of detection on the scale of μmol·L−1. The layered composite hybrid systems were also found to be excellent electron mediators in biosensors containing tyrosinase and laccase, and they combine the recognition and biocatalytic properties of biomolecules with the unique catalytic features of composite materials. The observed increase in the intensity of the responses allowed detection limits of 1 × 10−7 mol·L−1 to be attained.

  10. Composite films of oxidized multiwall carbon nanotube and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) as a contact electrode for transistor and inverter devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2012-02-01

    Composite films of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polymerized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were prepared by spin-coating a mixture solution. The effect of the MWNT loading and the MWNT oxidation, with acid solution or ultraviolet (UV)-ozone treatment, on the film properties such as surface roughness, work function, surface energy, optical transparency and conductivity were studied. Also pentacene thin film transistors and inverters were made with these composite films as a contact metal and the device characteristics were measured. The oxidation of MWNT reduced the conductivity of MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite film but increased the work function and transparency. UV-ozone treated MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite film showed higher conductivity (14000 Ω/□) and work function (4.9 eV) than acid-oxidized MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite film and showed better performance as a source/drain electrode in organic thin film transistor (OTFT) than other types of MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite films. Hole injection barrier of the UV-ozone treated MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite film with pentacene was significantly lower than any other films because of the higher work function.

  11. Conductive PEDOT:PSS coated polylactide (PLA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) electrospun membranes: Fabrication and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hui Chung [Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300, Johor (Malaysia); Sun, Tao [Miniaturized Medical Devices Program, Institute of Microelectronics, Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR (Singapore); Sultana, Naznin, E-mail: naznin@biomedical.utm.my [Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300, Johor (Malaysia); Advanced Membrane Technology Research Center, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300, Johor (Malaysia); Lim, Mim Mim [Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300, Johor (Malaysia); Khan, Tareef Hayat [KALAM, Faculty of Alam Bina, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300, Johor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi [Advanced Membrane Technology Research Center, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-04-01

    In the current study, electrospinning technique was used to fabricate composite membranes by blending of a synthetic polymer, polylactic acid (PLA) and a natural polymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), PHBV. Conductive membranes were prepared by dipping PLA/PHBV electrospun membranes into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) solution, which is a biocompatible polymer. The coated and uncoated membranes were evaluated using several techniques. The electrical conductivity of the coated membranes was measured using a digital multimeter. In vitro cell cytotoxicity and cell viability were measured by culturing human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells onto the membranes using MTT assays. It was observed that electrospinning of 20% (w/v) PLA/PHBV with a weight ratio of 50:50 produced the most uniform fibers with no beads. It was observed that the wettability and surface roughness of the PEDOT:PSS coated PLA/PHBV membranes were greatly increased than uncoated membrane. The results of cell viability using MTT assay, cell attachment and cell proliferation showed that the conductive PEDOT:PSS coated PLA/PHBV membrane were more favorable for tissue engineering application than their uncoated counterparts. - Highlights: • Coating with PEDOT:PSS increased the wettability of PLA/PHBV membrane. • PEDOT:PSS rendered the PLA/PHBV membrane conductive. • PEDOT:PSS coated PLA/PHBV had significantly higher cell attachment.

  12. Multiwall carbon nanotube and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) composite films for transistor and inverter devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Hong, KiPyo; Kim, Se hyun; Yun, Won-Min; Jang, Jae-young; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Chan-Eon; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Highly conductive multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polymerized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films were prepared by spin coating a mixture solution. The solution was prepared by dispersing MWNT in the PEDOT:PSS solution in water using ultrasonication without any oxidation process. The effect of the MWNT loading in the solution on the film properties such as surface roughness, work function, surface energy, optical transparency, and conductivity was studied. The conductivity of MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite film was increased with higher MWNT loading and the high conductivity of MWNT/PEDOT:PSS films enabled them to be used as a source/drain electrode in organic thin film transistor (OTFT). The pentacene TFT with MWNT/PEDOT:PSS S/D electrode showed much higher performance with mobility about 0.2 cm²/(V s) and on/off ratio about 5 × 10⁵ compared to that with PEDOT:PSS S/D electrode (∼0.05 cm²/(V s), 1 × 10⁵). The complementary inverters exhibited excellent characteristics, including high gain value of about 30.

  13. Conductive PEDOT:PSS coated polylactide (PLA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) electrospun membranes: Fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hui Chung; Sun, Tao; Sultana, Naznin; Lim, Mim Mim; Khan, Tareef Hayat; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, electrospinning technique was used to fabricate composite membranes by blending of a synthetic polymer, polylactic acid (PLA) and a natural polymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), PHBV. Conductive membranes were prepared by dipping PLA/PHBV electrospun membranes into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) solution, which is a biocompatible polymer. The coated and uncoated membranes were evaluated using several techniques. The electrical conductivity of the coated membranes was measured using a digital multimeter. In vitro cell cytotoxicity and cell viability were measured by culturing human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells onto the membranes using MTT assays. It was observed that electrospinning of 20% (w/v) PLA/PHBV with a weight ratio of 50:50 produced the most uniform fibers with no beads. It was observed that the wettability and surface roughness of the PEDOT:PSS coated PLA/PHBV membranes were greatly increased than uncoated membrane. The results of cell viability using MTT assay, cell attachment and cell proliferation showed that the conductive PEDOT:PSS coated PLA/PHBV membrane were more favorable for tissue engineering application than their uncoated counterparts. - Highlights: • Coating with PEDOT:PSS increased the wettability of PLA/PHBV membrane. • PEDOT:PSS rendered the PLA/PHBV membrane conductive. • PEDOT:PSS coated PLA/PHBV had significantly higher cell attachment.

  14. Pseudo-spark switch (PSS) characteristics under different operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, B. H., E-mail: dr.bassmahussain@gmail.com; Ahmad, A. K., E-mail: ahmad.kamal@sc.nahrainuniv.edu.iq [College of Science, Al Nahrain University, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq); Lateef, K. H., E-mail: kamalhlatif@yahoo.com [Ministry of Science and Technology, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-08-15

    The present paper concentrates on the characteristics of the pseudospark switch (PSS) designed in a previous work. The special characteristics of PSS make it a replacement for other high voltage switches such as thyratrons and ordinary high-pressure spark gaps. PSS is characterized by short rise time and small jitter time. The pseudo park chamber consists of two hollow cylindrical electrodes made of a stainless steel material (type 306L) separated by an insulator. The insulator used in our design is a glazed ceramic 70 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm in thickness. A PSS with an anode voltage of 29.2 kV, and a current of 3.6 kA and 11 ns rise time was achieved and used successfully at a repetition rate of about 2.2 kHz. A simple trigger circuit designed, built, and used effectively reaching more than 1.56 kV trigger pulse which is sufficient to ignite the argon gas inside the cathode to cause a breakdown. A non-inductive dummy load is designed to be a new technique to find the accurate value of the PSS inductance. A jitter time of ±10 ns pulses is observed to occur in a reliable manner for more than 6 h of continuous operation. In this research, the important parameters of this switch like rise time, peak current, and anode voltage were studied at various values of charging capacitance. The lifetime of this system is depending on the kind of the electrode material and on the type of insulation material in the main gap of the pseudospark switch.

  15. Teaching PSS in business practice : A win-win-win approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keskin, D.; Brezet, J.C.; Diehl, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings gained through the implementation of the renewed Product Service Systems (PSS) course within the Design for Sustainability curriculum in 2010. Based upon the outcomes of our recent PSS research projects in practice and evaluation of the earlier PSS courses a new

  16. Graphene oxide/PEDOT:PSS composite hole transport layer for efficient and stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Seok-Soon

    2016-01-21

    We investigated a graphene oxide (GO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) ( PSS) composite as a promising candidate for the practical application of a 2-D carbonaceous hole transport layer (HTL) to planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) consisting of a transparent electrode/HTL/perovskite/fullerene/metal electrode. Both the insulating properties of GO and the non-uniform coating of the transparent electrode with GO cause the poor morphology of perovskite induced low power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.4%. On the other hand, PeSCs with a GO/PEDOT:PSS composite HTL, exhibited a higher PCE of 9.7% than that of a device fabricated with conventional PSS showing a PCE of 8.2%. The higher performance is attributed to the decreased series resistance (RS) and increased shunt resistance (RSh). The well-matched work-function between GO (4.9 eV) and PSS (5.1 eV) probably results in more efficient charge transport and an overall decrease in RS. The existence of GO with a large bandgap of ∼3.6 eV might induce the effective blocking of electrons, leading to an increase of RSh. Moreover, improvement in the long-term stability under atmospheric conditions was observed.

  17. Risk Management Challenges in Large-scale Energy PSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegeltija, Miroslava; Oehmen, Josef; Kozin, Igor

    2017-01-01

    data and representation of the results to the decision makers play an important role. Second, we introduce a selection of alternative, so-called “post-probabilistic”, risk management methods developed across different scientific fields to cope with uncertainty due to lack of knowledge. Possibilities......Probabilistic risk management approaches have a long tradition in engineering. A large variety of tools and techniques based on the probabilistic view of risk is available and applied in PSS practice. However, uncertainties that arise due to lack of knowledge and information are still missing...... for overcoming industrial PSS risk management challenges are suggested through application of post-probabilistic methods. We conclude with the discussion on the importance for the field to consider their application....

  18. A Framework for PSS Business Models: Formalization and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Adrodegari, Federico; Saccani, Nicola; Kowalkowski, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In order to successfully move "from products to solutions", companies need to redesign their business model. Nevertheless, service oriented BMs in product-centric firms are under-investigated in the literature: very few works develop a scheme of analysis of such BMs. To provide a first step into closing this gap, we propose a new framework to describe service-oriented BMs, pointing out the main BM components and related PSS characteristics. Thus, the proposed framework aims to help companies ...

  19. Flexible, high performance Two-Ply Yarn Supercapacitors based on irradiated Carbon Nanotube Yarn and PEDOT/PSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Fenghua; Miao, Menghe

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two-ply supercapacitors based on CNT yarn were prepared by a simple method. • The two-ply supercapacitors are high-performance, flexible and thread-like. • Gamma irradiation of CNT yarn improves the capacitance of the resulting supercapacitor. • PEDOT/PSS coated on the yarn surface further improve the capacitance of supercapacitors. • The two-ply supercapacitors can be easily woven or knitted into conventional textile fabrics. - Abstract: We present a simple design and a fabrication method for a high-performance, flexible, two-ply yarn supercapacitor based on irradiated CNT yarn and conductive polymer Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). The CNT yarn is treated with gamma irradiation and the yarn surface is coated with the PEDOT/PSS to improve the energy storage capacitance of the as-spun yarn supercapacitor. A layer of PVA gel is coated on the surfaces of the CNT yarn and the composite yarn to form a separation layer containing electrolyte. The results show that the gamma irradiation greatly increases the electrical conductivity and improved the gram capacitance of the as-spun CNT two-ply yarn supercapacitor. The coating of PEDOT/PSS on the surface of the pure and irradiated CNT yarns further significantly improves the capacitance of the supercapacitors. The two-ply yarn supercapacitor constructed from the irradiation CNT yarn coated by PEDOT/PSS exhibits the large capacitance and high cyclic charge-discharge stability. Moreover, these two-ply yarn supercapacitors with fine diameters are highly flexible and can be easily woven or knitted into textile fabrics for uses in wearable electronics

  20. Avidin/PSS membrane microcapsules with biotin-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Sugimoto, Kentaro; Anzai, Jun-ichi

    2011-08-15

    Polyelectrolyte microcapsules with avidin-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) membrane were prepared by a layer-by-layer deposition technique. The uptake and release of biotin-labeled fluorescein (b-FITC) as well as immobilization of biotin-labeled glucose oxidase (b-GOx) to the microcapsule were studied. The polyelectrolyte microcapsules were prepared by coating the surface of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) microparticles with an avidin/PSS multilayer membrane, followed by dissolution of CaCO(3) core in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution. Inner and outer poly(allylamine)/PSS films were required to isolate the microcapsules, whereas microcapsules could not be formed without the support. The uptake of b-FITC into the microcapsule was highly enhanced through a strong binding of b-FITC to avidin as compared with the uptake of biotin-free FITC. Release of b-FITC from the microcapsule was accelerated upon addition of biotin due to a competitive binding of the added biotin to the binding site of avidin. Similarly, the surface of microcapsule was modified with b-GOx with retaining its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP Calculator Shows that Hiding Heritability Is Partially Due to Imperfect Genetic Correlations across Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald de Vlaming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genome-wide association results are typically obtained from a fixed-effects meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from multiple studies spanning different regions and/or time periods. This approach averages the estimated effects of genetic variants across studies. In case genetic effects are heterogeneous across studies, the statistical power of a GWAS and the predictive accuracy of polygenic scores are attenuated, contributing to the so-called 'missing heritability'. Here, we describe the online Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP calculator (available at www.devlaming.eu which quantifies this attenuation based on a novel multi-study framework. By means of simulation studies, we show that under a wide range of genetic architectures, the statistical power and predictive accuracy provided by this calculator are accurate. We compare the predictions from the MetaGAP calculator with actual results obtained in the GWAS literature. Specifically, we use genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood to estimate the SNP heritability and cross-study genetic correlation of height, BMI, years of education, and self-rated health in three large samples. These estimates are used as input parameters for the MetaGAP calculator. Results from the calculator suggest that cross-study heterogeneity has led to attenuation of statistical power and predictive accuracy in recent large-scale GWAS efforts on these traits (e.g., for years of education, we estimate a relative loss of 51-62% in the number of genome-wide significant loci and a relative loss in polygenic score R2 of 36-38%. Hence, cross-study heterogeneity contributes to the missing heritability.

  2. Optoelectronic Evaluation and Loss Analysis of PEDOT:PSS/Si Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhai; Fang, Zebo; Sheng, Jiang; Ling, Zhaoheng; Liu, Zhaolang; Zhu, Juye; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun

    2017-12-01

    The organic/silicon (Si) hybrid heterojunction solar cells (HHSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential advantages in high efficiency and low cost. However, as a newly arisen photovoltaic device, its current efficiency is still much worse than commercially available Si solar cells. Therefore, a comprehensive and systematical optoelectronic evaluation and loss analysis on this HHSC is therefore highly necessary to fully explore its efficiency potential. Here, a thoroughly optoelectronic simulation is provided on a typical planar polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/Si HHSC. The calculated spectra of reflection and external quantum efficiency (EQE) match well with the experimental results in a full-wavelength range. The losses in current density, which are contributed by both optical losses (i.e., reflection, electrode shield, and parasitic absorption) and electrical recombination (i.e., the bulk and surface recombination), are predicted via carefully addressing the electromagnetic and carrier-transport processes. In addition, the effects of Si doping concentrations and rear surface recombination velocities on the device performance are fully investigated. The results drawn in this study are beneficial to the guidance of designing high-performance PEDOT:PSS/Si HHSCs.

  3. Layered sulfur/PEDOT:PSS nano composite electrodes for lithium sulfur cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, K. M.; Jinisha, B.; Manoj, M.; Pradeep, V. S.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) cells are emerging as the next generation energy storage devices owing to their impressive electrochemical properties with high theoretical specific capacity of 1675 mAh/g. Lack of electronic conductivity of sulfur, its volume expansion during high lithium intake and the shuttling effect due to the formation of soluble polysulfides are the main limitations, delaying the commercialization of this technology. To address these challenges, in the present work, the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS is used as the covering matrix over the sulfur particles to improve their Li storage properties. The sulfur/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite is synthesised using the hydrothermal process and its formation with the polymer coating over sulfur nanoparticles is established from the XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM and TEM studies. The electrochemical studies show that the cells assembled using the sulfur/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite as the cathode, with the components taken in the weight ratio of 9:1, offer a reversible capacity of 1191 mAh g-1 at 0.1C rate. These cells display stable electrochemical capacities over 200 cycles at gradually increasing current rates. The polymer layer facilitates electronic conduction and suppresses the polysulfide formation and the volume expansion of sulfur. A reversible capacity of 664 mAh g-1 is observed after 200 cycles at 1C rate with the capacity retention of 75 % of the initial stable capacity. The highlight of the present work is the possibility to achieve high discharge capacities at high C rates and the retention of a good percentage of the initial capacity over 200 cycles, for these Li-S cells.

  4. Optical-Electrical-Chemical Engineering of PEDOT:PSS by Incorporation of Hydrophobic Nafion for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Qiao, Wenyuan; Cheng, Tai; Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Ding, Yong; Tan, Zhan'ao; Dai, Songyuan

    2018-01-31

    In PIN-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the hydroscopicity and acidity of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole transport layer (HTL) have critical influences on the device stability. To eliminate these problems, Nafion, the hydrophobic perfluorosulfonic copolymer, is incorporated into PEDOT:PSS by a simple spin-coating process. For the modified film, Nafion/PSSH (poly(styrene sulfonate) acid) acts as an electron-blocking layer on the surface and the PEDOT-rich domain tends to gather into larger particles with better interchain charge transfer inside the film. Consequently, the modified PEDOT:PSS HTL shows enhanced conductivity and light transmittance as well as more favorable work function, ending up with the increased short-circuit current density (J sc ) and open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of the device. Finally, PSCs with Nafion-modified HTLs achieve the best power conversion efficiency of 16.72%, with 23.76% improvement compared with PEDOT:PSS-only devices (13.51%). Most importantly, the device stability is obviously enhanced because of the hydrophobicity and chemical and mechanical stability of the Nafion polymer that is enriched on the surface of the PEDOT:PSS film.

  5. Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with a High Fill Factor and Negligible Hysteresis by the Dual Effect of NaCl-Doped PEDOT:PSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lijun; Sun, Kuan; Wang, Ming; Chen, Wei; Yang, Bo; Fu, Jiehao; Xiong, Zhuang; Li, Xinyi; Tang, Xiaosheng; Zang, Zhigang; Zhang, Shupeng; Sun, Lidong; Li, Meng

    2017-12-20

    The performance of inverted perovskite solar cells is highly dependent on hole extraction and surface properties of hole transport layers. To highlight the important role of hole transport layers, a facile and simple method is developed by adding sodium chloride (NaCl) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The average power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells prepared on NaCl-doped PEDOT:PSS is 17.1% with negligible hysteresis, compared favorably to the control devices (15.1%). Particularly, they exhibit markedly improved V oc and fill factor (FF), with the best FF as high as 81.9%. The enhancement of photovoltaic performance is ascribed to two effects. Better conductivity and hole extraction of PEDOT:PSS are observed after NaCl doping. More intriguingly, the perovskite polycrystalline film shows a preferred orientation along the (001) direction on NaCl-doped PEDOT:PSS, leading to a more uniform thin film. The comparison of the crystal structure between NaCl and MAPbCl 3 indicates a lattice constant mismatch less than 2% and a matched chlorine atom arrangement on the (001) surface, which implies that the NaCl crystallites on the top surface of PEDOT:PSS might serve as seeds guiding the growth of perovskite crystals. This simple method is fully compatible with printing technologies to mass-produce perovskite solar cells with high efficiency and tunable crystal orientations.

  6. Hybrid device based on GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Min Jeong; Gwon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Chan-Mi; Lee, Gang Seok; Jeon, In-Jun; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yi, Sam Nyung; Ha, Dong Han

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid device was demonstrated by using MEH-PPV, PEDOT:PSS, and GaN nanoneedles. • I–V curve of the hybrid device showed its rectification behaviour, similar to a diode. • EL peak originated by the different potential barriers at MEH-PPV and GaN interface. - Abstract: A hybrid device that combines the properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors was fabricated and studied. It incorporated poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as organic polymers and GaN nanoneedles as an inorganic semiconductor. Layers of the two polymers were spin coated on to the GaN nanoneedles. The one peak in the electroluminescence spectrum originated from the MEH-PPV layer owing to the different potential barriers of electrons and holes at its interface with the GaN nanoneedles. However, the photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks due to both GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV. Such hybrid structures, suitably developed, might be able to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices

  7. Hybrid device based on GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min Jeong; Gwon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Chan-Mi; Lee, Gang Seok [Department of Applied Science, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, In-Jun [Department of Nano-semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyung Soo [Department of Applied Science, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Sam Nyung, E-mail: snyi@kmou.ac.kr [Department of Applied Science, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Han [Division of Convergence Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A hybrid device was demonstrated by using MEH-PPV, PEDOT:PSS, and GaN nanoneedles. • I–V curve of the hybrid device showed its rectification behaviour, similar to a diode. • EL peak originated by the different potential barriers at MEH-PPV and GaN interface. - Abstract: A hybrid device that combines the properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors was fabricated and studied. It incorporated poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as organic polymers and GaN nanoneedles as an inorganic semiconductor. Layers of the two polymers were spin coated on to the GaN nanoneedles. The one peak in the electroluminescence spectrum originated from the MEH-PPV layer owing to the different potential barriers of electrons and holes at its interface with the GaN nanoneedles. However, the photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks due to both GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV. Such hybrid structures, suitably developed, might be able to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  8. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10 3 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10 4 s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10 3 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10 4 s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10 3 and 1.4 × 10 3 , respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10 4 s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  9. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10{sup 3} and 1.4 × 10{sup 3}, respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  10. Reversible structural transformation and enhanced performance of PEDOT:PSS-based hybrid solar cells driven by light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joseph Palathinkal; Srivastava, Saurabh; Zhao, Liyan; Abd-Ellah, Marwa; McGillivray, Donald; Kang, Jung Soo; Rahman, Md Anisur; Moghimi, Nafiseh; Heinig, Nina F; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-04-15

    Hybrid solar cells made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) and appropriate amounts of a cosolvent and a fluorosurfactant on planar n-type silicon substrates showed a photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of above 13%. These cells also exhibited stable, reproducible, and high external quantum efficiency (EQE) that was not sensitive to light-bias intensity (LBI). In contrast, solar cells made of pristine PSS showed low PCE and high EQE only under certain measurement conditions. The EQE was found to degrade with increasing LBI. Here we report that the LBI-sensitive variation of EQE of the low-PCE cells is related to a reversible structural transformation from a quinoid to a benzoid structure of PEDOT.

  11. Reflections on product/service-system (PSS) conceptualisation in a course setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    2009-01-01

    Product/service-system (PSS) approaches have over the past decade received considerable attention as possible sustainable innovation strategies. This paper presents and reflects upon the background, rationale and experiences behind a PSS design methodology applied with engineering students...... in a project course for the past five years. The methodology proposes four complementary dimensions of PSS: value proposition, product life cycle, activity modelling cycle and actor network, that all seem to comprehensively describe the essential conceptual design perspectives. Each of these dimensions...

  12. Electrochemical Impedance Analysis of a PEDOT:PSS-Based Textile Energy Storage Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nuramdhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A textile-based energy storage device with electroactive PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/poly(4-styrenesulfonate polymer functioning as a solid-state polyelectrolyte has been developed. The device was fabricated on textile fabric with two plies of stainless-steel electroconductive yarn as the electrodes. In this study, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance analysis were used to investigate ionic and electronic activities in the bulk of PEDOT:PSS and at its interfaces with stainless steel yarn electrodes. The complex behavior of ionic and electronic origins was observed in the interfacial region between the conductive polymer and the electrodes. The migration and diffusion of the ions involved were confirmed by the presence of the Warburg element with a phase shift of 45° (n = 0.5. Two different equivalent circuit models were found by simulating the model with the experimental results: (QR(QR(QR for uncharged and (QR(QR(Q(RW for charged samples. The analyses also showed that the further the distance between electrodes, the lower the capacitance of the cell. The distribution of polymer on the cell surface also played important role to change the capacitance of the device. The results of this work may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism and how to improve the performance of the device.

  13. Influence of Egyptian electrical grid and nuclear power plants under disturbances based on PSS/E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaat, M. K.; Kotb, S. A.; Mahmoud, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    The capacity of the electrical power system in Egypt will increase rapidly in the coming twenty years. In year 2018, power generation will be connecting to the Egyptian electrical grid. Consequently, the interaction of nuclear power plants and other systems become a very important issue, and a detailed nuclear power model for the medium-term and long-term power system stability should be developed. However, there is no nuclear unit model that can describe the detailed characteristics of the nuclear unit in the available commercial power system simulation software. In this paper, a detailed pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear unit model for medium-term and long-term power system transient stability is proposed. The model is implemented by a user defined program in PSS/E through PSS/E Mat lab Seamanlike interface. Also this paper proposes a design of power plant rector controller for the nuclear power plant. This model can be used to analyze the difference influences between the Egyptian electrical grid and nuclear power plants for examples transient fault on electrical grid and outage of nuclear power plant. The simulation results show that the proposed model is valid. (Author)

  14. Photovoltaic performance of multi-wall carbon nanotube/PEDOT:PSS composite on the counter electrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yonghoon; Ko, Minjae; Jin, Hwayoung; Jin, Joon-Hyung; Min, Nam Ki

    2014-08-01

    A composite of poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was cyclovoltametrically electropolymerized on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and used as a counter electrode for a dye-sensitized solar cell. The PEDOT:PSS-MWCNT composite film was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The CV diagrams showed that the PEDOT:PSS-MWCNT composite film has better electro-catalytic activity for the I-/I3- redox reaction than the conventional platinized FTO. The best energy conversion efficiency was observed in EIS data with an MWCNT content of 0.002 wt %.

  15. Multiple congenital PSS in a dog: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jessica J; Kim, Stanley E; Reese, David J; Risselada, Marije; Ellison, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    A 4 yr old spayed female mixed-breed dog presented with a 2 yr history of recurring increases in liver enzymes. Two congenital portosystemic shunts (PSSs) were identified using computed tomography (CT) angiography, which included a portoazygous and portorenal extrahepatic shunt. Double right renal veins were also identified. The shunts were successfully identified and attenuated with cellophane banding. Multiple congenital PSS is a rare phenomenon, but should be considered during exploratory laparotomy for PSS and in dogs with poor response to surgical attenuation of a single PSS. CT proved to be a crucial part of accurate diagnosis and surgical planning for this dog with multiple congenital PSS.

  16. Reliability and validity of Persian version of perceived stress scale (PSS-10) in adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufizadeh, Saman; Zareiyan, Armin; Sigari, Naseh

    2014-05-01

    Asthma is a major public health problem in the world, and recent findings suggest that stress influences asthma and asthma morbidity. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is one of the most frequently used instruments to measure psychological stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian versions of the PSS-10 in adults with asthma. In this descriptive cross-sectional study as a methodological research, 106 asthmatic patients referring to several clinics in Sanandaj (western Iran) were selected through convenience sampling. The PSS-10 and the 21-item Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) were administrated to all patients. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability of PSS-10, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and convergent validity were used to evaluate its validity. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor structure of PSS-10 provided a good fit to data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for negative factor, positive factor and total score (PSS-10) were 0.86, 0.83, and 0.90, respectively. The PSS-10 was positively correlated with the DASS-21 and its subscales, indicating an acceptable convergent validity. Female asthmatic patients scored higher on PSS-10 in comparison with male asthmatic patients. The Persian version of PSS-10 is a valid and reliable instrument to measure perceived stress in adults with asthma.

  17. How to Distinguish Patients with pSS among Individuals with Dryness without Invasive Diagnostic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of pSS, inflammatory cell infiltration consists mainly of lymphocytes infiltrating exocrine glands, which leads to their impaired function. The characteristic feature is generalized dryness. The aim of this study was to attempt to answer the question whether it is possible to distinguish between patients with pSS and individuals with dryness caused by other pathologies without applying invasive studies. The study included 68 patients with pSS and 43 healthy controls with dryness. FS ≥ 1 was observed in 90% of patients with pSS (with or without dryness, and only in 23% of the control group (only with xerostomia. In the pSS group, anaemia (p=0.0085, lymphocytopenia (p=0.0006, elevated ERS (p=0.001, higher RF titer, and ANA antibodies were noted. Configuration of anti-SSA + SSB + Ro52 antibodies was characteristic for the pSS group. Considering the clinical symptoms, statistically significant differences were noted between pSS patients and the control group in frequency (p=0.02 and severity (p=0.042 of fatigue, lymphadenopathy, major salivary gland involvement, and photosensitivity to UV light. In conclusion, invasive methods are pivotal in pSS diagnosis in this salivary gland biopsy. Chronic fatigue syndrome is more common in pSS patients and can be subjective distinguishing factor in the group of people with dryness.

  18. Solution synthesis of telluride-based nano-barbell structures coated with PEDOT:PSS for spray-printed thermoelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Changjin; Cho, Song Yun

    2016-05-01

    Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and the power factor of those materials can be effectively tuned over a wide range depending on the acid concentration of the treatment. The power factors of the synthesized Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrids were optimized to 60.05 μW m-1 K-2 with a Seebeck coefficient of 93.63 μV K-1 and an electrical conductivity of 69.99 S cm-1. The flexible thermoelectric generator fabricated by spray-printing Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solutions showed an open-circuit voltage of 1.54 mV with six legs at ΔT = 10 °C. This approach presents the potential for realizing printing-processable hybrid thermoelectric materials for application in flexible thermoelectric generators.Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and

  19. Single crystal structures and theoretical calculations of uranium endohedral metallofullerenes (U@C2n , 2n = 74, 82) show cage isomer dependent oxidation states for U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenting; Morales-Martínez, Roser; Zhang, Xingxing; Najera, Daniel; Romero, Elkin L; Metta-Magaña, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Fortier, Skye; Chen, Ning; Poblet, Josep M; Echegoyen, Luis

    2017-08-01

    Charge transfer is a general phenomenon observed for all endohedral mono-metallofullerenes. Since the detection of the first endohedral metallofullerene (EMF), La@C 82 , in 1991, it has always been observed that the oxidation state of a given encapsulated metal is always the same, regardless of the cage size. No crystallographic data exist for any early actinide endohedrals and little is known about the oxidation states for the few compounds that have been reported. Here we report the X-ray structures of three uranium metallofullerenes, U@ D 3h -C 74 , U@ C 2 (5)-C 82 and U@ C 2v (9)-C 82 , and provide theoretical evidence for cage isomer dependent charge transfer states for U. Results from DFT calculations show that U@ D 3h -C 74 and U@ C 2 (5)-C 82 have tetravalent electronic configurations corresponding to U 4+ @ D 3h -C 74 4- and U 4+ @ C 2 (5)-C 82 4- . Surprisingly, the isomeric U@ C 2v (9)-C 82 has a trivalent electronic configuration corresponding to U 3+ @ C 2v (9)-C 82 3- . These are the first X-ray crystallographic structures of uranium EMFs and this is first observation of metal oxidation state dependence on carbon cage isomerism for mono-EMFs.

  20. Reversing an S-kink effect caused by interface degradation in organic solar cells through gold ion implantation in the PEDOT:PSS layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes-Badilla, D.; Coutinho, D. J.; Amorim, D. R. B.; Faria, R. M.; Salvadori, M. C.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we performed a study on the recovery of the photovoltaic performance of an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ca/Al solar cell after the hole transport layer (PEDOT:PSS) had been degraded by contact with the environment. A device that was fully built in an inert environment exhibited a fill factor (FF) of 0.64, while the device whose hole transport layer was exposed to air presented a FF equal to 0.2. In addition, the J-V characteristic curve of the degraded device did not follow the photovoltaic pattern exhibiting the degenerate S shape. However, the elimination of the deleterious effect was achieved by bombarding gold ions on the contaminated surface of PEDOT:PSS by means of the Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation technique. Due to the low energy of the ionic beam of gold, the implanted gold atoms were located at few nanometers off the surface, forming nanometric clusters, that is, gold nanoparticles. Most probably, the degradation of the J-V photovoltaic curve, represented by the S-kink effect, was caused by the appearance of a potential barrier at PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM interface, which was demolished by the gold nanoparticles that have work function close to HOMO of P3HT. This S-kink effect was also simulated by using an equivalent circuit model constituted by a two-diode circuit, one of which plays the role of the undesirable potential barrier formed at the PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM interface. Our analysis shows that deposition of gold nanoparticles next to the interface recovers the good hole injection condition from the PEDOT:PSS into the active layer, restoring the fill factor and the device efficiency.

  1. Flexible white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on multilayered graphene/PEDOT:PSS transparent conducting film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fushan, E-mail: fushanli@hotmail.com; Wu, Wei; Guo, Tailiang, E-mail: gtl_fzu@hotmail.com

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • A double-layered graphene/PEDOT:PSS film was fabricated by spray-coating. • A white flexible phosphorescent OLED was fabricated based on this film. • The white flexible OLED presented pure white light emission. • The flexible OLEDs showed a stable white emission during bending test. - Abstract: A double-layered graphene/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive film was prepared, in which the PEDOT:PSS layer was obtained by using spray-coating technique. A flexible white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on the graphene/PEDOT:PSS conductive film was fabricated. Phosphorescent material tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3}) and the fluorescent dye 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnapthacene (Rubrene) were co-doped into 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) host. N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) were used as hole-transporting and electron-transporting layer, respectively, and 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (DPVBi) was used as blue light-emitting layer. The device presented pure white light emission with a Commission Internationale De I’Eclairage coordinates of (0.31, 0.33) and exhibited an excellent light-emitting stability during the bending cycle test with a radius of curvature of 10 mm.

  2. Flexible white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on multilayered graphene/PEDOT:PSS transparent conducting film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fushan; Wu, Wei; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A double-layered graphene/PEDOT:PSS film was fabricated by spray-coating. • A white flexible phosphorescent OLED was fabricated based on this film. • The white flexible OLED presented pure white light emission. • The flexible OLEDs showed a stable white emission during bending test. - Abstract: A double-layered graphene/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive film was prepared, in which the PEDOT:PSS layer was obtained by using spray-coating technique. A flexible white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on the graphene/PEDOT:PSS conductive film was fabricated. Phosphorescent material tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy) 3 ) and the fluorescent dye 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnapthacene (Rubrene) were co-doped into 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) host. N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) were used as hole-transporting and electron-transporting layer, respectively, and 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (DPVBi) was used as blue light-emitting layer. The device presented pure white light emission with a Commission Internationale De I’Eclairage coordinates of (0.31, 0.33) and exhibited an excellent light-emitting stability during the bending cycle test with a radius of curvature of 10 mm

  3. Systematic Approach to Formulate PSS Development Project Proposals in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barquet, Ana Paula B.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Rozenfeld, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    be considered by companies during this definition. The systematization of PSS attributes may help increase the knowledge about different PSS projects that can emerge in the front end, thus leading to the discovery of opportunities that are not apparent in the existing business models and give rise to new ideas...

  4. Business-IT alignment in PSS value networks : a capability-based framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, S.; Kusters, R.J.; Trienekens, J.J.M.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced information technology (IT) is regarded as a foundation for the operation of product-service system (PSS) value networks. This requires alignment between IT and PSS business strategy. Business‐IT alignment (BIA) in a value network can raise the ability of partners to collaborate effectively

  5. Conductivity, work function, and environmental stability of PEDOT:PSS thin films treated with sorbitol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardes, A.M.; Kemerink, M.; Kok, de M.M.; Vinken, E.; Maturova, K.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The electrical properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films deposited from aqueous dispersion using different concentrations of sorbitol have been studied in detail. Although it is well known that sorbitol enhances the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin

  6. Step-by-step towards PSS – Evaluating, Deciding and Executing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, Line Maria; Mougaard, Krestine; McAloone, Tim C.

    2012-01-01

    Successful implementation of product-service system (PSS) as business strategy has proven lucrative through many industry examples. However, companies should tread carefully before committing to a costly restructuring towards PSS business creation. This paper claims that before a company moves fr...

  7. Human estrogen receptor (ESR) gene locus: PssI dimorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R T; Taylor, J E; Frossard, P M [California Biotechnology Inc., Mountain View, CA (USA); Shine, J J [Garvan Institute, Darlinghurst (Australia)

    1988-07-25

    pESR-2, a 2.1 kb partial cDNA containing the entire translated sequence of the human estrogen receptor mRNA isolated from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, was subcloned in the Eco RI site of pBR322. PssI (PuGGNCCPy) identifies a single two-allele polymorphism with bands at either 1.7 or 1.4 kb, as well as invariant bands at 12.6, 9.3, 4.1, 3.7, 2.4, 2.2, and 1.2 kb. Its frequency was studied in 77 unrelated North American Caucasians. The human estrogen receptor gene has been localized to 6q24 -- q27 by in situ hybridization. Co-dominant segregation is demonstrated in one family (8 individuals).

  8. Risk Management Challenges in Large-scale Energy PSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegeltija, Miroslava; Oehmen, Josef; Kozin, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic risk management approaches have a long tradition in engineering. A large variety of tools and techniques based on the probabilistic view of risk is available and applied in PSS practice. However, uncertainties that arise due to lack of knowledge and information are still missing...... adequate representations. We focus on a large-scale energy company in Denmark as one case of current product/servicesystems risk management best practices. We analyze their risk management process and investigate the tools they use in order to support decision making processes within the company. First, we...... identify the following challenges in the current risk management practices that are in line with literature: (1) current methods are not appropriate for the situations dominated by weak knowledge and information; (2) quality of traditional models in such situations is open to debate; (3) quality of input...

  9. Model Calibration of Exciter and PSS Using Extended Kalman Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Huang, Zhenyu

    2012-07-26

    Power system modeling and controls continue to become more complex with the advent of smart grid technologies and large-scale deployment of renewable energy resources. As demonstrated in recent studies, inaccurate system models could lead to large-scale blackouts, thereby motivating the need for model calibration. Current methods of model calibration rely on manual tuning based on engineering experience, are time consuming and could yield inaccurate parameter estimates. In this paper, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used as a tool to calibrate exciter and Power System Stabilizer (PSS) models of a particular type of machine in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). The EKF-based parameter estimation is a recursive prediction-correction process which uses the mismatch between simulation and measurement to adjust the model parameters at every time step. Numerical simulations using actual field test data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in calibrating the parameters.

  10. Industry specific PSS: A study of opportunities and barriers for maritime suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro; McAloone, Tim C.; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià

    2013-01-01

    Product-Service System (PSS) business models are finding applications with suppliers and manufacturers across industries, but the models have yet to establish a strong foothold in the maritime sector. A number of metrics for evaluating the attractiveness of PSS business models have been proposed...... in chiefly design research and operations management literature. This paper applies a number of these metrics to the maritime sector using data from a number of maritime suppliers. It is found that the industry is, at least in some aspects, attractive from this PSS metrics standpoint. To explain the inherent...... lack of PSS maturity in the industry despite this metrics-based conclusion, the discussion moves beyond the quantitative factors and considers a number of organisational, structural and cultural issues that stand in the way of PSS. This paper is based on the initial responses provided by maritime...

  11. Product/Service-System Origins and Trajectories: A Systematic Literature Review of PSS Definitions and their Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Ronja P.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    Literature provides multiple definitions on Product/Service-Systems (PSS), and as the field develops, certain trajectories emerge. The purpose ofthis article is to provide an overview of the stabilization of PSS definitions within PSS research, by presenting the most prominent PSS definitionsand...... their interrelationships. As the result of a strict protocol, the paper identifies 52 prominent definitions related to PSS, where the citationrelations between the prominent definitions are studied and graphically illustrated. The definitions are furthermore analyzed to identify commonPSS definition characteristics...... and eleven different characteristics identified. Descriptive analysis is carried out on the identified PSS definitioncharacteristics, to determine commonalties and differences in the field. Even though the literature provides many different variations of PSS definitions, there is certain convergence...

  12. Robust Coordinated Design of PSS and TCSC using PSO Technique for Power System Stability Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Power system stability improvement by coordinated design of a Power System Stabilizer (PSS and a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC controller is addressed in this paper. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique is employed for optimization of the parameterconstrained nonlinear optimization problem implemented in a simulation environment. The proposed controllers are tested on a weakly connected power system. The non-linear simulation results are presented for wide range of loading conditions with various fault disturbances and fault clearing sequences as well as for various small disturbances. The eigenvalue analysis and simulation results show the effectiveness and robustness of proposed controllers to improve the stability performance of power system by efficient damping of low frequency oscillations under various disturbances.

  13. Stability improvement of wind turbine penetrated using power system stabilizer (PSS) on South Sulawesi transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Agus; Gunadin, Indar Chaerah; Said, Sri Mawar; Suyuti, Ansar

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the stability of interconnection of South Sulawesi system caused by penetration new wind turbine in Sidrap area on bus 2 and in Jeniponto area on bus 34. The method used in this research was via software Power System analysis Toolbox (PSAT) under MATLAB. In this research, there are two problems that are evaluated, the stability of the system before and after penetration wind turbine into the system South Sulawesi system. From the simulation result shows that penetration of wind turbine on bus 2 Sidrap, bus 37 Jeniponto give effect oscillation on the system. The oscillation was damped by installation of Power System Stabilizer (PSS) on bus 29 area Sungguminasa, that South Sulawesi system stable according to normal condition.

  14. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of PEDOT/PSS/Te composite films treated with H2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Haijun; Cai, Kefeng; Shen, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, tellurium (Te) nanorods with a high Seebeck coefficient have been integrated into a conducting polymer PEDOT/PSS to form PEDOT/PSS/Te composite films. The Seebeck coefficient of the PEDOT/PSS/Te (90 wt.%) composite films is ~191 μV/K, which is about 13 times greater than that of pristine PEDOT/PSS. Then, H 2 SO 4 treatment has been used to further tune the thermoelectric properties of the composite films by adjusting the doping level and increasing the carrier concentration. After the acid treatment, the electrical conductivity of the composite films has increased from 0.22 to 1613 S/cm due to the removal of insulating PSS and the structural rearrangement of PEDOT. An optimized power factor of 42.1 μW/mK 2 has been obtained at room temperature for a PEDOT/PSS/Te (80 wt.%) sample, which is about ten times larger than that of the untreated PEDOT/PSS/Te composite film.

  15. Nozzle Printed-PEDOT:PSS for Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Various Dilution Rates of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Geon Yoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the ink formulation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS as the hole injection layer (HIL in an organic light emitting diode (OLED structure. Generally, in a PEDOT:PSS solution, water is incorporated in the solution for the solution process. However, the fabrication of thin film which contained the water, main solvent, could not easily form by using printing technology except spin-coating process because of the high surface tension of water. On the other hand, mixing PEDOT:PSS solution and ethanol (EtOH, a dilution solvent, could restrain the non-uniform layer that forms by the high surface tension and low volatility of water. Therefore, we printed a PEDOT:PSS solution with various concentrations of EtOH by using a nozzle printer and obtained a uniform pattern. The line width of PEDOT:PSS diluted with 90% (volume ratio ehtanol was measured as about 4 mm with good uniformity with a 0.1 mm nozzle. Also, imaging software and a scanning electron microscope (SEM were used to measure the uniformity of PEDOT:PSS coated on a substrate. Finally, we fabricated a green phosphorescent OLED device with printed-PEDOT:PSS with specific concentrations of EtOH and we achieved a current efficiency of 27 cd/A with uniform quality of luminance in the case of device containing 90% EtOH.

  16. Stretchable and Hydrophobic Electrochromic Devices Using Wrinkled Graphene and PEDOT:PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Kartik Nemani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an electrochromic device (ECD fabricated using PEDOT:PSS and graphene as active conductive electrode films and a flexible compliant polyurethane substrate with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide (EMI-TSFI additive, as ionic medium. This device with a docile, elastic intermediate substrate along with a transparency controlled PEDOT:PSS film provides a wide color contrast and fast switching rate. We harness wrinkling instability of graphene to achieve a hydrophobic nature without compromising transparency of the ECD. This mechanical self-assembly approach helps in controlling the wavelength of wrinkles generated by inducing measured prestrain conditions and regulating the modulus contrast by selection of underlying materials used, hereby controlling the extent of transparency. The reduction and oxidation switching times for the device were analyzed to be 5.76 s and 5.34 s for a 90% transmittance change at an operating DC voltage of 15 ± 0.1 V. Strain dependent studies show that the performance was robust with the device retaining switching contrasts even at 15% uniaxial strain conditions. Our device also exhibits superior antiwetting properties with an average water contact angle of 110°  ± 2° at an induced radial prestrain of 30% in the graphene film. A wide range color contrast, flexibility, and antiwetting nature of the device envision its uses in smart windows, visors, and other wearable equipment where these functionalities are of outmost importance for developing new generation of smart interactive devices.

  17. Heuristic method of fabricating counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells based on a PEDOT:PSS layer as a catalytic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edalati, Sh; Houshangi far, A; Torabi, N; Baneshi, Z; Behjat, A

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was deposited on a fluoride-doped tin oxide glass substrate using a heuristic method to fabricate platinum-free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this heuristic method a thin layer of PEDOT:PPS is obtained by spin coating the PEDOT:PSS on a Cu substrate and then removing the substrate with FeCl 3 . The characteristics of the deposited PEDOT:PSS were studied by energy dispersive x-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed the micro-electronic specifications of the cathode. The aforementioned DSSCs exhibited a solar conversion efficiency of 3.90%, which is far higher than that of DSSCs with pure PEDOT:PSS (1.89%). This enhancement is attributed not only to the micro-electronic specifications but also to the HNO 3 treatment through our heuristic method. The results of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization plots show the modified cathode has a dual function, including excellent conductivity and electrocatalytic activity for iodine reduction. (paper)

  18. Performance and Long-Term Stability of Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 Membranes for Hydrogen Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Simona; Iulianelli, Adolfo; Dalena, Francesco; Pinacci, Pietro; Drago, Francesca; Broglia, Maria; Huang, Yan; Basile, Angelo

    2014-03-06

    The present work is focused on the investigation of the performance and long-term stability of two composite palladium membranes under different operating conditions. One membrane (Pd/porous stainless steel (PSS)) is characterized by a ~10 µm-thick palladium layer on a porous stainless steel substrate, which is pretreated by means of surface modification and oxidation; the other membrane (Pd/Al2O3) is constituted by a ~7 µm-thick palladium layer on an asymmetric microporous Al2O3 substrate. The operating temperature and pressure ranges, used for studying the performance of these two kinds of membranes, are 350-450 °C and 200-800 kPa, respectively. The H2 permeances and the H2/N2 selectivities of both membranes were investigated and compared with literature data. At 400 °C and 200 kPa as pressure difference, Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 membranes exhibited an H2/N2 ideal selectivity equal to 11700 and 6200, respectively, showing stability for 600 h. Thereafter, H2/N2 selectivity of both membranes progressively decreased and after around 2000 h, dropped dramatically to 55 and 310 for the Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 membranes, respectively. As evidenced by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses, the pinholes appear on the whole surface of the Pd/PSS membrane and this is probably due to release of sulphur from the graphite seal rings.

  19. Hybrid UV-Ozone-Treated rGO-PEDOT:PSS as an Efficient Hole Transport Material in Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuying; Huang, Xiaona; Sun, Haoxuan; Wu, Chunyang

    2017-12-01

    Inverted planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs), which are regarded as promising devices for new generation of photovoltaic systems, show many advantages, such as low-temperature film formation, low-cost fabrication, and smaller hysteresis compared with those of traditional n-i-p PSCs. As an important carrier transport layer in PSCs, the hole transport layer (HTL) considerably affects the device performance. Therefore, HTL modification becomes one of the most critical issues in improving the performance of PSCs. In this paper, we report an effective and environmentally friendly UV-ozone treatment method to enhance the hydrophilia of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with its excellent electrical performance. The treated rGO was applied to doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as HTL material of PSCs. Consequently, the performance of rGO/PEDOT:PSS-doped PSCs was improved significantly, with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7%, Jsc of 16.75 mA/cm2, Voc of 0.87 V, and FF of 75%. The PCE of this doped PSCs was 27% higher than that of the PSCs with pristine PEDOT:PSS as HTL. This performance was attributed to the excellent surface morphology and optimized hole mobility of the solution-processable rGO-modified PEDOT:PSS.

  20. Damping Improvement of Multiple Damping Controllers by Using Optimal Coordinated Design Based on PSS and FACTS-POD in a Multi-Machine Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasser Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive comparison and assessment of the damping function improvement of power system oscillation for the multiple damping controllers using the simultaneously coordinated design based on Power System Stabilizer (PSS and Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS devices. FACTS devices can help in the enhancing the stability of the power system by adding supplementary damping controller to the control channel of the FACTS input to implement the task of Power Oscillation Damping (FACT POD controller. Simultaneous coordination can be performed in different ways. First, the dual coordinated designs between PSS and FACTS POD controller or between different FACTS POD controllers are arranged in a multiple FACTS devices without PSS. Second, the simultaneous coordination has been extended to triple coordinated design among PSS and different FACTS POD controllers. The parameters of the damping controllers have been tuned in the individual controllers and coordinated designs by using a Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm that optimized the given eigenvalue-based objective function. The simulation results for a multi-machine power system show that the dual coordinated design provide satisfactory damping performance over the individual control responses. Furthermore, the triple coordinated design has been shown to be more effective in damping oscillations than the dual damping controllers.

  1. CNNH_PSS: protein 8-class secondary structure prediction by convolutional neural network with highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiyun; Wang, Hongpeng; Zhao, Zhishan; Xu, Ruifeng; Lu, Qin

    2018-05-08

    Protein secondary structure is the three dimensional form of local segments of proteins and its prediction is an important problem in protein tertiary structure prediction. Developing computational approaches for protein secondary structure prediction is becoming increasingly urgent. We present a novel deep learning based model, referred to as CNNH_PSS, by using multi-scale CNN with highway. In CNNH_PSS, any two neighbor convolutional layers have a highway to deliver information from current layer to the output of the next one to keep local contexts. As lower layers extract local context while higher layers extract long-range interdependencies, the highways between neighbor layers allow CNNH_PSS to have ability to extract both local contexts and long-range interdependencies. We evaluate CNNH_PSS on two commonly used datasets: CB6133 and CB513. CNNH_PSS outperforms the multi-scale CNN without highway by at least 0.010 Q8 accuracy and also performs better than CNF, DeepCNF and SSpro8, which cannot extract long-range interdependencies, by at least 0.020 Q8 accuracy, demonstrating that both local contexts and long-range interdependencies are indeed useful for prediction. Furthermore, CNNH_PSS also performs better than GSM and DCRNN which need extra complex model to extract long-range interdependencies. It demonstrates that CNNH_PSS not only cost less computer resource, but also achieves better predicting performance. CNNH_PSS have ability to extracts both local contexts and long-range interdependencies by combing multi-scale CNN and highway network. The evaluations on common datasets and comparisons with state-of-the-art methods indicate that CNNH_PSS is an useful and efficient tool for protein secondary structure prediction.

  2. Development of an Innovation Model Based on a Service-Oriented Product Service System (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkyum Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been many attempts to cope with increasingly-diversified and ever-changing customer needs by combining products and services that are critical components of innovation models. Although not only manufacturers, but also service providers, try to integrate products and services, most of the previous studies on Product Service System (PSS development deal with how to effectively integrate services into products from the product-centric point of view. Services provided by manufacturers’ PSSes, such as delivery services, training services, disposal services, and so on, offer customers ancillary value, whereas products of service providers’ PSSes enrich core value by enhancing the functionality and quality of the service. Thus, designing an effective PSS development process from the service-centric point of view is an important research topic. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to propose a service-oriented PSS development process, which consists of four stages: (1 strategic planning; (2 idea generation and selection; (3 service design; and (4 product development. In the proposed approach, the PSS development project is initiated and led by a service provider from a service-centric point of view. From the perspective of methodology, customer needs are converted into product functions according to Quality Function Deployment (QFD, while Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is employed to prioritize the functions. Additionally, this paper illustrates a service-oriented PSS development that demonstrates the application of the proposed process. The proposed process and illustration are expected to serve as a foundation for research on service-oriented PSS development and as a useful guideline for service providers who are considering the development of a service-oriented PSS.

  3. Improved stability of OLEDs with mild oxygen plasma treated PEDOT:PSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yunfei; Yuan Yongbo; Cao Lingfang; Zhang Jie; Pang Hongqi; Lian Jiarong; Zhou Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate improved stability of OLEDs with mild oxygen plasma-treated poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as anode buffer layer. The devices with treated PEDOT:PSS layer exhibited dramatically enhanced lifetime by a factor of 9 compared to the control devices. We investigated the substantial changes in surface morphology of PEDOT:PSS layer after the mild oxygen plasma treatment by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We found that the appropriate treatment can form uniformly distributed nano scaled hillocks/islands on the surface of PEDOT:PSS layer, which possibly result in improved contact to hole transport layer and thus enhanced lifetime of the devices

  4. Charge injection and accumulation in organic light-emitting diode with PEDOT:PSS anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Martin, E-mail: martin.weis@stuba.sk [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia); Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@ome.pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2015-04-21

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays using flexible substrates have many attractive features. Since transparent conductive oxides do not fit the requirements of flexible devices, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative. The charge injection and accumulation in OLED devices with PEDOT:PSS anodes are investigated and compared with indium tin oxide anode devices. Higher current density and electroluminescence light intensity are achieved for the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode. The electric field induced second-harmonic generation technique is used for direct observation of temporal evolution of electric fields. It is clearly demonstrated that the improvement in the device performance of the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode is associated with the smooth charge injection and accumulation.

  5. Microtexturing of the conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for superhydrophobic organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco; Coppedè , Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Villani, Marco; Calestani, Davide; Candeloro, Patrizio; Iannotta, Salvatore; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can

  6. Tailoring the Electrochemical and Mechanical Properties of PEDOT:PSS Films for Bioelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Elmahmoudy, Mohammed; Inal, Sahika; Charrier, Anne; Uguz, Ilke; Malliaras, George G.; Sanaur, Sé bastien

    2017-01-01

    The effect of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPS) content in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) dispersions on the properties of films spun cast from these formulations is investigated. It has been found out

  7. Study of 201 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Given Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy Shows Local Control Dependence on Dose Calculation Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifi, Kujtim, E-mail: Kujtim.Latifi@Moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Oliver, Jasmine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida (United States); Baker, Ryan [University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, Florida (United States); Dilling, Thomas J.; Stevens, Craig W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Kim, Jongphil; Yue, Binglin [Department of Biostatics and Bioinformatics, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); DeMarco, MaryLou; Zhang, Geoffrey G.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Feygelman, Vladimir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Pencil beam (PB) and collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithms differ significantly when used in the thorax. However, such differences have seldom been previously directly correlated with outcomes of lung stereotactic ablative body radiation (SABR). Methods and Materials: Data for 201 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SABR were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated with 50 Gy in 5 fractions of 10 Gy each. The radiation prescription mandated that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) receive the prescribed dose. One hundred sixteen patients were planned with BrainLab treatment planning software (TPS) with the PB algorithm and treated on a Novalis unit. The other 85 were planned on the Pinnacle TPS with the CCC algorithm and treated on a Varian linac. Treatment planning objectives were numerically identical for both groups. The median follow-up times were 24 and 17 months for the PB and CCC groups, respectively. The primary endpoint was local/marginal control of the irradiated lesion. Gray's competing risk method was used to determine the statistical differences in local/marginal control rates between the PB and CCC groups. Results: Twenty-five patients planned with PB and 4 patients planned with the CCC algorithms to the same nominal doses experienced local recurrence. There was a statistically significant difference in recurrence rates between the PB and CCC groups (hazard ratio 3.4 [95% confidence interval: 1.18-9.83], Gray's test P=.019). The differences (Δ) between the 2 algorithms for target coverage were as follows: ΔD99{sub GITV} = 7.4 Gy, ΔD99{sub PTV} = 10.4 Gy, ΔV90{sub GITV} = 13.7%, ΔV90{sub PTV} = 37.6%, ΔD95{sub PTV} = 9.8 Gy, and ΔD{sub ISO} = 3.4 Gy. GITV = gross internal tumor volume. Conclusions: Local control in patients receiving who were planned to the same nominal dose with PB and CCC algorithms were statistically significantly different. Possible

  8. Nanostructural optimization of silicon/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells for performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanzhou; Shao, Pengfei; Li, Yali; Li, Junshuai; He, Deyan; Chen, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an inverted silicon (Si) nanopyramid (iSiNP) surface structure with low aspect ratio and remarkable antireflection is developed through sequential treatments of NaOH and HF/CH 3 COOH/HNO 3 solutions to Si nanowire (SiNW)-textured Si wafers, which are prepared by traditional electroless chemical etching. The iSiNP/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cell is fabricated through conformally spin-coating poly(3.4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) onto the iSiNPs; it exhibits enhanced device performance owing to the improved junction and contact quality as compared to the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS counterpart. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.6% mainly contributed from an increased fill factor (FF) of 0.61 and improved open circuit voltage ( V oc ) of 0.53 V is delivered by the iSiNP/PEDOT:PSS solar cell. As a comparison, the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS structure delivers a 7.1% PCE with a FF of 0.45 and V oc of 0.46 V. Considering the submicro-scale characteristic dimensions, iSiNPs are expected to be applicable to highly efficient thin film Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. (paper)

  9. Comparison of intelligent fuzzy based AGC coordinated PID controlled and PSS controlled AVR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Asansol Engineering College, Asansol, West Bengal (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, West Bengal (India)

    2007-11-15

    This paper attempts to investigate the performance of intelligent fuzzy based coordinated control of the Automatic Generation Control (AGC) loop and the excitation loop equipped with Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controlled Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) system and Power System Stabilizer (PSS) controlled AVR system. The work establishes that PSS controlled AVR system is much more robust in dynamic performance of the system over a wide range of system operating configurations. Thus, it is revealed that PSS equipped AVR is much more superior than PID equipped AVR in damping the oscillation resulting in improved transient response. The paper utilizes a novel class of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) termed as Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization (CRPSO) as optimizing tool to get optimal tuning of PSS parameters as well as the gains of PID controllers. For on-line, off-nominal operating conditions Takagi Sugeno Fuzzy Logic (TSFL) has been applied to obtain the off-nominal optimal gains of PID controllers and parameters of PSS. Implementation of TSFL helps to achieve very fast dynamic response. Fourth order model of generator with AVR and high gain thyristor excitation system is considered for PSS controlled system while normal gain exciter is considered for PID controlled system. Simulation study also reveals that with high gain exciter, PID control is not at all effective. Transient responses are achieved by using modal analysis. (author)

  10. p-PEDOT:PSS as a heterojunction partner with n-ZnO for detection of LPG at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladhe, R.D. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (M.S.) (India); Gurav, K.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Pawar, S.M. [Solar Cell Laboratory, LG Components R and D Center, 1271, Sa-Dong, Sanggrok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (M.S.) (India)

    2012-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of heterojunction n-ZnO and p-PEDOT:PSS at room temperature (27 Degree-Sign C). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of this heterojunction as room temperature LPG sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Remarkable gas response with good stability of the sensing device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of heterojunction could offer cost-effective LPG sensor that is ecological-friendly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mass production using scalable room temperature chemical deposition process. - Abstract: Investigation towards the performance of room temperature (27 Degree-Sign C) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor based on the heterojunction between p-PEDOT:PSS and n-type ZnO is reported. The junction was developed by using chemically deposited ZnO film on to fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate followed by coating of thin slurry layer of PEDOT:PSS by using spin coating technique. Both these methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large area applications. Different characterization techniques were used to characterize structural, surface morphological and compositional of the material deposited. LPG sensing behavior of the heterojunction was studied at room temperature along with the stability studies. At room temperature, the heterojunction showed 58.8% sensitivity upon exposure to 1000 ppm of LPG with good response and recovery time like 225 s and 190 s, respectively. Furthermore, the LPG sensor reported is cost-effective, user friendly, and easy to fabricate using low cost chemical methods at room temperature.

  11. Total dynamic response of a PSS vehicle negotiating asymmetric road excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Jun; Khajepour, Amir; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2012-12-01

    A planar suspension system (PSS) is a novel automobile suspension system in which an individual spring-damper strut is implemented in both the vertical and longitudinal directions, respectively. The wheels in a vehicle with such a suspension system can move back and forth relative to the chassis. When a PSS vehicle experiences asymmetric road excitations, the relative longitudinal motion of wheels with respect to the chassis in two sides of the same axle are not identical, and thus the two wheels at one axle will not be aligned in the same axis. The total dynamic responses, including those of the bounce, pitch and the roll of the PSS vehicle, to the asymmetric road excitation may exhibit different characteristics from those of a conventional vehicle. This paper presents an investigation into the comprehensive dynamic behaviour of a vehicle with the PSS, in such a road condition, on both the straight and curved roads. The study was carried out using an 18 DOF full-car model incorporating a radial-spring tyre-ground contact model and a 2D tyre-ground dynamic friction model. Results demonstrate that the total dynamic behaviour of a PSS vehicle is generally comparable with that of the conventional vehicle, while PSS exhibits significant improvement in absorbing the impact forces along the longitudinal direction when compared to the conventional suspension system. The PSS vehicle is found to be more stable than the conventional vehicle in terms of the directional performance against the disturbance of the road potholes on a straight line manoeuvre, while exhibiting a very similar handling performance on a curved line.

  12. Enhancement in electrical properties of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTCDA/Ag by using calcium buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Hassan Sayyad, Muhammad; Wahab, Fazal; Aziz, Fakhra; Ullah, Irfan; Khan, Gulzar

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on electrical characterization of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTCDA/Ca/Ag device based on 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and calcium (Ca) buffer layer with improved junction properties. The I–V characteristics have been utilized to extract various electrical parameters such as ideality factor (n), barrier height (ϕ B ) and series resistance R s , which are found to be 1.9, 0.79 eV and 2.5 kΩ, respectively. The device shows good rectifying behavior, with a rectification ratio of 528, and also field-lowering mechanism with a linear dependence of log I on V 1/2 . The device reported in the present work shows 50% improvement in the rectification ratio and ideality factor as compared to our previously fabricated device. It appears from the experimental data that the transport mechanism in the PTCDA thin film is dominated by the Poole–Frenkel model of thermionic emission, which may be associated with high density of structural defects or traps present in the film

  13. Enhancement in electrical properties of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTCDA/Ag by using calcium buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Muhammad [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology Topi, KPK 23640 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200 KPK (Pakistan); Hassan Sayyad, Muhammad [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology Topi, KPK 23640 (Pakistan); Wahab, Fazal [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200 KPK (Pakistan); Aziz, Fakhra, E-mail: fakhra69@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics, Jinnah College for Women, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Ullah, Irfan; Khan, Gulzar [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200 KPK (Pakistan)

    2015-06-15

    This paper reports on electrical characterization of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTCDA/Ca/Ag device based on 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and calcium (Ca) buffer layer with improved junction properties. The I–V characteristics have been utilized to extract various electrical parameters such as ideality factor (n), barrier height (ϕ{sub B}) and series resistance R{sub s}, which are found to be 1.9, 0.79 eV and 2.5 kΩ, respectively. The device shows good rectifying behavior, with a rectification ratio of 528, and also field-lowering mechanism with a linear dependence of log I on V{sup 1/2}. The device reported in the present work shows 50% improvement in the rectification ratio and ideality factor as compared to our previously fabricated device. It appears from the experimental data that the transport mechanism in the PTCDA thin film is dominated by the Poole–Frenkel model of thermionic emission, which may be associated with high density of structural defects or traps present in the film.

  14. Highly efficient red fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes by sorbitol-doped PEDOT:PSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; Yu, Jun-Le; Wang, Chao; Yang, Fang; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Hui; Yang, Yang

    2018-06-01

    This work shows a promising approach to improve device performance by optimizing the electron transport and hole injection layers for tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP):rubrene-based red fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). We compared the effect of two electron transport layers (ETLs), and found that the rubrene/bathophenanthroline (Bphen) ETL-based OLED showed a much higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) (4.67%) than the Alq3 ETL-based OLED (EQE of 3.08%). The doping ratio of DBP in rubrene was tuned from 1.0 wt% to 4.5 wt%, and the 1.5 wt%-DBP:rubrene-based OLED demonstrated the highest EQE of 5.24% and lowest turn-on voltage of 2.2 V. Atomic force microscopy images indicated that 1.5 wt% DBP-doped rubrene film exhibited a regular strip shape, and this regular surface was favorable to the hole and electron recombination in the emitting layer. Finally, the sorbitol-doped poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was used to further improve the EQE; doping with 6 wt% sorbitol achieved the highest current efficiency of 7.03 cd A‑1 and an EQE of 7.50%. The significantly enhanced performance implies that the hole injection is a limiting factor for DBP:rubrene-based red fluorescent OLEDs.

  15. Effect of Secondary Doping Using Sorbitol on Structure and Transport Properties of PEDOT-PSS Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasim, Syed; Pasha, Apsar; Roy, Aashish S.; Parveen, Ameena; Badi, Nacer

    2017-07-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT-PSS) in the recent past has emerged as one of the most fascinating conducting polymers for many device applications. The unique feature of PEDOT-PSS is its transparency in the entire visible spectrum with excellent thermal stability. The PEDOT-PSS as prepared as an aqueous dispersion has very low conductivity, and it hinders the performance of a device. In this work we report the conductivity enhancement of PEDOT-PSS thin films through secondary doping using a polar organic solvent such as sorbitol. The mechanism of conductivity enhancement was studied through various physical and chemical characterizations. The effect of sorbitol concentration on structure and transport properties of PEDOT-PSS thin films was investigated in detail. The structural and morphological modifications in PEDOT-PSS due to the addition of sorbitol was studied through Fourier transform spectroscopy, Ultra Violet-visible spectroscopy, theromogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The interactions resulting from conformational changes of PEDOT chains that changes from coiled to linear structure due to the sorbitol treatment significantly improves the conductivity of PEDOT-PSS films. The secondary doping of sorbitol reduces the energy barrier that facilitates the charge carrier hopping leading to enhanced conductivity. We have observed that the conductivity of PEDOT-PSS thin films was increased by two fold due to sorbitol treatment when compared to conductivity of pure PEDOT-PSS. We have carried out detailed analysis of dielectric parameters of sorbitol-treated PEDOT-PSS films and found that sorbitol treatment has a significant effect on various dielectric attributes of PEDOT-PSS films. Hence, secondary doping using sorbitol could be a useful way to effectively tailor the conductivity and dielectric properties of PEDOT-PSS thin films that can be used as flexible electrodes in

  16. High Mobility, Hole Transport Materials for Highly Efficient PEDOT:PSS Replacement in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2017-04-24

    Perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies, due to their rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (3.8% to 21.1%) in a very short period of time and the relative ease of their fabrication compared to traditional inorganic solar cells. One of the drawbacks of perovskite solar cells is their limited stability in non-inert atmospheres. In the inverted device configuration this lack of stability can be attributed to the inclusion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate(PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transporting layer. Herein we report the synthesis of two new triarylamine based hole transporting materials, synthesised from readily available starting materials. These new materials show increased power conversion efficiencies, of 13.0% and 12.1%, compared to PEDOT:PSS (10.9%) and exhibit increased stability achieving lifetimes in excess of 500 hours. Both molecules are solution processible at low temperatures and offer potential for low cost, scalable production on flexible substrates for large scale perovskite solar cells.

  17. High Mobility, Hole Transport Materials for Highly Efficient PEDOT:PSS Replacement in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios; Griffiths, Jack; Fraser, James; Kirkus, Mindaugas; Chen, Hu; Nielsen, Christian; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies, due to their rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (3.8% to 21.1%) in a very short period of time and the relative ease of their fabrication compared to traditional inorganic solar cells. One of the drawbacks of perovskite solar cells is their limited stability in non-inert atmospheres. In the inverted device configuration this lack of stability can be attributed to the inclusion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate(PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transporting layer. Herein we report the synthesis of two new triarylamine based hole transporting materials, synthesised from readily available starting materials. These new materials show increased power conversion efficiencies, of 13.0% and 12.1%, compared to PEDOT:PSS (10.9%) and exhibit increased stability achieving lifetimes in excess of 500 hours. Both molecules are solution processible at low temperatures and offer potential for low cost, scalable production on flexible substrates for large scale perovskite solar cells.

  18. Effect of Surface Morphology and Dispersion Media on the Properties of PEDOT:PSS/n-Si Hybrid Solar Cell Containing Functionalized Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van Trinh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results on the effect of surface morphology and dispersion media on the properties of PEDOT:PSS/n-Si hybrid solar cell containing functionalized graphene (Gr. The hybrid solar cells based on SiNWs showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE compared to the planar based cells due to suppressing the carrier recombination and improving carrier transport efficiency. The PCE of hybrid solar cells could be improved by adding Gr into PEDOT:PSS. Different solvents including deionized (DI water, ethylene glycol (EG, and isopropyl alcohol (IPA were used as media for Gr dispersion. The best performance was obtained for the cell containing Gr dispersed in EG with a measured PCE of 7.33% and nearly 13% and 16% enhancement in comparison with the cells using Gr dispersed in IPA and DI water, respectively. The increase in PCE is attributed to improving the carrier-mobility, electrical conductivity, PEDOT crystallinity, and ordering.

  19. Oscillation Control in a Synchronous Machine using a Neural based PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena Pérez Londoño

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el diseño y la prueba en laboratorio de un estabilizador de potencia (PSS, basado en redes neuronales. La arquitectura propuesta del PSS utiliza dos redes neuronales, la primera es un controlador que efectúa un control suplementario del sistema de excitación, y una segunda red utilizada para mejorar el desempeño del controlador anterior. Para garantizar la correcta operación del PSS propuesto, éste ha sido entrenado utilizando datos obtenidos a partir de varias condiciones de operación de la máquina, y una amplia variedad de disturbios. La efectividad del método propuesto se confirma a partir de los resultados de las pruebas con máquinas síncronas utilizadas en laboratorio.

  20. Supporting the Development of Environmentally Sustainable PSS by Means of the Ecodesign Maturity Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    best practice for ecodesign implementation and management. The Ecodesign Maturity Model (EcoM2) is a management framework that supports manufacturing companies to consistently and systematicallyimplement ecodesign, based on a step-by-step approach. EcoM2 contains a database containing more than 600...... practices, categorized into management practices, operational practices and methods &tools. Currently, only two management practices of theEcoM2address PSS development. This paper aims to identify the best practices for PSS development, based on a literature review, followed by a presentation of a proposal......Despite their substantial potential for enabling increased environmental performance, product/service-systems (PSS) are not intrinsically environmentally sustainable. In order to ensure increased sustainability performance, PSSand related business models needs to be developed taking into account...

  1. Large area ITO-free flexible white OLEDs with Orgacon™ PEDOT:PSS and printed metal shunting lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, S.; Mennema, S.; Barink, M.; Rooms, H.C.A.; Wilsona, J.S.; Mol, A.M.B. van; Bollen, D.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of white organic light-emitting diodes that exclude the transparent conductor indium-tinoxide. Instead, a highly conductive Orgacon™ PEDOT:PSS material in combination with a metal support structure is used as transparent anode and hole-injection layer. The PEDOT:PSS

  2. Business-IT alignment in PSS value networks linking customer knowledge management to social customer relationship management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, S.; Kusters, R.J.; Trienekens, J.J.M.; Hammoudi, S.; Cordeiro, J.; Maciaszek, L.

    2015-01-01

    Offering a PSS that is based on co-creating value with customer, starts with understanding customer needs. Customer understanding is realized through the process of managing customer knowledge across a PSS value network. In this respect, customer knowledge management (CKM) is seen as a core business

  3. Environmentally Friendly Plasma-Treated PEDOT:PSS as Electrodes for ITO-Free Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaagensmith, Bjorn; Reza, Khan Mamun; Hasan, Md Nazmul; Elbohy, Hytham; Adhikari, Nirmal; Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nick; Gaml, Eman; Qiao, Qiquan

    2017-10-18

    Solution processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) transparent electrodes (TEs) offer great potential as a low cost alternative to expensive indium tin oxide (ITO). However, strong acids are typically used for enhancing the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS TEs, which produce processing complexity and environmental issues. This work presents an environmentally friendly acid free approach to enhance the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS using a light oxygen plasma treatment, in addition to solvent blend additives and post treatments. The plasma treatment was found to significantly reduce the sheet resistance of PEDOT:PSS TEs from 85 to as low as 15 Ω sq -1 , which translates to the highest reported conductivity of 5012 S/cm for PEDOT:PSS TEs. The plasma treated PEDOT:PSS TE resulted in an ITO-free perovskite solar cell efficiency of 10.5%, which is the highest reported efficiency for ITO-free perovskite solar cells with a PEDOT:PSS electrode that excludes the use of acid treatments. This research presents the first demonstration of this technology. Moreover, the PEDOT:PSS TEs enabled better charge extraction from the perovskite solar cells and reduced hysteresis in the current density-voltage (J-V) curves.

  4. One-pot preparation of PEDOT:PSS-reduced graphene decorated with Au nanoparticles for enzymatic electrochemical sensing of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercante, Luiza A., E-mail: lamercante@gmail.com [National Laboratory for Nanotechnology in Agribusiness (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentation, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Facure, Murilo H.M. [National Laboratory for Nanotechnology in Agribusiness (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentation, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Center for Exact Sciences and Technology, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Migliorini, Fernanda L.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C. [National Laboratory for Nanotechnology in Agribusiness (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentation, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Correa, Daniel S., E-mail: daniel.correa@embrapa.br [National Laboratory for Nanotechnology in Agribusiness (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentation, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Center for Exact Sciences and Technology, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Hybrid ternary nanocomposite PEDOT:PSS-rGO-AuNPs is developed by a one-step approach. • Horseradish peroxidase is used to build a novel hybrid biomaterial. • The PEDOT:PSS-rGO-AuNPs-HRP displays excellent electrochemical activity toward the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • A significant low detection limit of 0.08 μM and wider linear range is achieved. • The constructed electrode is used detecting H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in real samples. - Abstract: The development of novel graphene-based nanocomposites is a hotspot in materials science due to their unique optical, electronic, thermal, mechanical and catalytic properties for varied applications. The present work reports on the development of a graphene-based ternary nanocomposite of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles (PEDOT:PSS-rGO-AuNPs) for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The hybrid nanocomposite showed superior electrochemical properties and higher stability compared to each individual component as electrode materials, showing a synergistic effect between PEDOT, rGO and AuNPs. The nanocomposite was obtained via a facile one-step approach and was assembly with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The PEDOT:PSS-rGO-AuNPs-HRP modified electrode has been used for the amperometric detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and exhibited a high sensitivity of up to 677 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, with a wide linear range from 5 to 400 μM and a low detection limit of 0.08 μM (S/N = 3). This developed enzymatic biosensor showed to be highly stable and unresponsive to potentially interfering substances, and it could be used for sensing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in real samples, including tap water and bovine milk samples. These enhanced sensing performance could be ascribed to the intimate contact of AuNPs onto the rough surface of the PEDOT:PSS-rGO nanocomposite, which has a high electrical conductivity and large surface area, providing

  5. Towards assessing Product/Service Systems (PSS) within the Danish Maritime Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Andersen, Jakob B.; Bey, Niki

    2012-01-01

    In response to requirements resulting from a changing business landscape from solely physical-product-based value creation towards perfoprmance-based value creation, this paper presents a questionaire-based matrix, the PSS Categorization Matric, that is developed in order to help organizations fi...

  6. Simulation-Based Business Case for PSS: A System Dynamics Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    of a business case for PSS implementation and management, based on a System Dynamics simulation framework. With amaturity-oriented theoretical perspective and the associated capability concepts, the study provides insights into how the development of PSScapabilities can potentially affect corporate performance...

  7. Measuring Malaysia School Resource Centers' Standards through iQ-PSS: An Online Management Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Fadzliaton; Ismail, Kamarulzaman

    2010-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has come up with an innovative way to monitor the progress of 9,843 School Resource Centers (SRCs) using an online management information system called iQ-PSS (Quality Index of SRC). This paper aims to describe the data collection method and analyze the current state of SRCs in Malaysia and explain how the results can be…

  8. Fully Textile, PEDOT:PSS Based Electrodes for Wearable ECG Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Danilo; Dessi, Alessia; Saenz-Cogollo, Jose F; Barabino, Gianluca; Fraboni, Beatrice; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate a novel kind of textile electrodes based on woven fabrics treated with PSS, through an easy fabrication process, testing these electrodes for biopotential recordings. Fabrication is based on raw fabric soaking in PSS using a second dopant, squeezing and annealing. The electrodes have been tested on human volunteers, in terms of both skin contact impedance and quality of the ECG signals recorded at rest and during physical activity (power spectral density, baseline wandering, QRS detectability, and broadband noise). The electrodes are able to operate in both wet and dry conditions. Dry electrodes are more prone to noise artifacts, especially during physical exercise and mainly due to the unstable contact between the electrode and the skin. Wet (saline) electrodes present a stable and reproducible behavior, which is comparable or better than that of traditional disposable gelled Ag/AgCl electrodes. The achieved results reveal the capability of this kind of electrodes to work without the electrolyte, providing a valuable interface with the skin, due to mixed electronic and ionic conductivity of PSS. These electrodes can be effectively used for acquiring ECG signals. Textile electrodes based on PSS represent an important milestone in wearable monitoring, as they present an easy and reproducible fabrication process, very good performance in wet and dry (at rest) conditions and a superior level of comfort with respect to textile electrodes proposed so far. This paves the way to their integration into smart garments.

  9. Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardes, A.M.; Kemerink, M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Bastiaansen, J.J.A.M.; Kiggen, N.M.M.; Langeveld, B.M.W.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Kok, M.M. de

    2007-01-01

    The anisotropic conductivity of spin-coated poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films by temperature-dependent conductivity measurements, has been analyzed. A detailed 3D morphological model was derived from topographic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and

  10. The electronic properties of the interface between nickel phthalocyanine and a PEDOT:PSS film

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petraki, F.; Kennou, S.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2008), 033710/1-033710/6 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN401770651; GA MŠk OC 138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : NiPC * PEDOT:PSS * XPS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2008

  11. The Vietnamese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10): Translation equivalence and psychometric properties among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte

    2017-02-06

    The Perceived Stress Scale 10 item (PSS-10) has been translated into more than 20 languages and used widely in different populations. Yet, to date, no study has tested psychometric properties of the instrument among older women and there is no Vietnamese version of the instrument. This study translated the PSS-10 into Vietnamese and assessed Vietnamese version of the Perceived Stress Scale 10 items (V-PSS-10) for translation equivalence, face validity, construct validity, correlations, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability among 473 women aged 60 and over. The study found that V-PSS-10 retained the original meaning and was understood by Vietnamese older women. An exploratory factor analysis of the V-PSS-10 yielded a two-factor structure, and these two factors were significantly correlated (0.56, p < .01) with all item loadings exceeded .50. The V-PSS-10 score was positively correlated with general sleep disturbance (ρ = .12, p < .05), CES-D score for depression symptoms (ρ = .60, p < .01), and negatively correlated with mental (ρ = -.46, p < .01), and physical health scores (ρ = -.19, p < .01). The Cronbach's alpha for the V-PSS-10 was .80, and the test-retest correlation at one month's interval was .43. Findings from this study suggest that the V-PSS-10 has acceptable validity and reliability levels among older women. The V-PSS-10 can be used to measure perceived stress in future research and practice. However, future research would be useful to further endorse the validity and reliability of the V-PSS-10.

  12. The Thai version of the PSS-10: An Investigation of its psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon

    2010-06-12

    Among the stress instruments that measure the degree to which life events are perceived as stressful, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is widely used. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Thai version of the PSS-10 (T-PSS-10) with a clinical and non-clinical sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the factorial structure of the scale were tested. A total sample of 479 adult participants was recruited for the study: 368 medical students and 111 patients from two hospitals in Northern Thailand. The T-PSS-10 was used along with the Thai version of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Thai Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 5.05 and 1.60, accounting for 66 percent of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "stress"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "control". The item loadings ranged from 0.547 to 0.881. Investigation of the fit indices associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation revealed that the two-factor solution was adequate [chi2 = 35.035 (df = 26, N = 368, p reliability. The Thai version of the PSS-10 demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit for the two factor solution model, as well as good reliability and validity for estimating the level of stress perception with a Thai population. Limitations of the study are discussed.

  13. The Thai version of the PSS-10: An Investigation of its psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran Tinakon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the stress instruments that measure the degree to which life events are perceived as stressful, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS is widely used. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Thai version of the PSS-10 (T-PSS-10 with a clinical and non-clinical sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the factorial structure of the scale were tested. Methods A total sample of 479 adult participants was recruited for the study: 368 medical students and 111 patients from two hospitals in Northern Thailand. The T-PSS-10 was used along with the Thai version of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, the Thai Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 5.05 and 1.60, accounting for 66 percent of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "stress"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "control". The item loadings ranged from 0.547 to 0.881. Investigation of the fit indices associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML estimation revealed that the two-factor solution was adequate [χ2 = 35.035 (df = 26, N = 368, p r = 0.60, p r = 0.55, p r = -0.46, p Conclusions The Thai version of the PSS-10 demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit for the two factor solution model, as well as good reliability and validity for estimating the level of stress perception with a Thai population. Limitations of the study are discussed.

  14. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of PEDOT/PSS/Te composite films treated with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Haijun; Cai, Kefeng, E-mail: kfcai@tongji.edu.cn [Tongji University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Shen, Shirley [CSIRO Manufacturing (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    Firstly, tellurium (Te) nanorods with a high Seebeck coefficient have been integrated into a conducting polymer PEDOT/PSS to form PEDOT/PSS/Te composite films. The Seebeck coefficient of the PEDOT/PSS/Te (90 wt.%) composite films is ~191 μV/K, which is about 13 times greater than that of pristine PEDOT/PSS. Then, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} treatment has been used to further tune the thermoelectric properties of the composite films by adjusting the doping level and increasing the carrier concentration. After the acid treatment, the electrical conductivity of the composite films has increased from 0.22 to 1613 S/cm due to the removal of insulating PSS and the structural rearrangement of PEDOT. An optimized power factor of 42.1 μW/mK{sup 2} has been obtained at room temperature for a PEDOT/PSS/Te (80 wt.%) sample, which is about ten times larger than that of the untreated PEDOT/PSS/Te composite film.

  15. The skeletal changes of progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS), of exclusive Raynaud phenomenon and of circumscript scleroderma in a gamma camera scintigraph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, T.

    1987-01-01

    The bases of this study are the skeletal scintigraphs of altogether 34 patients with the three forms of scleroderma mentioned in the title. The PSS shows a polytropic, symmetric distribution pattern, the exclusive Raynaud's phenomenon shows a basic skeleton which is unchanged in contrast to circumscript scleroderma, with which also the larger joints are relatively more frequently attacked than the little ones. As a result of high sensitivity skeletal scintiscanning makes possible an early recognition of osseous changes and is there with superior to X-radiology and should then see an increased use for the clarification of the diagnosis of arthropathy in scleroderma. (TRV) [de

  16. Psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS: measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsiang Chiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Although Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Cohen, Kamarack & Mermelstein, 1983 has been validated and widely used in many domains, there is still no validation in sports by comparing athletes and non-athletes and examining related psychometric indices. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of PSS between athletes and non-athletes, and examine construct validity and reliability in the sports contexts. Methods Study 1 sampled 359 college student-athletes (males = 233; females = 126 and 242 non-athletes (males = 124; females = 118 and examined factorial structure, measurement invariance and internal consistency. Study 2 sampled 196 student-athletes (males = 139, females = 57, Mage = 19.88 yrs, SD = 1.35 and examined discriminant validity and convergent validity of PSS. Study 3 sampled 37 student-athletes to assess test-retest reliability of PSS. Results Results found that 2-factor PSS-10 fitted the model the best and had appropriate reliability. Also, there was a measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes; and PSS positively correlated with athletic burnout and life stress but negatively correlated with coping efficacy provided evidence of discriminant validity and convergent validity. Further, the test-retest reliability for PSS subscales was significant (r = .66 and r = .50. Discussion It is suggested that 2-factor PSS-10 can be a useful tool in assessing perceived stress either in sports or non-sports settings. We suggest future study may use 2-factor PSS-10 in examining the effects of stress on the athletic injury, burnout, and psychiatry disorders.

  17. The electrical characterization of Ag/PTCDA/PEDOT:PSS/p-Si Schottky diode by current–voltage characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Muhammad [Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200 (Pakistan); Sayyad, Muhammad Hassan; Wahab, Fazal; Khan, Dil Nawaz [Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640 (Pakistan); Aziz, Fakhra, E-mail: fakhra69@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics, Jinnah College for Women, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan)

    2013-04-15

    The Ag/PTCDA/PEDOT:PSS/p-Si Schottky diode has been fabricated by adding a layer of organic compound 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on top of the p-Si for which the junction characteristics have been investigated. The electronic properties of the device have been studied by the conventional I–V and the Norde's methods. For conventional I–V measurements the rectifying behavior has been observed with a rectification ratio of 236. The barrier height and ideality factor values of 0.81 eV and 3.5, respectively, for the structure have been obtained from the forward bias I–V characteristics. Various electrical parameters such as reverse saturation current, series resistance and shunt resistance have been calculated from the analysis of experimental I–V results and discussed in detail. The barrier height and the series resistance determined by the Norde's function are found in good agreement with the values calculated from conventional I–V measurements. The charge conduction mechanism has also been discussed.

  18. Hybrid organic/inorganic position-sensitive detectors based on PEDOT:PSS/n-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Mohammad; Gholami, Mahdiyeh; Torbatiyan, Hadis; Abdi, Yaser

    2018-03-01

    Various configurations like p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor Schottky barriers, and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures have been widely used in position-sensitive detectors. In this report, we propose a PEDOT:PSS/n-Si heterojunction as a hybrid organic/inorganic configuration for position-sensitive detectors. The influence of the thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer, the wavelength of incident light, and the intensity of illumination on the device performance are investigated. The hybrid PSD exhibits very high sensitivity (>100 mV/mm), excellent nonlinearity (0.995) with a response time of heterojunction are very promising for developing a new class of position-sensitive detectors based on the hybrid organic/inorganic junctions.

  19. Relation between secondary doping and phase separation in PEDOT:PSS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoval, Martin; Micjan, Michal; Novota, Miroslav; Nevrela, Juraj; Kovacova, Sona; Pavuk, Milan; Juhasz, Peter; Jagelka, Martin; Kovac, Jaroslav; Jakabovic, Jan [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia); Cigan, Marek [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Science, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina CH-2, Ilkovicova 6, Bratislava 84215 (Slovakia); Weis, Martin, E-mail: martin.weis@stuba.sk [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Surface morphology of highly conductive polymer was investigated. • Phase separation due to secondary doping is an origin of conductivity enhancement. • Phase separation is not dependent on secondary dopant type. - Abstract: Conductive copolymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative to transparent conductive oxides because of its flexibility, transparency, and low-cost production. Four different secondary dopants, namely N,N-dimethylformamide, ethyleneglycol, sorbitol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, have been used to improve the conductivity. The relation between the structure changes and conductivity enhancement is studied in detail. Atomic force microscopy study of the thin film surface reveals the phase separation of PEDOT and PSS. We demonstrate that secondary doping induces the phase separation as well as the conductivity enhancement.

  20. Silver Nanowires Modified with PEDOT: PSS and Graphene for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yilin; Wei, Xiang; Wang, Cong; Cao, Jin; Chen, Yigang; Ma, Zhongquan; You, Ying; Wan, Jixiang; Fang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-03-28

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) networks are promising candidates for the replacement of indium tin oxide (ITO). However, the surface roughness of the AgNWs network is still too high for its application in optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have reduced the surface roughness of the AgNWs networks to 6.4 nm, compared to 33.9 nm of the as-deposited AgNWs network through the hot-pressing process, treatment with poly (3,4ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly (styrenesulfanate), and covered with graphene films. Using this method, we are able to produce AgNWs/PEDOT: PSS/SLG composite films with the transmittance and sheet resistance of 88.29% and 30 Ω/□, respectively. The OLEDs based on the AgNWs/PEDOT: PSS/SLG anodes are comparable to those based on ITO anodes.

  1. Bringing service design to manufacturing companies: integrating PSS and service design approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    in a manufacturing industry. This paper details how the application supports the design of product–service system solutions from the exploration to the implementation stages, highlighting the physical evidence of service, and contributes to advance design research at the intersection of PSS and Service Design.......Manufacturing companies increasingly try to innovate in their offers to consumers by creating more complete solutions that combine product and service components. However, shifting from a product-centric perspective to a solution-oriented perspective is challenging. The present study adopted...... a design research methodology and built on Service-Dominant logic, integrating the human-oriented perspective of Service Design with an organizational network-oriented perspective of Product–Service System. It creates a new Integrative PSS approach, evolves design models, and provides an application...

  2. A framework for conceptualisation of PSS solutions: On network-based development models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Krestine

    of the Danish Innovation Consortium PROTEUS (PRoduct-service/system-Tools to Ensure User centred Services), was carried out at the Technical University of Denmark at the Section of Engineering Design and Product Development. The project’s aim was to investigate how to support the Danish maritime industry...... in this upheaval and change towards a new mode of business- and product development. The research presented in this thesis is based on action-research, involving all ten companies participating in the PROTEUS consortium, plus a comparative case study of MAN PrimeServ Frederikshavn and Alfa Laval Aalborg. The main...... and verified in case companies.Three new PSS tools to support PSS conceptualisation. Contributions to the PROTEUS Workbook series – communicating the results of the PROTEUS research consortium to both academics and industry practitioners....

  3. Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Andrew J.; Yambem, Soniya D.; Johns, Ashley H.; Afre, Rakesh A.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Shapter, Joe G.; Andersson, Gunther G.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Lewis, David A.

    2015-04-01

    Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω-1 is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems.

  4. Revisiting PSS and service design in the light of the SD-logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    are only means to an end. Also, different approaches, methods and tools have been developed to design value propositions however they still lack to explicit the SDlogic principles. The design of solutions that provide value-in-use is at the centre of both Product Service System (PSS) approach and service...... comprehensive discussion about these two approaches and proposes a conceptual framework for integrating PSS organizational point of view; and SD human-centred focus to design better service.......Researchers and practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of offering value propositions to customers that enable value co-creation as discussed in the service dominant logic (SD-logic). SD-logic recognizes customers as active co-creators and posits that products and services...

  5. Functional solid additive modified PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer for enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Binrui; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Jae-Sung; Jiang, Yu; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Kim, Ju-Seong; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Jin-Beon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is most commonly used as an anode buffer layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, its hygroscopic and acidic nature contributes to the insufficient electrical conductivity, air stability and restricted photovoltaic (PV) performance for the fabricated PSCs. In this study, a new multifunctional additive, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DOH), has been used in the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer to obtain modified properties for PEDOT: PSS@DOH and achieve high PV performances. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS@DOH films was markedly improved compared with that of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS@DOH film exhibited excellent optical characteristics, appropriate work function alignment, and good surface properties in BHJ-PSCs. When a poly(3-hexylthiohpene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend system was applied as the photoactive layer, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting PSCs with PEDOT:PSS@DOH(1.0%) reached 3.49%, outperforming pristine PEDOT:PSS, exhibiting a power conversion enhancement of 20%. The device fabricated using PEDOT:PSS@DOH (1.0 wt%) also exhibited improved thermal and air stability. Our results also confirm that DOH, a basic pyridine derivative, facilitates adequate hydrogen bonding interactions with the sulfonic acid groups of PSS, induces the conformational transformation of PEDOT chains and contributes to the phase separation between PEDOT and PSS chains. PMID:28338088

  6. Energy level alignment at C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/PEDOT:PSS interfaces in organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jisu; Jung, Kwanwook; Jeong, Junkyeong; Hyun, Gyeongho [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunbok, E-mail: hyunbok@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do 24341 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Yeonjin, E-mail: yeonjin@yonsei.ac.kr [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The interfacial energy level alignment of C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/PEDOT:PSS was determined via in situ UPS and IPES measurements. • A large photovoltaic gap of 1.30 eV was evaluated between the DTDCTB donor and C{sub 60} acceptor. • A low hole extraction barrier of 0.42 eV from DTDCTB to PEDOT:PSS was evaluated. • The excellent electronic properties of DTDCTB with a narrow band gap were the source of its high OPV power conversion efficiencies. - Abstract: The electronic structure of a narrow band gap small molecule ditolylaminothienyl–benzothiadiazole–dicyanovinylene (DTDCTB), possessing a donor-acceptor-acceptor configuration, was investigated with regard to its application as an efficient donor material in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The interfacial orbital alignment of C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was determined using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron and inverse photoelectron spectroscopic methods. The ionization energy and electron affinity values of DTDCTB were measured to be 5.27 eV and 3.65 eV, respectively, and thus a very small transport gap of 1.62 eV was evaluated. Large band bending of DTDCTB on PEDOT:PSS was observed, resulting in a low hole extraction barrier. Additionally, the photovoltaic gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the DTDCTB donor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of the C{sub 60} acceptor was estimated to be 1.30 eV, which is known to be the theoretical maximum open-circuit voltage in OPVs employing the C{sub 60}/DTDCTB active layer. The unique electronic structures of DTDCTB contributed toward the recently reported excellent power conversion efficiencies of OPVs containing a DTDCTB donor material.

  7. Thin film free-standing PEDOT:PSS/SU8 bilayer microactuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccola, S; Greco, F; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Jager, E W H

    2013-01-01

    Several smart active materials have been proposed and tested for the development of microactuators. Among these, conjugated polymers are of great interest because miniaturization improves their electrochemical properties, such as increasing the speed and stress output of microactuators, with respect to large-scale actuators. Recently we developed a novel fabrication process to obtain robust free-standing conductive ultra-thin films made of the conjugated polymer poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with the polyanion poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). These conductive free-standing nanofilms, with thicknesses ranging between a few tens to several hundreds of nm, allow the realisation of new all polymer microactuators using facile microfabrication methods. Here, we report a novel processing method for manufacturing all polymer electrochemical microactuators. We fabricated and patterned free-standing PEDOT:PSS/SU8 bilayer microactuators in the form of microfingers of a variety of lengths using adapted microfabrication procedures. By imposing electrochemical oxidation/reduction cycles on the PEDOT:PSS we were able to demonstrate reversible actuation of the microactuators resulting in bending of the microfingers. A number of possible applications can be envisaged for these small, soft actuators, such as microrobotics and cell manipulation. (technical note)

  8. PSS431

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Returns a list of Unit Dose medications from data in the UNIT DOSE sub-file (#55.06) of the PHARMACY PATIENT file (#55) and dispensed drugs from the DISPENSE DRUG...

  9. Effect of a PEDOT:PSS modified layer on the electrical characteristics of flexible memristive devices based on graphene oxide:polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Kyum; Wu, Chaoxing; Kim, Tae Whan

    2018-06-01

    The electrical characteristics of flexible memristive devices utilizing a graphene oxide (GO):polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanocomposite charge-trapping layer with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-modified layer fabricated on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene glycol naphthalate (PEN) substrate were investigated. Current-voltage (I-V) curves for the Al/GO:PVP/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/PEN devices showed remarkable hysteresis behaviors before and after bending. The maximum memory margins of the devices before and after 100 bending cycles were approximately 7.69 × 103 and 5.16 × 102, respectively. The devices showed nonvolatile memory effect with a retention time of more than 1 × 104 s. The "Reset" voltages were distributed between 2.3 and 3.5 V, and the "Set" voltages were dispersed between -0.7 and -0.2 V, indicative of excellent, uniform electrical performance. The endurance number of ON/OFF-switching and bending cycles for the devices was 1 × 102, respectively. The bipolar resistive switching behavior was explained on the basis of I-V results. In particular, the bipolar resistive switching behaviors of the LRS and the HRS for the devices are dominated by the Ohmic and space charge current mechanisms, respectively.

  10. Comparing LCC with LCA to assess PSS sustainability: the case of the eco-box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chong, K.N.; Dreijer, L.S.; Howard, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Product/Service-Systems strategies are increasingly proving to be a source of competitive advantage and environmental improvement for engineering companies, the main hypothesis being that PSS should allow to decouple functionality, user satisfaction and financial income on the one hand, from the ...... the total environmental impact of the function-delivering technology on the other. This paper describes an integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC), in an attempt to see if the two life cycle elements are related....

  11. Capacitated vehicle routing problem for PSS uses based on ubiquitous computing: An emerging markets approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Ochoa-Ortíz; Francisco Ornelas-Zapata; Lourdes Margain-Fuentes; Miguel Gastón Cedillo-Campos; Jöns Sánchez-Aguilar; Rubén Jaramillo-Vacio; Isabel Ávila

    2015-01-01

    El problema de ruteo de vehículos bajo las limitaciones de capacidad y basado en computación ubicua desde una perspectiva relacionada con PSS (Producto-Servicio de Sistemas) para desarrollar configuraciones para el transporte urbano de mercancías es abordado. Éste trabajo considera las especificidades de la logística urbana bajo un contexto de mercados emergentes. En este caso, involucra: i) bajas competencias logísticas de los tomadores de decisiones; ii) la limitada disponibilidad de datos;...

  12. Highly porous scaffolds of PEDOT:PSS for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Anne Géraldine; Puetzer, Jennifer L; Armgarth, Astrid; Littmann, Elena; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Malliaras, George G; Stevens, Molly M

    2017-10-15

    Conjugated polymers have been increasingly considered for the design of conductive materials in the field of regenerative medicine. However, optimal scaffold properties addressing the complexity of the desired tissue still need to be developed. The focus of this study lies in the development and evaluation of a conductive scaffold for bone tissue engineering. In this study PEDOT:PSS scaffolds were designed and evaluated in vitro using MC3T3-E1 osteogenic precursor cells, and the cells were assessed for distinct differentiation stages and the expression of an osteogenic phenotype. Ice-templated PEDOT:PSS scaffolds presented high pore interconnectivity with a median pore diameter of 53.6±5.9µm and a total pore surface area of 7.72±1.7m 2 ·g -1 . The electrical conductivity, based on I-V curves, was measured to be 140µS·cm -1 with a reduced, but stable conductivity of 6.1µS·cm -1 after 28days in cell culture media. MC3T3-E1 gene expression levels of ALPL, COL1A1 and RUNX2 were significantly enhanced after 4weeks, in line with increased extracellular matrix mineralisation, and osteocalcin deposition. These results demonstrate that a porous material, based purely on PEDOT:PSS, is suitable as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering and thus represents a promising candidate for regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering approaches have been increasingly considered for the repair of non-union fractions, craniofacial reconstruction or large bone defect replacements. The design of complex biomaterials and successful engineering of 3-dimensional tissue constructs is of paramount importance to meet this clinical need. Conductive scaffolds, based on conjugated polymers, present interesting candidates to address the piezoelectric properties of bone tissue and to induce enhanced osteogenesis upon implantation. However, conductive scaffolds have not been investigated in vitro in great measure. To this end, we have developed a highly porous, electrically conductive scaffold

  13. Photovoltaic performance of hybrid ITO/PEDOT:PSS/n-SnS/Al solar cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyal; Arun, P.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper discusses the performance of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/n-SnS/Al structured solar cells fabricated by thermal evaporation. The performance characterizing parameters such as the open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, series resistance, parallel resistance, ideality factor and the overall efficiency were found to be dependent on the SnS grain size in the nano-meter regime and incident light intensity. The experimental work directly reconfirms the theoretical results and ideas raised in the literature by early researchers.

  14. Effects of pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS as a hole-conducting layer on the performance characteristics of polymer photovoltaic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Jungrae; Ok, Sunseong; Choe, Youngson

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of pentacene-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] films as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the amount of pentacene and the annealing temperature of pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS layer, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS thin films were prepared by dissolving pentacene in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solvent and mixing with PEDO...

  15. Interfacial micropore defect formation in PEDOT:PSS-Si hybrid solar cells probed by TOF-SIMS 3D chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joseph P; Zhao, Liyan; Abd-Ellah, Marwa; Heinig, Nina F; Leung, K T

    2013-07-16

    Conducting p-type polymer layers on n-type Si have been widely studied for the fabrication of cost-effective hybrid solar cells. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is used to provide three-dimensional chemical imaging of the interface between poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and SiOx/Si in a hybrid solar cell. To minimize structural damage to the polymer layer, an Ar cluster sputtering source is used for depth profiling. The present result shows the formation of micropore defects in the interface region of the PEDOT:PSS layer on the SiOx/Si substrate. This interfacial micropore defect formation becomes more prominent with increasing thickness of the native oxide layer, which is a key device parameter that greatly affects the hybrid solar cell performance. Three-dimensional chemical imaging coupled with Ar cluster ion sputtering has therefore been demonstrated as an emerging technique for probing the interface of this and other polymer-inorganic systems.

  16. A paper-based electrode using a graphene dot/PEDOT:PSS composite for flexible solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chuan-Pei

    2017-04-22

    We have synthesized a metal-free composite ink that contains graphene dots (GDs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) that can be used on paper to serve as the counter electrode in a flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This paper-based GD/PEDOT:PSS electrode is low-cost, light-weight, flexible, environmentally friendly, and easy to cut and process for device fabrication. We determined the GD/PEDOT:PSS composite effectively fills the dense micro-pores in the paper substrate, which leads to improved carrier transport in the electrode and a 3-fold enhanced cell efficiency as compared to the paper electrode made with sputtered Pt. Moreover, the DSSC with the paper electrode featuring the GD/PEDOT:PSS composite did not fail in photovoltaic tests even after bending the electrode 150 times, whereas the device made with the Pt-based paper electrode decreased in efficiency by 45% after such manipulation. These exceptional properties make the metal-free GD/PEDOT:PSS composite ink a promising electrode material for a wide variety of flexible electronic applications.

  17. In Situ Complementary Doping, Thermoelectric Improvements, and Strain-Induced Structure within Alternating PEDOT:PSS/PANI Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Virgil; Bethke, Kevin; Madzharova, Fani; Bronneberg, Aafke Cecile; Kneipp, Janina; Rademann, Klaus

    2017-09-27

    Although the deposition of alternating layers from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and polyaniline (PANI) salts has recently provided a breakthrough in the field of conductive polymers, the cause for the conductivity improvement has remained unclear. In this work, we report a cooperative doping effect between alternating PANI base and PEDOT:PSS layers, resulting in electrical conductivities of 50-100 S cm -1 and power factors of up to 3.0 ± 0.5 μW m -1 K -2 , which surpass some of the recent values obtained for protonated PANI/PEDOT:PSS multilayers by a factor of 20. In this case, the simultaneous improvement in the electrical conductivity of both types of layers is caused by the in situ protonation of PANI, which corresponds to the removal of the excess acidic PSS chains from the PEDOT:PSS grains. The interplay between the functional groups' reactivity and the supramolecular chain reorganization leads to an array of preparation-dependent phenomena, including a stepwise increase in the film thickness, an alternation in the electrical conductivity, and the formation of a diverse surface landscape. The latter effect can be traced to a buildup of strain within the layers, which results in either the formation of folds or the shrinkage of the film. These results open new paths for designing nanostructured thin-film thermoelectrics.

  18. High Performance of PEDOT:PSS/n-Si Solar Cells Based on Textured Surface with AgNWs Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Pengbo; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jilei; Li, Gaofei; Fang, Xiaohong; Yang, Liyou; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid heterojunction solar cells (HHSCs) have gained extensive research and attention due to simple device structure and low-cost technological processes. Here, HHSCs are presented based on a highly transparent conductive polymer poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) directly spin-coated on an n-type crystalline silicon with microscale surface textures, which are prepared by traditional chemical etching. We have studied interface properties between PEDOT:PSS and textured n-Si by varying coating conditions. Final power conversion efficiency (PCE) could arrive at 8.54% by these simple solution-based fabrication processes. The high conversion efficiency is attributed to the fully conformal contact between PEDOT:PSS film and textured silicon. Furthermore, the reflectance of the PEDOT:PSS layer on textured surface is analyzed by changing film thickness. In order to improve the performance of the device, silver nanowires were employed as electrodes because of its better optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. The highest PCE of 11.07% was achieved which displayed a 29.6% enhancement compared with traditional silver electrodes. These findings imply that the combination of PEDOT:PSS film and silver nanowire transparent electrodes pave a promising way for realizing high-efficiency and low-cost solar cells.

  19. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Laser patterning of thin film PEDOT:PSS on polymer foils is characterized in great detail. • PEDOT:PSS does not need to be fully removed to create electrically insulating patterns. • The underlying polymer foil influences the ablation behavior. - Abstract: Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  20. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of inorganic–organic hybrid consisting of BiVO{sub 4} and PEDOT:PSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzciński, K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Szkoda, M., E-mail: mariusz-szkoda@wp.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Siuzdak, K.; Sawczak, M. [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Lisowska-Oleksiak, A., E-mail: alo@pg.gda.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth vanadate layers were prepared using pulsed laser deposition technique. • The modification method of BiVO{sub 4} by PEDOT:PSS was developed. • Modified layers exhibited higher photoactivity than bare BiVO{sub 4}. • Prepared material can act as semiconducting layer in photoelectrochemical cells. - Abstract: The PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)) was electrodeposited on a thin layer of bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}) prepared using the pulsed laser deposition technique onto FTO. The inorganic–organic junction was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Chronoamperometry curves, recorded under simulated solar light illumination, were performed to determine generated photocurrent during water and hydroquinone oxidation at the electrode surface. Experiments were performed for three types of electrode materials: (i) FTO/BiVO{sub 4}, (ii) FTO/PEDOT:PSS and (iii) FTO/BiVO{sub 4}/PEDOT:PSS in aqueous electrolyte. Almost 5 times higher photocurrent in electrolyte containing hole scavenger was generated after modification of BiVO{sub 4} photoanode with electrodeposited polymer. It is noteworthy that anodic photocurrent was stable even after 4 h of illumination. Cyclic voltammetry curves of FTO/BiVO{sub 4}/PEDOT:PSS recorded before and after experiments performed under electrode illumination indicated that the organic part in tested junction is photo-corrosion resistant.

  1. Efficient and Air-Stable Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Formed on Graphene-Oxide-Modified PEDOT:PSS Hole Transport Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Lin, Xuanhuai; Hou, Xian; Pan, Likun; Huang, Sumei; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-10-01

    As a hole transport layer, PEDOT:PSS usually limits the stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to its hygroscopic nature and inability to block electrons. Here, a graphene-oxide (GO)-modified PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer was fabricated by spin-coating a GO solution onto the PEDOT:PSS surface. PSCs fabricated on a GO-modified PEDOT:PSS layer exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.34%, which is higher than 11.90% of PSCs with the PEDOT:PSS layer. Furthermore, the stability of the PSCs was significantly improved, with the PCE remaining at 83.5% of the initial PCE values after aging for 39 days in air. The hygroscopic PSS material at the PEDOT:PSS surface was partly removed during spin-coating with the GO solution, which improves the moisture resistance and decreases the contact barrier between the hole transport layer and perovskite layer. The scattered distribution of the GO at the PEDOT:PSS surface exhibits superior wettability, which helps to form a high-quality perovskite layer with better crystallinity and fewer pin holes. Furthermore, the hole extraction selectivity of the GO further inhibits the carrier recombination at the interface between the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers. Therefore, the cooperative interactions of these factors greatly improve the light absorption of the perovskite layer, the carrier transport and collection abilities of the PSCs, and especially the stability of the cells.

  2. Substrate treatment and drying conditions effect on the properties of roll-to-roll gravure printed PEDOT:PSS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koidis, C.; Logothetidis, S.; Kapnopoulos, C.; Karagiannidis, P.G.; Laskarakis, A.; Hastas, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Drying conditions effect on the optical, electrical and structural characteristics of R2R gravure printed PEDOT:PSS thin films → Insight on microstructural, compositional and electrical characteristics of the PEDOT:PSS films by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry combined with the AFM results → Drying temperature increase leads to less remained water volume fraction, smaller particles, lower film roughness and finally better conductivity → Transformation of spherical particles in solution to pancakes in thin films is attributed to the drying process → The increase of corona efficiency leads to a deeper PET surface modification without affecting the adhesion of PEDOT:PSS - Abstract: The optical, structural and electrical properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films printed by roll-to-roll gravure have been investigated. Corona treatment has been applied to enhance the adhesion of PEDOT:PSS on PolyEthylene Terephthalate (PET) web. It has been found that there was a stronger in-depth surface modification of PET with the increase of corona efficiency; however, the adhesion of PEDOT:PSS was not actually affected. Also, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Atomic Force Microscopy have been used to extract information on the mechanisms that define PEDOT:PSS properties. The increase of the drying temperature of the PEDOT:PSS films has been found to reduce the remaining water inside the films and lead to the decrease of the PEDOT:PSS particles size.

  3. Effects of pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS as a hole-conducting layer on the performance characteristics of polymer photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Jungrae; Ok, Sunseong; Choe, Youngson

    2012-01-05

    We have investigated the effect of pentacene-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] films as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the amount of pentacene and the annealing temperature of pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS layer, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS thin films were prepared by dissolving pentacene in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solvent and mixing with PEDOT:PSS. As the amount of pentacene in the PEDOT:PSS solution was increased, UV-visible transmittance also increased dramatically. By increasing the amount of pentacene in PEDOT:PSS films, dramatic decreases in both the work function and surface resistance were observed. However, the work function and surface resistance began to sharply increase above the doping amount of pentacene at 7.7 and 9.9 mg, respectively. As the annealing temperature was increased, the surface roughness of pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS films also increased, leading to the formation of PEDOT:PSS aggregates. The films of pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS were characterized by AFM, SEM, UV-visible transmittance, surface analyzer, surface resistance, and photovoltaic response analysis.

  4. Enhancement of UV photodetector properties of ZnO nanorods/PEDOT:PSS Schottky junction by NGQD sensitization along with conductivity improvement of PEDOT:PSS by DMSO additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Saurab; Majumder, Tanmoy; Chakraborty, Pinak; Mondal, Suvra Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Schottky junction ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was fabricated by spin coating a hole conducting polymer, poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays. The UV detector performance was significantly improved two step process. Firstly, ZnO nanorods were modified by sensitizing N doped grapheme quantum dots (NGQDs) for better photoresponce behavior. Afterwards, the junction properties as well as photoresponse was enhanced by modifying electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS layer with organic solvent (DMSO). Our NGQD decorated ZnO NRs/DMSO-PEDOT:PSS Schottky junction device demonstrated superior external quantum efficiency (EQE ˜ 90063 %) and responsivity (Rλ˜247 A/W) at 340 nm wavelength and -1V external bias. The response and recovery times of the final photodetector device was very fast compared to GQD as well as NGQD modified and pristine ZnO nanorod based detectors.

  5. Polymeric Flexible Immunosensor Based on Piezoresistive Micro-Cantilever with PEDOT/PSS Conductive Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fully polymeric micro-cantilever with the surface passivation layer of parylene-C and the strain resistor of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/poly (styrene sulfonate (PEDOT/PSS was proposed and demonstrated for immunoassays. By optimizing the design and fabrication of the polymeric micro-cantilever, a square resistance of 220 Ω/□ for PEDOT/PSS conductive layer have been obtained. The experimental spring constant and the deflection sensitivity were measured to be 0.017 N/m and 8.59 × 10−7 nm−1, respectively. The biological sensing performances of polymeric micro-cantilever were investigated by the immunoassay for human immunoglobulin G (IgG. The immunosensor was experimentally demonstrated to have a linear behavior for the detection of IgG within the concentrations of 10~100 ng/mL with a limit of detection (LOD of 10 ng/mL. The experimental results indicate that the proposed polymeric flexible conductive layer-based sensors are capable of detecting trace biological substances.

  6. Microtexturing of the conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for superhydrophobic organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco

    2014-01-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can be quantitatively measured. This original substrate preparation allowed to perform electrochemical measurements on ionized species in solution with decreasing concentration down to 10 -7 molar. Moreover, it was demonstrated the ability of the device of realizing specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Collectively, these results demonstrate how a tight, interweaving integration of different disciplines can provide realistic tools for the detection of pathologies. The scheme here introduced offers breakthrough capabilities that are expected to radically improve both the pace and the productivity of biomedical research, creating an access revolution. 2014 Francesco Gentile et al.

  7. Tailoring the Electrochemical and Mechanical Properties of PEDOT:PSS Films for Bioelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Elmahmoudy, Mohammed

    2017-02-21

    The effect of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPS) content in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) dispersions on the properties of films spun cast from these formulations is investigated. It has been found out that the concentration of GOPS has a tremendous, yet gradual impact on the electrical, electrochemical, and mechanical properties of the PEDOT:PSS/GOPS films and that there is an optimum concentration which maximizes a particular feature of the film such as its water uptake or elasticity. The benefits of aqueous stability and mechanical strength with GOPS are to be compensated by an increase in the electrochemical impedance. GOPS aids obtaining excellent mechanical integrity in aqueous media with still highly conducting properties. Moreover, active devices like organic electrochemical transistors that contain 1 wt% GOPS, which is a concentration that leads to film with high electrical conductivity with sufficient mechanical stability and softness, exhibit steady performance over three weeks. These results suggest that variations in the concentration of such an additive like GOPS can enable a facile co-optimization of electrical and mechanical properties of a conducting polymer film for in vivo bioelectronics application.

  8. Planning Support Systems (PSS-Based Spatial Plan Alternatives and Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning is at the core of national land and urban development. Many countries and cities seek sustainable development through various means such as coordinated environmental planning, environmental assessment, and internalization of environmental analysis and planning. A Planning Support System (PSS is a GIS (Geographic Information System-based, spatial decision-making support system that incorporates a variety of theories and pertinent models. This study adopted the “What if?” model to design an alternative spatial plan that includes generation of predictive scenarios and is relatively easy to use. In the cities studied, we identified a total of six scenarios based on the main drivers of development—namely, population and spatial policies. Subsequently, we assessed the alternatives for their environmental impact, preparing sensitivity maps for each major environmental issue in the target area (natural ecosystem, air and microclimate, natural disasters. One projected advantage of the “What if?” model is that its digital visualization of proposed plans may improve public awareness and involvement. Furthermore, the tool is expected to be highly useful in ensuring the objectivity of quantitative analyses. However, it is necessary to develop a PSS that is both standardized and tailored to the particular needs of each area. Finally, the development of an e-governance system will be beneficial in ensuring public access to the decision making process.

  9. Polymeric Flexible Immunosensor Based on Piezoresistive Micro-Cantilever with PEDOT/PSS Conductive Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Sun, Ying

    2018-02-03

    In this paper, a fully polymeric micro-cantilever with the surface passivation layer of parylene-C and the strain resistor of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) was proposed and demonstrated for immunoassays. By optimizing the design and fabrication of the polymeric micro-cantilever, a square resistance of 220 Ω/□ for PEDOT/PSS conductive layer have been obtained. The experimental spring constant and the deflection sensitivity were measured to be 0.017 N/m and 8.59 × 10 -7 nm -1 , respectively. The biological sensing performances of polymeric micro-cantilever were investigated by the immunoassay for human immunoglobulin G (IgG). The immunosensor was experimentally demonstrated to have a linear behavior for the detection of IgG within the concentrations of 10~100 ng/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 ng/mL. The experimental results indicate that the proposed polymeric flexible conductive layer-based sensors are capable of detecting trace biological substances.

  10. LOFT facility PSS experiments: analysis of wet well vertical loads resulting from transient initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, V.T.

    1977-05-01

    Fourteen experiments on the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility pressure suppression system (PSS) are analyzed in relation to the vertical load generated on the suppression tank in the first 0.5 sec of the transient. Variations in principle parameters affecting the generation of vertical loads were included in the experiments. The internal and external vent submergences are identified from the analysis as being parameters which are first order in influencing the magnitude of the vertical load. These parameters are geometric in nature and depend only on PSS design. Physical parameters of total energy input and rate of energy input to the dry well, which influence the dry well pressurization, also are identified as being first order in influencing the magnitude of the vertical loads. The vertical load magnitude is a direct function of these geometric and physical parameters. The analysis indicates that a small value in any one of the parameters will cause the vertical load to be small and to have little dependence on the magnitude of the other parameters. In addition, the phenomena of nonuniform nonsynchronized vent inlet pressures, which have origins that are either geometric, physical, or a combination of both, act as a significant vertical load reduction mechanism

  11. Development of a Flexible Strain Sensor Based on PEDOT:PSS for Thin Film Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra El Zein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a reproducible flexible sensor adapted to thin low-density polyethylene (LDPE films and/or structures to enable their deformation measurements. As these deformations are suspected to be weak (less than 10%, the developed sensor needs to be particularly sensitive. Moreover, it is of prime importance that sensor integration and usability do not modify the mechanical behavior of its LDPE substrate. The literature review allowed several materials to be investigated and an elastomer/intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS (CleviosTM filled composite was selected to simultaneously combine mechanical properties and electrical conductivity. This composite (made of PEDOT:PSS and silicone Bluesil® presented satisfying compatibilities with piezoresistive effects, negative temperature performances (in a range from −60 °C to 20 °C, as well as elongation properties (until the elastic limit of the substrate was reached. The method used for creating the sensor is fully described, as are the optimization of the sensor manufacture in terms of used materials, the used amount of materials where the percolation theory aspects must be considered, the adhesion to the substrate, and the manufacturing protocol. Electromechanical characterization was performed to assess the gauge factor (K of the sensor on its substrate.

  12. Degradation and Its Control of Ultraviolet Avalanche Photodiodes Using PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomoki; Uchida, Shigeto; Tanaka, Keita; Fujisawa, Takanobu; Kasada, Hirofumi; Ando, Koshi; Akaiwa, Kazuaki; Ichino, Kunio

    2018-05-01

    We investigated device degradation in PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe organic-inorganic hybrid ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes (UV-APDs). ZnSSe/n-GaAs wafers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and PEDOT:PSS window layers were formed by inkjet technique. We observed rapid degradation with APD-mode stress (˜ 30 V) in the N2 (4 N) atmosphere, while we observed no marked change in forward bias current stress and photocurrent stress. In the case of a vacuum condition, we observed no detectable degradation in the dark avalanche current with APD-mode stress. Therefore, the degradation in the PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe interface under the APD-mode stress was caused by the residual water vapor or oxygen in the N2 atmosphere and could be controlled by vacuum packaging.

  13. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter; Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert

    2016-07-01

    Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  14. Deposition of PEDOT: PSS Nanoparticles as a Conductive Microlayer Anode in OLEDs Device by Desktop Inkjet Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple microfabrication technique for delivering macromolecules and patterning microelectrode arrays using desktop inkjet printer was described. Aqueous solution of nanoparticle of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT doped with polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSS was prepared while its particle size, the surface tension, and the viscosity of the solution were adjusted to be suitable for deposition on a flexible cellulose nanocomposite substrate via inkjet printer. The statistical average of PEDOT: PSS particle size of 100 nm was observed. The microthickness, surface morphology, and electrical conductivity of the printed substrate were then characterized by profilometer, atomic force microscope (AFM, and four-point probe electrical measurement, respectively. The inkjet deposition of PEDOT: PSS was successfully carried out, whilst retained its transparency feature. Highly smooth surface (roughness ~23–44 nm was achieved.

  15. Stable angular emission spectra in white organic light-emitting diodes using graphene/PEDOT:PSS composite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunsu; Lee, Hyunkoo; Lee, Jonghee; Sung, Woo Jin; Kwon, Byoung-Hwa; Joo, Chul-Woong; Shin, Jin-Wook; Han, Jun-Han; Moon, Jaehyun; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Cho, Seungmin; Cho, Nam Sung

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we suggest a graphene/ poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) composite as a transparent electrode for stabilizing white emission of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Graphene/PEDOT:PSS composite electrodes have increased reflectance when compared to graphene itself, but their reflectance is still lower than that of ITO itself. Changes in the reflectance of the composite electrode have the advantage of suppressing the angular spectral distortion of white emission OLEDs and achieving an efficiency of 16.6% for white OLEDs, comparable to that achieved by graphene-only electrodes. By controlling the OLED structure to compensate for the two-beam interference effect, the CIE color coordinate change (Δxy) of OLEDs based on graphene/PEDOT:PSS composite electrodes is 0.018, less than that based on graphene-only electrode, i.e.,0.027.

  16. The Critical Choice of PEDOT: PSS Additives for Long Term Stability of Roll‐to‐Roll Processed OPVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Bérenger; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Corazza, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The impact of additives mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on the stability of organic photovoltaic modules is investigated for fully ambient roll-to-roll (R2R) processed indium tin oxide free modules. Four different PEDOT:PSS inks from two different...... on organic photovoltaic stability (ISOS). For the harsh indoor test (ISOS-L-3) only a slight difference in stability is observed between the different modules. During both ISOS-L-3 and ISOS-D-3 one new failure mode is observed as a result of tiny air inclusions in the barrier foil and a R2R method...

  17. Morphology, conductivity, and wetting characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films deposited by spin and spray coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabihi, F.; Xie, Y.; Gao, S.; Eslamian, M., E-mail: Morteza.Eslamian@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Nanostructure of spun-on and spray-on PEDOT:PSS thin films is studied. • A correlation is established between the film nanostructure and electrical conductivity. • Effect of process parameters is studied on the film characteristics. • A high solution concentration, high process temperature and multiple deposition layers are recommended. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to study the characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films and the effects of varying the processing parameters on the structure, functionality, and surface wetting of spun-on and spray-on PEDOT:PSS thin films. PEDOT:PSS is a polymer mixture, which is electrically conductive and transparent and, therefore, is an attractive material for some optoelectronic applications, such as organic and perovskite solar cells. In this work, the films are fabricated using spin coating (a lab-scale method) and spray coating (an up-scalable method). The effects of spinning speed, drying time, and post-annealing temperature on spun-on samples and the effects of the substrate temperature and number of spray passes (deposition layers) on spray-on samples, as well as the effect of precursor solution concentration on both cases are investigated. Various characterization tools, such as AFM, SEM, XRD, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and electrical conductivity measurements are used to determine the film roughness, thickness, structure, and morphology. The solution precursor physical data, such as contact angle on glass substrates, viscosity, and interfacial tension, are also obtained within a practical range of temperatures and concentrations. It is found that in both spin and spray coating routes, only well-controlled operating conditions result in the formation of conductive and defect-free PEDOT:PSS films. The formation of PEDOT:PSS thin films with small grains composed of PEDOT forming the core of the grains and PSS forming a shell or coating, which are evenly distributed in a PSS

  18. Morphology, conductivity, and wetting characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films deposited by spin and spray coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihi, F.; Xie, Y.; Gao, S.; Eslamian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructure of spun-on and spray-on PEDOT:PSS thin films is studied. • A correlation is established between the film nanostructure and electrical conductivity. • Effect of process parameters is studied on the film characteristics. • A high solution concentration, high process temperature and multiple deposition layers are recommended. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to study the characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films and the effects of varying the processing parameters on the structure, functionality, and surface wetting of spun-on and spray-on PEDOT:PSS thin films. PEDOT:PSS is a polymer mixture, which is electrically conductive and transparent and, therefore, is an attractive material for some optoelectronic applications, such as organic and perovskite solar cells. In this work, the films are fabricated using spin coating (a lab-scale method) and spray coating (an up-scalable method). The effects of spinning speed, drying time, and post-annealing temperature on spun-on samples and the effects of the substrate temperature and number of spray passes (deposition layers) on spray-on samples, as well as the effect of precursor solution concentration on both cases are investigated. Various characterization tools, such as AFM, SEM, XRD, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and electrical conductivity measurements are used to determine the film roughness, thickness, structure, and morphology. The solution precursor physical data, such as contact angle on glass substrates, viscosity, and interfacial tension, are also obtained within a practical range of temperatures and concentrations. It is found that in both spin and spray coating routes, only well-controlled operating conditions result in the formation of conductive and defect-free PEDOT:PSS films. The formation of PEDOT:PSS thin films with small grains composed of PEDOT forming the core of the grains and PSS forming a shell or coating, which are evenly distributed in a PSS

  19. Correlation between the fine structure of spin-coated PEDOT:PSS and the photovoltaic performance of organic/crystalline-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funda, Shuji; Ohki, Tatsuya; Liu, Qiming; Hossain, Jaker; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2016-07-21

    We investigated the relationship between the fine structure of spin-coated conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films and the photovoltaic performance of PEDOT:PSS crystalline-Si (PEDOT:PSS/c-Si) heterojunction solar cells. Real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed that there were two different time constants for the formation of the PEDOT:PSS network. Upon removal of the polar solvent, the PEDOT:PSS film became optically anisotropic, indicating a conformational change in the PEDOT and PSS chain. Polarized Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements also indicated that thermal annealing promoted an in-plane π-conjugated C{sub α} = C{sub β} configuration attributed to a thiophene ring in PEDOT and an out-of-plane configuration of -SO{sub 3} groups in the PSS chain with increasing composition ratio of oxidized (benzoid) to neutral (quinoid) PEDOT, I{sub qui}/I{sub ben}. The highest power conversion efficiency for the spin-coated PEDOT:PSS/c-Si heterojunction solar cells was 13.3% for I{sub qui}/I{sub ben} = 9–10 without employing any light harvesting methods.

  20. Machine-Washable PEDOT:PSS Dyed Silk Yarns for Electronic Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jason D; Mengistie, Desalegn Alemu; Gabrielsson, Roger; Lund, Anja; Müller, Christian

    2017-03-15

    Durable, electrically conducting yarns are a critical component of electronic textiles (e-textiles). Here, such yarns with exceptional wear and wash resistance are realized through dyeing silk from the silkworm Bombyx mori with the conjugated polymer:polyelectrolyte complex PEDOT:PSS. A high Young's modulus of approximately 2 GPa combined with a robust and scalable dyeing process results in up to 40 m long yarns that maintain their bulk electrical conductivity of approximately 14 S cm -1 when experiencing repeated bending stress as well as mechanical wear during sewing. Moreover, a high degree of ambient stability is paired with the ability to withstand both machine washing and dry cleaning. For the potential use for e-textile applications to be illustrated, an in-plane thermoelectric module that comprises 26 p-type legs is demonstrated by embroidery of dyed silk yarns onto a piece of felted wool fabric.

  1. PSS Support for Maritime Technology Ventures: From Exploration to Methodology and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro

    -efficient, competitive Eastern suppliers. The Danish suppliers - by some considered the world leaders in terms of technological knowledge - are faced with a difficult choice: Either try to survive by cutting costs and competing on price or attempt to leverage their unique knowledge of technology to the market and build...... new business ventures, which are not dependent on cost as a competitive factor. The recommendation of this thesis is to pursue the latter option and adopt entrepreneurial strategies as a means to future prosperity. To achieve this goal, the area of Product/Service-Systems (PSS) is introduced...... to validate an existing theory for entrepreneurship process against the data. This study fails to find proof for or against the assertions of the theory. In the last study, a grounded theory approach is used for building a conceptual framework for entrepreneurship processes. As such, the framework is entirely...

  2. Timing and Targeting of PSS Methods and Tools: An Empirical Study amongst Academic Contributors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr Hinz, Hector; Bey, Niki; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of product/service-systems has meant that development methods for such systems have emerged from academia. This paper investigates existing methods that are aimed at developing product/service-systems. Two aspects are determined for each examined method. The first aspect that has been...... surveyed is when a given method is meant to be used in the development of a product/service-system. This aspect has been determined through a qualitative assessment of each method. The second aspect surveyed is which persons in an organisation who are seen as the main drivers in the use of the methods....... To gain this insight a questionnaire for each method has been conducted with the authors of the methods as participants. The main finding indicates that current PSS methods cannot thoroughly support the development of product/ service-systems as their specificity is too low and that the methods need...

  3. The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire is reliable in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Jensen, Rigmor; Klarskov, Peter

    2006-01-01

    . The questionnaire consists of 12 questions related to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The participants were asked to state the frequency and severity of their symptoms (symptom score) and its impact on their daily life (bother score). Seventy-one stroke patients were included and 59 (83%) answered...... the questionnaire twice. The reliability test was done in two aspects: (a) detecting the frequency of each symptom and its bother factor, the scores were reduced to a two-category scale (=0, >0) and simple kappa statistics was used; (b) detecting the severity of each symptom and its bother factor, the total scale...... (kappa(w) = 0.48) to good (kappa(w) = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: The DAN-PSS-1 questionnaire had acceptable test-retest reliability and may be suitable for measuring the frequency and severity of LUTS and its bother factor in stroke patients....

  4. The Roll of NaPSS Surfactant on the Ceria Nanoparticles Embedding in Polypyrrole Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Popescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs in crystalline form have been synthesized by a coprecipitation method. CeO2 nanoparticles were then embedded in polypyrrole (PPy films during the electropolymerization of pyrrole (Py on titanium substrate. The influence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (NaPSS surfactant used during polymerization on the embedding of CeO2 NPs in polypyrrole films was investigated. The new films were characterized in terms of surface analysis, wettability, electrochemical behaviour, and antibacterial effect. The surface and electrochemical characterization revealed the role of surfactant on PPy doping process cerium oxide incorporation. In the presence of surfactant, CeO2 NPs are preferentially embedded in the polymeric film while, without surfactant, the ceria nanoparticles are quasiuniformly spread as agglomerates onto polymeric films. The antibacterial effect of studied PPy films was substantially improved in the presence of cerium oxide and depends by the polymerization conditions.

  5. A paper-based electrode using a graphene dot/PEDOT:PSS composite for flexible solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chuan-Pei; Lai, Kun-Yu; Lin, Chin-An; Li, Chun-Ting; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Chih-I; Lau, Shu-Ping; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized a metal-free composite ink that contains graphene dots (GDs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) that can be used on paper to serve as the counter electrode in a flexible dye-sensitized solar

  6. HSA/PSS coated gold nanorods as thermo-triggered drug delivery vehicles for combined cancer photothermal therapy and chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ting-Yu; Yang, Shu-Jyuan; Wang, Chung-Hao; Lee, Shin-Yu; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2018-02-01

    Drug delivery systems combined multimodal therapy strategies are very promising in cancer theranostic applications. In this work, a new drug-delivery vehicles based on human serum albumin (HSA)-coated gold nanorods (GNR/PSS/HSA NPs) was developed. The success of coating was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, it is demonstrated that doxorubicin (DOX) is successfully loaded among multilayered gold nanorods by the electrostatic and hydrophobic force, and DOX@GNR/PSS/HSA NPs were highly biocompatible and stable in various physiological solutions. The NPs possess strong absorbance in nearinfrared (NIR) region, and high photothermal conversion efficiency for outstanding photothermal therapy applications. A bimodal drug release triggered by proteinase or NIR irradiation has been revealed, resulting in a significant chemotherapeutic effect in tumor sites because of the preferential drug accumulation and triggered release. Importantly, the in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that DOX@GNR/PSS/HSA NPs, which combined photothermal and chemotherapy for cancer therapy, revealing a remarkably superior synergistic anticancer effect over either monotherapy. All these results suggested a considerable potential of DOX@GNR/PSS/HSA NPs nano-platform for antitumor therapy.

  7. PEDOT:PSS incorporated silver nanoparticles prepared by gamma radiation for the application in organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayma A. Ghazy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:Polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS is a dispersion used as a buffer layer on the ITO electrode in the organic solar cells. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are incorporated to the dispersion using two different strategies. The first is by reduction of silver ions in the PEDOT:PSS dispersion. Chemical reduction of silver ions using sodium borohydried is compared with reduction using gamma radiation. The TEM and UV-visible spectra indicates that smaller Ag NPs are obtained for the chemical reduction method than those obtained from the radiochemical. The second strategy, is by preparing Ag NPs in polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP solution using gamma irradiation then adding them to the PEDOT:PSS dispersion. Layers of the PEDOT:PSS incorporated different concentrations of Ag NPs (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% are formed. The SEM and AFM studies of the layers morphology reveal that smooth morphology on the obtained for layers containing Ag NPs up to concentrations of 4%.

  8. Vacuum-assisted bilayer PEDOT:PSS/cellulose nanofiber composite film for self-standing, flexible, conductive electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Youngsang; Kim, Dabum; Kim, Ung-Jin; You, Jungmok

    2017-10-01

    Sustainable cellulose nanofiber (CNF)-based composites as functional conductive materials have garnered considerable attention recently for their use in soft electronic devices. In this work, self-standing, highly flexible, and conductive PEDOT:PSS-CNF composite films were developed using a simple vacuum-assisted filtration method. Two different composite films were successfully fabricated and then tested: 1) a single-layer composite composed of a mixture of PEDOT:PSS and CNF phases and 2) a bilayer composite composed of an upper PEDOT:PSS membrane layer and a CNF matrix sub-layer. The latter composite was constructed by electrostatic/hydrogen bonding interactions between PEDOT:PSS and CNFs coupled with sequential vacuum-assisted filtration. Our results demonstrated that the resultant bilayer composite film exhibited a competitive electrical conductivity (ca. 22.6Scm -1 ) compared to those of previously reported cellulose-based composites. Furthermore, decreases in the electrical properties were not observed in the composite films when they were bent up to 100 times at an angle of 180° and bent multiple times at an angle of 90°, clearly demonstrating their excellent mechanical flexibility. This study provides a straightforward method of fabricating highly flexible, lightweight, and conductive films, which have the potential to be used in high-performance soft electronic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Handheld and automated ultrasonic spray deposition of conductive PEDOT:PSS films and their application in AC EL devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ely, Fernando; Matsumoto, Agatha; Zoetebier, Bram; Peressinotto, Valdirene S.; Hirata, Marcelo Kioshi; de Sousa, Douglas A.; Maciel, Rubens

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we explore the spray deposition technique to achieve smooth films based on the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS. Two different spray systems were used and compared namely: (a) handheld airbrush and (b) automated ultrasonic spray system. For each system a number of parameters were

  10. Modification of the Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Layer for Use in Silver Nanogrid Electrodes for Flexible Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Fei, Fei; Luo, Qun; Nie, Shuhong; Wu, Na; Chen, Xiaolian; Su, Wenming; Li, Yuanjie; Ma, Chang-Qi

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanogrid based flexible transparent electrode is recognized as the most promising alternative to ITO electrode for organic electronics, owing to its low production cost and excellent flexibility. Typically, a highly conductive thin film coating layer, such as highly conductive PEDOT:PSS (HC-PEDOT:PSS) is usually deposited onto the Ag-grid electrode to smooth the surface and to minimize the sheet resistance. In this paper, we found that inverted flexible polymer solar cells with structure of Ag-grid/HC-PEDOT:PSS/ZnO/photoactive layer/MoO 3 /Al generally exhibits strong S-shaped J-V curves, which could be eliminated by light-soaking treatment. Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) measurement proved that a large work function (WF) difference (0.70 eV) between HC-PEDOT:PSS and ZnO is the main reason for the formation of S-shape. White light soaking of the Ag-grid/HC-PEDOT:PSS gradually decreased the WF of HC-PEDOT:PSS from 5.10 to 4.60 eV, leading to a reduced WF difference between HC-PEDOT:PSS and ZnO from 0.70 to 0.38 eV. Such a WF difference decrease was believed to be the working mechanism for the light-soaking effect in this flexible device. Based on this finding, the HC-PEDOT:PSS solution was then modified by doping with polyethylenimine (PEI) and aqueous ammonia. The modified PEDOT:PSS film is characteristic of adjusting WF through varying PEI doping concentrations. By using such a modified PEDOT:PSS layer, light-soaking-free flexible inverted polymer solar cell with a power conversion efficiency of 6.58% was achieved for PTB7-Th:PC 71 BM cells. The current work provides a useful guideline for interfacial modification for Ag-grid based flexible electrode.

  11. High performance silicon–organic hybrid solar cells via improving conductivity of PEDOT:PSS with reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Wang, Zilei; Han, Wenhui; Liu, Qiming; Lu, Shuqi; Wen, Yuxiang; Hou, Juan; Huang, Fei; Peng, Shanglong; He, Deyan; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The fabricated Si–organic hybrid solar cells with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded a power conversion efficiency of 11.95% with a J_s_c of 31.94 mA cm"−"2, a V_o_c of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648, about 27.8% increase from 9.35% in pristine hybrid solar cells. • The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when appropriate amount rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, the electron recombination at the junction interface of the device was suppressed by the appropriate amount rGO flakes addition. • The rGO flakes also serve as an antireflection coating to further reduce the reflectance in the wavelength range of 300–550 nm, leading to further enhanced performances of hybrid solar cells. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS organic layer play a very important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Si–organic hybrid solar cells (HSCs). In the present study, properties of PEDOT:PSS thin films with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and their impacts on the performances of the resultant Si–organic HSCs have been systematically investigated. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, and the fabricated HSCs with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded an PCE of 11.95% with a J_s_c of 31.94 mA cm"−"2, a V_o_c of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648. However, excess rGO would deteriorate the solar cells performances and it might create additional defects and prevent carriers being collected. The Raman spectroscopy, sheet resistance and EQE analyses with rGO suggested that the interaction between the conductive rGO flakes and the aromatic PEDOT most probably not only provide additional charge transport pathways in hole transport layer to improve carrier mobility leading to a higher carrier collection efficiency, but also suppress the electron recombination at the junction interface. In addition, the rGO serve as an antireflection coating to reduce the reflectance of PEDOT:PSS thin film

  12. High performance silicon–organic hybrid solar cells via improving conductivity of PEDOT:PSS with reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Wang, Zilei; Han, Wenhui; Liu, Qiming; Lu, Shuqi; Wen, Yuxiang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hou, Juan [School of Science, Key Laboratory of Ecophysics, Shihezi University, Xinjiang 832003 (China); Huang, Fei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States); Peng, Shanglong, E-mail: pengshl@lzu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, Deyan [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The fabricated Si–organic hybrid solar cells with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded a power conversion efficiency of 11.95% with a J{sub sc} of 31.94 mA cm{sup −2}, a V{sub oc} of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648, about 27.8% increase from 9.35% in pristine hybrid solar cells. • The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when appropriate amount rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, the electron recombination at the junction interface of the device was suppressed by the appropriate amount rGO flakes addition. • The rGO flakes also serve as an antireflection coating to further reduce the reflectance in the wavelength range of 300–550 nm, leading to further enhanced performances of hybrid solar cells. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS organic layer play a very important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Si–organic hybrid solar cells (HSCs). In the present study, properties of PEDOT:PSS thin films with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and their impacts on the performances of the resultant Si–organic HSCs have been systematically investigated. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, and the fabricated HSCs with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded an PCE of 11.95% with a J{sub sc} of 31.94 mA cm{sup −2}, a V{sub oc} of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648. However, excess rGO would deteriorate the solar cells performances and it might create additional defects and prevent carriers being collected. The Raman spectroscopy, sheet resistance and EQE analyses with rGO suggested that the interaction between the conductive rGO flakes and the aromatic PEDOT most probably not only provide additional charge transport pathways in hole transport layer to improve carrier mobility leading to a higher carrier collection efficiency, but also suppress the electron recombination at the junction interface. In addition, the rGO serve as an antireflection coating to reduce the reflectance of

  13. Pecuniary evaluation of provided service by local and global based dual-dimensional SDC and PSS2B in the context of deregulated power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Hashemi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessing the role and performance of SDC and PSS2B in deregulated power markets. • The profit allocation of WADC as an AS provider is involved in this work. • A dual-dimensional SDC scheme for UPFC is applied to damp the power system swings. • The high share of dual-dimensional SDC shows capability of it in enhancing security. - Abstract: The problem of profit allocation of Unified Power Flow Controller-Supplementary Damping Controller (UPFC-SDC) and accelerating power PSS model (PSS2B) is an important and update issue which has not been properly directed yet. The model of UPFC-SDC that has been used in this paper is a dual-dimensional controller that first dimension of control is resulted from local signals and the second dimension is covered by global signals as additional measuring data from appropriate remote network locations, where swings are well observable. Thus, in this paper the profit allocation of Wide Area Damping Controller (WADC) is also presented as an undefined problem in security subject of deregulated power system. Assuming control action by UPFC-SDC and WADC as an Ancillary Service (AS), the contribution of UPFC-SDC in stability enhancement is evaluated. It is important to appropriately choose a criterion to assess the performance of UPFC-SDC, so that a suitable allocation of profit can be achieved. The sum of deviations of damping ratios and real part of eigenvalues is selected as Oscillation Damping Criterion (ODC). Two scenarios for valuation of small signal stability as an AS provided by UPFC-SDC is considered. The first scenario without retuning of controllers and in the second scenario controllers is retuned due to response of the market situation. A multi-objective optimization approach based on ODC, generation costs and UPFC cost is considered and then Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) is utilized for solving this problem. A two area four machine test power system is considered for investigation

  14. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  15. 3D Printing of NinjaFlex Filament onto PEDOT:PSS-Coated Textile Fabrics for Electroluminescence Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Melkie Getnet; Dumitrescu, Delia; Loghin, Carmen; Chen, Yan; Wang, Lichuan; Nierstrasz, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) is the property of a semiconductor material pertaining to emitting light in response to an electrical current or a strong electric field. The purpose of this paper is to develop a flexible and lightweight EL device. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to observe the thermal degradation behavior of NinjaFlex. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)—PEDOT:PSS—with ethylene glycol (EG) was coated onto polyester fabric where NinjaFlex was placed onto the coated fabric using three-dimensional (3D) printing and phosphor paste, and BendLay filaments were subsequently coated via 3D printing. Adhesion strength and flexibility of the 3D-printed NinjaFlex on textile fabrics were investigated. The TGA results of the NinjaFlex depict no weight loss up to 150°C and that the NinjaFlex was highly conductive with a surface resistance value of 8.5 ohms/sq.; the coated fabric exhibited a uniform surface appearance as measured and observed by using four-probe measurements and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, at 60% PEDOT:PSS. The results of the adhesion test showed that peel strengths of 4160 N/m and 3840 N/m were recorded for polyester and cotton specimens, respectively. No weight loss was recorded following three washing cycles of NinjaFlex. The bending lengths were increased by only a factor of 0.082 and 0.577 for polyester and cotton samples at 0.1-mm thickness, respectively; this remains sufficiently flexible to be integrated into textiles. The prototype device emitted light with a 12-V alternating current power supply.

  16. High-stress study of bioinspired multifunctional PEDOT:PSS/nanoclay nanocomposites using AFM, SEM and numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Diaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioinspired design has been central in the development of hierarchical nanocomposites. Particularly, the nacre-mimetic brick-and-mortar structure has shown excellent mechanical properties, as well as gas-barrier properties and optical transparency. Along with these intrinsic properties, the layered structure has also been utilized in sensing devices. Here we extend the multifunctionality of nacre-mimetics by designing an optically transparent and electron conductive coating based on PEDOT:PSS and nanoclays Laponite RD and Cloisite Na+. We carry out extensive characterization of the nanocomposite using transmittance spectra (transparency, conductive atomic force microscopy (conductivity, contact-resonance force microscopy (mechanical properties, and SEM combined with a variety of stress-strain AFM experiments and AFM numerical simulations (internal structure. We further study the nanoclay’s response to the application of pressure with multifrequency AFM and conductive AFM, whereby increases and decreases in conductivity can occur for the Laponite RD composites. We offer a possible mechanism to explain the changes in conductivity by modeling the coating as a 1-dimensional multibarrier potential for electron transport, and show that conductivity can change when the separation between the barriers changes under the application of pressure, and that the direction of the change depends on the energy of the electrons. We did not observe changes in conductivity under the application of pressure with AFM for the Cloisite Na+ nanocomposite, which has a large platelet size compared with the AFM probe diameter. No pressure-induced changes in conductivity were observed in the clay-free polymer either.

  17. Fabrication of flexible conductive films derived from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) on the nonwoven fabrics substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chieh-Han; Shen, Hsiu-Ping; Don, Trong-Ming; Chiu, Wen-Yen

    2013-01-01

    In this research, conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) aqueous dispersion was synthesized at first via chemical oxidative polymerization and followed by mixing it with poly(styrene-r-butyl acrylate) P(St-BA) aqueous latex, creating a conductive material with outstanding stretchability. The elastic conductive composite were then film formed on the glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabric substrate by spin coating and dip coating, respectively. Composite films with various contents of PEDOT:PSS polymer (10–100 wt.%) had been prepared. From the conductivity measurements, the conductivity was still kept as high as 88 S cm −1 even the PEDOT:PSS content was lowered to 10 wt.%. Furthermore, the elasticity of conductive films on the PET-nonwoven fabric substrate was evaluated by the 180° bending test repeating 100 times. With introducing soft P(St-BA) material in the PEDOT:PSS phase, the surface resistance increased merely 3–6 times after bending 100 times, while the surface resistance for pure PEDOT:PSS film could reach 18–20 times. - Highlights: • Flexible PEDOT:PSS based material had been coated on the PET-nonwoven fabrics. • The integrity of conductive circuit on fabrics was evaluated by bending test. • With adding rubbery material, the flexibility of PEDOT:PSS coating was enhanced

  18. Fabrication of flexible conductive films derived from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) on the nonwoven fabrics substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chieh-Han [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Hsiu-Ping [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Don, Trong-Ming, E-mail: tmdon@mail.tku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, New Taipei 251, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiu, Wen-Yen, E-mail: ycchiu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-16

    In this research, conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) aqueous dispersion was synthesized at first via chemical oxidative polymerization and followed by mixing it with poly(styrene-r-butyl acrylate) P(St-BA) aqueous latex, creating a conductive material with outstanding stretchability. The elastic conductive composite were then film formed on the glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabric substrate by spin coating and dip coating, respectively. Composite films with various contents of PEDOT:PSS polymer (10–100 wt.%) had been prepared. From the conductivity measurements, the conductivity was still kept as high as 88 S cm{sup −1} even the PEDOT:PSS content was lowered to 10 wt.%. Furthermore, the elasticity of conductive films on the PET-nonwoven fabric substrate was evaluated by the 180° bending test repeating 100 times. With introducing soft P(St-BA) material in the PEDOT:PSS phase, the surface resistance increased merely 3–6 times after bending 100 times, while the surface resistance for pure PEDOT:PSS film could reach 18–20 times. - Highlights: • Flexible PEDOT:PSS based material had been coated on the PET-nonwoven fabrics. • The integrity of conductive circuit on fabrics was evaluated by bending test. • With adding rubbery material, the flexibility of PEDOT:PSS coating was enhanced.

  19. Caracterização de hidrogéis condutores constituídos por PAAm e PEDOT/PSS por meio de planejamento fatorial Characterization of conducting hydrogels made with PAAm and PEDOT/PSS using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauze A. Aouada

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, hidrogéis condutores do tipo semi-IPN constituídos por poliacrilamida (PAAm e polímero intrinsecamente condutor poli(3,4-etileno dioxitiofeno/poli(estireno-sulfonato (PEDOT/PSS foram sintetizados e suas propriedades hidrofílicas, mecânicas, condutoras e ópticas foram caracterizadas por meio de planejamento fatorial completo 2³ com ponto central. Para isso, utilizaram-se três fatores: concentrações de acrilamida (AAm e N,N’-metileno-bis-acrilamida (MBAAm, e quantidade de PEDOT/PSS, em três níveis, sendo um deles o ponto central. O planejamento foi construído para avaliar os efeitos desses fatores (efeitos principais e efeitos de interação entre os fatores nas seguintes propriedades dos hidrogéis estudados (respostas: grau de intumescimento, tensão máxima de compressão, condutância iônica e intensidade relativa de luz transmitida através dos hidrogéis estudados. Os resultados demonstraram que a estabilidade mecânica dos hidrogéis semi-IPN é preservada e a presença de PEDOT/PSS aumenta o entrelaçamento na matriz de PAAm. Observou-se também que as propriedades ópticas são fortemente influenciadas com a presença de PEDOT/PSS. Dessa forma, torna-se possível obter hidrogéis com hidrofilicidade, estabilidade mecânica e transparência controladas, o que é importante para a aplicação desses materiais, principalmente como dispositivos ópticos.Conductive semi-IPN hydrogels made with polyacrylamide (PAAm and the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene/poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT/PSS were synthesized and the hydrophilicity, mechanical, ionic conductivity and optical properties were characterized through the 2³ factorial design. The experiments concerning the factorial design were randomly performed. The inputs were acrylamide (AAm, N,N’-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBAAm and PEDOT/PSS contents, each fixed in three levels, one being the central point. The outputs were the swelling degree

  20. Adaptação cultural e validação para a língua portuguesa da Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU Adaptación cultural y validación al idioma português del Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU Cultural adaptation and validation for the portuguese language of the Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    los padres fueron obtenidos en la subescala "alteración del papel de padres". CONCLUSIÓN: La PSS:NICU en la versión en portugués es una herramienta válida y confiable para la evaluación del estrés de padres con un hijo internado en la UCIN.OBJECTIVE: To translate, perform cultural adaptation and validation of the scale Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS: NICU for the Portuguese language. METHODS: We used the descriptive validation method of measurment instruments, based on the steps proposed by Guillemin et al. The reliability analysis was performed by means of the test - retest method and internal consistency. In the clinical validation, 163 parents of newborns hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU were included. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficients were around 0.70, showing good stability between the two assessments. Factor analysis by principal components method used the same criteria as the original scale, with Varimax rotation, with an appropriate degree of variance of 57.9%. The highest stress levels of parents were obtained in the subscale, "changing role of parents." CONCLUSION: The PSS: NICU in the Portuguese version is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating the stress of parents with children hospitalized in the NICU.

  1. Development of the Diamond light source PSS in conformance with EN 61508

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.C.; Price, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Diamond Light Source is constructing a third phase (Phase III) of photon beamlines and experiment stations. Experience gained in the design, realization and operation of the Personnel Safety Systems (PSS) on the first two phases of beamlines is being used to improve the design process for this development. Information on the safety functionality of Phase I and Phase II photon beamlines is maintained in a hazard database. The database is built using Microsoft Access 2007, it consists of table hazards, safeguards, frequencies of opportunity and outcome severities. Reports can be generated to support the EN 61508 process. These reports are used to assist in the design, verification and validation of the new PSSs. The data is used to make comparisons between beamlines, to validate safety functions and to record documentation for each beamline. The ability of the database to produce reports sorted and filtered on different criteria allows the production of reports tailored for specific stages of the EN 61508 process. The database is a useful tool but should not be employed blindly

  2. Capacitated vehicle routing problem for PSS uses based on ubiquitous computing: An emerging markets approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ochoa-Ortíz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El problema de ruteo de vehículos bajo las limitaciones de capacidad y basado en computación ubicua desde una perspectiva relacionada con PSS (Producto-Servicio de Sistemas para desarrollar configuraciones para el transporte urbano de mercancías es abordado. Éste trabajo considera las especificidades de la logística urbana bajo un contexto de mercados emergentes. En este caso, involucra: i bajas competencias logísticas de los tomadores de decisiones; ii la limitada disponibilidad de datos; y iii restringido acceso a tecnología de alto desempeño para calcular rutas de transporte óptimas. Por lo tanto, se propone el uso de un software libre que proporciona soluciones de bajo costo (en tiempo y recursos. El artículo muestra la aplicación de los resultados de una herramienta de software basado en la Teoría de Grafos utilizado para analizar y resolver un CVRP (Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem. Se utilizó el caso de una empresa local de distribución de alimentos situada en una gran ciudad de México. Sobre la base de una flora de vehículos pequeños, todos con las mismas especificaciones técnicas y una capacidad de carga comparable.

  3. Discerning and Addressing Environmental Failures in Policy Scenarios Using Planning Support System (PSS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Deal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental consequences of planning decisions are often undervalued. This can result from a number of potential causes: (a there might be a lack of adequate information to correctly assess environmental consequences; (b stakeholders might discount the spatial and temporal impacts; (c a failure to understand the dynamic interactions between socio-ecological systems including secondary and tertiary response mechanisms; or (d the gravity of the status quo, i.e., blindly following a traditional discourse. In this paper, we argue that a Planning Support System (PSS that enhances an assessment of environmental impacts and is integral to a community or regional planning process can help reveal the true environmental implications of scenario planning decisions, and thus improve communal planning and decision-making. We demonstrate our ideas through our experiences developing and deploying one such PSS—the Land-use Evolution and impact Assessment Model (LEAM Planning Support System. University of Illinois researchers have worked directly with government planning officials and community stakeholders to analyze alternate future development scenarios and improve the planning process through a participatory, iterative process of visioning, model tuning, simulation, and discussion. The resulting information enables an evaluation of alternative policy or investment choices and their potential environmental implications that can change the way communities both generate and use plans.

  4. Evolution of design of PSS from NAPP to RAPP-3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, K.B.; Kapoor, H.; Biswas, G.

    1997-01-01

    Primary Shut off System (PSS) is a fast acting system which shuts down the reactor from normal as well as accident conditions. Cadmium tube sandwiched between stainless steel 304L grade tubes is used as neutron absorbing element at fourteen locations on the reactor vessel. The elements are dropped there in the reactor with the help of drive mechanisms. This system was used for the first time in NAPS and was indigenously designed and manufactured. Based on experience in commissioning and operation, this has further been improved for subsequent projects at Kakrapar, Kaiga and RAPP-3 and 4. The improvement include change of rope drum to sheave type rope winding system, use of higher capacity indigenous specially designed electromagnetic clutch, use of higher dia wire rope, elimination of spiral springs, use of large size dash pot, reduction in number of components, incorporation of mechanical seals in place of O rings, modification of guide tube. With the above modifications the reliability of the system has been enhanced and chances of failure of components have been minimized due to higher factor of safety

  5. The temperature-dependent microstructure of PEDOT/PSS films: insights from morphological, mechanical and electrical analyses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2014-09-24

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) is a widely used conductive polymer in the field of flexible electronics. The ways its microstructure changes over a broad range of temperatures remain unclear. This paper describes microstructure changes at different temperatures and correlates the microstructure with its physical properties (mechanical and electrical). We used High-Angle Annular Dark-Field Scanning Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to determine the morphology and elemental atomic ratio of the film at different temperatures. These results together with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis provide the foundation for a model of how the temperature affects the microstructure of PEDOT/PSS. Moreover, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and electrical characterization were performed to analyze the microstructure and physical property correlations.

  6. Characterization of Piezoresistive PEDOT:PSS Pressure Sensors with Inter-Digitated and Cross-Point Electrode Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jer-Chyi; Karmakar, Rajat; Lu, Yu-Jen; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The piezoresistive characteristics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) pressure sensors with inter-digitated (IDE) and cross-point electrode (CPE) structures have been investigated. A small variation of the resistance of the pressure sensors with IDE without bottom indium-tin-oxide (b-ITO) film and with CPE structures was observed owing to the single carrier-conducting pathway. For the IDE pressure sensors with b-ITO, the piezoresistive characteristics at low...

  7. Characterization of Piezoresistive PEDOT:PSS Pressure Sensors with Inter-Digitated and Cross-Point Electrode Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jer-Chyi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The piezoresistive characteristics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS pressure sensors with inter-digitated (IDE and cross-point electrode (CPE structures have been investigated. A small variation of the resistance of the pressure sensors with IDE without bottom indium-tin-oxide (b-ITO film and with CPE structures was observed owing to the single carrier-conducting pathway. For the IDE pressure sensors with b-ITO, the piezoresistive characteristics at low and high pressure were similar to those of the pressure sensors with IDE without b-ITO and with CPE structures, respectively, leading to increased piezoresistive pressure sensitivity as the PEDOT:PSS film thickness decreased. A maximum sensitivity of more than 42 kΩ/Pa was achieved. When the normal pressure was applied, the increased number of conducting points or the reduced distance between the PEDOT oligomers within the PEDOT:PSS film resulted in a decrease of the resistance. The piezoresistive pressure sensors with a single carrier-conducting pathway, i.e., IDE without b-ITO and CPE structures, exhibited a small relaxation time and a superior reversible operation, which can be advantageous for fast piezoresistive response applications.

  8. Characterization of piezoresistive PEDOT:PSS pressure sensors with inter-digitated and cross-point electrode structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jer-Chyi; Karmakar, Rajat Subhra; Lu, Yu-Jen; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-05

    The piezoresistive characteristics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) pressure sensors with inter-digitated (IDE) and cross-point electrode (CPE) structures have been investigated. A small variation of the resistance of the pressure sensors with IDE without bottom indium-tin-oxide (b-ITO) film and with CPE structures was observed owing to the single carrier-conducting pathway. For the IDE pressure sensors with b-ITO, the piezoresistive characteristics at low and high pressure were similar to those of the pressure sensors with IDE without b-ITO and with CPE structures, respectively, leading to increased piezoresistive pressure sensitivity as the PEDOT:PSS film thickness decreased. A maximum sensitivity of more than 42 kΩ/Pa was achieved. When the normal pressure was applied, the increased number of conducting points or the reduced distance between the PEDOT oligomers within the PEDOT:PSS film resulted in a decrease of the resistance. The piezoresistive pressure sensors with a single carrier-conducting pathway, i.e., IDE without b-ITO and CPE structures, exhibited a small relaxation time and a superior reversible operation, which can be advantageous for fast piezoresistive response applications.

  9. PEDOT:PSS interfaces support the development of neuronal synaptic networks with reduced neuroglia response in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada eCellot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of electrodes based on conductive polymers in brain-machine interface technology offers the opportunity to exploit variably manufactured materials to reduce gliosis, indeed the most common brain response to chronically implanted neural electrodes. In fact, the use of conductive polymers, finely tailored in their physical-chemical properties, might result in electrodes with improved adaptability to the brain tissue and increased charge-transfer efficiency. Here we interfaced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS doped with different amounts of ethylene glycol (EG with rat hippocampal primary cultures grown for 3 weeks on these synthetic substrates. We used immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy combined to single cell electrophysiology to assess the biocompatibility of PEDOT:PSS in terms of neuronal growth and synapse formation. We investigated neuronal morphology, density and electrical activity. We reported the novel observation that opposite to neurons, glial cell density was progressively reduced, hinting at the ability of this material to down regulate glial reaction. Thus PEDOT:PSS is an attractive candidate for the design of new implantable electrodes, controlling the extent of glial reactivity without affecting neuronal viability and function.

  10. Reliability prediction for the vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS and passive safety systems (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir S. Dhillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human error has been reported as a major root cause in road accidents in today’s world. The human as a driver in road vehicles composed of human, mechanical and electrical components is constantly exposed to changing surroundings (e.g., road conditions, environmentwhich deteriorate the driver’s capacities leading to a potential accident. The auto industries and transportation authorities have realized that similar to other complex and safety sensitive transportation systems, the road vehicles need to rely on both advanced technologies (i.e., Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS and Passive Safety Systems (PSS (e.g.,, seatbelts, airbags in order to mitigate the risk of accidents and casualties. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of ADAS as active safety systems as well as passive safety systems in road vehicles have been discussed. Also, this study proposes models that analyze the interactions between human as a driver and ADAS Warning and Crash Avoidance Systems and PSS in the design of vehicles. Thereafter, the mathematical models have been developed to make reliability prediction at any given time on the road transportation for vehicles equipped with ADAS and PSS. Finally, the implications of this study in the improvement of vehicle designs and prevention of casualties are discussed.

  11. Direct laser interference patterning of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasagni, Andres F.; Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Shaw, Charles M.; Yuan, Dajun; Martin, David C.; Das, Suman

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a patterning procedure based on selective ablation using interference patterns with ns-laser pulses to fabricate periodic arrays on large areas of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS) thin films over a metallic gold-palladium layer. Single pulse laser-ablation experiments were performed to study the ablation characteristics of the thin films as a function of the film thickness. The ablation threshold fluence of the PEDOT-PSS films was found to be dependent on thickness with values ranging from 43 mJ/cm 2 to 252 mJ/cm 2 . Additionally, fluences at which the PEDOT-PSS films could be ablated without inducing damage in the underlying metallic films were observed (128 mJ/cm 2 and 402 mJ/cm 2 for film thicknesses of 70 nm and 825 nm, respectively). Linear periodic arrays with line spacings of 7.82 μm and 13.50 μm were also fabricated. The surface topography of these arrays was analyzed using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. For thicker polymeric layers, several peeled sub-layers of the conjugated polymer with average thicknesses of about 165-185 nm were observed in the ablation experiments. The size and scale of structures produced by this technique could be suitable for several biomedical applications and devices in which controlling cell adhesion, promoting cell alignment, or improving biocompatibility are important.

  12. Stable inverted polymer/fullerene solar cells using a cationic polythiophene modified PEDOT:PSS cathodic interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rider, David A.; Worfolk, Brian J.; Buriak, Jillian M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); NRC National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Harris, Kenneth D.; Shahbazi, Kevin; Fleischauer, Michael D. [NRC National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Lalany, Abeed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Brett, Michael J. [NRC National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2010-08-09

    A cationic and water-soluble polythiophene [poly[3-(6-pyridiniumylhexyl)thiophene bromide](P3PHT{sup +}Br{sup -})] is synthesized and used in combination with anionic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(p-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS){sup -} to produce hybrid coatings on indium tin oxide (ITO). Two coating strategies are established: i) electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly with colloidal suspensions of (PEDOT:PSS){sup -}, and ii) modification of an electrochemically prepared (PEDOT:PSS){sup -} film on ITO. The coatings are found to modify the work function of ITO such that it could act as a cathode in inverted 2,5-diyl-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) polymer photovoltaic cells. The interfacial modifier created from the layer-by-layer assembly route is used to produce efficient inverted organic photovoltaic devices (power conversion efficiency {proportional_to}2%) with significant long-term stability in excess of 500 h. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Influence of ZnO:Al, MoO3 and PEDOT:PSS on efficiency in standard and inverted polymer solar cells based on polyazomethine and poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwan, Agnieszka; Palewicz, Marcin; Tazbir, Igor; Boharewicz, Bartosz; Pietruszka, Rafal; Filapek, Michal; Wojtkiewicz, Jacek; Witkowski, Bartłomiej Sławomir; Granek, Filip; Godlewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the development of standard and inverted polymer solar cells based on polyazomethine (PAZ-Car-TPA), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). We analyzed the influence of: (i) PEDOT:PSS or MoO 3 as a hole transporting layer in standard devices, (ii) aluminum doping level (from 0 to 3.7%) in ZnO (obtained by atomic layer deposition, ALD) applied as an electron transporting layer in inverted solar cells and (iii) the method applied to obtain ZnO layer (ALD or sol-gel) on its photovoltaic properties. The best device configuration is ITO/AZO (3% Al)/P3HT:PCBM/MoO 3 /Ag which exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 1.51% under about 100 mW/cm 2 AM 1.5 G simulated solar emission. Devices were additionally tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. HOMO-LUMO levels of PAZ-Car-TPA and its mixture with HCl, H 2 SO 4 , p-toluenesulfonic acid, PEDOT:PSS and water were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and quantum mechanical calculations using Density Functional Theory method.

  14. PEDOT:PSS self-assembled films to methanol crossover reduction in Nafion{sup ®} membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Tiago P. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Miyazaki, Celina M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, POSMAT, SP (Brazil); Paganin, Valdecir A. [Universidade de São Paulo, IQSC, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Marystela [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Saeki, Margarida J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Perez, Joelma [Universidade de São Paulo, IQSC, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Riul, Antonio, E-mail: riul@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, IFGW, Campinas (Brazil)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • PAH/PEDOT:PSS LbL films were regularly multilayered onto Nafion. • The LbL modified membranes were succesfully applied to reduce methanol crossover in Nafion. • PAH/PEDO:PSS films also decreased the proton conduction, reducing in 15% the DMFC performance. - Abstract: Alternative energy sources are on a global demand, with fuel cells as promising devices from mobile to stationary applications. Nafion{sup ®} is at the heart of many of these appliances, being mostly used due to its high proton conduction and good chemical stability at ambient temperature in proton exchange membranes (PEM). Therefore, methanol permeation throughout Nafion{sup ®} films reduces drastically the performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). We present here the deposition of layer-by-layer (LbL) nanostructured thin films of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) onto commercial Nafion{sup ®} 212 membranes. It was observed a good adherence of the LbL films onto Nafion{sup ®} 212, with UV–vis results displaying a linear characteristic growth, indicative that the same amount of material was deposited at each deposition step during the layer-by-layer assembly. In addition, the LbL films also act as a good barrier to avoid methanol crossover, with an observed reduction in the methanol permeation from 5.5 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} to 3.2 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}, respectively to pristine Nafion{sup ®} 212 and a 5-bilayer PAH/PEDOT:PSS LbL film deposited on Nafion{sup ®}212. The measured power density in a DMFC set-up was not significantly changed (∼12 mW cm{sup −2}) due to the LbL films, since the PAH/PEDOT:PSS nanostructure is impeding water and ion transport, consequently affecting the proton conduction throughout the membrane.

  15. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-13

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC 71 BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  16. Economical low-light photovoltaics by using the Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell with graphene dot/PEDOT:PSS counter electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chuan Pei

    2015-10-23

    Graphene dots (GDs) are used for enhancing the performance of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)-based counter electrodes in Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). As compared to PEDOT:PSS CEs, GD-PEDOT:PSS films possess a rough surface morphology, high conductivity and electrocatalytic activity, and low charge-transfer resistance toward I/I redox reaction, pushing cell efficiency to 7.36%, which is 43% higher than that of the cell with PEDOT:PSS CEs (5.14%). Without much impact on efficiency, the DSSCs with GD-PEDOT:PSS CEs work well under low-light conditions (light intensity <13.5mWcm and angle of incidence >60°), such as indoor and low-level outdoor lighting and of the sun while the other traditional cells would fail to work. The concurrent advantage in low cost in Pt-free materials, simple fabrication processes, comparable efficiency with Pt CEs, and high performance under low-light conditions makes the DSSC with GD-PEDOT:PSS CEs suitable to harvest light for a diverse range of indoor and low-level outdoor lighting locations.

  17. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC71BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  18. An investigation of the structure–property relationships in ionic polymer polymer composites (IP2Cs) manufactured by polymerization in situ of PEDOT/PSS on Nafion®117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pasquale, G; Messina, F G; Pollicino, A; Puglisi, R; Graziani, S; Umana, E

    2014-01-01

    Ionic polymer polymer composites (IP 2 Cs) are all-organic electroactive polymers (EAPs) that show sensing and actuation capabilities when a deformation or a voltage is applied, respectively. They are fabricated starting from an ionic polymer coated on both sides with a conducting polymer as electrode element. In this work, poly(3,4-ethylendioxytiophene)–poly-(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) has been polymerized directly on Nafion ® 117 membrane and devices have been manufactured varying the polymerization time. Water and ethylene glycol (EG) have been used as solvents. The obtained IP 2 Cs have been characterized using thermal and mechanical analyses and electromechanically tested. The results have shown that in IP 2 Cs manufactured by polymerization in situ the PEDOT/PSS layer adheres very strongly on the Nafion ® 117 film, improving the possibility of rehydrating the devices after use. Moreover, taking into account that the different polymerization times influence the uniformity of the surface of the organic electrode and, consequently, both device stiffness and electrode conductivity, the structure–property relationships of the obtained devices have been investigated. The influence of the different solvents inside the devices has also been studied when IP 2 Cs have been used as actuators or sensors. Reported results show that it is possible to modulate the performances of IP 2 Cs by varying some manufacture parameters and the solvent. (paper)

  19. From LCA to PSS – Making leaps towards sustainability by applying product/service-system thinking in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2006-01-01

    for optimisations on all system levels. However, as the act of ecodesign conventionally focuses on physical products, the search for potential optimisations is usually directed ‘downwards’, i.e. towards lower system levels, resulting in optimised components within products rather than optimised products within...... their surrounding systems. This paper will exemplify that when broadening the ecodesign horizon to environmental product/service-system (PSS) design, there is a better possibility of applying a system-oriented life cycle thinking approach, and therefore a potential to yield extreme improvements towards...

  20. Calculation of inelastic cross sections for H+ + Cs → H(n=2) + Cs+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valance, A.; Spiess, G.

    1975-01-01

    The cross sections for the processes H + +Cs → H(2p and 2s) +Cs + were calculated in the center of mass energy range 250--2400 eV using a simple pseudopotential formalism for the potential curves and coupling matrix elements and a perturbed stationary state (pss) formulation for the calculation of the cross sections. The results are found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment. (auth)

  1. Flexible, Transparent, Thickness-Controllable SWCNT/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Films Based on Coffee-Ring Lithography for Functional Noncontact Sensing Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2015-12-08

    Flexible transparent conductive films (FTCFs) as the essential components of the next generation of functional circuits and devices are presently attracting more attention. Here, a new strategy has been demonstrated to fabricate thickness-controllable FTCFs through coffee ring lithography (CRL) of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid ink. The influence of ink concentration and volume on the thickness and size of hybrid film has been investigated systematically. Results show that the final FTCFs present a high performance, including a homogeneous thickness of 60-65 nm, a sheet resistance of 1.8 kohm/sq, a visible/infrared-range transmittance (79%, PET = 90%), and a dynamic mechanical property (>1000 cycle, much better than ITO film), respectively, when SWCNT concentration is 0.2 mg/mL, ink volume is 0.4 μL, drying at room temperature. Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of FTCFs have been verified through a full transparent, flexible noncontact sensing panel (3 × 4 sensing pixels) and a flexible battery-free wireless sensor based on a humidity sensing mechanism, showing excellent human/machine interaction with high sensitivity, good stability, and fast response/recovery ability. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  2. Flexible, Transparent, Thickness-Controllable SWCNT/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Films Based on Coffee-Ring Lithography for Functional Noncontact Sensing Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Yang, Zhen Guo

    2015-01-01

    Flexible transparent conductive films (FTCFs) as the essential components of the next generation of functional circuits and devices are presently attracting more attention. Here, a new strategy has been demonstrated to fabricate thickness-controllable FTCFs through coffee ring lithography (CRL) of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid ink. The influence of ink concentration and volume on the thickness and size of hybrid film has been investigated systematically. Results show that the final FTCFs present a high performance, including a homogeneous thickness of 60-65 nm, a sheet resistance of 1.8 kohm/sq, a visible/infrared-range transmittance (79%, PET = 90%), and a dynamic mechanical property (>1000 cycle, much better than ITO film), respectively, when SWCNT concentration is 0.2 mg/mL, ink volume is 0.4 μL, drying at room temperature. Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of FTCFs have been verified through a full transparent, flexible noncontact sensing panel (3 × 4 sensing pixels) and a flexible battery-free wireless sensor based on a humidity sensing mechanism, showing excellent human/machine interaction with high sensitivity, good stability, and fast response/recovery ability. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  3. Relationships between molecular structure and kinetic and thermodynamic controls in lipid systems. Part III. Crystallization and phase behavior of 1-palmitoyl-2,3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (PSS) and tristearoylglycerol (SSS) binary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    The phase behavior of 1-palmitoyl-2,3-distearoyl-sn-glycerol (PSS)/tristearoylglycerol (SSS) binary system was investigated in terms of polymorphism, crystallization and melting behavior, microstructure and solid fat content (SFC) using widely different constant cooling rates. Kinetic phase diagrams were experimentally determined from the DSC heating thermograms and analyzed using a thermodynamic model to account for non-ideality of mixing. The kinetic phase diagram presented a typical eutectic behavior with a eutectic point at the 0.5(PSS) mixture with a probable precipitation line from 0.5(PSS) to 1.0(PSS), regardless of the rate at which the sample was cooled. The eutectic temperature decreased only slightly with increasing cooling rate. PSS has a strong effect on the physical properties of the PSS-SSS mixtures. In fact, the overall phase behavior of the PSS-SSS binary system was determined, for a very large part, by the asymmetrical TAG. Moreover, PSS is a key driver of the high stability observed in crystal growth, polymorphism and phase development. Levels as low as 10% PSS, when cooled slowly, and 30% when cooled rapidly, were found to be sufficient to suppress the effect of thermal processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  5. Potential effect of CuInS2/ZnS core-shell quantum dots on P3HT/PEDOT:PSS heterostructure based solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Shikha; Giripunje, S. M.

    2018-07-01

    Nanostructured quantum dots (QDs) are quite promising in the solar cell application due to quantum confinement effect. QDs possess multiple exciton generation and large surface area. The environment friendly CuInS2/ZnS core-shell QDs were prepared by solvothermal method. Thus, the 3 nm average sized CuInS2/ZnS QDs were employed in the bulk heterojunction device and the active blend layer consisting of the P3HT and CuInS2/ZnS QDs was investigated. The energy level information of CuInS2/ZnS QDs as an electron acceptor was explored by ultra violet photoelectron spectroscopy. Bulk heterojunction hybrid device of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT: (CuInS2/ZnS QDs)/ZnO/Ag was designed by spin coating approach and its electrical characterization was investigated by solar simulator. Current density - voltage characteristics shows the enhancement in power conversion efficiency with increasing concentration of CuInS2/ZnS QDs in bulk heterojunction device.

  6. The Malay Version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)-10 is a Reliable and Valid Measure for Stress among Nurses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Sukhvinder Singh; Ismail, Noor Hassim; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2015-11-01

    The Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10) is widely used to assess stress perception. The aim of this study was to translate the original PSS-10 into Malay and assess the reliability and validity of the Malay version among nurses. The Malay version of the PSS-10 was distributed among 229 nurses from four government hospitals in Selangor State. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity was conducted with 25 nurses with the Malay version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) 21. Cronbach's alpha, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson's r correlation coefficient were used to determine the psychometric properties of the Malay PSS-10. Two factor components were yielded through exploratory factor analysis with eigenvalues of 3.37 and 2.10, respectively. Both of the factors accounted for 54.6% of the variance. CFA yielded a two-factor structure with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices [x 2 /df = 2.43; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.92, goodness-of-fit Index (GFI) = 0.94; standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.07 and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.08 (90% CI = 0.07-0.09)]. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total items was 0.63 (0.82 for factor 1 and 0.72 for factor 2). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.62-0.91) for test-retest reliability testing after seven days. The total score and the negative component of the PSS-10 correlated significantly with the stress component of the DASS-21: (r = 0.61, P < 0.001) and (r = 0.56, P < 0.004), respectively. The Malay version of the PSS-10 demonstrated a satisfactory level of validity and reliability to assess stress perception. Therefore, this questionnaire is valid in assessing stress perception among nurses in Malaysia.

  7. Effect of Nonionic Surfactant Additive in PEDOT:PSS on PFO Emission Layer in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Light-Emitting Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong Rae; Porte, Yoann; Kim, Yun Cheol; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2018-03-21

    Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) has attracted significant interests owing to its versatility in electronic devices. However, changes in its optical properties caused by its various phases and the formation of oxidation defects limit the application of PFO in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We investigated the effects of the addition of Triton X-100 (hereinafter shortened as TX) in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to induce interlayer diffusion between PEDOT:PSS and PFO to enhance the stability of the PFO phase and suppress its oxidation. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement on PFO/TX-mixed PEDOT:PSS layers revealed that, upon increasing the concentration of TX in the PEDOT:PSS layer, the β phase of PFO could be suppressed in favor of the glassy phase and the wide PL emission centered at 535 nm caused by ketone defects formed by oxidation was decreased considerably. LEDs were then fabricated using PFO as an emission layer, TX-mixed PEDOT:PSS as hole-transport layer, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods as electron-transport layer. As the TX concentration reached 3 wt %, the devices exhibited dramatic increases in current densities, which were attributed to the enhanced hole injection due to TX addition, along with a shift in the dominant emission wavelength from a green electroluminescence (EL) emission centered at 518 nm to a blue EL emission centered at 448 nm. The addition of TX in PEDOT:PSS induced a better hole injection in the PFO layer, and through interlayer diffusion, stabilized the glassy phase of PFO and limited the formation of oxidation defects.

  8. PEDOT: PSS: rGO nanocomposite as a hole transport layer (HTLs) for P3HT:PCBM based organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, D. C.; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Dipak, Pukhrambam; Chandel, Tarun

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the fabrication process of organic solar cell (OSCs) having structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS:rGO/P3HT:PCBM/Al. In this cell, poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) is ultrasonically mixed with thermally reduced graphene oxide (rGO), which was used as a hole transport layer (HTLs). In order to investigate structural, morphological and optical properties of nanocomposite, XRD, FE-SEM and UV-vis spectroscopy were carried out. We have observed, Jsc = 6.5mA/cm2, Voc = 212 mV, FF=0.31 and PCE of 0.43% from fabricated organic solar cell.

  9. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  10. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  11. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  12. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  14. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  15. Estimation of the Influence of Power System Mathematical Model Parameter Uncertainty on PSS2A System Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Nocoń

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the influence of uncertainty of power system mathematical model parameters on optimised parameters of PSS2A system stabilizers. Optimisation of power system stabilizer parameters was based on polyoptimisation (multi-criteria optimisation. Optimisation criteria were determined for disturbances occurring in a multi-machine power system, when taking into account transient waveforms associated with electromechanical swings (instantaneous power, angular speed and terminal voltage waveforms of generators. A genetic algorithm with floating-point encoding, tournament selection, mean crossover and perturbative mutations, modified for the needs of investigations, was used for optimisation. The impact of uncertainties on the quality of operation of power system stabilizers with optimised parameters has been evaluated using various deformation factors.

  16. The role of MgBr2 to enhance the ionic conductivity of PVA/PEDOT:PSS polymer composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam M. Sheha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A solid polymer electrolyte system based on poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA and poly(3,4-Etylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS complexed with magnesium bromide (MgBr2 salt was prepared using solution cast technique. The ionic conductivity is observed to increase with increasing MgBr2 concentration. The maximum conductivity was found to be 9.89 × 10−6 S/cm for optimum polymer composite film (30 wt.% MgBr2 at room temperature. The increase in the conductivity is attributed to the increase in the number of ions as the salt concentration is increased. This has been proven by dielectric studies. The increase in conductivity is also attributable to the increase in the fraction of amorphous region in the electrolyte films as confirmed by their structural, thermal, electrical and optical properties.

  17. Economical low-light photovoltaics by using the Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cell with graphene dot/PEDOT:PSS counter electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chuan Pei; Lin, Chin An; Wei, Tzu Chiao; Tsai, Meng Lin; Meng, Ying; Li, Chun Ting; Ho, Kuo Chuan; Wu, Chih I.; Lau, Shu Ping; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    .14%). Without much impact on efficiency, the DSSCs with GD-PEDOT:PSS CEs work well under low-light conditions (light intensity <13.5mWcm and angle of incidence >60°), such as indoor and low-level outdoor lighting and of the sun while the other traditional cells

  18. Flexible and Compressible PEDOT:PSS@Melamine Conductive Sponge Prepared via One-Step Dip Coating as Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Human Motion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yichun; Yang, Jack; Tolle, Charles R; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2018-05-09

    Flexible and wearable pressure sensor may offer convenient, timely, and portable solutions to human motion detection, yet it is a challenge to develop cost-effective materials for pressure sensor with high compressibility and sensitivity. Herein, a cost-efficient and scalable approach is reported to prepare a highly flexible and compressible conductive sponge for piezoresistive pressure sensor. The conductive sponge, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)@melamine sponge (MS), is prepared by one-step dip coating the commercial melamine sponge (MS) in an aqueous dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Due to the interconnected porous structure of MS, the conductive PEDOT:PSS@MS has a high compressibility and a stable piezoresistive response at the compressive strain up to 80%, as well as good reproducibility over 1000 cycles. Thereafter, versatile pressure sensors fabricated using the conductive PEDOT:PSS@MS sponges are attached to the different parts of human body; the capabilities of these devices to detect a variety of human motions including speaking, finger bending, elbow bending, and walking are evaluated. Furthermore, prototype tactile sensory array based on these pressure sensors is demonstrated.

  19. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  20. A first-in-man PET study of [18F]PSS232, a fluorinated ABP688 derivative for imaging metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Geoffrey; Sommerauer, Michael; Mu, Linjing; Pla Gonzalez, Gloria; Geistlich, Susanne; Treyer, Valerie; Schibli, Roger; Buck, Alfred; Krämer, Stefanie D; Ametamey, Simon M

    2018-06-01

    Non-invasive imaging of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu 5 ) in the brain using PET is of interest in e.g., anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Widespread application of the most widely used mGlu 5 tracer, [ 11 C]ABP688, is limited by the short physical half-life of carbon-11. [ 18 F]PSS232 is a fluorinated analog with promising preclinical properties and high selectivity and specificity for mGlu 5 . In this first-in-man study, we evaluated the brain uptake pattern and kinetics of [ 18 F]PSS232 in healthy volunteers. [ 18 F]PSS232 PET was performed with ten healthy male volunteers aged 20-40 years. Seven of the subjects received a bolus injection and the remainder a bolus/infusion protocol. Cerebral blood flow was determined in seven subjects using [ 15 O]water PET. Arterial blood activity was measured using an online blood counter. Tracer kinetics were evaluated by compartment modeling and parametric maps were generated for both tracers. At 90 min post-injection, 59.2 ± 11.1% of total radioactivity in plasma corresponded to intact tracer. The regional first pass extraction fraction of [ 18 F]PSS232 ranged from 0.41 ± 0.06 to 0.55 ± 0.03 and brain distribution pattern matched that of [ 11 C]ABP688. Uptake kinetics followed a simple two-tissue compartment model. The volume of distribution of total tracer (V T , ml/cm 3 ) ranged from 1.18 ± 0.20 for white matter to 2.91 ± 0.51 for putamen. The respective mean distribution volume ratios (DVR) with cerebellum as the reference tissue were 0.88 ± 0.06 and 2.12 ± 0.10, respectively. The tissue/cerebellum ratios of a bolus/infusion protocol (30/70 dose ratio) were close to the DVR values. Brain uptake of [ 18 F]PSS232 matched the distribution of mGlu 5 and followed a two-tissue compartment model. The well-defined kinetics and the possibility to use reference tissue models, obviating the need for arterial blood sampling, make [ 18 F]PSS232 a promising fluorine-18 labeled

  1. Conductivity of Pedot-Pss with Gold and Silver Nanocomposites Modified Gold Electrodes for Ganoderma Boninense DNA Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabo Wada Dutse

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The conductivity of a designed electrochemical DNA biosensor was improved using gold and or silver nanoparticles. A gold electrode modified with a conductive nanocomposite of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophen–poly (styrenesulfonate (Pedot-Pss and gold or silver nano particles enhanced the conductivity of the electrode surface area. Bare and modified gold electrode surfaces were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV technique in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (TE supporting electrolyte. Immobilization of a 20-mer DNA probe was achieved by covalent attachment of the amine group of the capture probe to a carboxylic group of an activated 3,3’-dithiodipropionic acid layer using EDC/NHSS for Hybridization. The effect of hybridization temperature and time was optimized and the sensor demonstrated specific detection for the target concentration ranged between 1.0´10-15 M to 1.0´10-9 M with a detection limit of 9.70´10-19 M. Control experiments verified the specificity of the biosensor in the presence of mismatched DNA sequence. The DNA hybridization was monitored using a new ruthenium complex [Ru(dppz2(qtpyCl2; dppz = dipyrido [3,2–a:2’,3’-c] phenazine; qtpy=2,2’,-4,4”.4’4”’-quarterpyridyl redox indicator.

  2. Stability of embossed PEI-(PSS-PDADMAC) 20 multilayer films versus storage time and versus a change in ionic strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhari, Nadia; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Haikel, Youssef; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Schaaf, Pierre; Ball, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    The use of microstructured films increased markedly in many areas of science and technology, notably in the design of microfluidic channels and in the design of parallel biosensing arrays. The concept of imprinting polyelectrolyte multilayer films (PEMs) has been introduced recently [C. Gao, B. Wang, J. Feng, J. Shen, Macromolecules 37 (2004) 8836]. These irreversibly imprinted films, obtained by plastic deformation, have to keep their size and shape after contact with fluids having physicochemical properties comparable to those of biological fluids in order to be used as microfluidic channels. We demonstrate herein that PEI-(PSS-PDADMAC) 20 PEMs built-up by the spray deposition from NaCl 1 M solutions and subsequently imprinted with polydimethylsiloxane stamps keep their morphology over time (up to 9 months) when stored in the dry state. In addition the depth of the imprinted channels does not change over this time duration. When the embossed films are immersed in NaCl 0.15 M solutions, mimicking biological fluids, the depth of the imprinted channels also does not significantly change. But, when the imprinted films prepared in the presence of 1 M NaCl are subsequently dipped in a 4 M NaCl solution, partial film loss and subsequent disappearance of the imprinted channels are observed. An explanation for these findings is furnished by means of FTIR spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection mode (ATR-FTIR). These observations should offer large opportunities for the use of the imprinted multilayer films as microfluidic channels.

  3. Design of Weighted Wide Area Damping Controller (WWADC Based PSS for Damping Inter-Area Low Frequency Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh M. Bamasak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS can extend and effectively improve the power system stabilizers (PSS capability in damping the inter-area low frequency oscillations in interconnected bulk power systems. This paper proposes the implementation of Weighted Wide Area Damping Controller (WWADC in which weighted factors are introduced for each remote feedback signals. Modal analysis approach is implemented for the purpose of identifying the optimal location as well as the input signals’ optimal combination of WWADC. Based on the linearized model, Differential Evolution (DE algorithm is applied to search for optimal controller parameters and optimal weighted factors. The successful application of the proposed approach is achieved in two power networks; the two-area 4-machine system and the IEEE-39 bus 10-machine system. The analysis of the eigenvalue and non-linear time domain simulations indicate that damping the inter-area oscillations and improving the system stability irrespective of the severity and the location of the disturbances can be effectively achieved by WADC

  4. Preclinical evaluation and test-retest studies of [{sup 18}F]PSS232, a novel radioligand for targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu{sub 5})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milicevic Sephton, Selena; Mueller Herde, Adrienne; Keller, Claudia; Ruedisuehli, Sonja; Schibli, Roger; Kraemer, Stefanie D.; Ametamey, Simon M. [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences of ETH, PSI and USZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Mu, Linjing [University Hospital Zuerich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zuerich (Switzerland); Auberson, Yves [Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    A novel, {sup 18}F-labelled metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu{sub 5}) derivative of [{sup 11}C]ABP688 ([{sup 11}C]1), [{sup 18}F]PSS232 ([{sup 18}F]5), was evaluated in vitro and in vivo for its potential as a PET agent and was used in test-retest reliability studies The radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]5 was accomplished via a one-step reaction using a mesylate precursor. In vitro stability was determined in PBS and plasma, and with liver microsomal enzymes. Metabolite studies were performed using rat brain extracts, blood and urine. In vitro autoradiography was performed on horizontal slices of rat brain using 1 and 8, antagonists for mGlu{sub 5} and mGlu{sub 1}, respectively. Small-animal PET, biodistribution, and test-retest studies were performed in Wistar rats. In vivo, dose-dependent displacement studies were performed using 6 and blocking studies with 7. [{sup 18}F]5 was obtained in decay-corrected maximal radiochemical yield of 37 % with a specific activity of 80 - 400 GBq/μmol. Treatment with rat and human microsomal enzymes in vitro for 60 min resulted in 20 % and 4 % of hydrophilic radiometabolites, respectively. No hydrophilic decomposition products or radiometabolites were found in PBS or plasma. In vitro autoradiography on rat brain slices showed a heterogeneous distribution consistent with the known distribution of mGlu{sub 5} with high binding to hippocampal and cortical regions, and negligible radioactivity in the cerebellum. Similar distribution of radioactivity was found in PET images. Under displacement conditions with 6, reduced [{sup 18}F]5 binding was found in all brain regions except the cerebellum. 7 reduced binding in the striatum by 84 % on average. Test-retest studies were reproducible with a variability ranging from 6.8 % to 8.2 %. An extended single-dose toxicity study in Wistar rats showed no compound-related adverse effects. The new mGlu{sub 5} radiotracer, [{sup 18}F]5, showed specific and selective in vitro and in vivo

  5. Profit enhancement by a set of performance and robustness indices based design of dual-dimensional PODC and PSS2B in smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Hashemi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Design based on a set of performance and robustness criteria can increase profit. • Time delay as uncertainty in smart grid decrease profit. • Design method applied in this paper deal with large structure of controllers. • INSGA-II optimization and FDM method is applied to specify the best solution. - Abstract: Expansion of power systems is accompanied by innovations in smart grid solutions to power system operation and control. Profit enhancement by power oscillation damping controllers (PODC) and acceleration based power system stabilizer (PSS), model PSS2B, designed by the idea of pseudo-spectra based on multi-objective optimization is presented. The contribution of multi-objective functions in respect of performance and robustness criteria in stability enhancement is evaluated by considering the control actions of PODC and PSS2B as an ancillary service (AS). The robustness requirement is achieved by using the idea of pseudo-spectra to handle the changes of power system parameters and time delay introduced by processing of remote signals in the wide-area supplementary damping controller (WASDC). The weighted sum of six objective functions as performance and robustness criteria is selected as low-frequency oscillation damping index (LFODI). Two scenarios for the evaluation of small signal stability as an AS provided by PODC and PSS2B are considered. A multi-objective optimization approach based on LFODI, generation costs is formulated and improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (INSGA-II) is employed to solve this problem. Fuzzy decision making (FDM) is used to find the best compromise solution from the set of Pareto-solution obtained by INSGA-II. Comparative analysis of the results of the conventional method and the proposed design method is presented by case study on a modified 2-area 4-machine power system

  6. Análise fatorial confirmatória das três versões da Perceived Stress Scale (PSS: um estudo populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Faro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos realizar a análise fatorial confirmatória da Escala de Estresse Percebido (Perceived Stress Scale- PSS, nas versões traduzidas de 14, 10 e 4 itens; analisar sua validade concorrente com o Questionário de Saúde Geral (QSG-12; mapear o perfil do estresse em uma amostra representativa da população; e estabelecer parâmetros de avaliação do estresse por meio da normatização dos escores da população total. A amostragem foi de base populacional, em formato de conglomerado por setores censitários. Participaram 1.154 habitantes de uma capital do Nordeste brasileiro, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (55,6%, com nível de escolaridade em ensino médio (51,7%, empregados (72,7% e não tabagistas (90,6%. As medianas de renda e idade ficaram em R$ 1.200,00 e 29 anos. Ao final, constatou-se que houve ajustes satisfatórios para as três versões da PSS apenas em seu modelo bifatorial e a escala com 10 itens se mostrou uma solução harmônica entre as versões completa e mais reduzida, considerando-se a relação entre a parcimônia na quantidade de itens e a robustez estatística deste instrumento. Ademais, a PSS ratificou sua validade concorrente com o QSG-12 e foi feita a normatização dos escores da PSS, estabelecendo-se parâmetros para comparação em futuros estudos.

  7. Rear-Sided Passivation by SiNx:H Dielectric Layer for Improved Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiling; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Zhou, Suqiong; Ying, Zhiqin; Yang, Xi; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-12-01

    Silicon/organic hybrid solar cells have recently attracted great attention because they combine the advantages of silicon (Si) and the organic cells. In this study, we added a patterned passivation layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H) onto the rear surface of the Si substrate in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) hybrid solar cell, enabling an improvement of 0.6 % in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The addition of the SiNx:H layer boosted the open circuit voltage (V oc) from 0.523 to 0.557 V, suggesting the well-passivation property of the patterned SiNx:H thin layer that was created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and lithography processes. The passivation properties that stemmed from front PSS, rear-SiNx:H, front PSS/rear-SiNx:H, etc. are thoroughly investigated, in consideration of the process-related variations.

  8. Solution-processed highly conductive PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/GO transparent film for efficient organic-Si hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiaojing; Song, Tao; Cui, Wei; Liu, Yuqiang; Xu, Weidong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2015-02-11

    Hybrid solar cells based on n-Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene- sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) heterojunction promise to be a low cost photovoltaic technology by using simple device structure and easy fabrication process. However, due to the low conductivity of PEDOT:PSS, a metal grid deposited by vacuum evaporation method is still required to enhance the charge collection efficiency, which complicates the device fabrication process. Here, a solution-processed graphene oxide (GO)-welded silver nanowires (AgNWs) transparent conductive electrode (TCE) was employed to replace the vacuum deposited metal grid. A unique "sandwich" structure was developed by embedding an AgNW network between PEDOT:PSS and GO with a figure-of-merit of 8.6×10(-3) Ω(-1), which was even higher than that of sputtered indium tin oxide electrode (6.6×10(-3) Ω(-1)). A champion power conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved, because of the decreased series resistance of the TCEs as well as the enhanced built-in potential (Vbi) in the hybrid solar cells. The TCEs were obtained by facile low-temperature solution process method, which was compatible with cost-effective mass production technology.

  9. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended [ru

  10. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  11. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  12. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  13. Improved Power System Stability Using Backtracking Search Algorithm for Coordination Design of PSS and TCSC Damping Controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M A; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation.

  14. Improved Power System Stability Using Backtracking Search Algorithm for Coordination Design of PSS and TCSC Damping Controller.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Niamul Islam

    Full Text Available Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA. A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation.

  15. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  16. Rituximab Effectiveness and Safety for Treating Primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Bertolais do Valle Souza

    Full Text Available Primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS is a systemic autoimmune disease that involves the exocrine glands and internal organs. pSS leads to destruction and loss of secretory function due to intense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Therapeutic options include mainly symptomatic and supportive measures, and traditional immunosuppressant drugs have shown no effectiveness in randomized trials. Rituximab (RTX is a chimeric antibody anti-CD20 that leads to B cell depletion by diverse mechanisms. There is evidence that this drug may be effective for treating pSS. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate Rituximab effectiveness and safety for treating pSS.We conducted a systematic review of RCTs published until December 2015, with no language restriction. We registered a protocol on Plataforma Brasil (40654814.6.0000.5505 and developed search strategies for the following scientific databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS. We included adults with established pSS diagnosis and considered the use of Rituximab as intervention and the use of other drugs or placebo as control. Four studies met our eligibility criteria: three with low risk of bias and one with uncertain risk of bias. The total number of participants was 276 (145 RTX, 131 placebo. We assessed the risk of bias of each included study and evaluated the following as primary outcomes: lacrimal gland function, salivary gland function, fatigue improvement and adverse events. We found no significant differences between the groups in the Schirmer test at week 24 meta-analysis (MD 3.59, 95% CI -2.89 to 10.07. Only one study evaluated the lissamine green test and reported a statistically significant difference between the groups at week 24 (MD -2.00, 95% CI -3.52 to -0.48. There was a significant difference between the groups regarding salivary flow rate (MD 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16 and improvement in fatigue VAS at weeks 6 (RR 3.98, 95% CI 1.61 to 9.82 and week 16 (RR 3.08, 95% CI 1.21 to

  17. Monolayer WS{sub 2} crossed with an electro-spun PEDOT-PSS nano-ribbon: Fabricating a Schottky diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Deliris N.; Vedrine, Josee [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico-Humacao, Humacao, PR 00791 (United States); Pinto, Nicholas J., E-mail: nicholas.pinto@upr.edu [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico-Humacao, Humacao, PR 00791 (United States); Naylor, Carl H.; Charlie Johnson, A.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • First report on a Schottky diode formed from monolayer WS{sub 2} and PEDOT-PSSA nano-ribbon. • Straightforward and unique fabrication technique. • Diode operation is stable in air. - Abstract: WS{sub 2} and PEDOT-PSS were individually characterized with the goal of analyzing charge transport across a hetero-junction formed by these two materials. In thermal equilibrium electron flow from the WS{sub 2} conduction band into the polymer LUMO level leads to band bending that creates a potential barrier preventing further current. The measured current-voltage (I{sub DS}-V{sub DS}) curve across the hetero-junction was non-linear and asymmetric similar to a diode, with a turn-on voltage of 1.4 V and a rectification ratio of 12. The device I–V data were analyzed using the standard thermionic emission model of a Schottky junction and yielded an ideality parameter of 1.9 and a barrier height of 0.58 eV. This facile technique is the first report on a nano-diode fabricated using WS{sub 2} and PEDOT-PSS, opening up the possibility of extending this work to include other layered transition metal dichalcogenides and conducting polymers.

  18. Improving the Working Efficiency of a Triboelectric Nanogenerator by the Semimetallic PEDOT:PSS Hole Transport Layer and Its Application in Self-Powered Active Acetylene Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, A S M Iftekhar; Yaqoob, Usman; Chung, Gwiy-Sang

    2016-11-09

    Herein we report an enhanced triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on the contact-separation mode between a patterned film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a semimetallic elastomer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and a nylon fiber film. The addition of ethylene glycol to the PEDOT:PSS film improves the functionality of the TENG significantly, yielding promising applicability in both indoor and outdoor (i.e., under sunlight) environments, with the maximum instantaneous power of 0.09 mW (indoors) and 0.2 mW (outdoors) for the load resistance of 3.8 MΩ. The device can also generate 11.2 V and 0.08 μA cm -2 in response to the forearm movement of a human. Additionally, by replacing the bare nylon fiber in the TENG design with a Ag@ZnO/nylon fiber film, a self-powered active sensor (triboelectric nanogenerator-based sensor; TENS) has been realized to detect acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) gas. The TENS exhibits excellent sensitivity of 70.9% (indoors) and 89% (outdoors) to C 2 H 2 gas of 1000 ppm concentration. The proposed approach for harvesting energy and sensing can be advantageous in practical applications and may stimulate new research that will enhance nanogenerators as well as wearable, self-powered active sensors.

  19. Daylight calculations in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Roy, Nicolas; Hvass, Mette

    The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Experience has shown that results for the same room, obtained from two daylight simulation...... programs can give different results. This can be due to restrictions in the program itself and/or be due to the skills of the persons setting up the models. This is crucial as daylight calculations are used to document that the demands and recommendations to daylight levels outlined by building authorities....... The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Furthermore the aim was to provide knowledge of how to build up the 3D models that were...

  20. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  1. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  2. Uncertainty calculations made easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.

    1994-07-01

    The results are presented of a neutron cross section sensitivity/uncertainty analysis performed in a complicated 2D model of the NET shielding blanket design inside the ITER torus design, surrounded by the cryostat/biological shield as planned for ITER. The calculations were performed with a code system developed at ECN Petten, with which sensitivity/uncertainty calculations become relatively simple. In order to check the deterministic neutron transport calculations (performed with DORT), calculations were also performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 1 l orders of magnitude. The uncertainty in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the vacuum vessel and at the beginning of the cryostat was determined in the calculations. The uncertainty appears to be strongly dependent on the exact geometry: if the gaps are filled with stainless steel, the neutron spectrum changes strongly, which results in an uncertainty of 70% in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the cryostat in the no-gap-geometry, compared to an uncertainty of only 5% in the gap-geometry. Therefore, it is essential to take into account the exact geometry in sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Furthermore, this study shows that an improvement of the covariance data is urgently needed in order to obtain reliable estimates of the uncertainties in response parameters in neutron transport calculations. (orig./GL)

  3. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  4. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  5. Relationships between molecular structure and kinetic and thermodynamic controls in lipid systems. Part II: Phase behavior and transformation paths of SSS, PSS and PPS saturated triacylglycerols--effect of chain length mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    The kinetic phase behavior and phase transformation paths of purified tristearoylglycerol (SSS), 3-palmitoyl-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol (PSS) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (PPS) were investigated in terms of polymorphism, crystallization and melting. The details of the phase transformation paths were obtained using the heating cycles of two sets of experiments: (a) cooling rate was varied and heating rate fixed and (b) cooling rate was fixed and heating rate varied. Kinetic effects were manifest in all measured properties, underscoring the complexity of the phase transformation paths for each TAG, and the intricate thermodynamics-molecular relationships. For the first time, XRD data obtained for SSS, PSS and PPS TAGs, cooled at rates higher than 0.5°C/min, suggested the formation of a transient structure similar to the so-called α(2)-phase which has been observed in mixed saturated-unsaturated TAGs quenched from the melt. The more stable phases (β' in PSS and PPS, and β in SSS) were only observed for cooling rates lower than 1.0°C/min. The kinetic and thermodynamic differences observed in the crystallization, structure and melting of SSS, PSS and PPS are proposed to be mainly due to the disturbances introduced at the "terrace" level via methyl-end group interactions, i.e., the missing of two or four CH(2) groups compared to SSS. The symmetrical SSS with a relatively flat "terrace" crystallizes preferably in the most stable β-form. Two missing CH(2) groups at the sn-1 position (PSS) introduces enough structural disturbances to promote the relative prevalence and persistence of the β'-phase, and four missing CH(2) groups at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions (PPS) is relatively too large of a disturbance and therefore favors the α-form. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri

    2017-01-01

    for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up...... to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source....

  7. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  8. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon but also what people are intending to convey with their utterances: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this article we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of…

  9. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature , for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks.

  10. A Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using a Composite of PEDOT:PSS and Carbon Derived from Human Hair for a Counter Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitsada Moolsarn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon derived from hair is interesting because it has good electrocatalytic activity due to the existence of innate heteroatom dopants especially nitrogen and sulfur. In this study, a carbon catalyst containing high nitrogen contents (9.47 at.% was fabricated without using any harsh chemicals. Moreover, the carbonization temperature was only 700°C. Carbonized hair/PEDOT:PSS composites (CxP with varied carbon contents from x = 0.2 to 0.8 g were tested as a counter electrode (CE for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. This type of DSSC CE has scarcely been investigated. A DSSC with a C0.6P CE provides the best efficiency (6.54 ± 0.11% among all composite CEs because it has a high fill factor (FF and a high short-circuit current density (Jsc. The efficiency of DSSC with C0.6P CE is lower than Pt’s (7.29 ± 0.01% since the Pt-based DSSC has higher FF and Jsc values. However, C0.6P is still promising as a DSSC CE since it is more cost-effective than Pt.

  11. Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(V)Oxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Nieves; Dam, Henrik Friis; Tanenbaum, David M; Andreasen, Jens W; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-11

    The use of hydrated vanadium(V)oxide as a replacement of the commonly employed hole transporting material PEDOT:PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) processing of all layers. The devices were prepared on flexible polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) and had the structure PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/V₂O₅·(H₂O) n /Ag. The ITO and silver electrodes were processed and patterned by use of screen printing. The zinc oxide, P3HT:PCBM and vanadium(V)oxide layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide (VTIP). Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer by varying the concentration of the VTIP precursor over two orders of magnitude. Hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layers were characterized by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) for completed modules was up to 0.18%, in contrast to single cells where efficiencies of 0.4% were achieved. Stability tests under indoor and outdoor conditions were accomplished over three weeks on a solar tracker.

  12. Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(VOxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik C. Krebs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrated vanadium(Voxide as a replacement of the commonly employed hole transporting material PEDOT:PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R processing of all layers. The devices were prepared on flexible polyethyleneterphthalate (PET and had the structure PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/V2O5·(H2On/Ag. The ITO and silver electrodes were processed and patterned by use of screen printing. The zinc oxide, P3HT:PCBM and vanadium(Voxide layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium(Voxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide (VTIP. Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated vanadium(Voxide layer by varying the concentration of the VTIP precursor over two orders of magnitude. Hydrated vanadium(Voxide layers were characterized by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering. The power conversion efficiency (PCE for completed modules was up to 0.18%, in contrast to single cells where efficiencies of 0.4% were achieved. Stability tests under indoor and outdoor conditions were accomplished over three weeks on a solar tracker.

  13. Multiscale modification of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer for the analysis of biological mixtures in a super-hydrophobic drop

    KAUST Repository

    Coppedè, Nicola

    2016-03-18

    Conducting polymers are materials displaying high electrical conductivity, easy of fabrication, flexibility and biocompatibility, for this, they are routinely employed in organic electronics, printed electronics, and bioelectronics. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are a second generation of organic thin transistors, in which the insulator layer is an electrolyte medium and the conductive polymer is electrochemically active. OECT devices have been demonstrated in chemical and biological sensing: while accurate in determining the size of individual ions in solution, similar devices break down if challenged with complex mixtures. Here, we combine a conductive PEODOT:PSS polymer with a super-hydrophobic scheme to obtain a family of advanced devices, in which the ability to manipulate a biological solution couples to a precise texture of the substrate (which incorporates five micro-electrodes in a line, and each is a site specific measurement point), and this permits to realize time and space resolved analysis of a solution. While the competition between convection and diffusion in a super-hydrophobic drop operates the separation of different species based on their size and charge, the described device delivers the ability to register a similar difference. In the following, we demonstrate the device in the sensing of a solution in which CTAB and adrenaline are separated with good sensitivity, selectivity and reliability.

  14. Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(V)Oxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Nieves Espinosa; Dam, Henrik Friis; Tanenbaum, David M.

    2011-01-01

    roll-to-roll (R2R) processing of all layers. The devices were prepared on flexible polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) and had the structure PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/V2O5·(H2O)n/Ag. The ITO and silver electrodes were processed and patterned by use of screen printing. The zinc oxide, P3HT:PCBM and vanadium(V)oxide......The use of hydrated vanadium(V)oxide as a replacement of the commonly employed hole transporting material PEDOT:PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full...... layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide (VTIP). Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer by varying the concentration...

  15. The effect of surface modifications of carbon nanotubes on the electrical properties of inkjet-printed SWNT/PEDOT-PSS composite line patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najeeb, C K; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Chang, Jingbo; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2010-01-01

    We prepared nanocomposite inks of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) filled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) purified by acidic treatment, carboxylated by chemical oxidation and carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes physically modified with a natural gum, gum arabic. Inkjet printing of line patterns with a feature size of 100 μm width and lengths ranging from 1 to 5 cm was performed on glass substrates with a piezoelectric inkjet printer. The carboxyl-functionalized SWNT-based composite demonstrated a significant decrease (fourfold) of electrical resistance for the line patterns compared to that with a purified CNT-based composite due to improved dispersability of nanotubes in the polymer matrix. The use of gum arabic for the dispersion of carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes demonstrated a further drastic decrease (18-fold) of the resistance compared with a purified CNT-based composite owing to the formation of an extended continuous network within the line pattern. The inkjet-printed conductive patterns can be applied in various fields, such as flexible high speed transistors, high efficiency solar cells and transparent electrodes.

  16. Multiscale modification of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer for the analysis of biological mixtures in a super-hydrophobic drop

    KAUST Repository

    Coppedè , Nicola; Ferrara, Lorenzo; Bifulco, Paolo; Villani, Marco; Iannotta, Salvatore; Zappettini, Andrea; Cesarelli, Mario; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Gentile, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Conducting polymers are materials displaying high electrical conductivity, easy of fabrication, flexibility and biocompatibility, for this, they are routinely employed in organic electronics, printed electronics, and bioelectronics. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are a second generation of organic thin transistors, in which the insulator layer is an electrolyte medium and the conductive polymer is electrochemically active. OECT devices have been demonstrated in chemical and biological sensing: while accurate in determining the size of individual ions in solution, similar devices break down if challenged with complex mixtures. Here, we combine a conductive PEODOT:PSS polymer with a super-hydrophobic scheme to obtain a family of advanced devices, in which the ability to manipulate a biological solution couples to a precise texture of the substrate (which incorporates five micro-electrodes in a line, and each is a site specific measurement point), and this permits to realize time and space resolved analysis of a solution. While the competition between convection and diffusion in a super-hydrophobic drop operates the separation of different species based on their size and charge, the described device delivers the ability to register a similar difference. In the following, we demonstrate the device in the sensing of a solution in which CTAB and adrenaline are separated with good sensitivity, selectivity and reliability.

  17. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsnyai, B. F.

    2002-01-01

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the

  18. Improved Efficiency in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells Employing a Novel Diarylamino-Substituted Molecule as PEDOT:PSS Replacement

    KAUST Repository

    El Labban, Abdulrahman

    2016-03-15

    An approach to fabricate high-efficiency inverted planar perovskites solar cells using solution-processed organic small molecules hole transporting layer is reported. Devices using CH3NH3PbI3 as photoactive layer and PC60BM as electron transport layer show power conversion efficiencies exceeding 12% and open-circuit voltages (VOC) higher than 1 V.

  19. Improved Efficiency in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells Employing a Novel Diarylamino-Substituted Molecule as PEDOT:PSS Replacement

    KAUST Repository

    El Labban, Abdulrahman; Chen, Hu; Kirkus, Mindaugas; Barbe, Jeremy; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Neophytou, Marios; McCulloch, Iain; Eid, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    An approach to fabricate high-efficiency inverted planar perovskites solar cells using solution-processed organic small molecules hole transporting layer is reported. Devices using CH3NH3PbI3 as photoactive layer and PC60BM as electron transport layer show power conversion efficiencies exceeding 12% and open-circuit voltages (VOC) higher than 1 V.

  20. CO2 flowrate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carossi, Jean-Claude

    1969-02-01

    A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented

  1. CONTAIN calculations; CONTAIN-Rechnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-08-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident `medium-sized leak in the cold leg`, especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  2. Heterogeneous Calculation of {epsilon}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Alf

    1961-02-15

    A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of {epsilon}. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer.

  3. Heterogeneous Calculation of ε

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Alf

    1961-02-01

    A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of ε. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer

  4. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  5. High-Quality GaN Epilayers Achieved by Facet-Controlled Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth on Sputtered AlN/PSS Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenguang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Kang; He, Longfei; Wu, Hualong; Liu, Ningyang; Zhang, Shan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhitao

    2017-12-13

    It is widely believed that the lack of high-quality GaN wafers severely hinders the progress in GaN-based devices, especially for defect-sensitive devices. Here, low-cost AlN buffer layers were sputtered on cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) to obtain high-quality GaN epilayers. Without any mask or regrowth, facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth was realized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The uniform coating of the sputtered AlN buffer layer and the optimized multiple modulation guaranteed high growth selectivity and uniformity of the GaN epilayer. As a result, an extremely smooth surface was achieved with an average roughness of 0.17 nm over 3 × 3 μm 2 . It was found that the sputtered AlN buffer layer could significantly suppress dislocations on the cones. Moreover, the optimized three-dimensional growth process could effectively promote dislocation bending. Therefore, the threading dislocation density (TDD) of the GaN epilayer was reduced to 4.6 × 10 7 cm -2 , which is about an order of magnitude lower than the case of two-step GaN on the PSS. In addition, contamination and crack in the light-emitting diode fabricated on the obtained GaN were also effectively suppressed by using the sputtered AlN buffer layer. All of these advantages led to a high output power of 116 mW at 500 mA with an emission wavelength of 375 nm. This simple, yet effective growth technique is believed to have great application prospects in high-performance TDD-sensitive optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  6. AN OBSERVATIONAL CLINICAL STUDY OF ASSESSING THE UTILITY OF PSS (POISON SEVERITY SCORE AND GCS (GLASGOW COMA SCALE SCORING SYSTEMS IN PREDICTING SEVERITY AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN OP POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandrasekhar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Organophosphorus compound poisoning is the most common poisonings in India because of easy availability often requiring ICU care and ventilator support. Clinical research has indicated that respiratory failure is the most important cause of death due to organophosphorus poisoning. It results in respiratory muscle weakness, pulmonary oedema, respiratory depression, increased secretions and bronchospasm. These complications and death can be prevented with timely institution of ventilator support. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred consecutive patients admitted with a history of organophosphorus poisoning at Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, were taken for study after considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed history, confirmation of poisoning, examination and other than routine investigations, serum pseudocholinesterase and arterial blood gas analysis was done. The severity and clinical outcomes in OP poisoning is graded by PSS (poison severity score and GCS (Glasgow coma scale scoring systems. RESULTS This study was conducted in 100 patients with male preponderance. Majority of poisoning occurred in 21-30 age group (n=5. Most common compound consumed in our study was methyl parathion and least common was phosphoran. Slightly more than half of the patients consumed less than 50 mL of poison. 21 patients consumed between 50 to 100 mL. Distribution of poison severity score of patients studied showed 45 cases of grade 1 poisoning. 26 cases of grade 2 poisoning, 23 cases of grade 3 poisoning and 6 cases of grade 4 poisoning (death within first 24 hours. Distribution of GCS score of patients studied GCS scores were <10 in 25 patients at admission and 24 patients after 24 hours. GCS scores were ≥10 in 75 patients at admission and 76 patients after 24 hours. Poison severity score is not prognostic, but merely defines severity of OP poisoning at a given time. CONCLUSION Both Glasgow coma scale and poison severity scoring systems

  7. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  8. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  9. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  10. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  11. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  12. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Sebastian; Büchler, Hans Peter; Tresp, Christoph; Urvoy, Alban; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Menke, Henri; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole–dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source. (tutorial)

  13. K- and L-shell ionization cross sections for deuterons calculated in the ECPSSR theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Ionization cross sections for K and L subshells are tabulated according to target atomic number and incident deuteron energy. Deuteron energies between 100 keV and 10 MeV and selected targets between C and Am for the K shell and between Ar and Am for the L subshells are used. The cross sections have been calculated in the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) with corrections for energy loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C), perturbed stationary states (PSS), and relativistic (R) effects (ECPSSR). Differences between the computational approach of Cohen and Harrigan and that of Brandt and Lapicki are delineated, and the ratios of the resulting cross sections are tabulated. Copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  14. PWR core design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zeleznik, N.

    1992-01-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [sl

  15. Uneconomical top calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Noord, M.; Vanm Sambeek, E.J.W.

    2003-08-01

    The methodology used to calculate the financial gap of renewable electricity sources and technologies is described. This methodology is used for calculating the production subsidy levels (MEP subsidies) for new renewable electricity projects in 2004 and 2005 in the Netherlands [nl

  16. Molecular calculations with B functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinborn, E.O.; Homeier, H.H.H.; Ema, I.; Lopez, R.; Ramirez, G.

    2000-01-01

    A program for molecular calculations with B functions is reported and its performance is analyzed. All the one- and two-center integrals and the three-center nuclear attraction integrals are computed by direct procedures, using previously developed algorithms. The three- and four-center electron repulsion integrals are computed by means of Gaussian expansions of the B functions. A new procedure for obtaining these expansions is also reported. Some results on full molecular calculations are included to show the capabilities of the program and the quality of the B functions to represent the electronic functions in molecules

  17. Estudio de una red aislada de distribución de pequeña potencia y gran penetración eólica con la herramienta PSS/E

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Fernández, Julia

    2010-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto es realizar un análisis de estabilidad ante contingencias en una red aislada de pequeña potencia con alto grado de penetración eólica mediante la herramienta PSS/E con el fin de aportar conocimiento para, posteriormente, definir la forma de operación más adecuada de dicho sistema atendiendo a su eficacia y fiabilidad. La red considerada para el estudio es la de la isla de El Hierro, en el archipiélago de Canarias, donde se tiene previsto abastecer exclusivamen...

  18. Dose calculation for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    The joint working group of ICRP/ICRU is advancing the works of reviewing the ICRP publication 51 by investigating the data related to radiation protection. In order to introduce the 1990 recommendation, it has been demanded to carry out calculation for neutrons, photons and electrons. As for electrons, EURADOS WG4 (Numerical Dosimetry) rearranged the data to be calculated at the meeting held in PTB Braunschweig in June, 1992, and the question and request were presented by Dr. J.L. Chartier, the responsible person, to the researchers who are likely to undertake electron transport Monte Carlo calculation. The author also has carried out the requested calculation as it was the good chance to do the mutual comparison among various computation codes regarding electron transport calculation. The content that the WG requested to calculate was the absorbed dose at depth d mm when parallel electron beam enters at angle α into flat plate phantoms of PMMA, water and ICRU4-element tissue, which were placed in vacuum. The calculation was carried out by the versatile electron-photon shower computation Monte Carlo code, EGS4. As the results, depth dose curves and the dependence of absorbed dose on electron energy, incident angle and material are reported. The subjects to be investigated are pointed out. (K.I.)

  19. Large scale GW calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govoni, Marco; Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL; Galli, Giulia; Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL

    2015-01-01

    We present GW calculations of molecules, ordered and disordered solids and interfaces, which employ an efficient contour deformation technique for frequency integration and do not require the explicit evaluation of virtual electronic states nor the inversion of dielectric matrices. We also present a parallel implementation of the algorithm, which takes advantage of separable expressions of both the single particle Green's function and the screened Coulomb interaction. The method can be used starting from density functional theory calculations performed with semilocal or hybrid functionals. The newly developed technique was applied to GW calculations of systems of unprecedented size, including water/semiconductor interfaces with thousands of electrons

  20. Radioactive cloud dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Radiological dosage principles, as well as methods for calculating external and internal dose rates, following dispersion and deposition of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are described. Emphasis has been placed on analytical solutions that are appropriate for hand calculations. In addition, the methods for calculating dose rates from ingestion are discussed. A brief description of several computer programs are included for information on radionuclides. There has been no attempt to be comprehensive, and only a sampling of programs has been selected to illustrate the variety available

  1. Mordred: a molecular descriptor calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Hirotomo; Tian, Yu-Shi; Kawashita, Norihito; Takagi, Tatsuya

    2018-02-06

    Molecular descriptors are widely employed to present molecular characteristics in cheminformatics. Various molecular-descriptor-calculation software programs have been developed. However, users of those programs must contend with several issues, including software bugs, insufficient update frequencies, and software licensing constraints. To address these issues, we propose Mordred, a developed descriptor-calculation software application that can calculate more than 1800 two- and three-dimensional descriptors. It is freely available via GitHub. Mordred can be easily installed and used in the command line interface, as a web application, or as a high-flexibility Python package on all major platforms (Windows, Linux, and macOS). Performance benchmark results show that Mordred is at least twice as fast as the well-known PaDEL-Descriptor and it can calculate descriptors for large molecules, which cannot be accomplished by other software. Owing to its good performance, convenience, number of descriptors, and a lax licensing constraint, Mordred is a promising choice of molecular descriptor calculation software that can be utilized for cheminformatics studies, such as those on quantitative structure-property relationships.

  2. Propagation calculation for reactor cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yanhua [School of Power and Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China); Moriyama, K.; Maruyama, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Hashimoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-11-01

    The propagation of steam explosion for real reactor geometry and conditions are investigated by using the computer code JASMINE-pro. The ex-vessel steam explosion is considered, which is described as follow: during the accident of reactor core meltdown, the molten core melts a hole at the bottom of reactor vessel and causes the higher temperature core fuel being leaked into the water pool below reactor vessel. During the melt-water mixing interaction process, the high temperature melt evaporates the cool water at an extreme high rate and might induce a steam explosion. A steam explosion could experience first the premixing phase and then the propagation explosion phase. For a propagation calculation, we should know the information about the initial fragmentation time, the total melt mass, premixing region size, initial void fraction and distribution of the melt volume fraction, and so on. All the initial conditions used in this calculation are based on analyses from some simple assumptions and the observation from the experiments. The results show that the most important parameter for the initial condition of this phase is the total mass and its initial distribution. This gives the requirement for a premixing calculation. On the other hand, for higher melt volume fraction case, the fragmentation is strong so that the local pressure can exceed over the EOS maximum pressure of the code, which lead to the incorrect calculation or divergence of the calculation. (Suetake, M.)

  3. Handout on shielding calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.

    1991-01-01

    In order to avoid the difficulties of the radioprotection supervisors in the tasks related to shielding calculations, is presented in this paper the basic concepts of shielding theory. It also includes exercises and examples. (author)

  4. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  5. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  6. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  7. Intercavitary implants dosage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehder, B.P.

    The use of spacial geometry peculiar to each treatment for the attainment of intercavitary and intersticial implants dosage calculation is presented. The study is made in patients with intercavitary implants by applying a modified Manchester technique [pt

  8. Casio Graphical Calculator Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Nick

    2001-01-01

    Shares experiences of a project aimed at developing and refining programs written on a Casio FX9750G graphing calculator. Describes in detail some programs used to develop mental strategies and problem solving skills. (MM)

  9. Small portable speed calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.

  10. Calculativeness and trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs...... to take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...

  11. Activities for Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Arthur A.

    1987-01-01

    Ten activities that give learners in grades 5-8 a chance to explore mathematics with calculators are provided. The activity cards involve such topics as odd addends, magic squares, strange projects, and conjecturing rules. (MNS)

  12. IRIS core criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)

  13. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  14. Source and replica calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem

  15. Shielding calculations using FLUKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chiri; Tesch, K.; Dinter, H.

    1988-06-01

    The dose equivalent on the surface of concrete shielding has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA86 for incident proton energies from 10 to 800 GeV. The results have been compared with some simple equations. The value of the angular dependent parameter in Moyer's equation has been calculated from the locations where the values of the maximum dose equivalent occur. (author)

  16. Preparation and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposites and PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} composite thin films for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I., E-mail: boiajiev@gmail.com [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Santos, Gustavo dos Lopes; Szűcs, Júlia [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Szilágyi, Imre M., E-mail: imre.szilagyi@mail.bme.hu [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-03-25

    In this study, monoclinic WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were obtained by thermal decomposition of (NH{sub 4}){sub x}WO{sub 3} in air at 600 °C. On them by atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO{sub 2} films were deposited, and thus core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared. We prepared composites of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with conductive polymer as PEDOT:PSS, and deposited thin films of them on glass and ITO substrates by spin coating. The formation, morphology, composition and structure of the as-prepared pure and composite nanoparticles, as well thin films, were studied by TEM, SEM-EDX and XRD. The photocatalytic activity of both the WO{sub 3} and core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed on the composite PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} thin films, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied.

  17. Online plasma calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, H.; Gourdain, P.-A.

    2017-10-01

    APOLLO is an online, Linux based plasma calculator. Users can input variables that correspond to their specific plasma, such as ion and electron densities, temperatures, and external magnetic fields. The system is based on a webserver where a FastCGI protocol computes key plasma parameters including frequencies, lengths, velocities, and dimensionless numbers. FastCGI was chosen to overcome security problems caused by JAVA-based plugins. The FastCGI also speeds up calculations over PHP based systems. APOLLO is built upon the WT library, which turns any web browser into a versatile, fast graphic user interface. All values with units are expressed in SI units except temperature, which is in electron-volts. SI units were chosen over cgs units because of the gradual shift to using SI units within the plasma community. APOLLO is intended to be a fast calculator that also provides the user with the proper equations used to calculate the plasma parameters. This system is intended to be used by undergraduates taking plasma courses as well as graduate students and researchers who need a quick reference calculation.

  18. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  19. Three recent TDHF calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.S.

    1981-05-01

    Three applications of TDHF are discussed. First, vibrational spectra of a post grazing collision 40 Ca nucleus is examined and found to contain many high energy components, qualitatively consistent with recent Orsay experiments. Second, the fusion cross section in energy and angular momentum are calculated for 16 O + 24 Mg to exhibit the parameters of the low l window for this system. A sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the effective two body potential is discussed. Last, a preliminary analysis of 86 Kr + 139 La at E/sub lab/ = 505 MeV calculated in the frozen approximation is displayed, compared to experiment and discussed

  20. Fission neutron multiplicity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerten, H.; Ruben, A.; Seeliger, D.

    1991-01-01

    A model for calculating neutron multiplicities in nuclear fission is presented. It is based on the solution of the energy partition problem as function of mass asymmetry within a phenomenological approach including temperature-dependent microscopic energies. Nuclear structure effects on fragment de-excitation, which influence neutron multiplicities, are discussed. Temperature effects on microscopic energy play an important role in induced fission reactions. Calculated results are presented for various fission reactions induced by neutrons. Data cover the incident energy range 0-20 MeV, i.e. multiple chance fission is considered. (author). 28 refs, 13 figs

  1. Lattice cell burnup calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate burnup prediction is a key item for design and operation of a power reactor. It should supply information on isotopic changes at each point in the reactor core and the consequences of these changes on the reactivity, power distribution, kinetic characters, control rod patterns, fuel cycles and operating strategy. A basic stage in the burnup prediction is the lattice cell burnup calculation. This series of lectures attempts to give a review of the general principles and calculational methods developed and applied in this area of burnup physics

  2. PWR core design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkov, A; Ravnik, M; Zeleznik, N [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [Slovenian] Opisali smo programski paket CORD-2, ki se uporablja pri projektnih izracunih sredice pri upravljanju tlacnovodnega reaktorja. Prikazana je uporaba paketa in racunskih postopkov za tipicne probleme, ki nastopajo pri projektiranju sredice. Primerjava glavnih rezultatov z eksperimentalnimi vrednostmi je predstavljena kot del preveritvenega procesa. (author)

  3. ODSCC algorithm shows correlation with degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, P.J.; Rootham, M.W.; Zupetic, N.L.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last few years we have attempted to develop an algorithm to evaluate the impact of secondary water chemistry on tube degradation in PWR steam generators. Effects of individual factors were assessed and then consolidated to form an algorithm for ODSCC propensity. The algorithm utilizes secondary water chemistry data to calculate ODSCC propensity as a variable named Mega PHI. Prior attempts to correlate algorithm calculations with actual degradation in operating steam generators have resulted in very disappointing results. Recent modifications to the algorithm have demonstrated improved correlation between Mega PHI (calculated result from the algorithm) and actual degradation history from operating plants. The recent modifications involve the inclusion of the synergistic effect of boric acid application of secondary water and of high silica concentration in steam generator toward inhibiting ODSCC. Data from several plants with mill annealed alloy 600 tubing in the steam generators and operating with the primary coolant inlet temperature in the range of 608 to 624 degrees F (320 to 329 degrees C) were evaluated and the results compared with actual degradation reported from in-service inspections. The population of plants includes those with very few tubes repaired and those with hundreds of tubes repaired due to ODSCC at tube support plates. The observation of substantial correlation between the algorithm calculation and actual degradation signifies the roles of boric acid and silica in inhibiting ODSCC. It is recommended that further evaluation of the role of these chemical species be performed using more extensive data. The goal is to modify secondary water chemistry guidelines with the ultimate aim of minimizing corrosion of steam generator tubes. (author)

  4. Development of My Footprint Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummidisetti, Karthik

    The Environmental footprint is a very powerful tool that helps an individual to understand how their everyday activities are impacting environmental surroundings. Data shows that global climate change, which is a growing concern for nations all over the world, is already affecting humankind, plants and animals through raising ocean levels, droughts & desertification and changing weather patterns. In addition to a wide range of policy measures implemented by national and state governments, it is necessary for individuals to understand the impact that their lifestyle may have on their personal environmental footprint, and thus over the global climate change. "My Footprint Calculator" (myfootprintcalculator.com) has been designed to be one the simplest, yet comprehensive, web tools to help individuals calculate and understand their personal environmental impact. "My Footprint Calculator" is a website that queries users about their everyday habits and activities and calculates their personal impact on the environment. This website was re-designed to help users determine their environmental impact in various aspects of their lives ranging from transportation and recycling habits to water and energy usage with the addition of new features that will allow users to share their experiences and their best practices with other users interested in reducing their personal Environmental footprint. The collected data is stored in the database and a future goal of this work plans to analyze the collected data from all users (anonymously) for developing relevant trends and statistics.

  5. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  6. Cardiovascular risk calculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James A. Ker

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... smoking and elevated blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus). These risk ... These are risk charts, e.g. FRS, a non-laboratory-based risk calculation, and ... for hard cardiovascular end-points, such as coronary death, myocardial ...

  7. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  8. Hypervelocity impact cratering calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, D. E.; Moises, H.

    1971-01-01

    A summary is presented of prediction calculations on the mechanisms involved in hypervelocity impact cratering and response of earth media. Considered are: (1) a one-gram lithium-magnesium alloys impacting basalt normally at 6.4 km/sec, and (2) a large terrestrial impact corresponding to that of Sierra Madera.

  9. Languages for structural calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.; Chambon, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The differences between human and computing languages are recalled. It is argued that they are to some extent structured in antagonistic ways. Languages in structural calculation, in the past, present, and future, are considered. The contribution of artificial intelligence is stressed [fr

  10. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  11. Reactor dynamics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devooght, J.; Lefvert, T.; Stankiewiez, J.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter deals with the work done in reactor dynamics within the Coordinated Research Program on Transport Theory and Advanced Reactor Calculations by three groups in Belgium, Poland, Sweden and Italy. Discretization methods in diffusion theory, collision probability methods in time-dependent neutron transport and singular perturbation method are represented in this paper

  12. Equilibrium fission model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckerman, M.; Blann, M.

    1976-01-01

    In order to aid in understanding the systematics of heavy ion fission and fission-like reactions in terms of the target-projectile system, bombarding energy and angular momentum, fission widths are calculated using an angular momentum dependent extension of the Bohr-Wheeler theory and particle emission widths using angular momentum coupling

  13. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  14. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  15. Spallation reactions: calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    Current methods for calculating spallation reactions over various energy ranges are described and evaluated. Recent semiempirical fits to existing data will probably yield the most accurate predictions for these reactions in general. However, if the products in question have binding energies appreciably different from their isotropic neighbors and if the cross section is approximately 30 mb or larger, then the intranuclear-cascade-evaporation approach is probably better suited. (6 tables, 12 figures, 34 references) (U.S.)

  16. Performance assessment calculational exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises (PACE) are an ongoing effort coordinated by Yucca Mountain Project Office. The objectives of fiscal year 1990 work, termed PACE-90, as outlined in the Department of Energy Performance Assessment (PA) Implementation Plan were to develop PA capabilities among Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) participants by calculating performance of a Yucca Mountain (YM) repository under ''expected'' and also ''disturbed'' conditions, to identify critical elements and processes necessary to assess the performance of YM, and to perform sensitivity studies on key parameters. It was expected that the PACE problems would aid in development of conceptual models and eventual evaluation of site data. The PACE-90 participants calculated transport of a selected set of radionuclides through a portion of Yucca Mountain for a period of 100,000 years. Results include analyses of fluid-flow profiles, development of a source term for radionuclide release, and simulations of contaminant transport in the fluid-flow field. Later work included development of a problem definition for perturbations to the originally modeled conditions and for some parametric sensitivity studies. 3 refs

  17. The Monte Carlo applied for calculation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is showed for the calculation of absorbed dose. The trajectory of the photon is traced simulating sucessive interaction between the photon and the substance that consist the human body simulator. The energy deposition in each interaction of the simulator organ or tissue per photon is also calculated. (C.G.C.) [pt

  18. Core physics calculation and analysis for SNRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jiachun; Zhao Shouzhi; Jia Baoshan

    2010-01-01

    Five different precise calculation models have been set up for Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) core based on MCNP code, and then the effective multiplication constant, drum control worth and power distribution were calculated. The results from different models indicate that the model in which elements are homogeneous could be used in the reactivity calculation, but a detailed description of elements have to be used in the element internal power distribution calculation. The results of physics parameters show that the basic characteristics of SNRE are reasonable. The drum control worth is sufficient. The power distribution is symmetrical and reasonable. All of the parameters can satisfy the design requirement. (authors)

  19. Carbon Footprint Calculator | Climate Change | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    An interactive calculator to estimate your household's carbon footprint. This tool will estimate carbon pollution emissions from your daily activities and show how to reduce your emissions and save money through simple steps.

  20. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  1. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  2. Perturbation calculations with Wilson loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto Junior, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    We present perturbative calculations with the Wilson loop (WL). The dimensional regularization method is used with a special attention concerning to the problem of divergences in the WL expansion in second and fourth orders, in three and four dimensions. We show that the residue in the pole, in 4d, of the fourth order graphs contribution sum is important for the charge renormalization. We compute up to second order the exact expression of the WL, in three-dimensional gauge theories with topological mass as well as its assimptotic behaviour for small and large distances. the author [pt

  3. Criticality calculations for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellozo, S.O.

    1981-01-01

    Criticality studies in uranium nitrate and plutonium nitrate aqueous solutions were done. For uranium compound three basic computer codes are used: GAMTEC-II, DTF-IV, KENO-IV. Water was used as refletor and the results obtained with the different computer codes were analyzed and compared with the 'Handbuck zur Kriticalitat'. The cross sections and the cylindrical geometry were generated by Gamtec-II computer code. In the second compound the thickness of the recipient with plutonium nitrate are used with rectangular geometry and concret reflector. The effective multiplication constant was calculated with the Gamtec-II and Keno-IV library. The results show many differences. (E.G) [pt

  4. Radiation shielding calculation using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masukawa, Fumihiro

    2001-01-01

    To verify the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A as a tool to generate the reference data in the shielding designs and the safety evaluations, various shielding benchmark experiments were analyzed using this code. These experiments were categorized in three types of the shielding subjects; bulk shielding, streaming, and skyshine. For the variance reduction technique, which is indispensable to get meaningful results with the Monte Carlo shielding calculation, we mainly used the weight window, the energy dependent Russian roulette and spitting. As a whole, our analyses performed enough small statistical errors and showed good agreements with these experiments. (author)

  5. Calculation of the inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Oliveira Brandao, R. de.

    1988-04-01

    The theory of Point Kernel applied to a source uniformelly distributed in a cylindrical geometry was utilized to estimated the Cs-137 content of each package of radioactive waste collected. The Taylor equation was employed to calculate the build-up factor and the Green function G was adjusted by means of a least square method. The theory also takes into account factors such as aditional shielding, heterogeneity and humidity of the medium as well as associated uncertanties of the parameters envolved. (author) [pt

  6. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  7. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  8. Modified poisoning severity score for early prognostic evaluation in acute paraquat poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-lin SONG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the applied value of modified poisoning severity score (PSS for early prognostic evaluation in acute paraquat poisoning. Methods Thirty-seven patients with acute paraquat poisoning from June 2013 to June 2016 were enrolled. The PSS score, the modified PSS score, the acute physiology and the chronic health status Ⅱ score (APACHE Ⅱ of the patients were calculated. The relationship between modified PSS and APACHE Ⅱ was analyzed. Also the factors that affect outcome were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The work characteristic curve (ROC curve of the PSS, the modified PSS and the APECH Ⅱ were drawn and compared. Results There was a positive correlation between the risk of death and admission time, poisonous dose, the concentration of urine paraquat, and white blood cell count (P<0.05. There was a significant correlation between the modified PSS and the APACHE Ⅱ(P<0.0001. The immediate PSS score, the modified PSS score, and the APACHE Ⅱ score were significant for the prognosis of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. The area under the curve (AUC was in turn 0.774, 0.788, 0.799. Among them, the best bound of the modified PSS score was 6.5 (when the score is greater than 6.5, the risk of death is higher. Further comparison of the area under the three curves showed that there was no significant difference in the area under the ROC curve between the three scores in predicting the prognosis of death [P=0.7633(PSS-DPSS, P=0.7791(PSS-APACHE Ⅱ, P=0.8918(DPSS-APACHE Ⅱ]. Conclusion Modified PSS is helpful in early predicting the prognosis of acute paraquat poisoning. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2018.04.13

  9. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Hill, G.S.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-09-01

    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  10. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most effective means for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For few-body systems the model equations can be solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. We have used such systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Complete calculations for momentum-dependent potentials have been performed, and the properties of the three-body bound state for these potentials have been studied. Few-body calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and pion have been carried out using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The decomposition of the operators transforming convariantly under the Poincare group into kinematical and dynamical parts has been studies. New ways for constructing interactions between particles, as well as interactions which lead to the production of particles, have been constructed in the context of a relativistic quantum mechanics. To compute scattering amplitudes in a nonperturbative way, classes of operators have been generated out of which the phase operator may be constructed. Finally, we have worked out procedures for computing Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients on a computer, as well as giving procedures for dealing with the multiplicity problem

  11. Buoyant plume calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C.; Edwards, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Smoke from raging fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in surface temperatures. However, the extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change, depend on how the smoke is distributed with altitude. We present a model capable of evaluating the initial distribution of lofted smoke above a massive fire. Calculations are shown for a two-dimensional slab version of the model and a full three-dimensional version. The model has been evaluated by simulating smoke heights for the Hamburg firestorm of 1943 and a smaller scale oil fire which occurred in Long Beach in 1958. Our plume heights for these fires are compared to those predicted by the classical Morton-Taylor-Turner theory for weakly buoyant plumes. We consider the effect of the added buoyancy caused by condensation of water-laden ground level air being carried to high altitude with the convection column as well as the effects of background wind on the calculated smoke plume heights for several fire intensities. We find that the rise height of the plume depends on the assumed background atmospheric conditions as well as the fire intensity. Little smoke is injected into the stratosphere unless the fire is unusually intense, or atmospheric conditions are more unstable than we have assumed. For intense fires significant amounts of water vapor are condensed raising the possibility of early scavenging of smoke particles by precipitation. 26 references, 11 figures

  12. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  14. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  15. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  16. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  17. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  18. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  19. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  20. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  1. Calculating graduation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, Patricia L; Love, Karen; McPherson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the focus has been on increasing the number of registered nurse (RN) graduates. Numerous states have initiated programs to increase the number and quality of students entering nursing programs, and to expand the capacity of their programs to enroll additional qualified students. However, little attention has been focused on an equally, if not more, effective method for increasing the number of RNs produced-increasing the graduation rate of students enrolling. This article describes a project that undertook the task of compiling graduation data for 15 entry-level programs, standardizing terms and calculations for compiling the data, and producing a regional report on graduation rates of RN students overall and by type of program. Methodology is outlined in this article. This effort produced results that were surprising to program deans and directors and is expected to produce greater collaborative efforts to improve these rates both locally and statewide.

  2. Mice take calculated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C R

    2012-05-29

    Animals successfully navigate the world despite having only incomplete information about behaviorally important contingencies. It is an open question to what degree this behavior is driven by estimates of stochastic parameters (brain-constructed models of the experienced world) and to what degree it is directed by reinforcement-driven processes that optimize behavior in the limit without estimating stochastic parameters (model-free adaptation processes, such as associative learning). We find that mice adjust their behavior in response to a change in probability more quickly and abruptly than can be explained by differential reinforcement. Our results imply that mice represent probabilities and perform calculations over them to optimize their behavior, even when the optimization produces negligible material gain.

  3. Smile esthetics: calculated beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Guillaume; Truong Tan Trung, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    Esthetic demand from patients continues to increase. Consequently, the treatments we offer are moving towards more discreet or invisible techniques using lingual brackets in order to achieve harmonious, balanced results in line with our treatment goals. As orthodontists, we act upon relationships between teeth and bone. And the equilibrium they create impacts the entire face via the smile. A balanced smile is essential to an esthetic outcome and is governed by rules, which guide both the practitioner and patient. A smile can be described in terms of mathematical ratios and proportions but beauty cannot be calculated. For the smile to sit harmoniously within the face, we need to take into account facial proportions and the possibility of their being modified by our orthopedic appliances or by surgery. Copyright © 2014 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  5. Some calculator programs for particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Seven calculator programs that do simple chores that arise in elementary particle physics are given. LEGENDRE evaluates the Legendre polynomial series Σa/sub n/P/sub n/(x) at a series of values of x. ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE evaluates the first-associated Legendre polynomial series Σb/sub n/P/sub n/ 1 (x) at a series of values of x. CONFIDENCE calculates confidence levels for chi 2 , Gaussian, or Poisson probability distributions. TWO BODY calculates the c.m. energy, the initial- and final-state c.m. momenta, and the extreme values of t and u for a 2-body reaction. ELLIPSE calculates coordinates of points for drawing an ellipse plot showing the kinematics of a 2-body reaction or decay. DALITZ RECTANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a rectangular Dalitz plot. DALITZ TRIANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a triangular Dalitz plot. There are short versions of CONFIDENCE (EVEN N and POISSON) that calculate confidence levels for the even-degree-of-freedom-chi 2 and the Poisson cases, and there is a short version of TWO BODY (CM) that calculates just the c.m. energy and initial-state momentum. The programs are written for the HP-97 calculator

  6. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  7. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  8. Experimental Young's modulus calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Yu, K.

    1994-01-01

    Coil is a very important magnet component. The turn location and the coil size impact both mechanical and magnetic behavior of the magnet. The Young's modulus plays a significant role in determining the coil location and size. Therefore, Young's modulus study is essential in predicting both the analytical and practical magnet behavior. To determine the coil Young's modulus, an experiment has been conducted to measure azimuthal sizes of a half quadrant QSE101 inner coil under different loading. All measurements are made at four different positions along an 8-inch long inner coil. Each measurement is repeated three times to determine the reproducibility of the experiment. To ensure the reliability of this experiment, the same measurement is performed twice with a open-quotes dummy coil,close quotes which is made of G10 and has the same dimension and similar azimuthal Young's modulus as the inner coil. The difference between the G10 azimuthal Young's modulus calculated from the experiments and its known value from the manufacturer will be compared. Much effort has been extended in analyzing the experimental data to obtain a more reliable Young's modulus. Analysis methods include the error analysis method and the least square method

  9. Relativistic few body calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1988-01-01

    A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ 5 γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40 Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  10. Equilibrium calculations, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deursen, A.P.J. van

    1976-01-01

    A calculation is presented of dimer intensities obtained in supersonic expansions. There are two possible limiting considerations; the dimers observed are already present in the source, in thermodynamic equilibrium, and are accelerated in the expansion. Destruction during acceleration is neglected, as are processes leading to newly formed dimers. On the other hand one can apply a kinetic approach, where formation and destruction processes are followed throughout the expansion. The difficulty of this approach stems from the fact that the density, temperature and rate constants have to be known at all distances from the nozzle. The simple point of view has been adopted and the measured dimer intensities are compared with the equilibrium concentration in the source. The comparison is performed under the assumption that the detection efficiency for dimers is twice the detection efficiency for monomers. The experimental evidence against the simple point of view that the dimers of the onset region are formed in the source already, under equilibrium conditions, is discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Ployzou, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most precise tools for studying the dynamics of nuclei. Our research program consists of a careful theoretical study of the nuclear few-body systems. During the past year we have completed several aspects of this program. We have continued our program of using the trinucleon system to investigate the validity of various realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Also, the effects of meson-exchange currents in nuclear systems have been studied. Initial calculations using the configuration-space Faddeev equations for nucleon-deuteron scattering have been completed. With modifications to treat relativistic systems, few-body methods can be applied to phenomena that are sensitive to the structure of the individual hadrons. We have completed a review of Relativistic Hamiltonian Dynamics in Nuclear and Particle Physics for Advances in Nuclear Physics. Although it is called a review, it is a large document that contains a significant amount of new research

  12. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  13. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  14. Learning with Calculator Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…

  15. Meteoric Impact and Ion Density Calculation in the Nighttime ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavin

    2013-11-08

    Nov 8, 2013 ... Pandya, B. M., and S. A. Haider (2012), Meteor impact perturbation in the lower ionosphere of Mars: MGS observations,. Planet. Space Sci., 63, 105-109, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2011.09.013. Page 6. Pandya, B. M., and S. A. Haider (2012), Meteor impact perturbation in the lower ionosphere of Mars: MGS ...

  16. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  17. Dispersion relations in loop calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    These lecture notes give a pedagogical introduction to the use of dispersion relations in loop calculations. We first derive dispersion relations which allow us to recover the real part of a physical amplitude from the knowledge of its absorptive part along the branch cut. In perturbative calculations, the latter may be constructed by means of Cutkosky's rule, which is briefly discussed. For illustration, we apply this procedure at one loop to the photon vacuum-polarization function induced by leptons as well as to the γf anti-f vertex form factor generated by the exchange of a massive vector boson between the two fermion legs. We also show how the hadronic contribution to the photon vacuum polarization may be extracted from the total cross section of hadron production in e + e - annihilation measured as a function of energy. Finally, we outline the application of dispersive techniques at the two-loop level, considering as an example the bosonic decay width of a high-mass Higgs boson. (author)

  18. Calculated L-shell x-ray line intensities for proton and helium ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.; Harrigan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical L-shell X-ray line intensities have been calculated for proton and helium bombardment of atoms from nickel (Z 2 = 28) to curium (Z 2 = 96). The ionization cross sections for the three L subshells were obtained from the recent calculations by Cohen and Harrigan in the ECPSSR theory, which uses the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) with corrections for energy loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C), perturbed-stationary-state (PSS), and relativistic (R) effects. The fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities were taken from M. O. Krause (Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 307 (1979)) and the L-subshell emission rates from S. I. Salem, S. L. Panosian, and R. A. Krause (Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 14, 91 (1974)). The line intensities Ll, Lα, Leta, Lβ 1 to Lβ 6 , Lβ/sub 9,10/, and Lγ 1 to Lgg 6 are tabulated for selected ion energies from 0.2 to 10 MeV

  19. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  20. Importance iteration in MORSE Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    An expression to calculate point values (the expected detector response of a particle emerging from a collision or the source) is derived and implemented in the MORSE-SGC/S Monte Carlo code. It is outlined how these point values can be smoothed as a function of energy and as a function of the optical thickness between the detector and the source. The smoothed point values are subsequently used to calculate the biasing parameters of the Monte Carlo runs to follow. The method is illustrated by an example that shows that the obtained biasing parameters lead to a more efficient Monte Carlo calculation

  1. Importance iteration in MORSE Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    An expression to calculate point values (the expected detector response of a particle emerging from a collision or the source) is derived and implemented in the MORSE-SGC/S Monte Carlo code. It is outlined how these point values can be smoothed as a function of energy and as a function of the optical thickness between the detector and the source. The smoothed point values are subsequently used to calculate the biasing parameters of the Monte Carlo runs to follow. The method is illustrated by an example, which shows that the obtained biasing parameters lead to a more efficient Monte Carlo calculation. (orig.)

  2. Calculation of resonance integral for fuel cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsak, S.

    1969-01-01

    The procedure for calculating the shielding correction, formulated in the previous paper [6], was broadened and applied for a cluster of cylindrical rods. The sam analytical method as in the previous paper was applied. A combination of Gauss method with the method of Almgren and Porn used for solving the same type of integral was used to calculate the geometry functions. CLUSTER code was written for ZUSE-Z-23 computer to calculate the shielding corrections for pairs of fuel rods in the cluster. Computing time for one pair of fuel rods depends on the number of closely placed rod, and for two closely placed rods it is about 3 hours. Calculations were done for clusters containing 7 and 19 UO 2 rods. results show that calculated values of resonance integrals are somewhat higher than the values obtained by Helstrand empirical formula. Taking into account the results for two rods from the previous paper it can be noted that the calculated and empirical values for clusters with 2 and 7 rods are in agreement since the deviations do not exceed the limits of experimental error (±2%). In case of larger cluster with 19 rods deviations are higher than the experimental error. Most probably the calculated values exceed the experimental ones result from the fact that in this paper the shielding correction is calculated only in the region up to 1 keV [sr

  3. Exact and approximate multiple diffraction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Y.; Wallace, S.J.; Sparrow, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    A three-body potential scattering problem is solved in the fixed scatterer model exactly and approximately to test the validity of commonly used assumptions of multiple scattering calculations. The model problem involves two-body amplitudes that show diffraction-like differential scattering similar to high energy hadron-nucleon amplitudes. The exact fixed scatterer calculations are compared to Glauber approximation, eikonal-expansion results and a noneikonal approximation

  4. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  5. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  6. MOx Depletion Calculation Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Felice, Laurence; Eschbach, Romain; Dewi Syarifah, Ratna; Maryam, Seif-Eddine; Hesketh, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) has been established to study the reactor physics, fuel performance, radiation transport and shielding, and the uncertainties associated with modelling of these phenomena in present and future nuclear power systems. The WPRS has different expert groups to cover a wide range of scientific issues in these fields. The Expert Group on Reactor Physics and Advanced Nuclear Systems (EGRPANS) was created in 2011 to perform specific tasks associated with reactor physics aspects of present and future nuclear power systems. EGRPANS provides expert advice to the WPRS and the nuclear community on the development needs (data and methods, validation experiments, scenario studies) for different reactor systems and also provides specific technical information regarding: core reactivity characteristics, including fuel depletion effects; core power/flux distributions; Core dynamics and reactivity control. In 2013 EGRPANS published a report that investigated fuel depletion effects in a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR). This was entitled 'International Comparison of a Depletion Calculation Benchmark on Fuel Cycle Issues' NEA/NSC/DOC(2013) that documented a benchmark exercise for UO 2 fuel rods. This report documents a complementary benchmark exercise that focused on PuO 2 /UO 2 Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel rods. The results are especially relevant to the back-end of the fuel cycle, including irradiated fuel transport, reprocessing, interim storage and waste repository. Saint-Laurent B1 (SLB1) was the first French reactor to use MOx assemblies. SLB1 is a 900 MWe PWR, with 30% MOx fuel loading. The standard MOx assemblies, used in Saint-Laurent B1 reactor, include three zones with different plutonium enrichments, high Pu content (5.64%) in the center zone, medium Pu content (4.42%) in the intermediate zone and low Pu content (2.91%) in the peripheral zone

  7. Surface EEG Shows that Functional Segregation via Phase Coupling Contributes to the Neural Substrate of Mental Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I.; Kanatsouli, Kassiani; Laskaris, Nikolaos A.; Tsirka, Vasso; Vourkas, Michael; Micheloyannis, Sifis

    2012-01-01

    Multichannel EEG traces from healthy subjects are used to investigate the brain's self-organisation tendencies during two different mental arithmetic tasks. By making a comparison with a control-state in the form of a classification problem, we can detect and quantify the changes in coordinated brain activity in terms of functional connectivity.…

  8. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  9. HEU benchmark calculations and LEU preliminary calculations for IRR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.; Shapira, M.; Bettan, M.; Nagler, A.; Gilat, J.

    2004-01-01

    We performed neutronics calculations for the Soreq Research Reactor, IRR-1. The calculations were done for the purpose of upgrading and benchmarking our codes and methods. The codes used were mainly WIMS-D/4 for cell calculations and the three dimensional diffusion code CITATION for full core calculations. The experimental flux was obtained by gold wire activation methods and compared with our calculated flux profile. The IRR-1 is loaded with highly enriched uranium fuel assemblies, of the plate type. In the framework of preparation for conversion to low enrichment fuel, additional calculations were done assuming the presence of LEU fresh fuel. In these preliminary calculations we investigated the effect on the criticality and flux distributions of the increase of U-238 loading, and the corresponding uranium density.(author)

  10. MCNP and OMEGA criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, E.

    1998-04-01

    The reliability of OMEGA criticality calculations is shown by a comparison with calculations by the validated and widely used Monte Carlo code MCNP. The criticality of 16 assemblies with uranium as fissionable is calculated with the codes MCNP (Version 4A, ENDF/B-V cross sections), MCNP (Version 4B, ENDF/B-VI cross sections), and OMEGA. Identical calculation models are used for the three codes. The results are compared mutually and with the experimental criticality of the assemblies. (orig.)

  11. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nedic; Milan Eric; Marijana Aleksijevic

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, compar...

  12. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  13. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  14. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  15. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, Maria; Lindstroem, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10 -8 Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10 -5 per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10 -5 per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10 -5 Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10 -7 Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable values. In that case almost all

  16. Spreadsheet eases heat balance, payback calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a generalized Lotus type spreadsheet program has been developed to perform the heat balance and simple payback calculations for various turbine-generator (TG) inlet steam pressures. It can be used for potential plant expansions or new cogeneration installations. The program performs the basic heat balance calculations that are associated with turbine-generator, feedwater heating process steam requirements and desuperheating. The printout, shows the basic data and formulation used in the calculations. The turbine efficiency data used are applicable for automatic extraction turbine-generators in the 30-80 MW range. Simple payback calculations are for chemical recovery boilers and power boilers used in the pulp and paper industry. However, the program will also accommodate boilers common to other industries

  17. Parallel computational in nuclear group constant calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Rustandi, Yaddi K.; Kurniadi, Rizal

    2002-01-01

    In this paper parallel computational method in nuclear group constant calculation using collision probability method will be discuss. The main focus is on the calculation of collision matrix which need large amount of computational time. The geometry treated here is concentric cylinder. The calculation of collision probability matrix is carried out using semi analytic method using Beckley Naylor Function. To accelerate computation speed some computer parallel used to solve the problem. We used LINUX based parallelization using PVM software with C or fortran language. While in windows based we used socket programming using DELPHI or C builder. The calculation results shows the important of optimal weight for each processor in case there area many type of processor speed

  18. Infinite slab-shield dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    I calculated neutron and gamma-ray equivalent doses leaking through a variety of infinite (laminate) slab-shields. In the shield computations, I used, as the incident neutron spectrum, the leakage spectrum (<20 MeV) calculated for the LANSCE tungsten production target at 90 degree to the target axis. The shield thickness was fixed at 60 cm. The results of the shield calculations show a minimum in the total leakage equivalent dose if the shield is 40-45 cm of iron followed by 20-15 cm of borated (5% B) polyethylene. High-performance shields can be attained by using multiple laminations. The calculated dose at the shield surface is very dependent on shield material. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Invert Effective Thermal Conductivity Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.J. Anderson; H.M. Wade; T.L. Mitchell

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the temperature-dependent effective thermal conductivities of a repository-emplaced invert steel set and surrounding ballast material. The scope of this calculation analyzes a ballast-material thermal conductivity range of 0.10 to 0.70 W/m · K, a transverse beam spacing range of 0.75 to 1.50 meters, and beam compositions of A 516 carbon steel and plain carbon steel. Results from this calculation are intended to support calculations that identify waste package and repository thermal characteristics for Site Recommendation (SR). This calculation was developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 1, ICN 0, Calculations

  20. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to ε 2 and ε 4 used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and Β-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential

  1. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  2. Calculation of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, D.B.; Brower, R.; Dolgov, D.; Eicker, N.; Lippert, Th.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.; Schilling, K.

    2003-01-01

    The formalism is developed to express nucleon matrix elements of the electromagnetic current in terms of form factors consistent with the translational, rotational, and parity symmetries of a cubic lattice. We calculate the number of these form factors and show how appropriate linear combinations approach the continuum limit

  3. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  4. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  5. Nonlinear calculations for bump Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, S.W.; Cox, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrodynamic calculations to find strictly periodic solutions for the fundamental mode pulsations of 7 M/sub sun/ models were made using the von Sengbusch--Stellingwerf relaxation method. The models have a helium enrichment in the surface convection zones to Y = 0.78, which from the linear theory period ratio π 2 /π 0 and the Simon and Schmidt resonance hypothesis, should give the observed Hertzsprung progression of light and velocity curve bump phase with period. These surface helium enhanced models show the proper nonlinear bump phase behavior without resort to any mass loss before or during the blue loop phases of yellow giant evolution. At 6000 K and the evolution theory luminosity of 4744 L/sub sun/ for 7 M/sub sun/, that is, at a fundamental mode period of 8.5 day, the velocity curve bump is well after the maximum expansion velocity. At 5400 K and at the same luminosity (period of 12.5 days), there is a bump on the velocity curve well before maximum expansion velocity time. The latter case seems to exhibit the Christy echos but not the former. The echo interpretation may not be appropriate for these masses which are larger than the anomalous masses used by Christy, Stobie, and Adams. Resonance of the fundamental and second overtone modes should not necessarily show echos of surface disturbances from the center. The conclusion is that helium enrichment in the surface convection zones can adequately explain observations of bump Cepheids at evolution theory masses. 12 references

  6. Calculators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of table wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits. Distilled spirits include vodka, whiskey, gin, rum, and ... is 5% alcohol by volume (alc/vol), table wine is about 12% alc/vol, and straight 80-proof distilled spirits is 40% alc/vol. The percent alcohol by ...

  7. Graphical comparison of calculated internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1980-11-01

    Calculated values of the coefficients of internal conversion of gamma rays in the K shell and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 subshells from published tabulations by Band and Trzhaskovskaya and by Roesel et al. at Data Nucl. Data Tables, 21, 92-514(1978) are compared with values obtained by computer interpolation among tabulated values of Hager and Seltzer Nucl. Data, A4, 1-235(1968). In some cases, agreement among the three calculations is remarkably good, and differences are generally less than 5%. In a few cases, there are differences as large as 20 to 50%, corresponding to the threshold effect described by Roesel et al. The Z-dependent resonance minimum described by Roesel et al. is also observed in the comparison of E1-E4 conversion in the L 1 subshell. In several cases (notably M1-M4 conversion in the K shell and L 1 subshell), the Band and Roesel calculations show dramatically different dependence on gamma energy and atomic number. For Z = 100, the Band calculation for E4 conversion in the L 3 subshell shows irregular behavior at energies below the K-shell binding energy. A few high-quality measurements of internal conversion coefficients (+-5%) would help greatly to establish a basis for choice among the theoretical calculations. 32 figures

  8. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Core calculational techniques and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, J.J.

    1977-10-01

    Described are the procedures and techniques employed by B and W in core design analyses of power peaking, control rod worths, and reactivity coefficients. Major emphasis has been placed on current calculational tools and the most frequently performed calculations over the operating power range

  10. Economic calculation in socialist countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    In the 1930s, when the classical socialist system emerged, economic decisions were based not on detailed and precise economic methods of calculation but on rough and ready political methods. An important method of economic calculation - particularly in the post-Stalin period - was that of

  11. Calculation of Spectra of Solids:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The Gilat-Raubenheimer method simplified to tetrahedron division is used to calculate the real and imaginary part of the dynamical response function for electrons. A frequency expansion for the real part is discussed. The Lindhard function is calculated as a test for numerical accuracy...

  12. Calculator. Owning a Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Seven activities are presented in this student workbook designed for an exploration of small business ownership and the use of the calculator in this career. Included are simulated situations in which students must use a calculator to compute property taxes; estimate payroll taxes and franchise taxes; compute pricing, approximate salaries,…

  13. Shielding calculational system for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Thomsen, D.H.

    1975-08-01

    A computer calculational system has been developed and assembled specifically for calculating dose rates in AEC plutonium fabrication facilities. The system consists of two computer codes and all nuclear data necessary for calculation of neutron and gamma dose rates from plutonium. The codes include the multigroup version of the Battelle Monte Carlo code for solution of general neutron and gamma shielding problems and the PUSHLD code for solution of shielding problems where low energy gamma and x-rays are important. The nuclear data consists of built in neutron and gamma yields and spectra for various plutonium compounds, an automatic calculation of age effects and all cross-sections commonly used. Experimental correlations have been performed to verify portions of the calculational system. (23 tables, 7 figs, 16 refs) (U.S.)

  14. Many body calculations in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the many-body perturbation theory for atomic calculations are reviewed. The major emphasis is on the use of the linked-cluster many-body perturbation theory derived by Brueckner and Goldstone. Applications of many-body theory to calculations of hyperfine structure are examined. Auger rates and parity violation are discussed. Photoionization is reviewed, and the authors show how many-body perturbation theory can be applied to problems ranging from structural properties such as correlation energies and hyperfine structure to dynamical properties such as transitions induced by weak neutral currents and photoionization cross sections

  15. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum. The calculations show that for different classes...... of perovskites the solar light absorption efficiency varies greatly depending not only on bandgap size and character (direct/indirect) but also on the dipole matrix elements. The oxides exhibit generally a fairly weak absorption efficiency due to indirect bandgaps while the most efficient absorbers are found...... in the classes of oxynitride and organometal halide perovskites with strong direct transitions....

  16. Subjective Organization Calculator for Free Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Senkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The free recall measure has an advantage over other memory measures because the free recall measure can provide organization measures, which can reveal the strategies participants used to maximize recall. For instance, even when a study list does not show a clear organizational scheme, recall outputs are often far from random, evidenced by participants recalling the same two or more items together repeatedly across multiple test trials. Unfortunately, computing organizational measures is laborious. The present article introduces a calculator to compute subjective organization (SO measures. The calculator is based on a popular platform accessible to most researchers and is designed to compute commonly used SO measures for each participant.

  17. Depletion calculations of adjuster rods in Darlington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, B.; Tsang, K., E-mail: benoit.arsenault@amecfw.com, E-mail: kwok.tsang@amecfw.com [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the simulation methodology and reactivity worth calculated for aged adjuster rods in the Darlington core. ORIGEN-S IST was applied to simulate the isotope transmutation process of the stainless steel and titanium adjusters. The compositions were used in DRAGON-IST to calculate the change in incremental properties of aged adjusters. Pre-simulations of the reactivity worth of the stainless steel and titanium adjusters in Darlington were performed using RFSP-IST and the results showed that the titanium adjuster rods exhibit faster reactivity-worth drop than that of stainless steel rods. (author)

  18. Reactor core performance calculating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Kenji; Bando, Masaru; Sano, Hiroki; Maruyama, Hiromi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can calculate a power distribution efficiently at high speed by a plurality of calculation means while taking an amount of the reactor state into consideration. Namely, an input device takes data from a measuring device for the amount of the reactor core state such as a large number of neutron detectors disposed in the reactor core for monitoring the reactor state during operation. An input data distribution device comprises a state recognition section and a data distribution section. The state recognition section recognizes the kind and amount of the inputted data and information of the calculation means. The data distribution section analyzes the characteristic of the inputted data, divides them into a several groups, allocates them to each of the calculation means for the purpose of calculating the reactor core performance efficiently at high speed based on the information from the state recognition section. A plurality of the calculation means calculate power distribution of each of regions based on the allocated inputted data, to determine the power distribution of the entire reactor core. As a result, the reactor core can be evaluated at high accuracy and at high speed irrespective of the whole reactor core or partial region. (I.S.)

  19. Computation On dP Type power System Stabilizer Using Fuzzy Logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandar, M.A.; Irwan, R.; Husdi; Riza; Mardhana, E.; Triputranto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Power system stabilizers (PSS) are widely applied in power generators to damp power oscillation caused by certain disturbances in order to increase the power supply capacity. PSS design is often suffered from the difficulty on setting periodically its parameters, which are gain and compensators, in order to have an optimal damping characteristic. This paper proposes a methode to determine parameters of dP type PSS by implementing fuzzy logic rules in a computer program,to obtain the appropriate characteristics of synchronous torque and damping torque. PSS with the calculated parameters is investigated on a simulation using a non-linear electric power system of a thermal generator connected to infinite bus system model. Simulation results show that great improvement in damping characteristic and enhancement of stability margin of electric power system are obtained by using the proposed PSS

  20. Influence of PEDOT:PSS on the effectiveness of barrier layers prepared by atomic layer deposition in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegler, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.wegler@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany and Center for Medical Physics and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Henkestrasse 91, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Schmidt, Oliver [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Hensel, Bernhard [Center for Medical Physics and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Henkestrasse 91, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well suited for energy saving lighting applications, especially when thinking about highly flexible and large area devices. In order to avoid the degradation of the organic components by water and oxygen, OLEDs need to be encapsulated, e.g., by a thin sheet of glass. As the device is then no longer flexible, alternative coatings are required. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a very promising approach in this respect. The authors studied OLEDs that were encapsulated by 100 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited by ALD. The authors show that this coating effectively protects the active surface area of the OLEDs from humidity. However, secondary degradation processes still occur at sharp edges of the OLED stack where the extremely thin encapsulation layer does not provide perfect coverage. Particularly, the swelling of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate), which is a popular choice for the planarization of the bottom electrode and at the same time acts as a hole injection layer, affects the effectiveness of the encapsulation layer.

  1. A Novel Hybrid Similarity Calculation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems of similarity calculation in the traditional recommendation algorithms of nearest neighbor collaborative filtering, especially the failure in describing dynamic user preference. Proceeding from the perspective of solving the problem of user interest drift, a new hybrid similarity calculation model is proposed in this paper. This model consists of two parts, on the one hand the model uses the function fitting to describe users’ rating behaviors and their rating preferences, and on the other hand it employs the Random Forest algorithm to take user attribute features into account. Furthermore, the paper combines the two parts to build a new hybrid similarity calculation model for user recommendation. Experimental results show that, for data sets of different size, the model’s prediction precision is higher than the traditional recommendation algorithms.

  2. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  3. Reactor calculations and nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, D.W.

    1977-12-01

    The relationship of sets of nuclear parameters and the macroscopic reactor quantities that can be calculated from them is examined. The framework of the study is similar to that of Usachev and Bobkov. The analysis is generalised and some properties required by common sense are demonstrated. The form of calculation permits revision of the parameter set. It is argued that any discrepancy between a calculation and measurement of a macroscopic quantity is more useful when applied directly to prediction of other macroscopic quantities than to revision of the parameter set. The mathematical technique outlined is seen to describe common engineering practice. (Author)

  4. Practical astronomy with your calculator

    CERN Document Server

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Practical Astronomy with your Calculator, first published in 1979, has enjoyed immense success. The author's clear and easy to follow routines enable you to solve a variety of practical and recreational problems in astronomy using a scientific calculator. Mathematical complexity is kept firmly in the background, leaving just the elements necessary for swiftly making calculations. The major topics are: time, coordinate systems, the Sun, the planetary system, binary stars, the Moon, and eclipses. In the third edition there are entirely new sections on generalised coordinate transformations, nutr

  5. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  6. Software testing in roughness calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y L; Hsieh, P F; Fu, W E

    2005-01-01

    A test method to determine the function quality provided by the software for roughness measurement is presented in this study. The function quality of the software requirements should be part of and assessed through the entire life cycle of the software package. The specific function, or output accuracy, is crucial for the analysis of the experimental data. For scientific applications, however, commercial software is usually embedded with specific instrument, which is used for measurement or analysis during the manufacture process. In general, the error ratio caused by the software would be more apparent especially when dealing with relatively small quantities, like the measurements in the nanometer-scale range. The model of 'using a data generator' proposed by NPL of UK was applied in this study. An example of the roughness software is tested and analyzed by the above mentioned process. After selecting the 'reference results', the 'reference data' was generated by a programmable 'data generator'. The filter function of 0.8 mm long cutoff value, defined in ISO 11562 was tested with 66 sinusoid data at different wavelengths. Test results from commercial software and CMS written program were compared to the theoretical data calculated from ISO standards. As for the filter function in this software, the result showed a significant disagreement between the reference and test results. The short cutoff feature for filtering at the high frequencies does not function properly, while the long cutoff feature has the maximum difference in the filtering ratio, which is more than 70% between the wavelength of 300 μm and 500 μm. Conclusively, the commercial software needs to be tested more extensively for specific application by appropriate design of reference dataset to ensure its function quality

  7. Validation of dose calculation programmes for recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Shankar; Brun-Yaba, Christine; Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Williams, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    This report contains the results from an international project initiated by the SSI in 1999. The primary purpose of the project was to validate some of the computer codes that are used to estimate radiation doses due to the recycling of scrap metal. The secondary purpose of the validation project was to give a quantification of the level of conservatism in clearance levels based on these codes. Specifically, the computer codes RESRAD-RECYCLE and CERISE were used to calculate radiation doses to individuals during the processing of slightly contaminated material, mainly in Studsvik, Sweden. Calculated external doses were compared with measured data from different steps of the process. The comparison of calculations and measurements shows that the computer code calculations resulted in both overestimations and underestimations of the external doses for different recycling activities. The SSI draws the conclusion that the accuracy is within one order of magnitude when experienced modellers use their programmes to calculate external radiation doses for a recycling process involving material that is mainly contaminated with cobalt-60. No errors in the codes themselves were found. Instead, the inaccuracy seems to depend mainly on the choice of some modelling parameters related to the receptor (e.g., distance, time, etc.) and simplifications made to facilitate modelling with the codes (e.g., object geometry). Clearance levels are often based on studies on enveloping scenarios that are designed to cover all realistic exposure pathways. It is obvious that for most practical cases, this gives a margin to the individual dose constraint (in the order of 10 micro sievert per year within the EC). This may be accentuated by the use of conservative assumptions when modelling the enveloping scenarios. Since there can obviously be a fairly large inaccuracy in the calculations, it seems reasonable to consider some degree of conservatism when establishing clearance levels based on

  8. Validation of dose calculation programmes for recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Shankar [Menon Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden); Brun-Yaba, Christine [Inst. de Radioprotection et Securite Nucleaire (France); Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Bjerler, Jan [Studsvik Stensand, Nykoeping (Sweden); Williams, Alexander [Dept. of Energy (United States). Office of Environmental Management

    2002-12-01

    This report contains the results from an international project initiated by the SSI in 1999. The primary purpose of the project was to validate some of the computer codes that are used to estimate radiation doses due to the recycling of scrap metal. The secondary purpose of the validation project was to give a quantification of the level of conservatism in clearance levels based on these codes. Specifically, the computer codes RESRAD-RECYCLE and CERISE were used to calculate radiation doses to individuals during the processing of slightly contaminated material, mainly in Studsvik, Sweden. Calculated external doses were compared with measured data from different steps of the process. The comparison of calculations and measurements shows that the computer code calculations resulted in both overestimations and underestimations of the external doses for different recycling activities. The SSI draws the conclusion that the accuracy is within one order of magnitude when experienced modellers use their programmes to calculate external radiation doses for a recycling process involving material that is mainly contaminated with cobalt-60. No errors in the codes themselves were found. Instead, the inaccuracy seems to depend mainly on the choice of some modelling parameters related to the receptor (e.g., distance, time, etc.) and simplifications made to facilitate modelling with the codes (e.g., object geometry). Clearance levels are often based on studies on enveloping scenarios that are designed to cover all realistic exposure pathways. It is obvious that for most practical cases, this gives a margin to the individual dose constraint (in the order of 10 micro sievert per year within the EC). This may be accentuated by the use of conservative assumptions when modelling the enveloping scenarios. Since there can obviously be a fairly large inaccuracy in the calculations, it seems reasonable to consider some degree of conservatism when establishing clearance levels based on

  9. Adjoint spectrum calculation in fuel heterogeneous cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suster, Luis Carlos

    1998-01-01

    In most codes for cells calculation, the multigroup cross sections are generated taking into consideration the conservation of the reaction rates in the forward spectrum. However, for certain uses of the perturbation theory it's necessary to use the average of the parameters for energy macrogroups over the forward and the adjoint spectra. In this thesis the adjoint spectrum was calculated from the adjoint neutron balance equations, that were obtained for a heterogeneous unit cell. The collision probabilities method was used to obtain these equations. In order optimize the computational run-time, the Gaussian quadrature method was used in the calculation of the neutron balance equations, forward and adjoint. This method of integration was also used for the Doppler broadening functions calculation, necessary for obtaining the energy dependent cross sections. In order to calculate the reaction rates and the average cross sections, using both the forward and the adjoint neutron spectra, the most important resonances of the U 238 were considered. The results obtained with the method show significant differences for the different cross sections weighting schemes. (author)

  10. Calculation of pion form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, N.; Amirarjomand, S.

    1975-09-01

    The pion form factor is calculated using the structure function Wsub(2), which incorporates kinematical constraints, threshold behaviour and scaling. The Bloom-Gilman sum rule is used and only the two leading Regge trajectories are taken into account

  11. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  12. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  13. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianda, B.

    2004-01-01

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC--28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their

  14. Numerical calculations near spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenginoglu, Anil

    2007-01-01

    After describing in short some problems and methods regarding the smoothness of null infinity for isolated systems, I present numerical calculations in which both spatial and null infinity can be studied. The reduced conformal field equations based on the conformal Gauss gauge allow us in spherical symmetry to calculate numerically the entire Schwarzschild-Kruskal spacetime in a smooth way including spacelike, null and timelike infinity and the domain close to the singularity

  15. Calculating radiation exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods and procedures used to calculate the radiation exposures and radiation doses to designated employees of the Olympic Dam Project. Each of the three major exposure pathways are examined. These are: gamma irradiation, radon daughter inhalation and radioactive dust inhalation. A further section presents ICRP methodology for combining individual pathway exposures to give a total dose figure. Computer programs used for calculations and data storage are also presented briefly

  16. MD simulations and QM/MM calculations show that single-site mutations of cytochrome P450BM3 alter the active site’s complexity and the chemoselectivity of oxidation without changing the active species† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The RMS deviation of the protein during 100 ns (and 200 ns) of simulation and the total QM/MM and ZPE energies, as well as the Cartesian coordinates of all of the computed species. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01932g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kshatresh Dutta; Wang, Binju; Vajpai, Manu

    2017-01-01

    It is a long-standing mechanistic consensus that the mutation of the proton-shuttle mediator Threonine (T) in Cytochrome P450 enzymes severs the water channel and thereby quenches the formation of the active species: the high-valent iron(iv)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical species, compound I (Cpd I). Using MD simulations and hybrid QM/MM calculations of P450BM3 we demonstrate that this is not the case. Thus, while the original water channel is disrupted in the T268A mutant of the enzyme, a new channel is formed that generates Cpd I. With this new understanding, we address the puzzling regiochemical and kinetic-isotope effect (KIE) results (Volz et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 9724–9725) on the sulfoxidation and N-dealkylation of dimethyl-(4-methylsulfanyl-phenyl)-amine by wild type (WT) P450BM3 and its T268A vs. F87A mutants. We show that the observed variable ratio of S/Me oxidation for these enzymes, vis-à-vis the constant KIE, originates from Cpd I being the sole oxidant. Thus, while the conserved KIE probes the conserved nature of the transition state, the variable regiochemical S/Me ratio reflects the active-site reorganization in the mutants: the shifted location of the new water channel in T268A tightens the binding of the S-end by Cpd I and increases the S/Me ratio, whereas the absence of π-interaction with the S-end in F87A creates a looser binding that lowers the S/Me ratio. Our results match the experimental findings. As such, this study sheds light on puzzling experimental results, and may shift a central paradigm in P450 research. The broader implication on enzymatic research is that a single-site mutation is not a localised alteration but one that may lead to a profound change in the active site, sufficiently so as to change the chemoselectivity of catalyzed reactions. PMID:29568477

  17. Calculation of radon concentration in water by toluene extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masaaki [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Noguchi method and Horiuchi method have been used as the calculation method of radon concentration in water. Both methods have two problems in the original, that is, the concentration calculated is changed by the extraction temperature depend on the incorrect solubility data and the concentration calculated are smaller than the correct values, because the radon calculation equation does not true to the gas-liquid equilibrium theory. However, the two problems are solved by improving the radon equation. I presented the Noguchi-Saito equation and the constant B of Horiuchi-Saito equation. The calculating results by the improved method showed about 10% of error. (S.Y.)

  18. Helical tomotherapy shielding calculation for an existing LINAC treatment room: sample calculation and cautions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chuan; Guo Fanqing; Purdy, James A

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a step-by-step shielding calculation recipe for a helical tomotherapy unit (TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI, USA), recently installed in an existing Varian 600C treatment room. Both primary and secondary radiations (leakage and scatter) are explicitly considered. A typical patient load is assumed. Use factor is calculated based on an analytical formula derived from the tomotherapy rotational beam delivery geometry. Leakage and scatter are included in the calculation based on corresponding measurement data as documented by TomoTherapy Inc. Our calculation result shows that, except for a small area by the therapists' console, most of the existing Varian 600C shielding is sufficient for the new tomotherapy unit. This work cautions other institutions facing the similar situation, where an HT unit is considered for an existing LINAC treatment room, more secondary shielding might be considered at some locations, due to the significantly increased secondary shielding requirement by HT. (note)

  19. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  20. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T E; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Dollinger, G; Schmid, E

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm −1 ) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE MN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE D = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (A L ) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm 2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm 2 matrix applied protons (RBE MN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE D = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12 C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u −1 ). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12 C ions (RBE MN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE D = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles. (paper)

  1. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T. E.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Michalski, D.; Girst, S.; Siebenwirth, C.; Schmid, E.; Molls, M.; Multhoff, G.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm-1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u-1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  2. EARTHWORK VOLUME CALCULATION FROM DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANIĆ Milorad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate calculation of cut and fill volume has an essential importance in many fields. This article shows a new method, which has no approximation, based on Digital Terrain Models. A relatively new mathematical model is developed for that purpose, which is implemented in the software solution. Both of them has been tested and verified in the praxis on several large opencast mines. This application is developed in AutoLISP programming language and works in AutoCAD environment.

  3. Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Numerical Calculation And Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Ngoc Hai; Dang The Ba

    2008-01-01

    In the paper the results of analysis of thermal hydraulic state models using the numerical codes such as COOLOD, EUREKA and RELAP5 for simulation of the reactor thermal hydraulic states are presented. The calculations, analyses of reactor thermal hydraulic state and safety were implemented using different codes. The received numerical results, which were compared each to other, to experiment measurement of Dalat (Vietnam) research reactor and published results, show their appropriateness and capacity for analyses of different appropriate cases. (author)

  4. Calculation of magnetic hyperfine constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufaical, R.F.; Maffeo, B.; Brandi, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic hyperfine constants of the V sub(K) center in CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 have been calculated assuming a phenomenological model, based on the F 2 - 'central molucule', to describe the wavefunction of the defect. Calculations have shown that introduction of a small degree of covalence, between this central molecule and neighboring ions, is necessary to improve the electronic structure description of the defect. It was also shown that the results for the hyperfine constants are strongly dependent on the relaxations of the ions neighboring the central molecule; these relaxations have been determined by fitting the experimental data. The present results are compared with other previous calculations where similar and different theoretical methods have been used

  5. Parameters calculation of shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavazza, S.

    1986-02-01

    The radiation transport methodology comparing the calculated reactions and dose rates for neutrons and gama-rays, with experimental measurements obtained on iron shield, irradiated in the YAYOI reactor is evaluated. The ENDF/B-IV and VITAMIN-C libraries and the AMPX-II modular system, for cross sections generation collapsed by the ANISN code were used. The transport calculations were made using the DOT 3.5 code, adjusting the boundary iron shield source spectrum to the reactions and dose rates, measured at the beginning of shield. The neutron and gamma ray distributions calculated on the iron shield presented reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. An experimental arrangement using the IEA-R1 reactor to determine a shielding benchmark is proposed. (Author) [pt

  6. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  7. PHEBUS-FPTO Benchmark calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, I.; Ball, A.; Trambauer, K.; Barbero, F.; Olivar Dominguez, F.; Herranz, L.; Biasi, L.; Fermandjian, J.; Hocke, K.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes a set of pre-test predictions made for the first Phebus-FP test, FPT-O. There were many different calculations, performed by various organizations and they represent the first attempt to calculate the whole experimental sequence, from bundle to containment. Quantitative agreement between the various calculations was not good but the particular models in the code responsible for disagreements were mostly identified. A consensus view was formed as to how the test would proceed. It was found that a successful execution of the test will require a different operating procedure than had been assumed here. Critical areas which require close attention are the need to devize a strategy for the power and flow in the bundle that takes account of uncertainties in the modelling and the shroud conductivity and the necessity to develop a reliable method to achieve the desired thermalhydraulic conditions in the containment

  8. New opportunities and responsibilities with PSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The ever increasing integration of the global economy and adaptation of information and communication technologies is changing the way companies conduct business. Compa-nies today are focusing more on how to develop innovative solutions to attract custom-ers, to fit and individualise products...... and compete on the global market. One innovation strategy that has attained increasing attention the past years is transforming business from being based on the sale of goods to business based on offering a combined prod-uct-service system that continuously provides value to the customer. This approach has...... been conducted on the issue of product/service-systems. These studies usually analyse the potential of integrated solutions to reduce the environmental impacts of human con-sumption activity or optimise a company’s ability to cope with the influences arising from the emerging globalisation of economic...

  9. A generic high-dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source for evaluation of model-based dose calculations beyond the TG-43 formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, Facundo, E-mail: Facundo.Ballester@uv.es [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa [Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 85, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm SE-171 76 (Sweden); Granero, Domingo [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia E-46014 (Spain); Haworth, Annette [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware 19713 (United States); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 MikrasAsias, Athens 115 27 (Greece); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Siebert, Frank-André [Clinic of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24105 (Germany); Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); and others

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. Methods: A hypothetical, generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source was designed based on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic {sup 192}Ir source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra{sup ®} Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision ACUROS{sup TM}]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and PENELOPE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-rate table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201){sup 3} voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by

  10. Automatic calculations of electroweak processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Kawabata, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Kato, K.; Tanaka, H.

    1996-01-01

    GRACE system is an excellent tool for calculating the cross section and for generating event of the elementary process automatically. However it is not always easy for beginners to use. An interactive version of GRACE is being developed so as to be a user friendly system. Since it works exactly in the same environment as PAW, all functions of PAW are available for handling any histogram information produced by GRACE. As its application the cross sections of all elementary processes with up to 5-body final states induced by e + e - interaction are going to be calculated and to be summarized as a catalogue. (author)

  11. Calculation methods in program CCRMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chonghai, Cai [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Dept. of Physics; Qingbiao, Shen [Chinese Nuclear Data Center, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1996-06-01

    CCRMN is a program for calculating complex reactions of a medium-heavy nucleus with six light particles. In CCRMN, the incoming particles can be neutrons, protons, {sup 4}He, deuterons, tritons and {sup 3}He. the CCRMN code is constructed within the framework of the optical model, pre-equilibrium statistical theory based on the exciton model and the evaporation model. CCRMN is valid in 1{approx} MeV energy region, it can give correct results for optical model quantities and all kinds of reaction cross sections. This program has been applied in practical calculations and got reasonable results.

  12. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S

    1981-01-01

    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  13. Selfconsistent calculations at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.; Quentin, P.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have been done for the spherical nuclei 40 Ca, 208 Pb and the hypothetical superheavy nucleus with Z=114, A=298, as well as for the deformed nucleus 168 Yb. The temperature T was varied from zero up to 5 MeV. For T>3 MeV, some numerical problems arise in connection with the optimization of the basis when calculating deformed nuclei. However, at these high temperatures the occupation numbers in the continuum are sufficiently large so that the nucleus starts evaporating particles and no equilibrium state can be described. Results are obtained for excitation energies and entropies. (Auth.)

  14. Benchmark neutron porosity log calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.C.; Michael, M.; Verghese, K.; Gardner, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations have been made for a benchmark neutron porosity log problem with the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP and the specific purpose Monte Carlo code McDNL. For accuracy and timing comparison purposes the CRAY XMP and MicroVax II computers have been used with these codes. The CRAY has been used for an analog version of the MCNP code while the MicroVax II has been used for the optimized variance reduction versions of both codes. Results indicate that the two codes give the same results within calculated standard deviations. Comparisons are given and discussed for accuracy (precision) and computation times for the two codes

  15. Lattice calculations in gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebbi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The lattice formulation of quantum gauge theories is discussed as a viable technique for quantitative studies of nonperturbative effects in QCD. Evidence is presented to ascertain that whole classes of lattice actions produce a universal continuum limit. Discrepancies between numerical results from Monto Carlo simulations for the pure gauge system and for the system with gauge and quark fields are discussed. Numerical calculations for QCD require very substantial computational resources. The use of powerful vector processors of special purpose machines, in extending the scope and magnitude or the calculations is considered, and one may reasonably expect that in the near future good quantitative predictions will be obtained for QCD

  16. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  17. Numericware i: Identical by State Matrix Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsong Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce software, Numericware i, to compute identical by state (IBS matrix based on genotypic data. Calculating an IBS matrix with a large dataset requires large computer memory and takes lengthy processing time. Numericware i addresses these challenges with 2 algorithmic methods: multithreading and forward chopping. The multithreading allows computational routines to concurrently run on multiple central processing unit (CPU processors. The forward chopping addresses memory limitation by dividing a dataset into appropriately sized subsets. Numericware i allows calculation of the IBS matrix for a large genotypic dataset using a laptop or a desktop computer. For comparison with different software, we calculated genetic relationship matrices using Numericware i, SPAGeDi, and TASSEL with the same genotypic dataset. Numericware i calculates IBS coefficients between 0 and 2, whereas SPAGeDi and TASSEL produce different ranges of values including negative values. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the matrices from Numericware i and TASSEL was high at .9972, whereas SPAGeDi showed low correlation with Numericware i (.0505 and TASSEL (.0587. With a high-dimensional dataset of 500 entities by 10 000 000 SNPs, Numericware i spent 382 minutes using 19 CPU threads and 64 GB memory by dividing the dataset into 3 pieces, whereas SPAGeDi and TASSEL failed with the same dataset. Numericware i is freely available for Windows and Linux under CC-BY 4.0 license at https://figshare.com/s/f100f33a8857131eb2db .

  18. Calculated fission properties of the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1986-09-01

    A quantitative calculation is presented that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fission occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. The study is based on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. For the macroscopic part a Yukawa-plus-exponential model is used and for the microscopic part a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential is used. The three-quadratic-surface parameterization generates shapes for which the potential-energy surfaces are calculated. The use of this parameterization and the use of the finite-range macroscopic model allows for the study of two touching spheres and similar shapes. The results of the calculations in terms of potential-energy surfaces and fission half-lives are presented for heavy even nuclei. The surfaces are displayed in the form of contour diagrams as functions of two moments of the shape. 53 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  19. Microscopic calculation of the 4He system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a consistent, microscopic calculation of the bound and scattering states in the 4 He system employing a realistic nucleon-nucleon potential in the framework of the resonating group model (RGM). We present for comparison with these microscopic RGM calculations the results from a charge-independent, Coulomb-corrected R-matrix analysis of all types of data for reactions in the A=4 system. Comparisons are made between the phase shifts, and with a selection of measurements from each reaction, as well as between the resonance spectra obtained from both calculations. In general, the comparisons are favorable, but distinct differences are observed between the RGM calculations and some of the polarisation data. The partial-wave decomposition of the experimental data produced by the R-matrix analysis shows that these differences can be attributed to just a few S-matrix elements, for which inadequate tensor-force strength in the N-N interaction used appears to be responsible. (orig.)

  20. Calculations of nucleon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    We present a method of calculating deep inelastic nucleon structure functions using bag model wavefunctions. Our method uses the Peierls - Yoccoz projection to form translation invariant bag states. We obtain the correct support for the structure functions and satisfy the positivity requirements for quark and anti-quark distribution functions. (orig.)

  1. Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O; Heinesch, B

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation....

  2. Ab Initio Calculations of Oxosulfatovanadates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøberg, Torben; Johansen, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Restricted Hartree-Fock and multi-configurational self-consistent-field calculations together with secondorder perturbation theory have been used to study the geometry, the electron density, and the electronicspectrum of (VO2SO4)-. A bidentate sulphate attachment to vanadium was found to be stabl...

  3. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Lawson, J.E.; Persing, R.G.; Senko, T.R.; Woolley, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A new coil protection system (CPS) is being developed to replace the existing TFTR magnetic coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPS, when installed in October of 1988, will permit operation up to the actual coil stress limits parameters in real-time. The computation will be done in a microprocessor based Coil Protection Calculator (CPC) currently under construction at PPL. THe new CPC will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates. The CPC will provide real-time estimates of critical coil and bus temperatures and stresses based on real-time redundant measurements of coil currents, coil cooling water inlet temperature, and plasma current. The critical parameter calculations are compared to prespecified limits. If these limits are reached or exceeded, protection action will be initiated to a hard wired control system (HCS), which will shut down the power supplies. The CPC consists of a redundant VME based microprocessor system which will sample all input data and compute all stress quantities every ten milliseconds. Thermal calculations will be approximated every 10ms with an exact solution occurring every second. The CPC features continuous cross-checking of redundant input signal, automatic detection of internal failure modes, monitoring and recording of calculated results, and a quick, functional verification of performance via an internal test system. (author)

  4. Ab-initio ZORA calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, S.; Snijders, Jaap; van Lenthe, J.H.; HernandezLaguna, A; Maruani, J; McWeeny, R; Wilson, S

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the first application of the ZORA (Zeroth Order Regular Approximation of the Dirac Fock equation) formalism in Ab Initio electronic structure calculations. The ZORA method, which has been tested previously in the context of Density Functional Theory, has been implemented in

  5. Introduction to calculations of recuperators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollar, M.

    1977-01-01

    Physical principles of heat transfer between fluid under turbulent flow conditions and a wall of a duct are described. The methods of calculations of heat transfer coefficient and the theory of recuperative heat exchangers are presented. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the theory. (author)

  6. Photoproduction data for heating calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Marck, Steven C.; Koning, Arjan J.; Rochman, Dimitri

    2008-01-01

    For irradiations in a materials test reactor, the prediction of the amount of gamma heating in the reactor is important. Only a good predictive calculation will lead to an irradiation in which the specified temperatures are reached. The photons produced by fission product decay are often missing in spectrum calculations for a reactor, but the contribution of the photons can be computed effectively using engineering correlations for the amount of fission product decay and the ensuing photon spectrum. The prompt photons are usually calculated by a spectrum code based on the underlying nuclear data libraries. For most of the important nuclides, the nuclear data libraries contain data for the photon productions rates. However, there are still many nuclides for which the photon production data are missing, and some of these nuclides contribute to gamma heating. In this paper it is estimated what the contributions to heating are from photon production on nuclides such as 236 U, 238 Pu, 135 I, 135 Xe, 147 Pm, 148 Pm, 148m Pm, and 149 Sm. Also, simple arguments are given to judge the effect from photon production on all other (lumped) fission products, and from 28 Al decay. For all these calculations the High Flux Reactor is used as an example. (authors)

  7. Methods for magnetostatic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for magnetostatic field calculation: differential and integrat are considered. Both approaches are shown to have certain merits and drawbacks, choice of the method depend on the type of the solved problem. An opportunity of combination of these tWo methods in one algorithm (hybrid method) is considered

  8. Study on the concurrent calculation with a multitransputer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Shinji; Suzuki, Katsuo

    1992-06-01

    A relation between the calculation processing time and the overhead of multitransputer network is studied in performing several concurrent calculations. Hardware configuration we used was a ring-type linked nine transputer network on an INMOS B008 mother board which was inserted into a slot of a personal computer compatible with IBM PC/AT. Further we used the occam2 toolset of MS-DOS version to write the calculation programs in the occam2 language. On arithmetic operations, some trigonometric and transcendental functions and numerical integrations, the calculation time and overhead were measured. The results show that the relative calculation speed is proportional to the number of transputers when the ratio of calculation time to overhead is much greater than 1.0. And the overhead is consumed in inter-communicating among transputers for the parallel calculation set-up. (author)

  9. Adaptation of GRS calculation codes for Soviet reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbuch, S.; Petri, A.; Steinborn, J.; Stenbok, I.A.; Suslow, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ATHLET for incident calculation of WWER has been tested and verified in numerous calculations. Further adaptation may be needed for the WWER 1000 plants. Coupling ATHLET with the 3D nuclear model BIPR-8 for WWER cores clearly improves studies of the influence of neutron kinetics. In the case of FBMK reactors ATHLET calculations show that typical incidents in the complex RMBK reactors can be calculated even though verification still has to be worked on. Results of the 3D-core model QUABOX/CUBBOX-HYCA show good correlation of calculated and measured values in reactor plants. Calculations carried out to date were used to check essential parameters influencing RBMK core behaviour especially dependence of effective voidre activity on the number of control rods. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Optimizing the calculation of point source count-centroid in pixel size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Luyi; Kuang Anren; Su Xianyu

    2004-01-01

    Pixel size is an important parameter of gamma camera and SPECT. A number of methods are used for its accurate measurement. In the original count-centroid method, where the image of a point source (PS) is acquired and its count-centroid calculated to represent PS position in the image, background counts are inevitable. Thus the measured count-centroid (X m ) is an approximation of the true count-centroid (X p ) of the PS, i.e. X m =X p + (X b -X p )/(1+R p /R b ), where Rp is the net counting rate of the PS, X b the background count-centroid and Rb the background counting. To get accurate measurement, R p must be very big, which is unpractical, resulting in the variation of measured pixel size. R p -independent calculation of PS count-centroid is desired. Methods: The proposed method attempted to eliminate the effect of the term (X b -X p )/(1 + R p /R b ) by bringing X b closer to X p and by reducing R b . In the acquired PS image, a circular ROI was generated to enclose the PS, the pixel with the maximum count being the center of the ROI. To choose the diameter (D) of the ROI, a Gaussian count distribution was assumed for the PS, accordingly, K=1-(0.5) D/R percent of the total PS counts was in the ROI, R being the full width at half maximum of the PS count distribution. D was set to be 6*R to enclose most (K=98.4%) of the PS counts. The count-centroid of the ROI was calculated to represent X p . The proposed method was tested in measuring the pixel size of a well-tuned SPECT, whose pixel size was estimated to be 3.02 mm according to its mechanical and electronic setting (128 x 128 matrix, 387 mm UFOV, ZOOM=1). For comparison, the original method, which was use in the former versions of some commercial SPECT software, was also tested. 12 PSs were prepared and their image acquired and stored. The net counting rate of the PSs increased from 10 cps to 1183 cps. Results: Using the proposed method, the measured pixel size (in mm) varied only between 3.00 and 3.01 (mean

  11. Optimizing the calculation of point source count-centroid in pixel size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Luyi; Kuang Anren; Su Xianyu

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Pixel size is an important parameter of gamma camera and SPECT. A number of Methods are used for its accurate measurement. In the original count-centroid method, where the image of a point source(PS) is acquired and its count-centroid calculated to represent PS position in the image, background counts are inevitable. Thus the measured count-centroid (Xm) is an approximation of the true count-centroid (Xp) of the PS, i.e. Xm=Xp+(Xb-Xp)/(1+Rp/Rb), where Rp is the net counting rate of the PS, Xb the background count-centroid and Rb the background counting rate. To get accurate measurement, Rp must be very big, which is unpractical, resulting in the variation of measured pixel size. Rp-independent calculation of PS count-centroid is desired. Methods: The proposed method attempted to eliminate the effect of the term (Xb-Xp)/(1+Rp/Rb) by bringing Xb closer to Xp and by reducing Rb. In the acquired PS image, a circular ROI was generated to enclose the PS, the pixel with the maximum count being the center of the ROI. To choose the diameter (D) of the ROI, a Gaussian count distribution was assumed for the PS, accordingly, K=I-(0.5)D/R percent of the total PS counts was in the ROI, R being the full width at half maximum of the PS count distribution. D was set to be 6*R to enclose most (K=98.4%) of the PS counts. The count-centroid of the ROI was calculated to represent Xp. The proposed method was tested in measuring the pixel size of a well-tuned SPECT, whose pixel size was estimated to be 3.02 mm according to its mechanical and electronic setting (128*128 matrix, 387 mm UFOV, ZOOM=1). For comparison, the original method, which was use in the former versions of some commercial SPECT software, was also tested. 12 PSs were prepared and their image acquired and stored. The net counting rate of the PSs increased from 10cps to 1183cps. Results: Using the proposed method, the measured pixel size (in mm) varied only between 3.00 and 3.01( mean= 3.01±0.00) as Rp increased

  12. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharwaechter, C.; Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P.; Roeser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  13. Calculating zeros: Non-equilibrium free energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostenbrink, Chris; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van

    2006-01-01

    Free energy calculations on three model processes with theoretically known free energy changes have been performed using short simulation times. A comparison between equilibrium (thermodynamic integration) and non-equilibrium (fast growth) methods has been made in order to assess the accuracy and precision of these methods. The three processes have been chosen to represent processes often observed in biomolecular free energy calculations. They involve a redistribution of charges, the creation and annihilation of neutral particles and conformational changes. At very short overall simulation times, the thermodynamic integration approach using discrete steps is most accurate. More importantly, reasonable accuracy can be obtained using this method which seems independent of the overall simulation time. In cases where slow conformational changes play a role, fast growth simulations might have an advantage over discrete thermodynamic integration where sufficient sampling needs to be obtained at every λ-point, but only if the initial conformations do properly represent an equilibrium ensemble. From these three test cases practical lessons can be learned that will be applicable to biomolecular free energy calculations

  14. Parameters calculation of fuel assembly with complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchun; Ju Haitao; Yao Dong

    2006-01-01

    The code DRAGON was developed for CANDU reactor by Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal of Canada. In order to validate the DRAGON code's applicability for complex geometry fuel assembly calculation, the rod shape fuel assembly of PWR benchmark problem and the plate shape fuel assembly of MTR benchmark problem were analyzed by DRAGON code. Some other shape fuel assemblies were also discussed simply. Calculation results show that the DRAGON code can be used to calculate variform fuel assembly and the precision is high. (authors)

  15. Application of MCNP in the criticality calculation for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhaopeng; Shi Gong; Hu Yongming

    2003-01-01

    The criticality calculation is carried out with 3-D Monte Carlo code (MCNP). The author focuses on the introduction of modelling of the core and reflector. The core description is simplified by using repetition structure function of MCNP. k eff in different control rods positions are calculated for the case of JRR3, and the results is consistent with that of the reference. This work shows that MCNP is applicable for reactor criticality calculation

  16. Extracts of Morinda oleifera (Moringaceae) show anti-retroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... medications in middle and low-income countries with high prevalence rate of ... et al., 1994), diuretic (Morton, 1991), antihypertensive. (Gilani et al., 1994), .... cellular toxicity (TC50) of the test extracts was calculated by non-.

  17. Benchmarks for evaluation of shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, P.R.P.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial-energy neutron distribution emerging from a laminated shielding (stainless, polyethylene and lead) were measured by a fast neutron spectrometer and some experimental results were compared with those calculated by a network of codes. The source neutrons incident in the shielding were 14 MeV neutrons from a H-3(d,n)He-4 reaction coming from a Van de Graaff accelerator. Experimentally was verified a good radial symmetry of neutron energy-spectrum, and also a moderation and attenuation effect for points located out of the central axis of symmetry. These results indicate that the experiment can be well modelated by R-Z geometry. A neutron-energy spectra calculated by DOT 3.5 was compared with the measured spectra, showing a good agreement in the shape and value of the spectra (12% for an integrated spectrum from 2 to 16 MeV). (author) [pt

  18. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrault, M.; Cances, E.; Hager, W.W.; Le Bris, C.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure

  19. Mechanical calculation of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osweiller, Francis.

    1977-01-01

    Many heat exchangers are still being dimensioned at the present time by means of the American TEMA code (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association). The basic formula of this code often gives rise to significant tubular plate thicknesses which, apart from the cost of materials, involve significant machining. Some constructors have brought into use calculation methods that are more analytic so as to take into better consideration the mechanical phenomena which come into play in a heat exchanger. After a brief analysis of these methods it is shown, how the original TEMA formulations have changed to reach the present version and how this code has incorporated Gardner's results for treating exchangers with two fixed heads. A formal and numerical comparison is then made of the analytical and TEMA methods by attempting to highlight a code based on these methods or a computer calculation programme in relation to the TEMA code [fr

  20. CONTRIBUTION FOR MINING ATMOSPHERE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franica Trojanović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Humid air is an unavoidable feature of mining atmosphere, which plays a significant role in defining the climate conditions as well as permitted circumstances for normal mining work. Saturated humid air prevents heat conduction from the human body by means of evaporation. Consequently, it is of primary interest in the mining practice to establish the relative air humidity either by means of direct or indirect methods. Percentage of water in the surrounding air may be determined in various procedures including tables, diagrams or particular calculations, where each technique has its specific advantages and disadvantages. Classical calculation is done according to Sprung's formula, in which case partial steam pressure should also be taken from the steam table. The new method without the use of diagram or tables, established on the functional relation of pressure and temperature on saturated line, is presented here for the first time (the paper is published in Croatian.