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Sample records for psocids lepinotus reticulatus

  1. Effectiveness of sulfuryl fluoride for control of different life stages of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera).

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    Athanassiou, Christos G; Phillips, Thomas W; Aikins, M Jamie; Hasan, M Mahbub; Throne, James E

    2012-02-01

    With the phase-out and impending ban of methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride is among the most promising alternative fumigant insecticides for control of stored-product insect pests. It has been evaluated for control of several stored-product insect pests, but there are few data available on its efficacy for control of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera). We evaluated sulfuryl fluoride for control of different life stages of the psocids Liposcelis paeta Pearman, L. entomophila (Enderlein), L. bostrychophila Badonnel, L. decolor Pearman, and Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein (Trogiidae) in 48-hr trials at 27.5 degrees C. Adults and nymphs were susceptible to sulfuryl fluoride. Complete (100%) adult and nymphal mortality was recorded at concentrations between 4 and 8 g/m3, except for L. decolor for which all adults were only killed at 24 g/m3. Eggs were tolerant to sulfuryl fluoride. Complete egg mortality was achieved at 24 and 72 g/m3 for L. reticulatus and L. decolor, respectively. Survival of L. paeta eggs was recorded even after exposure to 96 g/m3. Given that the highest United States label concentration for sulfuryl fluoride for a 48-h exposure interval is 31.25 g/m3, our study indicates that high doses and/or longer exposures are needed for complete mortality of eggs of L. decolor and L. paeta. Moreover, the present work suggests that there is considerable variation in efficacy of sulfuryl fluoride for control of different psocid species.

  2. Freezing for control of stored-product psocids

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    A series of studies was conducted by exposing young and old eggs, nymphs, and adults of the psocids Lipocelis bostrychophila (Badonnel), L. paeta (Pearman), L. decolor (Pearman), and L. entomophila (Enderlein) to -18°C for various time intervals. Survival was assessed as initial and final, at differ...

  3. Efficacy of pyriproxyfen for control of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera) on concrete surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was evaluated as a surface treatment for control of three stored-product psocid pests, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, L. decolor (Pearman), and L. paeta Pearman (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). Nymphs were exposed for 35 d on a concrete surface treated with...

  4. Dermacentor reticulatus: a vector on the rise.

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    Földvári, Gábor; Široký, Pavel; Szekeres, Sándor; Majoros, Gábor; Sprong, Hein

    2016-06-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus is a hard tick species with extraordinary biological features. It has a high reproduction rate, a rapid developmental cycle, and is also able to overcome years of unfavourable conditions. Dermacentor reticulatus can survive under water for several months and is cold-hardy even compared to other tick species. It has a wide host range: over 60 different wild and domesticated hosts are known for the three active developmental stages. Its high adaptiveness gives an edge to this tick species as shown by new data on the emergence and establishment of D. reticulatus populations throughout Europe. The tick has been the research focus of a growing number of scientists, physicians and veterinarians. Within the Web of Science database, more than a fifth of the over 700 items published on this species between 1897 and 2015 appeared in the last three years (2013-2015). Here we attempt to synthesize current knowledge on the systematics, ecology, geographical distribution and recent spread of the species and to highlight the great spectrum of possible veterinary and public health threats it poses. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is a severe leading canine vector-borne disease in many endemic areas. Although less frequently than Ixodes ricinus, D. reticulatus adults bite humans and transmit several Rickettsia spp., Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus or Tick-borne encephalitis virus. We have not solely collected and reviewed the latest and fundamental scientific papers available in primary databases but also widened our scope to books, theses, conference papers and specialists colleagues' experience where needed. Besides the dominant literature available in English, we also tried to access scientific literature in German, Russian and eastern European languages as well. We hope to inspire future research projects that are necessary to understand the basic life-cycle and ecology of this vector in order to understand and prevent disease threats. We

  5. Residual efficacy of chlorfenapyr for control of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera).

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    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Arthur, Frank H; Throne, James E

    2014-04-01

    The residual effect of chlorfenapyr (Phantom) was evaluated for residual control of three stored-product psocid species: Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein), and Liposcelis paeta Pearman (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). Chlorfenapyr was applied to individual arenas with a concrete surface at rates of 0, 2.8, 13.8, 20.6, 27.5, 55, and 110 mg active ingredient (AI)/m2. Adults were exposed on the treated arenas and mortality assessed after 1, 2, and 3 d. The procedures were repeated weekly on the same treated arenas for 3 wk to assess residual efficacy. At each week, mortality of all species was low after 1 d of exposure but notably increased after 2 or 3 d. L. entomophila was the most susceptible species, with 99-100% mortality at rates of 13.8 mg/m2 or higher. Similarly, mortality of L. paeta after 3 d of exposure at the same concentration ranged from 92 to 100%. L. bostrychophila was the least susceptible species, with mortality of 27.5 mg/m2. Complete mortality of all species occurred after 3 d exposure at the highest rate tested of 110 mg/m2. Thus, our results show that chlorfenapyr is effective against major psocid species at the application rates evaluated in this study.

  6. Efficacy of pyriproxyfen for control of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera) on concrete surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Throne, James E

    2011-10-01

    The insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was evaluated as a surface treatment for control of three stored-product psocid pests Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, Liposcelis decolor (Pearman), and Liposcelis paeta Pearman (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). Nymphs were exposed for 35 d on a concrete surface treated with 2.3 mg of active ingredient/m2 pyriproxyfen. Exposure to pyriproxyfen significantly reduced the numbers of both adults and nymphs in comparison with untreated controls. In adults, the greatest reduction (> 90%) was for L. decolor and L. bostrychophila, whereas for L. paeta it was 49%. Few adults of any species were found in the pyriproxyfen treatments. The greatest numbers of nymphs were recorded for L. bostrychophila for both pyriproxyfen treatments and controls. Few adults of any species were found in the pyriproxyfen treatments. The results indicate that pyriproxyfen is effective for control of L. bostrychophila, L. decolor, and L. paeta on concrete, and although complete control was not achieved, the results warrant further long-term study to determine whether pyriproxyfen can completely eliminate psocid populations over time.

  7. Plecospondylic spinal column in the viviparous Cyprinodont Lebistes reticulatus (Peters)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1955-01-01

    Description of a case of plecospondylic spinal column in the viviparous Cyprinodont Lebistes reticulatus (PETERS), the so-called guppy or millionfish. In this deformity the following phenomena have been observed: displacement of vertebrae, transformation of vertebrae, increase in size of vertebrae,

  8. Ascaridosis in captive reticulated python( Python reticulatus ) | Taiwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two captive reticulated pythons, Python reticulatus, in the Zoological Gardens, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria died and were submitted for necropsy at the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan. Both pythons had been infected with Ascaridia galli for a long period of time ...

  9. Optimization of an artificial tick feeding assay for Dermacentor reticulatus.

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    Krull, Christoph; Böhme, Bettina; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard M

    2017-02-02

    The development of standardized in vitro feeding methods for ixodid ticks has been hampered by their complex feeding behaviour and the long duration of their blood meal. In this study, we aimed to optimize several parameters for the in vitro feeding of adult Dermacentor reticulatus. Ticks were fed on heparinized bovine blood collected at a slaughterhouse, using a modified silicone membrane feeding assay. Effects on tick feeding and fecundity of different blood meal treatments (freezing, irradiation, addition of antibiotics), ambient conditions (increased CO2 concentration) and phagostimulant use (addition of 2 g/l and 4 g/l glucose to the blood meal) were systematically evaluated. Although fungal growth occurred more frequent in feeding units of ticks fed on defrosted blood, the attachment rate, engorgement mass and fecundity of females fed on defrosted blood did not significantly differ from that of ticks fed on fresh blood. A reduction in the fecundity of female D. reticulatus ticks was observed when ticks were fed with gamma-irradiated blood or untreated blood compared to blood treated with gentamycin. Both the engorgement mass and fecundity increased when ticks were fed at a 5% CO2 level. A non-significant increase in the engorgement mass and engorgement rate of D. reticulatus was observed when blood was supplemented with 4 g glucose per litre compared to 2 g/l. An artificial feeding method was adapted for the feeding of adult D. reticulatus ticks. Of all parameters tested, only the artificial feeding at 5% CO2 levels resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the engorgement mass and fecundity of female D. reticulatus ticks. The supplementation of blood with antibiotics resulted in a significantly higher tick fecundity in comparison to ticks fed with untreated or irradiated blood.

  10. Historical biogeography of Thyrsophorini psocids and description of a new neotropical species of Thyrsopsocopsis (Psocodea: Psocomorpha: Psocidae

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    Cristian Román-Palacios

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When based on phylogenetic proposals, biogeographic historic narratives have a great interest for hypothesizing paths of origin of the current biodiversity. Among the many questions that remain unsolved about psocids, the distribution of Thyrsophorini represents still a remarkable enigma. This tribe had been considered as exclusively Neotropical, until the description of Thyrsopsocopsis thorntoni Mockford, 2004, from Vietnam. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this atypical distribution, recurring to dispersal, vicariance and morphological parallelism between lineages, but the lack of evidence has not allowed a unique support. Here, we describe a new Neotropical species of Thyrsopsocopsis, and also attempt to test the three biogeographical hypotheses in a phylogenetic context. In our analyses, the position of Cycetes (Cycetini and Thyrsopsocopsis among Thyrsophorini psocids is well resolved, suggesting a dispersal event from the Neotropics for both genera.

  11. Optimization of an artificial tick feeding assay for Dermacentor reticulatus

    OpenAIRE

    Krull, Christoph; B?hme, Bettina; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The development of standardized in vitro feeding methods for ixodid ticks has been hampered by their complex feeding behaviour and the long duration of their blood meal. In this study, we aimed to optimize several parameters for the in vitro feeding of adult Dermacentor reticulatus. Methods Ticks were fed on heparinized bovine blood collected at a slaughterhouse, using a modified silicone membrane feeding assay. Effects on tick feeding and fecundity of different blood meal treatmen...

  12. Thyroid tumours in the senile guppy, Lebistes reticulatus (Peters)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    We have previously described a thyroid growth which had arisen spontaneously in a few senile fish from a laboratory population of guppies, Lebistes (Poecilia) reticulatus. We believed that this growth was neoplastic. Our histological interpretation has been questioned. In view of the problems in distinguishing between neoplastic an goitrous thyroid tissue in teleost fishes, we show photomicrographs of kidney and liver metastases from this tumor to support our earlier diagnosis.

  13. New foci of Haemaphysalis punctata and Dermacentor reticulatus in the Netherlands

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    Hofmeester, Tim R.; Lei, van der Pieter Bas; Docters Van Leeuwen, Arieke; Sprong, Hein; Wieren, van Sipke E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 Haemaphysalis punctata was found in several locations on the mainland of the Netherlands for the first time since 1897. In the same areas Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus were found. Haemaphysalis punctata and D. reticulatus were tested for presence of Babesia spp. and

  14. Occurrence of Francisella spp. in Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland.

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    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Cisak, Ewa; Sroka, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    A total of 530 questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks and 861 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from Lublin province (eastern Poland) and examined for the presence of Francisella by PCR for 16S rRNA (rrs) and tul4 genes. Only one female D. reticulatus tick out of 530 examined (0.2%) was infected with Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica, as determined by PCR of the rrs gene. None of 861 I. ricinus ticks were infected with F. tularensis. In contrast, the presence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) was detected in more than half of the D. reticulatus ticks (50.4%) and 0.8% of the I. ricinus ticks. The nucleotide sequences of the FLEs detected in D. reticulatus exhibited 100% homology with the nucleotide sequence of the FLE strain FDrH detected in Hungary in D. reticulatus. In conclusion, our results suggest a low contribution of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks to the circulation of F. tularensis in eastern Poland. This finding, however, needs to be confirmed by further studies in other areas. Our study confirmed the common infection of D. reticulatus with Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) of unknown pathogenic potential and revealed, for the first time, a low grade of infection of I. ricinus with FLEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Population Growth and Development of the Psocid Liposcelis fusciceps (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at Constant Temperatures and Relative Humidities.

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    Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Shakya, K

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of seven temperatures (22.5, 25.0, 27.5, 30.0, 32.5, 35.0, and 37.5°C) and four relative humidities (43, 55, 63, and 75%) on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis fusciceps Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). Results demonstrated that L. fusciceps did not survive at 43% RH, at all temperatures tested. At 55% RH, L. fusciceps did not survive at the highest three temperatures and no psocids survived at 37.5°C and 63% RH. The highest population growth was recorded at 30.0°C and 75% RH where populations increased 16-fold from an initial population of five females. L. fusciceps males have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 28, 70, and 2%, respectively. Female L. fusciceps have two to five instars, and the percentages of females with two, three, four, and five instars were 2, 33, 63, and 2%, respectively. The total developmental time for males was shorter than females. We developed temperature-dependent development equations for male and female eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages. Based on 30-d population growth, L. fusciceps can survive and multiply at a relative humidity of 55% at 22.5-30.0°C, but does better at 27.5-32.5°C and a higher relative humidity of 75%. Relative humidities of ≤ 63% and temperatures of ≥ 32.5°C are detrimental to L. fusciceps. These data provide a better understanding of L. fusciceps population dynamics and can be used to develop effective management strategies for this psocid. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis brunnea (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities.

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    Opit, G P; Throne, J E

    2009-06-01

    We studied the effects of temperature and relative humidity on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis brunnea Motschulsky. L. brunnea did not survive at 43% RH, but populations increased from 22.5 to 32.5 degrees C and 55-75% RH. Interestingly, we found population growth was higher at 63% RH than at 75% RH, and the greatest population growth was recorded at 32.5 degrees C and 63% RH. At 35 degrees C, L. brunnea nymphal survivorship was 33%, and populations declined or barely grew. L. brunnea males have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 13, 82, and 5%, respectively. Female L. brunnea have three to five instars, and the percentages of females with three, four, and five instars were 18, 78, and 4%, respectively. The life cycle was shorter for males than females. We developed temperature-dependent development equations for male and female eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages and nymphal survivorship. The ability of L. brunnea to multiply rather rapidly at 55% RH may allow it to thrive under conditions of low relative humidity where other Liposcelis species may not. These data give us a better understanding of L. brunnea population dynamics and can be used to help develop effective management strategies for this psocid.

  17. Locomotor activity of adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae in natural conditions

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    Alicja Buczek

    2017-05-01

    Given the low rates of horizontal locomotion of adult D. reticulatus ticks, the prevalence of the species in nature is determined by the presence of their hosts and humidity conditions ensuring their further development and survival. The dependence of D. reticulatus locomotor activity and aggressiveness on the humidity level implies an increased risk of host attacks in locations and periods that offer favourable humidity conditions for this species

  18. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J.; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Bajer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expa...

  19. Population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis rufa (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities.

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    Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Giles, K L

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the effects of eight temperatures (22.5, 25.0, 27.5, 30.0, 32.5, 35.0, 37.5, and 40.0 degrees C) and four relative humidities (43, 55, 63, and 75%) on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis rufa Broadhead (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). L. rufa did not survive at 43% RH, at all temperatures tested; at 55% RH, at the highest four temperatures; and at 63% RH and 40.0 degrees C. The greatest population growth was recorded at 35.0 degrees C and 75% RH (73-fold growth). At 40.0 degrees C, L. rufa populations declined or barely grew. L. rufa males have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 31, 54, and 15%, respectively. Female L. rufa have two to five instars, and the percentages of females with two, three, four, and five instars were 2, 44, 42, and 12%, respectively. The life cycle was shorter for males than females. We developed temperature-dependent developmental equations for male and female eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages. The ability of L. rufa to reproduce at a relative humidity of 55% and temperatures of 22.5-30.0 degrees C and at relative humidities of 63-75% and temperatures of 22.5-37.5 degrees C, in addition to being able to survive at 40.0 degrees C, suggests that this species would be expected to have a broader distribution than other Liposcelis species. These data provide a better understanding of L. rufa population dynamics and can be used to help develop effective management strategies for this psocid.

  20. Validation of the 16S rDNA and COI DNA barcoding technique for rapid molecular identification of stored product psocids (Insecta: Psocodea: Liposcelididae).

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    Yang, Qianqian; Zhao, Shuo; Kucerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yang; Li, Fujun; Li, Zhihong

    2013-02-01

    Psocids are serious storage pests, and their control is hampered by the fact that different species respond differently to insecticides used for the control of stored-product insect pests. Additionally, psocids of genus Liposcelis that are commonly associated with stored-products are difficult to identify using morphological characteristics. The goal of this study was to validate molecular identification of stored-product psocids of genus Liposcelis based on 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA barcoding. Unidentified liposcelids (Liposcelis DK) imported from Denmark to China were compared with 14 population samples of seven common species (L. bostrychophila, L. brunnea, L. corrodens, L. decolor, L. entomophila, L. mendax, and L. paeta). The explored species (DK) liposcelids shared >98% sequence similarity for both the 16S rDNA and COI genes with the reference L. corrodens samples (98.32 and 98.94% for 16S rDNA and COI, respectively). A neighbor-joining tree revealed that the explored DK sample and the reference L. corrodens samples belong to the same clade. These molecular results were verified by morphological identification of DK specimens, facilitated by SEM microphotography. The DNA barcoding method and the neighbor-joining phylogenetic analyses indicated that both the 16S rDNA and COI genes were suitable for Liposcelis species identification. DNA barcoding has great potential for use in fast and accurate liposcelid identification.

  1. Understanding the structure of the adhesive plaque of Amphibalanus reticulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai-600036 (India); Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: nvrk@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai-600036 (India); Venkatesan, R. [National Institute of Ocean Technology, Pallikaranai, Chennai-600036 (India); Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology, IIT Madras, Chennai-600100 (India); Vedaprakash, L.; Kruparatnam [National Institute of Ocean Technology, Pallikaranai, Chennai-600036 (India); Lakshmi, K. [Department of Biotechnology, IIT Madras, Chennai-600100 (India); Dineshram [National Institute of Ocean Technology, Pallikaranai, Chennai-600036 (India)

    2010-01-01

    The barnacle, Amphibalanus reticulatus, is a common fouler in the Indian marine waters and is found to attach to a wide variety of natural and man-made surfaces. The shells of the barnacles remain attached to the substrate irrespective of whether the barnacle is alive or dead and details of dried shells are relatively less explored. The dried adhesive plaque of the barnacles attached to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates were isolated and subjected to several structural characterization studies like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results report the presence of calcite nano-crystallites and amide II groups corresponding to the adhesive protein. The characteristic concentric ring pattern of barnacle base-plate structure, under higher magnification using SEM, appears to be formed of alternate calcite bricks and cement duct openings with an increasing separation distance between adjacent rings. The shear strength studies of barnacles of varying size indicate a direct correspondence to the base-plate diameter.

  2. [Henbane (Hyoscyamus reticulatus) poisoning in children in the Negev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urkin, J; Shalev, H; Sofer, S; Witztum, A

    1991-06-16

    During 1984-1989, 19 Bedouin children, 4-8 years old, were hospitalized because of henbane plant (Hyoscyamus reticulatus) poisoning. There were 14 cases in the autumn, 3 in the spring and 2 in the summer. The most prominent signs were altered state of consciousness (including deep coma in 3) and flushed dry, warm skin in all. Pupils were dilated in 18 of the 19 and restlessness and hallucinations were present in 17. Less common were vomiting, increased tendon reflexes, convulsions, involuntary movements, ataxia, hypertension, hyperpyrexia and tachycardia. Therapy included intravenous physostigmine in 7 and sedatives (diazepam and triclofos) in 6. All were free of symptoms within 24 hours of admission. Henbane may grow as an annual or biennial. Renewed growth of leaf rosettes occurs before the first rains and they attract attention in the fields. The parts of the plant eaten by most of the children were the roots, which are easily mistaken for the edible roots of other plants. The main alkaloids in henbane are atropine (hyoscyamine) and scopolamine (hyoscine) which explains the clinical picture of mixed stimulation and depression of the brain. Educational measures should be undertaken to prevent poisoning of Bedouin children by eating such plants.

  3. Identification of Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks Carrying Rickettsia raoultii on Migrating Jackal, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Chriél, Mariann; Isbrand, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    From a migrating golden jackal (Canis aureus), we retrieved 21 live male Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, a species not previously reported from wildlife in Denmark. We identified Rickettsia raoultii from 18 (86%) of the ticks. This bacterium is associated with scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy...

  4. Molecular confirmation of hybridization between Dascyllus reticulatus × Dascyllus aruanus from the Great Barrier Reef

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-11-17

    To date, more than 81 species of tropical coral reef fish have been reported to hybridize in nature, spanning multiple families, including the Chaetodontidae, Pomacanthidae, and Labridae. Hybridization, however, is seemingly rare among benthic nesting species that engage in pair spawning, such as the Pomacentridae. Here, we present evidence for the first molecularly confirmed record of hybridization within the genus Dascyllus; D. aruanus and D. reticulatus. Interestingly, although many hybridization events are attributed to peripheral range effects or areas of limited overlap among otherwise allopatric species, this hybrid individual was collected from the northern Great Barrier Reef, centrally located within the distribution ranges of both species. The hybrid exhibited coloration and meristic counts intermediate between D. aruanus and D. reticulatus. Diagnostic genetic markers and subsequent microsatellites analysis confirmed that this individual was a hybrid offspring of D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, with the latter providing the maternal contribution. The occurrence of the D. aruanus × D. reticulatus hybrid on the Great Barrier Reef represents an exception to the otherwise species-specific haplotypes. The nuclear diagnostic marker which was identified during this study could serve as a hybrid indicator and benefit future hybrid investigations for hybridization between these two species.

  5. Psocid taxocenoses (Insecta: Psocoptera in the forest ecosystems of the Querci-fageta s. lat. zone in the Western Carpathian Mts. and Polonic subprovincy

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    Otakar Holuša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure of psocid taxocenoses (Psocoptera were intensively studied in forest ecosystems of the Western Carpathian Mts. and Polonic biogeographical subprovincy during 1997–2001 in the Czech Republic. Vegetation tiers (= altitudinal vegetation zones were used as a study frame. Only a part of material, i.e. individuals that was found in the forest ecosystems of Querci-fageta s. lat. communities (= the 3rd oak-beech vegetation tier was evaluated for purpose of this work. This vegetation tier is widespread in large part of the Opavská pahorkatina hills, in large parts of Podbeskydská pahorktina hills, in the Bílé Karpaty hills and in the foothills of the Vsetínské vrchy hills. 1201 adults comprising 29 species were found in total in the 3rd vegetation tier. As eudominant species, the following ones were found: Peripsocus subfasciatus, Caecilius flavius and Stenopsocus lachlani, as dominant species, the following ones were found: Philotarsus parviceps and Caecilius piceus. In natural geobiocenoses with the level of naturalness of 1 or 2, the following species were found: as eudominant species: Caecilius flavidus, Peripsocus phaeopterus, as dominant species, the following ones were found: Caecilius piceus, Peripsocus subfasciatus, Philotarsus parviceps and Elipsocus moebiusi. Taxocenoses of psocids were evaluated by Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Divisive Cluster Analysis (DvClA. This material was compared to another material gained from various vegetation tiers in the Western Carpathians Mts. The characteristic species composition of psocids in the 3rd vegetation tier was as follows – Elipsocus moebiusi – E. hyalinus – Philotarsus parviceps – Ectopsocus meridionalis – Caecilius flavidus.

  6. Sensitivity to permethrin in a Dermacentor reticulatus population from eastern Poland in laboratory study.

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    Buczek, Alicja; Bartosik, Katarzyna; Kuczyński, Paweł

    2014-01-10

    The action of chemical compounds on the Palaearctic tick D. reticulatus (Fabricius) (Acari: Amblyomminae) has been poorly investigated so far. Therefore, the effects of application of permethrin on engorged D. reticulatus females have been assessed, and the survival rate for the different developmental stages of the tick species in its non-parasitic phase of the life cycle was determined upon application of the pyrethroid. Each engorged D. reticulatus female, egg batch, unfed larvae (50 specimens), or unfed nymphs (10 specimens) were sprayed with 20 μl of 0.015625%- 0.250% solutions of a Coopex WP preparation, which corresponded to 0.78125- 12.5 μg of permethrin, respectively. The effect of permethrin in the preoviposition and oviposition periods was assessed based on the length of the egg development period, number of females capable of laying eggs, number and weight of eggs laid by the females, and indicators of female reproductive rate. Delayed effects of the action of the various permethrin doses were determined by quantitative and qualitative analysis of the course of embryonic development and larval hatch. The effect of permethrin on survival of the different tick stages was assessed at a temperature of 25°C and 90% RH 48 hours after application of permethrin to one to three day-old D. reticulatus eggs, seven to ten-day-old unfed larvae and nymphs. The investigations demonstrated that at the doses applied permethrin decreased the reproductive rate of females, but only at the dose of 6.25 μg/1 specimen was the mean number of laid eggs drastically reduced, which may result in a decrease in tick abundance already in the first generation. The embryonic development of the eggs laid by the females treated with 6.25 and 12.5 μg of permethrin/1 specimen was highly disturbed. Irrespective of the permethrin dose applied, all eggs died within 48 hours after application. 100% of unfed D. reticulatus larvae and nymphs died within 48 hours after application of

  7. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  8. Crystallinity and microchemistry of Nassarius reticulatus (Caenogastropoda) statoliths : towards their structure stability and homogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Susana Galante; Marçal, Raquel; Guimarães, Fernanda M. G.; Soares, Jorge; Lopes,José Carlos; Machado, Jorge; Barroso, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Gastropod statoliths are spherical biocarbonates formed during their lifespan. The stability and homogeneity of these structures’ mineral matrix was characterised along their radiuses, using Nassarius reticulatus as a model. Generally, they were proved to be bimineralic. Two of the three CaCO3 crystalline polymorphs occurring in biocarbonates – aragonite and calcite – coexist along statolith radiuses, aragonite being unequivocally the most abundant phase. The presence of a diffuse...

  9. Prevalensi Infeksi Cacing Nematoda pada Ular Python Reticulatus yang Dipelihara Pecinta Ular di Denpasar

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    Febriyani R R Telnoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi infeksi dan jenis cacing yang menginfeksi ular Python reticulatus asal Bali. Penelitian menggunakan 30 ekor ular Python reticulatus yang dipelihara pecinta ular di Denpasar melalui pemeriksaan koproskopi. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif dan disampaikan secara sistematis dalam narasi tertulis. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa 22 sampel feses positif terinfeksi cacing nematoda dengan prevalensi sebesar 73,32%. Jenis cacing yang menginfeksi tunggal antara lain Oxyuris sp,Rhabdias sp, Kalicephalus sp, dan Ophidascaris sp masing masing dengan prevalensi sebesar 36.67%, 6.67%, 3.33%, 3.33%. Infeksi campuran antara lain Rhabdias sp dan Oxyuris sp(6.67 %, Rhabdias sp, Kalicephalus, Oxyuris sp dan Ophidascaris sp (3.33%, Rhabdias sp, Strongyloides sp, dan Oxyuris sp (3.33%, Oxyuris sp dan Ophidascaris (3.33%, Rhabdias sp, Kalicephalus,dan Oxyuris sp (3.33%, Rhabdias sp, Kalicephalus, Strongyloides sp dan Ophidascaris sp (3.33%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa pada satu ekor ular Python reticulatus tidak hanya terinfeksi oleh satu jenis cacing saja, melainkan dapat juga terinfeksi oleh dua atau tiga jenis cacing.

  10. Borrelia sp. phylogenetically different from Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related Borrelia spp. in Amblyomma varanense from Python reticulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Sudsangiem, Ronnayuth; Lijuan, Wanwisa; Boonkusol, Duangjai; Baimai, Visut; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-06-24

    Species of the genus Borrelia are causative agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. However, in some parts of the world Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever may be caused by novel Borrelia genotypes. Herein, we report the presence of a Borrelia sp. in an Amblyomma varanense collected from Python reticulatus. Ticks were collected from snakes, identified to species level and examined by PCR for the presence of Borrelia spp. flaB and 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbour-joining method. Three A. varanense ticks collected from P. reticulatus were positive for a unique Borrelia sp., which was phylogenetically divergent from both Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-associated Borrelia spp. The results of this study suggest for the first time that there is a Borrelia sp. in A. varanense tick in the snake P. reticulatus that might be novel.

  11. Novel Rickettsia raoultii strain isolated and propagated from Austrian Dermacentor reticulatus ticks

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    Michiel Wijnveld

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous culture of tick cell lines has proven a valuable asset in isolating and propagating several different vector-borne pathogens, making it possible to study these microorganisms under laboratory conditions and develop serological tests to benefit public health. We describe a method for effective, cost- and labor-efficient isolation and propagation of Rickettsia raoultii using generally available laboratory equipment and Rhipicephalus microplus cells, further demonstrating the usefulness of continuous tick cell lines. R. raoultii is one of the causative agents of tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA and is, together with its vector Dermacentor reticulatus, emerging in novel regions of Europe, giving rise to an increased threat to general public health. Methods Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected in the Donau-Auen (Lobau national park in Vienna, Austria. The hemolymph of ten collected ticks was screened by PCR-reverse line blot for the presence of rickettsial DNA. A single tick tested positive for R. raoultii DNA and was used to infect Rhipicephalus microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. Results Sixty-five days after infection of the tick-cell line with an extract from a R. raoultii-infected tick, we observed intracellular bacteria in the cultured cells. On the basis of microscopy we suspected that the intracellular bacteria were a species of Rickettsia; this was confirmed by several PCRs targeting different genes. Subsequent sequencing showed 99–100 % identity with R. raoultii. Cryopreservation and resuscitation of R. raoultii was successful. After 28 days identical intracellular bacteria were microscopically observed. Conclusions R. raoultii was successfully isolated and propagated from D. reticulatus ticks using R. microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. The isolated strain shows significant molecular variation compared to currently known sequences. Furthermore we show for the first time the successful cryopreservation and

  12. Study of Effective Methods to Break Seed Dormancy of Henbane )Hyoscyamus reticulatus L.(

    OpenAIRE

    esmaeil rezaei-chiyaneh; Mehdi Tajbakhsh; o Valizadegan; f Banaei Asl; h Mahdavikia

    2014-01-01

    Henbane Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. is a plant species in solanaceae family that seeds hardly germinate because of seed dormancy. In order to determine the best methods for seed dormancy breaking in henbane, a experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments included moist pre-chilling (at 4 °C) for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, combined treatment of gibberellic acid (500 ppm) and moist chilling at 4 °C for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, soaking the seeds in h...

  13. Aging changes in the heart of a poeciliid fish, the guppy Poecilia reticulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Histological surveys of the hearts of guppies Poecilia reticulatus throughout their lifespan showed no aging changes until the fish were three years old. In younger fishes the hearts were healthy, even in the three individuals with wasting disease, where there was considerable loss of muscle throughout the body. There was a loss of muscle fibers in the ventricle in old fish, and deposition of collagen in the bulbus arteriosus. Guppies of three years and older also had a marked accumulation of melanomacrophages in the atrium. It seems unlikely that degeneration of the heart is involved in mortality of guppies in the wild.

  14. The usefulness of a sediment bioassay with the gastropod Nassarius reticulatus in tributyltin monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeiro, Filipe; Pérez, Sara; Navarro, Patricia; Carrero, José Antonio; Beiras, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Despite the use of tributyltin (TBT) had been banned worldwide in 2008 there is still evidence of its deleterious presence in environment. We evaluate the usefulness of a 28days sediment bioassay with Nassarius reticulatus females to monitor TBT pollution, using imposex as endpoint. In addition, butyltins were determined in sediments and tissues, and, whenever posible, imposex was assessed in native N. reticulatus at the same sites where sediments were sampled. In the bioassay, a significant increase in imposex parameters was obtained with three sediments (Vi2, Vi3, and Vi4). No correlation was found between this and TBT concentrations in sediment although good correlations were obtained for TBT in tissues, putting in evidence TBT bioavailability in sediment. A significant decrease in imposex from 2008 to 2013 in native snails was only observed at sites that did not cause any effect in the bioassay. In contrast, imposex levels in 2013 were kept as high as 2008 in one of the sites where a significant imposex increase in the bioassay was observed. The bioassay proves thus to be a practical and ecological relevant tool, as: (i) it can be conducted in sites with no native populations of snails, (ii) it provides early identification of polluted sites, anticipating future imposex levels or early identification of recovering, and (iii) it yields information on the bioavailable fraction of the TBT in the sediment. Therefore, this tool can be of extreme usefulness under the scope of recent European legislative frameworks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of elicitation on antioxidant activity and production of tropane alkaloids in Hyoscyamus reticulatus hairy root cultures

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    Z. Zeynali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hyoscyamus reticulatus contains two distinguished tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamineand scopolamine and both of the compounds possesspotential acute or chronic toxicity. In the present study, a simple and efficient transformation system was established for in vitro hairy roots induction in Hyoscyamus reticulatus. Methods: Effect of different factors including Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains (A7, 15834, A13 and D7, various explant types (cotyledon, hypocotyl, two weeks old leaf, four weeks old leaf, two weeks old internode and four weeks old internode, two inoculation methods (immersion and injection and four types of culture media (MS, ½ MS, ¼ MS and B5 on hairy roots induction efficiency in Hyoscyamus reticulatus were tested. In the second part of the experiments, elicitations with different concentrations of colchicine (0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05% w/v and different UV-B exposure time (0, 3, 6 and 9 min were used to analyze hyoscyamineand scopolamine production.  Transgenic status of hairy roots was confirmed by PCR using specific primers of the rolB gene. The total antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH method. Results: Induction of hairy roots in H. reticulatus was affected by bacterial strain and explant type. A7 strain and cotyledon explants were detected as the best strain and explants for induction of hairy root in H. reticulatus. Hairy roots growth was significantly affected by medium type. The highest fresh weight was produced in MS and B5 medium.Fresh and dry weight of hairy root reached 1.44 and 0.134 mg at 0.05 percentage of colchicine after 48 h, respectively but in UV-B treatment fresh weight was decreased. In addition, antioxidant activity of hairy root samples treated with colchicine and UV-B increased to 27% (0.05 colchicine and 26% (UV-B 9 min, respectively compared to the antioxidant activity level in non-transgenic roots (12% and transgenic roots (18%. The highest amount of hyoscyamine and

  16. Origins of recently emerged foci of the tick Dermacentor reticulatus in central Europe inferred from molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Slivinska, Kateryna; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Rodo, Anna; Kowalec, Maciej; Dwużnik, Dorota; Didyk, Yuliya M; Bajer, Anna

    2017-04-15

    The ornate dog tick Dermacentor reticulatus is vector of several blood parasites, including Babesia canis, a causative agent of babesiosis. The geographical range of D. reticulatus in Europe is discontinuous with a gap separating eastern and western macroregions. New foci observed in several locations in western and central Europe were considered an expansion of the western population, including foci in western Poland. In the present paper we used molecular markers to identify the origins of these foci, and we compared their genetic polymorphism to D. reticulatus collected in sites situated within the eastern population. The overall polymorphism in mt 16S rDNA was low, and all sites from the western population shared the same haplotype suggesting the expansion in this area. In the marker 5.8S rDNA-ITS2 we found no differences in polymorphism between sites from eastern Poland (eastern population), and newly emerged foci in western Poland considered a putative expansion zone of the western population. However, the sites from western Poland differed considerably from nearby German site. Our results show that foci in western Poland could not have originated from D. reticulatus from the western population, as previously thought. We found that the state border following river hinders considerably gene flow between adjacent sites what suggest that natural dispersal of D. reticulatus by wildlife is unlikely, and the emergence of new foci should rather be contributed to human-associated dispersal. We propose that livestock, and pets travelling with their owners are the most probable source of new foci, and they can easily transfer ticks within a country but not between countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonally biased or single-habitat sampling is not informative on the real prevalence of Dermacentor reticulatus-borne rickettsiae - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Gönczi, Enikő; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2017-03-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus is a tick species of high medical and veterinary importance, emerging in several parts of Europe. Up to now most studies focusing on zoonotic rickettsiae in D. reticulatus were based on ticks collected in a limited part of the questing period, and did not take into account the potential seasonal variations in the rate of infection with tick-borne rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to investigate the latter phenomenon, i.e. to screen D. reticulatus adults, collected monthly in two urban habitats of Budapest, for the presence of three zoonotic Rickettsia spp. Altogether 852 D. reticulatus adults were collected, which showed significantly similar seasonal activity in the two evaluated habitats. Among the 413 molecularly analysed ticks, R. helvetica-infected D. reticulatus were only collected during autumn in habitat-1, in contrast to habitat-2. The overall prevalence of R. raoultii in D. reticulatus adults was significantly higher in habitat-1 than in habitat-2. In addition, the seasonal distribution of R. raoultii-infected ticks was different between the two habitats (in habitat-2 significantly more R. raoultii-infected ticks were collected in the autumn, in comparison with winter and spring). Rickettsia slovaca was not detected in any of the molecularly analysed ticks. The results clearly indicate that a single-time or seasonally biased collection of D. reticulatus adults and their subsequent molecular analysis may not be informative on the real prevalence of rickettsiae. This is because the availability/ activity of infected ticks shows significant seasonal fluctuations, both within and between habitats. Instead, for screening D. reticulatus-borne rickettsiae, it is important to collect monthly samples and then to assess seasonal prevalence and actual habitat-associated eco-epidemiological risks.

  18. Novel foci of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks infected with Babesia canis and Babesia caballi in the Netherlands and in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Frans; Ringenier, Moniek; Putting, Michael; Berger, Laura; Burgers, Stefan; Kortekaas, Reinier; Lenssen, Jesse; van Roessel, Marleen; Wijnveld, Michiel; Madder, Maxime

    2015-04-17

    Autochthonous populations of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the Netherlands were discovered after fatal cases of babesiosis occurred in resident dogs in 2004. The presence of D. reticulatus in the Netherlands has also linked with the emergence of piroplasmosis in the resident horse population. The aim of this study was to put together results of continued surveillance of field sites and hosts for this tick in the Netherlands and also in Belgium and determine their infection status for Babesia and Theileria species. Ticks were collected from the vegetation at 11 locations between 2011 and 2013. D. reticulatus ticks were also collected from different hosts between 2007 and 2013. Ticks were screened by PCR and reverse line blot (RLB). A total of 1368 D. reticulatus ticks were collected from 4 previously known field locations and from 5 new locations in the Netherlands and from 2 sites in Belgium (one old and one new location). A total of 855 ticks collected from 8 locations in the Netherlands and 2 locations in Belgium were tested. Fourteen ticks (1,64%) collected at 4 field locations (Dintelse Gorzen, Rozenburg, Slikken van de Heen and St. Philipsland) were positive for Babesia canis, whereas two ticks were positive for Babesia caballi, one tick in the Dintelse Gorzen in the Netherlands and one tick was found positive in De Panne in Belgium. A further 1092 D. reticulatus ticks were collected between 2007 and 2013 from 40 dogs (132 ticks), two ticks from two humans, 51 ticks from 15 horses, two ticks from two cats, one tick from a roe deer, whereas most ticks (904) were collected from cattle (n = 25). Ticks were found throughout the year on dogs in nearly all provinces of the Netherlands. None of the ticks collected from these hosts were infected. D. reticulatus is continuing its spread into novel areas. The finding that some autochthonous ticks are infected with B. canis and B. caballi poses a threat to the resident dog and horse population and justifies year

  19. Comparative Metagenomic Profiling of Symbiotic Bacterial Communities Associated with Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks.

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    Alexander Kurilshikov

    Full Text Available Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting Western Siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. Because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. Using metagenomic 16S profiling, we evaluate bacterial communities associated with I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi, and D. reticulatus ticks collected from the Novosibirsk region of Russia. A total of 1214 ticks were used for this study. DNA extracted from the ticks was pooled according to tick species and sex. Sequencing of the V3-V5 domains of 16S rRNA genes was performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. The following bacterial genera were prevalent in the examined communities: Acinetobacter (all three tick species, Rickettsia (I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus and Francisella (D. reticulatus. B. burgdorferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi sequences were detected in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi but not in D. reticulatus ticks. The pooled samples of all tick species studied contained bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family, although their occurrence was low. DNA from A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first observed in I. pavlovskyi ticks. Significant inter-species differences in the number of bacterial taxa as well as intra-species diversity related to tick sex were observed. The bacterial communities associated with the I. pavlovskyi ticks displayed a higher biodiversity compared with those of the I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus ticks. Bacterial community structure was also diverse across the studied tick species, as shown by permutational analysis of variance using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric (p = 0.002. Between-sex variation was confirmed by PERMANOVA testing in I

  20. Comparative Metagenomic Profiling of Symbiotic Bacterial Communities Associated with Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilshikov, Alexander; Livanova, Natalya N; Fomenko, Nataliya V; Tupikin, Alexey E; Rar, Vera A; Kabilov, Marsel R; Livanov, Stanislav G; Tikunova, Nina V

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting Western Siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. Because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. Using metagenomic 16S profiling, we evaluate bacterial communities associated with I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi, and D. reticulatus ticks collected from the Novosibirsk region of Russia. A total of 1214 ticks were used for this study. DNA extracted from the ticks was pooled according to tick species and sex. Sequencing of the V3-V5 domains of 16S rRNA genes was performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. The following bacterial genera were prevalent in the examined communities: Acinetobacter (all three tick species), Rickettsia (I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus) and Francisella (D. reticulatus). B. burgdorferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi sequences were detected in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi but not in D. reticulatus ticks. The pooled samples of all tick species studied contained bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family, although their occurrence was low. DNA from A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first observed in I. pavlovskyi ticks. Significant inter-species differences in the number of bacterial taxa as well as intra-species diversity related to tick sex were observed. The bacterial communities associated with the I. pavlovskyi ticks displayed a higher biodiversity compared with those of the I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus ticks. Bacterial community structure was also diverse across the studied tick species, as shown by permutational analysis of variance using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric (p = 0.002). Between-sex variation was confirmed by PERMANOVA testing in I. persulcatus (p = 0

  1. Lectin histochemical aspects of mucus function in the oesophagus of the reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, W; Luz, S; Schnapper, A

    2009-08-01

    Using lectin histochemistry, the study characterizes basic functional aspects of the mucus produced by the oesophageal epithelium of the Reticulated python (Python reticulatus). Reaction staining varied as related to the two epithelium types present, containing goblet cells and ciliary cells. Remarkable intensities were achieved especially in the luminal mucus layer and the fine mucus covering the epithelial ciliary border for Con A (alpha-D-Man; alpha-D-Glc) as part of neutral glycoproteins, Limax flavus agglutinin (NeuNac = NeuNgc), emphasizing that water binding hyaluronan provides a hydrated interface conductive to the passage of material and UEA-I (alpha-L-Fuc), corroborating the view that fucose-rich highly viscous mucus is helpful against mechanical stress during prey transport.

  2. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from natural and urban environment, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Beata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Werszko, Joanna; Stańczak, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is an arthropod-borne virus, an etiologic agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a human infection involving the central nervous system. The disease is endemic in a large region in Eurasia, where it is transmitted mainly by Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks. It is known that also Dermacentor reticulatus is involved in circulation of TBEV. However, the current knowledge of D. reticulatus importance in TBE epidemiology is still insufficient. A total of 471 adult D. reticulatus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation in the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Biebrza National Park, Masurian Landscape Park (North-Eastern Poland) and in the city of Warsaw in the years 2007-2010. All collected ticks were examined individually for the presence of RNA of TBEV using nested RT-PCR assay. Positive results were noted in all investigated localities with the infection rate ranging from 0.99 to 12.5 % with a total mean of 2.12 %. The difference in the percentage of infective males and females was not statistically significant.

  4. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Fourie, Josephus J; de Vos, Christa; Anderson, Andrew; Larsen, Diane L; Jeannin, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (AFX + MO) combination chewables (NexGard Spectra®, Merial) and AFX single-entity chewables (NexGard®, Merial) against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated in dogs. Thirty dogs were assigned to blocks of three animals each based on pre-allocation tick counts and were randomly allocated to one of three groups: untreated (control), treated with a combination of AFX + MO chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX + MO (2.5 + 0.5 mg per kg body weight), and treated with a combination of NexGard® chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX (2.5 mg per kg body weight). Treatments were administered orally once on day 0. Starting 2 days before treatment administration, each dog was infested with approximately 50 ticks weekly for six consecutive weeks. Live ticks were counted at ∼48 h post-treatment (removal count) and at ∼48 h (in situ counts) and ∼72 h (removal counts) following each post-treatment infestation. Treatment with both AFX + MO and NexGard® chewables rapidly eliminated the existing tick infestations (100 % efficacy) within 2 days following treatment administration. Weekly re-infestations were controlled for a minimum of 5 weeks with the efficacy ranging from 92.2 to 99.7 % based on ∼48 h post-treatment in situ counts and between 99.0 and 100 % based on ∼72 h post-treatment removal counts (p NexGard® chewable treatments against infestations of dogs with D. reticulatus ticks for at least 5 weeks. In addition, this study indicated no interference between the two compounds with respect to the acaricidal activity provided by AFX.

  5. Jungle Giants: Assessing Sustainable Harvesting in a Difficult-to-Survey Species (Python reticulatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J D Natusch

    Full Text Available Sustainability of wildlife harvests is critical but difficult to assess. Evaluations of sustainability typically combine modelling with the measurement of underlying abundances. For many taxa harvested in developing countries, however, abundances are near-impossible to survey and a lack of detailed ecological information impedes the reliability of models. In such cases, repeated surveys of the attributes of harvested individuals may provide more robust information on sustainability. If the numbers, sizes and other demographic attributes of animals taken for the commercial trade do not change over biologically significant time intervals (decades, there is a prima facie case that the harvest is indeed sustainable. Here, we report the results of examinations of > 4,200 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus taken for the commercial leather industry in northern and southern Sumatra, Indonesia. The numbers, mean body sizes, clutch sizes, sizes at maturity and proportion of giant specimens have not decreased between our first surveys (1995 and repeat surveys (2015. Thus, despite assumptions to the contrary, the harvest appears to be sustainable. We use our data to inform the design of future monitoring programs for this species. Our study underpins the need for robust science to inform wildlife trade policy and decision-making, and urges wildlife managers to assess sustainability of difficult-to-survey terrestrial wildlife by drawing inferences directly from the harvest itself.

  6. Jungle Giants: Assessing Sustainable Harvesting in a Difficult-to-Survey Species (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natusch, Daniel J D; Lyons, Jessica A; Mumpuni; Riyanto, Awal; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of wildlife harvests is critical but difficult to assess. Evaluations of sustainability typically combine modelling with the measurement of underlying abundances. For many taxa harvested in developing countries, however, abundances are near-impossible to survey and a lack of detailed ecological information impedes the reliability of models. In such cases, repeated surveys of the attributes of harvested individuals may provide more robust information on sustainability. If the numbers, sizes and other demographic attributes of animals taken for the commercial trade do not change over biologically significant time intervals (decades), there is a prima facie case that the harvest is indeed sustainable. Here, we report the results of examinations of > 4,200 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus) taken for the commercial leather industry in northern and southern Sumatra, Indonesia. The numbers, mean body sizes, clutch sizes, sizes at maturity and proportion of giant specimens have not decreased between our first surveys (1995) and repeat surveys (2015). Thus, despite assumptions to the contrary, the harvest appears to be sustainable. We use our data to inform the design of future monitoring programs for this species. Our study underpins the need for robust science to inform wildlife trade policy and decision-making, and urges wildlife managers to assess sustainability of difficult-to-survey terrestrial wildlife by drawing inferences directly from the harvest itself.

  7. Distribución, densidad y estructura de talla de Oreaster reticulatus y Luidia senegalensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea en isla de Cubagua, Venezuela Distribution, density an size structure of Oreaster reticulatus and Luidia senegalensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea in Cubagua Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tagliafico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Las estrellas de mar: Oreaster reticulatus y Luidia senegalensis, han sido objeto de escasos estudios en aguas venezolanas. Actualmente son consideradas especies amenazadas en diversas zonas del Caribe, Brasil y Colombia. Por esto, se planteó como objetivo generar información sobre su densidad poblacional, distribución y estructura de talla en los alrededores de la isla de Cubagua. Para ello, durante el año 2008, se realizaron cuatro transectas bandas de 50m2 cada una, en 52 estaciones ubicadas alrededor de la isla. Entre los resultados obtenidos para O. reticulatus destacan: 167.3ind/ha, un 33% inmaduros y 67% adultos con un promedio de tallas de 10.7±5cm (rango: 2.2-21cm; una amplia distribución en los alrededores de la isla, con mayores densidades en la zona este y suroeste. Luidia senegalensis mostró una densidad promedio de 40ind/ha, 95% superaba la talla de madurez reportada, con talla promedio de 12cm±3.5cm (rango: 3.5-22.3cm. Se recomienda realizar estudios de reproducción, así como monitoreos de sus densidades poblacionales que permitan inferir sus variaciones temporales.There is limited biological information about the starfish Oreaster reticulatus and the nine-armed starfish Luidia senegalensis in Venezuelan waters. These species are currently considered threatened in many localities of the Caribbean, Brazil and Colombia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe their population density, size distribution and population structure in Cubagua Island. During 2008, 52 stations located around the island were evaluated using band transects of 50m2. Each organism was counted and measured (maximum radius, and its size was compared to the maturity length reported in the literature. The results for O. reticulatus include: 167.3ind./ha; 33% juveniles and 67% adults; average size of 10.7±5cm (range: 2.2-21cm; a wide distribution around the island, with higher densities in the Eastern and Southwest areas. The 50% of the

  8. Combined use of Nassarius reticulatus imposex and statolith age determination for tracking temporal evolution of TBT pollution in the NW Portuguese continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Carlos M; Rato, Milene; Veríssimo, Alfredo; Sousa, Ana; Santos, José António; Coelho, Sónia; Gaspar, Miguel B; Maia, Francisco; Galante-Oliveira, Susana

    2011-11-01

    Spatial and temporal trends of tributyltin (TBT) pollution on the northern continental shelf of Portugal (5-34 m depth) were assessed using Nassarius reticulatus as a bioindicator. Imposex levels were determined in 2006 and 2010, and integrated with age readings from statoliths for a better chronological analysis of the data. Females affected with imposex were detected in 84% of the sites surveyed in 2006, with levels higher than the Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO) set by the OSPAR Commission for N. reticulatus (VDSI effective in reducing TBT pollution in the NW Portuguese continental shelf, not only in terms of the magnitude but also in terms of fast field repercussion.

  9. Phylogeography of the reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.: Conservation implications for the worlds' most traded snake species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Murray-Dickson

    Full Text Available As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp. are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python's native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1 prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley's modification of Wallace's line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%; (2 Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3 individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans.

  10. Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks from Different Geographical Locations in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye, Anna L.; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P.; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M.; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5–17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved. PMID:23349900

  11. Phylogeography of the reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.): Conservation implications for the worlds’ most traded snake species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Muhammad; Ogden, Rob; Brown, Rafe; Auliya, Mark

    2017-01-01

    As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.) are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins—which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should) be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python’s native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1) prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley’s modification of Wallace’s line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%); (2) Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3) individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans. PMID:28817588

  12. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated orally with fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; Liebenberg, Julian; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2015-06-04

    The preventive effect of fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™) against transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated. Sixteen dogs, tested negative for B. canis by PCR and IFAT, were allocated to two study groups. On day 0, dogs in one group (n = 8) were treated once orally with a fluralaner chewable tablet according to label recommendations and dogs in the control group (n = 8) remained untreated. On days 2, 28, 56, 70 and 84, dogs were infested with 50 (±4) B. canis infected D. reticulatus ticks with tick in situ thumb counts 48 ± 4 h post-infestation. Prior to each infestation, the D. reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour B. canis by PCR analysis. On day 90, ticks were counted and removed from all dogs. Efficacy against ticks was calculated for each assessment time point. After treatment, all dogs were physically examined in conjunction with blood collection for PCR every 7 days, blood samples for IFAT were collected every 14 days and the dog's rectal body temperature was measured thrice weekly. From dogs displaying symptoms of babesiosis or were PCR positive, a blood smear was taken, and, if positive, dogs were rescue treated and replaced with a replacement dog. The preventive effect was evaluated by comparing infected dogs in the treated group with infected dogs in the untreated control group. All control dogs became infected with B. canis, as confirmed by PCR and IFAT. None of the 8 treated dogs became infected with B. canis, as IFAT and PCR were negative throughout the study until day 112. Fluralaner chewable tablet was 100 % effective against ticks on days 4, 30, 58, and 90 and an efficacy of 99.6 % and 99.2 % was achieved on day 72 and day 86 after treatment, respectively. Over the 12-week study duration, a 100 % preventive effect against B. canis transmission was demonstrated. A single oral administration of fluralaner chewable tablets effectively prevented the transmission of B. canis by infected

  13. Study of Effective Methods to Break Seed Dormancy of Henbane Hyoscyamus reticulatus L.(

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    esmaeil rezaei-chiyaneh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Henbane Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. is a plant species in solanaceae family that seeds hardly germinate because of seed dormancy. In order to determine the best methods for seed dormancy breaking in henbane, a experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments included moist pre-chilling (at 4 °C for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, combined treatment of gibberellic acid (500 ppm and moist chilling at 4 °C for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, soaking the seeds in hormones gibberellic acid, kinetin, auxin (250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm for 24 h, KNO3 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%, Hot water (70 and 90 °C for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, soaking seeds under running water for 24 and 48h, soaking the seeds in sulfuric acid 70% and 90% (5, 10 and 15 minutes and mechanical scarification with sandpaper. The results showed that seed dormancy in henbane is physiological since the highest germination percentage (96% was obtained by using the combined treatment of gibberellic acid (500 ppm and pre-chilling (for 25 days. In addition, moist chilling and gibberellic acid treatments -by itself- on breaking seed dormancy were remarkable in this plant as germination increased up to 40 and 81%, respectively. Effects of hormones were also statistically significant on increasing seed germination but compared with the salient effect of combined chilling with gibberellic acid treatment and gibberellic acid treatment was not so remarkable. On the other hand, other applied treatments (Hot water, sulfuric acid and mechanical scarification with sandpaper had no effects on breaking seed dormancy in henbane which indicates that the type of seed dormancy in henbane is not physical or it is due to the accumulation of inhibitory substance in seed coat.

  14. Surgical management of maxillary and premaxillary osteomyelitis in a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; McDermott, Colin; Scott, Gregory; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M; Beguesse, Kyla; Sánchez, Melissa D; Lewis, John R

    2016-05-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old reticulated python (Python reticulatus) was evaluated because of a 2-week history of wheezing and hissing. CLINICAL FINDINGS Rostral facial cellulitis and deep gingival pockets associated with missing rostral maxillary teeth were evident. Tissues of the nares were swollen, resulting in an audible wheeze during respiration. Multiple scars and superficial facial wounds attributed to biting by live prey were apparent. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral, focal, rostral maxillary osteomyelitis. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Wound irrigation, antimicrobials, and anti-inflammatory drug treatment resulted in reduced cellulitis. A 3-week regimen that included empirical antimicrobial treatment and improved husbandry resulted in resolution of the respiratory sounds and partial healing of bite wounds, but radiographic evaluation revealed progressive maxillary osteomyelitis. Microbial culture of blood yielded scant gram-positive cocci and Bacillus spp, which were suspected sample contaminants. Bilateral partial maxillectomies were performed; microbial culture and histologic examination of resected bone confirmed osteomyelitis with gram-positive cocci. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was initiated on the basis of microbial susceptibility tests. Four months later, follow-up radiography revealed premaxillary osteomyelitis; surgery was declined, and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was reinstituted. Eight months after surgery, the patient was reevaluated because of recurrent clinical signs; premaxillectomy was performed, and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was prescribed on the basis of microbial culture of bone and microbial susceptibility testing. Resolution of osteomyelitis was confirmed by CT 11 months after the initial surgery. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Focal maxillectomies and premaxillectomy were successfully performed in a large python. Surgical management and appropriate antimicrobial treatment

  15. Crystallinity and microchemistry of Nassarius reticulatus (Caenogastropoda) statoliths: towards their structure stability and homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante-Oliveira, Susana; Marçal, Raquel; Guimarães, Fernanda; Soares, Jorge; Lopes, José Carlos; Machado, Jorge; Barroso, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Gastropod statoliths are spherical biocarbonates formed during their lifespan. The stability and homogeneity of these structures' mineral matrix was characterised along their radiuses, using Nassarius reticulatus as a model. Generally, they were proved to be bimineralic. Two of the three CaCO3 crystalline polymorphs occurring in biocarbonates - aragonite and calcite - coexist along statolith radiuses, aragonite being unequivocally the most abundant phase. The presence of a diffuse organic matrix was also perceived by the detection of a weak Raman band between 2800 and 3000 cm(-1) consistently observed along radiuses. Beyond the apparent stability and homogeneity, different crystalline orientations were disclosed by Raman spectroscopy. A change in the intensity pattern of the features related to the lattice and bending modes of aragonite between different radiuses give new insights for a possible spherulitic-like growth of these structures. As expected from the relative homogeneity of both mineral and organic signals, there was no pattern on the distribution of Ca, O, Na and S along radiuses. However, a higher concentration of Sr occurs in growth rings (known as winter tags), corroborating the already described negative correlation between the concentration of this element in statoliths and temperature. Despite the apparent stability and homogeneity of the matrix during its lifespan, the periodic distribution of Sr potentially influences a dissimilar incorporation of trace elements in increments and growth rings. Since gastropod statolith elemental fingerprinting was recently suggested as a new tool to monitor marine environmental changes, the pressing need for further studies on the incorporation of traces in these structures is highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of Callionymus lyra (L.) and C. reticulatus in the life cycle of Lernaeocera lusci in Belgian coastal waters (Southern Bight of the North Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Damme, P.A.; Maertens, D.; Arrumm, A.; Hamerlynck, O.; Ollevier, F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the dragonet Callionymus lyra and the reticulated dragonet C. reticulatus from Belgian coastal waters (Southern Bight of the North Sea) in June 1991 revealed 34% of dragonets infected with 1–7 Lernaeocera lusci. This same parasite infected 9% of the reticulated dragonets (mean intensity

  17. Abundance and seasonal activity of adult Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Amblyommidae) in eastern Poland in relation to meteorological conditions and the photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Wiśniowski, Lukasz; Buczek, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of the abundance and seasonal activity of adult D. reticulatus in relation to the eff ect of climatic conditions (temperature, humidity) and the photoperiod on host-seeking behaviour were conducted in eastern Poland (51°25'N) in 1999-2000. D. reticulatus host-seeking activity was observed between the end of March at 5°C temperature and 89% humidity, and the beginning of December at 6°C temperature and 92% humidity. The peak autumn activity found between September – November was more than 2-fold higher than the spring peak, which occurred between April – May. The activity of females, males, and the total number of adult ticks was correlated with the temperature (p0.05). Females predominated throughout almost the entire activity period, but the ratios between females and males varied in the particular seasons. Males predominated only after the activity of adult ticks ceased between June – second decade of August, which was related to the reproductive processes. The investigations demonstrated that the activity dynamics in D. reticulatus from eastern Poland is similar to that in the southern European population, but different from that in the north-eastern Polish, Russian and West European populations. This indicates a need to monitor the threats of diseases transmitted by D. reticulatus within different regions of its range of geographic distribution.

  18. The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Halos, Lenaig; Larsen, Diane; Labuschagné, Michel; Erasmus, Heidi; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-06-23

    Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs.To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulatus in an experimentally controlled study. Sixteen healthy mixed breed adult dogs, negative for Babesia canis antibodies were included in a single centre, randomized, blinded and controlled study to evaluate the impact of treatment with afoxolaner on the transmission of Babesia canis to dogs exposed to Dermacentor reticulatus. The dogs were randomly allocated into two groups of 8 dogs each. One group remained untreated. In the other group, dogs were treated orally with a novel formulation of afoxolaner (NexGard®) on day 0. All dogs were infested each by 50 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (equal sex ratio) at days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour Babesia canis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The treatment was well tolerated by all dogs without any adverse effects. Babesia canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus to all untreated control dogs, confirmed following demonstration of hyperthermia, detection of B. canis parasites in blood smears and PCR assay from blood and serology. These confirmed infected dogs were subsequently treated with imidocarb and diminazene. The treated dogs remained negative based on all criteria until the last study, Day 56, confirming that the oral treatment of dogs with NexGard® prevented transmission of Babesia canis and development of clinical babesiosis for up to 28 days. This is the first demonstration that an oral acaricidal treatment may prevent the transmission of a pathogen despite the need for the tick

  19. Prevalence of infections and co-infections with 6 pathogens in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in eastern Poland

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    Violetta Zając

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of co-infections with various pathogens in ixodid ticks creates a risk of increased severity of tick-borne diseases in humans and animals exposed to bite of the ticks carrying multiple pathogens. Accordingly, co-infections in ticks were subject of numerous analyses, but almost exclusively with regard to Ixodes ricinus complex whereas potential tick vectors belonging to other genera were much less studied. Taking into consideration the role of Dermacentor reticulatus in the transmission of various pathogens, we carried out for the first time the comprehensive statistical analysis of co-infections occurring in this tick species. An attempt was made to determine the significance of the associations between 6 different pathogens occurring in D. reticulatus (Tick-borne encephalitis virus = TBEV, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia raoultii, Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., Babesia spp., Toxoplasma gondii, using 2 statistical methods: determination of Odds Ratios (ORs and the Fisher’s exact test. 634 questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (370 females and 264 males were collected in 2011– 2013 by flagging the lower vegetation in 3 localities in the area of Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland, situated in the Lublin region of eastern Poland. The presence of individual pathogens was detected by PCR. Ticks were infected most often with Rickettsia raoultii (43.8%, less with TBEV (8.5%, and much less with Babesia spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.5%, 2.1%, 1.6% and 1.1%, respectively. The locality-dependent variability proved to be significant for TBEV (χ2=11.063; P=0.004 and Toxoplasma gondii (χ2=11.298; P=0.0035, but not for other pathogens. Two hundred seventy (42.6% of the examined ticks were infected only with a single pathogen, and 54 (8.5% showed the presence of dual co-infections, each with 2 pathogens. The most common were dual infections with participation of Rickettsia raoultii (7

  20. Inshore/offshore gradients of imposex and organotin contamination in Nassarius reticulatus (L.) along the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Miléne; Gaspar, Miguel B; Takahashi, Shin; Yano, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Barroso, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Imposex and organotin (OT) tissue contamination of the netted whelk Nassarius reticulatus (L.) were assessed in the continental shelves around the main estuaries of the central coast of Portugal (Lisbon: Tagus estuary; Setúbal: Sado estuary) and the main coastal lagoon in the Southern of Portugal (Faro: Ria Formosa). Pollution levels were higher in areas of more intense boat traffic and shipyard activities and imposex showed a clear decreasing gradient from the estuaries to the offshore, in relation to a similar gradient of tissue contamination by tributyltin. Remarkably, imposex was extensively spread over the adjacent continental shelves of Tagus and Sado estuaries. The current work shows that TBT pollution is undoubtedly a matter of concern not only for the above estuaries where harbours are implanted but also for the adjacent continental shelves, regardless the massive dilution of contaminants that may occur in these deeper areas.

  1. Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-04-15

    The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative speed of kill after treatment with Simparica?(sarolaner) and Advantix?(imidacloprid?+?permethrin) against induced infestations of Dermacentor reticulatus on dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Becskei, Csilla; Geurden, Thomas; Erasmus, Heidi; Cuppens, Otto; Mahabir, Sean P.; Six, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ticks are common ectoparasites that infest dogs globally. Acaricides with rapid and sustained speed of kill are critical to control infestations and to reduce the risk of disease transmission. This study evaluated the speed of kill for 5?weeks after a single dose of orally administered Simparica?(sarolaner) against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus on dogs, compared to Advantix?Spot-on solution for dogs (imidacloprid?+?permethrin). Methods Twenty four dogs were rand...

  3. Assessment of digenean parasitism in Nassarius reticulatus (L.) along the Portuguese coast: evaluation of possible impacts on reproduction and imposex expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Milene; Russel-Pinto, Fernanda; Barroso, Carlos

    2009-04-01

    A survey was performed between June and September 2006 along the Portuguese coast to assess the prevalence of digenean parasitism in the netted whelk Nassarius reticulatus, a bioindicator of tributyltin (TBT) pollution. It was also intended to evaluate the effect of parasites on the reproduction of this gastropod species and their interference on the development of imposex (the superimposition of male characters onto prosobranch females) and male penis, based on field data. Five digenean species (Lepocreadium album, Gynaecotyla longiintestinata, Himasthla quissetensis, Diphtherostomum brusinae, and Cardiocephalus longicollis), plus 1 unidentified species, were found to infect N. reticulatus. Parasitism was spread along the Portuguese coast, but the higher values of prevalence were found in sheltered inshore areas where up to 67.4% of the animals were affected per sampling station. Parasitism has a castrating impact on the whelks and a reducing effect on male penis size, which causes serious disorders in the reproduction of N. reticulatus and may have an important impact in its population dynamics. However, no relationship between imposex severity and parasite infestation was found.

  4. Study of the non-parasitic stage in Ixodes ricinus after co-feeding with Dermacentor reticulatus in three infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bartosik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that transmission of some pathogens may occur between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on a host in the absence of systemic infection. The effect was studied of co-feeding of two different tick species Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus on the course of the non-parasitic stage. Species chosen for the experiment may share their habitats and co-infest animals in nature. In the course of the study the process of egg maturation, oviposition and larval hatching were investigated. In order to estimate if co-feeding influence can counteract host immunity, three subsequent infestations of rabbits were analyzed. Mono-specific groups values of such a parameters as egg amount, number of eggs per 1 mg of female engorgement weight, female oviposition weight loss, hatching success were higher in inter-specific groups were compared. The results indicate that co-feeding with other tick species may partially reduce the influence of host resistance in subsequent infestation.

  5. Heavy metals in Semarang`s urban streams: Spatial distribution and bioindication using the guppy (Lepistes reticulatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widianarko, B. [Universitas Katolik Soegijapranata, Semarang (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    A field survey on cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc was performed in Semarang, the fifth largest city in Indonesia. Water, sediment, and fish samples were collected from 101 grids of 2 x 2 km. The objectives of the study were (1) to identify the spatial distribution of metals in the sediments of the greater Semarang area, (2) to estimate the background concentrations of the metals present in Semarang, (3) to provide a simple tool for deriving standards for metals in the sediment, and (4) to explore the potential use of the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus) as a bioindicator of urban metal pollution. To map the spatial distribution of the metals, concentrations of each metal in sediment were plotted against the corresponding city coordinate. On the basis of these plots, background concentrations of the metals were estimated. A combined pollution index can be derived thereafter by calculating the difference between metals concentrations from a particular grid and their respective background concentrations. Potential use of the guppy as a bioindicator is assessed, based on a comparison on several demographic parameters (i.e., size structure, sex ratio, reproductive success and energetic status) between unpolluted and heavily polluted populations. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Chlorine dioxide as an alternative antifouling biocide for cooling water systems: Toxicity to larval barnacle Amphibalanus reticulatus (Utinomi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatnarayanan, Srinivas; Sriyutha Murthy, P; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2017-11-30

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is seen as an effective alternative to chlorine, which is widely used as an antifouling biocide. However, data on its efficacy against marine macrofoulants is scanty. In this study, acute toxicity of ClO2 to larval forms of the fouling barnacle Amphibalanus reticulatus was investigated. ClO2 treatment at 0.1mg/L for 20min elicited 45-63% reduction in naupliar metamorphosis, 70% inhibition of cyprid settlement and 80% inhibition of metamorphosis to juveniles. Increase in concentration to 0.2mg/L did not result in any significant difference in the settlement inhibition or metamorphosis. Treatment with 0.2mg/L of ClO2 elicited substantial reduction in the settlement of barnacle larvae compared to control. The study indicates the possibility of using ClO2 as an alternative antifouling biocide in power plant cooling water systems. However, more work needs to be done on the environmental effects of such switchover, which we are currently undertaking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The big squeeze: scaling of constriction pressure in two of the world's largest snakes, Python reticulatus and Python molurus bivittatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Dartez, Schuyler F; Moon, Brad R

    2015-11-01

    Snakes are important predators that have radiated throughout many ecosystems, and constriction was important in their radiation. Constrictors immobilize and kill prey by using body loops to exert pressure on their prey. Despite its importance, little is known about constriction performance or its full effects on prey. We studied the scaling of constriction performance in two species of giant pythons (Python reticulatus and Python molurus bivittatus) and propose a new mechanism of prey death by constriction. In both species, peak constriction pressure increased significantly with snake diameter. These and other constrictors can exert pressures dramatically higher than their prey's blood pressure, suggesting that constriction can stop circulatory function and perhaps kill prey rapidly by over-pressurizing the brain and disrupting neural function. We propose the latter 'red-out effect' as another possible mechanism of prey death from constriction. These effects may be important to recognize and treat properly in rare cases when constrictors injure humans. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of afoxolaner against two European dog tick species: Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Pascal; Blair, Jeffrey; Fourie, Josephus J; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The acaricidal efficacy of a novel oral formulation of afoxolaner (NEXGARD(®), Merial) against two European tick species was assessed in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. Three studies, each characterized by a negative controlled randomized block design, were conducted with a total of 52 beagle or mongrel dogs of both sexes. Starting 2 days before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with approximately 50 ticks. The number of live ticks was counted at 48 h post-treatment (Day 2) as well as 48 h following each infestation on Days 9, 16, 23, and 30. Afoxolaner, administered at an average dose of 2.7 mg/kg bodyweight (range 2.5-2.9 mg/kg), rapidly eliminated the pre-existing tick infestations with over 99% acaricidal efficacy and controlled the weekly re-infestations for up to 30 days post treatment with over 96% efficacy on both tick species. Afoxolaner provides excellent acaricidal efficacy against these two major European tick species using the oral route of administration. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporal evolution of imposex in Nassarius reticulatus (L.) along the Portuguese coast: the efficacy of EC regulation 782/2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Miléne; Ferreira, Nelson; Santos, José; Barroso, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Imposex levels in Nassarius reticulatus (L.) were determined in 44 sites along the Portuguese coast in 2006 in order to describe spatial and temporal trends of TBT pollution in the area. The percentage of females with imposex across sites varied between 20 and 100, denoting the extent of this phenomenon throughout the Portuguese coast. The mean female penis length per site varied between 0.0-8.0 mm and the relative penis length index (mean female penis length x 100/mean male penis length) attained a maximum value of 92%, i.e., female penis never surpasses the size of the male penis but nevertheless it can almost approach the male dimensions. The vas deferens sequence index ranged from 0.2 to 4.5 and the oviduct convolution index varied between 0.0 and 1.3 across stations. The penis growth, the vas deferens development and the oviduct convolution were all correlated and constitute visible signs of a global virilisation progression in females in response to the proximity of harbours that constitute the main TBT pollution sources. The results indicate that about 95% of the surveyed sites were still exposed to TBT water concentrations above the OSPAR Environmental Assessment Criteria. Nevertheless, signs of recovery are shown by the significant reduction of VDSI levels in 2006 in comparison to 2003, which points to the efficacy of the EC Regulation 782/2003 in reducing TBT pollution levels in the Portuguese coast.

  11. Aging changes in the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the guppy Poecilia reticulatus and the Amazon molly P. formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Pond, V.; Dailey, K.

    1983-01-01

    Histological surveys of the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and the guppy P. reticulatus, throughout their lifespans showed no regular aging trends. Few kidney lesions were found in the Amazon molly until very late in life, 60 months or more, when obsolescent glomeruli and dilated renal tubules occurred. Guppies showed involutional changes of the renal system earlier, and the lesions became more severe with age, particularly in male fish. Hemopoietic tissue was reduced in amount in older fish of both species. Guppies of a year and older had marked accumulation of melanin in the melanomacrophage centers of the kidney, and the amount present increased with age. By contrast, there was little melanin deposition in mollies until almost the end of the lifespan. Hyaline droplets were consistently seen in the renal tubules of the mollies, but were rare in guppies. The degenerative changes in the kidneys of these two teleosts are similar to those seen in the kidneys of aging mammals. Despite the loss of normal structure in older fish, it seemed unlikely that degeneration of the kidney was directly involved in aging and death.

  12. Francisella tularensis: No Evidence for Transovarial Transmission in the Tularemia Tick Vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.

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    Marco Genchi

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious Gram-negative coccobacillus. Due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, Francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category A select agent by the CDC. Tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir competence has yet to be defined. Tick-borne transmission of F. tularensis was recognized in 1923, and transstadial transmission has been demonstrated in several tick species. Studies on transovarial transmission, however, have reported conflicting results.The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ticks as reservoirs for Francisella, assessing the transovarial transmission of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in ticks, using experimentally-infected females of Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed F. tularensis within oocytes. However, cultures and bioassays of eggs and larvae were negative; in addition, microscopy techniques revealed bacterial degeneration/death in the oocytes.These results suggest that bacterial death might occur in oocytes, preventing the transovarial transmission of Francisella. We can speculate that Francisella does not have a defined reservoir, but that rather various biological niches (e.g. ticks, rodents, that allow the bacterium to persist in the environment. Our results, suggesting that ticks are not competent for the bacterium vertical transmission, are congruent with this view.

  13. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs after topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; Liebenberg, Julian; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2016-05-31

    The preventive effect of fluralaner spot-on solution against transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated. Sixteen dogs, tested negative for B. canis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT), were allocated to two study groups. On day 0, dogs in one group (n = 8) were treated once topically with fluralaner spot-on solution (Bravecto™ Spot-on Solution) according to label recommendations and dogs in the control group (n = 8) remained untreated. On days 2, 28, 56, 70 and 84, all dogs were infested with 50 (±4) D. reticulatus ticks harbouring B. canis, with tick in situ thumb counts 48 ± 4 h after each infestation. On day 90, ticks were removed from all dogs and counted. Prior to each infestation, the presence of B. canis in the respective tick batch was confirmed by PCR, and 12-16 % of ticks were found to be infected with B. canis. Efficacy against ticks was 99.5 and 99.3 % on days 4 and 58 after treatment, respectively and 100 % on all other days. Replacement dogs were included for any B. canis infected control dog (in total 19). All control dogs (n = 27) became infected with B. canis, as confirmed by PCR, performed every 7 days, and by IFAT, performed every 14 days after treatment. None of the eight treated dogs became infected with B. canis, as they were tested negative by PCR and IFAT throughout the study until day 112. By comparing infected dogs in the treated group with infected dogs in the untreated control group, a 100 % preventive effect against B. canis transmission was demonstrated. A single topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution effectively prevented the transmission of B. canis by infected D. reticulatus ticks over a 12-week period.

  14. Comparative genome analysis of the Flavobacteriales bacterium strain UJ101, isolated from the gut of Atergatis reticulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jhung-Ahn; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Junghee; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Oh, Hyun-Myung

    2017-07-01

    Here we report the comparative genomic analysis of strain UJ101 with 15 strains from the family Flavobacteriaceae, using the CGExplorer program. Flavobacteriales bacterium strain UJ101 was isolated from a xanthid crab, Atergatis reticulatus, from the East Sea near Korea. The complete genome of strain UJ101 is a 3,074,209 bp, single, circular chromosome with 30.74% GC content. While the UJ101 genome contains a number of annotated genes for many metabolic pathways, such as the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and the glyoxylate cycle, genes for the Entner-Douddoroff pathway are not found in the UJ101 genome. Overall, carbon fixation processes were absent but nitrate reduction and denitrification pathways were conserved. The UJ101 genome was compared to genomes from other marine animals (three invertebrate strains and 5 fish strains) and other marine animal- derived genera. Notable results by genome comparisons showed that UJ101 is capable of denitrification and nitrate reduction, and that biotin-thiamine pathway participation varies among marine bacteria; fish-dwelling bacteria, freeliving bacteria, invertebrate-dwelling bacteria, and strain UJ101. Pan-genome analysis of the 16 strains in this study included 7,220 non-redundant genes that covered 62% of the pan-genome. A core-genome of 994 genes was present and consisted of 8% of the genes from the pan-genome. Strain UJ101 is a symbiotic hetero-organotroph isolated from xanthid crab, and is a metabolic generalist with nitrate-reducing abilities but without the ability to synthesize biotin. There is a general tendency of UJ101 and some fish pathogens to prefer thiamine-dependent glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Biotin and thiamine auxotrophy or prototrophy may be used as important markers in microbial community studies.

  15. Dynamics of distribution and efficacy of different spot-on permethrin formulations in dogs artificially infested with Dermacentor reticulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kietzmann Manfred

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varying reports concerning the duration and reliability of different permethrin preparations' efficacy can be found in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the distribution and efficacy of four different spot-on formulations with permethrin as the active ingredient formulated with different solvents. To examine the influence of these solvents on the speed of distribution and the acaricidal activity of permethrin in the coat, an in vivo study under laboratory conditions was performed. Six dogs per test period were treated with the recommended dose and 1, 14 and 28 days after treatment dogs were infested with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks: a on the back, near the application site, and b on the hind leg, the greatest possible distance from the application site. Efficacies were determined 6 hours after tick infestation to examine the repellent effect and the speed of kill of the products which plays an important role in the context of tick transmitted diseases. Results After six hours of exposure, a significant acaricidal efficacy (p 9 on Day 28. However, most of these ticks were dead even 28 days after treatment, as the mean of live attached ticks was still 0.05. Conclusions All products were able to kill ticks within six hours following infestation from Day 1 to Day 28 after treatment. Additionally, no significant difference between the tick numbers on the back and the hind leg could be found at any time, which implies a homogenous distribution of permethrin over the body. The efficacy of all four products was comparable during the whole study period, showing that the different solvents do not significantly affect the dynamics of distribution.

  16. Distribución, densidad y estructura de talla de Oreaster reticulatus y Luidia senegalensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea en isla de Cubagua, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tagliafico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Las estrellas de mar: Oreaster reticulatus y Luidia senegalensis, han sido objeto de escasos estudios en aguas venezolanas. Actualmente son consideradas especies amenazadas en diversas zonas del Caribe, Brasil y Colombia. Por esto, se planteó como objetivo generar información sobre su densidad poblacional, distribución y estructura de talla en los alrededores de la isla de Cubagua. Para ello, durante el año 2008, se realizaron cuatro transectas bandas de 50m2 cada una, en 52 estaciones ubicadas alrededor de la isla. Entre los resultados obtenidos para O. reticulatus destacan: 167.3ind/ha, un 33% inmaduros y 67% adultos con un promedio de tallas de 10.7±5cm (rango: 2.2-21cm; una amplia distribución en los alrededores de la isla, con mayores densidades en la zona este y suroeste. Luidia senegalensis mostró una densidad promedio de 40ind/ha, 95% superaba la talla de madurez reportada, con talla promedio de 12cm±3.5cm (rango: 3.5-22.3cm. Se recomienda realizar estudios de reproducción, así como monitoreos de sus densidades poblacionales que permitan inferir sus variaciones temporales.

  17. Comparison of the toxic effect of pyrethroids on [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] and Dermacentor reticulatus females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Buczek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Despite the increased rates of infestations with[i] I. ricinus (Ir[/i] and [i]D. reticulatus (Dr[/i] ticks observed over the last decade, no effective control methods have been developed so far. The resent study was focused on assessment of the action of pyrethroids on these both tick species. materials and method. The different doses of four pyrethroids, i.e. deltamethrin – D (K-Othrine, permethrin – P (Copex WP, cypermethrin – C (Kordon 10WP, and alphacypermethrin – AC (Alfasekt 5SC were tested. The LD50 for each tested compound was also determined for both tick species. Unengorged and engorged (maintained on rabbit skin tick females were sprayed with 20ml of 0.01563–0.50% solutions of the tested preparations. results. The investigations showed that sensitivity of Ir and Dr to the tested pyrethroids, but the effects exerted by the different doses varied between both tick species and between engorged and unengorged females in these species. The strongest toxic effect on unengorged and engorged Ir and Dr females was exerted by D, whereas the effect of AC was weaker. The LD 50 (in µg/1 g b.w. of D, AC, C, and P for unengorged Ir and Dr females was, respectively, 55.4 and 25.5, 105.2 and 48.5, 225.9 and 197.7, and 553.8 and 380.8. In the case of engorged Ir and Dr females, the LD50 of AC, D, C, and P reached a value of 0.9453 and 0.2310, 1.0428 and 1.3533, 3.489 and 6.5662, and 8.3955 and 7.3940, respectively. conclusions. The differences between the effects of the tested pyrethroids and their different doses on Ir and Dr highlight the necessity for development of a strategy for control of the tick species in different regions, based on investigations of their sensitivity to chemical compounds.

  18. Comparative speed of kill after treatment with Simparica™ (sarolaner) and Advantix®(imidacloprid + permethrin) against induced infestations of Dermacentor reticulatus on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becskei, Csilla; Geurden, Thomas; Erasmus, Heidi; Cuppens, Otto; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H

    2016-02-24

    Ticks are common ectoparasites that infest dogs globally. Acaricides with rapid and sustained speed of kill are critical to control infestations and to reduce the risk of disease transmission. This study evaluated the speed of kill for 5 weeks after a single dose of orally administered Simparica™ (sarolaner) against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus on dogs, compared to Advantix® Spot-on solution for dogs (imidacloprid + permethrin). Twenty four dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with either a placebo tablet, a sarolaner tablet (at 2 to 4 mg/kg) or with Advantix® as per label instructions. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and tick counts were performed in situ at 8 and 12 hours and with removal of the ticks at 24 hours after treatment and subsequent re-infestations on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Acaricidal efficacy was determined at each time point relative to live tick counts from the placebo-treated dogs. Based on arithmetic (geometric) mean tick counts, the efficacy of sarolaner was ≥75.6 % (89.6 %) within 8 hours of treatment and tick counts were significantly lower than placebo and imidacloprid + permethrin-treated dogs (P Sarolaner killed all ticks on the dogs within 24 hours after treatment, while imidacloprid + permethrin efficacy was only 48.1 %. After weekly re-infestations sarolaner significantly reduced the tick counts versus placebo within 8 hours on Days 7, 14 and 35 (P ≤ 0.0239), and at 12 hours and 24 hours (P ≤ 0.0079) until Day 35.Sarolaner efficacy was ≥95.8 % within 24 hours for 35 days. Significantly more live ticks (P ≤ 0.0451) were recovered from imidacloprid + permethrin-treated dogs than from sarolaner-treated dogs at 24 hours after infestation on all days. There were no sarolaner-related adverse reactions during the study. This study demonstrated that Simparica™ had a faster and more consistent speed of kill against D. reticulatus compared to Advantix®. The rapid and consistent

  19. DIMORFISMO SEXUAL Y VARIACIÓN GEOGRÁFICA DE LA SERPIENTE CIEGA TYPHLOPS RETICULATUS (SCOLECOPHIDIA: TYPHLOPIDAE Y DISTRIBUCIÓN DE OTRAS ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO EN COLOMBIA

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    Caicedo José

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Typhlops es de distribución pantropical. Por sus hábitos fosoriales, sonserpientes pobremente representadas en las colecciones, difi cultando trabajos detipo taxonómico debido a un tamaño insufi ciente de la muestra. Se revisaron 56especímenes depositados en las colecciones de Colombia. En la actualidad, sólo tresespecies de Typhlops son conocidas para Colombia (T. brongersmianus, T. minuisquamusy T. reticulatus. Se amplía el área de distribución geográfi ca en Colombia deT. brongersmianus y T. minuisquamus alcanzando las estribaciones centro-orientalesde la Cordillera Oriental. Se reportan especímenes adicionales de T. reticulatus condistribución transandina. Los rangos merísticos y cuantitativos se encuentran dentrolo reportado por la literatura para T. brongersmianus. T. minuisquamus presenta unmayor número de escamas dorsales totales y variación en las formulas de escamasdorsales con respecto a lo reportado, y el porcentaje de la fórmula de escamas dorsalesen T. reticulatus varío considerablemente con lo reportado en la literatura. Seencontraron diferencias signifi cativas en la longitud total del cuerpo, teniendo hembrascon mayor tamaño que los machos, así mismo se hallaron diferencias signifi cativasen el número de escamas dorsales totales entre las poblaciones cis y transandinas. Apesar de presentar variación geográfi ca, no se puede argumentar que las poblacionesseparadas geográfi camente puedan representar unidades evolutivas independientes.Pos esta razón, es necesario realizar estudios morfológicos de mayor profundidadque puedan ofrecer mayor información y evidencia, ya que T. reticulatus representaun complejo de especies que necesita una revisión urgente dentro del rango de distribucióngeográfi ca de esta especie.

  20. Computed tomography of the lung of healthy snakes of the species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Michael; Kiefer, Ingmar; Thielebein, Jens; Oechtering, Gerhard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-nine healthy boid snakes representing six different species (Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota) were examined using computed tomography (CT) to characterize the normal appearance of the respiratory tissue. Assessment was done subjectively and densitometry was performed using a defined protocol. The length of the right lung was calculated to be 11.1% of the body length, without a significant difference between species. The length of the left lung in proportion to the right was dependent on the species examined. The most developed left lung was in P. regius (81.2%), whereas in B. constrictor, the left lung was vestigial or absent (24.7%). A median attenuation of -814.6 HU and a variability of 45.9 HU were calculated for all species with no significant difference between species. Within the species, a significantly higher attenuation was found for P. regius in the dorsal and cranial aspect of the lung compared with the ventral and caudal part. In B. constrictor, the reduced left lung was significantly hyperattenuating compared with the right lung. Results of this study emphasize the value of CT and provide basic reference data for assessment of the snake lung in these species. Veterinary Radiology &

  1. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in rodents in an area with sympatric existence of the hard ticks Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Woll, Dietlinde; Mahling, Monia; Pfister, Kurt; Pfeffer, Martin

    2012-12-07

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) has been described in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus and rodents as well as in some severe cases of human disease. The aims of this study were to identify DNA of CNM in small mammals, the ticks parasitizing them and questing ticks in areas with sympatric existence of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany. Blood, transudate and organ samples (spleen, kidney, liver, skin) of 91 small mammals and host-attached ticks from altogether 50 small mammals as well as questing I. ricinus ticks (n=782) were screened with a real-time PCR for DNA of CNM. 52.7% of the small mammals were positive for CNM-DNA. The majority of the infected animals were yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Small mammals with tick infestation were more often infected with CNM than small mammals without ticks. Compared with the prevalence of ~25% in the questing I. ricinus ticks, twice the prevalence in the rodents provides evidence for their role as reservoir hosts for CNM. The high prevalence of this pathogen in the investigated areas in both rodents and ticks points towards the need for more specific investigation on its role as a human pathogen.

  2. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in rodents in an area with sympatric existence of the hard ticks Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus, Germany

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    Silaghi Cornelia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM has been described in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus and rodents as well as in some severe cases of human disease. The aims of this study were to identify DNA of CNM in small mammals, the ticks parasitizing them and questing ticks in areas with sympatric existence of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany. Methods Blood, transudate and organ samples (spleen, kidney, liver, skin of 91 small mammals and host-attached ticks from altogether 50 small mammals as well as questing I. ricinus ticks (n=782 were screened with a real-time PCR for DNA of CNM. Results 52.7% of the small mammals were positive for CNM-DNA. The majority of the infected animals were yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus. Small mammals with tick infestation were more often infected with CNM than small mammals without ticks. Compared with the prevalence of ~25% in the questing I. ricinus ticks, twice the prevalence in the rodents provides evidence for their role as reservoir hosts for CNM. Conclusion The high prevalence of this pathogen in the investigated areas in both rodents and ticks points towards the need for more specific investigation on its role as a human pathogen.

  3. A novel combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) reduces risk of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus and of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Frans; de Vos, Christa; Fourie, Josephus J; Beugnet, Frederic

    2015-11-19

    The ability of Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®, a topical ectoparasiticide containing fipronil and permethrin for dogs, to prevent the transmission of Babesia canis as well as Ehrlichia canis was evaluated by infesting dogs with infected vector ticks. For the Babesia canis study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated on day 0 with a topical spot-on formulation containing 6.76 % w/v fipronil plus 50.48 % w/v permethrin and eight dogs served as the untreated control group. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, with a B. canis infection rate ranging between 2 and 10 %, were placed onto dogs on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. In situ tick counts were performed on Days 9, 16 and 23. Ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. Infection of the dogs with B. canis was monitored by rectal temperature readings, clinical examinations and blood smears as well as PCR and IFA (indirect fluorescent antibody assay). For the Ehrlichia canis study, another 16 dogs were allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated with the fipronil and permethrin combination on days 0 and 28 and eight dogs served as untreated controls. Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, carrying an infection rate of 13 % for E. canis, were released in the sleeping kennels of the dogs on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56. Ticks were counted in situ on the dogs on a weekly basis. All ticks were removed and counted on the final assessment day 58. Infection of the dogs with E. canis was monitored by rectal temperature, clinical examinations, and testing of blood samples by PCR, IFA and platelet counts. B. canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus ticks to all eight untreated control dogs and to one treated dog, which was confirmed by blood smears, PCR and IFA. E.canis was transmitted by R. sanguineus ticks to all eight untreated control dogs. Two of the dogs in the treated group were found positive based on PCR and/or IFA. Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® significantly lowered the risk for dogs to

  4. Pectin from muskmelon (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus) peels: extraction optimization and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Chandrasekaran; Banupriya, Loganathan; Harinee, Somasundharam; Sivaranjani, Sivagurunathan; Sharmila, Govindasamy; Rajasekar, Vinayagam; Kumar, Narasimhan Manoj

    2017-05-01

    Pectin derived from plant waste sources is currently focused as an economical and eco-friendly approach. Optimization of pectin extraction from muskmelon peel by response surface methodology (RSM) was investigated in this study. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to identify the optimal level of the extraction variables such as time, pH and temperature. A second-order model equation for pectin extraction was obtained from multiple regression analysis of experimental data with the correlation coefficient (R 2 ) value of 0.92. ANOVA results showed that linear effect of temperature and combined effect of pH with temperature were found significant for pectin extraction from muskmelon peel. Validation results had good agreement with the predicted results. Pectin extracted from muskmelon peel was classed as high methoxy pectin with the equivalent weight of 384.5 g/mol. Non-newtonian pseudoplastic flow behaviour was observed for muskmelon pectin from the viscosity studies.

  5. Francisella tularensis prevalence and load in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in an endemic area in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 234-239 ISSN 0269-283X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ixodid ticks * pathogen load * Tularaemia Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.809, year: 2016

  6. Dimorfismo sexual y variacion geografica de la serpiente ciega Typhlops reticulatus y distribucion de otras especies del genero en Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rances Caicedo-Portilla, Jose

    2011-01-01

    El genero Typhlops es de distribucion pantropical. Por sus habitos fosoriales, son serpientes pobremente representadas en las colecciones, dificultando trabajos de tipo taxonomico debido a un tamano insuficiente de la muestra...

  7. The effects of finish type on permeability and organoleptic properties of python (Python reticulatus skin finished leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the leather industry, there are many different types of finish, i.e. two-tone, transparent, semi aniline and opaque/solid color. The composition formulation of each finish type is different so each will impact not only on the performance but also on the properties of the finished leather. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of finish type (natural, aniline, semi-aniline, and two-tone on permeability and organoleptic properties of python skin finished leather. This research focused on the finishing process with various finish types. The results showed that the effect of semi-aniline (I,II finish type on water vapor permeability reduction is the highest when compared with natural (I, II; aniline (I,II and two-tone finish types. Otherwise, the effect of semi-aniline (I,II finish type on organoleptic properties is the lowest compared with natural (I, II; aniline (I,II and two-tone finish types. The aniline I finish type has better organoleptic properties.

  8. The Effects of Finish Type on Permeability and Organoleptic Properties of Python (Python Reticulatus) Skin Finished Leather

    OpenAIRE

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti; Rihastiwi Setiya Murti

    2017-01-01

    In the leather industry, there are many different types of finish, i.e. two-tone, transparent, semi aniline and opaque/solid color. The composition formulation of each finish type is different so each will impact not only on the performance but also on the properties of the finished leather. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of finish type (natural, aniline, semi-aniline, and two-tone) on permeability and organoleptic properties of python skin finished leather. Thi...

  9. 75 FR 38069 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Boa Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda Species as Injurious Reptiles AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... regulations to add Indian python (Python molurus, including Burmese python Python molurus bivittatus), reticulated python (Broghammerus reticulatus or Python reticulatus), Northern African python (Python sebae...

  10. 75 FR 11808 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Boa Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda Species as Injurious Reptiles AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to add Indian python (Python molurus, including Burmese python Python molurus bivittatus), reticulated python (Broghammerus reticulatus or Python reticulatus), Northern African python (Python sebae...

  11. Comparative speed of kill after treatment with Simparica™ (sarolaner) and Advantix®(imidacloprid + permethrin) against induced infestations of Dermacentor reticulatus on dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becskei, Csilla; Geurden, Thomas; Erasmus, Heidi; Cuppens, Otto; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    ...® Spot-on solution for dogs (imidacloprid + permethrin). Twenty four dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with either a placebo tablet, a sarolaner tablet (at 2 to 4 mg/kg) or with Advantix...

  12. The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Beugnet, Frederic; Halos, Lenaig; Larsen, Diane; Labuschagné, Michel; Erasmus, Heidi; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs. To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulat...

  13. Caracterización química y sensorial de vino artesanal de melón (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud., cv. Ovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Padín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años la producción de melón (Cucumis melo L. ha experimentado un notable aumento generando excedentes en el mercado y no siempre se consigue vender a los mejores precios, por lo que los porcentajes de pérdidas poscosecha son altos (Martínez, 2007. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar química y sensorialmente vino de melón. La intención fue generar una tecnología sencilla para la producción de una bebida alcohólica de alta calidad a partir de este fruto y con ello aportar una alternativa de comercialización en la región Falconiana y otras regiones productoras del país. Los ensayos se condujeron, para las variables químicas, en un diseño completamente aleatorizado con 3 tratamientos. Los vinos se elaboraron a partir de 8 L de jugo puro de melón de concentración inicial de sólidos solubles totales 16, 20 y 25 ºBx, acidez total (5,5 g/L y pH (3,8 ajustados, respectivamente denominados tratamientos V1, V2, V3 (3 repeticiones. Colocados en fermentadores de 9 L de capacidad, estériles. Inoculados con 1 g/L de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, e incubados a 28 ºC por 10 días; seguido de trasiego, embotellado, encorchado y almacenamiento por 2 meses. El jugo de melón mostró, sólidos solubles totales 8,00 ºBx, acidez total titulable 0,15 % y pH 5,20. Los vinos, respectivamente V1, V2 y V3, presentaron las siguientes características: grado alcohólico 7, 8, 10 ºGL; alcohol metílico 0,008; 0,002; 0,004 g/L; acetato de etilo 0,02; 0,04; 0,08 mg/L; azúcares totales 20, 40, 58 g/L; acidez volátil 0,814; 0,854; 0,815 g/L; acidez total 6,26; 6,08; 6,00 g/L; acidez iónica 4,00; 3,91; 3,93. Se evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p ≤ 0,05 entre los tratamientos. Los 3 vinos de melón cumplieron con los requisitos: grado alcohólico, alcohol metílico, acetato de etilo, acidez volátil y acidez total establecidos en la norma venezolana COVENIN 3342-1997. V1 y V2 presentaron características de vino semiseco y V3 de vino dulce. Sensorialmente, V3 presentó los mejores atributos de color, olor, sabor, limpidez y apariencia, en base a 50 jueces, y bajo un criterio de aceptación global obtuvo la mayor calificación.

  14. Caracterización química y sensorial de vino artesanal de melón (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud., cv. Ovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Padín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años la producción de melón (Cucumis melo L. ha experimentado un notable aumento generando excedentes en el mercado y no siempre se consigue vender a los mejores precios, por lo que los porcentajes de pérdidas poscosecha son altos (Martínez, 2007. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar química y sensorialmente vino de melón. La intención fue generar una tecnología sencilla para la producción de una bebida alcohólica de alta calidad a partir de este fruto y con ello aportar una alternativa de comercialización en la región Falconiana y otras regiones productoras del país. Los ensayos se condujeron, para las variables químicas, en un diseño completamente aleatorizado con 3 tratamientos. Los vinos se elaboraron a partir de 8 L de jugo puro de melón de concentración inicial de sólidos solubles totales 16, 20 y 25 ºBx, acidez total (5,5 g/L y pH (3,8 ajustados, respectivamente denominados tratamientos V1, V2, V3 (3 repeticiones. Colocados en fermentadores de 9 L de capacidad, estériles. Inoculados con 1 g/L de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, e incubados a 28 ºC por 10 días; seguido de trasiego, embotellado, encorchado y almacenamiento por 2 meses. El jugo de melón mostró, sólidos solubles totales 8,00 ºBx, acidez total titulable 0,15 % y pH 5,20. Los vinos, respectivamente V1, V2 y V3, presentaron las siguientes características: grado alcohólico 7, 8, 10 ºGL; alcohol metílico 0,008; 0,002; 0,004 g/L; acetato de etilo 0,02; 0,04; 0,08 mg/L; azúcares totales 20, 40, 58 g/L; acidez volátil 0,814; 0,854; 0,815 g/L; acidez total 6,26; 6,08; 6,00 g/L; acidez iónica 4,00; 3,91; 3,93. Se evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p ≤ 0,05 entre los tratamientos. Los 3 vinos de melón cumplieron con los requisitos: grado alcohólico, alcohol metílico, acetato de etilo, acidez volátil y acidez total establecidos en la norma venezolana COVENIN 3342-1997. V1 y V2 presentaron características de vino semiseco y V3 de vino dulce. Sensorialmente, V3 presentó los mejores atributos de color, olor, sabor, limpidez y apariencia, en base a 50 jueces, y bajo un criterio de aceptación global obtuvo la mayor calificación.

  15. TBT-gehalten en effecten bij de Gewone Alikruik (Littorina littorea) en de Gevlochten Fuikhoorn (Nassarius reticulatus) langs de Nederlandse kust in 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Jol, J.G.; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, van M.

    2012-01-01

    Sinds 2005 analyseert IMARES in opdracht van Rijkswaterstaat (RIKZ, later de Waterdienst) het voorkomen van intersex bij de Gewone Alikruik (Littorina littorea) die op vaste locaties langs de Nederlandse kust verzameld worden. Het doel van dit onderzoek is effecten van verontreiniging met

  16. TBT-gehalten en effecten bij de Gewone Alikruik (Littorina littorea) en de Gevlochten Fuikhoorn (Nassarius reticulatus) langs de Nederlandse kust in 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Jol, J.; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, van M.

    2009-01-01

    Sinds 2005 analyseert IMARES het voorkomen van intersex bij Gewone Alikruiken (Littorina littorea) die op vaste locaties langs de Nederlandse kust verzameld worden. Het doel van dit onderzoek is effecten van verontreiniging met TBT vast te stellen.

  17. Microbiological stability and quality of pulsed light treated cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus cv. Glamour) based on cut type and light fluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Pei Chen; Noranizan, Mohd Adzahan; Karim, Roselina; Nur Hanani, Zainal Abedin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cut type and pulsed light (PL) fluence on microbiological stability and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes. Fresh-cut cantaloupes with various cut types (cuboid, triangular prism and sphere) were treated with PL technology at 6 J/cm(2). Samples were exposed to PL treatment at fluences of 2.7, 7.8, 11.7 and 15.6 J/cm(2) followed by storage at 4 ± 1 °C for 28 days. Microbiological quality, headspace composition, firmness, colour, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total phenolic content and ascorbic acid content of fresh-cut cantaloupes were determined. Spherical shape was found to be the most suitable shape for PL treatment of fresh-cut cantaloupes due to its significantly lowest (p ≤ 0.05) microbial counts before and after the PL treatment. No significant (p > 0.05) effect was observed for firmness, colour, total soluble solids and total phenolic content of fresh-cut cantaloupes throughout the storage study. Pulsed light treatment using 7.8 J/cm(2) was the best for extending shelf life of fresh-cut cantaloupes with extension of 8 days longer at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control while maintaining the ascorbic acid content. In conclusion, PL treatment is a potential technique for extending the shelf life of fresh-cut cantaloupes by inactivating microorganisms without compromising the nutritional value.

  18. Caracterización química y sensorial de vino artesanal de melón (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud., cv. Ovation)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Padín; J. Goitia; Hernández, R; Leal, I

    2012-01-01

    En los últimos años la producción de melón (Cucumis melo L.) ha experimentado un notable aumento generando excedentes en el mercado y no siempre se consigue vender a los mejores precios, por lo que los porcentajes de pérdidas poscosecha son altos (Martínez, 2007). El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar química y sensorialmente vino de melón. La intención fue generar una tecnología sencilla para la producción de una bebida alcohólica de alta calidad a partir de este fruto y con ell...

  19. TOXICITY EVALUATION OF THROUGH FISH BIOASSAY RAW BULK DRUG INDUSTRY WASTEWATER AFTER ELECTROCHEMICAL TREATMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A M Deshpande; S Satyanarayan

    2011-01-01

    ... the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter...

  20. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Dzięgiel Beata; Kubrak Tomasz; Adaszek Łukasz; Dębiak Piotr; Wyłupek Dagmara; Bogucka-Kocka Anna; Lechowski Jerzy; Winiarczyk Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland). Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s...

  1. Ticks and associated pathogens collected from dogs and cats in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although Ixodes spp. are the most common ticks in North-Western Europe, recent reports indicated an expanding geographical distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus in Western Europe. Recently, the establishment of a D. reticulatus population in Belgium was described. D. reticulatus is an important vector of canine and equine babesiosis and can transmit several Rickettsia species, Coxiella burnetii and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), whilst Ixodes spp. are vectors of pathogens causing babesiosis, borreliosis, anaplasmosis, rickettsiosis and TBEV. Methods A survey was conducted in 2008-2009 to investigate the presence of different tick species and associated pathogens on dogs and cats in Belgium. Ticks were collected from dogs and cats in 75 veterinary practices, selected by stratified randomization. All collected ticks were morphologically determined and analysed for the presence of Babesia spp., Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia DNA. Results In total 2373 ticks were collected from 647 dogs and 506 cats. Ixodes ricinus (76.4%) and I. hexagonus (22.6%) were the predominant species. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.3%) and D. reticulatus (0.8%) were found in low numbers on dogs only. All dogs infested with R. sanguineus had a recent travel history, but D. reticulatus were collected from a dog without a history of travelling abroad. Of the collected Ixodes ticks, 19.5% were positive for A. phagocytophilum and 10.1% for Borrelia spp. (B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi s.s., B. lusitaniae, B. valaisiana and B. spielmanii). Rickettsia helvetica was found in 14.1% of Ixodes ticks. All Dermacentor ticks were negative for all the investigated pathogens, but one R. sanguineus tick was positive for Rickettsia massiliae. Conclusion D. reticulatus was confirmed to be present as an indigenous parasite in Belgium. B. lusitaniae and R. helvetica were detected in ticks in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23777784

  2. Population growth and development of Liposcelis pearmani (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminatou, B A; Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Talley, J; Shakya, K

    2011-08-01

    Psocids of genus Liposcelis are now considered serious pests of stored products. We investigated the effects of eight temperatures (22.5, 25.0, 27.5, 30.0, 32.5, 35.0, 37.5, and 40.0°C) and four relative humidities (43, 55, 63, and 75%) on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis pearmani Lienhard. L. pearmani did not survive at 37.5 and 40.0°C, at all relative humidities tested; at 43% RH, at all temperatures tested; and at 55% RH, at 32.5 and 35°C. The greatest population growth was recorded at 32.5°C and 75% RH (32-fold growth). L. pearmani males have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 17, 63, and 20%, respectively. Female L. pearmani have two to five instars, and the percentages of females with two, three, four, and five instars were 5, 39, 55, and 1%, respectively. We developed temperature-dependent development equations for male and female eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages. Based on 30-d population growth, L. pearmani cannot survive at temperatures >35.0°C; does not thrive at low relative humidities (55%), at temperatures above 25°C; and has a high optimum relative humidity for population growth (75%). Therefore, we expect it to have a more limited distribution compared with other Liposcelis species. These data provide a better understanding of how temperature and RH may influence L. pearmani population dynamics and can be used in population growth models to help develop effective management strategies for this psocid, and to predict its occurrence.

  3. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in a molluscan egg: Evidence for an animal/vegetal polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Speksnijder, J.E.; Dohmen, M.R.; Zoelen, E. van; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Bluemink, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral diffusion of the lipid analog C₁₄-diI (3', 3'-dihexadecylindocarbocyanine iodide) was measured in the plasma membrane of early embryos of the mollusc Nassarius reticulatus using the FPR-(Fluorescence Photobleaching Recovery) method. At almost all stages measured (from

  4. Contribution to canine babesiosis in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvalinová, J.; Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Svobodová, V.; Svoboda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 2 (2012), s. 91-95 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : dogs * Babesia canis * antibodies * Dermacentor reticulatus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.393, year: 2012

  5. The role of domestic dogs and cats in the zoonotic cycles of ticks and pathogens. Preliminary studies in the Wrocław Agglomeration (SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Nina; Kiewra, Dorota; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Lonc, Elżbieta

    2015-11-30

    The collection of 729 tick specimens (Ixodes ricinus, 88.6%; Ixodes hexagonus, 9.2%; Dermacentor reticulatus, 2.2%) removed from 373 dogs and 78 cats, along with 201 ticks from vegetation (I. ricinus, 75.6%; D. reticulatus, 24.4%), allows one to say that pets play an important role in maintaining tick life cycles in different urban area. It shows the lack of statistical differences between tick intensity in high-impact anthropogenic areas (HIAA), low-impact anthropogenic areas (LIAA) and mixed areas designed, in an objective way, by GIS techniques. The comparable (statistically insignificant) level of infection with Borrelia spp. of I. ricinus from pets (22.5%) and vegetation (24.8%), shows that dogs and cats do not have zooprophylactic competence for Borrelia spp. in different urban areas. Moreover, Borrelia spp. was detected in I. hexagonues (1.5%) collected from pets, and in D. reticulatus (2%) obtained from vegetation. The presence of D. reticulatus in the Wrocław Agglomeration confirms its expansion and the distribution range in Poland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An additional trigeminal system in certain snakes possessing infrared receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Gerard J.

    1974-01-01

    This communication describes a nucleus and tract of the trigeminal system whose existence is not mentioned in any account of brain stem architecture known to the present author. The structures were first recognised in the brain stem of a giant snake (Python reticulatus) and later were also found

  7. External morphology of Liposcelis silvarum (Psocoptera) strain with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kučerová

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... meantime, DNA barcode sequences of mtDNA COI of this geographical strain were tested and analyzed by neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree which showed that it was in the same sub-group with the U.S.A. stock. The origin of L. reticulatus and the necessity of continued comprehensive survey of stored.

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascaridosis in captive reticulated python(Python reticulatus) Abstract PDF · Vol 6, No 1 (2003) - Articles Peste des petits ruminants (PPR)virus antibodies in African grey duiker(Sylvicapra Grimmia) Abstract PDF · Vol 6, No 3 (2003) - Articles Liver cirrhosis associated wiht a non-responsive ascites in a 10 month old alsatian ...

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    cantalupensis Naud. also including former var. reticulatus, inodorus Jacq., conomon (Thunb.) Makino, chito and dudaim (L.) Naud., flexuosus (L.) Naud., and momordica (Roxb.) Duthie et Fuller. The genetic diversity of melon has been assessed using phenotypic (Escribano and Lazaro, 2009; Szamosi et al., 2010), isozymic ...

  10. The toxicity of benomyl, thiophanate-methyl, and BCM to four freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, J H

    1976-08-01

    The EC50 or LC50 values after a 2-day exposure of the three fungicides benomyl, thiophanate-methyl and BCM, have been determined using four freshwater organisms: Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Daphnia magna, Lebistes reticulatus and Salmo gairdneri. The influence of BCM on the reproductive capacity of Daphnia was also investigated and from these data provisional ecological limit was established.

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adejinmi, JO. Vol 5, No 1-2 (2002) - Articles Ascaridosis in captive reticulated python(Python reticulatus) Abstract PDF · Vol 6, No 2 (2003) - Articles Efficacy of some anthelmintics used in porcine practice in Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 7, No 1 (2004) - Articles Studies on the blood parasites of sheep in Ibadan, Nigeria

  12. The new Dytiscidae and Gyrinidae collected during the recent scientific Sumatra- Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Régimbart, M.

    1880-01-01

    Oblongo-ovalis, postice paululum attenuatus, subtilissime reticulatus, infra fusco-ferrugineus, antennis pedibusque testaceo-ferrugineis; capite ac prothorace fulvis, hoc ad basin leviter infuscato; elytris nigro-fuscis, crebre et irregulariter fulvo-irroratis, ad basin fascia lutea transversa et

  13. Description de deux Hydrocoptus (Dytiscidae) nouveaux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Régimbart, M.

    1892-01-01

    Long. 2 1/3 mill. — Oblongo-ovalis, minime attenuatus, convexus, rufus; supra subtilissime reticulatus, subopacus; capite et pronoto rufo-ferrugineis, in medio vage adumbratis, hoc ad latera antice arcuato et postice cum elytris continuo; elytris nigro-fuscis, fortiter reticulatis, subopacis,

  14. Regional differences in the lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in a molluscan embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, J.E.; Dohmen, M.R.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1985-01-01

    Regional and temporal differences in plasma membrane lipid mobility have been analyzed during the first three cleavage cycles of the embryo of the polar-lobe-forming mollusc Nassarius reticulatus by the fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) method, using 1,1′-ditetradecyl

  15. ASCARIDOSIS IN CAPTIVE RETICULATED PYTHON (PYTHON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Two captive reticulated pythons, Python reticulatus, in the Zoological Gardens, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria died and were submitted for necropsy at the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of. Ibadan. Both pythons had been infected with Ascaridia galli for a long period of time ...

  16. Ixodidae ticks in the megapolis of Kyiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ixodidae include the most common tick species encountered in Europe. The ticks transmit a variety of bacterial and protozoan agents of medical and veterinary significance. The aim of the current work was to investigate distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Kyiv, the...

  17. Erstaunliche Lebenszähigkeit einer Riesenschlange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dathe, Heinrich

    1959-01-01

    Am 5. August 1956 traf von Dr. H. Kern auf dem Schiffswege aus Djakarta eine erwachsene Netzschlange, Python reticulatus Schn., von 6.40 m Länge im Tierpark Berlin ein. In ihre Kiste hatte man für den etwa vier Wochen dauernden Schiffstransport ein lebendes Huhn (großer Malaiischer Kämpfer)

  18. The enzootic life-cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and tick-borne rickettsiae: an epidemiological study on wild-living small mammals and their ticks from Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Król, Nina; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Nader, Julian; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-03-13

    Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. While small mammals are confirmed reservoirs for certain Borrelia spp., little is known about the reservoirs for tick-borne rickettsiae. Between 2012 and 2014, ticks were collected from the vegetation and small mammals which were trapped in Saxony, Germany. DNA extracted from ticks and the small mammals' skin was analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.) by qPCR targeting the gltA and p41 genes, respectively. Partial sequencing of the rickettsial ompB gene and an MLST of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) were conducted for species determination. In total, 673 small mammals belonging to eight species (Apodemus agrarius, n = 7; A. flavicollis, n = 214; Microtus arvalis, n = 8; Microtus agrestis, n = 1; Mustela nivalis, n = 2; Myodes glareolus, n = 435; Sorex araneus, n = 5; and Talpa europaea, n = 1) were collected and examined. In total, 916 questing ticks belonging to three species (Ixodes ricinus, n = 741; Dermacentor reticulatus, n = 174; and I. trianguliceps, n = 1) were collected. Of these, 474 ticks were further investigated. The prevalence for Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.) in the investigated small mammals was 25.3 and 31.2%, respectively. The chance of encountering Rickettsia spp. in M. glareolus was seven times higher for specimens infested with D. reticulatus than for those which were free of D. reticulatus (OR: 7.0; 95% CI: 3.3-14.7; P < 0.001). In total, 11.4% of questing I. ricinus and 70.5% of D. reticulatus were positive for Rickettsia spp. DNA of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) was detected only in I. ricinus (5.5%). Sequence analysis revealed 9 R. helvetica, 5 R. raoultii, and 1 R. felis obtained from 15 small mammal samples. Small mammals may serve as reservoirs for Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.). While the prevalence for Rickettsia spp. in M. glareolus is most

  19. [Molluscicide activity of a butanol extract from Phytolacca dodecandra (endod) on Biomphalaria glabrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, C P; Mendes, N M; Araújo, N; Katz, N

    1987-01-01

    A buthanol extract of Phytolacca dodecandra (type 44) obtained from Ethiopia berries, was tested as molluscicide in our laboratory and in the field. The lethal dose (LD90) for adult snails, newly hatched and egg-masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, in 24 hours exposure, were of 4.5, 23.0 and 102.0 ppm respectively. The LD90 for the fish Lebistes reticulatus was of 2.0 ppm. These results are similar to those of Lemma (1984) in Ethiopia. In two water ponds treated with 10 ppm of the buthanol extract or 3 ppm of niclosamide the mortality rates of B. glabrata were of 84.6 and 100.0%, respectively. Both treatments were toxic for L. reticulatus in the field trials. The possibility of using molluscicides derived from plants is discussed as an alternative for treatment of schistosomiasis foci in Brazil.

  20. New records of reptiles from natural open areas of the plateau and South coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Saraiva Kunz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present new records of reptiles from natural open areas of the plateau and coast of the State of Santa Catarina, including the first records of Teius oculatus and Liophis poecilogyrus sublineatus in this State, as well as the first coastal records of Atractus reticulatus, Liophis flavifrenatus, and Thamnodynastes strigatus. Furthermore, we present new records of Xenodon dorbignyi and Oxyrhopus rhombifer from the coast of Santa Catarina and Liophis jaegeri from the plateau.

  1. Structure and ontogeny of the pericarp of six Eupatorieae (Asteraceae with ecological and taxonomic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marzinek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of cypselae and their accessory parts were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy for the species Campuloclinium macrocephalum, Chromolaena stachyophylla, Mikania micrantha, Praxelis pauciflora, Symphyopappus reticulatus, and Vittetia orbiculata, some of these being segregated from the genus Eupatorium. A layer of phytomelanin observed in the fruit appears to be secreted by the outer mesocarp into the schizogenous spaces between the outer and inner mesocarp; its thickness was observed to vary among the different species examined. The bristles of the pappus are vascularized, except in M micrantha, and have cells that are superficially projected and arranged acropetally; in S. reticulatus some of the projections are retrorse and a fracture line on the floral disk that is only seen in this species may indicate a double dispersal process. Numerous differences observed among the cypselae examined here reinforce earlier segregations of the genus Eupatorium sensu lato.A ontogênese das cipselas e de suas partes acessórias em Campuloclinium macrocephalum, Chromolaena stachyophylla, Mikania micrantha, Praxelis pauciflora, Symphyopappus reticulatus e Vittetia orbiculata, parte delas segregadas do gênero Eupatorium, foi estudada em microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. A camada de fitomelanina presente no fruto aparentemente é secretada pelo mesocarpo externo e possui espes-sura variavel entre as especies, depositando-se em espaco esquizógeno entre o mesocarpo externo e interno. As cerdas dos pápus são vascularizadas, exceto em . M. micrantha, e possuem células projetadas superficialmente, dispostas acropetamente; em S. reticulatus, algumas projeções são retrorsas e a presença de linha de fratura sob o disco floral, observada apenas nesta espécie, pode indicar processo duplo de dispersão. As numerosas diferencas registradas entre as cipselas estudadas reforcam se-gregações anteriores do gênero Eupatorium

  2. Atividade moluscicida do extrato butílico de Phytolaca dodecandra (Endod sobre Biomphalaria glabrata Molluscicide activity of a buthanol extract of Phytolacca dodecandra (Endod on Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available O extrato butílico da Phytolacca dodecandra (tipo 44 obtido de frutos procedentes da Etiópia, foi testado como moluscicida em nosso laboratório e no campo. As concentrações letais, CL90, com 24 horas de exposição, para Biomphalaria glabrata adulta, recém-eclodidas e desovadas foram de 4,5, 23,0 e 102,0 ppm, respectivamente. Para peixes, Lebistes reticulatus, a CL90 foi de 2,0 ppm. Esses resultados foram semelhantes aos obtidos por Lemma em 1984, na Etiópia. Em dois criadouros com água parada, tratados com 10ppm de estrato butílico e 3ppm de niclosamida, ocorreu 84,0 e 100,0% de mortalidade B. glabrata, respectivamente. Os dois produtos foram tóxicos para peixes (L. reticulatus no campo. É discutida a possibilidade do uso de moluscidas de origem vegetal, como alternativa para o combate a focos de esquistossomose no Brasil.A buthanol extract of Phytolacca dodecandra (type 44 obtained from Ethiopia berries, was tested as molluscicide in our laboratory and in the field. The lethal dose (LD90 for adult snails, newly hatched and egg-masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, in 24 hours exposure, were of 4.5, 23.0 and 102.0 ppm respectively. The LD90 for the fish Lebistes reticulatus was of 2.0 ppm. These results are similar to those of Lemma (1984 in Ethiopia. In two water ponds treated with 10 ppm of the buthanol extract or 3 ppm of niclosamide the mortality rates of B. glabrata were of 84.6 and 100.0%, respectively. Both treatments were toxic for L. reticulatus in the field trials. The possibility of using molluscicides derived from plants is discussed as an alternative for treatment of schistosomiasis foci in Brazil.

  3. Acute toxicity of vanadium to two species of freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudtson, B.K.

    1979-09-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and guppies (Lebistes reticulatus) were the two freshwater, thermophilous fishes chosen for use in this study. These species were selected for the following reasons: (1) low cost/individual, (2) ready availability, (3) ease of care and handling, (4) suspected differences between the two species in their responses to this metal, and (5) the usefulness of both as generalized models for the response of freshwater and marine fishes to vanadium.

  4. Flora and Fauna on Backs of Large Papuan Moss-Forest Weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressitt, J L; Sedlacek, J; Szent-Ivany, J J

    1965-12-31

    Large, living, flightless weevils feeding on leaves of woody plants high moss forest on various New Guinea mountain ranges have plant growth on their backs. Fungi and algae have been found on 11 species of Gymnopholus, lichens on six species, and liverworts on one species. In other genera of weevils, on the same mountains, there are additional specific associations with fungi, algae, lichens, and liverworts. The fungi and lichens, at least, are inhabited by oribatid mites of a new family, which may spread the plants from beetle to beetle. Also, nematodes, rotifers, psocids, and diatoms occur among the plants. Specialized scales or hairs, and a secretion, in depressions on the weevils' backs, appear to be associated with cpcouragement of the plant growth. Mutualistic symbiotic relationships seem to be clearly indicated.

  5. CAMBRIAN CONODONTS ACROSS THE PRE-FURONGIAN TO FURONGIAN INTERVAL IN THE GSSP SECTION AT PAIBI, HUNAN, SOUTH CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QI YU-PING

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The conterminant base of the Furongian Series and Paibian Stage (Cambrian, as ratified in 2003, is in dark carbonate slope deposits of the Paibi section, Hunan, China, at the FAD of the agnostid trilobite Glyptagnostus reticulatus. Sampling in the boundary interval reveals 38 taxa of protoconodonts and paraconodonts, including two new species, Prosagittodontus telli and Furnishina miao, and some species in open nomenclature. In the investigated interval, Westergaardodina is a minor component of the conodont associations, whereas Furnishina is common. The interval can be subdivided into two informal assemblages: 1 the Furnishina miao assemblage, which extends from the base of the investigated interval to just below the FAD of G. reticulatus; followed by 2 the Furnishina quadrata¡VFurnishina longibasis assemblage, which extends from just above the FAD of G. reticulatus to the top of the studied interval. The conodont succession correlates with trilobite biozones, and approximately correlates with conodont zones previously recognized in South China and North China. The occurrence of Furnishina longibasis allows long distance correlation because it has a short stratigraphic range and has been reported from Sweden and Poland.

  6. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięgiel Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland. Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.

  7. Efficacy of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene for treatment and control of tick species infesting dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Derek; Ollagnier, Catherine; Yoon, Stephen S; Collidor, Nadia; Mallouk, Yasmina; Cramer, Luiz G

    2011-07-15

    Four studies were conducted to show the effectiveness of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene in a spot-on formulation (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) for the therapeutic and preventive control of Ixodid tick species affecting dogs in Europe: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. In each, untreated control dogs were compared to others treated with the novel combination. All dogs were infested with 50 adult, unfed ticks prior to treatment and at 7-day intervals after treatment. Ticks on all dogs were counted at 18, 24 and 48 h after treatment (therapeutic efficacy) or infestation (preventive efficacy). Therapeutic efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene was excellent as shown by significant (p<0.05) and greater than 97% and up to 100% reductions in the 48 h tick counts and significant (p<0.05) detachment/death of ticks evident at 18-24h after treatment for all three tick species. Preventive efficacy was demonstrated by significant (p<0.05) and greater than 93% and up to 100% reductions in tick counts at 48 h after repeat infestations out to 35 days after treatment for I. ricinus and out to 42 days after treatment for D. reticulatus and R. sanguineus. The time to substantial disruption of establishment of new tick infestations after treatment was less than 18-24h and was maintained for up to 28 days after treatment of I. ricinus and D. reticulatus infestations, and 4h to at most 18 h and maintained up to 35 days after treatment of R. sanguineus. Similar preventive efficacy profiles for each of the Ixodid species tested suggest that CERTIFECT kills all Ixodid species starting 4h after contact as demonstrated for R. sanguineus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents – Analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Cornelia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Methods Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice, were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. Results 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Conclusion Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures.

  9. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Hisham Shady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable.

  10. First report of adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (vector of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus on cattle under a continental climate in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornok Sándor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Hungary is being monitored for the northward spreading of thermophilic ixodid species, therefore ticks were collected from cattle and wild ruminants (red, fallow and roe deer in the autumn of 2011. Findings Besides indigenous species (1185 Dermacentor reticulatus and 976 Ixodes ricinus, two Hyalomma marginatum rufipes males were found on two cows, in September eight days apart. Conclusions This is the northernmost autochthonous infestation of the type host (cattle with H. m. rufipes, vector of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. The present findings are suggestive of the moulting success of this Afro-Mediterranean tick species in a continental climate in Central Europe.

  11. Molluscicide activity of a buthanol extract of Phytolacca dodecandra (Endod) on Biomphalaria glabrata

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília Pereira de Souza; Nelimar Martinelli Mendes; Neusa Araújo; Naftale Katz

    1987-01-01

    O extrato butílico da Phytolacca dodecandra (tipo 44) obtido de frutos procedentes da Etiópia, foi testado como moluscicida em nosso laboratório e no campo. As concentrações letais, CL90, com 24 horas de exposição, para Biomphalaria glabrata adulta, recém-eclodidas e desovadas foram de 4,5, 23,0 e 102,0 ppm, respectivamente. Para peixes, Lebistes reticulatus, a CL90 foi de 2,0 ppm. Esses resultados foram semelhantes aos obtidos por Lemma em 1984, na Etiópia. Em dois criadouros com água parada...

  12. Systematics of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species complex (Anura: Hylidae): Cryptic diversity and the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminer, Marcel A; Milá, Borja; Jansen, Martin; Fouquet, Antoine; Venegas, Pablo J; Chávez, Germán; Lougheed, Stephen C; Ron, Santiago R

    2017-01-01

    Genetic data in studies of systematics of Amazonian amphibians frequently reveal that purportedly widespread single species in reality comprise species complexes. This means that real species richness may be significantly higher than current estimates. Here we combine genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic data to assess the phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries of two Amazonian species of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species group: D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum. Our results uncovered the existence of five confirmed and four unconfirmed candidate species. Among the confirmed candidate species, three have available names: Dendropsophus leucophyllatus, Dendropsophus triangulum, and Dendropsophus reticulatus, this last being removed from the synonymy of D. triangulum. A neotype of D. leucophyllatus is designated. We describe the remaining two confirmed candidate species, one from Bolivia and another from Peru. All confirmed candidate species are morphologically distinct and have much smaller geographic ranges than those previously reported for D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum sensu lato. Dendropsophus leucophyllatus sensu stricto occurs in the Guianan region. Dendropsophus reticulatus comb. nov. corresponds to populations in the Amazon basin of Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru previously referred to as D. triangulum. Dendropsophus triangulum sensu stricto is the most widely distributed species; it occurs in Amazonian Ecuador, Peru and Brazil, reaching the state of Pará. We provide accounts for all described species including an assessment of their conservation status.

  13. Systematics of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species complex (Anura: Hylidae): Cryptic diversity and the description of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminer, Marcel A.; Milá, Borja; Jansen, Martin; Fouquet, Antoine; Venegas, Pablo J.; Chávez, Germán; Lougheed, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic data in studies of systematics of Amazonian amphibians frequently reveal that purportedly widespread single species in reality comprise species complexes. This means that real species richness may be significantly higher than current estimates. Here we combine genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic data to assess the phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries of two Amazonian species of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species group: D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum. Our results uncovered the existence of five confirmed and four unconfirmed candidate species. Among the confirmed candidate species, three have available names: Dendropsophus leucophyllatus, Dendropsophus triangulum, and Dendropsophus reticulatus, this last being removed from the synonymy of D. triangulum. A neotype of D. leucophyllatus is designated. We describe the remaining two confirmed candidate species, one from Bolivia and another from Peru. All confirmed candidate species are morphologically distinct and have much smaller geographic ranges than those previously reported for D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum sensu lato. Dendropsophus leucophyllatus sensu stricto occurs in the Guianan region. Dendropsophus reticulatus comb. nov. corresponds to populations in the Amazon basin of Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru previously referred to as D. triangulum. Dendropsophus triangulum sensu stricto is the most widely distributed species; it occurs in Amazonian Ecuador, Peru and Brazil, reaching the state of Pará. We provide accounts for all described species including an assessment of their conservation status. PMID:28248998

  14. A Seventeen-Year Epidemiological Surveillance Study of Borrelia burgdorferi Infections in Two Provinces of Northern Spain

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    Lourdes Lledó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179 from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%, Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%, Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88% and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%. B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries.

  15. Abundance of adult ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, A; Deriabina, T; Morozov, A; Sitnicova, N; Toderas, I; Uspenskaia, I; Alekhnovici, A

    2012-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster resulted in contamination of vast areas in Europe. To date, there is little knowledge about the effects of radioactive contamination on tick species. We sampled ticks from vegetation and large-sized wild mammals belonging to orders Carnivora and Artiodactyla at sites with 0.76, 1.91, and 4.50 mSv/hr ionizing radiation background values in the Polesky State Radio-Ecological Reserve of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster zone in spring 2010. Altogether, 122 questing ticks were collected from vegetation. Among collected ticks, Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius) was, by far, the most abundant species (99.2%), followed by Ixodes ricnus (L.) (0.8%), which was collected only at the 0.76 mSv/hr site. The average sex ratio female∶male was 2.9∶1.0. In parallel with the present study, we examined 3 Sus scrofa (L.), 2 Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray), and 1 Alces alces (L.) at the 4.50 mSv/hr site; 96 D. reticulatus ticks were found on 2 N. procyonoides specimens. The mean density and the intensity of infestation were 16 ticks per animal and 48 ticks per infested animal, respectively. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the role of various tick vectors, vertebrate reservoirs, and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

  16. Efficacy of ozone fumigation against the major grain pests in stored wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, E L; Opit, G P; Hardin, J; Jones, C L; Payton, M E; Beeby, R L

    2011-02-01

    Field experiments were conducted in steel bins containing 13,600 kg of hard red winter wheat, Triiticum aestivum L. One bin was treated with ozone and the second bin served as a control. Stored grain insects were placed in bins for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-d exposure periods in sampling tubes to test ozone concentrations of 0, 25, 50, and 70 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Ozone treatments on eggs and larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) were not effective, but pupae were more susceptible. Sitophilus oryzae (L.) adults were the most susceptible species with 100% mortality reached after 2 d in all ozone treatments. However, some progeny were produced at all concentrations and exposure periods. Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults had 100% mortality only after 4 d at 50 or 70 ppmv. No T. castaneum progeny were produced after 2-4 d at 70 ppmv. For Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), 100% mortality was never achieved and progeny were produced at all ozone concentrations. Laboratory experiments, testing the effectiveness of ozone in controlling psocids, were conducted in two polyvinyl chloride cylinders each containing 55 kg of hard red winter wheat. Ozone treatment at a concentration of 70 ppmv was highly effective against adult female Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and Liposcelis paeta Pearman after only 1 d of exposure. However, it was not effective against eggs of both species at all exposure periods. Ozonation has potential for the control of some stored grain insect pests on wheat.

  17. Cockle infection by Himasthla quissetensis - I. From cercariae emergence to metacercariae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Desclaux-Marchand, Céline; Lavesque, Nicolas; Bachelet, Guy

    2016-07-01

    The European cockle (Cerastoderma edule) is an exploited bivalve along the North-Eastern Atlantic semi-sheltered ecosystems. Its population dynamics are driven by numerous environmental factors, including parasitism, particularly by trematodes. The complex life cycle of trematodes includes a free living stage (cercaria) between the first (a mollusk) and the second (an invertebrate or a vertebrate) intermediate hosts. Taking the example of Himasthla quissetensis, a dominant trematode in Arcachon Bay (France) utilizing Nassarius reticulatus as first intermediate host and the cockle as second intermediate host, we investigated the correlation between cockle infection and cercariae emergence by N. reticulatus, including the role of water temperature and light. Experimental and field data provided evidence that cercariae emergence from N. reticulatus took place during the night and for water temperature comprised between 15 °C and 22 °C (optimum at 20 °C). The lifespan of cercariae did not exceed 48 h and 50% of them were no more infectious after 7 h. A model was designed (emergence = f(water temperature)) in order to calculate an average monthly cercarial emergence rate according to water temperature that was daily recorded for 5 years (1998-2002). Concomitantly, non-infected cockles were transplanted each of these years in order to assess the infection rate by H. quissetensis. Infection occurred strictly for the same water temperatures (and dates) as those expected for cercariae emergence. Within each year, there was often (but not always) a good correlation between the predicted number of emerging cercariae and the observed number of cercariae transformed into metacercariae in cockles. However, the among-years variability of cockle infection (× 4.4 range) was not explained by the predicted annual number of emerging cercariae. This study highlights the importance of water temperature and light in stimulating cercariae emergence which is closely related to the

  18. Detection of selected pathogens in ticks collected from cats and dogs in the Wrocław Agglomeration, South-West Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Nina; Obiegala, Anna; Pfeffer, Martin; Lonc, Elżbieta; Kiewra, Dorota

    2016-06-21

    Tick-borne infections are no longer confined to rural areas, they are documented with increasing frequency in urban settlements across the world. They are known to cause diseases in humans as well as in their companion animals. During a period of 2 years, from January 2013 until December 2014, ticks were collected from dogs and cats in 18 veterinary clinics in the Wrocław Agglomeration, Poland. In total, 1455 ticks were found on 931 pets: 760 domestic dogs and 171 cats. For molecular examinations 127 I. ricinus ticks (115 females and 12 males) were randomly selected, all collected I. hexagonus (n = 137, 32 females, 98 nymphs, 7 larvae) and all collected D. reticulatus (n = 46, 31 females, 15 males) were taken. Ixodes ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks were tested for Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Babesia spp., while D. reticulatus ticks were investigated for Rickettsia spp. and Babesia spp. only. In total, 65.4 % I. ricinus ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. Over 50 % of I. ricinus were positive for Rickettsia spp. (R. helvetica and R. monacensis). The infection level with A. phagocytophilum was 21.3 %. DNA of Cand. N. mikurensis was detected in 8.1 % I. ricinus ticks. Interestingly only female ticks were infected. The prevalence of Babesia spp. was confirmed in 9.0 % of I. ricinus involving the species B. microti and B. venatorum. A total of nineteen double, one triple and two quadruple infections were found in I. ricinus ticks only. Almost 11 % of I. hexagonus ticks were positive for at least one of the tested pathogens. Rickettsia spp. infection was found in 2.2 %, while A. phagocytophilum was detected in 8.1 % of I. hexagonus ticks. Only one nymph was positive for Cand. N. mikurensis and none of I. hexagonus ticks harbored a Babesia spp. Over 60 % of D. reticulatus ticks were positive for rickettsial DNA, exclusively belonging to the species R. raoultii. The high tick infestation

  19. Laboratory evaluations of the immediate and sustained effectiveness of lotilaner (Credelio™) against three common species of ticks affecting dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalleri, Daniela; Murphy, Martin; Gorbea, Regina Lizundia; Seewald, Wolfgang; Drake, Jason; Nanchen, Steve

    2017-11-01

    There is a continuing need for novel approaches to tick control in dogs. One such approach lies in the ability of lotilaner (Credelio™), an isoxazoline with a rapid onset of action, to provide sustained efficacy against ticks. Two studies were undertaken to confirm lotilaner's efficacy, at the minimum dose rate of 20 mg/kg, against the three most common tick species in Europe. In each of two studies, 16 Beagle dogs, at least 6 months old, were ranked and blocked by tick counts from infestations placed approximately 1 week before treatment. Within blocks, dogs were randomized to receive either lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets at as close as possible to, but not less than the minimum dose rate of 20 mg/kg, or to be sham-treated controls. Study 1 assessed lotilaner efficacy against concurrent infestations with 50 (± 6) Rhipicephalus sanguineus and 70 (± 6) Ixodes ricinus; Study 2 infestations were with 50 (± 2) Dermacentor reticulatus. Infestations were performed on Day -2 with counts on Day 2, 48 (± 2) hours post-treatment. Post-treatment infestations were performed on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35, and ticks were counted 48 (±2) hours post-infestations. Efficacy was determined by the percent reduction in mean live tick counts. Control group infestations for each tick species were adequate for assessing lotilaner efficacy at all assessment times. On Day 2 no live ticks were found on any lotilaner-treated dog. For subsequent counts, in Study 1 lotilaner was 100% effective in eliminating live I. ricinus and R. sanguineus on all but two occasions for each tick; on each of those occasions efficacy was sustained at greater than 98.0%. In Study 2, except for a single unattached live tick found on Day 16, efficacy against D. reticulatus was 100% at every post-treatment assessment. The high and sustained efficacy against the three common species of ticks in Europe, R. sanguineus, I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, demonstrates that lotilaner can be a valuable tool in

  20. Laboratory evaluations of the immediate and sustained effectiveness of lotilaner (Credelio™ against three common species of ticks affecting dogs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a continuing need for novel approaches to tick control in dogs. One such approach lies in the ability of lotilaner (Credelio™, an isoxazoline with a rapid onset of action, to provide sustained efficacy against ticks. Two studies were undertaken to confirm lotilaner’s efficacy, at the minimum dose rate of 20 mg/kg, against the three most common tick species in Europe. Methods In each of two studies, 16 Beagle dogs, at least 6 months old, were ranked and blocked by tick counts from infestations placed approximately 1 week before treatment. Within blocks, dogs were randomized to receive either lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets at as close as possible to, but not less than the minimum dose rate of 20 mg/kg, or to be sham-treated controls. Study 1 assessed lotilaner efficacy against concurrent infestations with 50 (± 6 Rhipicephalus sanguineus and 70 (± 6 Ixodes ricinus; Study 2 infestations were with 50 (± 2 Dermacentor reticulatus. Infestations were performed on Day -2 with counts on Day 2, 48 (± 2 hours post-treatment. Post-treatment infestations were performed on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35, and ticks were counted 48 (±2 hours post-infestations. Efficacy was determined by the percent reduction in mean live tick counts. Results Control group infestations for each tick species were adequate for assessing lotilaner efficacy at all assessment times. On Day 2 no live ticks were found on any lotilaner-treated dog. For subsequent counts, in Study 1 lotilaner was 100% effective in eliminating live I. ricinus and R. sanguineus on all but two occasions for each tick; on each of those occasions efficacy was sustained at greater than 98.0%. In Study 2, except for a single unattached live tick found on Day 16, efficacy against D. reticulatus was 100% at every post-treatment assessment. Conclusion The high and sustained efficacy against the three common species of ticks in Europe, R. sanguineus, I. ricinus and D

  1. Intra-regional transportation of a tugboat fouling community between the ports of recife and natal, northeast Brazil

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    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the incrusting and sedentary animals associated with the hull of a tugboat active in the ports of Pernambuco and later loaned to the port of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Thus, areas with dense biofouling were scraped and the species then classified in terms of their bioinvasive status for the Brazilian coast. Six were native to Brazil, two were cryptogenic and 16 nonindigenous; nine of the latter were classified as established (Musculus lateralis, Sphenia fragilis, Balanus trigonus, Biflustra savartii, Botrylloides nigrum, Didemnum psammatodes, Herdmania pallida, Microscosmus exasperatus, and Symplegma rubra and three as invasive (Mytilopsis leucophaeta, Amphibalanus reticulatus, and Striatobalanus amaryllis. The presence of M. leucophaeata, Amphibalanus eburneus and A. reticulatus on the boat's hull propitiated their introduction onto the Natal coast. The occurrence of a great number of tunicate species in Natal reflected the port area's benthic diversity and facilitated the inclusion of two bivalves - Musculus lateralis and Sphenia fragilis - found in their siphons and in the interstices between colonies or individuals, respectively. The results show the role of biofouling on boat hulls in the introduction of nonindigenous species and that the port of Recife acts as a source of some species.Este trabalho objetivou identificar os animais incrustantes e sedentários associados ao casco de um rebocador que atuava nos Portos de Pernambuco e foi cedido para o Porto de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Áreas com densa bioincrustação foram raspadas e as espécies foram posteriormente classificadas em relação ao status de bioinvasão no litoral brasileiro. Dentre as espécies identificadas, seis eram nativas do Brasil, duas criptogênicas e 16 exóticas. Destas, oito foram classificadas como estabelecidas (Musculus lateralis, Sphenia fragilis, Balanus trigonus, Biflustra savartii, Botrylloides nigrum, Didemnum psammatodes

  2. Five new species of the genus Philydrodes Bernhauer, 1929 from China (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae: Anthophagini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrin, Alexey V

    2017-02-09

    Five new species of the subgenus Minyphilydrodes of the genus Philydrodes Bernhauer, 1929 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae: Anthophagini) from China are described and illustrated: Ph. tridentatus sp.n. (Hubei, Gansu, Shaanxi and Sichuan), Ph. tibetanus sp.n. (Yunnan), Ph. reticulatus sp.n. (Shaanxi), Ph. wrasei sp.n. (Sichuan) and Ph. michaeli sp.n. (Sichuan). The morphological features of Philydrodes, differences between Japanese and Chinese species, the relations of the genus with other taxa of the tribe Anthophagini Thomson, 1859 are briefly discussed. A key to the species of the genus from China and a distribution map are provided. The genus Philydrodes is recorded from continental Asia and China for the first time.

  3. STRATIGRAPHY AND FUSULINIDS OF THE MOSCOVIAN STAGE (MIDDLE CARBONIFEROUS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN DARVAZ (PAMIR

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    ERNST JA. LEVEN

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A refined subdivision, based on fusulinids, of the Moscovian stage in southwestern Darvaz is proposed. Seven local zones, three in the Lower Moscovian substage and four in the Upper Moscovian substage were established, based on investigations of three stratigraphic sections. The zones were correlated with those of the Eastern European and Middle Asian stratigraphic schemes. One hundred and forty-three species and subspecies, which belong to 29 genera and 13 families of fusulinids, were identified in the Middle Carboniferous of Darvaz. Among them, one genus (Undatafusulina and 16 species, i.e. Taitzehoella compacta, Ovatella panjensis, Aljutovella darvasica, Undatafusulina asiatica, Citronites panjensis, C. reticulatus, Beedeina darvasica, B. dutkevichi, Putrella admiranda, Hemifusulina orientalis, Fusulinella (Moellerites subundulata, F. (M. jucunda, F. (M. orientalis, F.(Fusulinella crassitectoria, F. (F. bogushi, and F. (F. pamirensis are new. 

  4. The ITS2 of the genus Bulinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Aslak; Stothard, J. R.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    delineation and several molecular methods have recently been used for identification and characterization purposes. Inspection of compensatory base changes (CBCs) in the secondary structure of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) has been used to differentiate species in other genera......, and here we present a study investigating the presence of CBCs between species in the species groups within Bulinus. CBCs were present within B. forskalii and B. globosus indicating that these widely distributed taxa might constitute cryptic species complexes. However, other currently recognized species...... could not be distinguished by CBC analysis. The putative secondary structure of the very long ITS2 sequence of the B. reticulatus species group had an additional helix (D. IIa) between D. II and D. III not seen in other species groups of Bulinus. The accumulation and inspection of further ITS2 sequences...

  5. Ground-living spiders (Araneae at polluted sites in the Subarctic

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    Koponen, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders were studied around the Pechenganikel smelter combine, Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia. The average spider density was 6-fold greater and the density of Linyphiidae specimens 11.5-fold higher at slightly polluted sites, compared with heavily polluted sites. Altogether, 18 species from 10 families were found at heavily polluted sites, the theridiid Robertus scoticus clearly dominating (23.3 % of identifiable specimens, also Neon reticulatus (9.6 %, Thanatus formicinus (9.6 % and Xysticus audax (8.2 % were abundant. The most numerous among 58 species found at slightly polluted sites were Tapinocyba pallens (18.5 %, Robertus scoticus (13.7 %, Maso sundevalli (9.5 % and Alopecosa aculeata (8.2 %. The family Linyphiidae dominated at slightly polluted sites, 64 % of species and 60 % of individuals; compared with heavily polluted sites, 23 % and 38 % respectively.

  6. Checklist of Fishes from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, México

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    Salvador Zarco Perello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first list of fish species from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, Gulf of México. Field surveys and literature review identified 54 species belonging to 8 orders, 30 families and 43 genera, comprising both conspicuous and cryptic fishes. Species richness was lower at this reef site compared to reefs in the Mexican Caribbean, Veracruz or Tuxpan, but was similar to other reefs in the same region. Species composition was a mixture of species present in all the reef systems of the Mexican Atlantic. Hypoplectrus ecosur was recorded here for the first time in the Gulf of Mexico, Mycteroperca microlepis, Equetus lanceolatus and Chaetodipterus faber were new records for the reefs of the Campeche Bank, Elacatinus xanthiprora was recorded for the second time in Mexico and expanded its known distribution westwards from Alacranes Reef and Sanopus reticulatus, endemic of the Yucatan state, was recorded here for the first time on a reef.

  7. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini with description of fourteen new species

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    Adriana Oliva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: B. aragua sp. n., B. asymmetricus sp. n., B. capanaparo sp. n., B. castaneus sp. n., B. corozo sp. n., B. ebeninus sp. n., B. garciai sp. n., B. humeralis sp. n., B. jolyi sp. n., B. llanensis sp. n., B. megaphallus sp. n., B. ornaticollis sp. n., B. repertus sp. n., and B. tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: B. ambogynus Mouchamps, B. consobrinus Knisch, B. elegans Knisch, B. geayi d’Orchymont, B. ghanicus d’Orchymont, B. guyanensis Queney, B. holdhausi Knisch, B. marquardti Knisch, B. olivae Queney, B. reticulatus Knisch, B. wintersteineri Knisch, and B. zimmermanni Knisch.

  8. A SYNOPSIS OF ALISMATACEAE FROM THE SEMI-ARID REGION OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    LIGIA QUEIROZ MATIAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Alismataceae (excluded Limnocharitaceae comprises twelve genera of herbaceous aquatic plants. Only two of its genera (Echinodorus and Sagittaria are native to the Neotropics. A survey of the species of Alismataceae confirmed the occurrence of four taxa of Sagittaria and eleven of Echinodorus from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Analytical keys to differentiate the genera and species are provided, as well as illustrations of their taxonomic characteristics and data on their geographical distribution. Echinodorus macrocarpus to be considered synonymous with E. pubescens. Echinodorus reticulatus is considered as a different species from E. longipetalus. There are five excluded taxa from the Brazilian semi-arid region: E. grandiflorus, E. macrophyllus, E. martii, E. bolivianus, and E. decumbens.

  9. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G.; Giménez-Pardo, C.; Gegúndez, M.I.; Lledó, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited. PMID:21894267

  10. Avaliação de fontes de cálcio na cultura do melão tipo 'Gália' sob cultivo protegido

    OpenAIRE

    Faria,Eva Cintra D. de; Carrijo,Osmar A.; Moretti,Celso L.

    2004-01-01

    Um experimento com a cultura de Melão (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus), do tipo Gália, híbrido Galileo foi conduzido sob cultivo protegido, em vasos, na Embrapa Hortaliças, em Brasília-DF, de setembro a dezembro de 2001. Foram avaliadas 5 formas de aplicação de cálcio (calagem, calagem mais fertirrigação com nitrato de cálcio, cálcio tamponado, cálcio quelatizado e cloreto de cálcio) além do tratamento controle, sem cálcio. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratame...

  11. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez-Peñafiel G.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species and domestic (n = 69; 3 species animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited.

  12. Biodiversity of Ticks and Fleas of Dogs in the Western Balkans – Preliminary Examinations

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    Ivan Pavlovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks and fleas infestation is the most common ectoparasitic condition of dogs with worldwide distribution. In period 2011-2013 we performed preliminary study on the biodiversity of ticks and flea of dogs, from the Western Balkan area. Parasites were collected from dogs in veterinary practices from several cities in various part of Serbia, Macedonia, Republic Srpska (BiH and Montenegro. During of the study of relative abundance analysis revealed that the species Ixodes ricinus was absolutely dominant, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus and D. reticulatus. At same examinations three flea species were found at dogs Ctenocephalides felis felis was the most abundant, followed by Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans.

  13. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE IN BULGARIA

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    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigation led to the conclusion that the same types are also presented in Bulgarian species: – C.biflorus –type, or syncolpate and C.vernus – type, or inaperturate. Eight of the species belong to the first type and only C. pallasii belongs to the second. The pollen of C. reticulatus is with quite unclear aperture – maybe transition to the inaperturate type.

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica®) in the prevention of babesiosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Six, Robert; Becskei, Csilla; Maeder, Steven; Lloyd, Anne; Mahabir, Sean; Fourie, Josephus; Liebenberg, Julian

    2017-09-06

    Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused among others by the protozoan Babesia canis. The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica®; Zoetis; at the minimum recommended label dose of 2.0 mg per kg bodyweight) in the prevention of babesiosis was evaluated in twenty-four dogs randomly allocated to either a placebo-treated group or one of two sarolaner-treated groups. At 21 or 28 days after treatment administration, dogs were infested with 50 ± 4 Dermacentor reticulatus ticks of which 25% were confirmed to be infected with Babesia canis. Blood samples were collected from each dog prior to tick infestation and weekly thereafter until 49 days after infestation. The blood was assayed for B. canis antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT) and for B. canis DNA by PCR assay. A dog was a priori defined as B. canis-positive if it tested positive by both IFAT and PCR at any time during the study. No treatment-related adverse reactions were recorded during the study. All placebo-treated animals displayed clinical signs due to babesiosis and tested positive on both IFAT and PCR. None of the sarolaner-treated animals displayed any clinical symptoms or tested positive on both IFAT and PCR, resulting in a 100% efficacy in the prevention of canine babesiosis (P = 0.0002). When given 21 or 28 days before tick infestation, a single treatment with sarolaner at the minimum recommended label dose of 2.0 mg per kg body weight prevented the transmission of B. canis by D. reticulatus to dogs.

  15. Efficacy of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner against four common tick species infesting cats in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Becskei, Csilla; Vatta, Adriano F; Slootmans, Nathalie; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; King, Vickie L; Lin, Dan; Rugg, Douglas

    2017-04-01

    A single application of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Stronghold®Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated for efficacy against the most common tick species infesting cats in Europe. In each of the seven laboratory studies, 16 adult and purpose-bred cats were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment tick counts. Weekly infestations with 50 unfed adult Ixodes ricinus (2 studies), Ixodes hexagonus (1 study), Dermacentor reticulatus (2 studies), or Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2 studies) were scheduled on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Cats were treated on Day 0 with the spot-on formulation at the minimum recommended label dose of 6.0mg selamectin and 1.0mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight or with a placebo. Ticks were counted 48h after treatment and after each re-infestation. No treatment-related adverse reactions were recorded in any of the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly (P≤0.0012) lower in the selamectin/sarolaner-treated group compared to the placebo-treated group at all time-points. Against I. ricinus and I. hexagonus, efficacy was ≥97.2% against existing infestations and ≥97.4% against weekly re-infestations for at least 5 weeks. Treatment was 100% effective against existing R. sanguineus infestations and was ≥95.8% for at least 4 weeks. Against D. reticulatus treatment resulted in ≥94.4% efficacy for at least 4 weeks. Thus, a single application of the new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner at the minimum dose provides rapid treatment of existing infestations and is at least one month effective against re-infestation by all relevant European tick species in cats. Copyright © 2017 Zoetis Services LLC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The heavy metals content in wild growing mushrooms from burdened Spiš area

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    Marek Slávik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the rate of entry of heavy metals into the edible parts of wild mushrooms, from central Spiš area. The area is characterized by extremely high content of heavy metals particularly mercury in abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The toxicity of heavy metals is well known and described. Known is also the ability of fungi to accumulate contaminants from substrates in which mushrooms grow. We have collected commonly consumed species of mushrooms (Russula vesca., Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Lecinum piceinum, Boletus reticulatus. Sampling was conducted for two years 2012 and 2013. The samples taken mushrooms and substrates on which to grow, we determined heavy metal content (Cd, Pb, Cu, including total mercury content modified by atomic absorption spectrometry (AMA - 254. In the substrate, we determined the humus content and pH value. The heavy metal content in soils were evaluated according to Law no. 220/2004 Z.z The exceedance limit values of Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg was recorded. Most significantly the respective limit was recorded in soil samples in the case of mercury. The determined concentration Hg was 39.01 mg.kg-1. From the results, we evaluated the degree of ability to bioaccumulate heavy metals different kinds of fungi. We also evaluated the health safety of the consumption of these fungi on the comparison with the limit values provided in the food code of SR. We recorded a high rate of accumulation of mercury in the species Boletus reticulatus and Macrolepiota procera. For these types we recorded the most significant than allowed concentrations of mercury in mushrooms. The highest recorded concentration reached 17.64 mg.kg-1 Hg in fresh matter. The limit value was exceeded also in the case of copper. We do not recommend to increased consumption of wild mushrooms in the reference area.

  17. Differences in retinoid levels and metabolism among gastropod lineages: imposex-susceptible gastropods lack the ability to store retinoids in the form of retinyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesto, Manuel; Castro, L Filipe C; Santos, Miguel Machado

    2013-10-15

    The presence of a complex retinoid system was long believed to be a chordate/vertebrate novelty. However, recent findings indicate otherwise since the gastropod mollusk Osilinus lineatus was found to have the capacity to store retinoids in the form of retinyl esters (REs), a key feature to maintain a homeostatic control of retinoid levels. Here, we investigated whether such a complex retinoid system is widely distributed among gastropod lineages. Additionally, since one of the most spectacular examples of endocrine disruption in the wild, the masculinization of female gastropods (imposex) by the retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, tributyltin (TBT), has been linked with perturbed retinoid signaling, we also investigated if retinoid storage mechanisms in the form of retinyl esters were present in imposex-susceptible gastropods. Initially, we determined the presence of both polar (active retinoic acid isomers) and nonpolar retinoids (retinol, REs) in selected gastropod species: the limpet Patella depressa and the imposex-susceptible whelks Nucella lapillus and Nassarius reticulatus. Although all species presented active retinoid forms, N. lapillus and N. reticulatus were shown to lack nonpolar retinoids. The absence of REs, which are the common retinoid storage form found in vertebrates and in O. lineatus suggest that those species are unable to use them to maintain a homeostatic control of their retinoid levels. In order to further clarify the retinoid metabolic pathways in imposex-susceptible gastropods, a retinoid exposure study was carried out with N. lapillus. The results demonstrate that although N. lapillus is able to metabolize several retinoid precursors, it lacks the capacity to store retinoids as REs. Whether the lack of retinoid storage mechanisms in the form of REs in imposex-susceptible gastropods plays an important role in the susceptibility to RXR agonists warrants additional studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of thyroid neoplasia in old age in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

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    Woodhead, A.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    In a previous paper we have described the appearance of a thyrotrophin sensitive thyroid neoplasm in a few senile individuals from a laboratory population of guppies, Lebistes reticulatus (Peters). Material has now been examined from the closely related species, Poecilia formosa, the Amazon molly, in which the incidence of thyroid neoplasms in the senile fish of our clones approaches 100 percent. The spontaneous growth seen in the old mollies was large, occupying much of the pharyngeal region. It was formed of three zones; at the center were inactive follicles with flattened epithelial cells enclosing a dense uneroded colloid. Peripherally, there was an area which microfollicles predominated, and the follicular epithelial cells frequently were swollen and balloon-like. The outermost area of the growth contained many afollicular groups of epithelial cells, lying amongst a great deal of loose connective tissue. The thyroid tissue was invasive, destroying muscle and bone. We have suggested that the spontaneous thyroid neoplasia in old P. formosa and L. reticulatus arise in a similar way. They develop as a result of the inability of the aging thyroid to respond to thyrotrophic hormone. Under continued pituitary stimulation the thyroid cells greatly proliferate and hypertrophy, and form a neoplasia. The appearance is described of massive thyroid growths which were experimentally induced by the injection into young mollies of cells with damaged DNA. There were striking differences between the induced and the spontaneous thyroid growths. The neoplasia of old fish was highly variable in structure, but the induced neoplasia had a regular appearance. Neoplastic tissue closely resembled normal thyroid tissue--but the growth was exuberant and highly invasive. We suggest that the differences between the neoplasm of old age and the induced neoplasm may reflect a different hormonal status.

  19. De Novo Assembly, Gene Annotation, and Marker Discovery in Stored-Product Pest Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) Using Transcriptome Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dan-Dan; Chen, Er-Hu; Ding, Tian-Bo; Chen, Shi-Chun; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    or environmental stress, and will facilitate studies on population genetics for psocids, as well as providing useful information for functional genomic research in the future. PMID:24244605

  20. De novo assembly, gene annotation, and marker discovery in stored-product pest Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein using transcriptome sequences.

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    Dan-Dan Wei

    insecticide resistance or environmental stress, and will facilitate studies on population genetics for psocids, as well as providing useful information for functional genomic research in the future.

  1. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The collars eliminated

  2. Divergência genética entre cinco genótipos de melão rendilhado Genetic divergence among five muskmelon cultivars

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    Adriana Antonieta do Nascimento Rizzo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se a divergência genética entre cinco genótipos de melão rendilhado (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus Naud. (JAB-20, JAB-21, JAB-22, JAB-23 e 'Bônus nº 2' e determinou-se qual a contribuição relativa das 16 características avaliadas [nº médio de flores masculinas, hermafroditas/planta; produção total de frutos/m², peso médio dos frutos comerciáveis; diâmetro médio transversal e longitudinal do fruto (DMTF e DMLF; diâmetro médio transversal da inserção do pedúculo (DMTP; espessura média do mesocarpo e epicarpo (EMM e EME; diâmetro médio longitudinal e transversal do lóculo (DMTL e DMLL; proporção da cavidade (PC; desprendimento de sementes (DS; teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, pH e acidez titulável (AT] na divergência gen��tica. Obtiveram-se dois grupos de similaridade: I- JAB-20, JAB-21 e 'Bônus nº2' e II- JAB-22 e JAB-23. As características DMLF, DMTP, DMLL, DS e SST foram as que mais contribuíram para a divergência genética entre os genótipos.The genetic divergence of five cultivars of muskmelon was estimated (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus Naud (JAB-20, JAB-21, JAB-22, JAB-23 and 'Bônus nº2' and the relative contribution of each 16 characteristics were determined (number of male flowers per plant; total production of fruit, weight of fruits; longitudinal and transversal diameters of fruits; thickness and color of flesh and skin; longitudinal and transversal loculos diameter of fruits; seed loosing; netting thickness; and % total solvers solids, pH and total acidity in genetic divergence. Two groups of similarity were formed between the genitors by the values of D², one of then was constituted of the JAB-20 and JAB-21 and 'Bônus nº 2' genotypes, and another of the JAB-22 and JAB-23. The characteristics of longitudinal loculos diameters, longitudinal diameter of fruits, transversal diameter of peduncle insertion, % total solvers solids and seed loosing contributed to for genetic

  3. Introduced and cryptogenic species and their management in Paranaguá Bay, Brazil

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    Carolina Somaio Neves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the introduced and cryptogenic species in encrusting and associated communities of hard substrates in Paranaguá Bay, Brazil, and to attempt to determine which of these species could negatively affect the local community to suggest management strategies for these species. At least four introduced species were found - a large number in comparison with other port surveys. These were the hydrozoan Garveia franciscana Torrey, 1902, the polychaete Polydora cornuta Bosc, 1902, the barnacles Amphibalanus reticulatus (Utinoni, 1967 and Striatobalanus amaryllis Darwin, 1854, all with potentially harmful impacts. Of the 33 cryptogenic species, four were also listed in the literature as causing negative effects. We propose the following management practices: periodic cleaning of all underwater structures, population monitoring of invasive species and potential substrates, an information database of potential sources of introduction.Espécies marinhas exóticas (= não-nativas podem afetar drasticamente as comunidades das regiões em que são introduzidas. Prever quais espécies possuem maiores chances de causar impactos negativos é extremamente importante. Neste estudo, identificamos espécies introduzidas e criptogênicas entre as espécies incrustantes e associadas das comunidades que ocorrem nos substratos consolidados da marina do Iate Clube de Paranaguá. Com base em literatura, verificamos quais destas espécies são capazes de afetar negativamente a comunidade local e sugerimos recomendações para seu manejo adequado. Quatro espécies introduzidas foram identificadas, o que é uma cifra elevada quando comparada a outros levantamentos de biotas portuárias: o hidrozoário Garveia franciscana Torrey, 1902, o poliqueta Polydora cornuta Bosc, 1902, e as cracas Amphibalanus reticulatus (Utinoni, 1967 e Striatobalanus amaryllis Darwin, 1854, todas com efeitos negativos já registrados em outros locais. Entre as 33

  4. Imposex in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867) as a possible investigative tool to monitor butyltin contamination according to the Water Framework Directive: A case study in the Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Federica; Noventa, Seta; Antonini, Camilla; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Gion, Claudia; Berto, Daniela; Gabellini, Massimo; Brusà, Rossella Boscolo

    2016-01-07

    Butyltin (TBT, DBT, and MBT) effects on molluscs, especially endocrine disruption in bivalves and gastropods, have been widely investigated. Imposex, the superimposition of male characters onto female gonochoristic Caenogastropods, is the most studied biological effect of TBT. TBT compounds are among the priority hazardous substances within Directives 2000/60/EC (WFD) and 2008/105/EC. The Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) set by the WFD for TBT are quite difficult to quantify by means of chemical analysis, without the use of expensive and high performance methods. Assuming that EQSs set for TBT were derived from evidence of imposex development at very low concentrations, this specific biomarker could be used as an indirect measure of assessing levels of bioavailable BTs. Therefore, this study aims to validate the use of imposex development as an investigative tool to monitor the bioavailable fraction of BTs within the WFD, by comparing imposex levels and BT concentrations in Nassarius nitidus from the Venice Lagoon. BT concentrations and imposex levels in N. nitidus, collected in 2013, had decreased when compared to previous studies in the same area. Both VDSI and RPLI correlated positively with BT body burden in females, confirming that imposex is a valid tool to monitor bioavailable BTs. However, TBT is still a matter of concern in the Venice Lagoon, as TBT concentrations were still higher than its degradation products suggesting recent fresh TBT inputs in the studied area. To propose imposex levels as an indicator of the impact of BTs within the WFD, classification class boundaries and Ecological Quality Ratios were introduced. As a preliminary attempt, imposex levels were also compared to the OSPAR Commission EcoQOs which linked imposex levels in Nassarius reticulatus with TBT concentrations in water. Based on this comparison the degree of imposex development in the Venice Lagoon suggested that TBT concentrations in water should be over the EQS

  5. Revisión sistemática del género Halictillus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Augochlorini en la Argentina Systematic revision of the genus Halictillus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Augochlorini in Argentina

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    Rocío A. González-Vaquero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre los grupos basales de la tribu Augochlorini, se encuentra el género de abejas Halictillus Moure, con sólo dos especies descriptas y ninguna revisión sistemática hasta el momento. En este trabajo, se describen cuatro especies nuevas de Halictillus de la Argentina y Chile. Las especies nuevas son: H. amplilobus sp. nov. (de Buenos Aires, Córdoba y Río Negro, H. peninsularis sp. nov. (de la Península de Valdés, Chubut, H. badiclypeus sp. nov. (de Mendoza, La Rioja y Catamarca y H. reticulatus sp. nov. (de las zonas occidentales de Chubut, Neuquén y Río Negro en la Argentina, y las regiones de La Araucanía y Los Lagos en Chile. Se presenta una clave para la determinación de las seis especies que componen el género, así como descripciones detalladas, imágenes de microscopio electrónico de barrido y un mapa de distribución geográfica de las especies nuevas.Among the basal genera of the tribe Augochlorini is the bee genus Halictillus Moure, which comprises only two described species and has no systematic revision at the moment. Four new species of Halictillus from Argentina and Chile are described in this contribution: H. amplilobus sp. nov. (from Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Río Negro Provinces, H. peninsularis sp. nov. (from Península Valdés, Chubut Province, H. badiclypeus sp. nov. (from Mendoza, La Rioja and Catamarca Provinces and H. reticulatus sp. nov. (from western Chubut, Neuquén and Río Negro Provinces in Argentina, and the regions of La Araucanía and Los Lagos in Chile. A key to the six species of the genus, as well as detailed descriptions, scanning electron microscope images and a map with distributional data of the new species are provided.

  6. Concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva e número de frutos sobre a qualidade de frutos de melão Nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits on quality of melon fruits

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    Luis Felipe Villani Purquerio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, na UNESP-FCAV, em Jaboticabal (SP, de junho a novembro de 2001, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade dos frutos do meloeiro (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, híbrido Bônus nº2, cultivado em sistema hidropônico NFT, em função da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva (80; 140; 200 e 300 mg L-1 e do número de fruto por planta (2; 3; 4 e livre. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável foram maiores em frutos colhidos de plantas com menor número de frutos pré-estabelecidos. O aumento da concentração de N na solução nutritiva proporcionou aumento na acidez total titulável e nenhum efeito sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Houve redução nos diâmetros longitudinal, transversal e na espessura do mesocarpo com o aumento da concentração de N, bem como com o aumento do número de frutos por planta. O índice de formato de fruto manteve-se igual ou muito próximo a 1.The effect of nitrogen concentrations (80; 140; 200 and 300 mg L-1 and fruit number per plant (2; 3; 4 and free setting, on the quality of net melon fruits (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, Bonus nº 2 hybrid was investigated. The experiment was carried out at UNESP-FCAV, Jaboticabal, Brazil, using a NFT hydroponic system, from June to November/2001. The experimental design was of randomized split plots, with six replications. Total soluble solids content and total acidity were higher in fruits harvested from plants with a smaller number of pre-set fruits. A slight increase was observed on total acidity due to the increase of nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution, without any significant effect on total soluble solids. An increase of the N concentration and the number of fruits per plant resulted in a reduction of fruit longitudinal and transversal diameters and pulp thickness. Fruit

  7. Ticks on dogs and cats: a pet owner-based survey in a rural town in northeastern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Ramon Marc; Deplazes, Peter; Mathis, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the endemic foci of tick populations and invasions of tick species to new areas have become evident in Europe, leading to changes in the epidemiology of tick-transmitted diseases. However, data about tick infestations of pet animals are limited. Following the recent identification of a new focus of canine babesiosis in northeastern Switzerland, we investigated the occurrence of tick vectors in this region by using a pet owner-based sampling strategy. All dog owners in a rural town were sent postal requests to send ticks from their dogs and cats over two consecutive years, beginning in April 2012. In total 3003 ticks were submitted for identification from 249 dogs (approximately 20% of the resident dog population) and from 117 cats. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species identified in 96.8% (n=2124) and 74.3% (n=601) of the individual samples submitted from dogs and cats, respectively. Two other tick species, I. hexagonus and Dermacentor reticulatus, were recorded on both host species, with host infestation prevalences below 2%. On cats (but not on dogs), as many as 24.0% (n=194) of the specimens were identified as a fourth tick species, I. trianguliceps. Overall, 93.5% of the ticks were adults (93.8% and 93.0% in dogs and cats), 4.4% nymphs (5.7% in dogs and 1% in cats) and 2% larvae (0.5% and 6.0% in dogs and cats), respectively. The highest infestation intensity was 49 I. ricinus ticks from an individual dog. However, 55.6% of the submissions from dogs and 24.8% from cats contained only one tick. This survey demonstrated that pet owners can contribute to a cost-effective tick surveillance and identified a new tick focus of D. reticulatus. The finding of I. trianguliceps exclusively on cats might be related to behavioural traits of the cats or to a more readily detection of these very small ticks during petting by their owners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Fifteen years of imposex and tributyltin pollution monitoring along the Portuguese coast.

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    Laranjeiro, Filipe; Sánchez-Marín, Paula; Oliveira, Isabel Benta; Galante-Oliveira, Susana; Barroso, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    IMO's Anti-Fouling Systems convention banned the use of organotin-based antifouling systems in 2008 as the ultimate effort to stop tributyltin (TBT) inputs into the marine environment. One of the hazardous effects of TBT is imposex (the superimposition of male sexual characters onto gastropod females), a phenomenon that may cause female sterility and the gastropod populations decline. Despite previous European Union legislation had already been shown effective in reducing the imposex levels along the Portuguese coast, this study intends to confirm these decreasing trends after 2008 and describe the global evolution in the last 15 years. Imposex levels were assessed in two bioindicators - the dog-whelk Nucella lapillus and the netted-whelk Nassarius reticulatus (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) - in 2011 and 2014, and the results were compared with previous years. Both species showed progressive decreasing trends in imposex levels over the last 15 years; median values of the vas deferens sequence index (VDSI) fell from 3.96 to 0.78 in N. lapillus and from 3.39 to 0.29 in N. reticulatus. The temporal/spatial evolution of imposex suggests an apparent shift of TBT hotspots, being now restricted to fishing ports and marinas in detriment of large commercial harbours where TBT levels fell rapidly. Butyltins were measured in the whole tissues of N. lapillus females collected in 2014: monobutyltin (MBT) varied from < DL (detection limit: 1 ng Sn/g) to 13 ng Sn/g dw, dibutyltin (DBT) from 2.2 to 27 ng Sn/g dw and TBT from 1.5 to 55 ng Sn/g dw. Although TBT body burden has declined over time, the butyltin degradation index ([MBT]+[DBT])/[TBT] exhibited values < 1 in c. a. 90% of the sites assessed, suggesting that recent TBT inputs are still widespread in the Portuguese coast eventually due to illegal use of TBT antifouling systems and TBT desorption from sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Species-richness in the Oriental fungus-feeding thrips of the genus Azaleothrips (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Shûji; Masumoto, Masami

    2014-08-04

    Azaleothrips, a phlaeothripine genus of fungus-feeding species, is presumably endemic to the Oriental Region between India and Japan. Although only 10 species have been known in this genus until now, a total of 35 species is recorded here, of which 26 are newly described: from Indonesia--A. bali sp.n., A. bulelengi sp.n., A. dentatus sp.n., A. dorsalis sp.n., A. floresi sp.n., A. inflavus sp.n., A. simulans sp.n., A. sulawesicus sp.n., from the Philippines--A. apoensis sp.n., A. bifidius sp.n., A. luzonensis sp.n., A. mindanaoensis sp.n., A. philippinensis sp.n., from Taiwan--A. atayal sp.n., A. formosae sp.n., A. taiwanus sp.n., from Thailand--A. flavicollis sp.n., A. phuketanus sp.n., A. pulcher sp.n., A. toshifumii sp.n., from Vietnam--A. laocai sp.n., A. vietnamensis sp.n., from W. Malaysia--A. malaya sp.n., A. reticulatus sp.n., A. richardi sp.n., A. templeri sp.n. In addition A. magnus Chen, described from Taiwan, is newly synonymized with A. moundi. Azaleothrips laevigatus, described from southern Japan, is newly recorded more widely in Southeast Asia. A key to 33 species is provided, but A. bhattii and A. lineus cannot be recognized because of the poor information in the original descriptions.

  10. Toxicity Evaluation of Through Fish Bioassay Raw Bulk Drug Industry Wastewater After Electrochemical Treatment

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    S Satyanarayan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high pollution potential that the synthetic Bulk Drug industry Wastewater (BDW possesses due to the presence of variety of refractory organics, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance in assessing the efficiency of the applied wastewater treatment system and in establishing the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter were studied under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that wastewater being very strong in terms of color, COD and BOD is found to be very toxic to the studied fish. The LC50 values for raw wastewater and after electrochemical treatment with carbon and aluminium electrodes for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between, 2.5-3.6%, 6.8-8.0%, 5.0-5.8% respectively. Carbon electrode showed marginally better removals for toxicity than aluminium electrode. It was evident from the studies that electrochemical treatment reduces toxicity in proportion to the removal efficiency shown by both the electrodes. The reduction in toxicity after treatment indicates the intermediates generated are not toxic than the parent compounds. Furthermore, as the electrochemical treatment did not result in achieving disposal standards it could be used only as a pre-treatment and the wastewater needs further secondary treatment before final disposal.

  11. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Specialization in habitat use by coral reef damselfishes and their susceptibility to habitat loss.

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    Pratchett, Morgan S; Coker, Darren J; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2012-09-01

    While it is generally assumed that specialist species are more vulnerable to disturbance compared with generalist counterparts, this has rarely been tested in coastal marine ecosystems, which are increasingly subject to a wide range of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Habitat specialists are expected to be more vulnerable to habitat loss because habitat availability exerts a greater limitation on population size, but it is also possible that specialist species may escape effects of disturbance if they use habitats that are generally resilient to disturbance. This study quantified specificity in use of different coral species by six coral-dwelling damselfishes (Chromis viridis, C. atripectoralis, Dascyllus aruanus, D. reticulatus, Pomacentrus moluccensis, and P. amboinensis) and related habitat specialization to proportional declines in their abundance following habitat degradation caused by outbreaks of the coral eating starfish, Acanthaster planci. The coral species preferred by most coral-dwelling damselfishes (e.g., Pocillopora damicornis) were frequently consumed by coral eating crown-of-thorns starfish, such that highly specialized damselfishes were disproportionately affected by coral depletion, despite using a narrower range of different coral species. Vulnerability of damselfishes to this disturbance was strongly correlated with both their reliance on corals and their degree of habitat specialization. Ongoing disturbances to coral reef ecosystems are expected, therefore, to lead to fundamental shifts in the community structure of fish communities where generalists are favored over highly specialist species.

  13. Ixodid Ticks (Acari, Ixodidae in Urban Landscapes. A review

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    Akimov I. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 % can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.

  14. Evaluation of noninvasive oscillometric blood pressure monitoring in anesthetized boid snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Wrenn, Amy; DeVoe, Ryan S

    2009-03-01

    To determine the accuracy of a noninvasive oscillometric monitor in the measurement of arterial blood pressure in anesthetized boid snakes. Evaluation study. 4 boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), 2 carpet pythons (Morelia spilota), and 2 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus). After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane, each snake was instrumented with an arterial catheter connected to a pressure transducer and oscilloscope to obtain invasive measurements of systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean (MAP) arterial blood pressure as well as a pressure waveform. A cuff connected to an oscillometric device was placed on the tail immediately distal to the vent for noninvasive measurements. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and invasive and noninvasive measurements of SAP, DAP, and MAP were obtained every 5 minutes for 45 minutes. Delivered isoflurane concentration was increased in 15-minute increments to induce hypotension. Repeatability of each device and fixed and proportional biases between devices were calculated. Throughout most of the measured ranges of blood pressures, the oscillometric unit overestimated the SAP and underestimated the DAP and MAP, compared with respective direct measurements. When the invasively determined SAP was > 100 mm Hg, the oscillometric unit underestimated all 3 variables. Fixed bias was significant for SAP and DAP, and proportional bias was significant for SAP and MAP. When using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor on anesthetized boid snakes, veterinarians can potentially monitor changes in blood pressure, although the displayed readings may underestimate DAP and MAP and overestimate SAP. Indirect measurements of blood pressure made with the oscillometric device cannot substitute for direct measurements.

  15. Diversity of Snakes in Rajegwesi Tourism Area, Meru Betiri National Park

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    Aji Dharma Raharjo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rajegwesi tourism area is one of the significant tourism areas in Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia. The area rich in term of biodiversity which are potential for developed as natural tourism attraction.  The aim of this study is to identify snakes species diversity and its distribution in Rajegwesi tourism area. Field survey was done in Rajegwesi area, namely swamps forest, residential area, rice fields, agriculture area (babatan, resort area, and Plengkang cliff. This study found some snakes, encompasses Colubridae (10 species, Elapidae (four species, and Phytonidae (one species. There are Burmese Python (Python reticulatus, Red-necked Keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus, Painted Bronzeback Snake (Dendrelaphis Pictus, Black Copper Rat Snake (Coelognathus flavolineatus, Radiated Rat Snake (C. radiatus, Striped Keelback (Xenochrophis vittatus, Checkered Keelback (X. piscator, Spotted Ground Snake (Gongyosoma balioderius, Gold-ringed Cat Snake (Boiga dendrophila, Common Wolf Snake (Lycodon capucinus, Banded Wolf snake (L. subcinctus, Cobra (Naja sputatrix, King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah, Malayan Krait (Bungarus candidus, and Banded Krait (B. fasciatus was found. These snake habitats distributes at 21 coordinate points. Keywords: conservation, ecotourism, snakes.

  16. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

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    Rodriguez, J. German, E-mail: grodriguez@pas.azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Sariego, Cristina [Servicio de Espectrometria de Masas, SCT' s, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria s/n, 33006, Oviedo (Spain); Valencia, Victoriano [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  17. Babesia canis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) co-infection in a sled dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Sporting dogs, including sled dogs, are particularly prone to tick-borne infection either due to training/racing in forest areas or through visits to endemic areas. The aim was to present tick-borne infections in a 6-dog racing team after a race in Estonia. On the 4th day after return to Poland, the first dog presented with babesiosis symptoms and was diagnosed and treated accordingly. Next morning, the dog showed neurological symptoms and was diagnosed with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Diagnosis was confirmed by a high level of IgG antibodies (922 IU/ml), detected in serum 3 months later. The second dog presented with babesiosis symptoms on the 7th day after return. Babesia DNA was extracted from blood, amplified and sequenced to answer the question of whether the dogs became infected during the race in Estonia or in Poland. Sequencing of a fragment of Babesia 18S rDNA revealed that these two isolates were identical to one another and closely related to the B. canis sequence originally isolated from the dog and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Poland. Thus, this is the first confirmed case of B.canis and TBEV co-infection and first confirmed case of TBE in a dog in Poland.

  18. Radioactive caesium (134Cs and137Cs) in mushrooms of the genus Boletus from the Reggio Emilia in Italy and Pomerania in Poland.

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    Cocchi, Luigi; Kluza, Karolina; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Activity concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs were determined in mushrooms of the Boletus species B. aereus, B. reticulatus, B. appendiculatus, B. calopus, B. edulis, B. erythropus, B. fechtneri, B. pinophilus, B. pseudoregius, B. rhodopurpureus, B. rhodoxanthus collected in the Reggio Emilia, Italy, in 1993 and 1994 and in B. edulis collected in Pomerania in northern Poland in the period from 1995-2015. Boletus edulis from the Reggio Emilia showed presence of 137 Cs at 330 ± 220 Bq kg -1 dry biomass in 1993 and at 370 ± 180 Bq kg -1 dry biomass in 1994. In B. edulis sampled in the Reggio Emilia in 1993 and 1994, the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs from global fallout amounted to 39-46 % of the total activity concentrations of isotope 137 Cs. B. edulis from Pomerania contained 137 Cs in caps at 270 ± 15 Bq kg -1 dry biomass in 1995, and in whole fruiting bodies it was found to be 470 ± 9 Bq kg -1 dry biomass in 2015. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs determined in fruiting bodies of B. edulis from Pomerania fluctuated but persisted over the period from 1995 to 2015, while the maximum activity concentrations were well below the tolerance limit of 600 Bq kg -1 fresh product.

  19. Estudos preliminares com bromoacetamida, um novo moluscicida

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    Naftale Katz

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A bromoacetamida tem sido testada como moluscicida na República Popular da China, para tratamento de criadouros de Oncomelania, hospedeiro do Schistosoma japonicum, com bons resultados. O produto é solúvel em água, o que simplifica seu uso. Foram feitos ensaios biológicos preliminares deste produto em caramujos adultos (Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila e B. straminea, recém-eclodidos e desovas. Paralelamente foram feitos ensaios com o pentaclorofenol para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos caramujos. O produto foi testado também sobre peixes, Lebistes reticulatus. Os moluscos testados mediam 8-10 mm de diâmetro; os recém-eclodidos tinham 1-3 dias de idade e as desovas 0-1 dia de idade. A temperatura da água durante os experimentos variou de 24,3 a 27,0°C. O produto foi ativo para caramujos adultos, recém-eclodidos e desovas, em concentrações em tomo de 1 a 4 ppm. Para os peixes o produto foi menos tóxico do que para os caramujos (CLço 7,5 ppm. Estes resultados indicam que a bromoacetamida apresenta propriedades moluscicidas promissoras para o controle da Biomphalaria spp.

  20. Bi-species imposex monitoring in Galicia (NW Spain) shows contrasting achievement of the OSPAR Ecological Quality Objective for TBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J M; Carro, B; Albaina, N; Couceiro, L; Míguez, A; Quintela, M; Barreiro, R

    2017-01-30

    Imposex is decreasing worldwide after the total ban on tributyltin (TBT) from antifouling paints. In order to assess improvement in the NE Atlantic, the OSPAR Convention designed an Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO) based on the VDSI (vas deferens sequence index, an agreed measure of imposex) in the rock snail Nucella lapillus; wherever this is not available, the mud snail Nassarius reticulatus was proposed as a proxy. We determined VDSI in Galician populations of rock (n≥34) and mud (n≥18) snails at regular intervals from pre-ban times until 2009 and 2011, respectively. While imposex in the former started decreasing in 2006 and by 2009 the EcoQO had been met in the area, VDSI in the latter was not significantly reduced until 2011 and values contradict such an achievement. This suggests that the OSPAR imposex bi-species scheme may not be of direct application in the current post-ban scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Occurrence of ticks and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in three types of urban biotopes: forests, parks and cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Gönczi, Enikő; Halász, Edina; Takács, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability of tick hosts and pathogen reservoirs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Curcumin nanoemulsion for transdermal application: formulation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Heni; Budiputra, Dewa Ken; Mauludin, Rachmat

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a curcumin nanoemulsion for transdermal delivery. The incorporation of curcumin inside a nanoglobul should improve curcumin stability and permeability. A nanoemulsion was prepared by the self-nanoemulsification method, using an oil phase of glyceryl monooleate, Cremophor RH40 and polyethylene glycol 400. Evaluation of the nanoemulsion included analysis of particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, physical stability, Raman spectrum and morphology. In addition, the physical performance of the nanoemulsion in Viscolam AT 100P gel was studied. A modified vertical diffusion cell and shed snake skin of Python reticulatus were used to study the in vitro permeation of curcumin. A spontaneously formed stable nanoemulsion has a loading capacity of 350 mg curcumin/10 g of oil phase. The mean droplet diameter, polydispersity index and zeta potential of optimized nanoemulsion were 85.0 ± 1.5 nm, 0.18 ± 0.0 and -5.9 ± 0.3 mV, respectively. Curcumin in a nanoemulsion was more stable than unencapsulated curcumin. Furthermore, nanoemulsification significantly improved the permeation flux of curcumin from the hydrophilic matrix gel; the release kinetic of curcumin changed from zero order to a Higuchi release profile. Overall, the developed nanoemulsion system not only improved curcumin permeability but also protected the curcumin from chemical degradation.

  3. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G; Giménez-Pardo, C; Gegúndez, Mi; Lledó, L

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited.

  4. First detection of murine herpesvirus 68 in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kúdelová, Marcela; Jánošová, Monika; Belvončíková, Petra

    2018-01-19

    Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a natural pathogen that infects murid rodents, which serves as hosts for Ixodes ricinus ticks. For the first time, MHV-68 was detected in immature I. ricinus ticks feeding on Lacerta viridis lizards trapped in Slovakia, which supports the idea that ticks can acquire the virus from feeding on infected hosts. The recent discovery of MHV-68 infection and MHV-68 M3 gene transcripts in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in Slovakia also supports this suggestion. Here, for the first time, we report MHV-68 infection, which was detected by nested PCR, in I. ricinus adults collected from the vegetation, and the viral load in infected ticks was determined by quantitative PCR. The viral incidence in ticks was 38.1% (21/55), and the viral load varied from 1.5 × 10 3 to 2.85 × 10 4 genome copies per tick. These results suggest that the I. ricinus ticks became infected with MHV-68 from biting infected rodents; thus, I. ricinus ticks may play a role in the spread of this virus in nature.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Two Closely Related Unclassifiable Endogenous Retroviruses in Pythons (Python molurus and Python curtus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huder, Jon B.; Böni, Jürg; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Soldati, Guido; Lutz, Hans; Schüpbach, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a fatal disorder of boid snakes that is suspected to be caused by a retrovirus. In order to identify this agent, leukocyte cultures (established from Python molurus specimens with symptoms of BIBD or kept together with such diseased animals) were assessed for reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Virus from cultures exhibiting high RT activity was banded on sucrose density gradients, and the RT peak fraction was subjected to highly efficient procedures for the identification of unknown particle-associated retroviral RNA. A 7-kb full retroviral sequence was identified, cloned, and sequenced. This virus contained intact open reading frames (ORFs) for gag, pro, pol, and env, as well as another ORF of unknown function within pol. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus is distantly related to viruses from both the B and D types and the mammalian C type but cannot be classified. It is present as a highly expressed endogenous retrovirus in all P. molurus individuals; a closely related, but much less expressed virus was found in all tested Python curtus individuals. All other boid snakes tested, including Python regius, Python reticulatus, Boa constrictor, Eunectes notaeus, and Morelia spilota, were virus negative, independent of whether they had BIBD or not. Virus isolated from P. molurus could not be transmitted to the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of B. constrictor or P. regius. Thus, there is no indication that this novel virus, which we propose to name python endogenous retrovirus (PyERV), is causally linked with BIBD. PMID:12097574

  6. Prevalence of Amblyomma gervaisi ticks on captive snakes in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, B R; Jayathangaraj, M G; Soundararajan, C; Bala Guru, C; Yogaraj, D

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are the important ectoparasites that occur on snakes and transmit rickettsiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. A total of 62 snakes (Reticulated python, Indian Rock Python, Rat snakes and Spectacled cobra) were examined for tick infestation at Chennai Snake Park Trust (Guindy), Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Vandalur) and Rescue centre (Velachery) in Tamil Nadu from September, 2015 to June, 2016. Ticks from infested snakes were collected and were identified as Amblyomma gervaisi (previously known as Aponomma gervaisi). Overall occurrence of tick infestation on snakes was 66.13%. Highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed more on Reticulated Python (Python reticulatus, 90.91%) followed by Indian Rock Python (Python molurus, 88.89%), Spectacled cobra (Naja naja, 33.33%) and Rat snake (Ptyas mucosa, 21.05%). Highest prevalence of ticks were observed on snakes reared at Chennai Snake Park Trust, Guindy (83.33%), followed by Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur (60.00%) and low level prevalence of 37.50% on snakes at Rescue centre, Velachery. Among the system of management, the prevalence of ticks were more on captive snakes (70.37%) than the free ranging snakes (37.5%). The presences of ticks were more on the first quarter when compared to other three quarters and were highly significant (P ≤ 0.01).

  7. Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

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    J. S. Gray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of  I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios.

  8. Polyurethane seismic streamer skins: an application of cold spray metal embedment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucko, M J; King, P C; Poole, A J; Jahedi, M Z; de Nys, R

    2013-01-01

    Cold spray metal embedment is an innovative antifouling (AF) technology that delivers metal particles with AF properties into many thermoplastic polymers. AF efficacy was quantified for low (22.1 ± 4.8 g m(-2)) and high (101.1 ± 10.8 g m(-2)) densities of copper particles embedded into polyurethane (PU) seismic streamer skins, which are used in geophysical exploration. Failure of each Cu-embedded treatment was defined as settlement of hard foulers. Low-density streamers failed after 42 days while high-density streamers failed after 210 days. Most importantly, the high-density streamers were completely free of hard foulers including the barnacle Amphibalanus reticulatus during this time period. In conclusion, cold-spray metal embedment is an effective AF technology for PU seismic streamer skins, under intense fouling conditions. Higher copper particle densities enhance AF longevity and the effect of density provides a tool to extend efficacy and enhance AF performance for specific polymers.

  9. Ship hull fouling in the port of Recife, Pernambuco

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    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ports of big coastal cities are exposed to exotic species as a consequence of shipping traffic. As the Port of Recife receives an annual average of 491 ships from other regions of Brazil and from all over the world, this work was aimed at knowing which marine animals were passively transported on such vessels hulls, in order to map and monitor new bioinvasions in the area. Thus, 32 vessels of several origins were investigated between November 2005 and March 2006, samples were taken and the macrofauna identified. Sixty species of associated animals were identified, consisting of 28 sessile species, particularly the Cirripedia Balanomorpha and Lepadomorpha as dominants, 8 sedentary animals, namely Mytillidae and Dreissenidae and 23 free-living species, particularly, Caprellidae, Gammaridae, Tanaidacea, Turbellaria, Nemertea and Polychaeta. The first occurrence of Conchoderma virgatum was recorded with exact location for the Brazilian littoral, and Conchoderma auritum, Amphibalanus subalbidus and Haliplanella lineata were recorded for the first time at the littoral of Pernambuco State. The invasion pathway was confirmed for Amphibalanus reticulatus and Mytilopsis leucophaeta, invader species of the estuarine area of Recife's city. Megabalanus coccopoma was considered as a risk invader species for the region.Regiões portuárias das grandes cidades litorâneas estão sujeitas à recepção de espécies exóticas como conseqüência da movimentação dos navios. Como o Porto do Recife recebe uma média anual de 491 atracações de navios, provenientes de várias regiões do Brasil e do mundo, objetivou-se conhecer quais animais marinhos eram transportados passivamente nos cascos das embarcações para mapear e monitorar novas invasões biológicas na área. Assim, foram investigados 32 barcos de diversas origens, nos meses de novembro de 2005 a março de 2006, tendo a macrofauna sido amostrada e identificada. Foram encontradas 60 espécies de animais

  10. Stationary substrates facilitate bioinvasion in Paranaguá Bay in southern Brazil

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    Rosana M. Rocha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial substrates in and near ports and marinas commonly have many non-indigenous species and are the first stepping stone for the establishment of bioinvasors. Substrate movement influences fouling communities and so understanding of how species assemblages are related to specific substrate conditions is crucial as a management tool. Here we describe the species assemblage of the community after six months of development on granite plates in Paranaguá Bay. Species richness was similar in the two treatments, with 12 species on floating (constant depth plates and 15 on stationary (variable depth plates. However, species composition differed, with the community on floating plates being dominated by the native bivalve Mytella charruana (66.1 ± 5.5% cover and that on stationary plates dominated by the barnacles Fistulobalanus citerosum (49.8 ± 3.5% cover and the introduced Amphibalanus reticulatus (33.9 ± 3.7% cover. Other introduced species were Garveia franciscana, on one stationary plate, and Megabalanus coccopoma also on one stationary plate and not very abundant on half of the floating plates (Substratos artificiais em regiões de portos e marinas geralmente abrigam muitas espécies introduzidas e sua colonização constitui o primeiro passo no estabelecimento de bioinvasores. O grau de movimentação do substrato influencia a comunidade incrustante e o conhecimento da assembléia de espécies associada a cada situação é crucial como ferramenta de manejo. Neste trabalho, reportamos a estrutura de comunidades de seis meses desenvolvidas em substratos de granito na baía de Paranaguá. Foram encontradas 12 espécies na condição flutuante (profundidade constante e 15 na condição fixa (profundidade variável, mas o número médio de espécies por placa não foi diferente nos tratamentos. A comunidade das placas flutuantes foi dominada pelo bivalve nativo Mytella charruana (66.1 ± 5.5% de cobertura, enquanto as placas fixas foram

  11. Determination of the effective dose of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and month-long control of fleas and ticks on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTier, Tom L; Six, Robert H; Fourie, Josephus J; Pullins, Aleah; Hedges, Laura; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R

    2016-05-30

    Three laboratory studies were conducted to determine the appropriate dose of sarolaner, a novel isoxazoline, for the treatment and month-long control of infestations of fleas and ticks on dogs. In the first study, dogs were treated orally with sarolaner suspension formulations at 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0mg/kg, and infested with Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and with Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea) prior to treatment and then weekly for up to 8 weeks. Fleas and ticks were counted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation at 24h for fleas and 48h for ticks. The lowest dose of sarolaner (1.25mg/kg) provided 100% efficacy against fleas from treatment through Day 35 and 98.4% at Day 56. This dose of sarolaner resulted in 99.7-100% control of both species of ticks through Day 28. In Study 2, dogs were dosed orally with placebo or sarolaner suspension formulations at 0.625, 1.25 or 2.5mg/kg and infested with Ixodes scapularis prior to treatment and weekly for 6 weeks, Amblyomma americanum (pretreatment and Day 26), Dermacentor variabilis (Day 33) and A. maculatum (Day 41). Ixodes scapularis was the most susceptible; the lowest dose (0.625mg/kg) providing>95% efficacy through Day 43. Efficacy against D. variabilis on Day 35 was>95% at 1.25 and 2.5mg/kg, whereas the 0.625mg/kg dose gave only 61.4% efficacy. Amblyomma spp. were the least susceptible ticks; efficacy of the 1.25mg/kg dose at Day 28 for A. americanum was markedly lower (88.5%) than achieved for D. reticulatus (100%) at Day 28 and also lower than for D. variabilis at Day 35 (96.2%). In Study 3, dogs were dosed orally with placebo or sarolaner in the proposed commercial tablet (Simparica™) at 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0mg/kg, and infested with A. maculatum, one of the ticks determined to be dose limiting, prior to treatment and then weekly for 5 weeks. All doses gave 100% control of the existing infestation. The two highest dosages resulted in >93% control of subsequent challenges

  12. Fungal species that cause powdery mildew in greenhouse-grown cucumber and melon in Paraná State, Brazil=Espécies de fungos que causam oídio em casas de vegetação cultivadas com pepino e melão no Estado do Paraná, Brasil

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    Dauri José Tessmann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew caused by Oidium spp. is an important disease for several crops of the Cucurbitaceae family. Although the teleomorphs, Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum, currently have already been described as the causal agents of powdery mildew in Brazil, only P. xanthii is considered the main causal agent of powdery mildew field epidemics. The objective of this work was to identify and determine the prevalence of the species causing powdery mildew in cucumber (Cucumis sativus and melon (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus grown in greenhouses in the State of Paraná in Brazil. The morphological traits of the conidial stages, such as the presence of fibrosin bodies and a germinative tube, were used to identify the species. Leaves exhibiting high severity of powdery mildew were collected from plants of 13 plastic greenhouses during different seasons in 2003/2004 and in different regions of Paraná State. In all environments, a significant prevalence of P. xanthii (80-100% was observed affecting parthenocarpic or ordinary cucumber and melon. Golovinomyces cichoracearum was observed in six greenhouses, with up to 20% of conidia of this species on the samples.O oidio, causado por Oidium sp. é uma importante doença para espécies de plantas cultivadas da família das cucurbitáceas. Apesar das espécies teleomórficas Podosphaera xanthii e Golovinomyces cichoracearum já terem sido citadas como causadoras de oídio no Brasil, geralmente em trabalhos publicados atualmente tem-se referenciado somente a P. xanthii como agente causal dessa doença em cucurbitáceas em cultivo convencional. Por isso, este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e quantificar a freqüência de ocorrência dessas duas espécies causadoras de oídio nas culturas de pepino (Cucumis sativus e melão nobre (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus conduzidas em estufas plásticas no Estado do Paraná. Para a identificação de P. xanthii e G. cichoracearum utilizaram

  13. Efeito da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva e do número de frutos por planta sobre a produção do meloeiro Effect of nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits per plant on yield of melon

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    Luis Felipe V. Purquerio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, na UNESP em Jaboticabal (SP, de junho a novembro de 2001, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção do melão (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, híbrido Bônus nº2, cultivado em sistema hidropônico NFT, em função da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva (80, 140, 200 e 300 mg L-1 e número de frutos por planta (2, 3, 4 e livre. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. Aos 80 dias após o transplantio, foram observados 2, 3, 4 e 5,1 frutos por planta e, posteriormente na colheita, 2, 2,9, 3,0 e 3,4 frutos por planta, respectivamente para os tratamentos com 2, 3, 4 e fixação livre, sendo esta redução atribuída ao abortamento de frutos. Houve redução no peso médio do 1º, 2º e 3º fruto colhido, com o aumento da concentração de nitrogênio. Plantas com o menor número de frutos, apresentaram maior peso médio dos mesmos, porém com menor produção por planta. A maior produção (2.474 g/planta foi obtida com 80 mg L-1 de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva.The effects of different nitrogen concentrations (80; 140; 200 and 300 mg L-1 and fruit number per plant (2; 3; 4 and free setting, were investigated on net melon production (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, Bonus nº 2 hybrid. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, in NFT hydroponic system, from June to November, 2001. The experimental design was of randomized split plots, replicated six times. At 80 days after seedling transplant 2; 3; 4 and 5.1 fruits per plant were found. However, at harvest there were 2; 2.9; 3.0 and 3.4 fruits per plant, relative to 2; 3; 4 and free setting per plant treatment. This observed fruit reduction was attributed to fruit abortion. With the increase of nitrogen concentrations a reduction in first, second and third fruit weight was found. Plants with fewer fruits, produced higher average

  14. Características de frutos do meloeiro variando número e posição de frutos na planta Yield and quality of muskmelon varying fruit number and position in the plant, in protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cleiton F de Queiroga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, em área experimental da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, de 26/09/05 a 24/01/06, onde se objetivou avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade de frutos do meloeiro, variando número e posição de frutos na planta. Os tratamentos constaram de número de frutos por planta (1 e 2 e posição de fixação de frutos na planta (entre 5(0 e 8(0 nós e 15(0 e 18(0 nós. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso no esquema fatorial 2 x 2, com 5 repetições. Utilizou-se a 'Coronado F1', variedade reticulatus do grupo Cantaloupe, cultivada em vasos plásticos de 11,5 dm³ preenchidos com fibra de coco comercial. Plantas com um fruto apresentaram maior duração do período de colheita, área foliar (AF (5(0 - 8(0 nó, massa média de frutos (MMF, reticulação da casca (RC, espessura da polpa (EP, comprimento (CF e diâmetro de frutos (DF, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, açúcares solúveis totais (AST, açúcares não redutores (ANR e menor produtividade comercial (PCF. A condução com frutos fixados entre os 15(0 e 18(0 nós, comparado a frutos fixados entre os 5(0 e 8(0 nós, proporcionou maior número de dias para iniciar e terminar a colheita, AF, MMF, PCF, EP, CF e DF (em plantas com 1 fruto, índice de maturação, AST, ANR e menor RC, acidez total titulável e concentração de açúcares redutores.The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 26/09/05 to 24/01/06, to evaluate the yield and quality of the melon fruit, varying the number and position of fruits on the plant. The treatments consisted of fruit number per plant (1 and 2 and fruit position in the plant (5th - 8th node and 15th - 18th node. A randomized block design was used, in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, with 5 replications. The 'Coronado F1', variety reticulatus of the Cantaloupe group was cultivated in 11.5 dm³ plastic pots with commercial coconut

  15. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics.

  16. Plant communities of the Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld

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    Theo H.C. Mostert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld is one of eight major vegetation types (MVT described for the Soutpansberg-Blouberg region. The plant communities of this MVT are described in detail. Main ecological drivers of the vegetation structure and species composition of these communities are discussed and some conservation recommendations are made. Phytosociological data from a subset of 72 Braun-Blanquet sample plots collected in the Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld were classified using Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and ordinated using a Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DECORANA. The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun-Blanquet floristic-sociological approach to vegetation classification using the computer software MEGATAB and JUICE. Eight plant communities were identified and described as Commiphora tenuipetiolata-Adansonia digitata short open woodland, Ledebouria ovatifolia-Commiphora mollis short bushland, Phyllanthus reticulatus-Acacia nigrescens short bushland, Tinnea rhodesiana-Combretum apiculatum short bushland, Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. africana-Spirostachys africana low thickets, Themeda triandra-Pterocarpus rotundifolius short closed grassland on steep basaltic slopes, Cyperus albostriatus-Syzygium cordatum sandveld wetlands, and Sesamothamnus lugardii-Catophractes alexandri tall sparse shrubland. These plant communities are event-driven ecosystems, predominantly infl uenced by frequent droughts, exposure to desiccation and unpredictable rainfall events. The complex topography of the Soutpansberg further contributes to the aridity of these ecosystems. The classifi cation and ordination analyses show similar groupings in the vegetation of the Soutpansberg Arid Mountain Bushveld. This confi rms the usefulness of complimentary analysis, using both classifi cation and ordination methods on a single data set in order to examine patterns and to search for

  17. Sustainable forest management of Natura 2000 sites: a case study from a private forest in the Romanian Southern Carpathians

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    H. Walentowski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and forest management are analyzed for a 500 haprivately owned forest within the Natura 2000 area “ROSCI0122 MunţiiFăgăraş”. Habitat types and indicator species are identified to measure environmental quality. Working towards an integrated approach to conservation, a range of options that will result in sustainable forest management are then considered. For beech forests light heterogeneity emerges as a crucial management target to ensure tree species richness and structural diversity as a basis for saving indicator species such as Morimus funereus, Cucujus cinnaberinus,Bolitophagus reticulatus and Xestobium austriacum. For spruceforests thinning over a broad range of diameters and maintenance of veteran trees would provide habitats for indicator species such as Olisthaerus substriatus. The populations of a number of bird species would be increased by strip-harvesting slopes: species such as Tetrao urogallus, Bonasia bonasia and Ficedula parva prefer forest margins. Steep slopes, and the areas around springs and watercourses, as well as rock faces, should remain unmanaged. Future management should start with a grid-based inventory to create an objective database of forest structure and life. An example is presented for high-elevation spruce forest. The inventory should quantify the variations in diameter, height and volume of trees per unit area. Such data would allowthe advanced planning of forest operations. We discuss a wide range ofadministrative and organizational changes; changes that are needed for the sustainable forest management of the vast close-to-natural forests of the Munţii Făgăraş, the maintenance of the Nardus grasslands and the protection of wetland vegetation around springs and streams in this Natura 2000-area.

  18. Sustainable forest management of Natura 2000 sites: a case study from a private forest in the Romanian Southern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Walentowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and forest management are analyzed for a 500 ha privately owned forest within the Natura 2000 area “ROSCI0122 Muntii Fagaras”. Habitat types and indicator species are identified to measure environmental quality. Working towards an integrated approach to conservation, a range of options that will result in sustainable forest management are then considered. For beech forests light heterogeneity emerges as a crucial management target to ensure tree species richness and structural diversity as a basis for saving indicator species such as Morimus funereus, Cucujus cinnaberinus, Bolitophagus reticulatus and Xestobium austriacum. For spruce forests thinning over a broad range of diameters and maintenance of veteran trees would provide habitats for indicator species such asOlisthaerus substriatus. The populations of a number of bird species would be increased by strip-harvesting slopes: species such as Tetrao urogallus, Bonasia bonasia and Ficedula parva prefer forest margins. Steep slopes, and the areas around springs and watercourses, as well as rock faces, should remain unmanaged. Future management should start with a grid-based inventory to create an objective database of forest structure and life. An example is presented for high-elevation spruce forest. The inventory should quantify the variations in diameter, height and volume of trees per unit area. Such data would allow the advanced planning of forest operations. We discuss a wide range of administrative and organizational changes; changes that are needed for the sustainable forest management of the vast close-to-natural forests of the Muntii Fagaras, the maintenance of the Nardusgrasslands and the protection of wetland vegetation around springs and streams in this Natura 2000-area. 

  19. Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae. Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van Achterberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven new species of the genus Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838 (Braconidae: Rogadinae are described and illustrated: A. abraxanae sp. n., A. angustipterus sp. n., A. artesiariae sp. n., A. carminatus sp. n., A. diarsianae sp. n., A. leptofemur sp. n., and A. ryrholmi sp. n. A neotype is designated for each of Aleiodes circumscriptus (Nees, 1834 and A. pictus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, and both species are redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes ochraceus Hellén, 1927 (not A. ochraceus (Curtis, 1834 is renamed as A. curticornis nom. n. & stat. rev., and redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman, 1917, A. nigriceps Wesmael, 1838, and A. reticulatus (Noskiewicz, 1956, are re-instated as valid species. A lectotype is designated for Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman. An illustrated key is given to some distinctive species and the residual species groups along which further parts of an entire revision of western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes and Heterogamus will be organised. Biology, host associations and phenology are discussed for the keyed species (in addition to the above, A. albitibia (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, A. apiculatus (Fahringer, 1932, A. arcticus (Thomson, 1892, A. cantherius (Lyle, 1919, A. esenbeckii (Hartig, 1834, A. jakowlewi (Kokujev, 1898, A. modestus (Reinhard, 1863, A. nigricornis Wesmael, 1838, A. pallidator (Thunberg, 1822, A. praetor (Reinhard, 1863, A. seriatus (Herrich- Schäffer, 1838 sensu lato, A. testaceus (Telenga, 1941, A. ungularis (Thomson, 1892, and A. varius (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838 which are dealt with in full here (with the exception of A. seriatus s.l. which is, however, included in the key. The experimental methodology covering the revision as a whole, which involves some behavioural investigation, is outlined.

  20. Monogenean parasites infect ornamental fish imported to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-González, A; Becker, J A; Vaughan, D B; Hutson, K S

    2018-02-09

    The ornamental fish trade provides a pathway for the global translocation of aquatic parasites. We examined a total of 1020 fish imported from Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, or Sri Lanka to Australia (including freshwater and marine fish species) for monogenean ectoparasites. Fish were received following veterinary certification that they showed no clinical signs of pests and diseases from the exporting country and visual inspection at Australian border control. Australian import conditions require mandatory treatment for goldfish with parasiticides (e.g. trichlorfon, formaldehyde, sodium chloride) for the presence of gill flukes (Dactylogyrus vastator Nybelin, 1924 and Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932) prior to export. Over 950 individual parasites were detected in five imported fish species, representing 14 monogenean species. Seven Dactylogyrus spp. including D. vastator and three Gyrodactylus spp. infected goldfish, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Dactylogyrus ostraviensis Řehulka, 1988, infected rosy barb, Pethia conchonius Hamilton, 1822, from Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand while two Trianchoratus spp. infected three spot gourami, Trichopodus trichopterus Pallas, 1970 and pearl gourami Trichopodus leerii Bleeker, 1852, from Sri Lanka. Urocleidoides reticulatus Mizelle & Price, 1964, infected guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, from Sri Lanka. The discovery of D. vastator in goldfish, as well as 13 other monogenean species, shows that pre-export health requirements, which include chemical treatment of goldfish, and inspection of all ornamental fish species did not prevent infection by monogeneans. Inspection prior to exportation and at border control must account for the highly cryptic nature of monogenean parasites and consider alternatives to current pre-export conditions and visual inspection at border control.

  1. Names and publication dates of the Brachyura in F.É. Guérin (Guérin-Méneville) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Ng, Peter K L; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2013-11-12

    The names and dates of the publications of Brachyura of Guérin (Guérin-Méneville from 1836) are reviewed, and previously unidentified or overlooked names are identified. Several identical new names used in multiple publications by Guérin (also under the name Guérin-Méneville), and others that appeared in the same year necessitated the accurate determination of publication dates to establish priority. The authorships of three names should be credited to Guérin (1832): Gecarcinus lateralis (Gecarcinidae), Halimus aries (Majidae), and Libinia spinosa (Epialtidae), the first previously attributed to Fréminville (1835), the last two to H. Milne Edwards (1834). The overlooked genus- and species-group names Cyclocarcinus pinnotheroides Guérin-Méneville, 1838, are determined to be senior subjective synonyms of the genus- and species-group names Hapalonotus reticulatus (De Man, 1879) (Pilumnidae). Applying Article 23.9.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, precedence is reversed between the genus-group names and the correct name is Hapalonotus pinnotheroides (Guérin-Méneville, 1838). Current and widespread use of the genus-group name Thalamita Latreille, 1829 (31 March) (Portunidae) is threatened by the overlooked Thalamites Guérin, 1829 (21 March), and the precedence of the names is also reversed to maintain usage of the former. The genus-group name Eurypodius Guérin (Inachidae) is shown to have been established in 1828, not 1825. Included is a complete bibliography of the publications in which Guérin (also under Guérin-Méneville) established new names for Brachyura, with their accurate publication dates.

  2. Evaluation of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a sanitizer for use in processing Georgia-grown cantaloupes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cathy C; Davey, Lindsey E; Erickson, Marilyn C; Doyle, Michael P

    2013-10-01

    Freshly harvested Georgia-grown cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus cv. Athena and Atlantis) were spot inoculated with 100 μl of a five-strain mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Poona (9 log CFU/ml) at the stem scar and on the netted rind and then subjected to no treatment (control) or a 6-min treatment (tank only) in water, 120 ppm of chlorine (pH 7.0), 1% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; pH 3.0), or 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS (pH 3.0). The log reduction for the tank-only treatments was 0.31, 0.59, 1.32, and 1.37 log CFU/g at the stem scar and 0.97, 1.59, 2.06. and 3.37 log CFU/g on the netted rind for water, chlorine, 1% levulinic acid plus 0.1% SDS, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS, respectively. A greater log reduction was observed for the cantaloupe surface tissue with the water, chlorine, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS treatments when additional sanitizer (2 ml) and brushing (to simulate cantaloupes tumbling over brushes on the processing line) were added to the dump tank treatment. The stem scar tissue reductions were 0.90, 1.69, and 1.53 log CFU/g, whereas the netted rind reductions were 1.56, 2.50, and 4.47 log CFU/g after treatment with water, chlorine, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS, respectively. These data suggest that 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS is effective for reducing Salmonella on the netted rind surface of cantaloupes. However, neither 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS nor 120 ppm of chlorine substantially reduced Salmonella on stem scar tissue.

  3. A novel protein from the serum of Python sebae, structurally homologous with type-γ phospholipase A(2) inhibitor, displays antitumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Sandra; Finetti, Federica; Francese, Simona; Boscaro, Francesca; Dani, Francesca R; Maset, Fabio; Frasson, Roberta; Palmieri, Michele; Pazzagli, Mario; De Filippis, Vincenzo; Garaci, Enrico; Ziche, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumour factors have been documented in the venom of snakes, although little information is available on the identification of cytotoxic products in snake serum. In the present study, we purified and characterized a new cytotoxic factor from serum of the non-venomous African rock python (Python sebae), endowed with antitumour activity. PSS (P. sebae serum) exerted a cytotoxic activity and reduced dose-dependently the viability of several different tumour cell lines. In a model of human squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (A431), subcutaneous injection of PSS in proximity of the tumour mass reduced the tumour volume by 20%. Fractionation of PSS by ion-exchange chromatography yielded an active protein fraction, F5, which significantly reduced tumour cell viability in vitro and, strikingly, tumour growth in vivo. F5 is composed of P1 (peak 1) and P2 subunits interacting in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to form a heterotetramer in equilibrium with a hexameric form, which retained biological activity only when assembled. The two peptides share sequence similarity with PIP {PLI-γ [type-γ PLA(2) (phospholipase A(2)) inhibitor] from Python reticulatus}, existing as a homohexamer. More importantly, although PIP inhibits the hydrolytic activity of PLA(2), the anti-PLA(2) function of F5 is negligible. Using high-resolution MS, we covered 87 and 97% of the sequences of P1 and P2 respectively. In conclusion, in the present study we have identified and thoroughly characterized a novel protein displaying high sequence similarity to PLI-γ and possessing remarkable cytotoxic and antitumour effects that can be exploited for potential pharmacological applications.

  4. Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemeršić, Lorena; Dežđek, Danko; Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Janicki, Zdravko; Keros, Tomislav; Roić, Besi; Slavica, Alen; Terzić, Svjetlana; Konjević, Dean; Beck, Relja

    2014-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Data for giant constrictors - Biological management profiles and an establishment risk assessment for nine large species of pythons, anacondas, and the boa constrictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, C.S.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Giant Constrictors' Climate Space The giant constrictors' climate space data set represents the information needed to recreate the climate space and climate matching analyses in Reed and Rodda (2009). A detailed methodology and results are included in that report. The data include locations for nine species of large constrictors including Python molurus, Broghammerus reticulatus, P. sebae, P. natalensis, Boa constrictor, Eunectes notaeus, E. deschauenseei, E. beniensis, and E. murinus. The locations are from published sources. Climate data are included for monthly precipitation and average monthly temperature along with the species locations. The individual spreadsheets of location data match the figures in the Reed and Rodda (2009) report, illustrating areas of the mainland United States that match the climate envelope of the native range. The precipitation and temperature data at each location were used to determine the climate space for each species. Graphs of climate space formed the basis for the algorithms in the data set, and more details can be found in Reed and Rodda (2009). These algorithms were used in ArcGIS to generate maps of areas in the United States that matched the climate space of locations of the snakes in their native range. We discovered a rounding error in ArcGIS in the implementation of the algorithms, which has been corrected here. Therefore the shapefiles are slightly different than those appearing in the risk assessment figures illustrating areas of the United States that match the climate envelope of the species in their native ranges. However, the suitable localities are not different at the scale of intended use for these maps, although there are more noticeable differences between areas classified as 'too cold' and 'too hot'.

  6. The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland. Part 2: Occurrence and control of babesiosis in a sled dog kennel during a 13-year-long period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2014-05-28

    The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anemia, affect joints or heart muscles or even cause death. Canine babesiosis is an emerging, quickly spreading tick-borne disease in Central Europe. Over a 13-year period (2000-2012) the occurrence of babesiosis cases was analyzed in one sled dog kennel situated in Kury, a village near Tłuszcz (N 52°24'56.78″, E 21°30'37.55″) in Central Poland. Twenty cases/episodes of babesiosis were noted among the 10-12 dogs living in the kennel. In 2000-2004, no cases of babesiosis were noted; the first two cases were noted in April 2005. Since that time, only one dog remained uninfected; 6 dogs were infected once, 3 dogs demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis twice, one dog was infected three times and one dog had it five times. Babesiosis appeared in Spring and Autumn, despite the application of anti-tick treatment. No fatal cases were recorded, but in one case a splenectomy was performed due to splenomegaly and spleen rupture. Additionally, the abundance of the main Babesia canis vector, the Dermacentor reticulatus tick, was estimated and monitored during a 4-year period (2008-2012) close to the dog kennel. The abundance of questing ticks was high in 2008 and 2009, but dropped by 10-fold between 2010 and 2012, when the abandoned meadow was cut and used as horse pasture by the local farmer. The regular occurrence, typical seasonal pattern and identification of B. canis DNA in questing tick from this locality confirmed the establishment of a new hyper enzootic region for canine babesiosis. The effectiveness and schedule of applied preventive measures were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnatinov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Liapunov, Alexander Valeryevich; Manzarova, Ellina Lopsonovna; Kulakova, Nina Viktorovna; Petrova, Irina Viktorovna; Danchinova, Galina Anatolyevna

    2016-02-01

    Hard ticks are the vectors of many pathogens including tick-borne encephalitis virus and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Eastern Siberia, Ixodes persulcatus, Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and Haemaphysalis concinna are regarded as aggressive to humans. Recently, significant changes in world tick fauna have been reported and this affects the spread of tick-borne pathogens. We studied the current species diversity, population structure and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) that attacked humans in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk region, Russia). In total, 31,892 individual ticks were identified and analysed during the years 2007-2014. The majority (85.4%) of victims was bitten by I. persulcatus, 14.55% of attacks on humans were caused by D. nuttalli and D. silvarum, whereas H. concinna was documented only in 15 cases (0.05%). The seasonal activity and the age/gender structure of the tick population were studied as well. Among all the studied ticks, three unconventional species, i.e. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Amblyomma americanum, were identified. Analysis of tick bite histories indicates at least three events of invasion of non-endemic ticks into the ecosystems of northern Eurasia with harsh continental climates. Invading ticks are able to reach the adult life stage and are aggressive to the local human population. Phylogenetic analysis of mt 16S rRNA gene fragments suggests multiple independent routes of tick migration to Eastern Siberia. Possible implications to human health and epidemiology of tick-borne infections are discussed.

  8. Partial Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates from Ticks of Southern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Oksana O; Dubina, Dmytro O; Vynograd, Nataliya O; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2017-08-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most common tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia; thousands of human cases are annually reported from several European countries. Several tick species are vectors of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), while TBE appears to be spreading from the Eurasian continent westward to Europe. Fifteen study sites were chosen from five territories of southern Ukraine, including Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson Oblast, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Sevastopol. Tick collection was performed in spring season of three consecutive years (1988-1990) using either flagging technique or direct collection of specimens feeding on cattle. A total of 15,243 tick imagoes and nymphs were collected from nine species, including Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis parva, H. punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. rossicus, and R. sanguineus, pooled in 282 monospecific samples. Supernatant of grinded pool was used for inoculation to suckling mice for virus isolation. Eight TBEV isolates were identified from ticks among six study sites. Ticks showed a minimum infection rate from 0.11% to 0.81%. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E) protein gene of seven isolates, assigned all to the European subtype (TBEV-Eu) showing a maximum identity of 97.17% to the "Pan" TBEV-Eu reference strain. Compared to 104 TBEV-Eu isolates they clustered within the same clade as the Pan reference strain and distinguished from other TBEV-Eu isolates. Amino acid sequence analysis of the South Ukrainian TBEV-Eu isolates revealed the presence of four amino acid substitutions 67 (N), 266 (R), 306 (V), and 407 (R), in the ectodomains II and III and in the stem-anchor region of the E protein gene. This study confirmed TBEV-Eu subtype distribution in the southern region of Ukraine, which eventually overlaps with TBEV-FE (Far Eastern subtype) and TBEV-Sib (Siberian subtype) domains, showing the heterogeneity of TBEV circulating in

  9. Immunoproteomic identification of antigenic salivary biomarkers detected by Ixodes ricinus-exposed rabbit sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu Hai, Vinh; Pages, Frédéric; Boulanger, Nathalie; Audebert, Stéphane; Parola, Philippe; Almeras, Lionel

    2013-09-01

    Ixodes ricinus, the primary vector of tick-borne disease in Europe, is currently expanding its distribution area and its activity in many countries. Antibody responses to tick salivary antigens have been proposed as an alternative marker of exposure to tick bites. However, the identification of the I. ricinus corresponding antigens remains elusive. Using rabbits artificially exposed to I. ricinus and 2 other European tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus) as controls, a cross-comparison of IgG profiles was performed against protein salivary gland extracts (pSGE) from these 3 tick species using immunoblots. Immunoblot analysis highlighted a singularity in the immune patterns according to tick species exposure and pSGE antigen source. Two protein bands were detected against I. ricinus pSGE only in rabbits exposed to I. ricinus bites. An immunoproteomic approach based on a fluorescence detection method was developed to unambiguously identify corresponding antigenic spots on 2-D gels. Among the unique I. ricinus salivary antigenic proteins detected by sera from rabbits exposed to this tick species, I. ricinus calreticulin was identified. Although tick calreticulin was previously proposed as a potential antigenic marker following exposure to ticks (particularly in North American tick species), the present study suggested that Ixodes calreticulin does not appear to be cross-recognized by the 2 other tick genera tested. Additional experiments are needed to confirm the use of I. ricinus calreticulin salivary protein as a potential discriminant antigenic biomarker to Ixodes tick exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Surveys of larval sealworm (Pseudoterranova decipiens infection in various fish species sampled from Nova Scotian waters between 1988 and 1996, with an assessment of examination procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G McClelland

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Between November 1988 and October 1996, >10,000 fish from the Breton Shelf, Sable Island Bank and the northeastern Gulf of Maine were examined for larval anisakines. Larval sealworm, Pseudoterranova decipiens, occurred in 30 of 39 species surveyed, including 8 new host records, Enchelyopus cimbrius, Lycodes reticulatus, Eumesogrammus praecisus, Lumpenus lumpretaeformis, Lumpenus maculatus, Cryptacanthodes maculatus, Artediellus atlanticus and Triglops murrayi. The parasite was most prevalent and abundant in mature demersal piscivores and benthic consumers. Sealworm densities (nr kg-1 host wt., however, were greatest in small benthophagous fish including mature E. cimbrius, A. atlanticus, T. murrayi and Aspidophoroides monopterygius, and juvenile Hippoglossoides platessoides. ANOVA revealed that geographical disparities in sealworm prevalence and abundance were highly significant in 14 of 20 species tested, although significant disparities between samples from each of the three areas were evident only in H. platessoides. Almost invariably, infection parameters were greatest in fish from Sable Island Bank. ANOVA also indicated that sealworm prevalence and/or abundance increased significantly in Sable Island Bank populations of Gadus morhua, H. platessoides, and seven other species between 1985-1986 and 1989-1990. Routine examinations, in which host flesh was sliced and candled, proved as efficacious as digestion in warm (35° C pepsin-HCl for detection of larval sealworm in the flesh of large frozen fish. Procedures employing fresh (iced samples, digestion at ambient temperature and microscopy are recommended, however, for surveys of small benthic consumers. Many of the sealworm infecting the latter hosts are tiny (2 to 10 mm in length nematodes, which escape detection by routine inspection, and may not survive in warm pepsin-HCl solution.

  11. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis) demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these parasites. The release kinetics of

  12. Novel phospholipase A2 inhibitors from python serum are potent peptide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Stiles, Brad G; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Sikka, Sakshi; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina Hsiu Kim

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a vital role in defense against resistant bacteria. In this study, eight different AMPs synthesized from Python reticulatus serum protein were tested for bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW and TES strains), and Proteus vulgaris) using a disc-diffusion method (20 μg/disc). Among the tested peptides, phospholipase A2 inhibitory peptide (PIP)-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], D-Ala66-PNT.II, and D60,65E-PIP[59-67] displayed the most potent bactericidal activity against all tested pathogens in a dose-dependent manner (100-6.8 μg/ml), with a remarkable activity noted against S. aureus at 6.8 μg/ml dose within 6 h of incubation. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by a micro-broth dilution method at 100-3.125 μg/ml revealed that PIP-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides exerted a potent inhibitory effect against S. aureus and B. pseudomallei (KHW) (MICs 3.125 μg/ml), while a much less inhibitory potency (MICs 12.5 μg/ml) was noted for β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides against B. pseudomallei (TES). Higher doses of peptides had no effect on the other two strains (i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Overall, PIP-18[59-76] possessed higher antimicrobial activity than that of chloramphenicol (CHL), ceftazidime (CF) and streptomycin (ST) (30 μg/disc). When the two most active peptides, PIP-18[59-76] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], were applied topically at a 150 mg/kg dose for testing wound healing activity in a mouse model of S. aureus infection, the former accelerates faster wound healing than the latter peptide at 14 days post-treatment. The western blot data suggest that the topical application of peptides (PIP-18[59-67] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67]) modulates NF-kB mediated wound repair in mice with relatively little haemolytic (100-1.56 μg/ml) and cytotoxic (1000

  13. Impact of a freeway on the dispersal of ticks and Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: forested resting areas may become Lyme disease hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Mulvihill, Maria; Szőke, Krisztina; Gönczi, Enikő; Sulyok, Kinga M; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2017-06-01

    Man-made barriers are well known for their effects on ecosystems. Habitat fragmentation, for instance, is a recognised consequence of modern-day infrastructure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity and abundance of tick species, as well as the risks of acquiring tick-borne infections in habitats adjacent to a freeway. Therefore, ixodid ticks were collected from the vegetation at two-week intervals (in the main tick season, from March to June) in eight habitats of different types (forest, grove, grassland) along both sides of a freeway. Ixodes ricinus females were molecularly screened for three species of tick-borne bacteria. In the study period, 887 ixodid ticks were collected. These included 704 I. ricinus (79.4%), 51 Dermacentor reticulatus (5.7%), 78 D. marginatus (8.8%), 35 Haemaphysalis inermis (3.9%) and 19 H. concinna (2.1%). There was no significant difference in the abundance of tick species between similar habitats separated by the freeway, except for the absence of Dermacentor spp. on one side. In I. ricinus females, the overall prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was low, and (in part due to this low rate) did not show significant difference between the two sides of the freeway. Rickettsia helvetica had significantly different overall prevalence between two distant habitats along the same side of the freeway (12.3% vs. 31.4%), but not between habitats on the opposite sides. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. showed significantly different overall prevalence between habitats both on the same and on the opposite sides of the freeway (8.6-35.9%), and the difference was higher if relevant habitats were also separated by the freeway. Importantly, the prevalence rate of the Lyme disease agent was highest in a forested resting area of the freeway, and was significantly inversely proportional to the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum (taking into account all evaluated habitats), apparently related to deer population density. Prevalence rates

  14. Spatial disaggregation of tick occurrence and ecology at a local scale as a preliminary step for spatial surveillance of tick-borne diseases: general framework and health implications in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obsomer, Valerie; Wirtgen, Marc; Linden, Annick; Claerebout, Edwin; Heyman, Paul; Heylen, Dieter; Madder, Maxime; Maris, Jo; Lebrun, Maude; Tack, Wesley; Lempereur, Laetitia; Hance, Thierry; Van Impe, Georges

    2013-06-22

    The incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing in Europe. Sub national information on tick distribution, ecology and vector status is often lacking. However, precise location of infection risk can lead to better targeted prevention measures, surveillance and control. In this context, the current paper compiled geolocated tick occurrences in Belgium, a country where tick-borne disease has received little attention, in order to highlight the potential value of spatial approaches and draw some recommendations for future research priorities. Mapping of 89,289 ticks over 654 sites revealed that ticks such as Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus are largely present while Dermacentor reticulatus has a patchy distribution. Suspected hot spots of tick diversity might favor pathogen exchanges and suspected hot spots of I. ricinus abundance might increase human-vector contact locally. This underlines the necessity to map pathogens and ticks in detail. While I. ricinus is the main vector, I. hexagonus is a vector and reservoir of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., which is active the whole year and is also found in urban settings. This and other nidiculous species bite humans less frequently, but seem to harbour pathogens. Their role in maintaining a pathogenic cycle within the wildlife merits investigation as they might facilitate transmission to humans if co-occurring with I. ricinus. Many micro-organisms are found abroad in tick species present in Belgium. Most have not been recorded locally but have not been searched for. Some are transmitted directly at the time of the bite, suggesting promotion of tick avoidance additionally to tick removal. This countrywide approach to tick-borne diseases has helped delineate recommendations for future research priorities necessary to design public health policies aimed at spatially integrating the major components of the ecological cycle of tick-borne diseases. A systematic survey of tick species and associated pathogens is called for in

  15. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these

  16. Borrelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raileanu, Cristian; Moutailler, Sara; Pavel, Ionuţ; Porea, Daniela; Mihalca, Andrei D; Savuta, Gheorghe; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease in 1981 was a watershed moment in understanding the major impact that tick-borne zoonoses can have on public health worldwide, particularly in Europe and the USA. The medical importance of tick-borne diseases has long since been acknowledged, yet little is known regarding the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and tick-borne encephalitis virus in questing ticks in Romania, a gateway into Europe. The objective of our study was to identify the infection and co-infection rates of different Borrelia genospecies along with other tick-borne pathogens in questing ticks collected from three geographically distinct areas in eastern Romania. We collected 557 questing adult and nymph ticks of three different species (534 Ixodes ricinus , 19 Haemaphysalis punctata , and 4 Dermacentor reticulatus ) from three areas in Romania. We analyzed ticks individually for the presence of eight different Borrelia genospecies with high-throughput real-time PCR. Ticks with Borrelia were then tested for possible co-infections with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Borrelia spp. was detected in I. ricinus ticks from all sampling areas, with global prevalence rates of 25.8%. All eight Borrelia genospecies were detected in I. ricinus ticks: Borrelia garinii (14.8%), B. afzelii (8.8%), B. valaisiana (5.1%), B. lusitaniae (4.9%), B. miyamotoi (0.9%), B. burgdorferi s.s (0.4%), and B. bissettii (0.2%). Regarding pathogen co-infection 64.5% of infected I. ricinus were positive for more than one pathogen. Associations between different Borrelia genospecies were detected in 9.7% of ticks, and 6.9% of I. ricinus ticks tested positive for co-infection of Borrelia spp. with other tick-borne pathogens. The most

  17. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico Artisan production of rotifero and algaes for bocachico post-larva feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Quintero P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 ºC y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 10³ células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamenteIn the Tropical Piscicultural Institute of the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Buga, Cauca, Valley, Colombia (25ºC temperature, 969 m a s l, a research was carried out with the objective to produce and use algaes and rotifers (living food cultures to feed bocachico post-larvas (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae. A complete random design with three treatments and three repetitions was established. 100 bocachico/aquarium post larva were used and fed twice a day according to sown biomass. The cultures of mixed algaes were established by using inorganic fertilizers produced in plastic pails and obtaining an average of 386 x 10³ cells/ml of culture. On the other hand, the cultures of Philodina rotifers were established in glass bottles and feeding them with algaes and yeast. An average of 410 rotifers/ml of culturing was obtained . To evaluate the highest rate of survival, growing and weight of bocachico post-larvas, three kind of food were used: Rotifers enriched with fish oil; rotifers plus

  18. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the south-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, Steve W.; Sulak, K.J.; Sedberry, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    were noted. In particular, L. beroe displayed a characteristic pattern of white patches in life that were not apparent after death. The first photographic documentation of the colour pattern in life and of the pharyngeal pigmentation of Lophiodes reticulatus is provided. The third known specimen of Sladenia shaefersi, and the first to be taken in U.S. waters was collected from coral rubble near the base of a steep 200 m scarp on the Blake Plateau. ?? 2007 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, Steve W.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Sedberry, George R.

    2007-01-01

    patterns of both species were noted. In particular, L. beroe displayed a characteristic pattern of white patches in life that were not apparent after death. The first photographic documentation of the colour pattern in life and of the pharyngeal pigmentation of Lophiodes reticulatus is provided. The third known specimen of Sladenia shaefersi, and the first to be taken in U.S. waters was collected from coral rubble near the base of a steep 200 m scarp on the Blake Plateau.

  20. Spatial disaggregation of tick occurrence and ecology at a local scale as a preliminary step for spatial surveillance of tick-borne diseases: general framework and health implications in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing in Europe. Sub national information on tick distribution, ecology and vector status is often lacking. However, precise location of infection risk can lead to better targeted prevention measures, surveillance and control. Methods In this context, the current paper compiled geolocated tick occurrences in Belgium, a country where tick-borne disease has received little attention, in order to highlight the potential value of spatial approaches and draw some recommendations for future research priorities. Results Mapping of 89,289 ticks over 654 sites revealed that ticks such as Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus are largely present while Dermacentor reticulatus has a patchy distribution. Suspected hot spots of tick diversity might favor pathogen exchanges and suspected hot spots of I. ricinus abundance might increase human-vector contact locally. This underlines the necessity to map pathogens and ticks in detail. While I. ricinus is the main vector, I. hexagonus is a vector and reservoir of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., which is active the whole year and is also found in urban settings. This and other nidiculous species bite humans less frequently, but seem to harbour pathogens. Their role in maintaining a pathogenic cycle within the wildlife merits investigation as they might facilitate transmission to humans if co-occurring with I. ricinus. Many micro-organisms are found abroad in tick species present in Belgium. Most have not been recorded locally but have not been searched for. Some are transmitted directly at the time of the bite, suggesting promotion of tick avoidance additionally to tick removal. Conclusion This countrywide approach to tick-borne diseases has helped delineate recommendations for future research priorities necessary to design public health policies aimed at spatially integrating the major components of the ecological cycle of tick-borne diseases. A systematic survey of tick species and

  1. Strobilurin and boscalid in the quality of net melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Macedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, fungicides were used exclusively for disease control; however observations of physiological effects brought a new concept to the use of these products. Strobilurins have positive physiological effects on crop yield, due to the increase of liquid photosynthesis and better hormonal balance. However, boscalid complements the action of these fungicides, applied alternately or together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strobilurins (azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin, boscalid and the mixture of these on the physical-chemical quality of net melon fruits (Cucumis melo var. Reticulatus. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of São Manuel (SP, using the hybrid of Cantaloupe M2-308 net melon, the experimental design was in randomized blocks with five replicates. The treatments used were: T1 - control; T2 - azoxystrobin 60g ha-1 of active principle (a.p.; T3 - boscalid 75g ha-1 of the a.p.; T4 - pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 of the a.p.; T5 - boscalid (37,5g ha-1 of the a.p. + pyraclostrobin (25g ha-1 of the a.p. The first application of the treatments was carried out at fourteen days after the transplanting of the seedlings and the others at seven day intervals, totaling eight applications throughout the cycle. Two fruits of each plot were collected, which were identified for analysis in the laboratory. The following characteristics were evaluated: fresh fruit mass; mesocarp thickness, pulp texture, peel trajectory, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids and the ratio. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability using the SISVAR program. The fruits of the plants treated with boscalid 75g ha-1 were the ones that showed higher concentration of soluble solids and low titratable acidity, resulting in a better ratio. Despite the lower value, the fruits of the plants treated with pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 showed a high ratio value, besides presenting higher

  2. Giant Constrictors: Biological and Management Profiles and an Establishment Risk Assessment for Nine Large Species of Pythons, Anacondas, and the Boa Constrictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Rodda, Gordon H.

    2009-01-01

    Giant Constrictors: Biological and Management Profiles and an Establishment Risk Assessment for Nine Large Species of Pythons, Anacondas, and the Boa Constrictor, estimates the ecological risks associated with colonization of the United States by nine large constrictors. The nine include the world's four largest snake species (Green Anaconda, Eunectes murinus; Indian or Burmese Python, Python molurus; Northern African Python, Python sebae; and Reticulated Python, Broghammerus reticulatus), the Boa Constrictor (Boa constrictor), and four species that are ecologically or visually similar to one of the above (Southern African Python, Python natalensis; Yellow Anaconda, Eunectes notaeus; DeSchauensee's Anaconda, Eunectes deschauenseei; and Beni Anaconda, Eunectes beniensis). At present, the only probable pathway by which these species would become established in the United States is the pet trade. Although importation for the pet trade involves some risk that these animals could become established as exotic or invasive species, it does not guarantee such establishment. Federal regulators have the task of appraising the importation risks and balancing those risks against economic, social, and ecological benefits associated with the importation. The risk assessment quantifies only the ecological risks, recognizing that ecosystem processes are complex and only poorly understood. The risk assessment enumerates the types of economic impacts that may be experienced, but leaves quantification of economic costs to subsequent studies. Primary factors considered in judging the risk of establishment were: (1) history of establishment in other countries, (2) number of each species in commerce, (3) suitability of U.S. climates for each species, and (4) natural history traits, such as reproductive rate and dispersal ability, that influence the probability of establishment, spread, and impact. In addition, the risk assessment reviews all management tools for control of invasive giant

  3. A randomized, controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner (Credelio™ in controlling ticks in client-owned dogs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral administration of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™, Elanco to dogs has been shown to provide a rapid onset of killing activity of infesting ticks, with sustained efficacy for at least 35 days. A study was undertaken in Europe to confirm lotilaner’s safety and anti-tick efficacy in client-owned dogs. Methods In this assessor-blinded study, dogs were enrolled at 19 clinics in Germany, Hungary and Portugal. Qualifying households with no more than three dogs were randomized in an approximate 2:1 ratio to a lotilaner or fipronil/(S-methoprene (FSM (Frontline® Combo Spot-on, Merial treatment group. One household dog with at least three live attached ticks was the primary dog. Treatments were dispensed Days 0, 28 (± 2 and 56 (± 2 for owner administration to all household dogs. Tick counts were performed on primary dogs Days 7 (± 1, and ±2 days on Days 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84; supplementary dogs were assessed for safety ± 2 days on Days 28, 56 and 84. Efficacy was assessed by comparing mean Day 0 live attached tick counts with subsequent counts. Results The most frequently retrieved ticks were Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato, with Ixodes hexagonus also present. In the lotilaner group (n = 127 geometric mean tick count reductions were at least 98% from the first post-treatment visit (Day 7 through Day 56, when efficacy was 100%. For FSM (n = 68, efficacy remained at least 96% through Day 84, but at no point were all dogs free of live attached ticks. Mean counts in lotilaner-treated dogs were significantly lower than FSM-treated dogs on Days 7, 42, 70 and 84 (P  98% effective in eliminating live ticks from the first post-treatment assessment (Day 7 through Day 56 and maintained 100% of dogs tick-free on Days 70 and 84. Lotilaner was safe, providing superior tick control to FSM administered according to the same schedule.

  4. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against four common tick species infesting dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Becskei, Csilla; Grace, Sarah; Strube, Christina; Doherty, Padraig; Liebenberg, Julian; Mahabir, Sean P; Slootmans, Nathalie; Lloyd, Anne; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of single oral treatment of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against four tick species known to commonly infest dogs in Europe. Eight laboratory studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 animals were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with 50 unfed adult Dermacentor reticulatus (two studies), Ixodes hexagonus (three studies), Ixodes ricinus (two studies) or Rhipicephalus sanguineus (one study) ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2.0mg/kg bodyweight and tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions in any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly (P≤0.0001) lower in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all time-points. A single oral administration of sarolaner resulted in 100% efficacy against existing infestations of all tick species except R. sanguineus, for which the efficacy was 99.7%, within 48h. Efficacy against weekly re-infestations was ≥97.5% for all tick species for 35 days. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2 mg/kg, resulted in ≥99.7% efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and in ≥97.5% efficacy against weekly re-infestations, for at least 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in Europe. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  5. A randomized, controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner (Credelio™) in controlling ticks in client-owned dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalleri, Daniela; Murphy, Martin; Seewald, Wolfgang; Drake, Jason; Nanchen, Steve

    2017-11-01

    Oral administration of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™, Elanco) to dogs has been shown to provide a rapid onset of killing activity of infesting ticks, with sustained efficacy for at least 35 days. A study was undertaken in Europe to confirm lotilaner's safety and anti-tick efficacy in client-owned dogs. In this assessor-blinded study, dogs were enrolled at 19 clinics in Germany, Hungary and Portugal. Qualifying households with no more than three dogs were randomized in an approximate 2:1 ratio to a lotilaner or fipronil/(S)-methoprene (FSM) (Frontline® Combo Spot-on, Merial) treatment group. One household dog with at least three live attached ticks was the primary dog. Treatments were dispensed Days 0, 28 (± 2) and 56 (± 2) for owner administration to all household dogs. Tick counts were performed on primary dogs Days 7 (± 1), and ±2 days on Days 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84; supplementary dogs were assessed for safety ± 2 days on Days 28, 56 and 84. Efficacy was assessed by comparing mean Day 0 live attached tick counts with subsequent counts. The most frequently retrieved ticks were Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato), with Ixodes hexagonus also present. In the lotilaner group (n = 127) geometric mean tick count reductions were at least 98% from the first post-treatment visit (Day 7) through Day 56, when efficacy was 100%. For FSM (n = 68), efficacy remained at least 96% through Day 84, but at no point were all dogs free of live attached ticks. Mean counts in lotilaner-treated dogs were significantly lower than FSM-treated dogs on Days 7, 42, 70 and 84 (P  98% effective in eliminating live ticks from the first post-treatment assessment (Day 7) through Day 56 and maintained 100% of dogs tick-free on Days 70 and 84. Lotilaner was safe, providing superior tick control to FSM administered according to the same schedule.

  6. Uncommon disorders and decay in near-isogenic lines of melon and reference cultivars Acidentes fisiológicos e podridões atípicas em linhas quase-isogénicas de melão e em cultivares de referência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest disorders and rots can produce important economic losses in fruits stored for long time for exportation. The genetic and physiological basis of some disorders in melon (Cucumis melo L. are unknown and particularly the possible relation with climacteric behavior. A collection of melon near-isogenic lines (NILs (SC3-5 and seven more showing climacteric and two non-climacteric ripening pattern were analyzed to study genetic and physiological aspects of fruit disorders and rots. Two non-climacteric (Nicolás; Inodorus Group; and Shongwan Charmi PI161375, Conomon Group and two climacteric cultivars (Fado, Reticulatus Group; Védrantais, Cantaloupensis Group were used as reference. The field was divided in eight blocks containing one three-plant replication for each NIL, two for the parental cultivar Piel de Sapo and one or two for the reference cultivars. Replications evaluated were more than six in the cultivars studied. Plant problems included aphids, powdery mildew, and leaf wind injury. Preharvest fruit disorders included whole fruit cracking in cultivar Védrantais and NIL 5M2, and stylar-end cracking in cultivar Fado. Climacteric NILs with yellow skin were particularly affected by over-ripening, stylar-end cracking, and sunburn during cultivation. At harvest, two NILs showed slight placental tissue necrosis which was inherited from SC and were also detected after storage. Other uncommon disorders seen at harvest or 30 days after storage at 8ºC included warted skin (scarring, flesh discoloration (light brown or translucent areas, hollow flesh disorder, and deep furrow netting inherited from SC. Less common rots included grey mould, bacterial soft rot, Penicillium rot, cottony leak and internal Cladosporium rot. Stylar-end hardness below 20 N·mm-1 was associated with cracking and softening. The incidence of the disorders and rots was too low to confirm that the genetic component played a role in their development

  7. Discovery of sarolaner: A novel, orally administered, broad-spectrum, isoxazoline ectoparasiticide for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTier, Tom L; Chubb, Nathan; Curtis, Michael P; Hedges, Laura; Inskeep, Gregory A; Knauer, Christopher S; Menon, Sanjay; Mills, Brian; Pullins, Aleah; Zinser, Erich; Woods, Debra J; Meeus, Patrick

    2016-05-30

    occurred within the first day post-dose. Bioavailability for sarolaner was calculated at >85% and the compound was highly protein bound (>99.9%). The half-life for sarolaner was calculated at 11-12 days. Sarolaner plasma concentrations indicated dose proportionality over the range 1.25-5mg/kg, and these same doses provided robust efficacy (>99%) for ≥35days against both fleas (C. felis) and multiple species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus) after oral administration to dogs. As a result of these exploratory investigations, sarolaner was progressed for development as an oral monthly dose for treatment and control of fleas and ticks on dogs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. FleaTickRisk: a meteorological model developed to monitor and predict the activity and density of three tick species and the cat flea in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Beugnet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling is quite a recent tool in epidemiology. Geographical information system (GIS combined with remote sensing (data collection and analysis provide valuable models, but the integration of climatologic models in parasitology and epidemiology is less common. The aim of our model, called “FleaTickRisk”, was to use meteorological data and forecasts to monitor the activity and density of some arthropods. Our parasitological model uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF meteorological model integrating biological parameters. The WRF model provides a temperature and humidity picture four times a day (at 6:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 hours. Its geographical resolution is 27 x 27 km over Europe (area between longitudes 10.5° W and 30° E and latitudes 37.75° N and 62° N. The model also provides weekly forecasts. Past data were compared and revalidated using current meteorological data generated by ground stations and weather satellites. The WRF model also includes geographical information stemming from United States Geophysical Survey biotope maps with a 30’’ spatial resolution (approximately 900 x 900 m. WRF takes into account specific climatic conditions due to valleys, altitudes, lakes and wind specificities. The biological parameters of Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis were transformed into a matrix of activity. This activity matrix is expressed as a percentage, ranging from 0 to 100, for each interval of temperature x humidity. The activity of these arthropods is defined by their ability to infest hosts, take blood meals and reproduce. For each arthropod, the matrix was calculated using existing data collected under optimal temperature and humidity conditions, as well as the timing of the life cycle. The mathematical model integrating both the WRF model (meteorological data + geographical data and the biological matrix provides two indexes: an

  9. Nutrient uptake by greenhouse net melonAcúmulo de nutrientes e rendimento de óleo em plantas de girassol influenciados pelo vigor dos aquênios e pela densidade de semeadura

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    Silvana da Silva Cardoso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For presenting more commercial value, the net melon (Cucumis melo L. var reticulatus Naud. has been an option of greenhouse planting for the horticulturists. This work was carried out in Piracicaba, Brazil with the aim of evaluating the nutrient uptake from this melon cultivated in greenhouse. To obtain the nutrients accumulation in the different stages of the plant development, plants were collected in the transplant day (seedling, in the vegetative stage, in the beginning of the flowering stage, in the beginning and in the middle of fruit production period and in the harvest period. It was verified that the greatest increase of nutrient uptake happened between the beginning of the flowering and the beginning of the fruit production. The greatest dry matter accumulation happened between the beginning of the fruit production and the middle of fruit production period. The decrescent order of nutrients accumulated in the above ground part of the plant was: potassium > nitrogen > calcium > magnesium > sulphur > phosphorus > iron > manganese > zinc > copper ~ boron. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de nutrientes e o rendimento de óleo dos aquênios em plantas de girassol produzidas sob a influência do vigor dos aquênios e da densidade de semeadura. Para isto, foi instalado um experimento no campo experimental no município de Seropédica/RJ, em outubro de 2006, com três distintos lotes de aquênios de girassol cv Embrapa 122 V2000, classificados como de baixo, de médio e de alto vigor, sob duas densidades de semeadura (45.000 e 75.000 sementes ha-1. Aos 20, 60 e 100 dias após a semeadura (DAS, foram coletadas as plantas para avaliação da massa de matéria seca e do acúmulo de nitrogênio, de fósforo, de potássio e de cálcio, no caule, nas folhas e nos capítulos. Nas plantas coletadas aos 100 DAS, foi feita também a avaliação do rendimento de aquênios (kg ha-1, do teor de óleo e do rendimento de óleo (kg ha-1. Observou

  10. Temperatura de armazenamento e tipo de corte para melão minimamente processado Storage temperature and cut type to minimally processed melon

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    Maria Cecília de Arruda

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a temperatura de armazenamento e o tipo de corte que proporciona melhor manutenção da qualidade de melões minimamente processados. Melões rendilhados, híbrido Bonus II, foram processados em câmara fria a 12ºC. Os frutos foram cortados manualmente em 8 fatias longitudinais. Em um dos tratamentos, as fatias foram divididas em pedaços de aproximadamente 3 cm de base e, no outro tratamento, foram utilizadas fatias inteiras. O produto minimamente processado foi acondicionado em embalagem rígida de politereftalato de etileno e armazenado a 3; 6 e 9ºC. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas e sensoriais a cada 3 dias, por um período de 9 dias. A coloração e o teor de sólidos solúveis totais não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O produto armazenado a 3ºC manteve maiores valores de firmeza, independentemente do tipo de corte. A aparência foi considerada boa até o 9º dia de armazenamento e o aroma, até o 6º dia, para melões a 3ºC. Em todos os tratamentos, houve declínio das notas atribuídas ao sabor durante o armazenamento. Pelos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a qualidade de melões minimamente processados pode ser mantida por 6 dias a 3ºC, independentemente do tipo de corte.The objective of this work was to determine the storage temperature and the cut type that provides the better maintenance of the quality of minimally processed melons (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus hybrid. Bonus II. Fruits were hand cut in 8 longitudinal slices in cold chamber at 12ºC. One of the slices was divided in 3cm pieces, in the other treatment whole slices were used. The product minimally processed was packed in rigid polyethylene terephthalate tray and stored at 3, 6 and 9ºC. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial arrangement. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics were

  11. Avaliação de fontes de cálcio na cultura do melão tipo 'Gália' sob cultivo protegido Comparative analysis of calcium sources in greenhouse 'Galia' muskmelon

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    Eva Cintra D. de Faria

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento com a cultura de Melão (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus, do tipo Gália, híbrido Galileo foi conduzido sob cultivo protegido, em vasos, na Embrapa Hortaliças, em Brasília-DF, de setembro a dezembro de 2001. Foram avaliadas 5 formas de aplicação de cálcio (calagem, calagem mais fertirrigação com nitrato de cálcio, cálcio tamponado, cálcio quelatizado e cloreto de cálcio além do tratamento controle, sem cálcio. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e seis repetições e parcelas com seis plantas. Não houve diferença estatística entre os tratamentos. No entanto, uma análise de contrastes mostrou um aumento de 26% em peso (kg m-2 e 21% em número de frutos comerciais resultante da aplicação de cálcio, indicando a importância da aplicação do nutriente em pré-plantio e/ou fertirrigação para solos com saturação de bases (V% abaixo de 70%. Constatou-se aumento de 30% na produtividade e de 27% no número de frutos comerciais com o uso da fertirrigação. Houve aumento de 23% no número de frutos comerciais nos tratamentos com cálcio e com calagem (3,52 frutos m-2, em relação ao tratamento onde utilizou-se apenas calagem (2,87 frutos m-2. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre os pesos médios dos frutos. Os tratamentos fertirrigados com nitrato de cálcio e cloreto de cálcio apresentaram maior eficiência econômica. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a espessura, teores de sólidos solúveis totais (Brix, acidez total titulável (ATT e relação Brix/ATT. Conclui-se que há a necessidade de aplicação de cálcio no meloeiro sob cultivo protegido para solos com saturação de base abaixo de 70% e que a calagem mais fertirrigação com cálcio foi mais efetiva do que só a calagem. O uso do nitrato ou do cloreto de cálcio em fertirrigação apresentou maior rentabilidade do que a calagem ou calagem mais fertirrigação com cálcio tamponado ou c