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Sample records for psophometrically weighted interfering

  1. Interfering Satellite RNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yu Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite RNAs (satRNAs are sub-viral agents that may interact with their cognate helper virus (HV and host plant synergistically and/or antagonistically. SatRNAs totally depend on the HV for replication, so satRNAs and HV usually evolve similar secondary or tertiary RNA structures that are recognized by a replication complex, although satRNAs and HV do not share an appreciable sequence homology. The satRNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV, the only satRNAs of the genus Potexvirus, have become one of the models of how satRNAs can modulate HV replication and virus-induced symptoms. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of interfering satBaMV and BaMV. Like other satRNAs, satBaMV mimics the secondary structures of 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs of BaMV as a molecular pretender. However, a conserved apical hairpin stem loop (AHSL in the 5′-UTR of satBaMV was found as the key determinant for downregulating BaMV replication. In particular, two unique nucleotides (C60 and C83 in the AHSL of satBaMVs determine the satBaMV interference ability by competing for the replication machinery. Thus, transgenic plants expressing interfering satBaMV could confer resistance to BaMV, and interfering satBaMV could be used as biological-control agent. Unlike two major anti-viral mechanisms, RNA silencing and salicylic acid-mediated immunity, our findings in plants by in vivo competition assay and RNA deep sequencing suggested replication competition is involved in this transgenic satBaMV-mediated BaMV interference. We propose how a single nucleotide of satBaMV can make a great change in BaMV pathogenicity and the underlying mechanism.

  2. Therapeutic potential of small interfering RNAs/micro interfering RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farra, Rossella; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara

    2015-08-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant form of primary liver cancer and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current available therapeutic approaches are poorly effective, especially for the advanced forms of the disease. In the last year, short double stranded RNA molecules termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro interfering RNAs (miRNA), emerged as interesting molecules with potential therapeutic value for HCC. The practical use of these molecules is however limited by the identification of optimal molecular targets and especially by the lack of effective and targeted HCC delivery systems. Here we focus our discussion on the most recent advances in the identification of siRNAs/miRNAs molecular targets and on the development of suitable siRNA/miRNAs delivery systems.

  3. Small interfering RNA delivery through positively charged polymer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Luca; Ferrari, Raffaele; Lupi, Monica; Cesana, Alberto; Falcetta, Francesca; Ubezio, Paolo; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Morbidelli, Massimo; Moscatelli, Davide

    2016-03-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is receiving increasing attention with regard to the treatment of many genetic diseases, both acquired and hereditary, such as cancer and diabetes. Being a high molecular weight (MW) polyanion, siRNA is not able to cross a cell membrane, and in addition it is unstable in physiological conditions. Accordingly, a biocompatible nanocarrier able to deliver siRNA into cells is needed. In this work, we synthesized biocompatible positively charged nanoparticles (NPs) following a two-step process that involves ring opening polymerization (ROP) and emulsion free radical polymerization (EFRP). Firstly, we proved the possibility of fine tuning the NPs’ characteristics (e.g. size and surface charge) by changing the synthetic process parameters. Then the capability in loading and delivering undamaged siRNA into a cancer cell cytoplasm has been shown. This latter process occurs through the biodegradation of the polymer constituting the NPs, whose kinetics can be tuned by adjusting the polymer’s MW. Finally, the ability of NPs to carry siRNA inside the cells in order to inhibit their target gene has been demonstrated using green flourescent protein positive cells.

  4. Spin O decay angular distribution for interfering mesons in electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.

    1994-04-01

    Self analyzing meson electroproduction experiments are currently being planned for the CEBAF CLAS detector. These experiments deduce the spin polarization of outgoing unstable spin s (?)0 mesons from their decay angular distribution, W({theta},{psi}). The large angular acceptance of the CLAS detector permits kinematic tracking of a sufficient number of these events to accurately determine electroproduction amplitudes from the deduced polarization. Maximum polarization information is obtained from W({theta},{psi}) for decay into spin 0 daughters. The helicity of the decaying meson is transferred to the daughter`s relative orbital angular momentum m-projection; none is {open_quotes}absorbed{close_quotes} into daughter helicities. The decaying meson`s helicity maximally appears in W({theta},{psi}). W({theta},{psi}) for spin 0 daughters has been derived for (1) vector meson electroproduction and (2) general interfering mesons produced by incident pions. This paper derives W({theta},{psi}) for electroproduction of two interfering mesons that decay into spin 0 daughters. An application is made to the case of interfering scalar and vector mesons. The derivation is an extension of work by Schil using the general decay formalism of Martin. The expressions can be easily extended to the case of N interfering mesons since interference occurs pairwise in the observable W ({theta},{psi}), a quadratic function of the meson amplitudes. The derivation uses the virtual photon density matrix of Schil which is transformed by a meson electroproduction transition operator, T. The resulting density matrix for the interfering mesons is then converted into a corresponding statistical tensor and contracted into the efficiency tensor for spin 0 daughters.

  5. Joint Network Coding for Interfering Wireless Multicast Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Jalaluddin; Cai, Jianfei

    2011-01-01

    Interference in wireless networks is one of the key-capacity limiting factor. The multicast capacity of an ad- hoc wireless network decreases with an increasing number of transmitting and/or receiving nodes within a fixed area. Digital Network Coding (DNC) has been shown to improve the multicast capacity of non-interfering wireless network. However recently proposed Physical-layer Network Coding (PNC) and Analog Network Coding (ANC) has shown that it is possible to decode an unknown packet from the collision of two packet, when one of the colliding packet is known a priori. Taking advantage of such collision decoding scheme, in this paper we propose a Joint Network Coding based Cooperative Retransmission (JNC- CR) scheme, where we show that ANC along with DNC can offer a much higher retransmission gain than that attainable through either ANC, DNC or Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) based retransmission. This scheme can be applied for two wireless multicast groups interfering with each other. Because of the broa...

  6. Molecular Basis for the Immunostimulatory Potency of Small Interfering RNAs

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    Mouldy Sioud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs represent a new class of antigene agents, which has emerged as a powerful tool for functional genomics and might serve as a potent therapeutic approach. However, several studies have showed that they could trigger several bystander effects, including immune activation and inhibition of unintended target genes. Although activation of innate immunity by siRNAs might be beneficial for therapy in some instances, uncontrolled activation can be toxic, and is therefore a major challenging problem. Interestingly, replacement of uridines in siRNA sequences with their 2′-modified counterparts abrogated siRNA bystander effects. Here we highlight these important findings that are expected to facilitate the rational design of siRNAs that avoid the induction of bystander effects.

  7. Discrimination against interfering signals at the Poker Flat MST radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Several on line and off line data processing techniques are used to remove interfering signals due to ground clutter, aircraft, instrumental effects, and external transmissions from the desired atmospheric echoes of Mesosphere Stratosphere, Troposphere (MST) radar. The on line, real time techniques are necessarily simple in order to minimize processing delays. This algorithm examines the individual Doppler spectra which are computed every two to four seconds (for oblique antenna beams). The total spectral power in each individual spectrum is computed by summing all the spectral points. If this integrated power increases from one spectrum to the next by a factor greater than a preselected threshold, then that spectrum is not added to the spectral sum. Succeeding spectra are compared to the last acceptable spectrum. Only a certain maximum number of spectra are allowed to be rejected in succession.

  8. Three-dimensional path planning for unmanned aerial vehicle based on interfered fluid dynamical system

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    Honglun Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for planning the three-dimensional path for low-flying unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV in complex terrain based on interfered fluid dynamical system (IFDS and the theory of obstacle avoidance by the flowing stream. With no requirement of solutions to fluid equations under complex boundary conditions, the proposed method is suitable for situations with complex terrain and different shapes of obstacles. Firstly, by transforming the mountains, radar and anti-aircraft fire in complex terrain into cylindrical, conical, spherical, parallelepiped obstacles and their combinations, the 3D low-flying path planning problem is turned into solving streamlines for obstacle avoidance by fluid flow. Secondly, on the basis of a unified mathematical expression of typical obstacle shapes including sphere, cylinder, cone and parallelepiped, the modulation matrix for interfered fluid dynamical system is constructed and 3D streamlines around a single obstacle are obtained. Solutions to streamlines with multiple obstacles are then derived using weighted average of the velocity field. Thirdly, extra control force method and virtual obstacle method are proposed to deal with the stagnation point and the case of obstacles’ overlapping respectively. Finally, taking path length and flight height as sub-goals, genetic algorithm (GA is used to obtain optimal 3D path under the maneuverability constraints of the UAV. Simulation results show that the environmental modeling is simple and the path is smooth and suitable for UAV. Theoretical proof is also presented to show that the proposed method has no effect on the characteristics of fluid avoiding obstacles.

  9. Memory interfering effects of chlordiazepoxide on consummatory successive negative contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A; Glueck, Amanda C; Daniel, Alan M; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A; White, Michelle M; Papini, Mauricio R

    2014-01-01

    Long-Evans rats downshifted from 32% to 4% sucrose solution exhibit lower consummatory behavior during downshift trials than rats exposed only to 4% sucrose. In Experiment 1, this effect, called consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), was attenuated by administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5mg/kg, ip) before the second downshift trial (Trial 12), but was not affected when CDP was administered before the first downshift trial (Trial 11). In Experiment 2, CDP administered after Trial 11 actually enhanced the cSNC effect on Trial 12. This posttrial effect of CDP was reduced by delayed administration (Experiment 3). This CDP effect was not present in the absence of incentive downshift (Experiments 4-5), or when animals were tested with the preshift incentive (Experiment 6) or after complete recovery from cSNC (Experiment 7). The posttrial CDP effect was observed after an 8-day interval between Trials 11 and 12 (Experiment 8) and when administered after Trial 12, rather than Trial 11 (Experiment 9). Experiment 10 extended the effect to Wistar rats. Because CDP is a memory interfering drug, it was hypothesized that its posttrial administration interferes with the consolidation of the memory of the downshifted incentive, thus prolonging the mismatch between expected (32% sucrose) and obtained (4% sucrose) incentives that leads to the cSNC effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interfering with Capitalism's Spell: Peter McLaren's Revolutionary Liminality

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    Samuel Day Fassbinder

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available McLaren’s recent (post-2000 writings promote a form of agency called “revolutionary critical pedagogy,” and a type of agent, the “committed intellectual” (McLaren 2005b, p. 253-281. But one can find an earlier agent-type in McLaren’s (1986 Schooling as a Ritual Performance, the “liminal servant,” that explains how “critical pedagogy is secured by the most fecund of revolutionary talismans, critique” (2005a: 9. Borrowing from Theodor Adorno (1968, I suggest that McLaren’s recent writing uses aspects of the “liminal servant” for the purpose of interfering with the “spell” of capitalist social relations through “revolutionary critical pedagogy.” The beginning prologue examines “revolutionary liminality” in McLaren’s writing; the second part explains how his written discursive strategies (naming the culprit, suggesting icons, theorizing to unite the disaffected work to act out “revolutionary liminality.”

  11. Trabalho docente em sala de aula: interferências externas

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    Solange Ana Dalla Vecchia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre as diversas interferências que agentes externos causam sobre o trabalho docente. O objetivo é identificar e analisar situações que interferem na prática docente e no desenvolvimento da organização do trabalho pedagógico, a partir de observações, em sala de aula, das práticas pedagógicas de 05 professoras dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola da Rede Pública Municipal de Sinop, Mato Grosso. A problemática que se insere nessa análise caracteriza-se por compreender tanto a importância da dinâmica escolar no desenvolvimento das práticas de ensino, bem como entender também a importância da organização e gestão escolar, na perspectiva de desenvolver um trabalho colaborativo entre os agentes educacionais, para a renovação na e da escola.

  12. Interferência em misturas de feijão Interference in bean mixtures

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    Janete Joanol da Silveira Mastrantonio

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos examinar a magnitude dos efeitos de interferência em cultivares de feijão, quando em mistura, empregando um novo coeficiente (Coeficiente de Interferência e verificar a existência de correlações entre rendimento de grãos e seus componentes primários, para cada cultivar. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em Canguçu e Passo Fundo, RS, sendo os tratamentos compostos pelas cultivares Carioca, Guateian 6662 e Tayhú em estande puro e em duas misturas, Mis1 (equivalente a 240 mil plantas.ha-1, como em estande puro e Mis2 (120 mil plantas.ha-1. As variáveis avaliadas foram número de vagens por planta (NVP, número de sementes por vagem (NSV, peso de 100 sementes (PCS e rendimento de grãos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. Observou-se que Tayhú teve sua produtividade estimulada quando em mistura sendo este efeito bastante pronunciado sob a população de 240 mil plantas.ha-1; caracterizando a presença de efeitos positivos de interferência, sendo que Carioca e Guateian 6662 sofreram efeitos neutros quando em Mis1 e negativos quando em Mis2. Verificou-se que as correlações fenotípicas entre os componentes do rendimento dependem de cada cultivar e do ambiente em que se encontram, apresentando pouco valor em programas de melhoramento ou na predição do rendimento.This work had as main objectives 1 to examine the magnitude of interference effects on bean cultivars, under two population densities, through the use of a new coefficient (Coefficient of Interference; and 2 To verify possible correlations among grain yield and its primary components, for each cultivar. Trials were carried out in the locations of Canguçu and Passo Fundo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the trataments were the cultivars Carioca, Guateian 6662 and Tayhú, under pure stand and under two mixed populations. Mixtures of cultivars were 240.000 (Mis1 and 120.000 (Mis2

  13. Reconstruction of two interfering wavefronts using Zernike polynomials and stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Roghayeh; Fallah, Hamid R; Hajimahmoodzadeh, Morteza

    2014-03-15

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate an iterative method to simultaneously reconstruct two unknown interfering wavefronts. A three-dimensional interference pattern is analyzed and then Zernike polynomials and the stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm are used to expand and calculate wavefronts.

  14. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program...

  15. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping It Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ... or "program". It's about lifestyle changes in daily eating and exercise habits. Success Stories They did it. So can you! ...

  16. Autocorrélation interférométrique monocoup d'impulsions femtosecondes

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Franck; Georges, Patrick; Le Saux, Gilles; Roger, Gérard; Brun, Alain

    1987-01-01

    Nous présentons dans cet article une nouvelle méthode de caractérisation d'impulsions laser femtosecondes. Celle-ci est basée sur l'analyse du profil spatial du faisceau produit par doublage de fréquence lorsque deux impulsions se croisent dans un cristal non linéaire. Si ce profil est enregistré avec une précision interférométrique, la fonction d'autocorrélation est modulée par un système de franges. Cette fonction d'autocorrélation interférométrique monocoup permet d'obtenir la durée d'une ...

  17. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  18. L1 INTERFERING AND L2 DEVELOPMENTAL WRITING ERRORS AMONG IRANIAN EFL LEARNERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hooshang Khoshsima; Hassan Banaruee

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate common writing errors among Persian EFL Learners. The focus of the study was to identify Persian interfering and developmental errors based on the four rubrics of sentence styles, mechanics, grammar and punctuations. To achieve this, 80 students and 3 teachers from Iran Language Institute were asked to participate in this study. The instruments for data collection were a proficiency test to test the level of their homogeneity, as well as a written test in which...

  19. Inhibition of Reporter Genes by Small Interfering RNAs in Cell Culture and Living Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Larashati, Sekar; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference is a mechanism for silencing specific genes. It has been applied in cell culture to inhibit expression of genes involved in disease including viral genes as recently shown for the fish pathogenic rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus or VHSV (Bohle et al., 2011). But evidence of specific siRNA inhibition in living fish is still needed. Using the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), messenger RNA (mRNA) can be targeted resulting in degradation of targeted transcript or ...

  20. Facilitatory and interfering effects of neighbourhood density on speech production: Evidence from aphasic errors.

    OpenAIRE

    Laganaro Marina; Chetelat-Mabillard Daphnée; Frauenfelder Ulrich H

    2013-01-01

    In a system where tens of thousands of words are made up of a limited number of phonemes many words are bound to sound alike. This similarity of the words in the lexicon as characterized by phonological neighbourhood density (PhND) has been shown to affect speed and accuracy of word comprehension and production. Whereas there is a consensus about the interfering nature of neighbourhood effects in comprehension the language production literature offers a more contradictory picture with mainly ...

  1. Identification of Four New agr Quorum Sensing-Interfering Cyclodepsipeptides from a Marine Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Louise; Nielsen, Anita; Månsson, Maria

    2013-01-01

    During our search for new natural products from the marine environment, we discovered a wide range of cyclic peptides from a marine Photobacterium, closely related to P. halotolerans. The chemical fingerprint of the bacterium showed primarily non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-like compounds....... The ngercheumicins interfered with expression of virulence genes known to be controlled by the agr quorum sensing system of Staphylococcus aureus, although to a lesser extent than the previously described solonamides from the same strain of Photobacterium....

  2. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  3. Gene silencing mediated by magnetic lipospheres tagged with small interfering RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino, Pablo; Munoz-Javier, Almudena; Vlaskou, Dialechti; Rivera Gil, Pilar; Plank, Christian; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2010-10-13

    Lipospheres made from soy bean oil and a combination of the cationic lipid Metafectene and the helper lipid dioleoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine were functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). The resulting magnetic lipospheres loaded with siRNA are proven here as efficient nonviral vectors for gene silencing. Embedding magnetic NPs in the shell of lipospheres allows for magnetic force-assisted transfection (magnetofection) as well as magnetic targeting in both static and fluidic conditions mimicking the bloodstream.

  4. Facilitatory and interfering effects of neighbourhood density on speech production: evidence from aphasic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganaro, Marina; Chetelat-Mabillard, Daphnée; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H

    2013-01-01

    In a system where tens of thousands of words are made up of a limited number of phonemes, many words are bound to sound alike. This similarity of the words in the lexicon as characterized by phonological neighbourhood density (PhND) has been shown to affect speed and accuracy of word comprehension and production. Whereas there is a consensus about the interfering nature of neighbourhood effects in comprehension, the language production literature offers a more contradictory picture with mainly facilitatory but also interfering effects reported on word production. Here we report both of these two types of effects in the same study. Multiple regression mixed models analyses were conducted on PhND effects on errors produced in a naming task by a group of 21 participants with aphasia. These participants produced more formal errors (interfering effect) for words in dense phonological neighbourhoods, but produced fewer nonwords and semantic errors (a facilitatory effect) with increasing density. In order to investigate the nature of these opposite effects of PhND, we further analysed a subset of formal errors and nonword errors by distinguishing errors differing on a single phoneme from the target (corresponding to the definition of phonological neighbours) from those differing on two or more phonemes. This analysis confirmed that only formal errors that were phonological neighbours of the target increased in dense neighbourhoods, while all other errors decreased. Based on additional observations favouring a lexical origin of these formal errors (they exceeded the probability of producing a real-word error by chance, were of a higher frequency, and preserved the grammatical category of the targets), we suggest that the interfering effect of PhND is due to competition between lexical neighbours and target words in dense neighbourhoods.

  5. Determination of NH4+ in Environmental Water with Interfering Substances Using the Modified Nessler Method

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    Heonsang Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an essential element in the environment. If excess nitrogen including NH4 + is present in water, however, it can result in algae blooming and eventually the destruction of the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the determination of NH4 + in streams, lakes, and effluents of the treatment facilities has long been carried out. The Nessler method is the most common spectrophotometric method to measure NH4 + in water. However, the result of the method becomes inaccurate if there are interfering substances such as Cl2, Cl−, hardness-causing compounds (e.g., Mg2+, and Fe2+ in target water samples. In this study, therefore, the traditional Nessler method has been modified to eliminate the effects of interfering substances; the so-called MS was added to water samples. In addition, the polyvinyl alcohol reagent as a dispersing agent was added to water samples to increase the sensitivity and reproducibility of the method. The modified method could successfully analyze NH4 + of water samples even with the interfering substance at high concentration.

  6. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsø, Ingun Lund; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli.

  7. Weighted LCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Amihood; Gotthilf, Zvi; Shalom, B. Riva

    The Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) of two strings A and B is a well studied problem having a wide range of applications. When each symbol of the input strings is assigned a positive weight the problem becomes the Heaviest Common Subsequence (HCS) problem. In this paper we consider a different version of weighted LCS on Position Weight Matrices (PWM). The Position Weight Matrix was introduced as a tool to handle a set of sequences that are not identical, yet, have many local similarities. Such a weighted sequence is a 'statistical image' of this set where we are given the probability of every symbol's occurrence at every text location. We consider two possible definitions of LCS on PWM. For the first, we solve the weighted LCS problem of z sequences in time O(zn z + 1). For the second, we prove \\cal{NP}-hardness and provide an approximation algorithm.

  8. Two-Pronged Approach to Overcome Spectroscopically Interfering Organic Compounds with Isotopic Water Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Nabil; Hsiao, Gregor; Chapellet-Volpini, London; Vu, Danthu

    2013-04-01

    The ability to measure the stable isotopes of hydrogen (dD) and oxygen (d18O) has become much more accessible with the advent of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) laser optical devices. These small and inexpensive analyzers have led to a significant increase in the acquisition of data from a variety of studies in the fields of groundwater, watershed, and other water source applications. However for some samples, such as those linked to fracking, mining, and other activities where higher than normal concentrations of organic materials are to be found, optical spectroscopy may require an adaptation from current methodologies in order to ensure data confidence. That is because CRDS is able to measure all the components within a spectral region - which will include the spectral characteristics of the isotopologues of water as well as the available features from interfering organic molecules. Although, at the first level, the information from the organic material provides spectral overlaps that can perturb the isotopic ratios, a more thorough review shows that these features are a source of information that will be inherently useful. This presentation will examine the approaches developed within the past year to allow for more accurate analyses of such samples by optical methods. The first approach uses an advanced spectroscopic model to flag the presence of organic material in the sample. Signals from known interfering compounds (i.e., alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, short-chain hydrocarbons, etc.) are incorporated into the overall fit of the measured spectra used to calculate the concentration of the individual isotopes. The second approach uses physical treatment of the sample to break down the organic molecules into non-interfering species. The vaporized liquid or solid sample travels through a cartridge packed with an oxidation catalyst. The interfering organic molecules will undergo high temperature oxidation using O2 present in the air carrier gas stream prior

  9. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas, E-mail: Sven.Zacharias@ul.ie [University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  10. Interferência de fatores ambientais e emocionais na voz de docentes universitários

    OpenAIRE

    Auad, Alessandra Regina Brito

    2007-01-01

    A voz é o componente de linguagem humana reforçada ou enfraquecida pela dinâmica vocal definida pelo impacto que a voz do falante causa no ouvinte, distanciando ou aproximando de seu interlocutor. Objetivo: identificar as interferências de fatores ambientais e emocionais na voz de docentes universitários em Goiânia, Goiás. Método: Participaram do estudo 150 docentes universitários, de ambos os sexos, lecionando em 10 universidades estaduais, federais e privadas, no período d...

  11. Cloned defective interfering influenza virus protects ferrets from pandemic 2009 influenza A virus and allows protective immunity to be established.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J Dimmock

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population, causing epidemics in the winter, and occasional worldwide pandemics. In addition there are periodic outbreaks in domestic poultry, horses, pigs, dogs, and cats. Infections of domestic birds can be fatal for the birds and their human contacts. Control in man operates through vaccines and antivirals, but both have their limitations. In the search for an alternative treatment we have focussed on defective interfering (DI influenza A virus. Such a DI virus is superficially indistinguishable from a normal virus but has a large deletion in one of the eight RNAs that make up the viral genome. Antiviral activity resides in the deleted RNA. We have cloned one such highly active DI RNA derived from segment 1 (244 DI virus and shown earlier that intranasal administration protects mice from lethal disease caused by a number of different influenza A viruses. A more cogent model of human influenza is the ferret. Here we found that intranasal treatment with a single dose of 2 or 0.2 µg 244 RNA delivered as A/PR/8/34 virus particles protected ferrets from disease caused by pandemic virus A/California/04/09 (A/Cal; H1N1. Specifically, 244 DI virus significantly reduced fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and infectious load. 244 DI RNA, the active principle, was amplified in nasal washes following infection with A/Cal, consistent with its amelioration of clinical disease. Animals that were treated with 244 DI RNA cleared infectious and DI viruses without delay. Despite the attenuation of infection and disease by DI virus, ferrets formed high levels of A/Cal-specific serum haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and were solidly immune to rechallenge with A/Cal. Together with earlier data from mouse studies, we conclude that 244 DI virus is a highly effective antiviral with activity potentially against all influenza A subtypes.

  12. Unexpected complexity in the interference activity of a cloned influenza defective interfering RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Bentley, Kirsten; Marriott, Anthony C; Scott, Paul D; Dimmock, Nigel J; Easton, Andrew J

    2017-07-24

    Defective interfering (DI) viruses are natural antivirals made by nearly all viruses. They have a highly deleted genome (thus being non-infectious) and interfere with the replication of genetically related infectious viruses. We have produced the first potential therapeutic DI virus for the clinic by cloning an influenza A DI RNA (1/244) which was derived naturally from genome segment 1. This is highly effective in vivo, and has unexpectedly broad-spectrum activity with two different modes of action: inhibiting influenza A viruses through RNA interference, and all other (interferon-sensitive) respiratory viruses through stimulating interferon type I. We have investigated the RNA inhibitory mechanism(s) of DI 1/244 RNA. Ablation of initiation codons does not diminish interference showing that no protein product is required for protection. Further analysis indicated that 1/244 DI RNA interferes by replacing the cognate full-length segment 1 RNA in progeny virions, while interfering with the expression of genome segment 1, its cognate RNA, and genome RNAs 2 and 3, but not genome RNA 6, a representative of the non-polymerase genes. Our data contradict the dogma that a DI RNA only interferes with expression from its cognate full-length segment. There is reciprocity as cloned segment 2 and 3 DI RNAs inhibited expression of RNAs from a segment 1 target. These data demonstrate an unexpected complexity in the mechanism of interference by this cloned therapeutic DI RNA.

  13. Inhibition of infection spread by co-transmitted defective interfering particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Ashley; Akpinar, Fulya; Inankur, Bahar; Yin, John

    2017-01-01

    Although virus release from host cells and tissues propels the spread of many infectious diseases, most virus particles are not infectious; many are defective, lacking essential genetic information needed for replication. When defective and viable particles enter the same cell, the defective particles can multiply while interfering with viable particle production. Defective interfering particles (DIPs) occur in nature, but their role in disease pathogenesis and spread is not known. Here, we engineered an RNA virus and its DIPs to express different fluorescent reporters, and we observed how DIPs impact viral gene expression and infection spread. Across thousands of host cells, co-infected with infectious virus and DIPs, gene expression was highly variable, but average levels of viral reporter expression fell at higher DIP doses. In cell populations spatial patterns of infection spread provided the first direct evidence for the co-transmission of DIPs with infectious virus. Patterns of spread were highly sensitive to the behavior of initial or early co-infected cells, with slower overall spread stemming from higher early DIP doses. Under such conditions striking patterns of patchy gene expression reflected localized regions of DIP or virus enrichment. From a broader perspective, these results suggest DIPs contribute to the ecological and evolutionary persistence of viruses in nature.

  14. Interfering substances identified in the breath of drinking drivers with Intoxilyzer 5000S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A W

    1996-01-01

    The selectivity of analytical methods used to determine ethanol in body fluids has always been an important concern in connection with chemical testing for intoxication. Allegations of false high breath-alcohol readings obtained because of the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) other than ethanol is a well-known defense argument in trials concerning driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI). However, not much information exists to substantiate this claim, especially when modern analytical technology such as multiple wavelength infrared breath-alcohol instruments is used for forensic purposes. Whenever breath tests were aborted because interfering substances were ostensibly detected during routine evidential breath-alcohol analysis in Sweden with the Intoxilyzer 5000S, a sample of venous blood was taken for analysis by headspace gas chromatography. Most of the aborted breath tests could be explained by abnormally high concentrations of acetone, isopropanol, or methyl ethyl ketone in the samples analyzed. These VOCs originate in blood and breath after DUI suspects consume denatured alcohol preparations containing these solvents. However, the intoxilyzer 5000S sometimes aborted the evidential breath test even though VOCs other than ethanol were not identified in the blood samples. The reason for these latter tests being aborted is hard to understand because the blood-breath ratios of ethanol were within the range expected (1900:1 to 2800:1) for a large number of other DUI suspects tested with Intoxilyzer 5000S under the same conditions when interfering substances were not detected.

  15. Tyrosinase Small Interfering RNA Effectively Suppresses Tyrosinase Gene Expression In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xiu-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase is a bifunctional enzyme which oxidizes the initial step of melanin biosynthesis, that is, conversion of tyrosine to dopa and subsequently dopa to dopaquinone. It is a glycosylated protein and a major regulator of melanogenesis. To date, many approaches have been tried to regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin content. To that end, we screened small interfering RNA sequences for sequence-inhibited tyrosinase expression in B16 cells and in C57BL/6 mice. We analyzed tyrosinase mRNA levels by quantitative real-time PCR and determined tyrosinase activity and melanin content at 24, 48, and 72 hours after transfection. Results showed that siNM_011661_001 was the most efficient small interfering RNA sequence in suppressing tyrosinase mRNA expression, and cells transfected with this sequence showed lower tyrosinase activity. Moreover, intravitreous injection of siNM_011661_001 in C57BL/6 mice induced an efficient and stable gene-specific inhibition of expression at the posttranscriptional level.

  16. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol Interference periods of weeds in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Brighenti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas sobre o rendimento de óleo e a produtividade da cultura do girassol. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os períodos de interferência consistiram em manter a cultura na presença e na ausência das espécies daninhas por 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, 56, 70, 84 e 118 dias após a emergência (DAE da cultura (total do ciclo. A comunidade infestante existente na área experimental era composta, principalmente, de picão-preto (Bidens subalternans e plantas voluntárias de trigo. Foram determinados a densidade e o peso da matéria seca das plantas daninhas, o rendimento de óleo e a produtividade da cultura. A presença da comunidade infestante proporcionou perdas diárias de 1,1 e 2,5 kg ha-1 para o rendimento de óleo e a produtividade, respectivamente. Na ausência das espécies daninhas, até 30 DAE, houve ganho diário de 6,5 kg ha-1 de rendimento de óleo e de 14,4 kg ha-1 de produtividade de grãos. A convivência do girassol com as plantas daninhas até 21 DAE não causou efeito sobre o rendimento de óleo e a produtividade da cultura, correspondendo ao período anterior à interferência (PAI. O período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI foi de 30 DAE e o período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI, dos 21 aos 30 dias após a emergência da cultura do girassol.Two experiments were carried out at Embrapa Soybean, Londrina, Paraná Brazil, to evaluate the effect of different periods of control or coexistence of weeds on sunflower crop, considering oil yield and seed yield. The experimental design was completly arranged in randomized blocks, with four replicates. The treatments for both experiments were maintaining the crop either with or without weeds for 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, 56, 70, 84 and 118 days after crop

  17. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura de cebola (Allium cepa transplantada Periods of weed interference with transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total

  18. Which Depressive Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Are Perceived by Patients as Interfering Most with Occupational Functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning. This study sought to determine which depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients with MDD to have the greatest interference on work functioning. Methods. 164 consecutive patients with MDD by DSM-IV criteria completed a standard assessment that included a self-rated questionnaire about the degree to which symptoms and side effects interfered with work functioning. Results. The symptoms perceived by patients as interfering most with work functioning were fatigue and low energy, insomnia, concentration and memory problems, anxiety, and irritability. The medication side effects rated as interfering most with work functioning were daytime sedation, insomnia, headache, and agitation/anxiety. There were no differences between men and women in symptoms or side effects that were perceived as interfering with work functioning. Limitations. This was a cross-sectional study; only subjective assessments of work functioning were obtained; the fact that patients were using varied medications acts as a potential confound. Conclusions. Specific depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients as interfering more with occupational functioning than others. These factors should be considered in treatment selection (e.g., in the choice of antidepressant in working patients with MDD.

  19. Advances in targeted delivery of small interfering RNA using simple bioconjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Kjems, Jørgen; Sorensen, Kristine Rothaus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Development of drugs based on RNA interference by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been progressing slowly due to a number of challenges associated with the in vivo behavior of siRNA. A central problem is controlling siRNA delivery to specific cell types. Here, we review existing...... literature on one type of strategy for solving the issue of cell-specific delivery of siRNA, namely delivering the siRNA as part of simple bioconjugate constructs. Areas covered: This review presents current experience from strategies aimed at targeting siRNA to specific cell types, by associating the siRNA...... with a targeting moiety, in a simple bioconjugate construct. We discuss the use of different types of targeting moieties, as well as the different conjugation strategies employed for preparing these bioconjugate constructs that deliver the siRNA to target cells. We focus especially on the in-built or passive...

  20. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Weed interference in okra crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE. Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade, bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI, período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI, considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura.An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after emergence (DAE. Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days

  1. Interfering Effect of Black Tea Consumption on Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer by CA 19-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Ali Abdul Hussein S; Tawfeeq, Ekhlas F

    2017-06-01

    The study aims to determine the possible effects of black tea consumption on the level of CA 19-9 antigen in the human body. The level of CA 19-9 was measured in 270 healthy individuals who consumed heavy amounts of black tea. About 43.3 % of involved individuals were revealed to have elevated levels of CA 19-9. Males with high values of CA 19-9 represented the greatest number of involved individuals. The cutoff value of high levels of CA 19-9 in all individuals was ranged 69-105 U/ml. Consuming heavy amounts of black tea could be considered an important interfering factor that affects the levels of CA 19-9. The cutoff or predictive value of CA 19-9 in heavy-consuming people of black tea was determined.

  2. Suppressing interfering scattered signals in swept-frequency radar measurements by using frequency domain Wiener filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David E.; Staton, Leo D.

    1991-01-01

    A novel approach to the reduction of scattered, interfering signals that corrupt measurements of the signal backscattered from radar targets of interest is being developed. It is being explored with sphere measurements in an indoor microwave radar range. This method is based on the concept of Wiener filtering (which minimizes the difference between the signal plus noise and the desired signal in the time domain). In contrast to the traditional Wiener filter, in which the time domain error between two sequences are minimized, the approach reported uses the frequency domain phasor amplitudes of a swept frequency signal. It minimizes the difference (least-mean-square-magnitude) between the signal-plus-noise and the signal complex phasors, across the entire spectrum.

  3. Specificity of insulin signalling in human skeletal muscle as revealed by small interfering RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, A; Zierath, J R

    2009-07-01

    Insulin action on metabolically active tissues is a complex process involving positive and negative feedback regulation to control whole body glucose homeostasis. At the cellular level, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as protein synthesis, are controlled through canonical insulin signalling cascades. The discovery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) allows for the molecular dissection of critical components of the regulation of metabolic and gene regulatory events in insulin-sensitive tissues. The application of siRNA to tissues of human origin allows for the molecular dissection of the mechanism(s) regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Penetration of the pathways controlling insulin action in human tissue may aid in discovery efforts to develop diabetes prevention and treatment strategies. This review will focus on the use of siRNA to validate critical regulators controlling insulin action in human skeletal muscle, a key organ important for the control of whole body insulin-mediated glucose uptake and metabolism.

  4. Systematic coarse-grained modeling of complexation between small interfering RNA and polycations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Zonghui [Graduate Program in Applied Physics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Luijten, Erik, E-mail: luijten@northwestern.edu [Graduate Program in Applied Physics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the properties of polymeric gene-delivery carriers by elucidating their interactions and detailed binding patterns with nucleic acids. However, to explore nanoparticle formation through complexation of these polymers and nucleic acids and study their behavior at experimentally relevant time and length scales, a reliable coarse-grained model is needed. Here, we systematically develop such a model for the complexation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers, a promising candidate for siRNA delivery. We compare the predictions of this model with all-atom simulations and demonstrate that it is capable of reproducing detailed binding patterns, charge characteristics, and water release kinetics. Since the coarse-grained model accelerates the simulations by one to two orders of magnitude, it will make it possible to quantitatively investigate nanoparticle formation involving multiple siRNA molecules and cationic copolymers.

  5. Inhibition of Reporter Genes by Small Interfering RNAs in Cell Culture and Living Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larashati, Sekar; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    RNA interference is a mechanism for silencing specific genes. It has been applied in cell culture to inhibit expression of genes involved in disease including viral genes as recently shown for the fish pathogenic rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus or VHSV (Bohle et al., 2011......). But evidence of specific siRNA inhibition in living fish is still needed. Using the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), messenger RNA (mRNA) can be targeted resulting in degradation of targeted transcript or translational repression. Reporter genes such as luciferase and green fluorescence protein (GFP) can...... be used to observe the knock down effect by siRNAs designed to target these reporters. One aim of this project is to verify the specific knock down effect of siRNAs in cell culture and in living fish and to establish easy-read out models for testing the effect especially in vivo. Cell culture from human...

  6. Small interfering ribonucleic acid induces liquid-to-ripple phase transformation in a phospholipid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules play a pivotal role in silencing gene expression via the RNA interference mechanism. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. Here, we examine changes in the structure and dynamics of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the presence of a siRNA molecule and mechanical barriers to siRNA transfection in the bilayer. Our all-atom molecular dynamics simulation shows that siRNA induces a liquid crystalline-to-ripple phase transformation in the bilayer. The ripple phase consists of a major region of non-interdigitated and a minor region of interdigitated lipid molecules with an intervening kink. In the ripple phase, hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules have large compressive stresses, which present a considerable barrier to siRNA transfection.

  7. Sensing spontaneous collapse and decoherence with interfering Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrinski, Björn; Hornberger, Klaus; Nimmrichter, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    We study how matter-wave interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates is affected by hypothetical collapse models and by environmental decoherence processes. Motivated by recent atom fountain experiments with macroscopic arm separations, we focus on the observable signatures of first-order and higher-order coherence for different two-mode superposition states, and on their scaling with particle number. This can be used not only to assess the impact of environmental decoherence on many-body coherence, but also to quantify the extent to which macrorealistic collapse models are ruled out by such experiments. We find that interference fringes of phase-coherently split condensates are most strongly affected by decoherence, whereas the quantum signatures of independent interfering condensates are more immune against macrorealistic collapse. A many-body enhanced decoherence effect beyond the level of a single atom can be probed if higher-order correlations are resolved in the interferogram.

  8. Two colliding epidemics - obesity is independently associated with chronic pain interfering with activities of daily living in adults 18 years and over; a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sharon A; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C

    2016-09-30

    Chronic pain interfering with activities of daily living is highly prevalent in the community. More than 600 million people worldwide are obese. The aim of this paper is to assess if such chronic pain is associated independently with obesity across the adult population, having controlled for other key factors. The South Australian Health Omnibus is an annual, population-based, cross-sectional study. Data on 2616 participants were analysed for episodes of daily pain for three of the preceding six months. Obesity was derived from self-reported height and weight. Multivariable logistic regression analysed the associations between chronic pain interfering with activities of daily living, body mass index (BMI) and key socio-demographic factors. Chronic pain interfering with activities of daily living peaks in people ≥75 years of age while obesity peaks in the 45-54 age group. Pain and obesity together peak in the 55-74 year age group. In the adjusted multinominal logistic regression model, compared to those with no pain, there was a strong association between obesity and pain that interfered moderately or extremely with day-to-day activities (OR 2.25; 95 % CI 1.57-3.23; p < 0.001) having controlled for respondents' age, gender, rurality, country of birth and highest educational attainment. People over 65 years of age and those with lower educational levels were more likely to experience such chronic pain related to obesity. This study demonstrates a strong association between chronic pain and obesity/morbid obesity in the South Australian population. Prospective, longitudinal data are needed to understand the dynamic interaction between these two prevalent conditions.

  9. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  10. Evaluation of bilirubin concentration in hemolysed samples, is it really impossible? The altitude-curve cartography approach to interfered assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Paola; Masi, Piergiorgio; Faggiani, Luigi; Villani, Luciano; Tronchin, Michele; Galli, Claudio; Laube, Clarissa; Leoni, Antonella; Demi, Maila; La Gioia, Antonio

    2011-04-11

    Neonatal jaundice might lead to severe clinical consequences. Measurement of bilirubin in samples is interfered by hemolysis. Over a method-depending cut-off value of measured hemolysis, bilirubin value is not accepted and a new sample is required for evaluation although this is not always possible, especially with newborns and cachectic oncological patients. When usage of different methods, less prone to interferences, is not feasible an alternative recovery method for analytical significance of rejected data might help clinicians to take appropriate decisions. We studied the effects of hemolysis over total bilirubin measurement, comparing hemolysis-interfered bilirubin measurement with the non-interfered value. Interference curves were extrapolated over a wide range of bilirubin (0-30 mg/mL) and hemolysis (H Index 0-1100). Interference "altitude" curves were calculated and plotted. A bimodal acceptance table was calculated. Non-interfered bilirubin of given samples was calculated, by linear interpolation between the nearest lower and upper interference curves. Rejection of interference-sensitive data from hemolysed samples for every method should be based not upon the interferent concentration but upon a more complex algorithm based upon the concentration-dependent bimodal interaction between the interfered analyte and the measured interferent. The altitude-curve cartography approach to interfered assays may help laboratories to build up their own method-dependent algorithm and to improve the trueness of their data by choosing a cut-off value different from the one (-10% interference) proposed by manufacturers. When re-sampling or an alternative method is not available the altitude-curve cartography approach might also represent an alternative recovery method for analytical significance of rejected data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Weighted Hypernetworks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xin-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Complex network theory has been used to study complex systems. However, many real life systems involve multiple kinds of objects . They can't be described by simple graphs. In order to provide complete information of these systems, we extend the concept of evolving models of complex networks to hypernetworks. In this work, we firstly propose a non-uniform hypernetwork model with attractiveness, and obtain the stationary average hyperdegree distribution of the non-uniform hypernetwork. Furthermore, we develop a model for weighted hypernetworks that couples the establishment of new hyperedges and nodes and the weights' dynamical evolution. We obtain the stationary average hyperdegree distribution by using the hyperdegree distribution of the hypernetwork model with attractiveness. In particular, the model yields a nontrivial time evolution of nodes' properties and scale-free behavior for the hyperdegree distribution. It is expected that our work may give help to the study of the hypernetworks in real-world syste...

  12. A novel albumin nanocomplex containing both small interfering RNA and gold nanorods for synergetic anticancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Ha; Hwang, Hai-Jin; Shin, Seung Won; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au nanorods per BSA complex and were successively functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and anti-ErbB-2 antibodies to facilitate active targeting. The synergetic therapeutic activity originating from the two components effectively induced cell death (~80% reduction in viability compared with control cells) in target breast cancer cells after a single dose of laser irradiation. Intracellular SREB nanocomplex decomposition by proteolytic enzymes resulted in simultaneous RNA interference and thermal ablation, thus leading to apoptosis in the targeted cancer cells. Moreover, these therapeutic effects were sustained for approximately 72 hours. The intrinsic biocompatibility, multifunctionality, and potent in vitro anticancer properties of these SREB nanocomplexes indicate that they have great therapeutic potential for in vivo targeted cancer therapy, in addition to other areas of nanomedicine.Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au

  13. Global Analyses of Small Interfering RNAs from Sour Orange seedlings Infected with Different Citrus tristeza virus Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific regulatory mechanism in development and maintenance of genome integrity and functions in plant antiviral defense mechanisms. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are key mediators of RNA silencing. To study CTV-host interactions and disease expression, profiles of v...

  14. Exploring the trans-acting short interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) technology for virus control in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small ribonucleic acid (RNAs) (~20-24nt) processed from double-stranded RNA in plants can trigger degradation of the target mRNAs in cytoplasm or de novo DNA methylation in nucleus leading to gene silencing. Trans-acting short-interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) have been shown to enhance the target mRNA d...

  15. The influenza A virus NS1 protein binds small interfering RNAs and suppresses RNA silencing in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucher, E.C.; Hemmes, J.C.; Haan, de P.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    RNA silencing comprises a set of sequence-specific RNA degradation pathways that occur in a wide range of eukaryotes, including animals, fungi and plants. A hallmark of RNA silencing is the presence of small interfering RNA molecules (siRNAs). The siRNAs are generated by cleavage of larger

  16. Interfering lipoproteins in magnetic field-assisted agglutination of superparamagnetic particles immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauet, Gilles; Daynès, Aurélien; Temurok, Nevzat

    2016-04-01

    The technology of magnetic field-assisted immuno-agglutination of superparamagnetic particles allows sensitive detection of biomarkers in whole blood. However, we observed non-specific agglutination (NSA), due to interfering plasma proteins, that negatively affects C-reactive protein immunoassay. The objective of the study was to identify the plasma proteins involved and to eliminate these interferences. Plasma was fractionated by size exclusion HPLC and each fraction was tested for non-specific agglutination. In addition, plasma proteins bound to magnetic particles were analyzed by SDS-gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. We found that NSA was due to the binding of some lipoproteins to the particles. NSA was observed in the presence of purified LDL and VLDL but not HDL. NSA was mediated by the binding of ApoB100 to magnetic particles through its heparin binding sites. These interferences could be eliminated by addition of heparin or other polyanions like dextran sulfate to the assay buffer. NSA results from the binding of some plasma lipoproteins to magnetic particles. The use of a polyanion to eliminate these interferences allows the formulation of a stable reagent.

  17. Evaluation of short-interfering RNAs treatment in experimental rabies due to wild-type virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appolinario, Camila Michele; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Peres, Marina Gea; Fonseca, Clovis Reynaldo; Vicente, Acacia Ferreira; Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula; Pantoja, José Carlos Figueiredo; Megid, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the efficacy of short-interfering RNAs targeting the nucleoprotein gene and also the brain immune response in treated and non-treated infected mice. Mice were inoculated with wild-type virus, classified as dog (hv2) or vampire bat (hv3) variants and both groups were treated or left as controls. No difference was observed in the lethality rate between treated and non-treated groups, although clinical evaluation of hv2 infected mice showed differences in the severity of clinical disease (p=0.0006). Evaluation of brain immune response 5 days post-inoculation in treated hv2 group showed no difference among the analyzed genes, whereas after 10 days post-inoculation there was increased expression of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 12, interferon gamma, and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 associated with higher expression of N gene in the same period (prabies treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimal Electroporation Condition for Small Interfering RNA Transfection into MDA-MB-468 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Arabsolghar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroporation is a valuable tool for small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery into cells because it efficiently transforms a wide variety of cell types. Since electroporation condition for each cell type must be determined experimentally, this study presents an optimal electroporation strategy to reproducibly and efficiently transfect MDA-MB 468 human breast cancer cell with siRNA. Methods: To identify the best condition, the cells were firstly electroporated without siRNA and cell viability was determined by trypan blue and MTT assays. Then siRNA transfection in the best condition was performed. Western blot analysis was used for monitoring successful siRNA transfection. Results: The best condition for electroporation of this cell line was 220 volt and 975 µF in exponential decay using the Gene Pulser X cell electroporation system. Our data demonstrated that by using proper electroporation condition, DNA methyl transferase mRNA was silenced by 10 nmol DNMT1 siRNA in MDA-MB 468 cells when compared with negative control siRNA electroporation. Analysis of cell viability demonstrated that optimal electroporation condition resulted in 74% and 78% cell viability by trypan blue staining and MTT assay, respectively. Conclusion: Transfection of the MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell line with siRNA in the obtained electroporation condition was successful and resulted in effective gene silencing and high cellular viability.

  19. Development of a software tool and criteria evaluation for efficient design of small interfering RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Aparna; Srivastava, Sonam [Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Kanpur, UP 208 016 (India); Garg, Sanjeev, E-mail: sgarg@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Kanpur, UP 208 016 (India)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The developed tool predicted siRNA constructs with better thermodynamic stability and total score based on positional and other criteria. {yields} Off-target silencing below score 30 were observed for the best siRNA constructs for different genes. {yields} Immunostimulation and cytotoxicity motifs considered and penalized in the developed tool. {yields} Both positional and compositional criteria were observed to be important. -- Abstract: RNA interference can be used as a tool for gene silencing mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNA). The critical step in effective and specific RNAi processing is the selection of suitable constructs. Major design criteria, i.e., Reynolds's design rules, thermodynamic stability, internal repeats, immunostimulatory motifs were emphasized and implemented in the siRNA design tool. The tool provides thermodynamic stability score, GC content and a total score based on other design criteria in the output. The viability of the tool was established with different datasets. In general, the siRNA constructs produced by the tool had better thermodynamic score and positional properties. Comparable thermodynamic scores and better total scores were observed with the existing tools. Moreover, the results generated had comparable off-target silencing effect. Criteria evaluations with additional criteria were achieved in WEKA.

  20. On the degrees of freedom of interference alignment for multicell MIMO interfering broadcast channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The interference alignment (IA) is a promising technique to efficiently mitigate interference and to enhance capacity of a wireless network. This paper proposes an interference alignment scheme for a cellular network with L cells and K users under a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian interfering broadcast channel (IFBC) scenario. The proposed IA scheme aligns intercell interferences (ICI) into a small dimensional subspace through a cooperative receive beamforming and cancels both the ICI and interuser interferences (IUI) simultaneously through a transmit beamforming. We characterize the feasibility condition for the proposed IA to achieve a total number of degrees of freedom (DoF) of LK in terms of the numbers of transmit antennas and receive antennas. Then we derive the maximum number of DoF achieved by the proposed IA by finding an optimal dimension of ICI alignment subspace for a given antenna configuration. The numerical results show that the proposed IA scheme has a better DoF performance than the conventional schemes.

  1. Free-space optical communications performance in the presence of interfering laser signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.; Refai, Hazem H.

    2005-05-01

    Free-space optics (FSO) is a technology that uses modulated optical beams to transmit information in a line-of-sight fashion to achieve a high-bandwidth communications link. FSO technology has been investigated for military and civilian "last mile" applications for many years and, more recently, has generated interest for space-based applications. As the use of FSO technology grows, the potential for optical interference that degrades FSO network performance, whether intentional (jamming) or otherwise, becomes a matter of increasing importance. The investigation described in this paper examined the effects of interference upon the operation and performance of a point-to-point FSO link connecting two virtual local area networks. The sources of interference were laser pulses of varying energy, wavelength, and repetition rate produced from a nitrogen-pumped, tunable dye laser. The study evaluated the effect upon FSO link performance of varying the output power of the interfering source for a fixed wavelength, of varying the wavelength of the source for a fixed power, and of varying the pulse repetition rate of the source. The results of the study indicated that FSO link performance was negatively influenced by such interference.

  2. Interfering with multimerization of netrin-1 receptors triggers tumor cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, Frédéric; Llambi, Fabien; Guix, Catherine; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Guenebeaud, Céline; Castro-Obregon, Susana; Bredesen, Dale E.; Thibert, Chantal; Mehlen, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Netrin-1 was recently proposed to control tumorigenesis by inhibiting apoptosis induced by the dependence receptors DCC (Deleted in colorectal cancer) and UNC5H. While a loss of these dependence receptors’ expression has been described as a selective advantage for tumor growth and progression in numerous cancers, recent observations have shown that some tumors may utilize an alternative strategy to block dependence receptor-induced programmed cell death: the autocrine expression of netrin-1. This alternative strategy has been observed in a large fraction of aggressive breast cancers, neuroblastoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and lung cancer. This observation is of potential interest regarding future targeted therapy, since in such cases interfering with the ability of netrin-1 to inhibit DCC or UNC5H-induced cell death is associated with apoptosis of netrin-1-expressing tumor cells in vitro, and with inhibition of tumor growth or metastasis in different mouse tumor models. The understanding of the mechanism by which netrin-1 inhibits cell death is therefore of interest. Here, we show that netrin-1 triggers the multimerization of both DCC and UNC5H2 receptors, and that multimerization of the intracellular domain of DCC and UNC5H2 is the critical step to inhibit the pro-apoptotic effects of both of these receptors. Taking advantage of this property, we utilized a recombinant specific domain of DCC that (i) interacts with netrin-1 and (ii) inhibits netrin-1- induced multimerization, to trigger apoptosis in netrin-dependent tumor cells. PMID:19543238

  3. Short interfering RNAs targeting a vampire-bat related rabies virus phosphoprotein mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Brandão, Paulo

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3):879-82). To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Short interfering RNAs targeting a vampire-bat related rabies virus phosphoprotein mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova Ono

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3:879-82. To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1 log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24 h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies.

  5. Evaluation of short-interfering RNAs treatment in experimental rabies due to wild-type virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Michele Appolinario

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the efficacy of short-interfering RNAs targeting the nucleoprotein gene and also the brain immune response in treated and non-treated infected mice. Mice were inoculated with wild-type virus, classified as dog (hv2 or vampire bat (hv3 variants and both groups were treated or leaved as controls. No difference was observed in the lethality rate between treated and non-treated groups, although clinical evaluation of hv2 infected mice showed differences in the severity of clinical disease (p = 0.0006. Evaluation of brain immune response 5 days post-inoculation in treated hv2 group showed no difference among the analyzed genes, whereas after 10 days post-inoculation there was increased expression of 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 12, interferon gamma, and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 associated with higher expression of N gene in the same period (p < 0.0001. In hv2 non-treated group only higher interferon beta expression was found at day 5. The observed differences in results of the immune response genes between treated and non-treated groups is not promising as they had neither impact on mortality nor even a reduction in the expression of N gene in siRNA treated animals. This finding suggests that the use of pre-designed siRNA alone may not be useful in rabies treatment.

  6. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  7. Protection against lethal Marburg virus infection mediated by lipid encapsulated small interfering RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursic-Bedoya, Raul; Mire, Chad E; Robbins, Marjorie; Geisbert, Joan B; Judge, Adam; MacLachlan, Ian; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2014-02-15

    Marburg virus (MARV) infection causes severe morbidity and mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Currently, there are no licensed therapeutics available for treating MARV infection. Here, we present the in vitro development and in vivo evaluation of lipid-encapsulated small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of MARV infection. The activity of anti-MARV siRNAs was assessed using dual luciferase reporter assays followed by in vitro testing against live virus. Lead candidates were tested in lethal guinea pig models of 3 different MARV strains (Angola, Ci67, Ravn). Treatment resulted in 60%-100% survival of guinea pigs infected with MARV. Although treatment with siRNA targeting other MARV messenger RNA (mRNA) had a beneficial effect, targeting the MARV NP mRNA resulted in the highest survival rates. NP-718m siRNA in lipid nanoparticles provided 100% protection against MARV strains Angola and Ci67, and 60% against Ravn. A cocktail containing NP-718m and NP-143m provided 100% protection against MARV Ravn. These data show protective efficacy against the most pathogenic Angola strain of MARV. Further development of the lipid nanoparticle technology has the potential to yield effective treatments for MARV infection.

  8. Targeted delivery of small interfering RNA using reconstituted high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Mian M K; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Han, Hee Dong; Lu, Chunhua; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Nishimura, Masato; Mora, Edna M; Lee, Jeong-Won; Stone, Rebecca L; Pecot, Chad V; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Roh, Ju-Won; Gaur, Puja; Nair, Maya P; Park, Yun-Yong; Sabnis, Nirupama; Deavers, Michael T; Lee, Ju-Seog; Ellis, Lee M; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; McConathy, Walter J; Prokai, Laszlo; Lacko, Andras G; Sood, Anil K

    2011-04-01

    RNA interference holds tremendous potential as a therapeutic approach, especially in the treatment of malignant tumors. However, efficient and biocompatible delivery methods are needed for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). To maintain a high level of growth, tumor cells scavenge high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles by overexpressing its receptor: scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1). In this study, we exploited this cellular characteristic to achieve efficient siRNA delivery and established a novel formulation of siRNA by incorporating it into reconstituted HDL (rHDL) nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that rHDL nanoparticles facilitate highly efficient systemic delivery of siRNA in vivo, mediated by the SR-B1. Moreover, in therapeutic proof-of-concept studies, these nanoparticles were effective in silencing the expression of two proteins that are key to cancer growth and metastasis (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and focal adhesion kinase) in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian and colorectal cancer. These data indicate that an rHDL nanoparticle is a novel and highly efficient siRNA carrier, and therefore, this novel technology could serve as the foundation for new cancer therapeutic approaches.

  9. Targeted Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Using Reconstituted High-Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Mian MK; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Han, Hee Dong; Lu, Chunhua; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Nishimura, Masato; Mora, Edna M; Lee, Jeong-Won; Stone, Rebecca L; Pecot, Chad V; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Roh, Ju-Won; Gaur, Puja; Nair, Maya P; Park, Yun-Yong; Sabnis, Nirupama; Deavers, Michael T; Lee, Ju-Seog; Ellis, Lee M; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; McConathy, Walter J; Prokai, Laszlo; Lacko, Andras G; Sood, Anil K

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference holds tremendous potential as a therapeutic approach, especially in the treatment of malignant tumors. However, efficient and biocompatible delivery methods are needed for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). To maintain a high level of growth, tumor cells scavenge high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles by overexpressing its receptor: scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1). In this study, we exploited this cellular characteristic to achieve efficient siRNA delivery and established a novel formulation of siRNA by incorporating it into reconstituted HDL (rHDL) nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that rHDL nanoparticles facilitate highly efficient systemic delivery of siRNA in vivo, mediated by the SR-B1. Moreover, in therapeutic proof-of-concept studies, these nanoparticles were effective in silencing the expression of two proteins that are key to cancer growth and metastasis (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and focal adhesion kinase) in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian and colorectal cancer. These data indicate that an rHDL nanoparticle is a novel and highly efficient siRNA carrier, and therefore, this novel technology could serve as the foundation for new cancer therapeutic approaches. PMID:21472135

  10. Antisense Transcription of Retrotransposons in Drosophila: An Origin of Endogenous Small Interfering RNA Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Harrington, Andrew W; Steiniger, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    Movement of transposons causes insertions, deletions, and chromosomal rearrangements potentially leading to premature lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. To repress these elements and combat genomic instability, eukaryotes have evolved several small RNA-mediated defense mechanisms. Specifically, in Drosophila somatic cells, endogenous small interfering (esi)RNAs suppress retrotransposon mobility. EsiRNAs are produced by Dicer-2 processing of double-stranded RNA precursors, yet the origins of these precursors are unknown. We show that most transposon families are transcribed in both the sense (S) and antisense (AS) direction in Dmel-2 cells. LTR retrotransposons Dm297, mdg1, and blood, and non-LTR retrotransposons juan and jockey transcripts, are generated from intraelement transcription start sites with canonical RNA polymerase II promoters. We also determined that retrotransposon antisense transcripts are less polyadenylated than sense. RNA-seq and small RNA-seq revealed that Dicer-2 RNA interference (RNAi) depletion causes a decrease in the number of esiRNAs mapping to retrotransposons and an increase in expression of both S and AS retrotransposon transcripts. These data support a model in which double-stranded RNA precursors are derived from convergent transcription and processed by Dicer-2 into esiRNAs that silence both sense and antisense retrotransposon transcripts. Reduction of sense retrotransposon transcripts potentially lowers element-specific protein levels to prevent transposition. This mechanism preserves genomic integrity and is especially important for Drosophila fitness because mobile genetic elements are highly active. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Multimeric small interfering ribonucleic acid for highly efficient sequence-specific gene silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Hyejung; Lee, Soo Hyeon; Park, Ji Won; Park, Tae Gwan

    2010-03-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) with 19-21 base pairs has been recently recognized as a new therapeutic agent for effectively silencing a specific gene on a post-transcription level. For siRNA therapeutics, safe and efficient delivery issues are significant hurdles to clinical applications. Here we present a new class of biologically active siRNA structure based on chemically self-crosslinked and multimerized siRNA through cleavable disulphide linkages. The multimerized siRNA can produce more stable and compact polyelectrolyte complexes with less cytotoxic cationic carriers than naked siRNA because of substantially increased charge densities and the presence of flexible chemical linkers in the backbone. The cleavable and multimerized siRNA shows greatly enhanced gene-silencing efficiencies in vitro and in vivo through a target-messenger-RNA-specific RNA interference processing without significantly eliciting immune induction. This study demonstrates that the multimerized siRNA structure complexed with selected cationic condensing agents can serve as potential gene-silencing therapeutics for treating various diseases.

  12. [Apoptosis of glioma cell line U251 induced by small interfering RNA targeting survivin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ru-xiang; Tu, Yan-yang; Jiang, Xiao-dan; Feng, Jiang-nan; Huang, Jun

    2006-04-01

    To construct recombinant expression vectors of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting survivin and investigate apoptosis of glioma cell line U251 mediated by the survivin-targeting siRNA. According to the sequence of the coding region of survivin gene, two strings of 19 nucleotides of inverted sequence flanking the loop sequence of two complementary 9-base oligonucleotides were designed and synthesized to form hairpin construct as the DNA templates for the target siRNA. The siRNA templates were cloned into siRNA expression vector pGenesil-1, and the resulted vector pGenesil-1/survivin was transfected into U251 cells using Metafectene following the standard protocols. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to evaluate survivin gene silencing induced by siRNA transfection at the RNA and protein levels, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis with Annexin-V/PI double staining was used to determine the cell apoptosis. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed significantly lowered survivin expression at both RNA and protein levels in transfected U251 cells, which exhibited a significantly higher apoptosis rate after transfection as shown by flow cytometry analysis. RNA interference mediated by the siRNA expression vector pGenesi-l/survivin can significantly reduce survivin expression and induce remarkable apoptosis in U251 cells.

  13. Multiwavelength pyrometer for gray and non-gray surfaces in the presence of interfering radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel L. P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting the temperature of gray and non-gray bodies in the presence of interfering radiation are presented. A gray body has a constant emissivity less than 1 and a non-gray body has an emissivity which varies with wavelength. The emissivity and reflectivity of the surface is determined over a range of wavelengths. Spectra are also measured of the extraneous interference radiation source and the surface of the object to be measured in the presence of the extraneous interference radiation source. An auxiliary radiation source is used to determine the reflectivity of the surface and also the emissivity. The measured spectrum of the surfaces in the presence of the extraneous interference radiation source is set equal to the emissivity of the surface multiplied by a Planck function containing a temperature term T plus the surface reflectivity multiplied by the spectrum of the extraneous interference radiation source. The equation is then solved for T to determine the temperature of the surface.

  14. Interfering EZH2 Expression Reverses the Cisplatin Resistance in Human Ovarian Cancer by Inhibiting Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Jin, Long; Liu, Jia-Hua; Sui, Yu-Xia; Han, Li-Li; Shen, Xiao-Li

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of the inhibition of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) gene expression on the cisplatin resistance of the human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3/DDP, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. SKOV3/DDP cells were stably transfected with pSUPER-EZH2 (EZH2 RNA interference plasmid) or pcDNA3.1-EZH2 (EZH2 gene overexpression plasmid) using the lipofection method. Real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting confirmed that EZH2 expression was downregulated in pSUPER-EZH2-transfected cells. Flow cytometry revealed that EZH2 inhibition did not induce apoptosis, but significantly inhibited autophagy. In addition, it significantly increased the expression of the cellular senescence-signaling proteins p14(ARF), p16(INK4a), p53, pRb, and p21, and significantly decreased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1, CDK2, and H3K27me3. Cellular senescence was characterized by a significant increase in the G0/G1 ratio and the restoration of sensitivity to cisplatin in the drug-resistant cells. These findings suggest that interfering with EZH2 expression can inhibit SKOV3/DDP cell autophagy and reverse resistance to cisplatin. The underlying mechanisms could be associated with the regulation of the cellular senescence-signaling pathway.

  15. Targeted Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Using Reconstituted High-Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian M.K. Shahzad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference holds tremendous potential as a therapeutic approach, especially in the treatment of malignant tumors. However, efficient and biocompatible delivery methods are needed for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA. To maintain a high level of growth, tumor cells scavenge high-density lipoprotein (HDL particles by overexpressing its receptor: scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1. In this study, we exploited this cellular characteristic to achieve efficient siRNA delivery and established a novel formulation of siRNA by incorporating it into reconstituted HDL (rHDL nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that rHDL nanoparticles facilitate highly efficient systemic delivery of siRNA in vivo, mediated by the SR-B1. Moreover, in therapeutic proof-of-concept studies, these nanoparticles were effective in silencing the expression of two proteins that are key to cancer growth and metastasis (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and focal adhesion kinase in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian and colorectal cancer. These data indicate that an rHDL nanoparticle is a novel and highly efficient siRNA carrier, and therefore, this novel technology could serve as the foundation for new cancer therapeutic approaches.

  16. Amiodarone and metabolite MDEA inhibit Ebola virus infection by interfering with the viral entry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Cristiano; Baritussio, Aldo; Munegato, Denis; Calistri, Arianna; Ha, Huy Riem; Bigler, Laurent; Fabris, Fabrizio; Parolin, Cristina; Palù, Giorgio; Mirazimi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the most lethal transmissible infections characterized by a high fatality rate, and a treatment has not been developed yet. Recently, it has been shown that cationic amphiphiles, among them the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone, inhibit filovirus infection. In the present work, we investigated how amiodarone interferes with Ebola virus infection. Wild-type Sudan ebolavirus and recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus, pseudotyped with the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein, were used to gain further insight into the ability of amiodarone to affect Ebola virus infection. We show that amiodarone decreases Ebola virus infection at concentrations close to those found in the sera of patients treated for arrhythmias. The drug acts by interfering with the fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membrane. We also show that MDEA, the main amiodarone metabolite, contributes to the antiviral activity. Finally, studies with amiodarone analogues indicate that the antiviral activity is correlated with drug ability to accumulate into and interfere with the endocytic pathway. Considering that it is well tolerated, especially in the acute setting, amiodarone appears to deserve consideration for clinical use in EVD. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Interfering effects of multitasking on muscle activity in the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Alvin K; Keir, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Multitasking, where workers are required to perform multiple physical tasks with various levels of cognitive load is common in today's workplace. Simultaneous physical and mental demands are thought to cause task interference and likely increase muscle activity. To test the interfering effects of multitasking, 16 healthy participants performed hand and shoulder exertions with combinations of four grip conditions (no grip, 30% grip with low precision, 30% grip with high precision, and maximal grip) and three shoulder conditions at 90 degrees abduction (maintaining posture, 40% force-controlled moment, 40% posture-controlled moment), with and without the Stroop test while surface EMG was recorded from eight upper extremity muscles. Both 40% MVC shoulder moments increased extrinsic forearm muscle activity by 2-4% MVE (pPerforming the mental task (Stroop test) concurrently with either 40% MVC shoulder moments significantly increased trapezius activity by nearly 2% MVE (pperformance. These small but significant findings may play a role in the development of long-term musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace.

  18. Amides are excellent mimics of phosphate internucleoside linkages and are well tolerated in short interfering RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Daniel; Selvam, Chelliah; Lunstad, Benjamin D; Pallan, Pradeep S; Haas, Amanda; Leake, Devin; Egli, Martin; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an important tool in functional genomics and has an intriguing therapeutic potential. However, the current design of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is not optimal for in vivo applications. Non-ionic phosphate backbone modifications may have the potential to improve the properties of siRNAs, but are little explored in RNAi technologies. Using X-ray crystallography and RNAi activity assays, the present study demonstrates that 3'-CH2-CO-NH-5' amides are excellent replacements for phosphodiester internucleoside linkages in RNA. The crystal structure shows that amide-modified RNA forms a typical A-form duplex. The amide carbonyl group points into the major groove and assumes an orientation that is similar to the P-OP2 bond in the phosphate linkage. Amide linkages are well hydrated by tandem waters linking the carbonyl group and adjacent phosphate oxygens. Amides are tolerated at internal positions of both the guide and passenger strand of siRNAs and may increase the silencing activity when placed near the 5'-end of the passenger strand. As a result, an siRNA containing eight amide linkages is more active than the unmodified control. The results suggest that RNAi may tolerate even more extensive amide modification, which may be useful for optimization of siRNAs for in vivo applications. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Defective interfering viruses and their impact on vaccines and viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frensing, Timo

    2015-05-01

    Defective interfering particles (DIPs) have been found for many important viral pathogens and it is believed that most viruses generate DIPs. This article reviews the current knowledge of the generation and amplification of DIPs, which possess deletions in the viral genome but retain the ability to replicate in the presence of a complete helper virus. In addition, mechanisms are discussed by which DIPs interfere with the replication of their helper virus leading to the production of mainly progeny DIPs by coinfected cells. Even though DIPs cannot replicate on their own, they are biologically active and it is well known that they have a huge impact on virus replication, evolution, and pathogenesis. Moreover, defective genomes are potent inducers of the innate immune response. Yet, little attention has been paid to DIPs in recent years and their impact on biotechnological products such as vaccines and viral vectors remains elusive in most cases. With a focus on influenza virus, this review demonstrates that DIPs are important for basic research on viruses and for the production of viral vaccines and vectors. Reducing the generation and/or amplification of DIPs ensures reproducible results as well as high yields and consistent product quality in virus production. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Genome-wide identification of genes regulated in trans by transposable element small interfering RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Andrea D; Nuthikattu, Saivageethi; Slotkin, R Keith

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are known to influence the regulation of neighboring genes through a variety of mechanisms. Additionally, it was recently discovered that TEs can regulate non-neighboring genes through the trans-acting nature of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). When the epigenetic repression of TEs is lost, TEs become transcriptionally active, and the host cell acts to repress mutagenic transposition by degrading TE mRNAs into siRNAs. In this study, we have performed a genome-wide analysis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and found that TE siRNA-based regulation of genic mRNAs is more pervasive than the two formerly characterized proof-of-principle examples. We identified 27 candidate genic mRNAs that do not contain a TE fragment but are regulated through partial complementarity by the accumulation of TE siRNAs and are therefore influenced by TE epigenetic activation. We have experimentally confirmed several gene targets and demonstrated that they respond to the accumulation of specific 21 nucleotide TE siRNAs that are incorporated into the Arabidopsis Argonaute1 protein. Additionally, we found that one TE siRNA specifically targets and inhibits the formation of a host protein that acts to repress TE activity, suggesting that TEs harbor and potentially evolutionarily select short sequences to act as suppressors of host TE repression. PMID:23863322

  1. Weight-loss medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescription weight loss drugs; Diabetes - weight loss drugs; Obesity - weight loss drugs; Overweight - weight loss drugs ... are not approved by the FDA to treat weight-loss. So you should not take them if you do not have diabetes.

  2. Self-recognition mechanism between skin and suckers prevents octopus arms from interfering with each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Nir; Levy, Guy; Grasso, Frank W; Hochner, Binyamin

    2014-06-02

    Controlling movements of flexible arms is a challenging task for the octopus because of the virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) [1, 2]. Octopuses simplify this control by using stereotypical motion patterns that reduce the DOFs, in the control space, to a workable few [2]. These movements are triggered by the brain and are generated by motor programs embedded in the peripheral neuromuscular system of the arm [3-5]. The hundreds of suckers along each arm have a tendency to stick to almost any object they contact [6-9]. The existence of this reflex could pose significant problems with unplanned interactions between the arms if not appropriately managed. This problem is likely to be accentuated because it is accepted that octopuses are "not aware of their arms" [10-14]. Here we report of a self-recognition mechanism that has a novel role in motor control, restraining the arms from interfering with each other. We show that the suckers of amputated arms never attach to octopus skin because a chemical in the skin inhibits the attachment reflex of the suckers. The peripheral mechanism appears to be overridden by central control because, in contrast to amputated arms, behaving octopuses sometime grab amputated arms. Surprisingly, octopuses seem to identify their own amputated arms, as they treat arms of other octopuses like food more often than their own. This self-recognition mechanism is a novel peripheral component in the embodied organization of the adaptive interactions between the octopus's brain, body, and environment [15, 16]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acoustic cavitation-mediated delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acids with phase-shift nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Mark T.; Porter, Tyrone M.

    2015-01-01

    Localized, targeted delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) has been the foremost hurdle in the use of siRNA for the treatment of various diseases. Major advances have been achieved in the synthesis of siRNA, which has led to greater target messenger RNA (mRNA) silencing and stability in physiological conditions. Although numerous delivery strategies have shown promise, there are still limited options for targeted delivery and release of siRNA administered systemically. In this in vitro study, phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNE) were explored as cavitation nuclei to facilitate free siRNA delivery to cancer cells via sonoporation. A cell suspension containing varying amounts of PSNE and siRNA was exposed to 5 MHz pulsed ultrasound at fixed settings (6.2 MPa peak negative pressure, 5 cycle pulses, 250 Hz pulse repetition frequency, and total exposure duration of 100 seconds). Inertial cavitation emissions were detected throughout the exposure using a passive cavitation detector. Successful siRNA delivery was achieved (i.e. > 50% cell uptake) with high viability (> 80% viability). The percentage of cells with siRNA uptake was correlated with the amount of inertial cavitation activity generated from vaporized PSNE. The siRNA remained functional after delivery, significantly reducing expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a stably transfected cell line. These results show that vaporized PSNE can facilitate siRNA entry into the cytosol of a majority of sonicated cells and may provide a non-endosomal route for siRNA delivery. PMID:25979417

  4. Defective-interfering particles of the human parvovirus adeno-associated virus. [uv radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, C.A.; Myers, M.W.; Risin, D.L.; Carter, B.J.

    1979-04-15

    We have previously shown that adeno-associated virus (AAV) grown in KB cells with a helper adenovirus, produced several classes of particles defined by their buoyant density in CsCl. The predominant density classes were referred to as AAV(1.45), AAV(1.41), AAV (1.35), and AAV(1.32), respectively, where the density of the particle was written in the parentheses. The AAV(1.45) and AAV(1.41) particles which contained standard genomes were the only infectious AAV these infectious AAV particles exhibited autointerference. The ligh-density AAV(1.35) and (1.32) particles contained aberrant (deleted and/or snap-back) genomes. We report here experiments which show that the light-density AAV particles were noninfectious but interfered with the replication of AAV(1.41). The interference was intracellular and resulted in inhibition of synthesis of standard (14.5S) AAV genomes. In some cases there was also a concomitant increase in synthesis of aberrant, shorter AAV DNA. The inhibitory activity of the light-density particles was abolished by uv irradiation. These results show that the population of light AAV particles contained DI particles. The observed autointerference of AAV(1.45) or AAV(1.41) virus is postulated to be due to AAV DI particles. Replication of AAV DI genomes appeared to require the presence of replicating, standard AAV genomes. This is interpreted to mean that progeny strand replication of AAV requires an AAV-specified product, presumably the AAV capsid protein. In contrast to standard, infectious AAV, the AAV DI particles alone do not inhibit replication of the helper adenovirus.

  5. Suramin inhibits Zika virus replication by interfering with virus attachment and release of infectious particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albulescu, Irina C; Kovacikova, Kristina; Tas, Ali; Snijder, Eric J; van Hemert, Martijn J

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that mostly causes asymptomatic infections or mild disease characterized by low-grade fever, rash, conjunctivitis, and malaise. However, the recent massive ZIKV epidemics in the Americas have also linked ZIKV infection to fetal malformations like microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and have uncovered previously unrecognized routes of vertical and sexual transmission. Here we describe inhibition of ZIKV replication by suramin, originally an anti-parasitic drug, which was more recently shown to inhibit multiple viruses. In cell culture-based assays, using reduction of cytopathic effect as read-out, suramin had an EC50 of ∼40 μM and a selectivity index of 48. In single replication cycle experiments, suramin treatment also caused a strong dose-dependent decrease in intracellular ZIKV RNA levels and a >3-log reduction in infectious progeny titers. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that suramin inhibits a very early step of the replication cycle as well as the release of infectious progeny. Only during the first 2 h of infection suramin treatment strongly reduced the fraction of cells that became infected with ZIKV, suggesting the drug affects virus binding/entry. Binding experiments at 4 °C using 35S-labeled ZIKV demonstrated that suramin interferes with attachment to host cells. When suramin treatment was initiated post-entry, viral RNA synthesis was unaffected, while both the release of genomes and the infectivity of ZIKV were reduced. This suggests the compound also affects virion biogenesis, possibly by interfering with glycosylation and the maturation of ZIKV during its traffic through the secretory pathway. The inhibitory effect of suramin on ZIKV attachment and virion biogenesis and its broad-spectrum activity warrant further evaluation of this compound as a potential therapeutic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Viral small interfering RNAs target host genes to mediate disease symptoms in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Smith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat has a small non-protein-coding RNA genome that induces yellowing symptoms in infected Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco. How this RNA pathogen induces such symptoms has been a longstanding question. We show that the yellowing symptoms are a result of small interfering RNA (siRNA-directed RNA silencing of the chlorophyll biosynthetic gene, CHLI. The CHLI mRNA contains a 22-nucleotide (nt complementary sequence to the Y-Sat genome, and in Y-Sat-infected plants, CHLI expression is dramatically down-regulated. Small RNA sequencing and 5' RACE analyses confirmed that this 22-nt sequence was targeted for mRNA cleavage by Y-Sat-derived siRNAs. Transformation of tobacco with a RNA interference (RNAi vector targeting CHLI induced Y-Sat-like symptoms. In addition, the symptoms of Y-Sat infection can be completely prevented by transforming tobacco with a silencing-resistant variant of the CHLI gene. These results suggest that siRNA-directed silencing of CHLI is solely responsible for the Y-Sat-induced symptoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that two Nicotiana species, which do not develop yellowing symptoms upon Y-Sat infection, contain a single nucleotide polymorphism within the siRNA-targeted CHLI sequence. This suggests that the previously observed species specificity of Y-Sat-induced symptoms is due to natural sequence variation in the CHLI gene, preventing CHLI silencing in species with a mismatch to the Y-Sat siRNA. Taken together, these findings provide the first demonstration of small RNA-mediated viral disease symptom production and offer an explanation of the species specificity of the viral disease.

  7. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3–1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  8. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Fahlgren

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  9. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  10. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1-2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34 (rhPTH (1-34 or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD, microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs, and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05. Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01. The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05. This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of

  11. Functional specialization of the small interfering RNA pathway in response to virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Trindade Marques

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, post-transcriptional gene silencing occurs when exogenous or endogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs by Dicer-2 (Dcr-2 in association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP cofactor called Loquacious (Loqs-PD. siRNAs are then loaded onto Argonaute-2 (Ago2 by the action of Dcr-2 with another dsRBP cofactor called R2D2. Loaded Ago2 executes the destruction of target RNAs that have sequence complementarity to siRNAs. Although Dcr-2, R2D2, and Ago2 are essential for innate antiviral defense, the mechanism of virus-derived siRNA (vsiRNA biogenesis and viral target inhibition remains unclear. Here, we characterize the response mechanism mediated by siRNAs against two different RNA viruses that infect Drosophila. In both cases, we show that vsiRNAs are generated by Dcr-2 processing of dsRNA formed during viral genome replication and, to a lesser extent, viral transcription. These vsiRNAs seem to preferentially target viral polyadenylated RNA to inhibit viral replication. Loqs-PD is completely dispensable for silencing of the viruses, in contrast to its role in silencing endogenous targets. Biogenesis of vsiRNAs is independent of both Loqs-PD and R2D2. R2D2, however, is required for sorting and loading of vsiRNAs onto Ago2 and inhibition of viral RNA expression. Direct injection of viral RNA into Drosophila results in replication that is also independent of Loqs-PD. This suggests that triggering of the antiviral pathway is not related to viral mode of entry but recognition of intrinsic features of virus RNA. Our results indicate the existence of a vsiRNA pathway that is separate from the endogenous siRNA pathway and is specifically triggered by virus RNA. We speculate that this unique framework might be necessary for a prompt and efficient antiviral response.

  12. Delivery of small interfering RNAs in human cervical cancer cells by polyethylenimine-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Pin; Lin, I.-Jou; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are capable of penetrating the cell membrane and are widely considered as potential carriers for gene or drug delivery. Because the C-C and C=C bonds in carbon nanotubes are nonpolar, functionalization is required for carbon nanotubes to interact with genes or drugs as well as to improve their biocompatibility. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI)-functionalized single-wall (PEI-NH-SWNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (PEI-NH-MWNTs) were produced by direct amination method. PEI functionalization increased the positive charge on the surface of SWNTs and MWNTs, allowing carbon nanotubes to interact electrostatically with the negatively charged small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and to serve as nonviral gene delivery reagents. PEI-NH-MWNTs and PEI-NH-SWNTs had a better solubility in water than pristine carbon nanotubes, and further removal of large aggregates by centrifugation produced a stable suspension of reduced particle size and improved homogeneity and dispersity. The amount of grafted PEI estimated by thermogravimetric analysis was 5.08% ( w/ w) and 5.28% ( w/ w) for PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs, respectively. For the assessment of cytotoxicity, various concentrations of PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs were incubated with human cervical cancer cells, HeLa-S3, for 48 h. PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs induced cell deaths in a dose-dependent manner but were less cytotoxic compared to pure PEI. As determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, siRNAs directed against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (siGAPDH) were completely associated with PEI-NH-SWNTs or PEI-NH-MWNTs at a PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH or PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratio of 80:1 or 160:1, respectively. Furthermore, PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs successfully delivered siGAPDH into HeLa-S3 cells at PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH and PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratios of 1:1 to 20:1, resulting in suppression of the mRNA level of GAPDH to an extent similar to that of DharmaFECT, a common transfection

  13. Rapid delivery of small interfering RNA by biosurfactant MEL-A-containing liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide [School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan); Hirashima, Naohide [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3-1 Tanabe-dori, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8603 (Japan); Kitamoto, Dai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 5, 1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan); Nakanishi, Mamoru, E-mail: mamoru@dpc.agu.ac.jp [School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes can efficiently and rapidly deliver siRNA into the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid delivery of siRNA is due to the membrane fusion between liposomes and plasma membrane. -- Abstract: The downregulation of gene expression by RNA interference holds great potential for genetic analysis and gene therapy. However, a more efficient delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the target cells is required for wide fields such as cell biology, physiology, and clinical application. Non-viral vectors are stronger candidates than viral vectors because they are safer and easier to prepare. We have previously used a new method for gene transfection by combining cationic liposomes with the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A). The novel MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes rapidly delivered DNA (plasmids and oligonucleotides) into the cytosol and nucleus through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane, and consequently, enhanced the gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we determined the efficiency of MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. We observed that exogenous and endogenous protein expression was suppressed by approximately 60% at 24 h after brief (30 min) incubation of target cells with MEL-A-containing cationic liposome/siRNA complexes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that suppression of protein expression was caused by rapid siRNA delivery into the cytosol. We found that the MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes directly delivered siRNA into the cytoplasm by the membrane fusion in addition to endocytotic pathway whereas Lipofectamine Trade-Mark-Sign RNAiMax delivered siRNA only by the endocytotic pathway. It seems that the ability to rapidly and directly deliver siRNA into the cytosol using MEL-A-containing cationic

  14. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation of Small-Interfering RNA Anions and Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Myles W.; Li, Na; Ellington, Andrew D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer is applied for the sequencing of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Both single-strand siRNAs and duplex siRNA were characterized by IRMPD, and the results were compared to that obtained by traditional ion trap based collision induced dissociation (CID). The single-strand siRNA anions were observed to dissociate via cleavage of the 5’ P–O bonds yielding c- and y-type product ions as well as undergo neutral base loss. Full sequence coverage of the siRNA anions was obtained by both IRMPD and CID. While the CID mass spectra were dominated by base loss ions, accounting for ~25 – 40% of the product ion current, these ions were eliminated through secondary dissociation by increasing the irradiation time in the IRMPD mass spectra to produce higher abundances of informative sequence ions. With longer irradiation times, however, internal ions corresponding to cleavage of two 5’ P–O bonds began to populate the product ion mass spectra as well as higher abundances of [a - Base] and w-type ions. IRMPD of siRNA cations predominantly produced c- and y-type ions with minimal contributions of [a - Base] and w-type ions to the product ion current; the presence of only two complementary series of product ions in the IRMPD mass spectra simplified spectral interpretation. In addition, IRMPD produced high abundances of protonated nucleobases – [G+H]+, [A+H]+, and [C+H]+ - which were not detected in the CID mass spectra due to the low-mass cut-off associated with conventional CID in ion traps. CID and IRMPD using short irradiation times of duplex siRNA resulted in strand separation, similar to the dissociation trends observed for duplex DNA. With longer irradiation times, however, the individual single-strands underwent secondary dissociation to yield informative sequence ions not obtained by CID. PMID:20129797

  15. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi Weed interference in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A semeadura do feijão-caupi cultivar BR 16 foi realizada em julho de 2007, no sistema de plantio convencional. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos constituídos de períodos de controle ou convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura. No primeiro grupo, a cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas, por meio de capinas, nos períodos de: 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 e 0-60 (colheita. No segundo grupo, a cultura permaneceu sob a interferência desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foi de 11 a 35 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o rendimento de grãos do feijão-caupi em até 90%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, sown under the conventional system in July 2007. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with the treatments consisting of periods of control or intercropping of the weeds with the crop. In the first group, the bean crop remained free of weed interference in the periods 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 and 0-60 (harvest. .In the second group, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of emergence up to the same periods previously described. The critical period of weed interference prevention (CPIP was from 11 to 35 days after crop emergence. Weed interference reduced the final stand, number of pods per plant, and grain yield up to 90%.

  16. Chronic pain disrupts ability to work by interfering with social function: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstebeck, Elizabeth; Roskos, Steven; Breejen, Karen; Arnetz, Bengt; Arnetz, Judy

    2017-10-01

    Some 100 million adults in the United States suffer from chronic pain. While research to date has focused primarily on pain interference with physical and psychological function and its effects on employment, few studies have examined the impact of pain interference on social functioning and its effects on employment. The aims of our study were to (1) evaluate the association between pain interference with ability to work and actual employment status among working age adults with chronic pain; and (2) evaluate pain interference with four types of functioning - cognitive, physical, psychological, and social - as possible mediators of pain interference with the ability to work. Data were collected via a self-selected sample of individuals visiting the American Chronic Pain Association (ACPA) website. The final dataset included 966 respondents. We examined the association between pain interference with the ability to work and employment in a population with chronic pain. We then analyzed pain interference with four types of functioning, physical, psychological, cognitive, and social, for their impact on the ability to work. Pain interference with ability to work was significantly inversely associated with employment status, i.e., the less that pain interfered with one's ability to work, the greater the likelihood of being employed. Moreover, pain interference with ability to work was a stronger predictor of employment status than an individual's rating of their pain intensity. Pain interference with social functioning partially mediated the effects of pain interference with cognitive and physical functioning and fully mediated the effects of pain intensity and pain interference with psychological functioning on pain interference with the ability to work. Results suggest that pain interference with social function may be a significant contributor to pain interference with ability to work in working age adults with chronic pain. In the development of effective solutions

  17. Interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do tomate para processamento Weed interference in processing tomato crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Para se alcançar eficiência no manejo cultural, é muito importante determinar o período crítico de interferência (PCI das plantas daninhas no cultivo das hortaliças. Avaliou-se neste trabalho a interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do tomate para processamento, pelo transplantio de mudas, na Embrapa Hortaliças, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições. Os tratamentos foram divididos em dois grupos, com períodos iniciais crescentes, denominados sem a interferência (no limpo e com interferência (no mato das plantas daninhas. No primeiro, a cultura de tomate permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas desde o transplantio das mudas até os seguintes períodos (dias do ciclo de desenvolvimento do tomate: 1-28, 1-35, 1-49, 1-63, 1-77, 1-91 (todo ciclo, colheita. Após estes períodos, as plantas daninhas cresceram livremente até o final do ciclo da cultura. No segundo grupo a cultura permaneceu com a interferência das plantas daninhas desde o preparo final do solo e transplantio das mudas até os mesmos períodos descritos para o primeiro grupo. Após estes períodos as plantas daninhas foram removidas manualmente até a colheita. De um total de 24, as espécies mais freqüentes e/ou de maior acúmulo de matéria seca foram: Bidens pilosa, Brachiaria plantaginea, Nicandra physaloides e Oxalis latifolia. As plantas daninhas causaram reduções na produção de tomate de até 75,5%, sendo que o PCI ocorreu no período do 33º ao 76º dia após a implantação da cultura.Weed control efficiency depends on the information about its interference on the crops. The interference of weed on tomato plants of a processing variety, transplanted directly into the field was evaluated. The field experiment was carried out, in a randomized block design with three replications, at Embrapa Hortaliças in Brasília, Brazil. Plots were laid out with increasing periods of time in the presence or absence of weeds. In the

  18. Conflicting Selection Pressures Will Constrain Viral Escape from Interfering Particles: Principles for Designing Resistance-Proof Antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Luke I; Rouzine, Igor M; Rozhnova, Ganna; Bishop, Lisa; Weinberger, Ariel D; Weinberger, Leor S

    2016-05-01

    The rapid evolution of RNA-encoded viruses such as HIV presents a major barrier to infectious disease control using conventional pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Previously, it was proposed that defective interfering particles could be developed to indefinitely control the HIV/AIDS pandemic; in individual patients, these engineered molecular parasites were further predicted to be refractory to HIV's mutational escape (i.e., be 'resistance-proof'). However, an outstanding question has been whether these engineered interfering particles-termed Therapeutic Interfering Particles (TIPs)-would remain resistance-proof at the population-scale, where TIP-resistant HIV mutants may transmit more efficiently by reaching higher viral loads in the TIP-treated subpopulation. Here, we develop a multi-scale model to test whether TIPs will maintain indefinite control of HIV at the population-scale, as HIV ('unilaterally') evolves toward TIP resistance by limiting the production of viral proteins available for TIPs to parasitize. Model results capture the existence of two intrinsic evolutionary tradeoffs that collectively prevent the spread of TIP-resistant HIV mutants in a population. First, despite their increased transmission rates in TIP-treated sub-populations, unilateral TIP-resistant mutants are shown to have reduced transmission rates in TIP-untreated sub-populations. Second, these TIP-resistant mutants are shown to have reduced growth rates (i.e., replicative fitness) in both TIP-treated and TIP-untreated individuals. As a result of these tradeoffs, the model finds that TIP-susceptible HIV strains continually outcompete TIP-resistant HIV mutants at both patient and population scales when TIPs are engineered to express >3-fold more genomic RNA than HIV expresses. Thus, the results provide design constraints for engineering population-scale therapies that may be refractory to the acquisition of antiviral resistance.

  19. Conflicting Selection Pressures Will Constrain Viral Escape from Interfering Particles: Principles for Designing Resistance-Proof Antivirals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke I Rast

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of RNA-encoded viruses such as HIV presents a major barrier to infectious disease control using conventional pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Previously, it was proposed that defective interfering particles could be developed to indefinitely control the HIV/AIDS pandemic; in individual patients, these engineered molecular parasites were further predicted to be refractory to HIV's mutational escape (i.e., be 'resistance-proof'. However, an outstanding question has been whether these engineered interfering particles-termed Therapeutic Interfering Particles (TIPs-would remain resistance-proof at the population-scale, where TIP-resistant HIV mutants may transmit more efficiently by reaching higher viral loads in the TIP-treated subpopulation. Here, we develop a multi-scale model to test whether TIPs will maintain indefinite control of HIV at the population-scale, as HIV ('unilaterally' evolves toward TIP resistance by limiting the production of viral proteins available for TIPs to parasitize. Model results capture the existence of two intrinsic evolutionary tradeoffs that collectively prevent the spread of TIP-resistant HIV mutants in a population. First, despite their increased transmission rates in TIP-treated sub-populations, unilateral TIP-resistant mutants are shown to have reduced transmission rates in TIP-untreated sub-populations. Second, these TIP-resistant mutants are shown to have reduced growth rates (i.e., replicative fitness in both TIP-treated and TIP-untreated individuals. As a result of these tradeoffs, the model finds that TIP-susceptible HIV strains continually outcompete TIP-resistant HIV mutants at both patient and population scales when TIPs are engineered to express >3-fold more genomic RNA than HIV expresses. Thus, the results provide design constraints for engineering population-scale therapies that may be refractory to the acquisition of antiviral resistance.

  20. Desarrollo de panuveítis por tuberculosis en paciente con esclerosis múltiple tratado con interferón beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Echevarría Lucas

    2016-09-01

    Los linfocitos CD4+ T, leucocitos, macrófagos y granulocitos, con la producción de sus mediadores interferón gamma, IL-12 o TNF-α son fundamentales para controlar al Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Por ello, antes de introducir Interferón beta 1b, convendría realizar técnicas de screening, como la prueba de Mantoux o el interferon gamma release assay–(quantiferon-TB para detectar posibles tuberculosis latentes potencialmente activables.

  1. Potential misinterpretation of the nutritional value of dietary fiber: correcting fiber digestibility values for nondietary gut-interfering material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Henare, Sharon J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the origin and implications of a nondietary material present in digesta and feces that interferes with the determination of dietary fiber in gastrointestinal contents. Negative values for ileal and fecal digestibility of dietary fiber are commonly reported in the literature for monogastric animal species, including humans. As negative values are not possible physiologically, this suggests the existence of a nondietary material in the gastrointestinal contents and feces that interferes with the accurate determination of dietary fiber digestibility when conventional methods of fiber determination are applied. To date, little attention has been given to this nondietary interfering material, which appears to be influenced by the type and concentration of fiber in the diet. Interestingly, estimates of dietary fiber digestibility increase substantially when corrected for the nondietary interfering material, which suggests that currently reported values underestimate the digestibility of dietary fiber and may misrepresent where, in the digestive tract, fermentation of fiber occurs. A new perspective of dietary fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract is developing, leading to a better understanding of the contribution of dietary fiber to health. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Suppression of CB1 cannabinoid receptor by lentivirus mediated small interfering RNA ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Wen Chen

    Full Text Available It is recognized that endogenous cannabinoids, which signal through CB1 receptors in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, exert a profibrotic effect on chronic liver diseases. In this study, we suppressed CB1 expression by lentivirus mediated small interfering RNA (CB1-RNAi-LV and investigated its effect on hepatic fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that CB1-RNAi-LV significantly inhibited CB1 expression, and suppressed proliferation and extracellular matrix production in HSCs. Furthermore, CB1-RNAi-LV ameliorated dimethylnitrosamine induced hepatic fibrosis markedly, which was associated with the decreased expression of mesenchymal cell markers smooth muscle α-actin, vimentin and snail, and the increased expression of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. The mechanism lies on the blockage of Smad signaling transduction induced by transforming growth factor β1 and its receptor TGF-β RII. Our study firstly provides the evidence that CB1-RNAi-LV might ameliorate hepatic fibrosis through the reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, while the CB1 antagonists AM251 had no effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transitions of HSCs. This suggests that CB1 is implicated in hepatic fibrosis and selective suppression of CB1 by small interfering RNA may present a powerful tool for hepatic fibrosis treatment.

  3. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  4. Lactobacillus crispatus M206119 exacerbates murine DSS-colitis by interfering with inflammatory responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-Xi; Chen, Lu; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Ouyang, Chun-Hui; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Xue-Hong; Wang, Chun-Lian; Lu, Fang-Gen

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of Lactobacillus crispatus (L. crispatus) strain China Center for Type Culture Collection (CCTCC) M206119 in intestinal inflammation. METHODS: Forty 8-wk-old Balb/c mice (20 ± 2 g) were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. Three groups that had received dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were administered normal saline, sulfasalazine or CCTCC M206119 strain, and the fourth group received none of these. We assessed the severity of colitis using a disease activity index, measured the colon length and weight, collected stools and mesenteric lymph nodes for bacterial microflora analysis. One centimeter of the proximal colon, middle colon and distal colon were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin, dehydrated in ethanol, and embedded in paraffin. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Protective factors zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and β-defensin 2 were detected by immunoblotting. The features of CCTCC M206119 strain were identified based on morphology, biochemical profile, and 16S RNA sequencing. RESULTS: DSS-colitis animals treated with CCTCC M206119 had markedly more severe disease, with greater weight loss, diarrhea, fecal bleeding, and shortened colon length. In addition, the CCTCC-M206119-treated group had comparatively higher histological scores and more neutrophil infiltration than the controls. Expression of protective factors ZO-1 and β-defensin 2 was downregulated due to destruction of the mucosal barrier after CCTCC M206119 strain treatment. An in vitro assay demonstrated that CCTCC M206119 strain increased the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB in epithelial cells. Intestinal proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokine responses were evaluated. Proinflammatory colonic cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) levels were clearly increased in CCTCC-M206119-treated animals, whereas anti-inflammatory colonic cytokine (IL

  5. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota Weed interference on carrot crop (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Coelho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura é uma importante hortaliça no Brasil, cuja produtividade pode ser muito reduzida devido à interferência de plantas daninhas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar efeitos de períodos de convivência das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cenoura cultivar "Brasília" e na comunidade de plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de períodos crescentes de convivência ou controle das plantas daninhas. A comunidade de plantas daninhas foi avaliada quanto a número de indivíduos, matéria seca acumulada e frequência de ocorrência das espécies, e a cultura, quanto à produtividade comercial. As principais plantas daninhas foram Ageratum conyzoides, Digitaria nuda, Eleusine indica e Lepidium virginicum. A presença da comunidade de plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cultura pode acarretar perdas de 94% na produtividade, evidenciando alta suscetibilidade da cenoura à interferência das plantas daninhas. Contudo, não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, e um único controle das plantas daninhas, entre 22 e 31 dias após a semeadura, foi suficiente para garantir a produção da cultura.Carrot is an important horticultural crop in Brazil, and its productivity may be highly reduced due to weed interference. This study evaluated the effects of weed coexistence periods on carrot cultivar 'Brasilia' yield and on the weed community. The treatments were constituted of increasing weed coexistence periods or weed-free periods. The weed community was evaluated based on number of individuals, dry matter accumulation, and frequency of occurrence; while the crop was evaluated based on marketable productivity. The main weeds were Ageratum conyzoides, Digitaria nuda, Eleusine indica, and Lepidium virginicum. The presence of the weed community throughout the crop season can cause yield losses of 94%, showing high susceptibility of the carrot crop to weed interference. However, there was no critical period for

  6. Fake weighted projective spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Buczynska, Weronika

    2008-01-01

    We define fake weighted projective spaces as a generalisation of weighted projective spaces. We introduce the notions of fundamental group in codimension 1 and of universal covering in codimension 1. We prove that for every fake weighted projective space its universal cover in codimension 1 is a weighted projective space.

  7. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food ...

  8. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... you feel better. There are proven ways to lose weight. You can find what works for you. Research ...

  9. Una aproximació ontològica de la interfície d’Internet i les implicacions en el disseny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Morera Vidal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La seva estructura d'Internet no és uniforme ni ordenada en el sentit de “prevista”, sinó que més aviat és adaptable i caòtica. El punt de contacte entre l’emissor i el receptor final de la informació digital és la interfície. La forma habitual de la interfície és la de pantalla.La interfície no ofereix una connexió neutre en cap de les dues direccions de la comunicació a la xarxa. El control de l’aparença de la interfície condicionarà aquesta comunicació. En un mitjà sincrètic com Internet, el disseny de la interfície té influència en el desplaçament dels centres de poder.

  10. Peptidomimetics with beta-peptoid resudies as carriers for intracellular delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    complexes with and transport small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the cell cytoplasm. These new compounds are peptidomimetic dodecamers based on alternating repeats of chiral N-alkylated ß-alanine residues (ß-peptoids) and a-amino acids with a net charge of +6. Complexes of siRNA and peptidomimetics were...... prepared by mixing and characterized with respect to size and surface charge. At ratios of peptide nitrogen to siRNA phosphate (N/P) of 1 and below, particles with narrow size distributions (poly dispersity indexes lower than 0.11) ranging from approximately 100 to 350 nm were formed, and they showed...... cytometry. We conclude that simple complex formation via electrostatic interactions between siRNA and the cationic peptidomimetics is not sufficient for the delivery of siRNA to the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the cytoplasm. We are currently testing chemical conjugates of siRNA...

  11. Effect of clothing weight on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whigham, L D; Schoeller, D A; Johnson, L K; Atkinson, R L

    2013-01-01

    In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight of adults with weather, season and gender. Fifty adults (35 women) were weighed four times during a 12-month period with and without clothing. Clothing weights were determined and regressed against minimum, maximum and average daily outdoor temperature. The average clothing weight (±s.d.) throughout the year was significantly greater in men than in women (1.2±0.3 vs 0.8±0.3 kg, Pclothing weights across the year were 0.9±0.2 and 1.5±0.4 kg for men, and 0.5±0.2 and 1.1±0.4 kg for women, respectively. The within-person s.d. in clothing weight was 0.3 kg for both men and women. Over the 55 °C range in the lowest to the highest outdoor temperatures, the regressions predicted a maximal change in clothing weight of only 0.4 kg in women and 0.6 kg in men. The clothing weight of men is significantly greater than that of women, but there is little variability throughout the year. Therefore, a clothing adjustment of approximately 0.8 kg for women and 1.2 kg for men is appropriate regardless of outdoor temperature.

  12. Terapia combinada de criocirugía e interferón alfa-2b humano recombinante en el condiloma acuminado

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Trujillo , Israel

    2015-01-01

    Las continuas recidivas de lcondiloma acuminado hace necesario la búsqueda constante de alternativas terapéuticas. Para evaluar la eficacia terapéutica y seguridad del interferón alfa-2b asociado a criocirugía en el condiloma acuminado fue realizado un ensayo clínico abierto en 170 pacientes del hospital “Hermanos Ameijeiras” que fueron aleatorizados a recibir durante 6 semanas (grupo A) 3 x 106 UI de interferón subcutáneo, 3 veces por semana y aplicación quincenal de criocirugía o (grupo B) ...

  13. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APF You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... of carbohydrate and energy in an effort to lose weight can worsen these diseases. Severe acute attacks have ...

  14. Evasion of short interfering RNA-directed antiviral silencing in Musa acuminata persistently infected with six distinct banana streak pararetroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Seguin, Jonathan; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Laboureau, Nathalie; Farinelli, Laurent; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2014-10-01

    Vegetatively propagated crop plants often suffer from infections with persistent RNA and DNA viruses. Such viruses appear to evade the plant defenses that normally restrict viral replication and spread. The major antiviral defense mechanism is based on RNA silencing generating viral short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that can potentially repress viral genes posttranscriptionally through RNA cleavage and transcriptionally through DNA cytosine methylation. Here we examined the RNA silencing machinery of banana plants persistently infected with six pararetroviruses after many years of vegetative propagation. Using deep sequencing, we reconstructed consensus master genomes of the viruses and characterized virus-derived and endogenous small RNAs. Consistent with the presence of endogenous siRNAs that can potentially establish and maintain DNA methylation, the banana genomic DNA was extensively methylated in both healthy and virus-infected plants. A novel class of abundant 20-nucleotide (nt) endogenous small RNAs with 5'-terminal guanosine was identified. In all virus-infected plants, 21- to 24-nt viral siRNAs accumulated at relatively high levels (up to 22% of the total small RNA population) and covered the entire circular viral DNA genomes in both orientations. The hotspots of 21-nt and 22-nt siRNAs occurred within open reading frame (ORF) I and II and the 5' portion of ORF III, while 24-nt siRNAs were more evenly distributed along the viral genome. Despite the presence of abundant viral siRNAs of different size classes, the viral DNA was largely free of cytosine methylation. Thus, the virus is able to evade siRNA-directed DNA methylation and thereby avoid transcriptional silencing. This evasion of silencing likely contributes to the persistence of pararetroviruses in banana plants. We report that DNA pararetroviruses in Musa acuminata banana plants are able to evade DNA cytosine methylation and transcriptional gene silencing, despite being targeted by the host silencing

  15. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based functional micro- and nanostructures for efficient and selective gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Chung, Bong Hyun; Park, Tae Gwan; Nam, Yoon Sung; Mok, Hyejung

    2012-07-17

    Because of RNA's ability to encode structure and functional information, researchers have fabricated diverse geometric structures from this polymer at the micro- and nanoscale. With their tunable structures, rigidity, and biocompatibility, novel two-dimensional and three-dimensional RNA structures can serve as a fundamental platform for biomedical applications, including engineered tissues, biosensors, and drug delivery vehicles. The discovery of the potential of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) has underscored the applications of RNA-based micro- and nanostructures in medicine. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA), synthetic double-stranded RNA consisting of approximately 21 base pairs, suppresses problematic target genes in a sequence-specific manner via inherent RNA interference (RNAi) processing. As a result, siRNA offers a potential strategy for treatment of many human diseases. However, due to inefficient delivery to cells and off-target effects, the clinical application of therapeutic siRNA has been very challenging. To address these issues, researchers have studied a variety of nanocarrier systems for siRNA delivery. In this Account, we describe several strategies for efficient siRNA delivery and selective gene silencing. We took advantage of facile chemical conjugation and complementary hybridization to design novel siRNA-based micro- and nanostructures. Using chemical crosslinkers and hydrophobic/hydrophilic polymers at the end of siRNA, we produced various RNA-based structures, including siRNA block copolymers, micelles, linear siRNA homopolymers, and microhydrogels. Because of their increased charge density and flexibility compared with conventional siRNA, these micro- and nanostructures can form polyelectrolyte complexes with poorly charged and biocompatible cationic carriers that are both more condensed and more homogenous than the complexes formed in other carrier systems. In addition, the fabricated siRNA-based structures are linked by cleavable disulfide

  16. Surface α-1,3-glucan facilitates fungal stealth infection by interfering with innate immunity in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujikawa

    Full Text Available Plants evoke innate immunity against microbial challenges upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, such as fungal cell wall chitin. Nevertheless, pathogens may circumvent the host PAMP-triggered immunity. We previously reported that the ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae, a famine-causing rice pathogen, masks cell wall surfaces with α-1,3-glucan during invasion. Here, we show that the surface α-1,3-glucan is indispensable for the successful infection of the fungus by interfering with the plant's defense mechanisms. The α-1,3-glucan synthase gene MgAGS1 was not essential for infectious structure development but was required for infection in M. oryzae. Lack or degradation of surface α-1,3-glucan increased fungal susceptibility towards chitinase, suggesting the protective role of α-1,3-glucan against plants' antifungal enzymes during infection. Furthermore, rice plants secreting bacterial α-1,3-glucanase (AGL-rice showed strong resistance not only to M. oryzae but also to the phylogenetically distant ascomycete Cochlioborus miyabeanus and the polyphagous basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani; the histocytochemical analysis of the latter two revealed that α-1,3-glucan also concealed cell wall chitin in an infection-specific manner. Treatment with α-1,3-glucanase in vitro caused fragmentation of infectious hyphae in R. solani but not in M. oryzae or C. miyabeanus, indicating that α-1,3-glucan is also involved in maintaining infectious structures in some fungi. Importantly, rapid defense responses were evoked (a few hours after inoculation in the AGL-rice inoculated with M. oryzae, C. miyabeanus and R. solani as well as in non-transgenic rice inoculated with the ags1 mutant. Taken together, our results suggest that α-1,3-glucan protected the fungal cell wall from degradative enzymes secreted by plants even from the pre-penetration stage and interfered with the release of PAMPs to delay innate immune defense responses. Because

  17. Transcriptome-wide identification of host genes targeted by tomato spotted wilt virus-derived small interfering RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Williams, Sarah; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Pappu, Hanu R

    2017-06-15

    RNA silencing mechanism functions as a major defense against invading viruses. The caveat in the RNA silencing mechanism is that the effector small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) act on any RNA transcripts with sequence complementarity irrespective of target's origin. A subset of highly expressed viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) derived from the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae) genome was analyzed for their propensity to downregulate the tomato transcriptome. A total of 11898 putative target sites on tomato transcripts were found to exhibit a propensity for down regulation by TSWV-derived vsiRNAs. In total, 2450 unique vsiRNAs were found to have potential cross-reacting capability with the tomato transcriptome. VsiRNAs were found to potentially target a gamut of host genes involved in basal cellular activities including enzymes, transcription factors, membrane transporters, and cytoskeletal proteins. KEGG pathway annotation of targets revealed that the vsiRNAs were mapped to secondary metabolite biosynthesis, amino acids, starch and sucrose metabolism, and carbon and purine metabolism. Transcripts for protein processing, hormone signalling, and plant-pathogen interactions were the most likely targets from the genetic, environmental information processing, and organismal systems, respectively. qRT-PCR validation of target gene expression showed that none of the selected transcripts from tomato cv. Marglobe showed up regulation, and all were down regulated even upto 20 folds (high affinity glucose transporter). However, the expression levels of transcripts from cv. Red Defender revealed differential regulation as three among the target transcripts showed up regulation (Cc-nbs-lrr, resistance protein, AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor, and heat stress transcription factor A3). Accumulation of tomato target mRNAs of corresponding length was proved in both tomato cultivars using 5' RACE analysis. The TSWV-tomato interaction at

  18. Influenza Virus Reassortment Is Enhanced by Semi-infectious Particles but Can Be Suppressed by Defective Interfering Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonville, Judith M; Marshall, Nicolle; Tao, Hui; Steel, John; Lowen, Anice C

    2015-10-01

    A high particle to infectivity ratio is a feature common to many RNA viruses, with ~90-99% of particles unable to initiate a productive infection under low multiplicity conditions. A recent publication by Brooke et al. revealed that, for influenza A virus (IAV), a proportion of these seemingly non-infectious particles are in fact semi-infectious. Semi-infectious (SI) particles deliver an incomplete set of viral genes to the cell, and therefore cannot support a full cycle of replication unless complemented through co-infection. In addition to SI particles, IAV populations often contain defective-interfering (DI) particles, which actively interfere with production of infectious progeny. With the aim of understanding the significance to viral evolution of these incomplete particles, we tested the hypothesis that SI and DI particles promote diversification through reassortment. Our approach combined computational simulations with experimental determination of infection, co-infection and reassortment levels following co-inoculation of cultured cells with two distinct influenza A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2)-based viruses. Computational results predicted enhanced reassortment at a given % infection or multiplicity of infection with increasing semi-infectious particle content. Comparison of experimental data to the model indicated that the likelihood that a given segment is missing varies among the segments and that most particles fail to deliver ≥1 segment. To verify the prediction that SI particles augment reassortment, we performed co-infections using viruses exposed to low dose UV. As expected, the introduction of semi-infectious particles with UV-induced lesions enhanced reassortment. In contrast to SI particles, inclusion of DI particles in modeled virus populations could not account for observed reassortment outcomes. DI particles were furthermore found experimentally to suppress detectable reassortment, relative to that seen with standard virus stocks, most likely by

  19. Influenza Virus Reassortment Is Enhanced by Semi-infectious Particles but Can Be Suppressed by Defective Interfering Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M Fonville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high particle to infectivity ratio is a feature common to many RNA viruses, with ~90-99% of particles unable to initiate a productive infection under low multiplicity conditions. A recent publication by Brooke et al. revealed that, for influenza A virus (IAV, a proportion of these seemingly non-infectious particles are in fact semi-infectious. Semi-infectious (SI particles deliver an incomplete set of viral genes to the cell, and therefore cannot support a full cycle of replication unless complemented through co-infection. In addition to SI particles, IAV populations often contain defective-interfering (DI particles, which actively interfere with production of infectious progeny. With the aim of understanding the significance to viral evolution of these incomplete particles, we tested the hypothesis that SI and DI particles promote diversification through reassortment. Our approach combined computational simulations with experimental determination of infection, co-infection and reassortment levels following co-inoculation of cultured cells with two distinct influenza A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2-based viruses. Computational results predicted enhanced reassortment at a given % infection or multiplicity of infection with increasing semi-infectious particle content. Comparison of experimental data to the model indicated that the likelihood that a given segment is missing varies among the segments and that most particles fail to deliver ≥1 segment. To verify the prediction that SI particles augment reassortment, we performed co-infections using viruses exposed to low dose UV. As expected, the introduction of semi-infectious particles with UV-induced lesions enhanced reassortment. In contrast to SI particles, inclusion of DI particles in modeled virus populations could not account for observed reassortment outcomes. DI particles were furthermore found experimentally to suppress detectable reassortment, relative to that seen with standard virus stocks

  20. ULTRASOUND AND MICROBUBBLE-TARGETED DELIVERY OF SMALL INTERFERING RNA INTO PRIMARY ENDOTHELIAL CELLS IS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN DELIVERY OF PLASMID DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juffermans, Lynda J. M.; Meijering, Bernadet D. M.; Henning, Robert H.; Deelman, Leo E.

    Ultrasound and microbubble-targeted delivery (UMTD) is a promising non-viral technique for genetic-based therapy. We found that UMTD of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is more effective than delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA). UMTD (1 MHz, 0.22 MPa) of fluorescently labeled siRNA resulted in 97.9 +/- 1.5%

  1. Tomato chlorotic mottle virus is a target of RNA silencing but the presence of specific short interfering RNAs does not guarantee resistance in transgenic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, S.G.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato chlorotic mottle virus (ToCMoV) is a begomovirus found widespread in tomato fields in Brazil. ToCMoV isolate BA-Se1 (ToCMoV-[BA-Se1]) was shown to trigger the plant RNA silencing surveillance in different host plants and, coinciding with a decrease in viral DNA levels, small interfering RNAs

  2. A Defective Interfering Influenza RNA Inhibits Infectious Influenza Virus Replication in Human Respiratory Tract Cells: A Potential New Human Antiviral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire M; Scott, Paul D; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Easton, Andrew J; Dimmock, Nigel J

    2016-08-22

    Defective interfering (DI) viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8) was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1); it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral.

  3. Accumulation of defective interfering viral particles in only a few passages in Vero cells attenuates mumps virus neurovirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantak, Maja; Markušić, Maja; Balija, Maja Lang; Kopač, Sandra Keć; Jug, Renata; Örvell, Claes; Tomac, Jelena; Forčić, Dubravko

    2015-03-01

    Immunization programs have implemented live attenuated mumps vaccines which reduced mumps incidence ≥97%. Some of the vaccine strains were abandoned due to unwanted side effects and the genetic marker of attenuation has not been identified so far. Our hypothesis was that non-infectious viral particles, in particular defective interfering particles (DIPs), contribute to neuroattenuation. We showed that non-infectious particles of the mumps vaccine L-Zagreb attenuated neurovirulence of wild type mumps virus 9218/Zg98. Then, we attenuated recent wild type mumps virus MuVi/Zagreb.HRV/28.12 in Vero cells through 16 passages but already the fifth passage (p5) showed accumulation of DIPs and attenuated neurovirulence in a newborn rat model when compared to the second passage (p2). Sequence analysis of the p2 and p5 revealed a single mutation in the 5' untranslated region of the HN gene. Analysis of the expression level of the HN protein showed that this mutation does not affect the expression of the protein. We conclude that the passages of MuVi/Zagreb.HRV/28.12 in Vero cells for only three passages accumulated DIPs which attenuate neurovirulence. These findings reveal DIPs as a very promising and general neuroattenuating factor which should be considered in the rational design of the new mumps vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Mediators of protection against lethal systemic vesicular stomatitis virus infection in hamsters: defective interfering particles, polyinosinate-polycytidylate, and interferon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fultz, P.N.; Shadduck, J.A.; Kang, C.Y.; Streilein, J.W.

    1982-08-01

    Homologous defective interfering (DI) particles protected adult Syrian hamsters against lethal systemic infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotype Indiana. The DI particles had to be biologically active, but did not have to be administered at the same inoculation site as the infectious virus. Serum and tissue levels of VSV postinoculation were significantly lower in DI-protected animals than in unprotected controls, suggesting that true autointerference was occurring. However, some aspects of protection also must be mediated through nonspecific mechanisms, since susceptible hamsters could be protected against VSV Indiana by coinjection with heterologous DI particles prepared from VSV serotype New Jersey or by simultaneous administration of polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid. By measuring serum levels of putative hamster interferon (type 1), we found that animals coinjected with VSV and DI particles or polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid produced significant levels of interferon. Since similarly high serum levels of interferon were measured in recipients of VSV alone (animals that eventually died from infection), there appeared to be no correlation between protection against lethal disease and induced levels of serum interferon. Instead, serum interferon levels correlated positively with amounts of VSV PFU found in serum and tissues of infected animals, the lowest levels being found in serum of animals protected with homologous DI particles. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that autointerference by DI particles as well as various host defense mechanisms (possibly including induction of interferon) participates in protecting hamsters against lethal VSV infection.

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans RSD-2 and RSD-6 promote germ cell immortality by maintaining small interfering RNA populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Aisa; Sarkies, Peter; Simon, Matt; Doebley, Anna-Lisa; Goldstein, Leonard D; Hedges, Ashley; Ikegami, Kohta; Alvares, Stacy M; Yang, Liwei; LaRocque, Jeannine R; Hall, Julie; Miska, Eric A; Ahmed, Shawn

    2014-10-14

    Germ cells are maintained in a pristine non-aging state as they proliferate over generations. Here, we show that a novel function of the Caenorhabditis elegans RNA interference proteins RNAi spreading defective (RSD)-2 and RSD-6 is to promote germ cell immortality at high temperature. rsd mutants cultured at high temperatures became progressively sterile and displayed loss of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that target spermatogenesis genes, simple repeats, and transposons. Desilencing of spermatogenesis genes occurred in late-generation rsd mutants, although defective spermatogenesis was insufficient to explain the majority of sterility. Increased expression of repetitive loci occurred in both germ and somatic cells of late-generation rsd mutant adults, suggesting that desilencing of many heterochromatic segments of the genome contributes to sterility. Nuclear RNAi defective (NRDE)-2 promotes nuclear silencing in response to exogenous double-stranded RNA, and our data imply that RSD-2, RSD-6, and NRDE-2 function in a common transgenerational nuclear silencing pathway that responds to endogenous siRNAs. We propose that RSD-2 and RSD-6 promote germ cell immortality at stressful temperatures by maintaining transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of endogenous siRNA populations that promote genome silencing.

  6. The mitochondrion interfering compound NPC-26 exerts potent anti-pancreatic cancer cell activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang-Yang; Zhuang, Yi-Huang; Cai, Wen-Jie; Liu, Yan; Zou, Wen-Bing

    2016-11-01

    The development of novel anti-pancreatic cancer agents is extremely important. Here, we investigated the anti-pancreatic cancer activity by NPC-26, a novel mitochondrion interfering compound. We showed that NPC-26 was anti-proliferative and cytotoxic to human pancreatic cancer cells, possibly via inducing caspase-9-dependent cell apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated silence of caspase-9 attenuated NPC-26-induced pancreatic cancer cell death and apoptosis. Further, NPC-26 treatment led to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in the cancer cells, which was evidenced by mitochondrial depolarization, ANT-1(adenine nucleotide translocator-1)-Cyp-D (cyclophilin-D) association and oxidative phosphorylation disturbance. mPTP blockers (cyclosporin and sanglifehrin A) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of key mPTP components (Cyp-D and ANT-1) dramatically attenuated NPC-26-induced pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis. Importantly, we showed that NPC-26, at a low concentration, potentiated gemcitabine-induced mPTP opening and subsequent pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis. In vivo, NPC-26 intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the growth of PANC-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Meanwhile, NPC-26 sensitized gemcitabine-mediated anti-pancreatic cancer activity in vivo. In summary, the results of this study suggest that NPC-26, alone or together with gemcitabine, potently inhibits pancreatic cancer cells possibly via disrupting mitochondrion.

  7. Identification of host factors involved in borna disease virus cell entry through a small interfering RNA functional genetic screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Roberto; Sisman, Eugene; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; de la Torre, Juan C

    2010-04-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV), the prototypic member of the Bornaviridae family, within the order Mononegavirales, is highly neurotropic and constitutes an important model system for the study of viral persistence in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated disorders. The virus surface glycoprotein (G) has been shown to direct BDV cell entry via receptor-mediated endocytosis, but the mechanisms governing cell tropism and propagation of BDV within the CNS are unknown. We developed a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based screening to identify cellular genes and pathways that specifically contribute to BDV G-mediated cell entry. Our screen relied on silencing-mediated increased survival of cells infected with rVSVDeltaG*/BDVG, a cytolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing BDV G that mimics the cell tropism and entry pathway of bona fide BDV. We identified 24 cellular genes involved in BDV G-mediated cell entry. Identified genes are known to participate in a broad range of distinct cellular functions, revealing a complex process associated with BDV cell entry. The siRNA-based screening strategy we have developed should be applicable to identify cellular genes contributing to cell entry mediated by surface G proteins of other viruses.

  8. The anti-diabetic drug metformin reduces BACE1 protein level by interfering with the MID1 complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz M Hettich

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common form of dementia in the elderly, is characterized by two neuropathological hallmarks: senile plaques, which are composed of Aβ peptides, and neurofibrillary tangles, which are composed of hyperphosphorylated TAU protein. Diabetic patients with dysregulated insulin signalling are at increased risk of developing AD. Further, several animal models of diabetes show increased Aβ expression and hyperphosphorylated tau. As we have shown recently, the anti-diabetic drug metformin is capable of dephosphorylating tau at AD-relevant phospho-sites. Here, we investigated the effect of metformin on the main amyloidogenic enzyme BACE1 and, thus, on the production of Aβ peptides, the second pathological hallmark of AD. We find similar results in cultures of primary neurons, a human cell line model of AD and in vivo in mice. We show that treatment with metformin decreases BACE1 protein expression by interfering with an mRNA-protein complex that contains the ubiquitin ligase MID1, thereby reducing BACE1 activity. Together with our previous findings these results indicate that metformin may target both pathological hallmarks of AD and may be of therapeutic value for treating and/or preventing AD.

  9. Short interfering RNA inhibits Rift Valley fever virus replication and degradation of protein kinase R in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonto Faburay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen causing severe outbreaks in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human infections are characterized by fever, sometimes leading to encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever and occasionally death. There are currently no fully licensed vaccines or effective therapies for human use. Gene silencing mediated by double-stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA is a sequence-specific, highly conserved mechanism in eukaryotes, which serves as an antiviral defence mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that siRNA duplexes directed against the RVFV nucleoprotein can effectively inhibit RVFV replication in human (MRC5 cells and African green monkey cells (Vero E6 cells. Using these cells, we demonstrate that individual or complex siRNAs, targeting the RVFV nucleoprotein gene completely abrogate viral protein expression and prevent degradation of the host innate antiviral factor, protein kinase R (PKR. Importantly, pre-treatment of cells with the nucleoprotein-specific siRNAs markedly reduces the virus titer. The antiviral effect of the siRNAs was not attributable to interferon or the interferon response effector molecule, protein kinase R. Thus, the antiviral activity of RVFV nucleoprotein-specific siRNAs may provide novel therapeutic strategy against RVFV infections in animals and humans.

  10. Delivery of short interfering ribonucleic acid-complexed magnetic nanoparticles in an oscillating field occurs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenson Lim

    Full Text Available Gene delivery technologies to introduce foreign genes into highly differentiated mammalian cells have improved significantly over the last few decades. Relatively new techniques such as magnetic nanoparticle-based gene transfection technology are showing great promise in terms of its high transfection efficiency and wide-ranging research applications. We have developed a novel gene delivery technique, which uses magnetic nanoparticles moving under the influence of an oscillating magnetic array. Herein we successfully introduced short interfering RNA (siRNA against green fluorescent protein (GFP or actin into stably-transfected GFP-HeLa cells or wild-type HeLa and rat aortic smooth muscle cells, respectively. This gene silencing technique occurred in a dose- and cell density- dependent manner, as reflected using fluorescence intensity and adhesion assays. Furthermore, using endocytosis inhibitors, we established that these magnetic nanoparticle-nucleic acid complexes, moving across the cell surface under the influence of an oscillating magnet array, enters into the cells via the caveolae-mediated endocytic pathway.

  11. The "Trojan horse" model-delivery of anti-HBV small interfering RNAs by a recombinant HBV vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomai, Amir; Lubelsky, Yoav; Har-Noy, Ofir; Shaul, Yosef

    2009-12-18

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small virus that infects the liver. The major obstacle in applying the RNA interference method as an anti-HBV weapon is the challenge to deliver the small interfering RNA molecules to the liver efficiently and specifically. Here we show that HBV-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) are efficiently expressed from a recombinant HBV into which an shRNA-expressing cassette was inserted, resulting in a significant knock-down of HBV gene expression. Notably, this recombinant HBV still expresses the HBV Core protein, which is targeted by the shRNAs produced by the same vector. Our results set the stage for further use of this recombinant HBV virus with the potential to function as a "Trojan horse"; one that specifically targets the liver and uses the resident virus as an helper for its own propagation, and at the same time eliminate itself and the resident HBV by knocking-down their gene expression.

  12. Comparison of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery into bovine monocyte-derived macrophages by transfection and electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsty; Anderson, Jennifer A; Glass, Elizabeth J

    2014-04-15

    The manipulation of the RNA interference pathway using small interfering RNA (siRNA) has become the most frequently used gene silencing method. However, siRNA delivery into primary cells, especially primary macrophages, is often considered challenging. Here we report the investigation of the suitability of two methodologies: transient transfection and electroporation, to deliver siRNA targeted against the putative immunomodulatory gene Mediterranean fever (MEFV) into primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (bMDM). Eleven commercial transfection reagents were investigated with variable results with respect to siRNA uptake, target gene knock-down, cell toxicity and type I interferon (IFN) response induction. Three transfection reagents: Lipofectamine 2000, Lipofectamine RNAiMAX and DharmaFECT 3, were found to consistently give the best results. However, all the transfection reagents tested induced an IFN response in the absence of siRNA, which could be minimized by reducing the transfection reagent incubation period. In addition, optimized siRNA delivery into bMDM by electroporation achieved comparable levels of target gene knock-down as transient transfection, without a detectable IFN response, but with higher levels of cell toxicity. The optimized transient transfection and electroporation methodologies may provide a starting point for optimizing siRNA delivery into macrophages derived from other species or other cells considered difficult to investigate with siRNA. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gold Nanoparticles Increase PLK1-Specific Small Interfering RNA Transfection and Induce Apoptosis of Drug Resistance Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is a major barrier that limits the effectiveness of chemotherapies against breast cancer. Here, gold nanoparticles (GNPs characterized by good dispersivity, high stability, low cytotoxicity, and simple synthesis were developed to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA against PLK1 (PLK1-siRNA and overcome the drug resistance of breast cancer cells. Compared with the commonly used Lipofectamine 2000, GNPs showed higher PLK1-siRNA delivery efficiency and resulted in the remarkable gene silencing of PLK1 in drug resistance breast cancer cells MCF-7/MDR1 with low cytotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, delivery of PLK1-siRNA by GNPs could cause 14.23% apoptosis of MCF-7/MDR1 cells, which was apparently higher than 11.01% apoptosis conducted by Lipofectamine 2000. In addition, GNPs showed strong X-ray attenuation coefficient, indicating the potential theranostic application of this system. Therefore, this study disclosed an important step in the use of GNPs as transfection vector of siRNA that will be of great benefit to gene therapy against drug resistant cancer.

  14. Small interfering RNA-induced silencing of galectin-3 inhibits the malignant phenotypes of osteosarcoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pengfei; He, Hongbo; Hu, Yihe; Liao, Zhan

    2015-10-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant tumor of bone. It has recently been demonstrated that galectin-3, a multifunctional β-galactoside-binding, is significantly upregulated in OS tissues, and is correlated with its progression and metastasis. However, the detailed role of galectin‑3 in the regulation of cellular biological processes in OS cells has remained to be elucidated. The present study reported that the mRNA and protein levels of galectin‑3 were significantly increased in OS tissues compared to those in their matched normal adjacent tissues. Furthermore, galectin‑3 was upregulated in three OS cell lines, Saos‑2, MG63 and U2OS, when compared with that in the human osteoblast cell line hFOB1.19. Knockdown of galectin‑3 by galectin‑3‑specific small interfering RNA markedly inhibited OS‑cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, silencing of galectin‑3 expression significantly inhibited OS cell migration and invasion, accompanied with a marked decrease in the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and ‑9. Mechanistic investigation suggested that the mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal‑regulated protein kinase signaling pathway may be involved in the galectin‑3‑mediated OS cell invasion. In conclusion, the present study was the first to report that silencing of galectin‑3 inhibited the malignant phenotypes of osteosarcoma in vitro. Therefore, galectin-3 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for OS.

  15. Efficacy of RNA interference knockdown using aerosolized short interfering RNAs bound to nanoparticles in three diverse aphid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thairu, M W; Skidmore, I H; Bansal, R; Nováková, E; Hansen, T E; Li-Byarlay, H; Wickline, S A; Hansen, A K

    2017-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a promising method for validating gene function; however, its utility in nonmodel insects has proven problematic, with delivery methods being one of the main obstacles. This study investigates a novel method of RNAi delivery in aphids, the aerosolization of short interfering RNA (siRNA)-nanoparticle complexes. By using nanoparticles as a siRNA carrier, the likelihood of cellular uptake is increased, when compared to methods previously used in insects. To determine the efficacy of this RNAi delivery system, siRNAs were aerosolized with and without nanoparticles in three aphid species: Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis glycines and Schizaphis graminum. The genes targeted for knockdown were carotene dehydrogenase (tor), which is important for pigmentation in Ac. pisum, and branched chain-amino acid transaminase (bcat), which is essential in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in all three aphid species. Overall, we observed modest gene knockdown of tor in Ac. pisum and moderate gene knockdown of bcat in Ap. glycines along with its associated phenotype. We also determined that the nanoparticle emulsion significantly increased the efficacy of gene knockdown. Overall, these results suggest that the aerosolized siRNA-nanoparticle delivery method is a promising new high-throughput and non-invasive RNAi delivery method in some aphid species. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Yogurt and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  17. Interferências linguísticas durante a interlíngua em alunos hispanofalantes de português como língua estrangeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildiceia Aparecida Rocha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estuda como acontecem as interferências linguísticas na interlíngua na aprendizagem de português como língua estrangeira (PLE em alunos hispanofalantes de uma universidade no interior de São Paulo. A análise focaliza as interferências linguísticas nos níveis semântico, sintático e ortográfico. Por meio de princípios do modelo da interlíngua, pertencente à Linguística Contrastiva, procura-se explicar como a língua materna dos alunos hispanofalantes influencia nas produções escritas em língua portuguesa e mostrar quais as interferências linguísticas mais comuns nesses alunos. Ao observar a proximidade tipológica entre português e espanhol, também se aplicou um questionário para compreender o que os alunos hispanofalantes pensam sobre o processo de aprendizagem de uma língua estrangeira próxima à sua língua materna. Sendo assim, investiga-se o que as produções escritas evidenciam sobre as interferências linguísticas na interlíngua e as impressões dos alunos hispanofalantes sobre como aprendem português língua estrangeira. Após discussão sobre a noção de interlíngua e a análise dos dados, sendo entrevistas e textos, verifica-se que existe um número significativo de interferências linguísticas em alunos hispanofalantes de português, mesmo em um contexto de imersão, pois sua língua materna, espanhol, parece influenciar de modo negativo a aprendizagem de português.

  18. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    system by discussing how our core shared memory protocol framework is capable of expressing safe, typeful message-passing idioms . Next, we briefly...ends with discussions of expressiveness , related work, and conclusions. 1.1 Preliminaries: Language Overview Our language supports fork/join concurrency...the expressiveness of the full language , how we can model some high-level synchronization mechanisms, and clarify modularity gains when compared to

  19. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation......, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria....

  20. Weight maintenance: what's missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James O; Thompson, Helen; Wyatt, Holly

    2005-05-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, but there are few proven strategies for either preventing further weight gain or producing permanent weight loss. Our first priority should be to prevent the gradual weight gain experienced by much of the population. Although this will require less behavior change than producing and maintaining weight loss, helping Americans make and sustain the behavior changes needed to prevent gradual weight increases will be challenging. Because approximately 65% of Americans are already overweight or obese, we must also develop effective strategies to help achieve and maintain an amount of weight loss that improves their health and quality of life. Our real challenge is not in helping people lose weight but in helping them keep it off. Many programs have been shown to produce weight loss but few, if any, have been successful in maintenance of weight loss. Our challenge is in understanding how to help people keep off the weight they can lose in several ways.

  1. Healthy weight game!: Lose weight together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentelink, S.J.; Spil, Antonius A.M.; Broens, T.; Broens, T.H.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Jones, Valerie M.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity pose a serious and increasing problem worldwide. Current treatment methods can result in weight loss in the short term but often fail in the longer term. Increasing motivation and thereby improving adherence can be a key factor in achieving the needed behavioral change. One

  2. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat:

  3. Robustness of weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.

  4. Vaccination against Weight Gain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric P. Zorrilla; Shinichi Iwasaki; Jason A. Moss; Jason Chang; Jonathan Otsuji; Koki Inoue; Michael M. Meijler; Kim D. Janda

    2006-01-01

    .... Here we show that active vaccination of mature rats with ghrelin immunoconjugates decreases feed efficiency, relative adiposity, and body weight gain in relation to the immune response elicited...

  5. Adenovirus-Mediated Small Interfering RNA Targeting TAK1 Ameliorates Joint Inflammation with Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinjing; Chen, Yongfeng; Lv, Guoju; Zhou, Zhidong; Chen, Jie; Mo, Xuanrong; Xie, Jiangwen

    2017-06-01

    Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) is a key upstream kinase in cell signaling during inflammation, which regulates the expression of inflammatory mediators. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against TAK1 offers promise as a potential therapeutic strategy in immune-mediated inflammatory disorder including rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we are to evaluate the therapeutic effects of intra-articular administration of adenoviral-mediated siRNA against TAK1 (ad-siRNA-TAK1) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Ad-siRNA-TAK1 was constructed. The murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were infected with ad-siRNA-TAK1, and the silencing specificity of TAK1 was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. DBA/1 mice were injected intra-articularly with ad-siRNA-TAK1. Development and severity of arthritis was assessed histologically. Synovial inflammation and bone destruction were determined by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Articular and serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of phosphorylated p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were detected by western blot. In vitro, ad--siRNA-TAK1 efficiently inhibited the expression of TAK1 at both mRNA and protein levels. In vivo, intra-articular injection of ad-siRNA-TAK1 efficiently alleviated joint inflammation, decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, and suppressed JNK pathways. Our results demonstrate the efficiency of ad--siRNA-TAK1 in controlling joint inflammation of CIA, which is associated with the suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and JNK activation.

  6. Acoustic Cavitation-Mediated Delivery of Small Interfering Ribonucleic Acids with Phase-Shift Nano-Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Mark T; Porter, Tyrone M

    2015-08-01

    Localized, targeted delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) has been the foremost hurdle in the use of siRNA for the treatment of various diseases. Major advances have been achieved in the synthesis of siRNA, which have led to greater target messenger RNA (mRNA) silencing and stability under physiologic conditions. Although numerous delivery strategies have shown promise, there are still limited options for targeted delivery and release of siRNA administered systemically. In this in vitro study, phase-shift nano-emulsions (PSNE) were explored as cavitation nuclei to facilitate free siRNA delivery to cancer cells via sonoporation. A cell suspension containing varying amounts of PSNE and siRNA was exposed to 5-MHz pulsed ultrasound at fixed settings (6.2-MPa peak negative pressure, 5-cycle pulses, 250-Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and total exposure duration of 100 s). Inertial cavitation emissions were detected throughout the exposure using a passive cavitation detector. Successful siRNA delivery was achieved (i.e., >50% cell uptake) with high (>80%) viability. The percentage of cells with siRNA uptake was correlated with the amount of inertial cavitation activity generated from vaporized PSNE. The siRNA remained functional after delivery, significantly reducing expression of green fluorescent protein in a stably transfected cell line. These results indicate that vaporized PSNE can facilitate siRNA entry into the cytosol of a majority of sonicated cells and may provide a non-endosomal route for siRNA delivery. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NBS1 knockdown by small interfering RNA increases ionizing radiation mutagenesis and telomere association in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lim, Chang U K.; Williams, Eli S.; Zhou, Junqing; Zhang, Qinming; Fox, Michael H.; Bailey, Susan M.; Liber, Howard L.

    2005-01-01

    Hypomorphic mutations which lead to decreased function of the NBS1 gene are responsible for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disorder that imparts an increased predisposition to development of malignancy. The NBS1 protein is a component of the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex that plays a critical role in cellular responses to DNA damage and the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Using small interfering RNA transfection, we have knocked down NBS1 protein levels and analyzed relevant phenotypes in two closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different p53 status, namely wild-type TK6 and mutated WTK1. Both TK6 and WTK1 cells showed an increased level of ionizing radiation-induced mutation at the TK and HPRT loci, impaired phosphorylation of H2AX (gamma-H2AX), and impaired activation of the cell cycle checkpoint regulating kinase, Chk2. In TK6 cells, ionizing radiation-induced accumulation of p53/p21 and apoptosis were reduced. There was a differential response to ionizing radiation-induced cell killing between TK6 and WTK1 cells after NBS1 knockdown; TK6 cells were more resistant to killing, whereas WTK1 cells were more sensitive. NBS1 deficiency also resulted in a significant increase in telomere association that was independent of radiation exposure and p53 status. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that NBS1 deficiency in human cells leads to hypermutability and telomere associations, phenotypes that may contribute to the cancer predisposition seen among patients with this disease.

  8. Enhancement of ovarian cancer chemotherapy by delivery of multidrug-resistance gene small interfering RNA using tumor targeting Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiaqi; Guo, Yi; Jiang, Zhongmin; Yang, Min; Li, Huaifang; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of attenuated Salmonella typhi as a tumor-targeting delivery vector for multidrug-resistance gene (MDR1) small interfering RNA (siRNA). The cisplatin (DDP)-resistant ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3/DDP was established by treatment with gradually increasing concentrations of cisplatin. MDR1 siRNA expression plasmid containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) of MDR1 gene was constructed and transformed into attenuated Salmonella typhi strain  SL7207. SKOV-3/DDP cells were incubated with recombinant Salmonella and then subjected to analysis of MDR1 expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. SKOV-3/DDP tumor-bearing mice were established by subcutaneously injecting BALB/c nude mice with SKOV-3/DDP cells, and were orally inoculated with Salmonella carrying MDR1 siRNA plasmid and simultaneously injected intraperitoneally with cisplatin. Tumor growth and mouse survival were observed. Compared with parental cell line, the DDP-resistant SKOV-3/DDP cells expressed a much higher level of MDR1. The expression of MDR1 in SKOV-3/DDP cells infected with the Salmonella strain bearing MDR1 siRNA plasmid in vitro was detected to be downregulated and DDP tolerance of these cells was reversed. Tumor-bearing nude mice that were orally receiving recombinant Salmonella experienced a slow tumor growth and became more sensitive to DDP. Attenuated Salmonella typhi may represent a promising vector for in vivo administration of RNA interference therapy against malignant tumors. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Intracerebral delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) using adenoviral vector protects mice against lethal peripheral rabies challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Praveen K; Sonwane, Arvind A; Singh, Niraj K; Meshram, Chetan D; Dahiya, Shyam S; Pawar, Sachin S; Gupta, Swatantra P; Chaturvedi, V K; Saini, Mohini

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) as antiviral agent against rabies, two small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein (N) and polymerase (L) genes were designed and evaluated. Both siRNAs knockdown or silenced the target RABV genes as evaluated in a plasmid based transient expression model. For efficient delivery, adenoviruses expressing the siRNAs were constructed and antiviral potential of the delivered siRNAs was investigated in BHK-21 cells. When cells treated with adenoviruses expressing siRNAs were challenged with RABV, there was 88.35±2.4% and 41.52±9.3% reduction in RABV multiplication in infected cells with siRNAs targeting RABV-N and L genes, respectively. Relative quantification of RABV transcripts using real-time PCR revealed knockdown of both RABV-N and L gene transcripts, however, significant reduction was observed only with adenovirus expressing siRNA against RABV-N. When mice treated intracerebrally with adenoviruses expressing siRNAs were challenged peripherally with lethal RABV by the intramuscular route in masseter muscle, there was 66.6% and 33.3% protection with adenoviruses expressing siRNAs against RABV-N and L genes, respectively. These results demonstrated that adenovirus expressing siRNA against RABV-N efficiently inhibited the RABV multiplication both, in vitro and in vivo and conferred significant protection against lethal RABV challenge. This supported the hypothesis that RNAi, based on siRNA targeting RABV-N gene can prevent RABV infection and holds the potential of RNAi as an approach to prevent rabies infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of cervical carcinoma cell growth by intracytoplasmic codelivery of anti-oncoprotein E6 antibody and small interfering RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtête, Jérôme; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Zeder-Lutz, Gabrielle; Dalkara, Deniz; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Zuber, Guy; Weiss, Etienne

    2007-06-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) that encode the E6 and E7 oncogenes. Silencing of E6 gene expression in HPV-positive cell lines by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) with cationic lipids restores the dormant p53 tumor suppressor pathway. Because cationic lipids can also be used for intracytoplasmic delivery of proteins, we tested whether the delivery of monoclonal antibodies that bind to HPV16 E6 and neutralize its biological activity in vitro could restore p53 function in tumor cells. Here, we show that the 4C6 antibody is efficiently delivered into the cell cytoplasm using a lipidic reagent used for siRNA transfection. The delivery of 4C6 resulted in the nuclear accumulation of p53 protein in CaSki and SiHa cells but not in HeLa cells. Furthermore, the antibody-mediated p53 response was dramatically increased when a peptide corresponding to the 4C6 epitope and bearing a COOH-terminal cysteine residue was added to the transduction mixture. We found that a fraction of the added peptides were dimers that allowed the formation of antibody polymers adsorbed onto the lipidic matrix. With this system, the proliferation of CaSki and SiHa cells was strongly diminished, but no apoptosis was detectable. Remarkably, cell growth was almost totally suppressed by the addition of E6-specific siRNA to the transduction complex. The results indicate that the activity of E6 oncoprotein can be down-regulated in vivo by lipid-mediated antibody delivery and that antibodies and siRNA act synergistically when codelivered. This novel targeting strategy is simple to implement and may find therapeutic applications.

  11. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Periods of weed interference in okra crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P.S Bachega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE, com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo.Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

  12. Body Weight Perception and Weight Control Practices among Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bhurtun, Darshini Devi; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anth...

  13. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy weight, visit Physical Activity for Healthy Weight . Self-monitoring You may also find it helpful to weigh yourself on a regular basis. If you see a few pounds creeping on, take the time to examine your lifestyle. With these strategies, you make it more likely that you’ll ...

  14. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  15. Weight and psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    weight loss in morbidly obeses patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2002; 12: 835-40. 11. World Health Organisation. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and. Behavioural Disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. The clinical relevance of weight in psychiatry varies. It may be:- I. an associated ...

  16. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  17. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Study on second filtering algorithm based on tracing the interfering spectral peaks of radar non-contact life-parameter detection system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guohua; Yang, Guosheng; Wang, Jianqi; Ni, Ansheng; Jing, Xijing

    2006-08-01

    To develop a filtering algorithm which could trace the spectral peaks of the interference and which was used to extract the breath signal with the same band interference in radar non-contact life-detecting system, second filtering algorithm was studied. Through first filtering,the probable interfering spectral peaks (ISP) could be detected by Yule-Walker spectrum estimating and could be located by calculating the coefficients of normalized cross-correlation function according to standard breath signal. Thus the breath signal could be extracted through a second filtering. By using the second filtering algorithm (SFA), the same band interfering spectral peaks with breath signal could be recognized and inhibited. So we conclude that the same band mono-ISP could be inhibited by using SFA and breath signals could be effectively extracted.

  19. Identification of an interfering substrate in apple juice and improvement for determination of patulin with high-performance liquid chromatography analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Naoki; Hoshino, Mariko; Suga, Keiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2009-04-01

    An interfering substance that is not 5-hydroxymethylfurfural appears in some apple juices during high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of patulin based on the AOAC 995.10 method. Because this interfering substance could cause the overestimation of patulin in the apple juices, we tried to identify the substance and to develop an improved method of analyzing patulin free from the influence of this substance. We isolated the substance from the apple juice and identified it as adenosine based on its mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and photo diode array spectra. Because of the chemical properties of adenosine, changes in the extraction method under acidic conditions and the HPLC conditions (wavelength and analytical column) were effective for avoiding the influence of adenosine and more specifically for analyzing the patulin. The most effective and simple improvement of the official method was the use of column in-point carbon contents greater than 15.5%.

  20. On Queue-Aware Power Control in Interfering Wireless Links: Heavy Traffic Asymptotic Modelling and Application in QoS Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    Destounis, Apostolos; Assaad, Mohamad; Debbah, Merouane; Sayadi, Bessem; Feki, Afef

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this work we address the problem of power allocation for interfering transmitter-receiver pairs so that the probability that each queue length exceeds a specified threshold is fixed at a desired value. One application is satisfying QoS requirements in a dense cellular network. We deal with this problem using heavy traffic approximation techniques which lead to an asymptotic model of a (controlled) stochas-tic differential equation. The proposed power control strateg...

  1. Secured operating regions of Slotted ALOHA in the presence of interfering signals from other networks and DoS attacking signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir H. Sarker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that many networks will be providing services at a time in near future and those will also produce different interfering signals for the current Slotted ALOHA based systems. A random packet destruction Denial of Service (DoS attacking signal can shut down the Slotted ALOHA based networks easily. Therefore, to keep up the services of Slotted ALOHA based systems by enhancing the secured operating regions in the presence of the interfering signals from other wireless systems and DoS attacking signals is an important issue and is investigated in this paper. We have presented four different techniques for secured operating regions enhancements of Slotted ALOHA protocol. Results show that the interfering signals from other wireless systems and the DoS attacking signals can produce similar detrimental effect on Slotted ALOHA. However, the most detrimental effect can be produced, if an artificial DoS attack can be launched using extra false packets arrival from the original network. All four proposed secured operating regions enhancement techniques are easy to implement and have the ability to prevent the shutdown of the Slotted ALOHA based networks.

  2. Comparing artificial neural networks, general linear models and support vector machines in building predictive models for small interfering RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A McQuisten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exogenous short interfering RNAs (siRNAs induce a gene knockdown effect in cells by interacting with naturally occurring RNA processing machinery. However not all siRNAs induce this effect equally. Several heterogeneous kinds of machine learning techniques and feature sets have been applied to modeling siRNAs and their abilities to induce knockdown. There is some growing agreement to which techniques produce maximally predictive models and yet there is little consensus for methods to compare among predictive models. Also, there are few comparative studies that address what the effect of choosing learning technique, feature set or cross validation approach has on finding and discriminating among predictive models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three learning techniques were used to develop predictive models for effective siRNA sequences including Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs, General Linear Models (GLMs and Support Vector Machines (SVMs. Five feature mapping methods were also used to generate models of siRNA activities. The 2 factors of learning technique and feature mapping were evaluated by complete 3x5 factorial ANOVA. Overall, both learning techniques and feature mapping contributed significantly to the observed variance in predictive models, but to differing degrees for precision and accuracy as well as across different kinds and levels of model cross-validation. CONCLUSIONS: The methods presented here provide a robust statistical framework to compare among models developed under distinct learning techniques and feature sets for siRNAs. Further comparisons among current or future modeling approaches should apply these or other suitable statistically equivalent methods to critically evaluate the performance of proposed models. ANN and GLM techniques tend to be more sensitive to the inclusion of noisy features, but the SVM technique is more robust under large numbers of features for measures of model precision and accuracy. Features

  3. The Effects of Interfering COX-2 Gene Expression on Malignant Proliferation of Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A2 Cell in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiying LI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective COX-2 was highly expressed in many tumor tissues and was involved in the initiation and development of tumors. The RNAi technique is a method to inhibit gene expression economically, quickly, efficiently and specifically. This study used RNAi technique to explore the interfering effect of COX-2 geneexpression and the influence on the malignant proliferation of A2 cells after quenching COX-2 in vitro . Methods Three COX-2 siRNA expression vectors with human U6 promoter were constructed. The COX-2 siRNA vectors and the vacant vector (pEGFP were transfected into A2 cells with lipofectamine respectively. The cell strains transfected were selected. The change of COX-2 expression levels was examined by Western blot and RT-PCR. The effects on the proliferationof A2 cells after silencing COX-2 were detected by cell growth curve and clonogenic assay in vitro . Results The three siRNA and U6 promoter cloned into pEGFP plasmid were validated by PCR, restriction endonucleases identification, DNA sequencing and BLAST alignment. The cell strains transfected were coded as A2-3, A2-7, A2-10 and A2-p respectively. Green fluorescence was seen in A2-p cells and not in A2-3, A2-7 and A2-10 cells in 24 h, 48 h and 72 hafter transfected. The results of RT-PCR and Western blot showed the three siRNA expression vectors acted effectively and the expression of COX-2 was inhibited in different extent. In contrast to A2 cells, COX-2 mRNA levels of A2-3, A2-7 and A2-10 cells were reduced 15.6%, 20.4% and 64.2% respectively, and COX-2 protein expressions of them were reduced 23.7%, 36.7% and 60.2% respectively. The results of cell growth curve and clonogenic assay showed the growth of A2-10 cell slowed and the clonal formation rate was reduced. However the growth of A2-3 and A2-7 cells had no obvious changes vs controls (A2 and A2-p. Conclusion Silencing COX-2 gene in vitro by RNAi technique can significantly inhibit the malignant proliferation of A2

  4. Multiplexed analysis combining distinctly-sized CdTe-MPA quantum dots and chemometrics for multiple mutually interfering analyte determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Dayana B; Ribeiro, David S M; Páscoa, Ricardo N M J; Soares, José X; Rodrigues, S Sofia M; Castro, Rafael C; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena R; Santos, João L M

    2017-11-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have demonstrated a great potential as fluorescent probes for heavy metals monitoring. However, their great reactivity, whose tunability could be difficult to attain, could impair selectivity yielding analytical results with poor accuracy. In this work, the combination in the same analysis of multiple QDs, each with a particular ability to interact with the analyte, assured a multi-point detection that was not only exploited for a more precise analyte discrimination but also for the simultaneous discrimination of multiple mutually interfering species, in the same sample. Three different MPA-CdTe QDs (2.5, 3.0 and 3.8nm) with a good size distribution, confirmed by the FWHM values of 48.6, 55.4 and 80.8nm, respectively, were used. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS) were used for fluorescence data analysis. Mixtures of two MPA-CdTe QDs, emitting at different wavelength namely 549/566, 549/634 and 566/634nm were assayed. The 549/634nm emitting QDs mixture provided the best results for the discrimination of distinct ions on binary and ternary mixtures. The obtained RMSECV and R(2)CV values for the binary mixture were good, namely, from 0.01 to 0.08mgL(-1) and from 0.74 to 0.89, respectively. Regarding the ternary mixture the RMSECV and R(2)CV values were good for Hg(II) (0.06 and 0.73mgL(-1), respectively) and Pb(II) (0.08 and 0.87mg L(-1), respectively) and acceptable for Cu(II) (0.02 and 0.51mgL(-1), respectively). In conclusion, the obtained results showed that the developed approach is capable of resolve binary and ternary mixtures of Pb (II), Hg (II) and Cu (II), providing accurate information about lead (II) and mercury (II) concentration and signaling the occurrence of Cu (II). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Weighted Automata Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohri, Mehryar

    Weighted automata and transducers are widely used in modern applications in bioinformatics and text, speech, and image processing. This chapter describes several fundamental weighted automata and shortest-distance algorithms including composition, determinization, minimization, and synchronization, as well as single-source and all-pairs shortest distance algorithms over general semirings. It presents the pseudocode of these algorithms, gives an analysis of their running time complexity, and illustrates their use in some simple cases. Many other complex weighted automata and transducer algorithms used in practice can be obtained by combining these core algorithms.

  6. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Kjelldgaard, Heidi; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    -aged Children study 2010. The study population (n = 4,922) included students in the fifth, seventh, and ninth grade from a representative sample of Danish schools. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to study the associations between weight status and social relations, supported by a conceptual...... framework for the study of social relations. RESULTS: Among girls, overweight/obese weight status was associated with spending less time with friends after school compared to normal-weight status (0 days/week: odds ratio: 6.25, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-17.95, 1 day/week: 2.81, 1.02-7.77, 2 days/week: 3...

  7. Weed interference in sweet pepper in no-tillage and conventional planting systems = Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do pimentão nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Xavier Lins Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is evaluate the periods of weeds interference on yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., cultivated in no-tillage and conventional systems. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in randomized blocks of a distributed split plots with four replications design. The no-tillage and conventional systems were evaluated in plots and subplots, during the seven periods of control and coexistence among sweet peppers and weeds: 0; 0–14; 0–28; 0–49; 0–70; 0–91 and 0–112 days after transplanting (DAT. Before weeding and harvest time, they were evaluated species, density and dry mass of weeds. In the sweet peppers crops, diameter, length, number, average fruit weight and yield were evaluated. It was observed less weeds in no-tillage than conventional system. Without competitors, these weet peppers productivity was 69.57% less in conventional than no-tillage system. The critical period of weeds interference was from 19 to 95 DAT in no-tillage system and from 11 to 100 DAT in convention tillage = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferências das plantas daninhas no pimentão (Capsicum annum L., cultivado nos sistemas de plantio direto (SPD e convencional (SPC. Para isso, foi realizado um experimento em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, distribuídas no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. O SPD e o SPC foram avaliados nas parcelas, e nas subparcelas, os sete períodos de controle e convivência entre as plantas daninhas e o pimentão: 0; 0–14; 0–28; 0–49; 0–70; 0–91 e 0–112 dias após transplantio (DAT. Antes de cada capina e na ocasião da colheita, foram avaliadas as espécies, a densidade e a matéria seca das plantas daninhas. Na cultura do pimentão foram avaliados diâmetro, comprimento, número, peso médio dos frutos e produtividade. Verificou-se menor incidência de plantas daninhas no SPD em relação ao SPC. Quando mantida livre da competição com as

  8. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid hormones are elevated, such as in the toxic phase of thyroiditis (see Thyroiditis brochure ) and if ... discontinued. HYPOTHYROIDISM AND THYROID HORMONE WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HYPOTHYROIDISM AND WEIGHT GAIN? Since the BMR ...

  9. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical problems . These problems include diabetes , heart disease, sleep apnea , and joint trouble . Lots of very overweight people turn their weight around by sticking to a doctor-approved diet ...

  10. Assessing Your Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meters and weight in kilograms. However, the BMI formula has been adapted for height measured in inches ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  11. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... want to keep an eye on how drinking affects your eating habits. Calories and Portions Count So, how much can you drink if you are trying to lose weight? Health experts recommend that anyone who drinks does so ...

  12. Lorcaserin for weight management

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    James R Taylor, Eric Dietrich, Jason PowellUniversity of Florida College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modifica...

  13. Weight loss update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Unwanted weight loss in people with HIV can be caused by one or more factors simultaneously. A two-pronged approach that addresses the factors causing weight loss and malnutrition, and maintaining or gaining weight is critical. Many opportunistic infections (OIs) can cause diarrhea, but both the drugs used to treat diarrhea and the infections themselves can contribute to weight loss. Lactose intolerance is a common cause of diarrhea in people living with HIV. Because some of the drugs used to treat HIV and OIs are packaged with lactose, it may be necessary to replace the enzymes needed to break down lactose. Appetite loss may also contribute to wasting, and the lack of nutrients from a lost appetite can tax the body and further aggravate the problem. Appetite stimulants, vitamin supplements, or weight gain products that promote the building of protein are possible treatment options. Lean body mass production may require the use of anabolic (protein building) steroids or testosterone replacement therapy. Another wasting intervention option involves recombinant human growth hormone (rHGH), however, unsubstantiated safety concerns have arisen on the use of rHGH, and may require increased monitoring. Finally, counteracting weight loss may require adjusting the elevated levels of an immune system chemical called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) with thalidomide. Because of thalidomide's association with birth defects, sexually active heterosexual women should be advised to use multiple contraceptive mechanisms.

  14. Períodos de interferência de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis Hort. no crescimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden Periods of Commelina benghalensis interference in the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, em razão do uso contínuo de mesmos herbicidas e outros métodos de controle, vem se constituindo numa das plantas mais freqüentes em eucaliptais do Estado de São Paulo. Por isso, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos de períodos de controle e convivência dessa planta daninha sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, transplantadas no inverno e no verão. Uma única muda de eucalipto foi transplantada em caixa de cimento-amianto e submetida a períodos crescentes de convivência e de controle da trapoeraba (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias no sujo e no limpo, respectivamente, sendo a densidade de plantas de trapoeraba de 4 plantas.m-2 (nas condições de inverno e verão. Conduziu-se o ensaio por um período de 100 dias após o transplante (DAT, e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 10 tratamentos com quatro repetições. Pelos resultados da altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, biomassa seca e área foliar, verificou-se que o período anterior à interferência (PAI, o total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foram de 20, 60 e 20 a 60 DAT, respectivamente, no inverno. Em condições de verão, o PTPI foi menor que o PAI (10 e 40 DAT, respectivamente. Assim, não foi possível estabelecer o PCPI nessas condições.Commelina benghalensis is becomming the predominant weed invading eucalypts plantations in the State of São Paulo due to the continual use of herbicides and other control methods applied. Considering this, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of presence and control periods of Commelina benghalensis on Eucalyptus grandis initial growth, grew in winter and summer. A single eucalypt seedling was planted in a cement box and submitted to increasing periods of presence and control of Commelina benghalensis (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 days in competition or not

  15. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C Safety of recombinant interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales o definitivas de esta terapia. MÉTODOS: estudio de farmacovigilancia cuya serie estuvo conformada por 122 pacientes con hepatitis crónica C atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología desde mayo de 2001 hasta mayo de 2006. Se utilizó interferón alfa 2b recombinante (3 millones de unidades 3 veces por semana más ribavirina (1 000 o 1 200 mg diarios en dependencia del peso corporal durante 48 semanas. RESULTADOS: el 88,5 % del total de casos presentó efectos adversos; de ellos el 79,5 % correspondió al síndrome seudogripal, seguido de manifestaciones hematológicas, neuropsiquiátricas, gastrointestinales, entre otras menos frecuentes. El 6,6 % de la serie presentó salidas temporales del tratamiento por efecto adverso distinto de la anemia y 4 pacientes, salidas definitivas del estudio, tres por anemia hemolítica severa y uno con hipertiroidismo no controlable. CONCLUSIONES: la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina resulta segura, donde el mayor número de casos presentó síndrome seudogripal como efecto adverso más frecuente. Las manifestaciones hematológicas asociadas a las salidas definitivas del estudio permitieron recomendar seguimiento estricto de la hemoglobina y profundizar en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales efectos adversos presentes en otros sistemas y asociados a esta terapia.INTRODUCTION: chronic hepatitis C has reached the category of pandemic. The hepatitis C virus is the

  16. Relationship between egg weight, hatch weight and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) Fulani Ecotype (FE) chicken eggs collected from free ranged Fulani Ecotype chicken were used to study the effect of egg weight on hatch weight and subsequent body weight. Eggs were grouped into two according to their weight (small and medium) and incubated. Body weight of the chicks was ...

  17. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  18. Effects of small interfering RNA inhibit Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase on human gastric cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Song; Yu, Li-Yan; Zhao, Kui; Wu, Yong-You; Cheng, Xiao-Li; Wu, Yong; Zhong, Feng-Yun; Gong, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Xing, Chun-Gen

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibition of Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Class I PI3K) signal transduction on the proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy of gastric cancer SGC7901 and MGC803 cells. METHODS: We constructed the recombinant replication adenovirus PI3K(I)-RNA interference (RNAi)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and control adenovirus NC-RNAi-GFP, and infected it into human gastric cancer cells. MTT assay was used to determine the growth rate of the gastric cancer cells. Activation of autophagy was monitored with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining after adenovirus PI3K(I)-RNAi-GFP and control adenovirus NC-RNAi-GFP treatment. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the fluorescent probe JC-1. The expression of autophagy was monitored with MDC, LC3 staining, and transmission electron microscopy. Western blotting was used to detect p53, Beclin-1, Bcl-2, and LC3 protein expression in the culture supernatant. RESULTS: The viability of gastric cancer cells was inhibited after siRNA targeting to the Class I PI3K blocked Class I PI3K signal pathway. MTT assays revealed that, after SGC7901 cancer cells were treated with adenovirus PI3K(I)-RNAi-GFP, the rate of inhibition reached 27.48% ± 2.71% at 24 h, 41.92% ± 2.02% at 48 h, and 50.85% ± 0.91% at 72 h. After MGC803 cancer cells were treated with adenovirus PI3K(I)-RNAi-GFP, the rate of inhibition reached 24.39% ± 0.93% at 24 h, 47.00% ± 0.87% at 48 h, and 70.30% ± 0.86% at 72 h (P p53 protein expression was significantly increased from 24 to 72 h. We also found that Bcl-2 protein expression down-regulated with the treatment of adenovirus PI3K(I)-RNAi-GFP (50 MOI). A number of isolated membranes, possibly derived from ribosome-free endoplasmic reticulum, were seen. These isolated membranes were elongated and

  19. Lorcaserin for weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) or ≥27 kg/m(2) with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity.

  20. Generalized weighted crosstalk for DWDM systems with cascaded wavelength-selective switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filer, Mark; Tibuleac, Sorin

    2012-07-30

    A generalized method for estimating transmission penalties from spectrally-shaped crosstalk in cascaded multi-port WSS networks is derived, including effects of ASE, signal filtering, and crosstalk filtering. The weighted crosstalk value is computed by multiplying the shaped interfering signal by the power spectral density of the primary signal. This value is used to predict OSNR penalties in networks with cascaded WSSs of arbitrary port count. Theoretical treatment is supported by extensive numerical simulations and experiments for a variety of network configurations. Examples are presented for 43 Gb/s DPSK and 120 Gb/s DP-QPSK in cascaded ROADM networks with three distinct WSS types.

  1. Family Weight School treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Höglund, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a Family Weight School treatment based on family therapy in group meetings with adolescents with a high degree of obesity. METHODS: Seventy-two obese adolescents aged 12-19 years old were referred to a childhood obesity center by pediatricians...... and school nurses and offered a Family Weight School therapy program in group meetings given by a multidisciplinary team. Intervention was compared with an untreated waiting list control group. Body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were calculated before and after intervention. RESULTS: Ninety percent...... group with initial BMI z-score 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: Family Weight School treatment model might be suitable for adolescents with BMI z...

  2. Light weight phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  3. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  4. Weight-Control Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provides the general public and health professionals with evidence-based information and resources on obesity, weight management, physical ... Medical Care for Patients with Obesity Weight Loss & Nutrition Myths Talking with Patients about Weight Loss Find ...

  5. Body Weight Perception and Weight Control Practices among Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception. PMID:24967256

  6. Estudo de revisão sobre a interferência de hipoglicemiantes orais no exame químico de urina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Machado Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A diabetes mellitus (DM é uma doença que vem aumentando exponencialmente nos últimos anos de vida dos indivíduos, e uma opção de tratamento farmacológico é feito através dos hipoglicemiantes orais (HO. Em virtude de serem substâncias amplamente utilizadas e terem como principal via de excreção a urinária, este tratamento pode provocar variações nos resultados dos parâmetros urinários. Portanto, este estudo tem a finalidade de avaliar a interferência causada pelo uso de hipoglicemiantes no exame de urina. Para esta investigação, foi feita uma pesquisa bibliográfica em diferentes bases de dados, selecionando os artigos pertinentes ao tema: diabetes, interferências laboratoriais e tratamento farmacológico. Os HO podem ser classificados em três grupos de acordo com o mecanismo de ação: estimuladores de insulinas pelo pâncreas, como sulfoniluréias e metiglinidas; as sensibilizadoras de insulina, são as biguanidas, as tiazolidinedionas e as redutoras da absorção de carboidratos, que são as inibidoras da alfa-glicosidase. O exame de urina é uma ferramenta complementar no controle da DM devido a sua fácil coleta e baixo custo. As classes de hipoglicemiantes orais identificados como potencialmente interferentes no exame de urina foram as biguanidas (metformina e as sulfoniluréias (tobultamida, tolazamida, glicazida, clorpropramida. Resultam em interferência nos parâmetros densidade, proteínas, glicose, cetonas e bilirrubinas, levando a um diagnóstico inadequado e um tratamento insatisfatório gerando prejuízos ao bem estar do paciente.

  7. Controlled Delivery of T-box21 Small Interfering RNA Ameliorates Autoimmune Alopecia (Alopecia Areata) in a C3H/HeJ Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Jo, Jun-ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune alopecia (alopecia areata) is considered to be triggered by a collapse of immune privilege in hair follicles. Here we confirmed that infiltrating CD4 T lymphocytes around hair follicles of patients with alopecia areata were primarily CCR5-positive with few CCR4-positive cells, suggesting a dominant role of Th1 cells in the alopecic lesion. Given this finding, we sought to elucidate the effect of cytokine therapy in C3H/HeJ mice, a mouse model of alopecia areata, by applying recombinant interleukin-4 and neutralizing anti-interferon-γ antibody. We found that local injections of both interleukin-4 and neutralizing anti-interferon-γ antibody effectively treated alopecia in C3H/HeJ mice. Results from immunohistochemistry and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that intralesional injection of interleukin-4 suppressed CD8 T cell infiltrates around the hair follicles and repressed enhanced interferon-γ mRNA expression in the affected alopecic skin. Furthermore, Th1 transcription factor T-box21 small interfering RNAs conjugated to cationized gelatin showed mitigating effects on alopecia in C3H/HeJ mice, resulting in the restoration of hair shaft elongation. Taken together, the use of gelatin–small interfering RNA conjugates promises to be a novel, efficient, and safe tool as an alternative gene therapy for the treatment of various human diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of effective controlled delivery of small interfering RNA using biodegradable cationized gelatin microspheres in an animal model of disease. PMID:18245811

  8. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  9. Weight and psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Behavioural Disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. The clinical relevance of weight in psychiatry varies. It may be:- I. an associated clinical feature, either primary, as in anorexia nervosa, or secondary as in mood, anxiety or psychotic disorders. II. a related clinical issue, as in bulimia nervosa or an eating ...

  10. Antiviral resistance due to deletion in the neuraminidase gene and defective interfering-like viral polymerase basic 2 RNA of influenza A virus subtype H3N2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2018-01-01

    two major out-of-frame deletions in the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) gene, indicating defective interfering-like viral RNA. Conclusions: The viruses harboring the 245–248 deletion in the neuraminidase gene were still present after discontinuation of oseltamivir treatment and passages in cell cultures...... to zanamivir. Nine days after discontinuation of oseltamivir treatment the deleted H3N2 virus was still present in the patient. After three passages of the deleted virus in cell culture, the deletion was retained. Several variant mutations appeared in the other genes of the H3N2 virus, where most striking were...

  11. Direct atomic absorption determination of cadmium and lead in strongly interfering matrices by double vaporization with a two-step electrothermal atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshtein, Ilia L.; Vilpan, Yuri A.; Saraev, Alexei V.; Vasilieva, Lubov A.

    2001-03-01

    Thermal pretreatment of a sample using double vaporization in a two-step atomizer with a purged vaporizer makes possible the direct analysis of samples with strongly interfering matrices including solids. A porous-graphite capsule or a filter inserted into the vaporizer is used for solid sample analysis. The technique was used for the direct determination of Cd and Pb in human urine, potatoes, wheat, bovine liver, milk powder, grass-cereal mixtures, caprolactam, bituminous-shale and polyvinyl chloride plastic without chemical modification or any other sample pretreatment.

  12. Interferência e estudo fitossociológico da comunidade infestante na cultura da beterraba transplantada = Interference and phytosociological study of weed communities on transplanted beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo fitossociológico e a determinação dos períodos críticos de interferência da comunidade infestante na cultura da beterraba transplantada. Os tratamentos consistiram em períodos semanais crescentes de convivênciae de controle da comunidade infestante, a partir da segunda semana após o transplante das mudas. A comunidade infestante foi avaliada por meio do número de indivíduos e da massa seca acumulada correspondente, para cada população de planta daninha e período avaliado. A cultura foi colhida 91 dias após o transplante das mudas, quando se avaliou o diâmetro transversal e a produtividade comercial das raízes. As principais plantas daninhas encontradas foram Amaranthus viridis, Coronopus didymus, Galinsoga parviflora, Nicandraphysaloides e Solanum americanum. As populações encontradas apresentaram alta similaridade entre si. O período anterior à interferência e o período total de prevenção à interferência foram 51 e 35 dias após o transplante das mudas, respectivamente. A produção da beterraba mantida no limpo foi 44,92 t ha-1, e a redução devido à interferência das plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo foi mais de 70%.The objective of this research was to study the phytosociological andcritical interference periods of weed communities on transplanted beets. The treatments consisted of increasing weekly weedy/weed-free periods, starting at the second week after seedling transplanting. The weed community was evaluated based on the number ofindividuals and their corresponding accumulated dry mass, for each weed population and evaluated period. The beets were harvested 91 days after transplanting, followed by evaluation of the cross-sectional diameter and marketable yield. The weed communitieswere composed mainly of Amaranthus viridis, Coronopus didymus, Galinsoga parviflora, Nicandra physaloides and Solanum americanum, and the populations were very similar. The period before weed

  13. Temperature Measurement of a Miniature Ceramic Heater in the Presence of an Extended Interfering Background Radiation Source Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Temperature measurement of small (millimeter size) objects is generally difficult and demanding. Measurement involving ceramic materials using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which may vary with both temperature and wavelength. Pyrometry applications in an environment with an interfering radiation source of extended dimension adds extra complexity to the process. We show that the multiwavelength pyrometer successfully measured the temperatures of a millimeter (mm) size ceramic heater under these demanding conditions.

  14. Interferência da microbiota autóctone do queijo coalho sobre Staphylococcus coagulase positiva Interference of autochthonous microbiota of curd cheese on Staphylococcus coagulase positive

    OpenAIRE

    Terezinha Feitosa Machado; Maria de Fátima Borges; Bruna de Castro Porto; Cívita Teixeira de Sousa; Francisco Edílson Moreno de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Níveis elevados de contaminantes microbiológicos, comumente encontrados em alimentos de origem animal e ambientes de processamento de alimentos, são aptos de impedir o crescimento de patógenos nestes produtos. Em alguns contextos onde bactérias ácido láticas (BAL) constituem a microbiota dominante, como nos produtos lácteos, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) colonizam, persistem e produzem intoxicação alimentar. Com o objetivo de verificar a possível interferência da microbiota encontra...

  15. Costo-efectividad del tratamiento con interferón beta en pacientes con síndrome clínico aislado de alto riesgo en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfonso Zarco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En 85 % de los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple se presenta como manifestación inicial un primer evento desmielinizante o síndrome clínico aislado. En estos casos, el tratamiento con interferón beta retrasa hasta dos años la progresión a esclerosis múltiple. Sin embargo, en Colombia este medicamento es costoso. Objetivo. Determinar si el tratamiento del síndrome clínico aislado con interferón beta es costo-efectivo al retrasar la esclerosis múltiple en dos años. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un análisis de costo-efectividad empleando un árbol de decisiones basado en la perspectiva del paciente y la sociedad. A partir de una revisión sistemática de la literatura y de conceptos de expertos se definieron las diversas probabilidades. Los costos de la enfermedad se calcularon por medio de la revisión de historias y la aplicación de encuestas a los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio. Para controlar la incertidumbre se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad mediante una simulación de Monte Carlo con mil pacientes. Resultados. El costo del tratamiento con interferón sobrepasa los Col$ 95’000.000 (US$ 50.000 por paciente durante los dos años. Aproximadamente, 80 % corresponde a los costos del medicamento. El costo de la recaída se acerca a Col$ 39’139.200 (US$ 21.744, y los costos indirectos corresponden a Col$ 10’958.400 (US$ 6.088. La tasa representativa del mercado fue de Col$ 1.800. Con el tratamiento se ganan sólo 0,06 años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD adicionales. La razón de costo-efectividad ‘incremental’ (sic. supera el umbral, incluso en el análisis de sensibilidad. Conclusión. La administración de interferón beta en pacientes con síndrome clínico aislado de alto riesgo en los primeros dos años no es costo-efectiva en Colombia.

  16. Interferência de herbicidas nas características fisiológicas da mandioca e na atividade microbiana do solo

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Hellen Martins da

    2012-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos herbicidas mesotrione, fluazifop-p-butyl, fomesafen e fluazifop-p-butyl+fomesafen sobre as características fisiológicas de cultivares de mandioca. E também, a ação do mesotrione e do fluazifop-p-butyl na atividade microbiana do solo rizosférico de um dos cultivares. Para isso em quatro experimentos foram avaliadas: as características fisiológicas de cultivares de mandioca após a aplicação do mesotrione; a interferência do fluazifop-p-butyl e do fomesafen, em aplica...

  17. Lorcaserin for weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor JR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available James R Taylor, Eric Dietrich, Jason PowellUniversity of Florida College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity.Keywords: lorcaserin, obesity, diabetes

  18. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  19. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  20. Weighted Feature Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Yazdani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of machine learning methods for clustering depends on the optimal selection of similarity functions. Conventional distance functions for the vector space might cause an algorithm to being affected by some dominant features that may skew its final results. This paper introduces a flexible...... environment for mining algorithms that uses the most suitable similarity functions to cover the diversity of both vector and feature spaces. The paper describes some well known conventional distance functions and introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD) and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD......). These novel functions attempt to balance the impact of the dominant features by covering both feature and vector spaces, additionally to optionally allowing us to increase or decrease the impact of some features. We evaluate and compare the accuracy of our proposed WFD(s) on conventional fuzzy...

  1. Low molecular weight heparins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, D

    1996-08-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) differ from unfractionated heparin (UFH) in a number of characteristics, which is probably due to differences in molecular weight distribution. From a clinical point of view the better subcutaneous bioavailability and longer biological half-life are important, making it sufficient to inject LMWHs once-daily only. For practical purposes it is also important that LMWHs be used without monitoring. They are effective as prophylaxis against postoperative venous thromboembolism after all types of surgery; in most studies, more effective than UFH. In most studies, this effect can be obtained safely and with less bleeding than with UFH. LMWHs compare favourably with UFH for starting treatment of deep vein thrombosis, as well as an anticoagulant during haemodialysis. Adverse effects such as thrombocytopenia and osteoporosis are more common with UFH than with LMWHs. Studies evaluating whether or not LMWHs can replace UFH in arterial diseases are still few with small sample sizes. Thus further systematic research is needed.

  2. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  3. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  4. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  5. Extending the inverse scattering series free-surface-multiple-elimination algorithm by accommodating the source property on data with interfering or proximal seismic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Yang, Jinlong; Weglein, Arthur B.

    2017-12-01

    The inverse scattering series free-surface-multiple-elimination (FSME) algorithm is modified and extended to accommodate the source property-source radiation pattern. That accommodation can provide additional value for the fidelity of the free-surface multiple predictions. The new extended FSME algorithm retains all the merits of the original algorithm, i.e., fully data-driven and with a requirement of no subsurface information. It is tested on a one-dimensional acoustic model with proximal and interfering seismic events, such as interfering primaries and multiples. The results indicate the new extended FSME algorithm can predict more accurate free-surface multiples than methods without the accommodation of the source property if the source has a radiation pattern. This increased effectiveness in prediction contributes to removing free-surface multiples without damaging primaries. It is important in such cases to increase predictive effectiveness because other prediction methods, such as the surface-related-multiple-elimination algorithm, has difficulties and problems in prediction accuracy, and those issues affect efforts to remove multiples through adaptive subtraction. Therefore accommodation of the source property can not only improve the effectiveness of the FSME algorithm, but also extend the method beyond the current algorithm (e.g. improving the internal multiple attenuation algorithm).

  6. Reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior com tendões flexores quadrúplos e parafusos de interferências metálicos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Existem muitas técnicas de reconstrução cirúrgica do ligamento cruzado anterior, utilizando diferentes tipos de enxertos e variados métodos de fixação. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar os resultados da reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior com enxerto quádruplo de tendões do semitendíneo e grácil, fixado com parafuso de interferência metálico em 64 casos, segundo o protocolo do Internacional Knee Documentation Committee. A idade dos pacientes variou de 14 a 46 anos (média de 30,9 e o seguimento variou entre 12 e 38 meses (média de 21,5. Na avaliação final, os joelhos de 95% dos pacientes foram graduados como normais ou próximos ao normal. A técnica é mais uma opção para reconstrução do ligamento, e os parafusos de interferência metálicos podem produzir fixação anatômica a custo acessível.

  7. Effect of small interfering RNA targeting CD47 gene mediated by lentivirus vectors on proliferation and apoptosis of human laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-feng GAO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of small interfering RNA(siRNA targeting CD47 gene mediated by lentivirus vectors on proliferation and apoptosis of human laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cells. Methods After building lentivirus vector, a siRNA directed against CD47 gene was transfected into Hep-2 cells. Cell morphological changes were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The changes in CD47 mRNA expression were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the protein of CD47 was evaluated byWestern blotting. Suppression of proliferation and apoptosis of Hep-2 cells were observed by MTT assay. Results After the laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cells were transfected by CD47-siRNA lentiviral plasmid, it was showed by fluorescence microscopy that the CD47 siRNA was able to effectively suppress the Hep-2 cell proliferation, the cells were deformed and diminished in size obviously, and necrosis and apoptosis were observed. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR andWestern blotting revealed that the expression of CD47 mRNA and protein decreased by 76%–82% and 77%, respectively(P<0.05. Forty-eight hours after the lentivirus vectors transfection, MTT assay revealed that cell apoptosisi ncreased significantly(P<0.01. Conclusion Small interfering RNA targeting CD47 gene mediated by lentivirus vectors can significantly inhibit CD47 gene expression in Hep-2cells and induce cell apoptosis in vitro.

  8. Chemometrics-assisted high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection strategy to solve varying interfering patterns from different chromatographic columns and sample matrices for beverage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Wu, Hai-Long; Gu, Hui-Wen; Hu, Yong; Wang, Li; Xia, Hui; Xiang, Shou-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-02-26

    This work reports a chemometrics-assisted high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) strategy to solve varying interfering patterns from different chromatographic columns and sample matrices for the rapid simultaneous determination of six synthetic colorants in five kinds of beverages with little sample pretreatment. The investigation was performed using two types of LC columns under the same elution conditions. Although analytes using different columns have different co-elution patterns that appear more seriously in complex backgrounds, all colorants were properly resolved by alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) method and accurate chromatographic elution profiles, spectral profiles as well as relative concentrations were obtained. The results were confirmed by those obtained from traditional HPLC-UV method at a particular wavelength and the results of both methods were consistent with each other. All results demonstrated that the proposed chemometrics-assisted HPLC-DAD method is accurate, economical and universal, and can be promisingly applied to solve varying interfering patterns from different chromatographic columns and sample matrices for the analysis of complex food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...

  10. Locally Weighted Naive Bayes

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Eibe; Hall, Mark; Pfahringer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Despite its simplicity, the naive Bayes classifier has surprised machine learning researchers by exhibiting good performance on a variety of learning problems. Encouraged by these results, researchers have looked to overcome naive Bayes primary weakness - attribute independence - and improve the performance of the algorithm. This paper presents a locally weighted version of naive Bayes that relaxes the independence assumption by learning local models at prediction time. Experimental results s...

  11. Intrapartum sonographic weight estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faschingbauer, F; Dammer, U; Raabe, E; Schneider, M; Faschingbauer, C; Schmid, M; Schild, R L; Beckmann, M W; Kehl, S; Mayr, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of intrapartum sonographic weight estimation (WE). This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 1958 singleton pregnancies. Inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy with cephalic presentation, vaginal delivery and ultrasound examination with complete biometric parameters performed on the day of delivery during the latent or active phase of labor, and absence of chromosomal or structural anomalies. The accuracy of intrapartum WE was compared to a control group of fetuses delivered by primary cesarean section at our perinatal center and an ultrasound examination with complete biometric parameters performed within 3 days before delivery (n = 392). Otherwise, the same inclusion criteria as in the study group were applied. The accuracy of WE was compared between five commonly applied formulas using means of percentage errors (MPE), medians of absolute percentage errors (MAPE), and proportions of estimates within 10 % of actual birth weight. In the whole study group, all equations showed a systematic underestimation of fetal weight (negative MPEs). Overall, best MAPE and MPE values were found with the Hadlock II formula, using BPD, AC and FL as biometric parameters (Hadlock II, MPE: -1.28; MAPE: 6.52). MPEs differed significantly between WE in the study and control group for all evaluated formulas: in the control group, either no systematic error (Hadlock III, IV and V) or a significant overestimation (Hadlock I, II) was found. Regarding MAPEs, application of the Hadlock III (HC, AC, FL) and V (AC) formula resulted in significant lower values in the control group (Hadlock III, MAPE: 7.48 vs. 5.95, p = 0.0008 and Hadlock V, MAPE: 8.79 vs. 7.52, p = 0.0085). No significant differences were found for the other equations. A systematic underestimation of fetal weight has to be taken into account in sonographic WE performed intrapartum. Overall, the best results can be achieved with WE formulas using the BPD as the only head

  12. Weight rhythms: weight increases during weekends and decreases during weekdays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsama, Anna-Leena; Mattila, Elina; Ermes, Miikka; van Gils, Mark; Wansink, Brian; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The week's cycle influences sleep, exercise, and eating habits. An accurate description of weekly weight rhythms has not been reported yet - especially across people who lose weight versus those who maintain or gain weight. The daily weight in 80 adults (BMI 20.0-33.5 kg/m(2); age, 25-62 years) was recorded and analysed to determine if a group-level weekly weight fluctuation exists. This was a retrospective study of 4,657 measurements during 15-330 monitoring days. Semi-parametric regression was used to model the rhythm. A pattern of daily weight changes was found (p < 0.05), with higher weight early in the week (Sunday and Monday) and decreasing weight during the week. Increases begin on Saturday and decreases begin on Tuesday. This compensation pattern was strongest for those who lost or maintained weight and weakest for those who slowly gained weight. Weight variations between weekends and weekdays should be considered as normal instead of signs of weight gain. Those who compensate the most are most likely to either lose or maintain weight over time. Long-term habits may make more of a difference than short-term splurges. People prone to weight gain could be counselled about the importance of weekday compensation. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales o definitivas de esta terapia. MÉTODOS: estudio de farmacovigilancia cuya serie estuvo conformada por 122 pacientes con hepatitis crónica C atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología desde mayo de 2001 hasta mayo de 2006. Se utilizó interferón alfa 2b recombinante (3 millones de unidades 3 veces por semana más ribavirina (1 000 o 1 200 mg diarios en dependencia del peso corporal durante 48 semanas. RESULTADOS: el 88,5 % del total de casos presentó efectos adversos; de ellos el 79,5 % correspondió al síndrome seudogripal, seguido de manifestaciones hematológicas, neuropsiquiátricas, gastrointestinales, entre otras menos frecuentes. El 6,6 % de la serie presentó salidas temporales del tratamiento por efecto adverso distinto de la anemia y 4 pacientes, salidas definitivas del estudio, tres por anemia hemolítica severa y uno con hipertiroidismo no controlable. CONCLUSIONES: la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina resulta segura, donde el mayor número de casos presentó síndrome seudogripal como efecto adverso más frecuente. Las manifestaciones hematológicas asociadas a las salidas definitivas del estudio permitieron recomendar seguimiento estricto de la hemoglobina y profundizar en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales efectos adversos presentes en otros sistemas y asociados a esta terapia.

  15. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum Weed interference periods in cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Salgado

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os efeitos de períodos de controle e de convivência das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum, cultivar Delta-Opal, realizou-se um experimento que constou de dois grupos de tratamentos. No primeiro, a cultura permaneceu livre da competição das plantas daninhas desde a emergência até 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 dias e colheita (159 dias. No segundo, a cultura permaneceu em competição com a comunidade infestante desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos para a primeira série de tratamentos. Dentre as espécies de plantas daninhas encontradas na área experimental, destacaram-se a tiririca (Cyperus rotundus, o fedegoso (Senna obtusifolia, a anileira (Indigofera hirsuta e o capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus. Pelas condições edáficas, climáticas e florísticas sob as quais foi conduzida a cultura de algodão, o Período Anterior à Interferência (PAI dessa comunidade que reduziu em 5% a produtividade da cultura foi de oito dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE; o Período Total de Prevenção da Interferência (PTPI foi de 66 DAE; e o Período Crítico de Prevenção da Interferência (PCPI foi dos 8 aos 66 DAE.In order to evaluate the effects of weed control and weed coexistence periods on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivar Delta Opal yield, an experiment was carried out consisting of two treatment groups. In the first, the crop was weed free from from emergence until 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 days, and harvest (159 days respectively. In the second group, the crop was in competition with the weed community from emergence until the same period, as described for the first series of treatment, respectively. Among the weed species found in the experimental area, the most important were purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus, sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia, indigo (Indigofera hirsuta and sandbur (Cenchrus echinatus. The period after cotton plant

  16. Interferência de ferro na dosagem de boro no solo com azometina-H em soluções extratoras ácidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Gilvan Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de métodos que permitam a extração do boro para avaliação da fertilidade do solo para a recomendação de adubação é importante, devido aos baixos teores de boro e aos altos teores de Fe na maioria dos solos brasileiros. A extração com água quente, método-referência, é trabalhosa e apresenta dificuldades operacionais. Por outro lado, soluções de CaCl2 5 mmol/L e BaCl2.2H2O 5 mmol/L são usadas com sucesso. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a eficiência do ácido tioglicólico na eliminação da interferência do Fe na dosagem de B do solo com azometina-H, após extrações com soluções ácidas de Mehlich-1 e HCl (50 e 100 mmol/L. Dosagem com azometina-H, com e sem ácido tioglicólico, foram feitas para oito solos de Minas Gerais e dois solos do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi utilizada como referência, a extração com BaCl2.2H2O 5 mmol/L, com aquecimento em forno de microondas e dosagem com azometina-H; a determinação de B com azometina-H em extratos originados de soluções ácidas sofre forte interferência do Fe. A adição do ácido tioglicólico não remove esta interferência. A coloração do complexo B-azometina-H fica menos estável com a adição do ácido tioglicólico na dosagem do boro.

  17. Weight Advice Associated With Male Firefighter Weight Perception and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Austin L; Poston, Walker S C; Jahnke, Sara A; Haddock, C Keith; Luo, Sheng; Delclos, George L; Day, R Sue

    2015-10-01

    The high prevalence of overweight and obesity threatens the health and safety of the fire service. Healthcare professionals may play an important role in helping firefighters achieve a healthy weight by providing weight loss counseling to at-risk firefighters. This study characterizes the impact of healthcare professional weight loss advice on firefighter weight perceptions and weight loss behaviors among overweight and obese male firefighters. A national sample of 763 overweight and obese male firefighters who recalled visiting a healthcare provider in the past 12 months reported information regarding healthcare visits, weight perceptions, current weight loss behaviors, and other covariates in 2011-2012. Analyzed in 2013, four unique multilevel logistic regression models estimated the association between healthcare professional weight loss advice and the outcomes of firefighter-reported weight perceptions, intentions to lose weight, reduced caloric intake, and increased physical activity. Healthcare professional weight loss advice was significantly associated with self-perception as overweight (OR=4.78, 95% CI=2.16, 10.57) and attempted weight loss (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.25, 3.38), but not significantly associated with reduced caloric intake (OR=1.26, 95% CI=0.82, 1.95) and increased physical activity (OR=1.51, 95% CI=0.89, 2.61), after adjusting for confounders. Healthcare professional weight loss advice appears to increase the accuracy of firefighter weight perceptions, promote weight loss attempts, and may encourage dieting and physical activity behaviors among overweight firefighters. Healthcare providers should acknowledge their ability to influence the health behaviors of overweight and obese patients and make efforts to increase the quality and frequency of weight loss recommendations for all firefighters. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  19. Maternal characteristics influencing birth weight and infant weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 6 weeks, 27.1% of infants failed to gain weight as expected for their age. Similarly, 37.0% of infants born to mothers with some tertiary education showed slowed weight gain compared with those who had secondary (19.2%) or primary (14.7%) education, P=0.03. Maternal weight at delivery positively correlated with birth ...

  20. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notion...

  1. Weighted composition operators on weighted Bergman spaces of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the weighted compositon operators on weighted Bergman spaces of bounded symmetric domains. The necessary and sufficient conditions for a weighted composition operator W φ , ψ to be bounded and compact are studied by using the Carleson measure techniques. In the last section, we study the ...

  2. Weighted composition operators on weighted Bergman spaces of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we study the weighted compositon operators on weighted. Bergman spaces of bounded symmetric domains. The necessary and sufficient conditions for a weighted composition operator Wϕ,ψ to be bounded and compact are studied by using the Carleson measure techniques. In the last section, we ...

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices in an apparently healthy Nigerian population. ISI Ogbu, EE Chukwukelu. Abstract. Background: Notions about the metabolic syndrome (MS) emphasized the importance of obesity. This may prevent the early diagnosis of the condition in normal weight ...

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Notions about the metabolic syndrome (MS) emphasized the importance of obesity. This may prevent the early diagnosis of the condition in normal weight individuals. Aim: To determine variations in prevalence of MS according to different weight and weight indices. Materials and Methods: 342 apparently ...

  5. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  6. The Influence of Weight Status Duration on Weight Perception Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lois; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-03-01

    To examine the association between weight status duration and weight perception accuracy. Retrospective study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. A total of 4029 adults aged 20 years or older. To assess weight status duration, participants' past (10 years ago) and present body mass indexes were used to create 4 groups: normal weight in the past and present (group 1), normal weight in the past but overweight/obese in the present (group 2), overweight/obese in the present but not in the past (group 3), and overweight/obese in the past and present (group 4). We classified individuals as having an accurate/inaccurate weight perception based on present body mass index and whether they considered themselves as overweight, underweight, or about the right weight. Logistic regression. Our findings suggest that participants who were overweight/obese in the past, present, or during both time periods had increased odds of possessing an inaccurate weight perception. Furthermore, being normal weight in the past but obese in the present increased the odds of having an inaccurate weight perception nearly 10-fold and almost 5-fold for those obese in both the past and present. Studies such as this can aid clinicians in identifying individuals who may have increased odds of inaccurately identifying their weight status, thereby providing additional opportunities to facilitate weight loss.

  7. Grappling with Weight Cutting. The Wisconsin Wrestling Minimum Weight Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, Robert A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In response to a new state rule, the Wisconsin Minimum Weight Project curtails weight cutting among high school wrestlers. The project uses skinfold testing to determine a minimum competitive weight and nutrition education to help the wrestler diet safety. It serves as a model for other states and other sports. (Author/SM)

  8. Weight Loss and Maintenance in Overweight and Obese Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neala Ambrosi-Randić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed 87 overweight and obese patients with cardiovascular disease in order to explore the weight change over time, and related psychological, behavioural and environmental variables. After hospitalisation, all patients received recommendations for decreased calorie intake combined with physical activity. All of them were contacted for a follow-up after 6 to 23 months in person (N = 43 or in a telephone interview (N = 44. Results show that patients who attended the follow-up in person increased their weight significantly less and maintained their body weight more successfully in comparison with the group of patients contacted over telephone. In the present study, the most desirable techniques for weight reduction seem to be the low calorie diet and exercise. However, the level of attendance at received recommendations for dieting and exercise was not satisfactory. Patients reported different reasons that interfered with their weight loss attempt, such as problems at work or financial problems. We have discussed the necessity of continued contact and support for patients in the period of loss and maintenance of weight loss, considering their psychological, behavioural and environmental problems, and particularities.

  9. Excess Fibrin Deposits Decrease Fetal Weight of Pregnant Mice Infected by Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Andari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is commonly attributed to malaria in pregnancy, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this poor birth outcome are incompletely understood. A universally described histopathological feature of placental malaria is excessive deposition of fibrin, the end-product of the coagulation cascade. This study was conducted to compare fibrin deposit in pregnant mice that infected by Plasmodium berghei (treatment group to the normal pregnant mice (control group and its association with fetal weight. This research is in vivo experimental laboratory study that used 18 pregnant Balb/c mice which divided to the control the group (8 mice and treatment group (9 mice infected by P.berghei. Placentas were staining with Haematoxylin-Eosin (HE for fibrin deposits examination whereas fetal weight was performed with Mettler analytical balance AE 50. Fetal weight of the treatment group was lower than those of the control group (t test, p=0,002. Fibrin deposits were increased in the treatment group (t test, p=0,005 and influenced weight of fetuses (Spearman r= -0,586, p= 0,014. Weights of fetuses are interfered by fibrin deposits during malaria infection.

  10. Incorporation of dietary fibre-rich oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) powder improves postprandial glycaemic response by interfering with starch granule structure and starch digestibility of biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sze Han; Robert, Sathyasurya Daniel; Wan Ahmad, Wan Amir Nizam; Wan Ishak, Wan Rosli

    2017-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC) powder addition at 0, 4, 8 and 12% levels on the nutritional values, pasting properties, thermal characteristics, microstructure, in vitro starch digestibility, in vivo glycaemic index (GI) and sensorial properties of biscuits. Elevated incorporation levels of PSC powder increased the dietary fibre (DF) content and reduced the pasting viscosities and starch gelatinisation enthalpy value of biscuits. The addition of DF-rich PSC powder also interfered with the integrity of the starch granules by reducing the sizes and inducing the uneven spherical shapes of the starch granules, which, in turn, resulted in reduced starch susceptibility to digestive enzymes. The restriction starch hydrolysis rate markedly reduced the GI of biscuits. The incorporation of 8% PSC powder in biscuits (GI=49) could be an effective way of developing a nutritious and low-GI biscuit without jeopardizing its desirable sensorial properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antiviral activity of Small interfering RNAs: Specificity testing using heterologous virus reveals interferon-related effects overlooked by conventional mismatch controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is considered to be a highly specific method for knockdown of gene expression in eukaryotic cells via degradation of target mRNA. Mutated siRNA molecules with 1–4 mismatching nucleotides compared to the target mRNA are regularly used...... as specificity controls. Using siRNAs for inhibition of a fish-pathogenic rhabdovirus, we report that inclusion of a heterologous virus, as target control is essential for verification of the specificity of siRNA-induced interference with virus multiplication. Transfection with three different siRNAs specific...... to the viral glycoprotein gene of the target-virus efficiently inhibited viral multiplication in infected cell cultures, while two of three corresponding mismatched siRNAs did not have this effect. This suggested specific interference, but similar results were obtained when the same siRNAs were tested against...

  12. Interferência do ácido ascórbico na dosagem glicêmica - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v6i2.722

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Cardoso Barbosa; Tania Cristina Andrade

    2009-01-01

    Sabe-se que exames laboratoriais estão sujeitos a fatores interferentes. A literatura científica cita interferência do ácido ascórbico em dosagens que envolvam oxirredução, como a glicêmica. Devido a isto, buscou-se avaliar o efeito do ácido ascórbico sobre a dosagem glicêmica em dois tipos de soro controle submetidos a diferentes concentrações de ácido ascórbico, variando de 2,5 a 100 mg/dL. Utilizou-se um soro controle com valores normais de glicemia e outro com valores patológicos. Observo...

  13. Desarrollo de panuveítis por tuberculosis en paciente con esclerosis múltiple tratado con interferón beta

    OpenAIRE

    Echevarría Lucas, Lucía; Bellido Muñoz, Rosa; Villena Irigoyen, Olga; Nievas Gómez, Trinidad; del Río Pardo, María José; Ramón Garrido, Enrique de

    2016-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de un ex toxicómano de 50 años que acudió a consulta de oftalmología con visión borrosa bilateral. En la anamnesis refería su desintoxicación 20 años atrás, con abstinencia total desde entonces y buena reinserción social. Su historia clínica reflejaba serología de hepatitis B+ y C+, pero VIH− y recientemente comenzó con esclerosis múltiple, controlada con interferón beta. Señalaba haber padecido últimamente un resfriado invernal prolongado. En la exploración oftalmológi...

  14. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institutes of Health Contact Us Get Email Alerts Font Size Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use ... Be Physically Active Healthy Weight Tools BMI Calculator Menu Plans Portion Distortion Key Recommendations Healthy Weight Resources ...

  15. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each day. A VLCD is only recommended for adults who are obese and need to lose weight for health reasons. These diets are often used before weight-loss surgery. You should only use a VLCD with ...

  16. Nova Scotia pharmacists' knowledge of, experiences with and perception of factors interfering with their ability to provide emergency contraceptive pill consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Anne Marie; Langille, Donald B; Hurst, Eileen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this research was to explore pharmacists' knowledge of, experiences with and perception of factors interfering with their ability to provide non-prescription emergency contraceptive pill consultations in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. A self-administered paper questionnaire was mailed, using Dillman's tailored design method, to all pharmacists (n = 1123) registered with the Nova Scotia College of Pharmacists. The response rate was 53.0% (595/1123), with 451 respondents working in community practice. Most respondents reported that they had provided consultations for the emergency contraceptive product Plan B since it became available without a prescription (93.6%), and that Plan B is kept behind the pharmacy counter (83.6%). Pharmacists most frequently (47.8%) reported spending 6-10 min providing Plan B consultations. Respondents were generally knowledgeable about Plan B; however, only 39.2% knew that it can be effective for up to 5 days and 69.3% knew that the incidence of vomiting is less than 50%. The factors interfering the most with providing Plan B consultations were lack of privacy (46.1%) and lack of staff to cover during the consultation (50.9%). In general, Nova Scotia pharmacists are knowledgeable about emergency contraceptive pills; however, education regarding effective timing for use of such pills would be helpful. Private areas for counselling and consideration of pharmacy staffing schedules in community pharmacies may help address pharmacist concerns regarding their ability to provide Plan B consultations. © 2013 The Authors. IJPP © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Dynamique et interférence de paquets d'ondes dans les atomes et dimères d'alcalins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchene, M. A.

    2002-11-01

    (saturation regime, chirped pulse, ...) that allow us to determine the advantages and limits of this technique. In the case of molecules, the interaction of the two-pulse sequence leads to the interference of vibrational wave packets. We analyse and discuss in this case the effects of a thermal distribution of initial states on the temporal coherent control signal. Ce travail porte sur l'étude expérimentale résolue en temps de la dynamique atomique et moléculaire prenant place sur une échelle de temps femtoseconde. Il présente deux orientations distinctes et complémentaires. La première concerne l'étude de la dynamique de paquets d'ondes dans des atomes et dimères d'alcalins (K, K2) par des méthodes pompe-sonde. Dans le cas du potassium atomique le paquet d'ondes est une superposition des états de structure fine de l'état 4p et représente un paquet de spin électronique. Nous observons la dynamique de ce paquet d'ondes au cours du temps et montrons que celle-ci correspond à une inversion du sens d'orientation du spin. Le formalisme théorique des états brillants et noirs est particulièrement adapté à la description de ce type de dynamique. Nous présentons alors une méthode originale qui, tirant avantage du mouvement d'inversion du spin, permet de produire des électrons polarisés en spin à l'échelle femtoseconde. Dans le cas des molécules, le paquet d'ondes créé est une superposition d'états vibrationnels. Nous présentons les résultats d'une étude systématique de la dynamique de paquet d'ondes vibrationnel dans les états électroniques A^1Σ^+_u et 2^1Pi_g. Le signal pompe-sonde dépend alors de la compétition entre les dynamiques associées aux paquets d'ondes créés dans les deux états électroniques. La deuxième partie traite d'expériences d'interférences de paquets d'ondes dans des systèmes similaires (K, Cs, Cs2). Cette technique, complémentaire de la première, consiste à faire interagir une séquence de deux impulsions

  18. Comparison of result judgment algorithm of test for interfering factors in the bacterial endotoxins test among Chinese, Japanese, European, American, and Indian pharmacopeias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yusheng; Cai, Tong; Gao, Hua; Tan, Dejiang; Zhang, Yuchen; Zhang, Guolai

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial endotoxins test (BET) is a method used to detect or quantify endotoxins (lipo-polysaccharide, LPS) and is widely used in the quality control of parenteral medicines/vaccines and clinical dialysis fluid. It is also used in the diagnosis of endotoxemia and in detection of environment air quality control. Although BET has been adopted by most pharmacopoeias, result judgment algorithms (RJAs) of the test for interfering factors in the BET still differ between certain pharmacopoeias. We have evaluated RJAs of the test for interfering factors for the revision of BET described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 (CHP2010). Original data from 1 748 samples were judged by RJAs of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 2011 (JP2011), the European Pharmacopoeia 7.0 (EP7.0), the United States Pharmacopoeia 36 (USP36), and the Indian Pharmacopoeia 2010 (IP2010), respectively. A SAS software package was used in the statistical analysis. The results using CHP2010 and USP36, JP2011, EP7.0, and IP2010 had no significant difference (P = 0.7740). The results using CHP2010 of 1 748 samples showed that 132 samples (7.6%) required an additional step; nevertheless there was no such requirement when using the other pharmacopeias. The kappa value of two RJAs (CHP2010 and EP7.0) was 0.6900 (0.6297-0.7504) indicating that the CHP2010 and other pharmacopoeias have good consistency. The results using CHP2010 and USP36, JP2011, EP7.0, and IP2010 have different characteristics. CHP2010 method shows a good performance in Specificity, mistake diagnostic rate, agreement rate, predictive value for suspicious rate, and predictive value for passed rate. The CHP2010 method only had disadvantages in sensitivity compared with other pharmacopeias. We suggest that the Chinese pharmacopoeia interference test be revised in accordance with the USP36, JP2011, EP7.0, and IP2010 judgment model.

  19. The effect of imaging time, radiopharmaceutical, full fat milk and water on interfering extra-cardiac activity in myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Richard A; Lloyd, Jim J

    2005-01-01

    Extra-cardiac activity can interfere with observer interpretation of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Fatty meals and drinks to reduce interference have been tested; however, a simple study of delayed imaging with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin and (99m)Tc-sestamibi has not been specifically addressed. The aim was to quantify the effects of imaging time, radiopharmaceutical and oral administration of full fat milk and water on interfering activity. Myocardial perfusion SPECT images were acquired using either tetrofosmin or sestamibi. Patients were imaged at 0.5, 1 or 2 h post-injection (tetrofosmin, 59; sestamibi, 72). Additional groups of patients were imaged either with or without milk (tetrofosmin, 54; sestamibi, 45) and with milk and water (sestamibi, 30). A myocardial region was drawn on the anterior projection and a thin adjacent extra-cardiac region was generated automatically. The count density ratio was calculated and validated with a trial of five observers. A decreasing ratio correlated significantly with observer rank of increasing interference with SPECT image interpretation (r=0.95, P=0.001). The ratio improved significantly as the imaging time increased for both tetrofosmin and sestamibi groups (Pmilk or milk plus water showed no significant improvement against control groups (P > or = 0.2). There was no significant difference between tetrofosmin and sestamibi at any time point (P > or = 0.4). Image interpretation may be improved by delayed imaging for tetrofosmin and sestamibi. However, in contrast with common practice, the administration of milk or water appears to be of no clinical value compared with delayed imaging, and there is no significant difference between interfering activity from tetrofosmin and sestamibi.

  20. AI-2 quorum-sensing inhibitors affect the starvation response and reduce virulence in several Vibrio species, most likely by interfering with LuxPQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2009-12-01

    The increase of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio species in aquatic organisms as well as in humans, together with the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, has led to a growing interest in alternative disease control measures. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism for regulating microbial gene expression in a cell density-dependent way. While there is good evidence for the involvement of auto-inducer 2 (AI-2)-based interspecies QS in the control of virulence in multiple Vibrio species, only few inhibitors of this system are known. From the screening of a small panel of nucleoside analogues for their ability to disturb AI-2-based QS, an adenosine derivative with a p-methoxyphenylpropionamide moiety at C-3' emerged as a promising hit. Its mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of Vibrio harveyi AI-2 QS mutants. Our results indicate that this compound, as well as a truncated analogue lacking the adenine base, block AI-2-based QS without interfering with bacterial growth. The active compounds affected neither the bioluminescence system as such nor the production of AI-2, but most likely interfered with the signal transduction pathway at the level of LuxPQ in V. harveyi. The most active nucleoside analogue (designated LMC-21) was found to reduce the Vibrio species starvation response, to affect biofilm formation in Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae, to reduce pigment and protease production in V. anguillarum, and to protect gnotobiotic Artemia from V. harveyi-induced mortality.

  1. Human biology of weight maintenance after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    One year after losing weight, most people have regained a significant part of the lost weight. As such, weight regain after weight loss has a negative impact on human health. The risk for weight regain is determined by psychosocial and behavioral factors as well as by various physiological and molecular parameters. Here, the latter intrinsic factors are reviewed and assembled into four functional modules, two related to the energy balance and two related to resistance against weight loss. Reported genetic factors do not reveal additional functional processes. The modules form nodes in a network describing the complex interactions of intrinsically determined weight maintenance. This network indicates that after an initial weight loss persons with a high baseline fat mass will most easily succeed in maintaining weight, because they can lose fat without raising stress in adipocytes and at the same time spare fat-free mass. However, continued weight loss and weight maintenance requires extra measures like increased physical activity, limited energy intake and a fat-free sparing composition of the diet. Eventually, this network may help to design novel therapeutic measures based on preventing the return effect of specific plasma factors or by preventing the accumulation of adipocyte cellular stress. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  3. Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

  4. Link prediction in weighted networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Many complex networks feature relations with weight information. Some models utilize this information while other ignore the weight information when inferring the structure. In this paper we investigate if edge-weights when modeling real networks, carry important information about the network...

  5. On weighted dyadic Carleson's inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachizawa K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We give an alternate proof of weighted dyadic Carleson's inequalities which are essentially proved by Sawyer and Wheeden. We use the Bellman function approach of Nazarov and Treil. As an application we give an alternate proof of weighted inequalities for dyadic fractional maximal operators. A result on weighted inequalities for fractional integral operators is given.

  6. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  7. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  8. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  9. Étude d'un dispositif interférométrique simple pour la génération de faisceaux polarisés radialement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passilly, N.; de Saint Denis, R.; Aït-Ameur, K.; Treussart, F.; Hierle, R.; Roch, J.-F.

    2006-10-01

    Nous présentons l'étude théorique et expérimentale d'une technique interférométrique de conversion d'un faisceau gaussien polarisé linéairement en un faisceau annulaire polarisé radialement. Le dispositif expérimental réalise la sommation de deux faisceaux TEM{01} et TEM{10} polarisés orthogonalement obtenus à partir d'éléments optiques diffractifs simples disposés dans les bras d'un interféromètre de Mach-Zehnder vectoriel. Nous montrons que la qualité de la transformation dépend de la distance par rapport à la sortie de l'interféromètre ainsi que de la taille du faisceau incident.

  10. The relationship among registered nurses' weight status, weight loss regimens, and successful or unsuccessful weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitkus, Bruce S

    2011-02-01

    To investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), personality type, weight loss regimens, and successful or unsuccessful weight loss. Seven hundred and twenty-one registered nurses (RNs) were recruited from the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, the membership of a nursing honor society, and RNs at a large state university. Participants completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a demographic survey (age, gender, height, weight, ethnicity, education status, disability, shift work hours, and prescription medication use), and questions related to their weight status, weight loss attempts, and motivation. RNs who had a lower BMI were more successful in losing weight than RNs who had a higher BMI. They were also more successful in their weight loss attempts if they did not use a diet regimen. RNs who were successful in losing weight did not use a specified dietary regimen. ©2011 The Author Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. Social contagions on weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2017-07-01

    We investigate critical behaviors of a social contagion model on weighted networks. An edge-weight compartmental approach is applied to analyze the weighted social contagion on strongly heterogenous networks with skewed degree and weight distributions. We find that degree heterogeneity cannot only alter the nature of contagion transition from discontinuous to continuous but also can enhance or hamper the size of adoption, depending on the unit transmission probability. We also show that the heterogeneity of weight distribution always hinders social contagions, and does not alter the transition type.

  12. The weight loss profile: a biopsychosocial approach to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, M; Papciak, A; Shapiro, S; Tannenbaum, S

    1989-01-01

    Obesity is a common complicating condition in a variety of medical problems. Often effective consultation liaison involves recommendations to overweight patients involving lifestyle and health risk modification. Factors that need to be addressed include exercise, nutritional counseling/caloric restriction, and attitude and behavioral change regarding eating. Patients requiring weight loss typically seek various commercial programs that are readily accessible. One major problem associated with such programs is the high attrition rate within the first six weeks of initiation. Therefore, attempts to facilitate longer-term retention and associated weight loss are warranted. One approach is the identification of factors associated with problems in short-term retention and weight loss followed by the implementation of brief interventions to potentially reverse the influence of these factors on retention and weight loss. The present investigation was conducted to determine the effects of such a strategy on short-term retention and weight loss in a commercial weight loss program. Two groups (n = 66 per group) of female participants with a mean age of thirty-eight years, mean initial weight of 184.6 lbs, mean height of 64.3 inches, mean goal weight of 147.3 lbs, mean Body Mass Index of 31.4 kg/m2 were recruited for the study. Groups were matched for age, initial weight, height, goal weight, and body mass index. One group (controls) received a standard thirteen-week group cognitive-behavioral intervention that emphasized the teaching of self-management strategies for weight reduction. The second group (personalized intervention) received the same thirteen-week cognitive-behavioral intervention. This group also completed a questionnaire (Weight Loss Profile) that identifies factors associated with poor retention and minimal weight loss. Targeted interventions were implemented to modify specific problem areas identified on the Weight Loss Profile. The problem areas were based

  13. Weight Rhythms: Weight Increases during Weekends and Decreases during Weekdays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Leena Orsama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The week's cycle influences sleep, exercise, and eating habits. An accurate description of weekly weight rhythms has not been reported yet - especially across people who lose weight versus those who maintain or gain weight. Methods: The daily weight in 80 adults (BMI 20.0-33.5 kg/m2; age, 25-62 years was recorded and analysed to determine if a group-level weekly weight fluctuation exists. This was a retrospective study of 4,657 measurements during 15-330 monitoring days. Semi-parametric regression was used to model the rhythm. Results: A pattern of daily weight changes was found (p Conclusion: Weight variations between weekends and weekdays should be considered as normal instead of signs of weight gain. Those who compensate the most are most likely to either lose or maintain weight over time. Long-term habits may make more of a difference than short-term splurges. People prone to weight gain could be counselled about the importance of weekday compensation.

  14. Are normal-weight adolescents satisfied with their weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Contiero San Martini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of obesity has led to public policies for combating it. People with normal weight may gain greater awareness of this issue and change their perceptions of their weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of body weight dissatisfaction among normal-weight adolescents, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables, health-related behavior and morbidities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cross-sectional study that used data from a health survey conducted in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, in 2008-2009. METHODS: The prevalence and prevalence ratios of weight dissatisfaction were estimated according to independent variables, by means of simple and multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: 573 normal-weight adolescents aged 10 to 19 years (mean age 14.7 years were analyzed. The prevalence of weight dissatisfaction was 43.7% (95% confidence interval, CI: 37.8-49.8. Higher prevalences of weight dissatisfaction were observed among females, individuals aged 15 to 19 years, those whose households had eight or more domestic appliances, former smokers, individuals who reported alcohol intake and those who had one or more chronic diseases. Lower prevalence of dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents living in substandard housing. Among the normal-weight adolescents, 26.1% wished to lose weight and 17.6% wished to gain weight. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that even when weight is seen to be within the normal range, a high proportion of adolescents express dissatisfaction with their weight, especially females, older adolescents and those of higher socioeconomic level.

  15. Some observations on weighted GMRES

    KAUST Repository

    Güttel, Stefan

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the convergence of the weighted GMRES method for solving linear systems. Two different weighting variants are compared with unweighted GMRES for three model problems, giving a phenomenological explanation of cases where weighting improves convergence, and a case where weighting has no effect on the convergence. We also present a new alternative implementation of the weighted Arnoldi algorithm which under known circumstances will be favourable in terms of computational complexity. These implementations of weighted GMRES are compared for a large number of examples. We find that weighted GMRES may outperform unweighted GMRES for some problems, but more often this method is not competitive with other Krylov subspace methods like GMRES with deflated restarting or BICGSTAB, in particular when a preconditioner is used. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  16. Heterotic weight lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-21

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E{sub 8} factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with three chiral families can be obtained. Based on a first scan of about 10% of the lifted Gepner models we can construct, we have collected more than 10,000 distinct spectra with three families, including examples without mirror fermions. We present an example where the GUT group is completely broken to the standard model, but the resulting and inevitable fractionally charged particles are confined by an additional gauge group factor.

  17. Global coordination: weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to halt the depletion of global ecological capital, a number of different kinds of meetings between Governments of countries in the world has been scheduled. The need for global coordination of environmental policies has become ever more obvious, supported by more and more evidence of the running down of ecological capital. But there are no formal or binding arrangements in sight, as global environmental coordination suffers from high transaction costs (qualitative voting. The CO2 equivalent emissions, resulting in global warming, are driven by the unstoppable economic expansion in the global market economy, employing mainly fossil fuel generated energy, although at the same time lifting sharply the GDP per capita of several emerging countries. Only global environmental coordination on the successful model of the World Band and the IMF (quantitative voting can stem the rising emissions numbers and stop further environmental degradation. However, the system of weighted voting in the WB and the IMF must be reformed by reducing the excessive voting power disparities, for instance by reducing all member country votes by the cube root expression.

  18. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  19. Regulatory Focus, Proximity to Goal Weight, and Weight Loss Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Paul T; Rothman, Alexander J; Jeffery, Robert W; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2015-09-01

    Regulatory focus theory proposes 2 self-regulatory orientations: promotion focus - related to achieving aspirations and positive outcomes - and prevention focus - related to fulfilling responsibilities and preventing negative outcomes. The investigation examined whether regulatory focus and proximity to goal weight moderated the effectiveness of a weight-loss maintenance intervention. Participants who lost ≥10% of their weight were assigned to guided or self-directed treatments and completed regulatory focus and weight goal measures. Across treatment groups, people who were more promotion-focused had better 2-year maintenance rates (defined as regain focused, especially if far from their goal weight (.59 versus .44). In the guided group, people who were more prevention-focused had better maintenance rates than people who were less prevention-focused if closer to their goal weight (.69 versus .42), but poorer maintenance rates if farther from their goal (.36 versus .72). In the self-directed group, prevention focus was unrelated to maintenance. Regulatory focus and proximity to goal weight moderated intervention effectiveness. Maintenance may be enhanced by tailoring treatments to regulatory focus and goal weight (eg, prevention-focused people far from their goals may need extra weight-loss support before focusing on maintenance).

  20. What is the strongest predictor of birth weight: Gestational age, hbalc, maternal weight, weight gain, or birth weight of sibling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus

    Aim: To assess the effect of various maternal characteristics in diabetic pregnancies on birthweight (BW) taking into account birthweight of an elderly sibling.  Method: We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County. Birthweight and certain maternal characteristics including Hb......A1c values after 20th gestational week were collected. Multiple regression models were fitted to assess the effect various predictors of birthweight in both entire cohort (n=501) and in a subset with available weight of sibling (n=139). Sibling weight was calculated as relative to expected weight...... adjusted for age and sex using a Danish reference. E.g. an observed sibling weight of 3800 g with expected BW 3400 g predicts 11.8% extra weight equal to 134 grams (114x11.8) and one extra gestational day predicts an additional weight of 27 grams.  Results: The effects in terms of additional grams in BW...

  1. The weighted random graph model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlaschelli, Diego

    2009-07-01

    We introduce the weighted random graph (WRG) model, which represents the weighted counterpart of the Erdos-Renyi random graph and provides fundamental insights into more complicated weighted networks. We find analytically that the WRG is characterized by a geometric weight distribution, a binomial degree distribution and a negative binomial strength distribution. We also characterize exactly the percolation phase transitions associated with edge removal and with the appearance of weighted subgraphs of any order and intensity. We find that even this completely null model displays a percolation behaviour similar to what is observed in real weighted networks, implying that edge removal cannot be used to detect community structure empirically. By contrast, the analysis of clustering successfully reveals different patterns between the WRG and real networks.

  2. Silencing tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) with short interfering RNA reveals a role for TIMP-1 in hepatic stellate cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowell, Andrew J., E-mail: ajf2@soton.ac.uk [Liver and Pancreas Group, University of Southampton, Division of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Collins, Jane E.; Duncombe, Dale R.; Pickering, Judith A. [Liver and Pancreas Group, University of Southampton, Division of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Rosenberg, William M.C. [Centre for Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Benyon, R. Christopher [Liver and Pancreas Group, University of Southampton, Division of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Myofibroblastic, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in the development of liver fibrosis. {yields} We used short interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate the effects of autocrine TIMP-1 and -2 on HSC proliferation. {yields} Specific silencing of TIMP-1, but not TIMP-2, significantly reduces HSC proliferation and is associated with reduced Akt phosphorylation. {yields} TIMP-1 is localised in part to the HSC nucleus. {yields} TIMP-1 might promote liver fibrosis by means other than its previously described anti-apoptotic effect on HSC. -- Abstract: Myofibroblastic, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in the development of liver fibrosis through the secretion of fibrillar collagens and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2. TIMPs are believed to promote hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting both matrix degradation and apoptosis of HSC. In other cell types, there is evidence that TIMP-1 has effects on proliferation, however the role of TIMPs in the regulation of HSC proliferation remains unexplored. Therefore, we have used short interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate the effects of autocrine TIMP-1 and -2 on HSC proliferation. TIMP-1 and -2 siRNA were highly effective, producing peak target protein knockdown compared to negative control siRNA of 92% and 63%, respectively. Specific silencing of TIMP-1, using siRNA, significantly reduced HSC proliferation. TIMP-1 was localised in part to the HSC nucleus and TIMP-1 siRNA resulted in loss of both cytoplasmic and nuclear TIMP-1. Attenuated proliferation was associated with reduced Akt phosphorylation and was partially rescued by addition of recombinant TIMP-1. We have revealed a novel autocrine mitogenic effect of TIMP-1 on HSC, which may involve Akt-dependent and specific nuclear mechanisms of action. We suggest that TIMP-1 might promote liver fibrosis by means other than its previously described anti-apoptotic effect on HSC. Moreover

  3. Microbiota manipulation for weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Tal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Dubourg, Grégory; Paul, Mical

    2017-05-01

    Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota has been linked to weight changes and obesity. To explore the influence of specific agents that alter the intestinal flora on weight in different patient groups we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics on weight. We searched the Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases for trials on adults, children, and infants evaluating the effects of these substances on weight. Our primary outcome was weight change from baseline. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We identified and included 13 adult, 17 children, and 23 infant RCTs. Effects were opposite among adults and children, showing weight loss among adults (SMD -0.54 [-0.83, -0.25)) and minor weight gains among children (SMD 0.20 [0.04, 0.36]) and infants (SMD 0.30 [-0.01, 0.62]) taking mainly Lactobacillus probiotic supplements. Heterogeneity was substantial in the adult and infant analyses and could not be explained by intervention or patient characteristics. Azithromycin administration in children with pulmonary disease was associated with weight gain (SMD 0.39 [0.24, 0.54]), without heterogeneity. A high risk of selective reporting and attrition bias was detected across the studies, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Overall, our meta-analysis suggests that there may be a role for probiotics in promoting weight loss in adults and weight gain in children, however additional studies are needed. Though we cannot recommend antibiotic administration for weight manipulation, its use provides advantageous weight gain in children with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. variances for reproduction, egg weight and chick weight in ostriches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    Peer-reviewed paper: Joint South African Society for Animal Science/Grassland Society of Southern Africa Congress. 19. Reproduction traits were generally positively related to egg and chick weight on a genetic level (Table. 2), although only the correlations involving egg weight were significant. These results accords with ...

  5. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  6. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  7. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight changes with Diets 2(cooked kudzu) and Diet 8(positive control) having the highest values(55.10g and 90.0g).

  8. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed with Diets Based on Treated ... nutritional quality. Some processing methods including dry heat and wet heat treatment, soaking, dehulling, fermentation, sprouting etc. have been used in the past.

  9. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  10. In vivo efficacy and off-target effects of locked nucleic acid (LNA) and unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) modified siRNA and small internally segmented interfering RNA (sisiRNA) in mice bearing human tumor xenografts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, O. R. F.; Vreijling, Jeroen; Wengel, Suzy L.; Wengel, Jesper; Zhou, Chuanzheng; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti; Baas, Frank; Fluiter, Kees

    2010-01-01

    The clinical use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is hampered by poor uptake by tissues and instability in circulation. In addition, off-target effects pose a significant additional problem for therapeutic use of siRNA. Chemical modifications of siRNA have been reported to increase stability and

  11. An Efficient Method for Electroporation of Small Interfering RNAs into ENCODE Project Tier 1 GM12878 and K562 Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ryan Y; Hammond, Ming C; Rio, Donald C; Lee, Yeon J

    2015-12-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project aims to identify all functional sequence elements in the human genome sequence by use of high-throughput DNA/cDNA sequencing approaches. To aid the standardization, comparison, and integration of data sets produced from different technologies and platforms, the ENCODE Consortium selected several standard human cell lines to be used by the ENCODE Projects. The Tier 1 ENCODE cell lines include GM12878, K562, and H1 human embryonic stem cell lines. GM12878 is a lymphoblastoid cell line, transformed with the Epstein-Barr virus, that was selected by the International HapMap Project for whole genome and transcriptome sequencing by use of the Illumina platform. K562 is an immortalized myelogenous leukemia cell line. The GM12878 cell line is attractive for the ENCODE Projects, as it offers potential synergy with the International HapMap Project. Despite the vast amount of sequencing data available on the GM12878 cell line through the ENCODE Project, including transcriptome, chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing for histone marks, and transcription factors, no small interfering siRNA-mediated knockdown studies have been performed in the GM12878 cell line, as cationic lipid-mediated transfection methods are inefficient for lymphoid cell lines. Here, we present an efficient and reproducible method for transfection of a variety of siRNAs into the GM12878 and K562 cell lines, which subsequently results in targeted protein depletion.

  12. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala e H. courbaril à fertilização. A aleatorização não foi suficiente para garantir condições semelhantes de luz nos plantios de enriquecimento. A variação na quantidade de luz incidente no sub‑bosque compromete a correta avaliação dos tratamentos de fertilização.

  13. Interferência do ácido ascórbico na dosagem glicêmica - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v6i2.722

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cardoso Barbosa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que exames laboratoriais estão sujeitos a fatores interferentes. A literatura científica cita interferência do ácido ascórbico em dosagens que envolvam oxirredução, como a glicêmica. Devido a isto, buscou-se avaliar o efeito do ácido ascórbico sobre a dosagem glicêmica em dois tipos de soro controle submetidos a diferentes concentrações de ácido ascórbico, variando de 2,5 a 100 mg/dL. Utilizou-se um soro controle com valores normais de glicemia e outro com valores patológicos. Observou-se uma diminuição significativa (p<0,01 da glicemia em ambos, porém a amostra normal apresentou maior correlação negativa, chegando a 74% com a concentração de 100 mg/dL de ácido ascórbico, enquanto na amostra correspondente do soro patológico houve uma redução de 40% na dosagem glicêmica. O presente estudo demonstrou haver uma correlação negativa entre concentrações crescentes de ácido ascórbico e dosagem glicêmica.

  14. Function and evolution of a MicroRNA that regulates a Ca2+-ATPase and triggers the formation of phased small interfering RNAs in tomato reproductive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Itaya, Asuka; Zhong, Xuehua; Wu, Yang; Zhang, Jianfeng; van der Knaap, Esther; Olmstead, Richard; Qi, Yijun; Ding, Biao

    2011-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a wide variety of biological processes in most eukaryotes. We investigated the function and evolution of miR4376 in the family Solanaceae. We report that the 22-nucleotide miR4376 regulates the expression of an autoinhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ACA10, which plays a critical role in tomato reproductive growth. Deep phylogenetic mapping suggested (1) an evolution course of MIR4376 loci and posttranscriptional processing of pre-miR4376 as a likely limiting step for the evolution of miR4376, (2) an independent phylogenetic origin of the miR4376 target site in ACA10 homologs, and (3) alternative splicing as a possible mechanism of eliminating such a target in some ACA10 homologs. Furthermore, miR4376 triggers the formation of phased small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from Sl ACA10 and its Solanum tuberosum homolog. Together, our data provide experimental evidence of miRNA-regulated expression of universally important Ca(2+)-ATPases. The miR4376-regulated expression of ACA10 itself, and possibly also the associated formation of phased siRNAs, may function as a novel layer of molecular mechanisms underlying tomato reproductive growth. Finally, our data suggest that the stochastic emergence of a miRNA-target gene combination involves multiple molecular events at the genomic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional levels that may vary drastically in even closely related species.

  15. Inhibition of CD44 gene expression in human skin models, using self-delivery short interfering RNA administered by dissolvable microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Maria Fernanda; González-González, Emilio; Speaker, Tycho J; Hickerson, Robyn P; Leake, Devin; Milstone, Leonard M; Contag, Christopher H; Kaspar, Roger L

    2012-08-01

    Treatment of skin disorders with short interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapeutics requires the development of effective delivery methodologies that reach target cells in affected tissues. Successful delivery of functional siRNA to the epidermis requires (1) crossing the stratum corneum, (2) transfer across the keratinocyte membrane, followed by (3) incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with microneedle arrays loaded with self-delivery siRNA (sd-siRNA) can achieve inhibition of reporter gene expression in a transgenic mouse model. Furthermore, treatment of human cultured epidermal equivalents with sd-siRNA resulted in inhibition of target gene expression. Here, we demonstrate inhibition of CD44, a gene that is uniformly expressed throughout the epidermis, by sd-siRNA both in vitro (cultured human epidermal skin equivalents) and in vivo (full-thickness human skin equivalents xenografted on immunocompromised mice). Treatment of human skin equivalents with CD44 sd-siRNA markedly decreased CD44 mRNA levels, which led to a reduction of the target protein as confirmed by immunodetection in epidermal equivalent sections with a CD44-specific antibody. Taken together, these results demonstrate that sd-siRNA, delivered by microneedle arrays, can reduce expression of a targeted endogenous gene in a human skin xenograft model.

  16. The system with zwitterionic lactose-based surfactant for complexation and delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid—A structural and spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skupin, Michalina [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Sobczak, Krzysztof [Department of Gene Expression, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Zieliński, Ryszard [Department of Technology and Instrumental Analysis, Faculty of Commodity Science, Poznań University of Economics, al. Niepodległości 10, 61-875 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: mkozak@amu.edu.pl [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Joint SAXS Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-05-23

    Systems suitable for the effective preparation of complexes with siRNA (small interfering RNA) are at the center of interest in the area of research work on the delivery of the RNA-based drugs (RNA-therapeutics). This article presents results of a study on the structural effects associated with siRNA complexation by a surfactant comprising a lactose group (N-(3-propanesulfone)-N-dodecyl-amino-beta-D-lactose hydrochloride, LA12). The double stranded siRNA oligomer (21 base pairs) used in this study is responsible for silencing a gene that can be important in the therapy of myotonic dystrophy type 1. The obtained siRNA/LA12 lipoplexes were studied using the methods of small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility tests. Lipoplexes form in solution stable lamellar or cubic phases. The surfactant selected for the study shows much lower cytotoxicity and good complexation abilities of siRNA than dicationic or polycationic surfactants.

  17. Delivery of Small Interfering RNA to Inhibit Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Zebrafish Using Natural Brain Endothelia Cell-Secreted Exosome Nanovesicles for the Treatment of Brain Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Fogarty, Brittany; LaForge, Bret; Aziz, Salma; Pham, Thuy; Lai, Leanne; Bai, Shuhua

    2017-03-01

    Although small interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great therapeutic promise, its delivery to the disease site remains a paramount obstacle. In this study, we tested whether brain endothelial cell-derived exosomes could deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in zebrafish. Natural exosomes were isolated from brain endothelial bEND.3 cell culture media and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA was loaded in exosomes with the assistance of a transfection reagent. While fluorescence-activated cell flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry staining studies indicated that wild-type exosomes significantly increased the uptake of fluorescence-labeled siRNA in the autologous brain endothelial cells, decreased fluorescence intensity was observed in the cells treated with the tetraspanin CD63 antibody-blocked exosome-delivered formulation (p brain endothelial bEND.3 cell and astrocyte. Inhibition at the expression of VEGF RNA and protein levels was observed in glioblastoma-astrocytoma U-87 MG cells treated with exosome-delivered siRNAs. Imaging results showed that exosome delivered more siRNAs across the BBB in Tg(fli1:GFP) zebrafish. In a xenotransplanted brain tumor model, exosome-delivered VEGF siRNAs decreased the fluorescence intensity of labeled cancer cells in the brain of zebrafish. Brain endothelial cell-derived exosomes could be potentially used as a natural carrier for the brain delivery of exogenous siRNA.

  18. Amide linkages mimic phosphates in RNA interactions with proteins and are well tolerated in the guide strand of short interfering RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Daniel; Hardcastle, Travis; Cheruiyot, Samwel K; Pallan, Pradeep S; Kennedy, Scott D; Egli, Martin; Kelley, Melissa L; Smith, Anja van Brabant; Rozners, Eriks

    2017-08-21

    While the use of RNA interference (RNAi) in molecular biology and functional genomics is a well-established technology, in vivo applications of synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) require chemical modifications. We recently found that amides as non-ionic replacements for phosphodiesters may be useful modifications for optimization of siRNAs. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of systematic replacement of a single phosphate with an amide linkage throughout the guide strand of siRNAs. The results show that amides are surprisingly well tolerated in the seed and central regions of the guide strand and increase the silencing activity when placed between nucleosides 10 and 12, at the catalytic site of Argonaute. A potential explanation is provided by the first crystal structure of an amide-modified RNA-DNA with Bacillus halodurans RNase H1. The structure reveals how small changes in both RNA and protein conformation allow the amide to establish hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that these alternative binding modes may compensate for interactions lost due to the absence of a phosphodiester moiety. Our results suggest that an amide can mimic important hydrogen bonding interactions with proteins required for RNAi activity and may be a promising modification for optimization of biological properties of siRNAs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Amide linkages mimic phosphates in RNA interactions with proteins and are well tolerated in the guide strand of short interfering RNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutisya, Daniel; Hardcastle, Travis; Cheruiyot, Samwel K.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Kennedy, Scott D.; Egli, Martin; Kelley, Melissa L.; Smith, Anja van Brabant; Rozners, Eriks

    2017-06-27

    While the use of RNA interference (RNAi) in molecular biology and functional genomics is a well-established technology, in vivo applications of synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) require chemical modifications. We recently found that amides as non-ionic replacements for phosphodiesters may be useful modifications for optimization of siRNAs. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of systematic replacement of a single phosphate with an amide linkage throughout the guide strand of siRNAs. The results show that amides are surprisingly well tolerated in the seed and central regions of the guide strand and increase the silencing activity when placed between nucleosides 10 and 12, at the catalytic site of Argonaute. A potential explanation is provided by the first crystal structure of an amide-modified RNA–DNA with Bacillus halodurans RNase H1. The structure reveals how small changes in both RNA and protein conformation allow the amide to establish hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that these alternative binding modes may compensate for interactions lost due to the absence of a phosphodiester moiety. Our results suggest that an amide can mimic important hydrogen bonding interactions with proteins required for RNAi activity and may be a promising modification for optimization of biological properties of siRNAs.

  20. The system with zwitterionic lactose-based surfactant for complexation and delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid—A structural and spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupin, Michalina; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Ryszard; Kozak, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    Systems suitable for the effective preparation of complexes with siRNA (small interfering RNA) are at the center of interest in the area of research work on the delivery of the RNA-based drugs (RNA-therapeutics). This article presents results of a study on the structural effects associated with siRNA complexation by a surfactant comprising a lactose group (N-(3-propanesulfone)-N-dodecyl-amino-beta-D-lactose hydrochloride, LA12). The double stranded siRNA oligomer (21 base pairs) used in this study is responsible for silencing a gene that can be important in the therapy of myotonic dystrophy type 1. The obtained siRNA/LA12 lipoplexes were studied using the methods of small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility tests. Lipoplexes form in solution stable lamellar or cubic phases. The surfactant selected for the study shows much lower cytotoxicity and good complexation abilities of siRNA than dicationic or polycationic surfactants.

  1. Serenoa repens (Permixon) inhibits the 5alpha-reductase activity of human prostate cancer cell lines without interfering with PSA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Fouad K; Ross, Margaret; Ho, Clement K H; Lyons, Valerie; Chapman, Karen

    2005-03-20

    The phytotherapeutic agent Serenoa repens is an effective dual inhibitor of 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme activity in the prostate. Unlike other 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, Serenoa repens induces its effects without interfering with the cellular capacity to secrete PSA. Here, we focussed on the possible pathways that might differentiate the action of Permixon from that of synthetic 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. We demonstrate that Serenoa repens, unlike other 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, does not inhibit binding between activated AR and the steroid receptor-binding consensus in the promoter region of the PSA gene. This was shown by a combination of techniques: assessment of the effect of Permixon on androgen action in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line revealed no suppression of AR and maintenance of PSA protein expression at control levels. This was consistent with reporter gene experiments showing that Permixon failed to interfere with AR-mediated transcriptional activation of PSA and that both testosterone and DHT were equally effective at maintaining this activity. Our results demonstrate that despite Serenoa repens effective inhibition of 5alpha-reductase activity in the prostate, it did not suppress PSA secretion. Therefore, we confirm the therapeutic advantage of Serenoa repens over other 5alpha-reductase inhibitors as treatment with the phytotherapeutic agent will permit the continuous use of PSA measurements as a useful biomarker for prostate cancer screening and for evaluating tumour progression. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Stress, race, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Karen Hye-cheon; Bursac, Zoran; DiLillo, Vicki; White, Della Brown; West, Delia Smith

    2009-01-01

    Stress has been identified as a significant factor in health and in racial/ethnic health disparities. A potential mediator in these relationships is body weight. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between stress, race, and body weight were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese women with Type 2 diabetes (n = 217) enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program. Stress (Perceived Stress Scale) was assessed at baseline only and body weight (body mass index) was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Stress was not related to baseline body weight. With every 1 unit lower scored on the baseline stress measure, women lost 0.10 kg +/- .04 more at 6 months (p women were divided into tertiles based on baseline stress scores, those in the lowest stress group had significantly greater weight loss (5.2 kg +/- 4.9) compared with those in the highest stress group (3.0 kg +/- 4.0) (p weight loss has implications for enhancing weight loss programs for women with Type 2 diabetes. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Asymptotics of weighted random sums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corcuera, José Manuel; Nualart, David; Podolskij, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the asymptotic behaviour of weighted random sums when the sum process converges stably in law to a Brownian motion and the weight process has continuous trajectories, more regular than that of a Brownian motion. We show that these sums converge in law to the integral...

  4. Polynomial weights and code constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massey, J; Costello, D; Justesen, Jørn

    1973-01-01

    For any nonzero elementcof a general finite fieldGF(q), it is shown that the polynomials(x - c)^i, i = 0,1,2,cdots, have the "weight-retaining" property that any linear combination of these polynomials with coefficients inGF(q)has Hamming weight at least as great as that of the minimum degree...

  5. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  6. Fuzzy Weighted Average: Analytical Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the computation of analytical expressions for the extremal values of the α-cuts of the fuzzy weighted average, for triangular or trapeizoidal weights and attributes. Also, an algorithm for the computation of the inverses of these expressions is given, providing exact

  7. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AND BODY WEIGHTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    because of its high meat quality and acceptance by ... respectively. Thus, morphometric traits were recommended by Okon et al. (2010a, b) as good predictors of hatchling weights in. Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, .... wt = body weight, w = hatchling body shell width, L = hatchling body shell length.

  8. Interfering with the neutron spin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/063/01/0051-0056. Keywords. Neutron interferometry; spinor; Pauli anticommutation; geometic phase; non-cyclic evolution; Pancharatnam connection; neutron polarimetry. Abstract. Charge neutrality, a spin 1 2 and an associated magnetic moment of the neutron make ...

  9. Chaos driven by interfering memory

    CERN Document Server

    Perrard, Stéphane; Fort, Emmanuel; Couder, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The transmission of information can couple two entities of very different nature, one of them serving as a memory for the other. Here we study the situation in which information is stored in a wave field and serves as a memory that pilots the dynamics of a particle. Such a system can be implemented by a bouncing drop generating surface waves sustained by a parametric forcing. The motion of the resulting "walker" when confined in a harmonic potential well is generally disordered. Here we show that these trajectories correspond to chaotic regimes characterized by intermittent transitions between a discrete set of states. At any given time, the system is in one of these states characterized by a double quantization of size and angular momentum. A low dimensional intermittency determines their respective probabilities. They thus form an eigenstate basis of decomposition for what would be observed as a superposition of states if all measurements were intrusive.

  10. Interfering with the neutron spin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phases produced by flipper rotations and translations respectively. In the scheme of figure 1, a relative rotation δβ between the flippers F1 and F2 generates a pure geometric phase [3] equal to δβ. A relative translation δx on the other hand, produces a proportionate pure dynamical phase due to the guide field. B0. We have ...

  11. Nonparametric weighted stochastic block models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2018-01-01

    We present a Bayesian formulation of weighted stochastic block models that can be used to infer the large-scale modular structure of weighted networks, including their hierarchical organization. Our method is nonparametric, and thus does not require the prior knowledge of the number of groups or other dimensions of the model, which are instead inferred from data. We give a comprehensive treatment of different kinds of edge weights (i.e., continuous or discrete, signed or unsigned, bounded or unbounded), as well as arbitrary weight transformations, and describe an unsupervised model selection approach to choose the best network description. We illustrate the application of our method to a variety of empirical weighted networks, such as global migrations, voting patterns in congress, and neural connections in the human brain.

  12. When does weight matter most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alice J

    2012-01-01

    Past empirical work establishes a wage penalty from being overweight. In this paper, I exploit variation in an individual's weight over time to determine the age when weight has the largest impact on labor market outcomes. For white men, controlling for weight at younger ages does not eliminate the effect of older adult weight on wage: being overweight as a young adult only adds an additional penalty to adult wages. However, for white women, what they weigh in their early twenties solely determines the existence of an adult wage penalty. The female early-twenties weight penalty has a persistent effect on wages, and differences in marital characteristics, occupation status, or education cannot explain it. It also is not a proxy for intergenerational unobservables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  14. Long-term weight loss maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wing, Rena R; Phelan, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    ...% of initial body weight and maintaining the loss for at least 1 y. The National Weight Control Registry provides information about the strategies used by successful weight loss maintainers to achieve and maintain long-term weight loss...

  15. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A; Carayon, Florence; Schulz, Kenneth F; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2014-01-29

    Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. The aim of the review was to evaluate the potential association between combination contraceptive use and changes in weight. In November 2013, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for studies of combination contraceptives, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). For the initial review, we also wrote to known investigators and manufacturers to request information about other published or unpublished trials not discovered in our search. All English-language, randomized controlled trials were eligible if they had at least three treatment cycles and compared a combination contraceptive to a placebo or to a combination contraceptive that differed in drug, dosage, regimen, or study length. All titles and abstracts located in the literature searches were assessed. Data were entered and analyzed with RevMan. A second author verified the data entered. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean change in weight between baseline and post-treatment measurements using a fixed-effect model. For categorical data, such as the proportion of women who gained or lost more than a specified amount of weight, the Peto odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. We found 49 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The trials included 85 weight change comparisons for 52 distinct contraceptive pairs (or placebos). The four trials with a placebo or no intervention group did not find

  16. Weight Changes in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 diabetes to lose weight. Are the guidelines based on firm evidence?   METHODS: The back-bone of the thesis is constituted by three scientific articles based on three different population based cohort studies. Multivariable modeling and other epidemiological methods were used.   RESULTS: Article 1 examined weight changes in the general population in relation to smoking status, and proposed a graphical 'smoking cessation weight change model', demonstrating the importance of time, age and smoking status in relation to long-term weight changes. Article 2 suggested new methods to improve the processing of dietary data. It was demonstrated how median imputation for missing values and assumptions about standard portion sizes were inferior to stochastic methods conditioning on information about physiology of the individual. Article 3 evaluated the influence of prospectively planned intentional weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor was not associated with reduced morbidity or mortality. In the general population the dietary intake of fructose and soft drinks sweetened with sugar was not associated with weight change over 9 years. Weight gain rates were large in young adults and incrementally smaller in middle aged adults. Subjects more than 60 years lost weight on average. Historical weight data suggest that the body weight increases throughout life to the age of 60-65years. A study with simulated data indicates that bias in baseline BMI may misleadingly have favored weight loss in earlier cohort studies of intentional weight loss and mortality.   DISCUSSION: The findings regarding

  17. Shellfish Feeding Experiments, Filter Weight and Tissue Weight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Particulate matter removal by shellfish was quantified in several geographic locations, across several years. Data include filter and shellfish tissue weights.

  18. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended.

  19. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  20. Weighted polynomial models and weighted sampling schemes for finite population

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sean X.

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical framework for finite population models with unequal sample probabilities, along with sampling schemes for drawing random samples from these models. We first present four exact weighted sampling schemes that can be used for any finite population model to satisfy such requirements as ordered/ unordered samples, with/without replacement, and fixed/nonfixed sample size. We then introduce a new class of finite population models called weighted po...

  1. Systematic characterization and fluorescence threshold strategies for the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS using size-resolved biological and interfering particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Savage

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particles of biological origin, also referred to as bioaerosols or primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP, are important to various human health and environmental systems. There has been a recent steep increase in the frequency of published studies utilizing commercial instrumentation based on ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF, such as the WIBS (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor or UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer, for bioaerosol detection both outdoors and in the built environment. Significant work over several decades supported the development of the general technologies, but efforts to systematically characterize the operation of new commercial sensors have remained lacking. Specifically, there have been gaps in the understanding of how different classes of biological and non-biological particles can influence the detection ability of LIF instrumentation. Here we present a systematic characterization of the WIBS-4A instrument using 69 types of aerosol materials, including a representative list of pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria as well as the most important groups of non-biological materials reported to exhibit interfering fluorescent properties. Broad separation can be seen between the biological and non-biological particles directly using the five WIBS output parameters and by taking advantage of the particle classification analysis introduced by Perring et al. (2015. We highlight the importance that particle size plays on observed fluorescence properties and thus in the Perring-style particle classification. We also discuss several particle analysis strategies, including the commonly used fluorescence threshold defined as the mean instrument background (forced trigger; FT plus 3 standard deviations (σ of the measurement. Changing the particle fluorescence threshold was shown to have a significant impact on fluorescence fraction and particle type classification. We conclude that

  2. Caenorhabditis elegans RIG-I Homolog Mediates Antiviral RNA Interference Downstream of Dicer-Dependent Biogenesis of Viral Small Interfering RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Stephanie R; Lu, Jinfeng; Guo, Xunyang; Zhong, Jing; Jiang, Hongshan; Broitman-Maduro, Gina; Li, Wan-Xiang; Lu, Rui; Maduro, Morris; Ding, Shou-Wei

    2017-03-21

    Dicer enzymes process virus-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to initiate specific antiviral defense by related RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in plants, insects, nematodes, and mammals. Antiviral RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans requires Dicer-related helicase 1 (DRH-1), not found in plants and insects but highly homologous to mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), intracellular viral RNA sensors that trigger innate immunity against RNA virus infection. However, it remains unclear if DRH-1 acts analogously to initiate antiviral RNAi in C. elegans Here, we performed a forward genetic screen to characterize antiviral RNAi in C. elegans Using a mapping-by-sequencing strategy, we uncovered four loss-of-function alleles of drh-1, three of which caused mutations in the helicase and C-terminal domains conserved in RLRs. Deep sequencing of small RNAs revealed an abundant population of Dicer-dependent virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in drh-1 single and double mutant animals after infection with Orsay virus, a positive-strand RNA virus. These findings provide further genetic evidence for the antiviral function of DRH-1 and illustrate that DRH-1 is not essential for the sensing and Dicer-mediated processing of the viral dsRNA replicative intermediates. Interestingly, vsiRNAs produced by drh-1 mutants were mapped overwhelmingly to the terminal regions of the viral genomic RNAs, in contrast to random distribution of vsiRNA hot spots when DRH-1 is functional. As RIG-I translocates on long dsRNA and DRH-1 exists in a complex with Dicer, we propose that DRH-1 facilitates the biogenesis of vsiRNAs in nematodes by catalyzing translocation of the Dicer complex on the viral long dsRNA precursors.IMPORTANCE The helicase and C-terminal domains of mammalian RLRs sense intracellular viral RNAs to initiate the interferon-regulated innate immunity against RNA virus infection. Both of the domains from

  3. Systematic characterization and fluorescence threshold strategies for the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS) using size-resolved biological and interfering particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nicole J.; Krentz, Christine E.; Könemann, Tobias; Han, Taewon T.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Pöhlker, Christopher; Huffman, J. Alex

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric particles of biological origin, also referred to as bioaerosols or primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), are important to various human health and environmental systems. There has been a recent steep increase in the frequency of published studies utilizing commercial instrumentation based on ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF), such as the WIBS (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor) or UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer), for bioaerosol detection both outdoors and in the built environment. Significant work over several decades supported the development of the general technologies, but efforts to systematically characterize the operation of new commercial sensors have remained lacking. Specifically, there have been gaps in the understanding of how different classes of biological and non-biological particles can influence the detection ability of LIF instrumentation. Here we present a systematic characterization of the WIBS-4A instrument using 69 types of aerosol materials, including a representative list of pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria as well as the most important groups of non-biological materials reported to exhibit interfering fluorescent properties. Broad separation can be seen between the biological and non-biological particles directly using the five WIBS output parameters and by taking advantage of the particle classification analysis introduced by Perring et al. (2015). We highlight the importance that particle size plays on observed fluorescence properties and thus in the Perring-style particle classification. We also discuss several particle analysis strategies, including the commonly used fluorescence threshold defined as the mean instrument background (forced trigger; FT) plus 3 standard deviations (σ) of the measurement. Changing the particle fluorescence threshold was shown to have a significant impact on fluorescence fraction and particle type classification. We conclude that raising the

  4. In vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, James E.; Barnes, Carmen; Khan, Omar F.; Thiriot, Aude; Jhunjunwala, Siddharth; Shaw, Taylor E.; Xing, Yiping; Sager, Hendrik B.; Sahay, Gaurav; Speciner, Lauren; Bader, Andrew; Bogorad, Roman L.; Yin, Hao; Racie, Tim; Dong, Yizhou; Jiang, Shan; Seedorf, Danielle; Dave, Apeksha; Singh Sandhu, Kamaljeet; Webber, Matthew J.; Novobrantseva, Tatiana; Ruda, Vera M.; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Levins, Christopher G.; Kalish, Brian; Mudge, Dayna K.; Perez, Mario; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Dutta, Partha; Smith, Lynelle; Charisse, Klaus; Kieran, Mark W.; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Danino, Dganit; Tuder, Rubin M.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Akinc, Akin; Panigrahy, Dipak; Schroeder, Avi; Koteliansky, Victor; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2014-08-01

    Dysfunctional endothelium contributes to more diseases than any other tissue in the body. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can help in the study and treatment of endothelial cells in vivo by durably silencing multiple genes simultaneously, but efficient siRNA delivery has so far remained challenging. Here, we show that polymeric nanoparticles made of low-molecular-weight polyamines and lipids can deliver siRNA to endothelial cells with high efficiency, thereby facilitating the simultaneous silencing of multiple endothelial genes in vivo. Unlike lipid or lipid-like nanoparticles, this formulation does not significantly reduce gene expression in hepatocytes or immune cells even at the dosage necessary for endothelial gene silencing. These nanoparticles mediate the most durable non-liver silencing reported so far and facilitate the delivery of siRNAs that modify endothelial function in mouse models of vascular permeability, emphysema, primary tumour growth and metastasis.

  5. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Mice by a Small Interfering RNA Targeting a Highly Conserved Sequence in Viral IRES Pseudoknot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Su Moon

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES that directs cap-independent viral translation is a primary target for small interfering RNA (siRNA-based HCV antiviral therapy. However, identification of potent siRNAs against HCV IRES by bioinformatics-based siRNA design is a challenging task given the complexity of HCV IRES secondary and tertiary structures and association with multiple proteins, which can also dynamically change the structure of this cis-acting RNA element. In this work, we utilized siRNA tiling approach whereby siRNAs were tiled with overlapping sequences that were shifted by one or two nucleotides over the HCV IRES stem-loop structures III and IV spanning nucleotides (nts 277-343. Based on their antiviral activity, we mapped a druggable region (nts 313-343 where the targets of potent siRNAs were enriched. siIE22, which showed the greatest anti-HCV potency, targeted a highly conserved sequence across diverse HCV genotypes, locating within the IRES subdomain IIIf involved in pseudoknot formation. Stepwise target shifting toward the 5' or 3' direction by 1 or 2 nucleotides reduced the antiviral potency of siIE22, demonstrating the importance of siRNA accessibility to this highly structured and sequence-conserved region of HCV IRES for RNA interference. Nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of the stability-improved siIE22 derivative gs_PS1 siIE22, which contains a single phosphorothioate linkage on the guide strand, reduced the serum HCV genome titer by more than 4 log10 in a xenograft mouse model for HCV replication without generation of resistant variants. Our results provide a strategy for identifying potent siRNA species against a highly structured RNA target and offer a potential pan-HCV genotypic siRNA therapy that might be beneficial for patients resistant to current treatment regimens.

  6. Validating the use of short interfering RNA as a novel technique for cell-specific target gene knockdown in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Heather E; Phelan, Patrick; Hwang, Billanna; Mulligan, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    Short interfering RNA is an effective method for target gene knockdown. However, concerns surround the design, administration, efficacy, specificity, and immunostimulatory potential. Although uptake by alveolar macrophages has been demonstrated, studies have not examined its use in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. We describe the validation of short interference RNA as a novel technique for cell-specific target gene knockdown in our model of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Dose-response experiments were performed, and 3 distinct sequences of toll-like receptor-4, toll-like receptor-2, and myeloid differentiation factor-88 short interference RNA were tested for efficacy of knockdown. Saline, lipid vector, and noncoding short interference RNA controls were used. Similar experiments were performed in primary cultures of resident pulmonary cells. Target protein knockdown was assessed by Western blot. Rat serum and cell culture media were assessed for interferon and cytokine production. Biotin labeling was used to assess short interference RNA uptake. Target protein expression was significantly reduced using short interference RNA. However, toll-like receptor-4 knockdown was isolated to alveolar macrophages, and biotin labeling confirmed toll-like receptor-4 short interference RNA localization to alveolar macrophages. There was significant knockdown of toll-like receptor-4 expression in cultured cells treated with toll-like receptor-4 short interference RNA. There was no significant change in interferon production after short interference RNA treatment. There was effective target protein knockdown with each sequence used. Short interference RNA is a valid method for achieving target protein knockdown in alveolar macrophages and is an important tool in the evaluation of its role in the development of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Simvastatin inhibits homocysteine-induced CRP generation via interfering with the ROS-p38/ERK1/2 signal pathway in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoming; Si, Jigang; Xu, Shouzhu; Li, Yuxia; Liu, Juntian

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role throughout the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. As the most representative inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP) directly participates in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. The elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level in plasma is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. We previously reported that Hcy produces a pro-inflammatory effect by stimulating CRP expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The present study observed the effect of simvastatin on Hcy-induced CRP expression in VSMCs and the molecular mechanisms. The in vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment of VSMCs with simvastatin decreased Hcy-induced mRNA and protein expression of CRP in a concentration-dependent fashion. The in vivo results showed that simvastatin not only inhibited CRP expression in the vessel walls in mRNA and protein levels, but also reduced the circulating CRP level in hyperhomocysteinemic rats. Further experiments displayed that simvastatin reduced Hcy-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, ameliorated Hcy-activated phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and p38, and antagonized Hcy-downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression in VSMCs. These data demonstrate that simvastatin is able to inhibit Hcy-induced CRP generation in VSMCs so to relieve the vascular inflammatory response via interfering with the ROS-MAPK signal pathway. The present results provide new evidence for understanding of the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of simvastatin. As the high level of Hcy in plasma is related to atherosclerosis formation and mediates cardiovascular risk, our findings emphasize the importance and necessity of therapy with statins for hyperhomocysteinemia in atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Projeto BIOS: a fotografia como elemento de percepção, visão e interferência nas questões ambientais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Bittencourt Monteiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se com este artigo, apresentar o Projeto BIOS, que vem sendo desenvolvido há mais de seis anos pelo Núcleo de Fotografia da Faculdade de Biblioteconomia e Comunicação da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (FABICO/UFRGS, como uma atividade de pesquisa e extensão, junto à Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, e mais recentemente junto às escolas municipais de 1º. e 2º. Graus de São José dos Ausentes, RS . Apresenta as suas linhas de ação, que priorizam a colocação da Fotografia como vetor principal de apoio à Educação Ambiental junto a diversos públicos. Também discorre sob que forma a Fotografia está sendo aplicada, abrangendo suas questões teórico-filosóficas, suas interferências no desenvolvimento de maiores estágios das percepções, leitura e críticas às questões ambientais alcançadas pelos públicos envolvidos. Concomitante a isso, versa sobre as maneiras como vem sendo desenvolvida e aplicada a Teoria dos Universos Circundantes (MONTEIRO, 2000, enquanto método de percepção ambiental e obtenção fotográfica, nos trabalhos de fotografia ambiental e fotografia biológica.

  9. Influence of various stressors on the expression of core genes of the small interfering RNA pathway in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Fei; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Yang, Wen-Jia; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dong; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based technology has emerged as a potential tool for controlling insect pests, however, previous studies found that the efficiency of RNAi in Bactrocera dorsalis was variable. In nature, insects often meet various challenges, such as pathogen infections, extreme temperatures, lack of nutrition and heavy metals. To better understand the association of the stressors with efficiency of RNAi, in the current study we tested the expression of three core genes, dicer2 (Bddcr2), r2d2 (Bdr2d2) and argonaute2 (Bdago2), of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway of B. dorsalis upon various stressors. Our results showed that all three genes were upregulated by the infection of invertebrate iridescent virus 6, which suggested a function of the siRNA pathway against viral infection. The loading of FeCl3 could also increase the expression of Bddcr2. The treatments of Escherichia coli, extremely high (40°C) and low (0°C) temperatures, as well as starvation, could negatively influence the expression of Bddcr2 and/or Bdago2. In total, our results showed that various stressors could influence the expression of core components of B. dorsalis siRNA pathway. This highlights further speculation on the RNAi efficiency upon these stressors. Considering the complexity and variation of RNAi efficiency in different conditions, these results provide initial aspects in possible environmental stressors to influence the activity of the siRNA pathway, but the real impact of RNAi efficiency posed by these stressors requires further studies. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Antiproliferative/cytotoxic activity of molecular iodine and iodolactones in various human carcinoma cell lines. No interfering with EGF-signaling, but evidence for apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösner, H; Torremante, P; Möller, W; Gärtner, R

    2010-07-01

    Twelve human cancer cell lines and one non-malignant cell line were investigated with respect to a potential antiproliferative/cytotoxic activity of molecular iodine and iodolactones. Except CCL221 colon carcinoma cells, the growth of all cancer cell lines decreased if the cells were cultured in the presence of 10 microM molecular iodine (I(2)) for at least two days. delta-iodolactone (IL, 5 microM) was found to have a similar effect. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells turned out to be most susceptible to both iodine compounds (total inhibition), followed by MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells (60% and 77.7% inhibition in the presence of I(2) respect. IL) and HS24 lung carcinoma cells (36.3% respect. 40.3% inhibition). In contrast, MCF-10 normal mammary epithelial cells were much less affected by the iodine treatment. In both, SH-SY5Y and MCF-7 cells, I(2) and IL also abolished EGF-induced promotion of cell growth completely. This effect was, however, not due to an interfering with EGF-signaling, because I(2) and IL did not affect the phosphorylation of EGF-receptors, EGF-induced activation of MAP-kinase (Erk(1/2)), or EGF-induced lamellar actin protrusion. A disruption by molecular iodine of mitochondrial transmembrane electrical potential, which was prevented by a pre-treatment of the cells with N-acetyl-cysteine, supports a mitochondria-mediated apoptotic mechanism. J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  11. Suppression of NHE1 by small interfering RNA inhibits HIF-1α-induced angiogenesis in vitro via modulation of calpain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xian-Gang; Chen, Qing-Wei; Li, Xing-Sheng; Zheng, Min-Ming; Ke, Da-Zhi; Deng, Wei; Li, Gui-Qiong; Jiang, Jin; Wu, Zhi-Qin; Wang, Li; Wang, Peng; Yang, Yan; Cao, Guang-Yi

    2011-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) orchestrates angiogenesis under hypoxic conditions mainly due to increased expression of such target genes as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Na+/H+exchanger-1 (NHE1), a potential HIF target gene product, plays a pivotal role in proliferation, survival, migration, adhesion and so on. However, it is unknown whether NHE1 is involved in HIF-1α-induced angiogenesis. This present study demonstrated that the expression of NHE1 was much higher in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with adenovirus encoding HIF-1α (rAd-HIF) than with vacuum adenovirus (vAd). HIF-1α also increased the expression of VEGF, the expression and activity of calpains, and the intracellular pH. Moreover, small interfering RNA targeting NHE1 (NHE1 siRNA) dramatically decreased the expression of NHE1 and thus lowered the intracellular pH, and it also attenuated the protein expression of calpain-2 but not calpain-1, resulting in the lower calpain activity. Furthermore, HIF-1α enhanced the proliferation, migration and Matrigel tube formation, which were inhibited by NHE1 siRNA. Finally, the inhibitory effect of NHE1 siRNA was reversed by VEGF and the reversibility of the later was abrogated by the calpain inhibitor ALLM. In conclusion, the findings have revealed that NHE1 might participate in HIF-1-induced angiogenesis due, at least in part, to the alteration of the calpain activity, suggesting that NHE1 as well as calpains might represent a potential target of controlling angiogenesis in response to the hypoxic stress under various pathological conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transgenic banana plants expressing small interfering RNAs targeted against viral replication initiation gene display high-level resistance to banana bunchy top virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Hadapad, Ashok B

    2012-08-01

    The banana aphid-transmitted Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of bananas and plantains worldwide. Lack of natural sources of resistance to BBTV has necessitated the exploitation of proven transgenic technologies for obtaining BBTV-resistant banana cultivars. In this study, we have explored the concept of using intron-hairpin-RNA (ihpRNA) transcripts corresponding to viral master replication initiation protein (Rep) to generate BBTV-resistant transgenic banana plants. Two ihpRNA constructs namely ihpRNA-Rep and ihpRNA-ProRep generated using Rep full coding sequence or Rep partial coding sequence together with its 5' upstream regulatory region, respectively, and castor bean catalase intron were successfully transformed into banana embryogenic cells. ihpRNA-Rep- and ihpRNA-ProRep-derived transgenic banana plants, selected based on preliminary screening for efficient reporter gene expression, were completely resistant to BBTV infection as indicated by the absence of disease symptoms after 6 months of viruliferous aphid inoculation. The resistance to BBTV infection was also evident by the inability to detect cDNAs coding for viral coat protein, movement protein and Rep protein by RT-PCR from inoculated transgenic leaf extracts. Southern analysis of the two groups of transgenics showed that ihpRNA transgene was stably integrated into the banana genome. The detection of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from the ihpRNA transgene sequence in transformed BBTV-resistant plants positively established RNA interference as the mechanism underlying the observed resistance to BBTV. Efficient screening of optimal transformants in this vegetatively propagated non-segregating fruit crop ensured that all the transgenic plants assayed were resistant to BBTV infection.

  13. Effects of Glucocorticoid Receptor Small Interfering RNA Delivered Using Poly Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Microparticles on Proliferation and Differentiation Capabilities of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Joshi, Vijaya; Yu, Yang; Kim, NaJung; Krishnamachari, Yogita; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a potential attractive source of cells for stem cell–based tissue regeneration, but the small number and reduced capabilities of MSC proliferation and differentiation due to in vitro replicative senescence and donor-associated pathophysiological factors, including age and estrogen depletion, severely restrict their potential usefulness in clinical applications. Glucocorticoids (GC) are well-known steroid hormones that regulate MSC proliferation and differentiation, but the defined effects and underlying mechanisms of endogenous glucocorticoids on MSC characteristics are not understood. This study investigated the effects of the blockage of endogenous GC using glucocorticoid receptor (GR) small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivered using biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles on proliferation and differentiation capabilities of human MSC in vitro. The results show that we can prepare PLGA microparticles as a delivery system for GR siRNA and maintain release of siRNA up to 40 days in vitro. Transfection of GR siRNA significantly downregulates GR and upregulates the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Sox-11 of human MSC. MSC that have proliferated with endogenous GC blocked in vitro have greater proliferation rates and exhibit upregulated expression of osteogenic markers (alkaline phosphatase and core binding factor alpha 1) under differentiation stimulation after 1 week. Under adipogenic differentiation, MSC proliferated in vitro with siRNA transfection, resulting in significantly lower adipogenic markers (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and lipoprotein lipase) than controls. In conclusion, PLGA particles can serve as a tool for delivery of GR siRNA to effectively block the effects of endogenous GC on MSC, which has the potential to improve the capabilities of human MSC for clinical application by preventing replicative senescence. PMID:21988716

  14. Effects of Defective Interfering RNA on Symptom Induction by, and Replication of, a Novel Partitivirus from a Phytopathogenic Fungus, Rosellinia necatrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Sotaro; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Kondo, Hideki; Kanematsu, Satoko

    2013-01-01

    A novel mycovirus termed Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 2 (RnPV2), isolated from a phytopathogenic fungus, Rosellinina necatrix strain W57, was molecularly and biologically characterized in both natural and experimental host fungi. Three double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments, dsRNA1, dsRNA2, and defective interfering dsRNA1 (DI-dsRNA1), whose sizes were approximately 2.0, 1.8, and 1.7 kbp, respectively, were detected in W57. While the dsRNA2 sequence, encoding the coat protein, was reported previously, dsRNA1 and DI-dsRNA1 were shown to encode competent and defective (truncated) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Artificial introduction of RnPV2 into an RNA silencing-defective, Dicer-like 2 knockout mutant (Δdcl-2) of a nonnatural host, Cryphonectria parasitica (chestnut blight fungus), resulted in successful infection by the DI-dsRNA1-carrying and -free RnPV2. The DI-dsRNA1-free RnPV2 strain was characterized by a higher ratio of accumulation of the intact dsRNA1 to dsRNA2, enhanced replication and severer symptom expression, compared with the DI-carrying strain. These findings confirmed the nature of DI-dsRNA1 as a DI-RNA. Both viral strains replicated to higher levels in a Δdcl-2 mutant than in a wild-type C. parasitica fungal strain (EP155) and induced severe symptoms in the Δdcl-2 mutant but subtle symptoms in EP155, indicating that the host RNA silencing targets the partitivirus. No obvious phenotypic effects of infection by either virus strain were detected in the natural host fungus. These combined results represent the first example of a partitivirus with DI-RNA that alters viral symptom induction in a host-dependent manner. PMID:23236074

  15. Depletion of polycistronic transcripts using short interfering RNAs: cDNA synthesis method affects levels of non-targeted genes determined by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Jennifer E; Groves, Ian J; Pett, Mark R; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-05-21

    Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are often used to deplete viral polycistronic transcripts, such as those encoded by human papillomavirus (HPV). There are conflicting data in the literature concerning how siRNAs targeting one HPV gene can affect levels of other genes in the polycistronic transcripts. We hypothesised that the conflict might be partly explained by the method of cDNA synthesis used prior to transcript quantification. We treated HPV16-positive cervical keratinocytes with siRNAs targeting the HPV16 E7 gene and used quantitative PCR to compare transcript levels of E7 with those of E6 and E2, viral genes located upstream and downstream of the target site respectively. We compared our findings from cDNA generated using oligo-dT primers alone with those from cDNA generated using a combination of random hexamer and oligo-dT primers. Our data show that when polycistronic transcripts are targeted by siRNAs, there is a period when untranslatable cleaved mRNA upstream of the siRNA binding site remains detectable by PCR, if cDNA is generated using random hexamer primers. Such false indications of mRNA abundance are avoided using oligo-dT primers. The period corresponds to the time taken for siRNA activity and degradation of the cleaved transcripts. Genes downstream of the siRNA binding site are detectable during this interval, regardless of how the cDNA is generated. These data emphasise the importance of the cDNA synthesis method used when measuring transcript abundance following siRNA depletion of polycistronic transcripts. They provide a partial explanation for erroneous reports suggesting that siRNAs targeting HPV E7 can have gene-specific effects.

  16. Small interfering RNA targeting HIF-1{alpha} reduces hypoxia-dependent transcription and radiosensitizes hypoxic HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, Adrian [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Fleischer, Markus [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Loeffler, Juergen; Einsele, Herrmann [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Said, Harun M.; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Plathow, Christian [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vordermark, Dirk [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-04-15

    Background: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 has been identified as a potential target to overcome hypoxia-induced radioresistance The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selective HIF-1 inhibition via small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) affects hypoxia-induced radioresistance in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Material and Methods: HIF-1{alpha} expression in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro was silenced using HIF-1{alpha} siRNA sequence primers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of HIF-1{alpha}. HIF-1{alpha} protein levels were studied by Western blotting at 20% (air) or after 12 hours at 0.1% O{sub 2} (hypoxia). Cells were assayed for clonogenic survival after irradiation with 2, 5, or 10 Gy, under normoxic or hypoxic conditions in the presence of HIF-1{alpha}-targeted or control siRNA sequences. A modified oxygen enhancement ratio (OER') was calculated as the ratio of the doses to achieve the same survival at 0.1% O{sub 2} as at ambient oxygen tensions. OER' was obtained at cell survival levels of 50%, 37%, and 10%. Results: HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA enhanced radiation treatment efficacy under severely hypoxic conditions compared to tumor cells treated with scrambled control siRNA. OER was reduced on all survival levels after treatment with HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA, suggesting that inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA increases radiosensitivity of hypoxic tumor cells in vitro. Conclusion: Inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA clearly acts synergistically with radiotherapy and increase radiosensitivity of hypoxic cells in vitro. (orig.)

  17. Use of short interfering RNA delivered by cationic liposomes to enable efficient down-regulation of PTPN22 gene in human T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Perri

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes and thyroid disease are T cell-dependent autoimmune endocrinopathies. The standard substitutive administration of the deficient hormones does not halt the autoimmune process; therefore, development of immunotherapies aiming to preserve the residual hormonal cells, is of crucial importance. PTPN22 C1858T mutation encoding for the R620W lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase variant, plays a potential pathophysiological role in autoimmunity. The PTPN22 encoded protein Lyp is a negative regulator of T cell antigen receptor signaling; R620W variant, leading to a gain of function with paradoxical reduced T cell activation, may represent a valid therapeutic target. We aimed to develop novel wild type PTPN22 short interfering RNA duplexes (siRNA and optimize their delivery into Jurkat T cells and PBMC by using liposomal carriers. Conformational stability, size and polydispersion of siRNA in lipoplexes was measured by CD spectroscopy and DLS. Lipoplexes internalization and toxicity evaluation was assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Their effect on Lyp expression was evaluated by means of Western Blot and confocal microscopy. Functional assays through engagement of TCR signaling were established to evaluate biological consequences of down-modulation. Both Jurkat T cells and PBMC were efficiently transfected by stable custom lipoplexes. Jurkat T cell morphology and proliferation was not affected. Lipoplexes incorporation was visualized in CD3+ but also in CD3- peripheral blood immunotypes without signs of toxicity, damage or apoptosis. Efficacy in affecting Lyp protein expression was demonstrated in both transfected Jurkat T cells and PBMC. Moreover, impairment of Lyp inhibitory activity was revealed by increase of IL-2 secretion in culture supernatants of PBMC following anti-CD3/CD28 T cell receptor-driven stimulation. The results of our study open the pathway to future trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases based

  18. The 21-Nucleotide, but Not 22-Nucleotide, Viral Secondary Small Interfering RNAs Direct Potent Antiviral Defense by Two Cooperative Argonautes in Arabidopsis thaliana[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Bing; Jovel, Juan; Udomporn, Petchthai; Wang, Ying; Wu, Qingfa; Li, Wan-Xiang; Gasciolli, Virginie; Vaucheret, Herve; Ding, Shou-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana defense against distinct positive-strand RNA viruses requires production of virus-derived secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by multiple RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, little is known about the biogenesis pathway and effector mechanism of viral secondary siRNAs. Here, we describe a mutant of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Δ2b) that is silenced predominantly by the RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6)-dependent viral secondary siRNA pathway. We show that production of the viral secondary siRNAs targeting CMV-Δ2b requires SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 and DICER-LIKE4 (DCL4) in addition to RDR6. Examination of 25 single, double, and triple mutants impaired in nine ARGONAUTE (AGO) genes combined with coimmunoprecipitation and deep sequencing identifies an essential function for AGO1 and AGO2 in defense against CMV-Δ2b, which act downstream the biogenesis of viral secondary siRNAs in a nonredundant and cooperative manner. Our findings also illustrate that dicing of the viral RNA precursors of primary and secondary siRNA is insufficient to confer virus resistance. Notably, although DCL2 is able to produce abundant viral secondary siRNAs in the absence of DCL4, the resultant 22-nucleotide viral siRNAs alone do not guide efficient silencing of CMV-Δ2b. Possible mechanisms for the observed qualitative difference in RNA silencing between 21- and 22-nucleotide secondary siRNAs are discussed. PMID:21467580

  19. Small interfering RNA targeted to IGF-IR delays tumor growth and induces proinflammatory cytokines in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphanie Durfort

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and its type I receptor (IGF-IR play significant roles in tumorigenesis and in immune response. Here, we wanted to know whether an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be used for specific antitumor immunostimulation in a breast cancer model. For that, we evaluated short interfering RNA (siRNAs for inhibition of in vivo tumor growth and immunological stimulation in immunocompetent mice. We designed 2'-O-methyl-modified siRNAs to inhibit expression of IGF-IR in two murine breast cancer cell lines (EMT6, C4HD. Cell transfection of IGF-IR siRNAs decreased proliferation, diminished phosphorylation of downstream signaling pathway proteins, AKT and ERK, and caused a G0/G1 cell cycle block. The IGF-IR silencing also induced secretion of two proinflammatory cytokines, TNF- α and IFN-γ. When we transfected C4HD cells with siRNAs targeting IGF-IR, mammary tumor growth was strongly delayed in syngenic mice. Histology of developing tumors in mice grafted with IGF-IR siRNA treated C4HD cells revealed a low mitotic index, and infiltration of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, suggesting activation of an antitumor immune response. When we used C4HD cells treated with siRNA as an immunogen, we observed an increase in delayed-type hypersensitivity and the presence of cytotoxic splenocytes against wild-type C4HD cells, indicative of evolving immune response. Our findings show that silencing IGF-IR using synthetic siRNA bearing 2'-O-methyl nucleotides may offer a new clinical approach for treatment of mammary tumors expressing IGF-IR. Interestingly, our work also suggests that crosstalk between IGF-I axis and antitumor immune response can mobilize proinflammatory cytokines.

  20. Down-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 gene expression by short interfering RNA attenuates bone cancer pain in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study demonstrates a critical role in CNS innate immunity of the microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in the induction and maintenance of behavioral hypersensitivity in a rat model of bone cancer pain with the technique of RNA interference (RNAi. We hypothesized that after intramedullary injection of Walker 256 cells (a breast cancer cell line into the tibia, CNS neuroimmune activation and subsequent cytokine expression are triggered by the stimulation of microglial membrane-bound TLR4. Results We assessed tactile allodynia and spontaneous pain in female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats after intramedullary injection of Walker 256 cells into the tibia. In a complementary study, TLR4 small interfering RNA(siRNA was administered intrathecally to bone cancer pain rats to reduce the expression of spinal TLR4. The bone cancer pain rats treated with TLR4 siRNA displayed significantly attenuated behavioral hypersensitivity and decreased expression of spinal microglial markers and proinflammatory cytokines compared with controls. Only intrathecal injection of TRL4 siRNA at post-inoculation day 4 could prevent initial development of bone cancer pain; intrathecal injection of TRL4 siRNA at post-inoculation day 9 could attenuate, but not completely block, well-established bone cancer pain. Conclusions TLR4 might be the main mediator in the induction of bone cancer pain. Further study of this early, specific, and innate CNS/microglial response, and how it leads to sustained glial/neuronal hypersensitivity, might lead to new therapies for the prevention and treatment of bone cancer pain syndromes.

  1. The 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides of bovine coronavirus defective interfering RNA harbor cis-acting elements required for both negative- and positive-strand RNA synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu Liao

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the negative-strand [(--strand] complement of the ∼30 kilobase, positive-strand [(+-strand] coronaviral genome is a necessary early step for genome replication. The identification of cis-acting elements required for (--strand RNA synthesis in coronaviruses, however, has been hampered due to insufficiencies in the techniques used to detect the (--strand RNA species. Here, we employed a method of head-to-tail ligation and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR to detect and quantitate the synthesis of bovine coronavirus (BCoV defective interfering (DI RNA (- strands. Furthermore, using the aforementioned techniques along with Northern blot assay, we specifically defined the cis-acting RNA elements within the 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides (nts which function in the synthesis of (-- or (+-strand BCoV DI RNA. The major findings are as follows: (i nts from -5 to -39 within the 3'-terminal 55 nts are the cis-acting elements responsible for (--strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis, (ii nts from -3 to -34 within the 3'-terminal 55 nts are cis-acting elements required for (+-strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis, and (iii the nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (-1 is important, but not critical, for both (-- and (+-strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis. These results demonstrate that the 3'-terminal 55 nts in BCoV DI RNA harbor cis-acting RNA elements required for both (-- and (+-strand DI RNA synthesis and extend our knowledge on the mechanisms of coronavirus replication. The method of head-to-tail ligation and qRT-PCR employed in the study may also be applied to identify other cis-acting elements required for (--strand RNA synthesis in coronaviruses.

  2. Neuroepithelial transforming protein 1 short interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing with microbubble and ultrasound exposure inhibits the proliferation of hepatic carcinoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Cheng, Wen; Jing, Hui; Zhang, Jiu-Wei; Tang, Li-Li

    2012-06-01

    Short interfering RNA (siRNA) has been used to knock down the expression of targeted genes in a process known as RNA interference. However, the key to RNA interference is the efficient intracellular delivery of the siRNA. In this study, we sought to enhance the efficiency of transduction and find a novel therapy for hepatic carcinoma. Three types of neuroepithelial transforming protein 1 (NET-1) siRNAs (labeled fluorescent) were designed and transduced into HepG2 cells. Then the most effective one in silencing NET-1 was determined. The HepG2 cells were divided into 5 groups: untreated control; delivery of siRNA; delivery of siRNA using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA; group L); delivery of siRNA using ultrasound exposure and microbubbles (group US); and delivery of siRNA using Lipofectamine, ultrasound exposure, and microbubbles (group LUS). The efficiency of siRNA transfer was determined by detection of luciferase activity on microscopy; NET-1 expression was assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting; and proliferation investigations of the HepG2 cells were performed. RESULTS- The transfection efficiency of microbubbles combined with ultrasound exposure was nearly equal to Lipofectamine-mediated transfection (P = .609). More importantly, the combination of Lipofectamine, microbubbles, and ultrasound exposure effectively reduced NET-1 expression compared with the other groups (P < .01). Furthermore, the proliferation of cells in groups L, US, and LUS was visibly inhibited between 24 and 72 hours. The use of a microbubble contrast agent combined with ultrasound exposure could be a potent physical method for increasing gene delivery efficiency. This technique is a promising nonviral approach that can be used in liver cancer.

  3. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 • WEIGHT-LOSS SUPPLEMENTS FACT SHEET FOR CONSUMERS Bitter orange Bitter orange contains synephrine (a stimulant), and is claimed to ... breakdown of fat, and decrease appetite. Products with bitter orange usually also contain caffeine and other ingredients. Bitter ...

  4. Healthy habits for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you or try to tempt you with old eating habits. Send progress reports. Tell your friends your goal weight and send them weekly updates of how you are doing. Use social media. Some mobile apps let you log everything you ...

  5. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P ... by that time in women with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, and that the possibility of major weight gain (>or=5 kg) could be reduced in all but the heaviest women. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was associated with lower PPWR in all categories of prepregnancy BMI. These results suggest that, when combined...

  6. Heritability of gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences...

  7. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    Olmsted, Marion P; McFarlane, Traci

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  8. Efficient Completion of Weighted Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Waldmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs with edge labels from a semiring. We present an algorithm that allows efficient execution of queries for existence and weights of paths, and allows updates of the graph: adding nodes and edges, and changing weights of existing edges. We apply this method in the construction of matchbound certificates for automatically proving termination of string rewriting. We re-implement the decomposition/completion algorithm of Endrullis et al. (2006 in our framework, and achieve comparable performance.

  9. Weight Loss Strategies Utilized in a Men's Weight Loss Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Melissa M; Lutes, Lesley D; Sherwood, Nancy E; Ward, Dianne S; Tate, Deborah F

    2017-09-01

    Men are underrepresented in weight loss programs and little is currently known about the weight loss strategies men prefer. This study describes the weight loss strategies used by men during a men-only weight loss program. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, participants reported how frequently they used 45 weight loss strategies including strategies frequently recommended by the program (i.e., mentioned during every intervention contact; e.g., daily self-weighing), strategies occasionally recommended by the program (i.e., mentioned at least once during the program; e.g., reduce calories from beverages), and strategies not included in the program (e.g., increase daily steps). At baseline participants ( N = 107, 44.2 years, body mass index = 31.4 kg/m2, 76.6% White) reported regularly using 7.3 ± 6.6 ( M ± SD) strategies. The intervention group increased the number of strategies used to 19.1 ± 8.3 at 3 months and 17.1 ± 8.4 at 6 months with no changes in the waitlist group. The intervention group reported increased use of most of the strategies frequently recommended by the program (4 of 5), nearly half of the strategies occasionally recommended by the program (10 of 24), and one strategy not included in the program (of 16) at 6 months. The intervention effect at 6 months was significantly mediated by the number of strategies used at 3 months. This study adds to what is known about men's use of weight loss strategies prior to and during a formal weight loss program and will help future program developers create programs that are tailored to men.

  10. The Influence of Weight-Loss Expectations on Weight Loss and of Weight-Loss Satisfaction on Weight Maintenance in Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; El Ghoch, Marwan; Gavasso, Ilaria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to whether cognitive mechanisms contribute to weight loss and maintenance. To assess the influence of weight-loss expectations on weight loss, and of weight-loss satisfaction on weight maintenance, in individuals with severe obesity. A randomized controlled trial comparing two types of energy-restricted diets (high protein vs high carbohydrate) combined with weight-loss cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted over 51 weeks and divided into two phases: weight-loss phase (3 weeks of inpatient treatment and 24 weeks of outpatient treatment) and weight maintenance phase (24 weeks of outpatient treatment). Eighty-eight participants with severe obesity (mean age=46.7 years and mean body mass index=45.6), referred to an eating and weight disorders clinical service, were studied. Body weight was assessed at baseline, and after 3, 27 (end of weight-loss phase), and 51 weeks (end of weight maintenance phase). Weight loss expectations were assessed at the time of enrollment, and weight-loss satisfaction was assessed after 27 weeks. The relationship between weight-loss expectations and weight loss was assessed using a linear mixed model. The association between weight-loss satisfaction and final outcomes was tested by linear regression. The two groups had similar weight-loss expectations and satisfaction, and their results were therefore pooled. In general, the total amount of expected weight loss (in kilograms), but not the percentage of expected weight loss, predicted weight loss, and both satisfaction with weight loss and the amount of weight lost (in kilograms) were independent predictors of weight maintenance. Higher expected weight loss improves weight loss, and both the total amount of weight lost and satisfaction with weight loss are associated with weight-loss maintenance at 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Financial incentives and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Efeito de alargamento de linha espectral de laser He-Ne por onda acústica sobre interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder em fibra óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio José Galdieri

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Analisa-se neste trabalho o efeito que o ruído acústico incidente sobre a fibra óptica tem na medida da largura de linha espectral do laser HeNe, utilizando experimentalmente o método auto-homódino com um interferômetro de Mach-Zehnder desbalanceado. O interferômetro tem um ramo com dois quilômetros mais longo que o outro, sendo a fibra enrolada em forma de bobina. As fases dos feixes da luz do laser são descorrelacionadas por atraso relativo dado pela bobina. Por razões práticas a li...

  13. Preventing Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Postpartum Weight Retention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, V

    2017-10-01

    regnancy and the postpartum period are unique opportunities to promote healthy lifestyle choices including a healthy diet and regular exercise. This is especially important for those who are overweight or obese. Women are weighed at their first antenatal visit and body mass index (BMI) calculated, but not all hospitals routinely weigh women throughout pregnancy. A qualitative Dublin study examined experiences of routine weighing during antenatal care. This study found that women expected to be weighed during pregnancy and postpartum. The benefits of this included providing reassurance and minimising postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, women were eager to receive more information about healthy lifestyle interventions and gestational weight gain (GWG) from healthcare professionals

  14. A novel dendritic nanocarrier of polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD for ?smart? small interfering RNA delivery and in vitro antitumor effects by human ether-?-go-go-related gene silencing in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li G; Hu Z.; Yin H; Zhang Y; Huang X.; Wang S.; Li W.

    2013-01-01

    Guanhua Li,1,2 Zuojun Hu,1 Henghui Yin,1 Yunjian Zhang,1 Xueling Huang,1 Shenming Wang,1 Wen Li2 1Department of Vascular and Thyroid Surgery, 2Key Laboratory of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: The application of RNA interference techniques is promising in gene therapeutic approaches, especially for cancers. To improve safety and efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery, a triblock dendritic na...

  15. Personality disorders and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cascaded failures in weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzasoleiman, Baharan; Babaei, Mahmoudreza; Jalili, Mahdi; Safari, Mohammadali

    2011-10-01

    Many technological networks can experience random and/or systematic failures in their components. More destructive situations can happen if the components have limited capacity, where the failure in one of them might lead to a cascade of failures in other components, and consequently break down the structure of the network. In this paper, the tolerance of cascaded failures was investigated in weighted networks. Three weighting strategies were considered including the betweenness centrality of the edges, the product of the degrees of the end nodes, and the product of their betweenness centralities. Then, the effect of the cascaded attack was investigated by considering the local weighted flow redistribution rule. The capacity of the edges was considered to be proportional to their initial weight distribution. The size of the survived part of the attacked network was determined in model networks as well as in a number of real-world networks including the power grid, the internet in the level of autonomous system, the railway network of Europe, and the United States airports network. We found that the networks in which the weight of each edge is the multiplication of the betweenness centrality of the end nodes had the best robustness against cascaded failures. In other words, the case where the load of the links is considered to be the product of the betweenness centrality of the end nodes is favored for the robustness of the network against cascaded failures.

  17. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd [Department of Information System, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia); Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku [Department of Computer Science, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  18. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  19. Sulforaphane reduces vascular inflammation in mice and prevents TNF-α-induced monocyte adhesion to primary endothelial cells through interfering with the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Si, Hongwei; Babu, Pon Velayutham Anandh; Pan, Dengke; Fu, Yu; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Shah, Halley; Zhen, Wei; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Dongmin; Li, Yunbo; Jia, Zhenquan

    2014-08-01

    -inflammatory effect of sulforaphane may be, at least in part, associated with interfering with the NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Detecção da adição fraudulenta de soro de queijo em leite: interferência da atividade de proteases bacterianas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Bremer de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma das fraudes econômicas mais comumente aplicadas ao leite fluido é a adição do soro de queijo. A ocorrência dessa fraude, no Brasil, é sugerida pela análise do índice de caseinomacropeptídeo (CMP, uma porção da molécula de ê-caseína solúvel no soro. No entanto, a ação de proteases produzidas por microrganismos psicrotróficos pode interferir neste teste levando a resultados falso-positivos, situação que passou a ter maior importância após a implementação da Instrução Normativa 51 (2002. Com o objetivo de avaliar esta interferência, foi inoculado no leite ca6 103 UFC/mL de Pseudomonas spp. seguido de incubação durante 2 e 5 dias a 7 ºC. O crescimento microbiano foi monitorado e, após estes períodos, o leite foi submetido a tratamento térmico (100 ºC/5 min para eliminação das células bacterianas e o extrato enzimático foi obtido para posterior análise da atividade de proteases. Em seguida, o leite foi submetido à incubação 30 ºC/30 d e o índice de CMP foi analisado nos tempos zero e 30 dias. Os resultados dos testes de atividade de proteases após 2 dias de incubação, usando como substrato a azocaseína, não diferiram significativamente (P > 0,05 dos de 5 dias. Diferentemente, os índices de CMP no tempo zero do tratamento 5d/7 ºC para o leite inoculado com P. fluorescens, foram maiores do que o mesmo leite fraudado com 30% de soro de queijo, o que denota ainda mais a necessidade de controlar este importante deteriorante. Após 30 dias houve diminuição destes índices, possivelmente em decorrência da degradação do próprio CMP pelas proteases produzidas por P. fluorescens.

  1. Novel epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody conjugated polyethyleneimine-capped gold nanoparticles for enhanced and targeted small interfering RNA delivery to retinoblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Moutushy; Kandalam, Mallikarjuna; Rangasamy, Judith; Shankar, Balaji; Maheswari, Uma K; Swaminathan, Sethuraman; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Several nanoconjugates have been designed to deliver nucleic acids such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and DNA to cells to study silencing and expression efficacies. In the present study, we prepared novel epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) monoclonal antibody conjugated polyethyleneimine (PEI) capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) loaded with EpCAM-specific siRNA molecules to knock-down the EpCAM gene in retinoblastoma (RB) cells. We chose EpCAM as a target moiety to deliver siRNA because this molecule is highly expressed in various epithelial cancers and is an ideal target as it is highly expressed in the apical surface of tumor cells while showing basolateral expression in normal cells. The EpCAM antibody was conjugated to AuNP-PEI loaded with siRNA molecules to specifically deliver siRNA to EpCAM-expressing RB cells. Conjugation efficiencies were confirmed with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and agarose and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The size and zeta potential were measured using a Zeta sizer analyzer. Nanoparticle internalization and uptake were studied using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Gene silencing efficacy was monitored with western blot analysis and real-time quantitative PCR. Optimal size and neutral zeta potential properties of the AuNP-PEI- EpCAM antibody (EpAb) antibody were achieved for the transfection studies. The AuNP-PEI nanoparticles did not show any cytotoxicity to the cells, which means these nanomaterials are suitable for intracellular delivery of siRNA for therapeutic interventions. With EpCAM antibody conjugation, PEI-capped AuNPs loaded with EpCAM siRNA were significantly internalized in the Y79 cells as observed with fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and induced a highly significant reduction in the cell viability of the Y79 cells. Through increased binding of EpCAM antibody-conjugated AuNP-PEI nanoparticles, significant downregulation of Ep

  2. Interferência da microbiota autóctone do queijo coalho sobre Staphylococcus coagulase positiva Interference of autochthonous microbiota of curd cheese on Staphylococcus coagulase positive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Feitosa Machado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Níveis elevados de contaminantes microbiológicos, comumente encontrados em alimentos de origem animal e ambientes de processamento de alimentos, são aptos de impedir o crescimento de patógenos nestes produtos. Em alguns contextos onde bactérias ácido láticas (BAL constituem a microbiota dominante, como nos produtos lácteos, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP colonizam, persistem e produzem intoxicação alimentar. Com o objetivo de verificar a possível interferência da microbiota encontrada no queijo Coalho sobre a presença de SCP, 64 amostras provenientes de 16 laticínios foram submetidas a análises microbiológicas para determinar os níveis de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM, BAL e SCP. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a microbiota autóctone das amostras analisadas não gerou condições inadequadas ao crescimento, desenvolvimento e isolamento de SCP, uma vez que este patógeno foi detectado mesmo nas amostras que apresentaram altos níveis de contagens de MAM e BAL.High levels of microbial contamination, commonly found in animal origin foods and food processing environments, are able to hinder the growth in these products. In some contexts where lactic acid bacteria (LAB are the normal dominant microbiota, such as in fermented food, Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP colonises, persists and produces food poisoning. With the aim of verifying the interference of autochthonous microbiota encountered in Curd cheese over the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, 64 samples from 16 dairy were submitted to microbiological analysis to determine the levels of Microorganisms aerobes mesophilics (MAM, LAB and SCP. The results showed that the indigenous microbiota of the samples did not lead to inadequate growth, development and isolation of SCP, since this pathogen was detected even in samples with high levels of counts of AM and BAL.

  3. Novel constructs for efficient cloning of sRNA-encoding DNA and uniform silencing of plant genes employing artificial trans-acting small interfering RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Ulku; Liu, Hua; Chen, Xinlu; Nguyen, Henry T; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2016-10-01

    TAS atasiRNA-producing region swapping used one-step, high efficiency, and high fidelity directional TC-cloning. Uniform silencing was achieved without lethality using miRNA trigger- TAS overexpression fusion cassettes to generate 21-nt atasiRNA. Plant transgenic technologies are very important for basic plant research and biotechnology. Artificial trans-acting small interfering RNA (atasiRNA) represents an attractive platform with certain advantages over other silencing approaches, such as hairpin RNA, artificial microRNA (amiRNA), and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). In this study, we developed two types of constructs for atasiRNA-mediated gene silencing in plants. To functionally validate our constructs, we chose TAS1a as a test model. Type 1 constructs had miR173-precursor sequence fused with TAS1a locus driven by single promoter-terminator cassette, which simplified the expression cassette and resulted in uniform gene silencing. Type 2 constructs contained two separate cassettes for miR173 and TAS1a co-expression. The constructs in each type were further improved by deploying the XcmI-based TC-cloning system for highly efficient directional cloning of short DNA fragments encoding atasiRNAs into TAS1a locus. The effectiveness of the constructs was demonstrated by cloning an atasiRNA DNA into the TC site of engineered TAS1a and silencing of CHLORINA 42 (CH42) gene in Arabidopsis. Our results show that the directional TC-cloning of the atasiRNA DNA into the engineered TAS1a is highly efficient and the miR173-TAS1a fusion system provides an attractive alternative to achieve moderate but more uniform gene silencing without lethality, as compared to conventional two separate cassettes for miR173 and TAS locus co-expression system. The design principles described here should be applicable to other TAS loci such as TAS1b, TAS1c, TAS2, or TAS3, and cloning of amiRNA into amiRNA stem-loop.

  4. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo [Institut für Biochemie I (Pathobiochemie), Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pleli, Thomas [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Piiper, Albrecht [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.eberhardt@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D{sub 1} encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E{sub 2} synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on

  5. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    : Ovid Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to November 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials in overweight or obese adults reporting reduction in body mass index, body weight, or waist circumference by FTO genotype (rs9939609 or a proxy) after...... well to dietary, physical activity, or drug based weight loss interventions and thus genetic predisposition to obesity associated with the FTO minor allele can be at least partly counteracted through such interventions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015015969.......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES...

  6. Molecular weight-dependent genetic information transfer with disulfide-linked polyethylenimine-based nonviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhiz, Hamideh; Hashemi, Maryam; Hatefi, Arash; Shier, Wayne Thomas; Farzad, Sara Amel; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    One strategy for improving gene vector properties of polyethylenimine is to facilitate individual transfection mechanism steps. This study investigates (i) improving transfection efficiency by attaching peptide nuclear localization signals (nuclear localization signals: SV40 large T antigen nuclear localization signal or C-terminus of histone H1) to polyethylenimine (10 kDa) and (ii) using disulfide linkages, which are expected to be stable during polyplex formation, but cleaved inside cells giving improved gene release. Nuclear localization signal-containing polyplexes exhibited low cytotoxicity, whereas transfection efficiency with high molecular weight plasmid DNA increased up to 3.6 times that of underivatized polyethylenimine in Neuro2A cells at higher molar ratio of polyethylenimine-nitrogen to DNA-phosphate (N/P) ratios. However, with luciferase-specific low molecular weight small interfering RNA in Neuro2A/EGFPLuc cells, nuclear localization signal-containing polyplexes with disulfide linkages caused substantial cytotoxicity at N/P ratios >15 and no consistent significant reduction in luciferase expression. Possible explanations for molecular weight-dependent differences in genetic information transfer by polyplexes containing disulfide-linked nuclear localization signals are discussed.

  7. Determination of dextrose equivalent value and number average molecular weight of maltodextrin by osmometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Y; Sillick, M; Gregson, C M

    2009-01-01

    Dextrose equivalent (DE) value is the most common parameter used to characterize the molecular weight of maltodextrins. Its theoretical value is inversely proportional to number average molecular weight (M(n)), providing a theoretical basis for correlations with physical properties important to food manufacturing, such as: hygroscopicity, the glass transition temperature, and colligative properties. The use of freezing point osmometry to measure DE and M(n) was assessed. Measurements were made on a homologous series of malto-oligomers as well as a variety of commercially available maltodextrin products with DE values ranging from 5 to 18. Results on malto-oligomer samples confirmed that freezing point osmometry provided a linear response with number average molecular weight. However, noncarbohydrate species in some commercial maltodextrin products were found to be in high enough concentration to interfere appreciably with DE measurement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that sodium and chloride were the major ions present in most commercial samples. Osmolality was successfully corrected using conductivity measurements to estimate ion concentrations. The conductivity correction factor appeared to be dependent on the concentration of maltodextrin. Equations were developed to calculate corrected values of DE and M(n) based on measurements of osmolality, conductivity, and maltodextrin concentration. This study builds upon previously reported results through the identification of the major interfering ions and provides an osmolality correction factor that successfully accounts for the influence of maltodextrin concentration on the conductivity measurement. The resulting technique was found to be rapid, robust, and required no reagents.

  8. Average weighted receiving time in recursive weighted Koch networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Motivated by the empirical observation in airport networks and metabolic networks, we introduce the model of the recursive weighted Koch networks created by the recursive division method. As a fundamental dynamical process, random walks have received considerable interest in the scientific community. Then, we study ...

  9. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  10. Spleen Weight, Liver Weight And Levels Of Circulating Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of mice viz: well fed mice, vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient Plasmodium berghei infected mice were studied. In these groups of mice, the weights of the liver and spleen were determined using a weighing balance and the levels of circulating immune complexes (CICS) measured ...

  11. Maternal Gestational and Postdelivery Weight Gain and Child Weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831344; Koppelman, Gerard H; Smit, Henriette A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for the development of overweight in her child. It is unknown whether GWG programs the child's health or whether GWG indicates a shared familial lifestyle during childhood. To disentangle these influences, we studied the association

  12. Maternal gestational and postdelivery weight gain and child weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for the development of overweight in her child. It is unknown whether GWG programs the child's health or whether GWG indicates a shared familial lifestyle during childhood. To disentangle these influences, we studied the association

  13. Parametric Verification of Weighted Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel; Mariegaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of parametric model checking for weighted transition systems. We consider transition systems labelled with linear equations over a set of parameters and we use them to provide semantics for a parametric version of weighted CTL where the until and next operators...... are themselves indexed with linear equations. The parameters change the model-checking problem into a problem of computing a linear system of inequalities that characterizes the parameters that guarantee the satisfiability. To address this problem, we use parametric dependency graphs (PDGs) and we propose...

  14. Polynomial weights and code constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Justesen, J.

    1973-01-01

    Study of certain polynomials with the 'weight-retaining' property that any linear combination of these polynomials with coefficients in a general finite field has Hamming weight at least as great as that of the minimum-degree polynomial included. This fundamental property is used in applications to Reed-Muller codes, a new class of 'repeated-root' binary cyclic codes, two new classes of binary convolutional codes derived from binary cyclic codes, and two new classes of binary convolutional codes derived from Reed-Solomon codes.

  15. Weighted Means through the Looking Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2013-01-01

    Each weighted mean of two values has a counterpart, equidistant from the arithmetic mean, obtained by exchanging roles between the weights or by inversing each weight. These elementary relations are apt for introductory courses.

  16. Psychosocial Consequences of Weight Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Susan J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Participants were 130 obese women who reported undertaking a mean lifetime total of 4.7 major diets on which they had lost a mean of 45.9 kilograms. Participants with a severe history of weight cycling had a significantly younger age of onset of obesity than mild cyclers and reported initiating dieting at a significantly younger age and lower…

  17. Risk Attitudes and Decision Weights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tversky (Amos); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTo accommodate the observed pattern of risk-aversion and risk-seeking, as well as common violations of expected utility (e.g., the certainty effect), we introduce and characterize a weighting function according to which an event has greater impact when it turns impossibility into

  18. Training in Conservation of Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Carla; Schwartz, Marian

    1970-01-01

    Reinforcement training was shown to facilitate acquisition of conservation of weight, while active participation was no more effective than passive observation. This report is based on a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for the M.S. degree by the first author under the supervision of the second author. (MH)

  19. Abandoning weight-loss programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the weight-loss programme. The facilitator of the discu.ssion groups, a clinical psychologist, asked only non-directive ques- tions and ensured participation of all members in the group. For every 4 panicipants a silent and non-panicipant observer recorded contributions. Group members formed a circle and silent observers ...

  20. Prediction of low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Frøkjær, Jens B

    2017-01-01

    operating characteristic curves demonstrated a significantly higher performance of T2* (AUC of 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98) than UtA PI (AUC of 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89) in the prediction of low birth weight (p = 0.010). Placental pathological findings were closely related to the T2* values. CONCLUSIONS...... placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 100 singleton pregnancies included at 20-40 weeks......' gestation. Placental T2* was obtained using a gradient recalled multi-echo MRI sequence and UtA PI was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Placental pathological examination was performed in 57 of the pregnancies. Low birth weight was defined by a Z-score ≤ -2.0. RESULTS: The incidence of low birth weight...

  1. Spontaneous tetraplegia during weight training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewer, G; Carmont, M; Jaffray, D

    2006-01-01

    A case of tetraplegia due to weight training is presented. Emergency surgery revealed a huge C5/6 disc sequestration trapped within the canal by the posterior longitudinal ligament. The disc was removed and C5–C7 were fused using an iliac crest tricortical graft and stabilised. The patient made a good recovery and returned to sporting activity. PMID:16980532

  2. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... February 2018 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Diabetes Center Can Diabetes Be Prevented? Your Child's Diabetes Health Care Team Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Body Mass Index (BMI) ... Plans: What Kids With Diabetes Need to Know Diabetes Center Weight ...

  3. Understanding weight gain at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; Castelo-Branco, C; Chedraui, P; Lumsden, M A; Nappi, R E; Shah, D; Villaseca, P

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the literature regarding the impact of the menopause transition on body weight and body composition. We conducted a search of the literature using Medline (Ovid, 1946-present) and PubMed (1966-2012) for English-language studies that included the following search terms: 'menopause', 'midlife', 'hormone therapy' or 'estrogen' combined with 'obesity', 'body weight' or 'body composition'. Whereas weight gain per se cannot be attributed to the menopause transition, the change in the hormonal milieu at menopause is associated with an increase in total body fat and an increase in abdominal fat. Weight excess at midlife is not only associated with a heightened risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, but also impacts adversely on health-related quality of life and sexual function. Animal and human studies indicate that this tendency towards central abdominal fat accumulation is ameliorated by estrogen therapy. Studies mostly indicate a reduction in overall fat mass with estrogen and estrogen-progestin therapy, improved insulin sensitivity and a lower rate of development of type 2 diabetes. The hormonal changes across the perimenopause substantially contribute to increased abdominal obesity which leads to additional physical and psychological morbidity. There is strong evidence that estrogen therapy may partly prevent this menopause-related change in body composition and the associated metabolic sequelae. However, further studies are required to identify the women most likely to gain metabolic benefit from menopausal hormone therapy in order to develop evidence-based clinical recommendations.

  4. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  5. Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…

  6. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  7. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? Results Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. Conclusions Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  8. Dynamic quality of service differentiation using fixed code weight in optical CDMA networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaee, Majid H.; Essa, Shawnim I.; Abd, Thanaa H.; Seyedzadeh, Saleh

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of network-driven applications, such as internet, video conferencing, and online gaming, brings in the need for a network the environments with capability of providing diverse Quality of Services (QoS). In this paper, a new code family of novel spreading sequences, called a Multi-Service (MS) code, has been constructed to support multiple services in Optical- Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The proposed method uses fixed weight for all services, however reducing the interfering codewords for the users requiring higher QoS. The performance of the proposed code is demonstrated using mathematical analysis. It shown that the total number of served users with satisfactory BER of 10-9 using NB=2 is 82, while they are only 36 and 10 when NB=3 and 4 respectively. The developed MS code is compared with variable-weight codes such as Variable Weight-Khazani Syed (VW-KS) and Multi-Weight-Random Diagonal (MW-RD). Different numbers of basic users (NB) are used to support triple-play services (audio, data and video) with different QoS requirements. Furthermore, reference to the BER of 10-12, 10-9, and 10-3 for video, data and audio, respectively, the system can support up to 45 total users. Hence, results show that the technique can clearly provide a relative QoS differentiation with lower value of basic users can support larger number of subscribers as well as better performance in terms of acceptable BER of 10-9 at fixed code weight.

  9. Effect of Season, Birth Weight and Weaning Weight on the onset of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of season, birth weight and weaning weight on the onset of puberty of 31 crossbred (Friesian & Bunaji) calves born from 1999 to 2005. The parameters considered were season of birth, birth weight, weaning weight body weight from 12-27 month of age and age and weight at ...

  10. Interferência por RNA: uma nova alternativa para terapia nas doenças reumáticas RNA interference: a new alternative for rheumatic diseases therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Regine de França

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A interferência por RNA (RNAi é um mecanismo de silenciamento gênico pós-transcricional conservado durante a evolução. Esse mecanismo, recentemente descrito, é mediado por pequenos RNAs de fita dupla (dsRNAs capazes de reconhecer especificamente uma sequência de mRNA-alvo e mediar sua clivagem ou repressão traducional. O emprego da RNAi como uma ferramenta de terapia gênica tem sido muito estudado, especialmente em infecções virais, câncer, desordens genéticas herdadas, doenças cardiovasculares e mesmo em doenças reumáticas. Aliados aos dados do genoma humano, os conhecimentos do silenciamento gênico mediado por RNAi podem permitir a determinação funcional de praticamente qualquer gene expresso em uma célula e sua implicação para o funcionamento e homeostase celular. Vários estudos terapêuticos in vitro e in vivo em modelos de doenças autoimunes vêm sendo realizados com resultados encorajadores. As vias de quebra de tolerância e inflamação são alvos potenciais para terapia com RNAi em doenças inflamatórias e autoimunes. Nesta revisão vamos recordar os princípios básicos da RNAi e discutir os aspectos que levaram ao desenvolvimento de propostas terapêuticas baseadas em RNAi, começando pelos estudos in vitro de desenvolvimento de ferramentas e identificação de alvos, chegando até os estudos pré-clínicos de disponibilização da droga in vivo, e testes em células humanas e modelos animais de doenças autoimunes. Por fim, vamos revisar os últimos avanços da experiência clínica da terapia com RNAiRNA interference (RNAi is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism preserved during evolution. This mechanism, recently described, is mediated by small double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs that can specifically recognize a target mRNA sequence and mediate its cleavage or translational repression. The use of RNAi as a tool for gene therapy has been extensively studied, especially in viral infections, cancer

  11. The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2017-07-17

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic

  12. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  13. Weight in Parkinson's Disease: Phenotypical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagdish C; Lewis, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Body weight in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a significant nonmotor feature. Weight homeostasis is a complex physiological process and gets deranged in PD patients leading to changes in weight. While both the low and high body weight have been reported as risk factors for PD, the majority of PD patients have a lower weight and a subset of patients lose weight during the course of the disease, while a small proportion gain weight. A number of clinical parameters such as older age, impaired cognition, severity of disease, and an imbalance of food intake determined by satiety and hunger hormones have been reported to be associated with but not the cause of weight change. Low body weight and weight loss have a negative impact on disease severity, dyskinesia quality of life, and mortality indicative of disease progression. An early assessment of olfactory impairment seems to identify patients at risk of weight loss, the patients with more severe olfactory loss-anosmic group, lose weight as compared to the patients with some preservation of olfaction, the hyposmic group. Higher levodopa dose per kilogram body weight increases the risk of dyskinesia, higher body weight seems to be protective against this complication. The identification of PD patients according to the nonmotor phenotype of "Park-olfaction-weight-phenotype" and the "olfaction-weight-dyskinesia" triad should help to develop strategies to prevent weight reduction and improve general health and complications of PD patients. The phenotype seems to reflect a differential prodromal pathology and influence clinical disease. Higher body weight patients would benefit from life style changes to achieve a healthy profile. Weight monitoring and weight orientated approach to management of PD patients should help to improve their outcome. Body weight change might be a surrogate to disease progression and may be used to investigate neuroprotection strategies. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  15. Toxicity of weight loss agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, May; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2012-06-01

    With the rise of the obesity epidemic in the United States over the last several decades and the medical complications seen with it, weight loss and dieting have become a national public health concern. Because of their increased use and availability through internet sales, several different dieting agents were reviewed for potential toxicity. These included: syrup of ipecac, cathartics, human chorionic gonadotropin hormone, 2,4 Dinitrophenol, guar gum, phenylpropanolamine, ma huang/ ephedra, caffeine, clenbuterol, fenfluramine, sibutramine, thyroid hormone, orlistat and cannabinoid antagonists. With the internet making even banned products readily accessible, healthcare providers need to be aware of the potential toxicities of a wide range of weight loss agents. Our review covered topics we thought to be most historically significant as well as pertinent to the practice of medical toxicology today.

  16. Algorithm project weight calculation aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Абрамова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process of a complex technical object design on the example of the aircraft, using information technology such as CAD/CAM/CAE-systems, presents the basic models of aircraft which are developed in the process of designing and reflect the different aspects of its structure and function. The idea of control parametric model at complex technical object design is entered, which is a set of initial data for the development of design stations and enables the optimal complex technical object control at all stages of design using modern computer technology. The paper discloses a process of weight design, which is associated with all stages of development aircraft and its production. Usage of a scheduling algorithm that allows to organize weight calculations are carried out at various stages of planning and weighing options to optimize the use of available database of formulas and methods of calculation

  17. Weight stability in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskov, Susanne; Sjöberg, Klas; Hagell, Peter; Westergren, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has traditionally been associated with weight loss. However, recent studies have not found any evidence of underweight in PD. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed nutritional status changes over time in relation to other clinical PD features. Here, we explore changes in nutritional status and motor and non-motor PD features (including dopaminergic drug therapy) in PD patients after 1 year. Motor and non-motor PD features, dopaminergic drug therapy, under-nutrition and malnutrition risk, and anthropometric measures (BMI, handgrip strength, triceps skin-fold, mid-arm circumference, and mid-upper arm muscle circumference) were assessed at baseline and 1 year later among 65 people with PD. Disability, PD motor symptoms, dysautonomia, and dopaminergic drug therapy increased. Underweight was uncommon both at baseline (n = 3) and follow-up (n = 2); malnutrition risk was common but stable (88 and 92%), whereas triceps skin-fold increased (P = 0.030); mid-upper arm muscle circumference decreased (P = 0.002); and the proportion of people with low handgrip strength (P = 0.012) increased. Correlations between nutritional variables and motor and non-motor PD features were absent to modest. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that baseline pupillomotor functioning was associated with decreased weight and BMI, and sleep with increased weight and BMI. In addition, increases in anxiety were associated with decreased weight, BMI, and triceps skin-fold. During the PD course, there seems to be redistribution in body composition from muscle to fat. Studies are needed to identify possible explanations for the findings. This implies that malnutrition should be regularly screened to identify those at risk of developing reduced muscle mass and increased morbidity.

  18. Uniform-Dead-Weight Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, William D.

    1991-01-01

    Method of deadweight loading for vacuum-furnace brazing improves quality of joint, increases yield, and reduces costs. In improved method, plates weighted with heavy stainless-steel blocks. Blocks act independently and are immune to distortion. Besides being uniformly distributed, force applied to plates larger and repeatable from one brazing operation to next. Larger blocks used on edges of plates, where more thermal mass needed to reduce differences between temperatures of interior and edge as temperature of furnace varied.

  19. Weight Maintenance: Determinants of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project 10704-0188), Washington, DC...Complications of pregnancy such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and operative delivery complications (i.e., c-sections) In addition to overall poor...Weight Management clinic in Boca Raton, Florida, suggests "This may be the first generation of children that may have a shorter life span than their

  20. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  1. Weight changes in adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabsitz, R; Feinleib, M; Hrubec, Z

    1980-01-01

    Longitudinal study of 514 pairs of US white male twin veterans was made possible by compiling data from military records, mailed questionnaires, and physical examinations. Height and weight were used to calculate the Quetelet index for twins at different ages covering induction into the Armed Forces (generally 17-24 years), 25 years, 40-50 years at questionnaire response, and 42-56 at physical examination. Cross-sectional analyses of Quetelet Index at these 4 points in time showed consistent evidence of significant genetic variance. Additional twin analyses of change in Quetelet Index both from induction and from age 25 to approximately age 48 were done. Both analyses showed significant genetic variance for change in Quetelet Index during this time span of 25 or more years for most subjects. Heritability estimates were 0.6 for change in Quetelet Index from induction (mean age 20) to examination (mean age 48) and 0.7 for change in Quetelet Index from age 25 to examination. While studies of younger twins have shown significant genetic influence on growth (height and weight), this study of adults demonstrates significant genetic influence on change in weight even after maturation.

  2. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2012-02-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  3. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2009-06-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  4. Epidemic spread on weighted networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Kamp

    Full Text Available The contact structure between hosts shapes disease spread. Most network-based models used in epidemiology tend to ignore heterogeneity in the weighting of contacts between two individuals. However, this assumption is known to be at odds with the data for many networks (e.g. sexual contact networks and to have a critical influence on epidemics' behavior. One of the reasons why models usually ignore heterogeneity in transmission is that we currently lack tools to analyze weighted networks, such that most studies rely on numerical simulations. Here, we present a novel framework to estimate key epidemiological variables, such as the rate of early epidemic expansion (r0 and the basic reproductive ratio (R0, from joint probability distributions of number of partners (contacts and number of interaction events through which contacts are weighted. These distributions are much easier to infer than the exact shape of the network, which makes the approach widely applicable. The framework also allows for a derivation of the full time course of epidemic prevalence and contact behaviour, which we validate with numerical simulations on networks. Overall, incorporating more realistic contact networks into epidemiological models can improve our understanding of the emergence and spread of infectious diseases.

  5. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment’s outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  6. Modelling body weight, dieting and obesity traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Paolo Nicola

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.

  7. The Gender Weight Gap: Sons, Daughters, and Maternal Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Although the effect of parents on their children has been the focus of much research on health and families, the influence of children on their parents has not been well studied. In this paper, I examine the effect of the sex composition of children on mothers' physical condition, as proxied by their weight. Using two independent datasets, I find that, many years after the birth of their children, women who have first-born daughters weigh on average 2-6 pounds less than women who have first-b...

  8. Weight gain during pregnancy :the characteristics of women who experience excess weight gain /1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Carol Carlson

    1990-01-01

    Weight gain during pregnancy, relationships among body image, body weight standards, and attitudes toward weight gain were investigated. Weight gain recommendations, based on preconceptional weight status (PCWS) reflected current practices in prenatal care at Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, VA, and provided a basis on which to categorize weight gain as inadequate, appropriate, and excess. Women who experienced excess weight gain (EWG) were compared to those who ex...

  9. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas Interference of light availability on response to fertilization of enrichment plantings with leguminous trees

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva; Luiz Augusto Gomes de Souza; Diego Oliveira Brandão

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala...

  10. Depresión y ansiedad inducida por interferón pegilado y ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C: personalidad, factores de riesgo y adherencia

    OpenAIRE

    Castellví Obiols, Pere

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: El virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) que afecta al 3% de la población mundial produce hepatitis crónica C (HCC) que en muchos casos evoluciona a cirrosis hepática y carcinoma hepatocelular. El tratamiento actual de la HCC con interferón pegilado (PegIFN) y ribavirina (RBV) puede inducir ansiedad y depresión.Objetivos: Conocer la incidencia de depresión y ansiedad inducida por el tratamiento con PegIFN y RBV, sus factores de riesgo basales, incluidos los rasgos de la personalidad y l...

  11. Depresión y ansiedad inducida por interferón pegilado y ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C personalidad, factores de riesgo y adherencia /

    OpenAIRE

    Castellví Obiols, Pere

    2010-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 01-12-2010 Introducción: El virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) que afecta al 3% de la población mundial produce hepatitis crónica C (HCC) que en muchos casos evoluciona a cirrosis hepática y carcinoma hepatocelular. El tratamiento actual de la HCC con interferón pegilado (PegIFN) y ribavirina (RBV) puede inducir ansiedad y depresión.Objetivos: Conocer la incidencia de depresión y ansiedad inducida por el tratamiento con PegIFN y RBV, sus factores de riesgo basales, inclui...

  12. As interferências das pisciculturas em tanques-rede a assembléia de peixe em grandes reservatórios do rio paranapanema (Bacia doAlto Paraná)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanatta, Augusto Seawright [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Atualmente, a filosofia da sustentabilidade ambiental que foca a preocupação com o uso racional dos recursos hídricos e pesqueiros, em particular a aqüicultura, está aumentando em nossa sociedade. Portanto, é preciso empregar esforços compatibilizando processos antagônicos da produção de alimento versus preservação ambiental. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar as possíveis interferências ambientais (limnológicas e ictiológicas) de um empreendimento de tilapicultura em tanqu...

  13. Total period of weed interference prevention in lettuce cv. SolarisPeríodo total de prevenção a interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura da alface cultivar Solaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Satomi Yamauti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work aimed to determine the total period of interference of weeds prevention of lettuce cultivar Solaris. The experiment was conducted in Universidade Estadual de Londrina, in the period of autumn/ winter of 2008. The lettuce crop remained free from weed interference from emergence up to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 days. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The weed community was composed by Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus hybridus, Oxalis corniculata, Euphorbia heterophylla, Spinacia oleracea, Commelina benghalensis e Lepidium virginicum. It was determined dry and fresh matter of weeds, and number of lettuce leaves. Assuming a tolerance of 5% for crop production decrease, it was verified that the total period of interference prevention (TPIP occurred up to 21 days after transplanting. Weed interference throughout the crop cycle reduced 25% of its yield.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI das plantas daninhas na cultura da alface do tipo crespa, cultivar Solaris. O experimento foi instalado na Universidade Estadual de Londrina, no período de outono/ inverno de 2008. A cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas desde o transplante até: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A comunidade infestante da área foi composta principalmente de Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus hybridus, Oxalis corniculata, Euphorbia heterophylla, Spinacia oleracea, Commelina benghalensis e Lepidium virginicum. As massas seca e fresca das plantas daninhas e o número de folhas da cultura foram determinados. Admitindo-se 5% de tolerância na redução da produtividade da cultura, o período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI ocorreu 21 dias após o transplante. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo de vida da alface reduziu a

  14. Caracterización de la severidad clínica de la psoriasis y la presencia de artritis psoriásica interfalángica distal de manos. Quito, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Santamaría, María Augusta; Berrazueta Solórzano, Jessenia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Contexto: La psoriasis y la artritis psoriásica están relacionadas, por procesos de autoinmunidad y de autoinflamación que ocasionan daño articular. Del 6 al 42% de pacientes con psoriasis desarrollan artritis psoriásica a lo largo de su vida. Objetivo: Caracterizar las alteraciones radiológicas compatibles con artritis psoriásica en las articulaciones interfalángicas distales en manos de pacientes psoriásicos con diferente severidad clínica y la presencia de psoriasis ungueal que acuden a la...

  15. Improved outcome with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a poor prognostic subgroup of infants with mixed-lineage-leukemia (MLL)-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the Interfant-99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Georg; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Schrappe, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To define a role for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and rearrangements of the mixed-lineage-leukemia gene (MLL(+)), we compared the outcome of MLL(+) patients from trial Interfant-99 who either received chemotherapy only or HSCT. Of 376....... In summary, HSCT seems to be a valuable option for a subgroup of infant MLL(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia carrying further poor prognostic factors. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00015873 and at www.controlled-trials.com as #ISRCTN24251487....

  16. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  17. Interferência de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento inicial de Coffea arabica Weed effect on the initial growth of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.T. Fialho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da interferência de plantas daninhas, em diferentes densidades de infestação, sobre o crescimento de plantas jovens de café arábica. Mudas de café, cultivar Mundo Novo, foram transplantadas, no estádio de quatro a cinco pares de folhas completamente expandidas, para vasos com capacidade de 25 dm³. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (4 x 4; o primeiro fator foi composto por espécies de plantas daninhas (Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea e Mucuna aterrima, e o segundo, por densidades dessas espécies (zero, dois, quatro e seis plantas por vaso, com quatro repetições. O plantio das espécies daninhas foi realizado 60 dias após o transplantio do café (0 DAT. Nesta data e no dia do encerramento do experimento, aos 90 DAT, determinaram-se a altura, a área foliar e o diâmetro do caule da planta de café, para cálculo do incremento dessas variáveis. Aos 90 DAT, determinou-se a matéria seca da parte aérea e radicular do café e das plantas daninhas e a densidade radicular do café. Utilizando esses resultados, estimou-se a razão de massa foliar, razão de massa caulinar, razão de massa radicular, razão de área foliar e a razão sistema radicular/parte aérea das plantas de café. A espécie M. aterrima foi a que mais reduziu a taxa de crescimento, a área foliar, a matéria seca do caule e das folhas e o diâmetro do caule do café. Entre as gramíneas, B. plantaginea foi a que mais reduziu a taxa de crescimento, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e densidade radicular do café. Ocorreu relação negativa entre a densidade de plantas daninhas e as variáveis de crescimento e com a razão de massa radicular e razão sistema radicular/parte aérea.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of weeds on the growth of young Arabica coffee plants, at different densities of infestation

  18. Cancer Cachexia: Beyond Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Andrew R; Kamal, Arif H; LeBlanc, Thomas W; Ma, Joseph D; Baracos, Vickie E; Roeland, Eric J

    2016-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle loss leading to progressive functional impairment. Despite the ubiquity of cachexia in clinical practice, prevention, early identification, and intervention remain challenging. The impact of cancer cachexia on quality of life, treatment-related toxicity, physical function, and mortality are well established; however, establishing a clinically meaningful definition has proven challenging because of the focus on weight loss alone. Attempts to more comprehensively define cachexia through body composition, physical functioning, and molecular biomarkers, while promising, are yet to be routinely incorporated into clinical practice. Pharmacologic agents that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration but that are currently used in cancer cachexia (ie, megestrol, dronabinol) may improve weight but not outcomes of interest such as muscle mass, physical activity, or mortality. Their routine use is limited by adverse effects. For the practicing oncologist, early identification and management of cachexia is critical. Oncologists must recognize cachexia beyond weight loss alone, focusing instead on body composition and physical functioning. In fact, becoming emaciated is a late sign of cachexia that characterizes its refractory stage. Given that cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome, it requires early identification and polymodal intervention, including optimal cancer therapy, symptom management, nutrition, exercise, and psychosocial support. Consequently, oncologists have a role in ensuring that these resources are available to their patients. In addition, in light of the promising investigational agents, it remains imperative to refer patients with cachexia to clinical trials so that available options can be expanded to effectively treat this pervasive problem.

  19. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-07

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers.

  20. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  1. Obesity Epidemic: Pharmaceutical Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Stephanie A

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease universally defined as an excess of adipose tissue resulting in body mass index (BMI) > 30.0 kg/m2. Over the past few years, the concept of prevention has gained increased awareness, thus leading to the development of additional pharmaceutical options for the treatment of obesity since 2012. Treating obesity revolves around an individualized, multi-disciplinary approach with additional focus on a healthy and supportive lifestyle to maintain the weight loss. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-03.asp].

  2. Gender Differences in Weight Loss: Evidence from a NHS Weight Management Service

    OpenAIRE

    BHOGAL, Manpal Singh; Langford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Provides evidence that men lose more weight than women when enrolled on a weight loss intervention.\\ud •\\ud Men lose more weight than women from their initial assessment up to 12-months.\\ud •\\ud Men maintain their weight and continue to lose more weight postintervention compared to women.

  3. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verhoef, S.P; Camps, S.G; Gonnissen, H.K; Westerterp, K.R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S

    2013-01-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss...

  4. Weighted OFDM for wireless multipath channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Nikookar, H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the novel method of "weighted OFDM" is addressed. Different types of weighting factors (including Rectangular, Bartlett, Gaussian. Raised cosine, Half-sin and Shanon) are considered. The impact of weighting of OFDM on the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is investigated by means...... of simulation and is compared for the above mentioned weighting factors. Results show that by weighting of the OFDM signal the PAPR reduces. Bit error performance of weighted multicarrier transmission over a multipath channel is also investigated. Results indicate that there is a trade off between PAPR...

  5. Leaf appearance rate and seed yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. as affected by interfering effects of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram mirshekari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of seed production index in lambsquarters (Chenopodium album, leaf appearance and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare under inter-specific competition a factorial experiment was conducted in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran, during 2011-2012. Treatments were weed densities of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 plants per meter row and its relative emergence times of simultaneously, 10, 20 and 30 days after crop based on randomized complete blocks design in 3 replications. Dormancy in lambsquarters seeds was broken using gibberlic acid. Results indicated that 8th leaf in fennel appeared after 35.4 days. Time to appearance of 12th leaf in 0-4 weed plants per meter row was 50 days, while, in higher weed densities delayed averaged 11.5 days. With decreasing weed density and delaying it,s emergence time fennel seed yield increased. Essential oil yield of fennel reduced 25 mL ha-2, per weed plant. When lambsquarters density decreased and emerged after fennel, it,s seed production index reduced under competition with fennel. In those treatments which lambsquarters plants emerged along with the crop, seeds production weight was 9.8% of total plant weight, while, in other levels of lambsquarters emergence time were 5.8%, 3.6% and 3.8%, respectively. In this study, treatments with higher biomass production in lambsquarters had greater weed seed production per square meter and lower seed yield in fennel, that it could be used for lambsquarters management in fennel fields.

  6. Weight Watchers on prescription: An observational study of weight change among adults referred to Weight Watchers by the NHS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahern, Amy Louise; Olson, Ashley D; Aston, Louise M; Jebb, Susan A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The scale of overweight and obesity in the UK places a considerable burden on the NHS. In some areas the NHS has formed partnerships with commercial companies to offer weight management services, but there has been little evaluation of these schemes. This study is an independent audit of the Weight Watchers NHS Referral scheme and evaluates the weight change of obese and overweight adults referred to Weight Watchers (WW) by the NHS. Method Data was obtained from the WW NHS...

  7. Pediatricians' weight assessment and obesity management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvan Kate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician adherence to obesity screening guidelines from United States health agencies remains suboptimal. This study explored how personal and career demographics influence pediatricians' weight assessment and management practices. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to U.S. pediatricians. Respondents were asked to identify the weight status of photographed children and about their weight assessment and management practices. Associations between career and personal demographic variables and pediatricians' weight perceptions, weight assessment and management practices were evaluated using univariate and multivariate modeling. Results 3,633 pediatric medical providers correctly identified the weight status of children at a median rate of 58%. The majority of pediatric clinicians were white, female, and of normal weight status with more than 10 years clinical experience. Experienced pediatric medical providers were less likely than younger colleagues to correctly identify the weight status of pictured children and were also less likely to know and use BMI criteria for assessing weight status. General pediatricians were more likely than subspecialty practitioners to provide diverse interventions for weight management. Non-white and Hispanic general practitioners were more likely than counterparts to consider cultural approaches to weight management. Conclusion Pediatricians' perceptions of children's weight and their weight assessment and management practices are influenced by career and personal characteristics. Objective criteria and clinical guidelines should be uniformly applied by pediatricians to screen for and manage pediatric obesity.

  8. Family support and weight-loss strategies among adolescents reporting sustained weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Dixon, Robyn; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Teevale, Tasileta

    2013-03-01

    The current research aims to describe the weight-control strategies and family support for young people reporting sustained weight loss in a large, population-based sample. Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of New Zealand youth. New Zealand secondary schools, 2007. Secondary-school students (n 9107). Among young people who attempted weight loss in the previous year, 51% reported long-term weight loss (lost weight and maintained weight loss for 6 months). Students reporting long-term weight loss were more likely to be male, but did not differ by age, ethnicity, socio-economic deprivation or measured weight status from students who reported temporary/recent weight loss or no weight loss. Students with long-term weight loss also reported healthier weight-control strategies (e.g., exercising, eating fewer fatty foods, eating fewer sweets), high parental support for healthy eating/activity and were less likely to report being teased about their weight by their family and having junk food available at home than students with temporary/recent weight loss or no weight loss. Approximately 50% of young people attempting weight loss reported sustained weight loss. Young people who reported sustained weight loss appeared to have more family support than those who did not achieve this, suggesting the importance for weight-control services and interventions in adolescents of actively engaging the family.

  9. Healthy Weight: Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can ... providers don't always address issues such as healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management during general ...

  10. Weight gain since menopause and its associations with weight loss maintenance in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, M; Arguin, H; Bouchard, D R; Carpentier, A C; Ardilouze, J L; Dionne, I J; Brochu, M

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between weight gain since menopause and weight regain after a weight loss program. Participants were 19 obese women who participated in a 15-week weight loss program and a 12-month follow-up. Main outcomes were: body composition, resting metabolic rate, energy intake, energy expenditure, and weight regain at follow-up. All body composition measures significantly decreased after intervention (all P ≤ 0.01) while all measures of fatness increased significantly after the 12-month follow-up (P ≤ 0.01). Body weight gain since menopause was associated with body weight regain (r = 0.65; P = 0.003) after follow-up even after adjustment for confounders. Weight gain since menopause is associated with body weight regain following the weight loss program. Therefore, weight gain since menopause should be considered as a factor influencing weight loss maintenance in older women.

  11. Therapy and Weight Management (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to talk yourself out of your plan! Ways Counseling Helps You Stay on Track Weight-management therapists and ... the blocks and obstacles you face. Weight-management counseling can help you recognize the things that make it difficult ...

  12. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta blockers: Do they cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... can occur as a side effect of some beta blockers, especially the older ones, such as atenolol (Tenormin) ...

  13. Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the challenge of overhauling your eating and exercise habits. Instead, consider giving your life a chance to calm down before you launch your weight-loss program. Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight is a lifelong process. Start by making ...

  14. Weight Loss Surgery: An Option for Teens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Obesity > Weight Loss Surgery: An Option for Teens? Health Issues Listen ... for extremely overweight adolescents for whom more conservative weight loss ... obesity-related medical conditions such as high blood pressure , ...

  15. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  16. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... control is a must when you want to lose weight. "Guesstimating" the size of a chicken breast at ...

  17. Wisconsin truck size and weight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    2007 AB 238 requires the Department of Transportation to conduct a comprehensive study to review the system of : motor vehicle weight limits on Wisconsin's highways and bridges. Laws regarding allowable weight limits, lengths, and : widths of commerc...

  18. Obesity and weight management at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietto, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Many women report gaining weight as they transition through menopause. For most, the weight gain is modest and can be reduced with a conscious effort to limit energy intake and increase energy expenditure. However, many women who are already overweight and obese will gain more weight as they approach menopause. The aims of this paper are to explain the reasons for menopausal weight gain and to detail a method for achieving and sustaining a substantial weight loss. Weight gain during menopause is predominantly due to a reduction in spontaneous activity. For women who are lean, advice about controlling energy intake and increasing physical activity may be all that is required to prevent weight gain. For women who are overweight and obese rapid weight loss is best achieved with the help of a very low energy diet. This must be followed by lifelong behaviour modification with or without the help of hunger-suppressing pharmacotherapy.

  19. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  20. Oral Lactobacillus Counts Predict Weight Gain Susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Johanne Aviaja; Walker, Karen Christina; Jensen, Benjamin A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown an association between weight change and the makeup of the intestinal microbiota in humans. Specifically, Lactobacillus, a part of the entire gastrointestinal tract's microbiota, has been shown to contribute to weight regulation. Aim: We examined...

  1. Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Leeds, A R; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for both the incidence and progression of osteoarthritis, and has a negative influence on outcomes. Loss of at least 10% of body weight, coupled with exercise, is recognized as a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with osteoarthritis......, and can lead to significant improvement in symptoms, pain relief, physical function and health-related quality of life. However, questions still remain surrounding optimal management. Given the significant health, social and economic burden of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients, it is imperative...... to advance our knowledge of osteoarthritis and obesity, and apply this to improving care and outcomes. This paper overviews what is already known about osteoarthritis and obesity, discusses current key challenges and ongoing hypotheses arising from research in these areas, and finally, postulates what...

  2. The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus longifilis and their reciprocal hybrids (Pisces: Clariidae) reared under ambient environmental conditions.

  3. How Can I Lose Weight Safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse Love and Romance Understanding Other People How Can I Lose Weight Safely? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Lose Weight Safely? Print A A A ... to talk to a doctor or dietitian, who can compare your weight with healthy norms to help ...

  4. Nuttall Oak Volume and Weight Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce E. Schlaegel; Regan B. Willson

    1983-01-01

    Volume and weight tables were constructed from a 62-tree sample of Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer) taken in the Mississippi Delta. The tables present volume, green weight, and dry weight of bole wood, bole wood plus bark, and total tree above a one-foot stump as predicted from the nonlinear model Y = 0Db

  5. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions in § 4.114, the term “substantial weight loss” means a loss of greater than 20 percent of the...

  6. Maternal Weight Gain Biosocial Characteristics And Perinatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two perinatal deaths occurred, with a perinatal mortality rate of 9.52/ 1000.Their mother's weight gains were not attributable to the deaths. Conclusion The study has shown that parity and social class significantly affect maternal weight gain in pregnancy. Even though the mean weight gain in this study was 8.58 ± 3.61kg, ...

  7. The Weight of Iron and Feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the popular question concerning the difference in weight between 1 kg of iron and 1 kg of feathers, by taking into account the non-trivial aspect of the semantic interpretation of "weight" and the weighting procedure. The inclusion of air buoyancy makes the correct answer an interesting one. We describe and comment on the…

  8. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present trapping issues of weight-dependent walks on weighted hierarchical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. Assuming that edge's weight is used as local information by a random walker, we introduce a biased walk. The biased walk is that a walker, at each step, ...

  9. Benefit of Doubt Approach to Case Weighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, Jesper; Bogetoft, Peter

    The implementation of an efficient and reliable case weighting system (CWS) is currently considered essential for running an efficient judiciary. However, traditional models for establishing case weights are time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, since such case weights are often viewed as in...

  10. Path Minima Queries in Dynamic Weighted Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    In the path minima problem on a tree, each edge is assigned a weight and a query asks for the edge with minimum weight on a path between two nodes. For the dynamic version of the problem, where the edge weights can be updated, we give data structures that achieve optimal query time\\todo{what about...

  11. 23 CFR 658.17 - Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weight. 658.17 Section 658.17 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... agency transit passenger bus, is excluded from the axle weight limits in paragraphs (c) through (e) of...

  12. (Zingiberaceae Aframomum melegueta ) on gestational weight gain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased gestational weight gain is associated with higher rates of complications of pregnancy and delivery. Gestational weight gain of 9-12 Kg has been associated with the best outcome for both mothers and infants. However, weight gain in most pregnant women is not within this range, perhaps due to the difficulty of ...

  13. Weight Watchers on prescription: an observational study of weight change among adults referred to Weight Watchers by the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Amy L; Olson, Ashley D; Aston, Louise M; Jebb, Susan A

    2011-06-06

    The scale of overweight and obesity in the UK places a considerable burden on the NHS. In some areas the NHS has formed partnerships with commercial companies to offer weight management services, but there has been little evaluation of these schemes.This study is an independent audit of the Weight Watchers NHS Referral scheme and evaluates the weight change of obese and overweight adults referred to Weight Watchers (WW) by the NHS. Data was obtained from the WW NHS Referral Scheme database for 29,326 referral courses started after 2nd April 2007 and ending before 6th October 2009 [90% female; median age 49 years (IQR 38-61 years); median BMI 35.1 kg/m2 (IQR 31.8-39.5 kg/m2). Participants received vouchers (funded by the PCT following referral by a healthcare professional) to attend 12 WW meetings. Body weight was measured at WW meetings and relayed to the central database. Median weight change for all referrals was -2.8 kg [IQR -5.9--0.7 kg] representing -3.1% initial weight. 33% of all courses resulted in loss of ≥5% initial weight. 54% of courses were completed. Median weight change for those completing a first course was -5.4 kg [IQR -7.8--3.1 kg] or -5.6% of initial weight. 57% lost ≥5% initial weight. A third of all patients who were referred to WW through the WW NHS Referral Scheme and started a 12 session course achieved ≥5% weight loss, which is usually associated with clinical benefits. This is the largest audit of NHS referral to a commercial weight loss programme in the UK and results are comparable with other options for weight loss available through primary care.

  14. Weight Watchers on prescription: An observational study of weight change among adults referred to Weight Watchers by the NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aston Louise M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scale of overweight and obesity in the UK places a considerable burden on the NHS. In some areas the NHS has formed partnerships with commercial companies to offer weight management services, but there has been little evaluation of these schemes. This study is an independent audit of the Weight Watchers NHS Referral scheme and evaluates the weight change of obese and overweight adults referred to Weight Watchers (WW by the NHS. Method Data was obtained from the WW NHS Referral Scheme database for 29,326 referral courses started after 2nd April 2007 and ending before 6th October 2009 [90% female; median age 49 years (IQR 38 - 61 years; median BMI 35.1 kg/m2 (IQR 31.8 - 39.5 kg/m2. Participants received vouchers (funded by the PCT following referral by a healthcare professional to attend 12 WW meetings. Body weight was measured at WW meetings and relayed to the central database. Results Median weight change for all referrals was -2.8 kg [IQR -5.9 - -0.7 kg] representing -3.1% initial weight. 33% of all courses resulted in loss of ≥5% initial weight. 54% of courses were completed. Median weight change for those completing a first course was -5.4 kg [IQR -7.8 - -3.1 kg] or -5.6% of initial weight. 57% lost ≥5% initial weight. Conclusions A third of all patients who were referred to WW through the WW NHS Referral Scheme and started a 12 session course achieved ≥5% weight loss, which is usually associated with clinical benefits. This is the largest audit of NHS referral to a commercial weight loss programme in the UK and results are comparable with other options for weight loss available through primary care.

  15. Bee Pollen Improves Muscle Protein and Energy Metabolism in Malnourished Old Rats through Interfering with the Mtor Signaling Pathway and Mitochondrial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Salles

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the management of malnutrition is a priority in older people, this population shows a resistance to refeeding. Fresh bee pollen contains nutritional substances of interest for malnourished people. The aim was to evaluate the effect of fresh bee pollen supplementation on refeeding efficiency in old malnourished rats. Male 22-month-old Wistar rats were undernourished by reducing food intake for 12 weeks. The animals were then renourished for three weeks with the same diet supplemented with 0%, 5% or 10% of fresh monofloral bee pollen. Due to changes in both lean mass and fat mass, body weight decreased during malnutrition and increased after refeeding with no between-group differences (p < 0.0001. Rats refed with the fresh bee pollen-enriched diets showed a significant increase in muscle mass compared to restricted rats (p < 0.05. The malnutrition period reduced the muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR/p70S6kinase/4eBP1 activation, and only the 10%-pollen diet was able to restore these parameters. Mitochondrial activity was depressed with food restriction and was only improved by refeeding with the fresh bee pollen-containing diets. In conclusion, refeeding diets that contain fresh monofloral bee pollen improve muscle mass and metabolism in old, undernourished rats.

  16. Weight changes during chemotherapy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano José Megale Costa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer have a tendency to gain weight. This tendency has determining factors not completely defined and an unknown prognostic impact. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate weight change during chemotherapy for breast cancer in a defined population and to identify its predisposing factors and possible prognostic significance. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Private clinical oncology service. PARTICIPANTS: 106 consecutive patients with breast cancer treated between June 1994 and April 2000, who received neoadjuvant (n = 8, adjuvant (n = 74 or palliative (n = 24 chemotherapy. INTERVETION: Review of medical records and gathering of clinical information, including patients’ body weights before treatment and at follow-up reviews. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Body weight change, expressed as percentage of body weight per month in treatment; role of clinical data in weight change; and influence of weight change in overall survival and disease-free survival. RESULTS: There was a mean increase of 0.50 ± 1.42% (p = 0.21 of body weight per month of treatment. We noted a negative correlation between metastatic disease and weight gain (r = -0.447, p < 0.0001. In the adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy groups there was a mean weight gain of 0.91 ± 1.19 % (p < 0.00001 per month, whereas in the metastatic (palliative group, we observed a mean loss of 0.52 ± 1.21% (p = 0.11 of body weight per month during the treatment. We did not observe any statistically significant correlation between weight changes and disease-free survival or overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy gain weight, whereas metastatic cancer patients will probably lose weight during palliative chemotherapy. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate the prognostic significance of weight changes during chemotherapy.

  17. Bounds on fake weighted projective space

    OpenAIRE

    Kasprzyk, Alexander M.

    2009-01-01

    A fake weighted projective space X is a Q-factorial toric variety with Picard number one. As with weighted projective space, X comes equipped with a set of weights (λ0, ..., λn). We see how the singularities of P (λ0, ..., λn) influence the singularities of X, and how the weights bound the number of possible fake weighted projective spaces for a fixed dimension. Finally, we present an upper bound on the ratios λj/Σλi if we wish X to have only terminal (or canonical) singularities.

  18. Does 'getting physical' help weight control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigg, L

    2000-04-01

    It may be time to embrace new attitudes in relation to health, weight loss and physical activity. While Australians spend around $1 million every day in attempts to lose weight, the number of people who are over their most healthy weight is increasing. This article discusses practical ways to encourage patients to be more active by emphasising optimal health for each individual. Focusing on weight loss as the primary motivation to exercise, from a health and aesthetic perspective, may be the problem. Understanding the barriers to people exercising and focusing on the health benefits rather than the weight loss component is a useful way to get more people to exercise.

  19. Mindfulness and weight loss: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, KayLoni L; Emery, Charles F

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness training has been incorporated increasingly into weight loss programs to facilitate dietary and physical activity changes. This systematic review of studies using mindfulness-based programs for weight loss evaluated study methodologies with the goal of determining the current evidence in support of mindfulness interventions for weight loss. Published studies of mindfulness-based interventions for weight loss were identified through systematic review including a comprehensive search of online databases. Studies were reviewed and graded according to methodological strengths and weaknesses. A total of 19 studies, including 13 randomized controlled trials and 6 observational studies, evaluated the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on weight among individuals attempting weight loss. Twelve of the studies were published in peer-reviewed journals and seven were unpublished dissertations. Among the eight randomized controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals, six documented significant weight loss among participants in the mindfulness condition, one reported no significant change, and one failed to report body mass index at program completion. None of the studies documented a relationship between changes in mindfulness and weight loss. Significant weight loss was documented among participants in mindfulness interventions for 13 of the 19 studies identified for review. However, studies do not clarify the degree to which changes in mindfulness are a mechanism responsible for weight loss in mindfulness interventions. Methodological weaknesses and variability across studies limit the strength of the evidence. Further research is needed to document and evaluate the psychological, behavioral, and biological mechanisms involved in the relationship between mindfulness and weight loss.

  20. Centrality measures for immunization of weighted networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective immunization of individual communities with minimal cost in vaccination has made great discussion surrounding the realm of complex networks. Meanwhile, proper realization of relationship among people in society and applying it to social networks brings about substantial improvements in immunization. Accordingly, weighted graph in which link weights represent the intensity and intimacy of relationships is an acceptable approach. In this work we employ weighted graphs and a wide variety of weighted centrality measures to distinguish important individuals in contagion of diseases. Furthermore, we propose new centrality measures for weighted networks. Our experimental results show that Radiality-Degree centrality is satisfying for weighted BA networks. Additionally, PageRank-Degree and Radiality-Degree centralities showmoreacceptable performance in targeted immunization of weighted networks.

  1. Effect of molecular weight on polyphenylquinoxaline properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of polyphenyl quinoxalines with different molecular weight and end-groups were prepared by varying monomer stoichiometry. Thus, 4,4'-oxydibenzil and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine were reacted in a 50/50 mixture of m-cresol and xylenes. Reaction concentration, temperature, and stir rate were studied and found to have an effect on polymer properties. Number and weight average molecular weights were determined and correlated well with viscosity data. Glass transition temperatures were determined and found to vary with molecular weight and end-groups. Mechanical properties of films from polymers with different molecular weights were essentially identical at room temperature but showed significant differences at 232 C. Diamine terminated polymers were found to be much less thermooxidatively stable than benzil terminated polymers when aged at 316 C even though dynamic thermogravimetric analysis revealed only slight differences. Lower molecular weight polymers exhibited better processability than higher molecular weight polymers.

  2. Psychological predictors of weight regain in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Susan M; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2004-11-01

    It is a consistent finding that, among obese patients, the weight lost as a result of the most widely available treatments for obesity is almost always regained. This relapse appears to be attributable to the individual's inability to persist with the behavioural strategies needed to maintain the new lower weight. Little research has investigated the psychological mechanisms that might account for this phenomenon. This study aimed to identify psychological factors that predict weight regain. Fifty-four women with obesity who had lost weight by attending community slimming clubs were interviewed immediately after losing 10% of their initial body weight, and then followed-up every 2 months for a period of 1 year by means of telephone interviews. The results identified two prospective predictors of weight regain: one cognitive factor (dichotomous thinking) and one historical variable (maximum lifetime weight). The finding that a specific cognitive style is a significant predictor of relapse has implications for the treatment of obesity.

  3. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  4. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI. Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads. An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497. Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011. Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722. Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with

  5. Interferência de caruru-de-mancha sobre características de crescimento e produção da beterraba Slender amaranth interference in table beet growth and production characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.W. Marcolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A beterraba (Beta vulgaris, importante hortaliça cultivada no Brasil, é muito suscetível à interferência de plantas daninhas, sendo Amaranthus viridis uma das principais espécies encontradas em áreas de horticultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a resposta da beterraba à competição com diferentes densidades de A. viridis, por meio da avaliação de características de crescimento e produção da cultura. Um experimento em caixas, com área útil de 0,25 m², foi conduzido em Jaboticabal-SP, Brasil, mantendo-se constante oito plantas por caixa de beterraba em convivência com 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 6 plantas por caixa de A. viridis. A cultura da beterraba foi muito suscetível à interferência imposta por plantas de A. viridis, tendo sua área foliar, número de folhas, massa seca de folhas, diâmetro médio da raiz e massa fresca de raízes significativamente reduzidos mesmo em baixas densidades populacionais da planta daninha; a massa fresca de raízes foi a mais sensível à interferência.Table beet (Beta vulgaris, an important vegetable cultivated in Brazil, is very susceptible to weed interference, with Amaranthus viridis being one of the main species found in horticultural areas. The objective of this research was to study the response of table beet to competition at different densities of A. viridis, based on evaluation of crop growth and production characteristics. An experiment was carried out in 0.25 m² pots in Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil, with 8 table beet plants per pot kept in constant coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 plants per pot of A. viridis. The table beet crop was very susceptible to interference of A. viridis, with its leaf area, number of leaves, leaf dry mass, root mean diameter and root fresh mass being significantly reduced even under low weed densities, with root fresh mass being the most sensitive to interference.

  6. Tiroiditis autoinmune inducida por interferón en pacientes con infección por virus de la hepatitis C. Interferon-induced autoimmune thyroiditis in a patient with hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un varón de 43 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió por elevación asintomática de la alanino aminotransferasa (ALT. El paciente negó ser bebedor crónico de alcohol. Se hizo el diagnóstico serológico de infección activa por hepatitis C y la biopsia de hígado reveló inflamación crónica activa. Con estos resultados, se inició tratamiento con interferón-alfa y ribavirina. Durante el tratamiento de 48 semanas, el paciente presentó anticuerpos antitiroideos positivos con variaciones en sus niveles de tirotropina (TSH y hormonas tiroideas. En el seguimiento postratamiento, el paciente continuó con hipertiroidismo por enfermedad de Graves. La tiroiditis autoinmune es una complicación frecuente del uso de interferón en pacientes con hepatitis C. En algunos casos se presenta como hipertiroidismo por enfermedad de Graves. Se debe evaluar la función tiroidea y los anticuerpos antitiroideos antes y durante el tratamiento con interferón.A 43 year old man presented with asymptomatic elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and no relevant past history. The patient denied being a chronic alcohol drinker. Work-up revealed an active hepatitis C, and liver biopsy showed active inflammation. Treatment was started with interferon-alfa and ribavirin. During the 48 weeks of treatment, the patient developed positive thyroid antibodies with varying level of thyrotropin (TSH and thyroid hormones. At follow-up after treatment, the patient continued with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease. Autoimmune thyroiditis is a common complication of using interferon in patients with hepatitis C. In some cases, it is presented as hyperthyroidism because of Graves’ disease. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies should be evaluated before and during treatment with interferon.

  7. Investigando a aprendizagem de professores de física acerca do fenômeno da interferência quântica Investigating Physics teachers' learning on the quantum interference phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ostermann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a evolução conceitual de 14 professores de Ensino Médio que foram estudantes, no 2º semestre de 2005, de uma disciplina sobre Física Quântica (FQ no Mestrado Profissional em Ensino de Física da UFRGS. Foi realizada uma análise de suas respostas acerca da interferência quântica em questionários especialmente desenvolvidos. Este estudo insere-se no âmbito de um projeto sobre Tópicos de Física Moderna e Contemporânea na formação de professores e já tem, como resultados a elaboração de um questionário sobre conceitos de FQ, construção e avaliação de uma unidade didática baseada em experimentos virtuais e o desenvolvimento de um software livre, do tipo "bancada virtual", que simula o fenômeno da interferência quântica em um aparato denominado Interferômetro de Mach Zehnder. A partir das sínteses das questões e da análise das respostas dos alunos, os resultados aqui relatados evidenciam aspectos de uma evolução conceitual em tópicos introdutórios de FQ.An analysis of the conceptual evolution of 14 Physics Teachers attending a 4 credit discipline "Introductory Quantum Physics" from August to December 2005 is presented in this work. They were all regular students in the Professional Masters Degree Program in Instituto de Física (UFRGS. Our analysis focuses on answers to learning questionnaires on the particular phenomenon of quantum interference. This study is part of a current project concerned with the preparation of Physics Teachers in Topics of Modern and Contemporary Physics. The project has so far resulted in the elaboration of learning questionnaires on Quantum Physics, the elaboration and evaluation of a teaching unit based on virtual experiments and the elaboration of a freeware interactive software that simulates the quantum interference in the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. From questions synthesis and student´s answers, outcomes here related show aspects of a conceptual evolution in Quantum

  8. Robust Protection against Highly Virulent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Swine by Combination Treatment with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing Porcine Alpha and Gamma Interferons and Multiple Small Interfering RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Se-Kyung; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. Combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. We have developed recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) for the simultaneous expression of porcine alpha and gamma interferons (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) as well as 3 small interfering RNAs (Ad-3siRNA) targeting FMDV mRNAs encoding nonstructural proteins. The antiviral effects of Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA expression were tested in combination in porcine cells, suckling mice, and swine. We observed enhanced antiviral effects in porcine cells and mice as well as robust protection against the highly pathogenic strain O/Andong/SKR/2010 and increased expression of cytokines in swine following combination treatment. In addition, we showed that combination treatment was effective against all serotypes of FMDV. Therefore, we suggest that the combined treatment with Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA may offer fast-acting antiviral protection and be used with a vaccine during the period that the vaccine does not provide protection against FMD. IMPORTANCE The use of current foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines to induce rapid protection provides limited effectiveness because the protection does not become effective until a minimum of 4 days after vaccination. Therefore, during outbreaks antiviral agents remain the only available treatment to confer rapid protection and reduce the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in livestock until vaccine-induced protective immunity can become effective. Interferons (IFNs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been reported to be effective antiviral agents against

  9. Lift weights to fight overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Moro, Tatiana; Bianco, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Although resistance training (RT) has long been accepted as a means for developing and maintaining muscular strength, endurance, power and muscle mass, its beneficial relationship with health factors and chronic disease has only recently been recognized in the scientific literature. Prior to 1990, resistance training was not a part of the recommended guidelines for exercise training and rehabilitation for either the American Heart Association or the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). In 1990, the ACSM recognized resistance training as a significant component of a comprehensive fitness programme for healthy adults of all ages, a position subsequently confirmed few years after. At present, even though interest in clinical applications of RT is increasing, there are still some concerns, among physicians, about the use of this exercise methodology in weight control programmes. This review aims to explore the metabolic effects of RT and its efficacy and feasibility in overweight subjects. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Weighted entropy for segmentation evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jesmin F.; Bhuiyan, Sharif M.

    2014-04-01

    In many image, video and computer vision systems the image segmentation is an essential part. Significant research has been done in image segmentation and a number of quantitative evaluation methods have already been proposed in the literature. However, often the segmentation evaluation is subjective that means it has been done visually or qualitatively. A segmentation evaluation method based on entropy is proposed in this work which is objective and simple to implement. A weighted self and mutual entropy are proposed to measure the dissimilarity of the pixels among the segmented regions and the similarity within a region. This evaluation technique gives a score that can be used to compare different segmentation algorithms for the same image, or to compare the segmentation results of a given algorithm with different images, or to find the best suited values of the parameters of a segmentation algorithm for a given image. The simulation results show that the proposed method can identify over-segmentation, under-segmentation, and the good segmentation.

  11. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  12. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  13. Which weight-loss programmes are as effective as Weight Watchers®?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Claire D; Daley, Amanda J; Lewis, Amanda L; Jolly, Kate; Aveyard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Three randomised controlled trials have provided strong evidence that Weight Watchers® is an effective weight-loss programme but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether three other weight-loss programmes are also effective. Aim To examine whether other group-based weight-loss programmes were not inferior to Weight Watchers. Design and setting A prospective cohort study using a non-inferiority analysis of 3290 adults referred through primary care. Method Participants who met the eligibility criteria for primary care obesity management treatment chose a free programme (Weight Watchers, Rosemary Conley Diet and Fitness Clubs, Slimming World or a NHS group programme) lasting 3 months; they were weighed at 3 months (programme end) and self-reported their weight at 12 months. Results At 3 months, weight loss achieved through Rosemary Conley and Slimming World was not inferior to Weight Watchers. The NHS group programme was inferior. At 12 months Slimming World and Rosemary Conley were not inferior to Weight Watchers, although participants using Slimming World lost significantly more weight than those using Weight Watchers. Data on the NHS group programme were inconclusive. Conclusion In the short term all commercial weight-loss programmes appear to result in similar weight loss but the NHS alternative appears to produce less weight loss. At 12 months Slimming World led to greater weight loss but the differences between commercial programmes was small and of minor clinical importance. PMID:24567651

  14. Prognostic significance of weight changes in Parkinson's disease: the Park-weight phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagdish C; Vassallo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a changing profile of weight as the disease advances. Whilst some patients gain weight, a significant proportion of patients lose weight. PD patients have a lower body weight as compared with non-PD controls. Weight loss is not a benign phenomenon. Patients with lower initial body weight and weight losers have a higher risk of developing dyskinesia. There is a relationship between body weight and levodopa dose, patients with higher levodopa dose per kilogram are at a higher risk of dyskinesia, the risk escalates above 6 mg per kilogram. Lower weight patients have risk of undernutrition and the associated disease pathology due to frailty. Weight losers are at risk of higher mortality and poor quality of life. PD patients should be assessed for body weight and the dose of levodopa be adjusted according to periodic weight changes, supplemented by other dopaminergic medications. Patients at risk of weight loss may be identified by their severe loss of olfaction since there seems to exist the olfaction-weight-dyskinesia phenotype. Measures should be taken to prevent weight loss in at-risk patients to prevent low-weight-related adverse outcomes in PD patients. These measures may protect PD patients from motor and non-motor adverse effects as the disease advances.

  15. Unpacking the psychological weight of weight stigma: A rejection-expectation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodorn, Alison; Major, Brenda; Hunger, Jeffrey; Miller, Carol

    2016-03-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the negative effects of weight stigma among higher body-weight individuals are mediated by expectations of social rejection. Women and men who varied in objective body-weight (body mass index; BMI) gave a speech describing why they would make a good date. Half believed that a potential dating partner would see a videotape of their speech (weight seen) and half believed that a potential dating partner would listen to an audiotape of their speech (weight unseen). Among women, but not men, higher body-weight predicted increased expectations of social rejection, decreased executive control resources, decreased self-esteem, increased self-conscious emotions and behavioral displays of self-consciousness when weight was seen but not when weight was unseen. As predicted, higher body-weight women reported increased expectations of social rejection when weight was seen (versus unseen), which in turn predicted decreased self-esteem, increased self-conscious emotions, and increased stress. In contrast, lower body-weight women reported decreased expectations of social rejection when weight was seen (versus unseen), which in turn predicted increased self-esteem, decreased self-conscious emotions, and decreased stress. Men's responses were largely unaffected by body-weight or visibility, suggesting that a dating context may not be identity threatening for higher body-weight men. Overall, the present research illuminates a rejection-expectation pathway by which weight stigma undermines higher body-weight women's health.

  16. Clarifying Atomic Weights: A 2016 Four-Figure Table of Standard and Conventional Atomic Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Meyers, Fabienne; Holden, Norman E.

    2017-01-01

    To indicate that atomic weights of many elements are not constants of nature, in 2009 and 2011 the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) replaced single-value standard atomic weight values with atomic weight intervals for 12 elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron,…

  17. Unpacking the psychological weight of weight stigma: A rejection-expectation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodorn, Alison; Major, Brenda; Hunger, Jeffrey; Miller, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the negative effects of weight stigma among higher body-weight individuals are mediated by expectations of social rejection. Women and men who varied in objective body-weight (body mass index; BMI) gave a speech describing why they would make a good date. Half believed that a potential dating partner would see a videotape of their speech (weight seen) and half believed that a potential dating partner would listen to an audiotape of their speech (weight unseen). Among women, but not men, higher body-weight predicted increased expectations of social rejection, decreased executive control resources, decreased self-esteem, increased self-conscious emotions and behavioral displays of self-consciousness when weight was seen but not when weight was unseen. As predicted, higher body-weight women reported increased expectations of social rejection when weight was seen (versus unseen), which in turn predicted decreased self-esteem, increased self-conscious emotions, and increased stress. In contrast, lower body-weight women reported decreased expectations of social rejection when weight was seen (versus unseen), which in turn predicted increased self-esteem, decreased self-conscious emotions, and decreased stress. Men’s responses were largely unaffected by body-weight or visibility, suggesting that a dating context may not be identity threatening for higher body-weight men. Overall, the present research illuminates a rejection-expectation pathway by which weight stigma undermines higher body-weight women’s health. PMID:26752792

  18. A study on body-weight perception, future intention and weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2014-01-01

    We examined the socio-economic differential in the self-perception of body weight, future intention for weight management and actual weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India...

  19. Gestational weight gain and subsequent postpartum weight loss among young, low-income, ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould Rothberg, Bonnie E; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2011-01-01

    Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by the Institute of Medicine. Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (n = 427). Medical record review and 4 structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within Institute of Medicine guidelines. There were 62% that exceeded maximum recommendations-more common among those overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25.0; P weight gain and retention documented among smokers and women with pregnancy-induced hypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all P weight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (≥9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  1. Interferência e nível de dano econômico de capim-arroz sobre o arroz em função do arranjo de plantas da cultura Interference and economic weed threshold (Ewt of barnyardgrass on rice as a function of crop plant arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Agostinetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Na cultura do arroz irrigado ocorrem elevadas perdas de produtividade de grãos devido à interferência de plantas daninhas, pois estas também estão adaptadas ao ambiente inundado de cultivo do cereal. Objetivou-se avaliar a interferência e determinar o nível de dano econômico de populações de capim-arroz em arroz irrigado em função do arranjo de plantas da cultura. Foi realizado um experimento em campo, com cultivo de arroz em sistema convencional. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três arranjos de plantas de arroz, cultivar BRS Pelota (17 e 32 cm e semeadura a lanço, e nove populações de capim-arroz em cada método de semeadura. O modelo de regressão não linear da hipérbole retangular estima adequadamente as perdas de produtividade do arroz irrigado na presença de plantas de capim-arroz. A cultura do arroz semeada a lanço apresenta maior habilidade competitiva com o capim-arroz em relação à semeadura em linha nos espaçamentos de 17 e 32 cm. A variável área foliar apresenta melhor ajuste ao modelo da hipérbole retangular, comparativamente às variáveis população de plantas, massa seca da parte aérea e cobertura do solo. A utilização de semeadura a lanço aumenta o nível de dano econômico, justificando a adoção de medidas de controle do capim-arroz em níveis mais elevados de população. Acréscimo na produtividade de grãos, no preço do arroz e na eficiência do herbicida e redução no custo de controle diminuem os valores do nível de dano econômico, justificando a adoção de medidas de controle em baixas populações de capim-arroz.High yield losses in irrigated rice occur due to weed interference, as weeds are also adapted to the flooded environment where the crop is cultivated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of interference and determine the economic weed threshold of populations of barnyardgrass in irrigated rice, according to crop arrangement. Thus, an experiment was

  2. Estimativa das perdas de produtividade de grãos em cultivares de arroz (Oryza sativa pela interferência do capim-arroz (Echinochloa spp. Estimation of grain yield loss in rice (Oryza sativa cultivars due to interference by barnyardgrass (Echinochloa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Galon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o grau de interferência do capim-arroz em cultivares de arroz irrigado e comparar variáveis explicativas, visando identificar aquela que propicia melhor ajuste dos dados a modelo matemático. Para isso, foi conduzido experimento a campo no ano agrícola 2005/06, com cultivo de arroz em sistema convencional. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por seis cultivares de arroz com diferentes durações do ciclo de desenvolvimento e por dez populações de capim-arroz. As variáveis respostas foram avaliadas aos 28 dias após a emergência do arroz. O modelo da hipérbole retangular foi utilizado para descrever a relação entre perda de produtividade de grãos de arroz e variáveis explicativas população de plantas, massa da matéria seca da pare aérea, cobertura do solo e área foliar. As perdas de produtividade de grãos de arroz devidas à interferência do capim-arroz podem ser estimadas satisfatoriamente pelo modelo da hipérbole retangular. Os cultivares de arroz IRGA 421, 416 ou 417 foram os mais competitivos, obtendo-se adequado ajuste dos dados ao modelo testado para todas as variáveis avaliadas. A variável população de plantas de capim-arroz apresenta melhor ajuste ao modelo do que massa da matéria seca da parte aérea, cobertura do solo ou área foliar.The objectives of this research were to evaluate the level of barnyardgrass interference in flooded rice cultivars and to compare explicative variables aiming to identify the variable providing better data adjustment to a mathematical model. Thus, a field experiment was carried out during the 2005/2006 growing season, with rice cultivated under the conventional system. Treatments consisted of six rice cultivars differing in life cycle duration and ten barnyardgrass plant populations. Variables were evaluated 28 days after rice emergence. The rectangular hyperbolic model was tested to describe the relationship between rice grain yield loss and

  3. Weight, physical activity and breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, Anne

    2018-02-26

    Weight, weight change and physical activity may affect prognosis among women who are diagnosed with breast cancer. Observational studies show associations between overweight/obesity and weight gain with several measures of reduced prognosis in women with breast cancer, and some suggestions of lower survival in women who are underweight or who experience unexplained weight loss after diagnosis. Observational studies have also shown an association between higher levels of physical activity and reduced breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, although a dose-response relationship has not been established. The effects of purposive dietary weight loss and increase in physical activity on survival or recurrence in breast cancer are not yet established, and randomised controlled trials are needed for definitive data. This paper presents the epidemiologic evidence on weight status, weight change, and physical activity and breast cancer survival; suggests potential mediating mechanisms; summarises evidence on weight loss interventions in breast cancer survivors; describes ongoing randomised clinical trials designed to test the effects of weight loss or physical activity on breast cancer survival; and provides information on available guidelines on weight and physical activity for cancer survivors.

  4. Des étoiles de faible masse aux planètes, caractérisation par interférométrie optique et photométrie

    OpenAIRE

    Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Les techniques interférométriques permettent de mesurer précisément les rayons physiques d'étoiles proches. Les résultats obtenus dans le cadre de ce travail sur 7 naines M et K ont permis de confirmer la bonne adéquation des équations d'état utilisées pour les modéliser. D'autre part, ils ont mis en évidence l'influence potentielle de la composition chimique et de l'activité de l'étoile sur les propriétés structurelles des naines K précoces. La photométrie haute précision constitue un moyen ...

  5. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol em Rondônia Periods of weed interference in sunflower crop in Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibran da S. Alves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol e seus efeitos sobre o diâmetro do capítulo, teor de óleo, rendimento de óleo e produtividade. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, sendo os fatores: cultivares (Embrapa 122 e Hélio 358, modalidade de competição (na presença e na ausência de plantas daninhas e períodos de convivência ou controle das plantas daninhas da emergência aos 15, 30, 45, 60 e 110 dias. As variáveis mensuradas foram diâmetro de capítulo, teor de óleo, rendimento de óleo e produtividade. As plantas daninhas interferem negativamente no diâmetro do capítulo, produtividade e rendimento de óleo, mas o convívio com as mesmas aumentou o teor de óleo das sementes, além de reduzir em 76,83 e 92,68% a produtividade dos cultivares Embrapa 122 e Hélio 358, respectivamente. Admitindo-se uma perda de 10% na produtividade, o período anterior à interferência (PAI, o período total de prevenção a interferência (PTPI e o período crítico de prevenção e interferência (PCPI para a cultivar Embrapa 122 foram de 16; 37 e 21 dias, respectivamente. Para o híbrido Hélio 358 o PAI, o PTPI e o PCPI foram de 24; 43 e 19 dias, respectivamente.The objective of this study was to determine the periods of weed interference in sunflower cultivation, and its effects on the head diameter, oil content, oil yield and its productivity. The experimental design was in the randomized blocks with three replications. The treatments were arranged in a factorial 2 x 2 x 5, with the following factors: cultivar (Embrapa 122 and Hélio 358, modality of competition (in the presence and absence of weeds and periods of coexistence and control of weed from the emergence until the 15, 30, 45, 60 and 110 days. The measured variables were head diameter, oil content, oil

  6. Período crítico de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do milho baseado na fenologia da cultura Critical period of weed interference in corn crop based on crop phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Kozlowski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available No ano agrícola 2000/2001 foi conduzido, na Fazenda Experimental Gralha Azul/PUCPR, um experimento de campo com o objetivo de determinar o período crítico para prevenção da interferência das plantas daninhas sobre a cultura do milho, determinado com base na fenologia da cultura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2x7, com quatro repetições. Os 14 tratamentos testados foram resultados da combinação de duas séries de tratamentos: com a cultura em períodos iniciais de crescimento em competição com as plantas daninhas, e com a cultura em períodos iniciais de crescimento sem competição; estes períodos iniciais foram caracterizados por estádios fenológicos da cultura do milho - V2, V4, V6, V8 e V10 - e duas testemunhas. O experimento foi instalado em uma área sob plantio direto, com semeadura realizada de acordo com a tecnologia recomendada para a cultura, com adubações no sulco e em cobertura e tratamentos fitossanitários, para que as plantas de milho se desenvolvessem normalmente. O período crítico de prevenção da interferência ocorreu entre os estádios fenológicos V2 e V7, e a interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu em média 87% o rendimento de grãos da testemunha em competição durante todo o ciclo da cultura em relação à testemunha sem competição com as plantas daninhas, por todo o ciclo. Com relação à comunidade infestante, as dicotiledôneas representaram 22,3% das plantas daninhas, destacando-se as espécies Taraxacum officinale, Senecio brasiliensis, Rumex obtusifolius e Bidens pilosa, e as monocotiledôneas, 77,7% da comunidade infestante, com destaque para Brachiaria plantaginea. O acúmulo de biomassa seca das plantas de milho, a população final e o número de espigas por planta não foram afetados pela interferência das plantas daninhas.A field experiment was carried out to determine the critical period of weed interference in corn, under a no

  7. Combinaison cohérente extra-cavité de diodes lasers monomodes fibrées dans un dispositif interférométrique tout-fibré

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourdy, D.; Desfarges-Berthelemot, A.; Kermène, V.; Vampouille, M.; Barthélémy, A.

    2004-11-01

    Nous rapportons la combinaison cohérente de deux diodes lasers monomodes fibrées émettant à 975 nm via un dispositif externe tout-fibré dont l'architecture est basée sur la géométrie de l'interféromètre de Michelson. Le couplage entre les deux diodes lasers est obtenu en réalisant une rétroaction commune à travers un coupleur fibré 50/50. Nous montrons qu'ainsi le spectre d'émission résultant s'auto-adapte assurant l'émission d'une puissance maximum sur une seule voie du coupleur 50/50.

  8. Improved outcome with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a poor prognostic subgroup of infants with mixed-lineage-leukemia (MLL)-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the Interfant-99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Georg; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Schrappe, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To define a role for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and rearrangements of the mixed-lineage-leukemia gene (MLL(+)), we compared the outcome of MLL(+) patients from trial Interfant-99 who either received chemotherapy only or HSCT. Of 376...... received chemotherapy only (P = .03). However, the advantage was restricted to a subgroup with 2 additional unfavorable prognostic features: age less than 6 months and either poor response to steroids at day 8 or leukocytes more than or equal to 300 g/L. Ninety-seven of 297 MLL(+) patients (33%) had...... such high-risk criteria, with 87 achieving CR. In this group, HSCT was associated with a 64% reduction in the risk of failure resulting from relapse or death in CR (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.86). In the remaining patients, there was no advantage for HSCT over chemotherapy only...

  9. Establecimiento y validación de un ensayo inmunoenzimático tipo ELISA, empleado en el control de calidad del Interferón alfa 2b humano recombinante

    OpenAIRE

    Susset Valderrama; Eliana Pérez; Yurisleydis Aldama; Lourdes Costa; Marisel Quintana; Gudelia Pérez; Gerardo García

    2009-01-01

    Se estableció y validó un ELISA para la cuantificación del Interferón alfa 2b humano recombinante en el Ingrediente Farmacéutico Activo, definiéndose los criterios de validez del ensayo y basado en el cumplimiento de las Buenas Prácticas de Laboratorio. Se evaluaron los parámetros de: linealidad, especificidad, exactitud, rango, precisión y robustez. El ensayo establecido resultó específico, con una exactitud entre 84,3% y 102,4%, se demostró un ajuste cuadrático y un rango de trabajo entre 1...

  10. Intentional Weight Loss and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Hendryx, Michael; Rohan, Thomas; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Thomson, Cynthia A; Felix, Ashley S; Chen, Chu; Barrington, Wendy; Coday, Mace; Stefanick, Marcia; LeBlanc, Erin; Margolis, Karen L

    2017-04-10

    Purpose Although obesity is an established endometrial cancer risk factor, information about the influence of weight loss on endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women is limited. Therefore, we evaluated associations among weight change by intentionality with endometrial cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study. Patients and Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 36,794) ages 50 to 79 years at WHI enrollment had their body weights measured and body mass indices calculated at baseline and at year 3. Weight change during that period was categorized as follows: stable (change within ± 5%), loss (change ≥ 5%), and gain (change ≥ 5%). Weight loss intentionality was assessed via self-report at year 3; change was characterized as intentional or unintentional. During the subsequent 11.4 years (mean) of follow-up, 566 incident endometrial cancer occurrences were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate relationships (hazard ratios [HRs] and 95% CIs) between weight change and endometrial cancer incidence. Results In multivariable analyses, compared with women who had stable weight (± 5%), women with weight loss had a significantly lower endometrial cancer risk (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.95). The association was strongest among obese women with intentional weight loss (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.78). Weight gain (≥ 10 pounds) was associated with a higher endometrial cancer risk than was stable weight, especially among women who had never used hormones. Conclusion Intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women is associated with a lower endometrial cancer risk, especially among women with obesity. These findings should motivate programs for weight loss in obese postmenopausal women.

  11. Le « français cassé » chez les jeunes Algériens : Interférence et calque au service de l’humour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medane Hadjira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’envie d’utiliser le français, représenté positivement dans plusieurs situations en Algérie, a donné naissance à un phénomène socio- linguistique qui apparaît sous forme d’une utilisation fautive et d’une exagération dans l’emploi de cette langue. C’est ce que les jeunes Algériens appellent « le français cassé » ou « le français déformé » ou même « le français à l’algérienne » construit essentiellement par l’interférence et le calque et usé surtout dans des situations humoristiques et pour plaisanter. « Ne tombez pas les mots » pour « n’insultez pas », « couper la route » pour « traverser la rue », « dégoutage » pour « l’ennuie », « roppa noirte avec des fleurs de temps en temps » pour « robe noire fleurie », ... sont autant d’exemples de ce phénomène. Notre travail vise la description et l’analyse des manifestations de ce « français cassé». A travers des lettres publiées sur facebook, des productions et des réponses de 50 jeunes algériens à un questionnaire semi- directif, nous allons voir comment l’interférence et le calque peuvent rendre service à l’humour.

  12. Interferências da subjetividade estrangeira na tradução americana de Diário de Bitita, de Carolina Maria de Jesus DOI - 10.5752/P.2358-3428.2014v18n35p267

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Andréa Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo empreende um estudo comparatista entre a versão brasileira de Diário de Bitita, de Carolina Maria de Jesus e sua tradução para o inglês americano feita por Emanuelle Oliveira e Beth Joan Vinkler, intitulada Bitita’s Diary: the childhood memoires of Carolina Maria de Jesus. As versões analisadas são baseadas na edição original francesa da obra, primeira versão póstuma publicada pela jornalista e editora A. M. Métaillié, que teve acesso aos manuscritos antes da morte de Carolina e os publicou em 1982. O romance só viria a público no Brasil em 1986, quatro anos após essa primeira tirada europeia, quando teve os direitos de edição em língua portuguesa adquiridos pela Editora Nova Fronteira. O nosso intuito neste estudo é observar em que medida a subjetividade das tradutoras da obra para a língua inglesa produziu efeitos de sentido e de que maneira essas possíveis interferências podem vir a afetar o leitor. Procuramos ainda refletir se as modificações realizadas podem incidir sobre os leitores na absorção desses novos sentidos gerados pela retextualização. Para tanto, baseamo-nos nos estudos de Rosemary Arrojo; Jacqueline Authier-Revuz; Rodrigues; Venuti; Neuza Gonçalves Travaglia, Paul Ricoeur e Germana Souza.Palavras-chave: Carolina Maria de Jesus. Tradução. Interferência. Subjetividade.

  13. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    In today's society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  15. Short-term variability in body weight predicts long-term weight gain1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Feig, Emily H; Winter, Samantha R; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body weight in lower animals and humans is highly stable despite a very large flux in energy intake and expenditure over time. Conversely, the existence of higher-than-average variability in weight may indicate a disruption in the mechanisms responsible for homeostatic weight regulation. Objective: In a sample chosen for weight-gain proneness, we evaluated whether weight variability over a 6-mo period predicted subsequent weight change from 6 to 24 mo. Design: A total of 171 nonobese women were recruited to participate in this longitudinal study in which weight was measured 4 times over 24 mo. The initial 3 weights were used to calculate weight variability with the use of a root mean square error approach to assess fluctuations in weight independent of trajectory. Linear regression analysis was used to examine whether weight variability in the initial 6 mo predicted weight change 18 mo later. Results: Greater weight variability significantly predicted amount of weight gained. This result was unchanged after control for baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI change from baseline to 6 mo and for measures of disinhibition, restrained eating, and dieting. Conclusions: Elevated weight variability in young women may signal the degradation of body weight regulatory systems. In an obesogenic environment this may eventuate in accelerated weight gain, particularly in those with a genetic susceptibility toward overweight. Future research is needed to evaluate the reliability of weight variability as a predictor of future weight gain and the sources of its predictive effect. The trial on which this study is based is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00456131. PMID:26354535

  16. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R

    2012-07-01

    Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.

  17. Spectro-Temporal Weighting of Loudness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberfeld, Daniel; Heeren, Wiebke; Rennies, Jan; Verhey, Jesko

    2012-01-01

    Real-world sounds like speech or traffic noise typically exhibit spectro-temporal variability because the energy in different spectral regions evolves differently as a sound unfolds in time. However, it is currently not well understood how the energy in different spectral and temporal portions contributes to loudness. This study investigated how listeners weight different temporal and spectral components of a sound when judging its overall loudness. Spectral weights were measured for the combination of three loudness-matched narrowband noises with different center frequencies. To measure temporal weights, 1,020-ms stimuli were presented, which randomly changed in level every 100 ms. Temporal weights were measured for each narrowband noise separately, and for a broadband noise containing the combination of the three noise bands. Finally, spectro-temporal weights were measured with stimuli where the level of the three narrowband noises randomly and independently changed every 100 ms. The data consistently showed that (i) the first 300 ms of the sounds had a greater influence on overall loudness perception than later temporal portions (primacy effect), and (ii) the lowest noise band contributed significantly more to overall loudness than the higher bands. The temporal weights did not differ between the three frequency bands. Notably, the spectral weights and temporal weights estimated from the conditions with only spectral or only temporal variability were very similar to the corresponding weights estimated in the spectro-temporal condition. The results indicate that the temporal and the spectral weighting of the loudness of a time-varying sound are independent processes. The spectral weights remain constant across time, and the temporal weights do not change across frequency. The results are discussed in the context of current loudness models. PMID:23209670

  18. Spectro-temporal weighting of loudness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oberfeld

    Full Text Available Real-world sounds like speech or traffic noise typically exhibit spectro-temporal variability because the energy in different spectral regions evolves differently as a sound unfolds in time. However, it is currently not well understood how the energy in different spectral and temporal portions contributes to loudness. This study investigated how listeners weight different temporal and spectral components of a sound when judging its overall loudness. Spectral weights were measured for the combination of three loudness-matched narrowband noises with different center frequencies. To measure temporal weights, 1,020-ms stimuli were presented, which randomly changed in level every 100 ms. Temporal weights were measured for each narrowband noise separately, and for a broadband noise containing the combination of the three noise bands. Finally, spectro-temporal weights were measured with stimuli where the level of the three narrowband noises randomly and independently changed every 100 ms. The data consistently showed that (i the first 300 ms of the sounds had a greater influence on overall loudness perception than later temporal portions (primacy effect, and (ii the lowest noise band contributed significantly more to overall loudness than the higher bands. The temporal weights did not differ between the three frequency bands. Notably, the spectral weights and temporal weights estimated from the conditions with only spectral or only temporal variability were very similar to the corresponding weights estimated in the spectro-temporal condition. The results indicate that the temporal and the spectral weighting of the loudness of a time-varying sound are independent processes. The spectral weights remain constant across time, and the temporal weights do not change across frequency. The results are discussed in the context of current loudness models.

  19. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  20. Pediatricians' weight assessment and obesity management practices

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan Kate; Walker-Gallego Edward; Fernandez Susan; Golnari Golnaz; Donohue Michael; Huang Jeannie S; Briones Christina; Tamai Jennifer; Becerra Karen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Clinician adherence to obesity screening guidelines from United States health agencies remains suboptimal. This study explored how personal and career demographics influence pediatricians' weight assessment and management practices. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to U.S. pediatricians. Respondents were asked to identify the weight status of photographed children and about their weight assessment and management practices. Associations between career and personal...

  1. Oral health, diabetes, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Samuel, Renata Oliveira; Prieto, Annelise Katrine Carrara; Sumida, Dóris Hissako; Dezan-Júnior, Eloi; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The effects of apical periodontitis (AP) and periodontal disease (PD) on organ weights in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM) were evaluated. Eighty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) were divided into eight groups of ten: normoglycemic (N), AP, PD, AP+PD, DM, DM+AP, DM+PD, and DM+AP+PD. DM was induced by streptozotocin; AP, by dental exposure to the oral environment; and PD, by periodontal ligature. Blood glucose concentration was measured at 0, 6, 15, and 35days; body weight, measured daily; and animals were sacrificed after 30days after induction of oral infections. Liver, kidney, pancreas, brain, heart, lungs, and gonads were each weighed. Glycemia, feed intake, organ weight, and body weight were subjected to statistical analyses (pdiabetic groups after day 6, but were consistently similar in normoglycemic groups. Blood glucose was higher in DM+PD and DM+AP+PD groups than in the DM group at days 15 and 35. The feed intake was similar among all groups. Brain, heart, and gonad weights were significantly increased in DM+AP+PD. Kidney and lung weights were increased in DM, regardless of the presence of oral infections. Liver weight was reduced in AP and/or PD. Pancreas weight was reduced in DM, independent of AP or PD. Among the normoglycemic groups, there were no significant differences among organ weights. Apical periodontitis and periodontal disease may potentiate the adverse effects of diabetes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effect of maternal weight on postterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, D R; Cheng, Y W; Wall, T C; Macones, G A; Caughey, A B

    2012-02-01

    Examine the effect of prepregnancy weight and maternal gestational weight gain on postterm delivery rates. This was a retrospective cohort study of term, singleton births (N=375 003). We performed multivariable analyses of the association between postterm pregnancy and both prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight gain. Prolonged or postterm delivery (41 or 42 weeks) was increasingly common with increasing prepregnancy weight (Ppostterm than normal weight women who gain within the recommendations (adjusted odds ratio 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.83, 0.97)). Overweight women who gain within or above recommendations were also at increased risk of a 41-week delivery. Finally, obese women were at increased risk of a 41-week delivery with increasing risk with increasing weight (below, within and above recommendations adjusted odds ratios 1.19, 1.21, and 1.27, respectively). Elevated prepregnancy weight and maternal weight gain both increase the risk of a postterm delivery. Although most women do not receive preconceptional care, restricting weight gain to the within the recommended range can reduce the risk of postterm pregnancy in normal, overweight and obese women.

  3. Random walk term weighting for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, R.; Lioma, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We present a way of estimating term weights for Information Retrieval (IR), using term co-occurrence as a measure of dependency between terms.We use the random walk graph-based ranking algorithm on a graph that encodes terms and co-occurrence dependencies in text, from which we derive term weights...... that represent a quantification of how a term contributes to its context. Evaluation on two TREC collections and 350 topics shows that the random walk-based term weights perform at least comparably to the traditional tf-idf term weighting, while they outperform it when the distance between co-occurring terms...

  4. Impact of carbohydrates on weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2015-07-01

    Research on obesity treatment has shifted its focus from weight loss to weight-loss maintenance strategies. The conventional approach of a low-fat diet is challenged by insights from glycemic effects of carbohydrates on body weight regulation. Metabolic and endocrine adaptations to weight loss that contribute to weight regain involve reduced energy expenditure, increased insulin sensitivity, and enhanced orexigenic signals. This review summarizes the impact of carbohydrates on energetic efficiency, partitioning of weight regain as fat and lean mass, and appetite control. Both the amount and frequency of postprandial glycemia add to body weight regulation after weight loss and strengthen the concept of glycemic index and glycemic load. In addition, dietary fiber and slowly or poorly absorbable functional sugars modify gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite and metabolic regulation and exert prebiotic effects. Current evidence suggests that a low-glycemic load diet with a preference for low-glycemic index foods and integration of slowly digestible, poorly absorbable carbohydrates may improve weight-loss maintenance. Future studies should investigate the health benefits of low glycemic functional sweeteners (e.g., isomaltulose and tagatose).

  5. High Chamber Pressure, Light Weight Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure and reducing engine weight. State of...

  6. [The wine merchant as weight watcher].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössner, S

    1996-01-01

    Berry Brothers & Rudd Ltd are a company of wine merchants, based in central London, with traditions dating from the 18th century. From the beginning the company traded in colonial goods. This required a pair of scales. Buying coffe became an opportunity for a weighing session for the customers and over the years since 1765 weight records from the British nobility and gentry are available in seven leatherbound ledgers. Several interesting weight histories can be documented by the study of these well kept records. They illustrate that there was a need to measure body weight, long before the association between relative body weight and health had become clear.

  7. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jens-Christian, Holm; Michael, Gamborg; Leigh, Ward

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin......-BMI SDS relationship seen during follow-up resembled the baseline leptin-BMI SDS relationship. Conclusion: Proportional increases of leptin and BMI SDS during weight regain suggests an intact leptin response during re-accumulation of fat. Following the pronounced reduction of leptin during weight loss...

  8. WeightLifter: Visual Weight Space Exploration for Multi-Criteria Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Stephan; Streit, Marc; Torsney-Weir, Thomas; Spechtenhauser, Florian; Muller, Torsten; Piringer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    A common strategy in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is to rank alternative solutions by weighted summary scores. Weights, however, are often abstract to the decision maker and can only be set by vague intuition. While previous work supports a point-wise exploration of weight spaces, we argue that MCDM can benefit from a regional and global visual analysis of weight spaces. Our main contribution is WeightLifter, a novel interactive visualization technique for weight-based MCDM that facilitates the exploration of weight spaces with up to ten criteria. Our technique enables users to better understand the sensitivity of a decision to changes of weights, to efficiently localize weight regions where a given solution ranks high, and to filter out solutions which do not rank high enough for any plausible combination of weights. We provide a comprehensive requirement analysis for weight-based MCDM and describe an interactive workflow that meets these requirements. For evaluation, we describe a usage scenario of WeightLifter in automotive engineering and report qualitative feedback from users of a deployed version as well as preliminary feedback from decision makers in multiple domains. This feedback confirms that WeightLifter increases both the efficiency of weight-based MCDM and the awareness of uncertainty in the ultimate decisions.

  9. Internalized weight stigma and its ideological correlates among weight loss treatment seeking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, R A; Young, K M; Wott, C B; Harper, J; Gumble, A; Hobbs, M Wagner; Clayton, A M

    2009-01-01

    There are significant economic and psychological costs associated with the negative weight-based social stigma that exists in American society. This pervasive anti-fat bias has been strongly internalized among the overweight/obese. While the etiology of weight stigma is complex, research suggests that it is often greater among individuals who embrace certain etiological views of obesity or ideological views of the world. This investigation examined 1) the level of internalized weight stigma among overweight/obese treatment seeking adults, and 2) the association between internalized weight stigma and perceived weight controllability and ideological beliefs about the world ('just world beliefs', Protestant work ethic). Forty-six overweight or obese adults (BMI >or=27 kg/m2) participating in an 18- week behavioral weight loss program completed implicit (Implicit Associations Test) and explicit (Obese Person's Trait Survey) measures of weight stigma. Participants also completed two measures of ideological beliefs about the world ("Just World Beliefs", Protestant Ethic Scale) and one measure of beliefs about weight controllability (Beliefs about Obese Persons). Significant implicit and explicit weight bias was observed. Greater weight stigma was consistently associated with greater endorsement of just world beliefs, Protestant ethic beliefs and beliefs about weight controllability. Results suggest that the overweight/obese treatment seeking adults have internalized the negative weight-based social stigma that exists in American society. Internalized weight stigma may be greater among those holding specific etiological and ideological beliefs about weight and the world.

  10. Postpartum Maternal Weight Changes: Implications for Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrams, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    .... Multivariate analysis suggested that high level of maternal weight gain during pregnancy, history of weight cycling, postpartum depression, and financial insecurity were associated with increased weight after birth...

  11. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  12. Website Usage and Weight Loss in a Free Commercial Online Weight Loss Program: Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing; Trickey, Amber W; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2013-01-01

    Background Online weight loss programs are increasingly popular. However, little is known about outcomes and associations with website usage among members of free online weight loss programs. Objective This retrospective cohort study examined the association between website usage and weight loss among members of a free commercial online weight loss program (SparkPeople). Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of a systematic random sample of members who joined the program during February 1 to April 30, 2008, and included follow-up data through May 10, 2010. The main outcome was net weight change based on self-reported weight. Measures of website usage included log-ins, self-monitoring entries (weight, food, exercise), and use of social support tools (discussion forums, friendships). Results The main sample included 1258 members with at least 2 weight entries. They were 90.7% female, with mean (SD) age 33.6 (11.0) and mean (SD) BMI 31.6 (7.7). Members with at least one forum post lost an additional 1.55 kg (95% CI 0.55 kg to 2.55 kg) relative to those with no forum posts. Having at least 4 log-in days, weight entry days, or food entry days per 30 days was significantly associated with weight loss. In the multiple regression analysis, members with at least 4 weight entry days per 30 days reported 5.09 kg (95% CI 3.29 kg to 6.88 kg) more weight loss per 30 days than those with fewer weight entry days. After controlling for weight entry days, the other website usage variables were not associated with weight change. Conclusions Weekly or more frequent self-monitoring of weight is associated with greater weight loss among members of this free online weight loss program. PMID:23322819

  13. Low-Molecular-Weight Polyethyleneimine Grafted Polythiophene for Efficient siRNA Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its hydrophilicity, negative charge, small size, and labile degradation by endogenous nucleases, small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery must be achieved by a carrier system. In this study, cationic copolymers composed of low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine and polythiophenes were synthesized and evaluated as novel self-tracking siRNA delivery vectors. The concept underlying the design of these copolymers is that hydrophobicity and rigidity of polythiophenes should enhance the transport of siRNA across the cell membrane and endosomal membrane. A gel retardation assay showed that the nanosized complexes formed between the copolymers and siRNA were stable even at a molar ratio of 1 : 2. The high cellular uptake (>80% and localization of the copolymer vectors inside the cells were easily analyzed by tracking the fluorescence of polythiophene using fluorescent microscopy and cytometry. An in vitro luciferase knockdown (KD assay in A549-luc cells demonstrated that the siRNA complexes with more hydrophobic copolymers achieved a higher KD efficiency of 52.8% without notable cytotoxicity, indicating protein-specific KD activity rather than solely the cytotoxicity of the materials. Our polythiophene copolymers should serve as novel, efficient, low cell toxicity, and label-free siRNA delivery systems.

  14. Prior weight loss exacerbates the biological drive to gain weight after the loss of ovarian function

    OpenAIRE

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Jackman, Matthew R.; Giles, Erin D.; Higgins, Janine A.; Foright, Rebecca M.; Presby, David M.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Houck, Julie A.; Houser, Jordan L.; Oljira, Robera; MacLean, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Both the history of obesity and weight loss may change how menopause affects metabolic health. The purpose was to determine whether obesity and/or weight loss status alters energy balance (EB) and subsequent weight gain after the loss of ovarian function. Female lean and obese Wistar rats were randomized to 15% weight loss (WL) or ad?libitum fed controls (CON). After the weight loss period, WL rats were kept in EB at the reduced weight for 8?weeks prior to ovariectomy (OVX). After OV...

  15. Weight change after an atypical antipsychotic switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, L Douglas; Renner, Bernard T; Bengtson, Michael A; Wilcox, Brian M; Acholonu, Wilfred W

    2003-10-01

    Atypical antipsychotics successfully treat schizophrenia and other conditions, with a lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects than other agents used in treatment of these disorders. However, some atypical antipsychotics are associated with weight gain. To quantify the impact on weight and identify atypical antipsychotics causing the least amount of weight gain among patients switched from risperidone to olanzapine and olanzapine to risperidone. Patients included in the study (n = 86) were > or =18 years and had received > or =2 prescriptions for risperidone or olanzapine for > or =60 days, switched to the other atypical antipsychotic, and were dispensed > or =2 prescriptions for at least 60 days after the index date. Age, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were retrospectively abstracted from automated databases containing patient-specific prescription and vital sign information. At the time of their switch, the average patient age was 53.2 years (range 25-83). The average weight change in patients switched to olanzapine (n = 47) was +2.3 kg (p = 0.01) and the BMI change was +0.8 kg/m(2) (p = 0.02). The average percent body weight change was +2.8% and the BMI change was +3.0%. The average weight change after patients switched to risperidone (n = 39) was -0.45 kg (p = 0.69) and BMI change was -0.2 kg/m2 (p = 0.64). The average percentage weight change was -0.4% and BMI change was -0.5%. Practitioners' concern regarding weight changes after switching atypical antipsychotics seems warranted and patients should be provided consistent, ongoing weight monitoring. Further investigations should examine whether weight changes associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment further jeopardize this already at-risk population for severe comorbid conditions such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes.

  16. Weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns in young elite athletes – a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Weight-control behaviour is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance. Nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behaviour and clinically relevant eating disorders. Especially the rapid form of weight manipulation seems to foster later eating disorders. So far, most studies have focussed on adult athletes and concentrated on manifest eating disorders. In contrast, our review concentrates on young athletes and weight-control behaviour as a risk factor for eating disorders. An electronic search according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was performed using Pubmed, PsychInfo and Spolit. The following search terms were used: weight-control, weight-control behaviour, weight gain, weight loss, pathogenic weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns, each of them combined with elite athlete, young elite athlete, adolescent elite athlete and elite sports. Overall, data are inconsistent. In general, athletes do not seem to be at a higher risk for pathogenic weight concerns and weight-control behaviour. It does seem to be more prevalent in leanness sports, though. There is evidence for pathogenic weight-control behaviour in both genders; male athletes mostly trying to gain weight whereas females emphasise weight reduction. There is not enough data to make predictions about connections with age of onset. Young elite athletes do show weight-control behaviour with varying degrees of frequency and severity. In particular, leanness sports seem to be a risk factor for weight manipulation. Further research is needed for more details and possible connections. PMID:24999399

  17. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Irene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22, or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38% compared to HEWLD (-4.11%, (p Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5% with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000716965

  19. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Irene A; Bore, Miles R; Munro, Don; Garg, Manohar L

    2011-11-23

    A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD) of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22), or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED) of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32). Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38%) compared to HEWLD (-4.11%), (p personality trait, Self Control, in either HEWLD or VLED. The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5%) with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000716965.

  20. Influence of weight and weight change on bone loss in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal Scottish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Helen M; New, Susan A; Campbell, Marion K; Reid, David M

    2005-02-01

    Weight is recognized as an important factor in determining an individual's risk of osteoporosis. However, little is known about whether weight or weight change influences bone loss around the time of the menopause, and the relationship with energy intake and physical activity level remains largely undefined. Healthy premenopausal women (1,064 selected from a random population of 5,119 women aged 45-54 years at baseline) each had bone mineral density (BMD), weight and height measurements, and completed a food frequency and physical activity questionnaire. Of the original participants, 907 women (85.2%) returned 6.3 +/- 0.6 years later for repeat BMD measurements, and 896 women completed the questionnaires. Bone loss at the hip (FN) and spine (LS) occurred before the menopause. Weight change rather than weight was associated with FN BMD loss (r=0.102, p=0.002), but weight at follow-up was associated with LS BMD change (r=0.105, p=0.002). Although an increase in physical activity level (PAL) appeared to be beneficial for FN BMD in women who were heavy weight gainers, PAL was associated with increased LS BMD loss in women who lost weight. For current HRT users, neither weight nor weight change was associated with change in BMD. Postmenopausal women not taking HRT should be made aware that low body weight or losing weight during this particularly vulnerable period may worsen bone loss.