WorldWideScience

Sample records for psnr mae ncd

  1. MPEG2 video parameter and no reference PSNR estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    MPEG coded video may be processed for quality assessment or postprocessed to reduce coding artifacts or transcoded. Utilizing information about the MPEG stream may be useful for these tasks. This paper deals with estimating MPEG parameter information from the decoded video stream without access...... to the MPEG stream. This may be used in systems and applications where the coded stream is not accessible. Detection of MPEG I-frames and DCT (discrete cosine transform) block size is presented. For the I-frames, the quantization parameters are estimated. Combining these with statistics of the reconstructed...... DCT coefficients, the PSNR is estimated from the decoded video without reference images. Tests on decoded fixed rate MPEG2 sequences demonstrate perfect detection rates and good performance of the PSNR estimation....

  2. 42 CFR 426.525 - NCD review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NCD review. 426.525 Section 426.525 Public Health... PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.525 NCD review. (a) Opportunity for the aggrieved party after his or her review of the NCD record...

  3. Free Energy Adjusted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (FEA-PSNR) for Image Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), the de facto universal image quality metric has been widely criticized as having poor correlation with human subjective quality ratings. In this paper, it will be illustrated that the low performance of PSNR as an image quality metric is partially due to its inability of differentiating image contents. And it is revealed that the deviation between subjective score and PSNR for each type of distortions can be systematically captured by perceptual complexity of the target image. The free energy modelling technique is then introduced to simulate the human cognitive process and measure perceptual complexity of an image. Then it is shown that performance of PSNR can be effectively improved using a linear score mapping process considering image free energy and distortion type. The proposed free energy adjusted peak signal to noise ratio (FEA-PSNR) does not change computational steps the of ordinary PSNR and therefore it inherits the merits of being simple, derivable and physically meaningful. So FEA-PSNR can be easily integrated into existing PSNR based image processing systems to achieve more visually plausible results. And the proposed analysis approach can be extended to other types of image quality metrics for enhanced performance.

  4. 42 CFR 426.520 - Withdrawing an NCD under review or issuing a revised or reconsidered NCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawing an NCD under review or issuing a revised or reconsidered NCD. 426.520 Section 426.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.520 Withdrawing an NCD under review or...

  5. Premature adult mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCD) in three middle-income countries: do NCD programmes matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Sylvia; Adrion, Emily; Anderson, Gerard F

    2012-09-01

    BACKGROUND In many middle-income countries, there is limited data available to evaluate the effectiveness of non-communicable disease (NCD) programmes. Since 1970, three neighbouring middle-income countries-Argentina, Chile and Uruguay-have undergone health sector reforms and reorganized their NCD programmes. In this paper, we explore whether data on premature adult mortality can be used to gauge the effectiveness of these programmes. METHODS We describe NCD programmes and examine mortality trends for the years 1970-2005 among adults aged 15-59 years. We contrast mortality trends from all-NCD to mortality trends from NCD that are avoidable through timely and effective medical care. The assumption is that if NCD programmes exert no effect, then all-NCD mortality and avoidable-NCD mortality will follow the same trend and avoidable-NCD mortality will not change at a faster pace. We used joinpoint regression analysis to describe the pace of change, measured as the geometric weighted average of the annual percentage change (AAPC). RESULTS Since the 1980s, all three countries have implemented NCD programmes delivered through health care, but only after the year 2000 did these countries begin to scale-up population-based NCD prevention programmes. In Argentina, all-NCD mortality is declining at a faster pace than avoidable-NCD mortality, while the contrary is occurring in Chile. In Uruguay, all-NCD mortality is declining at a faster pace than avoidable-NCD mortality among males, whereas among females, all-NCD mortality has stagnated while avoidable-NCD mortality continues to decline. CONCLUSION NCD interventions through health care have likely contributed to the reduction of premature NCD mortality in Chile and among women in Uruguay. In Argentina and among men in Uruguay, factors outside the health sector seem to have had a greater impact. This approach could be used in other countries to assess the effect of NCD interventions and raise key questions on programme

  6. No-reference analysis of decoded MPEG images for PSNR estimation and post-processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Li, Huiying; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2011-01-01

    We propose no-reference analysis and processing of DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) coded images based on estimation of selected MPEG parameters from the decoded video. The goal is to assess MPEG video quality and perform post-processing without access to neither the original stream nor the code...... stream. Solutions are presented for MPEG-2 video. A method to estimate the quantization parameters of DCT coded images and MPEG I-frames at the macro-block level is presented. The results of this analysis is used for deblocking and deringing artifact reduction and no-reference PSNR estimation without...... code stream access. An adaptive deringing method using texture classification is presented. On the test set, the quantization parameters in MPEG-2 I-frames are estimated with an overall accuracy of 99.9% and the PSNR is estimated with an overall average error of 0.3dB. The deringing and deblocking...

  7. Interactions between subunits in heterodimeric Ncd molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocik, Elzbieta; Skowronek, Krzysztof J; Kasprzak, Andrzej A

    2009-12-18

    The nonprocessive minus-end-directed kinesin-14 Ncd is involved in the organization of the microtubule (MT) network during mitosis. Only one of the two motor domains is involved in the interaction with the MT. The other head is tethered to the bound one. Here we prepared, purified, and characterized mutated Ncd molecules carrying point mutations in one of the heads, thus producing heterodimeric motors. The mutations tested included substitutions in Switch I and II: R552A, E585A, and E585D; the decoupling mutant N600K; and a deletion in the motor domain in one of the subunits resulting in a single-headed molecule (NcN). These proteins were isolated by two sequential affinity chromatography steps, followed by measurements of their affinities to MT, enzymatic properties, and the velocity of the microtubule gliding test in vitro. A striking observation is a low affinity of the single-headed NcN for MT both without nucleotides and in the presence of 5'-adenylyl-beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate, implying that the tethered head has a profound effect on the structure of the Ncd-MT complex. Mutated homodimers had no MT-activated ATPase and no motility, whereas NcN had motility comparable with that of the wild type Ncd. Although the heterodimers had one fully active and one inactive head, the ATPase and motility of Ncd heterodimers varied dramatically, clearly demonstrating that interactions between motor domains exist in Ncd. We also show that the bulk property of dimeric proteins that interact with the filament with only one of its heads depends also on the distribution of the filament-interacting subunits.

  8. Tugev kodu vajab tugevat omavalitsust / Tiit Mae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mae, Tiit

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Lääne-Harju Ekspress 1. veebruar lk. 4. Keila vallavanem Tiit Mae toob välja 2 suuremat omavalitsustega seotud probleemi: neile seatud kohustused ja tulude suurus pole vastavuses. Kohalike omavalitsuste tegevust reguleerivad seadused on lünklikud ja vastuolulised. Artiklis on juttu ka õiguskantsleri hinnangust ülesannete delegeerimisest kohalikele omavalitsustele. Kohalikku omavalitsust saab pidada nurgakiviks, millele praegune areng tugineb

  9. Bidirectional power stroke by ncd kinesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Anthony E; Stewart, Russell J; Schmidt, Christoph F; Skliar, Mikhail

    2010-12-15

    Optical trapping experiments reveal details of molecular motor dynamics. In noisy data, temporal structure within the power stroke of motors can be analyzed by ensemble averaging, but this obscures infrequent subcategories of events. We have here developed an analysis method that uses Kalman filtering of measurements, model-based estimation of the power strokes produced by the motor head, and automatic event classification to discriminate between different types of motor events. This method was applied to optical trap measurements of power strokes of the Drosophila kinesin-14 ncd in a three-bead geometry. We found the majority of events to be consistent with the previously discovered minus-end directed power stroke of ncd, occurring with ATP binding. Unexpectedly, 30% of apparent power strokes were plus-directed and 6% of binding events did not terminate in a discernible stroke. Ensemble averaging for each event category revealed that plus- and minus-directed strokes have different size and occur at different instants within the ncd-MT attachment sequence. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 75 FR 18872 - Ginnie Mae Multiclass Securities Program Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Ginnie Mae Multiclass Securities Program Documents AGENCY: Office of the Chief.... Copies of available documents submitted to OMB may be obtained from Mr. McKinney. SUPPLEMENTARY...: Ginnie Mae Multiclass Securities Program Documents. OMB Approval Number: 2503-0030. Form Numbers: None...

  11. Decoration of microtubules in solution by the kinesin-14, Ncd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Rex P; Stone, Deborah Bennett; Fletterick, Robert J; Mendelson, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    The kinesin-14, Ncd, is a cellular motor involved in microtubule spindle assembly and contraction during mitosis and meiosis. Like other members of the kinesin superfamily, Ncd consists of two motor heads connected by a linker and a long cargo-carrying stalk. The motor heads hydrolyze ATP to ADP to provide the power stroke that moves them and the cargo along the microtubule. Whereas conventional kinesins move processively along the sense of the microtubule right-handed helix, Ncd moves in the opposite direction, apparently using a different motive mechanism. According to the current model, the microtubule-binding state of Ncd is bound by one head and then released during the motive cycle. This is distinguished from the binding states of conventional kinesins, in which the motor heads are always bound in the motive cycle with alternating one-head and two-head binding. The objective was to determine the extent of binding, the binding states of Ncd in the presence of an ATP analogue, AMPPNP, and whether the binding is cooperative. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) of microtubules decorated with a deuterated Ncd construct, Ncd281, in solution containing 42% D(2)O was used. These conditions render the microtubule `invisible' to SANS, while amplifying the SANS from the Ncd constructs. In the presence of AMPPNP, 75% of Ncd281 was not bound. The remainder was bound cooperatively by one of its motor heads to the microtubule.

  12. 42 CFR 426.531 - Board's review of the NCD to apply the reasonableness standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Board's review of the NCD to apply the... DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.531 Board's review of the NCD to apply... NCD review to the provision(s) of the NCD raised in the aggrieved party's complaint. (2) Conduct a...

  13. Does published research on non-communicable disease (NCD in Arab countries reflect NCD disease burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abla M Sibai

    Full Text Available To review trends in non-communicable (NCD research output in the Arab region, in terms of quantity and quality, study design, setting and focus. We also examined differences by time and place, and assessed gaps between research output and NCD burden.A scoping review of a total of 3,776 NCD-related reports published between 2000 and 2013 was conducted for seven Arab countries. Countries were selected to represent diverse socio-economic development levels in the region: Regression analyses were used to assess trends in publications over time and by country. Research gaps were assessed by examining the degree of match between proportionate literature coverage of the four main NCDs (CVD, cancer, DM, and COPD and cause-specific proportional mortality rates (PMR.The annual number of NCD publications rose nearly 5-fold during the study period, with higher income countries having the higher publication rates (per million populations and the most rapid increases. The increase in the publication rate was particularly prominent for descriptive observational studies, while interventional studies and systematic reviews remained infrequent (slope coefficients = 13.484 and 0.883, respectively. Gap analysis showed a mismatch between cause-specific PMR burden and NCD research output, with a relative surplus of reports on cancer (pooled estimate +38.3% and a relative deficit of reports on CVDs (pooled estimate -30.3%.The widening disparity between higher and lower-income countries and the discordance between research output and disease burden call for the need for ongoing collaboration among Arab academic institutions, funding agencies and researchers to guide country-specific and regional research agendas, support and conduct.

  14. Does published research on non-communicable disease (NCD) in Arab countries reflect NCD disease burden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Abla M; Singh, Neil V; Jabbour, Samer; Saleh, Shadi; Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Naja, Farah; Yazbek, Soha

    2017-01-01

    To review trends in non-communicable (NCD) research output in the Arab region, in terms of quantity and quality, study design, setting and focus. We also examined differences by time and place, and assessed gaps between research output and NCD burden. A scoping review of a total of 3,776 NCD-related reports published between 2000 and 2013 was conducted for seven Arab countries. Countries were selected to represent diverse socio-economic development levels in the region: Regression analyses were used to assess trends in publications over time and by country. Research gaps were assessed by examining the degree of match between proportionate literature coverage of the four main NCDs (CVD, cancer, DM, and COPD) and cause-specific proportional mortality rates (PMR). The annual number of NCD publications rose nearly 5-fold during the study period, with higher income countries having the higher publication rates (per million populations) and the most rapid increases. The increase in the publication rate was particularly prominent for descriptive observational studies, while interventional studies and systematic reviews remained infrequent (slope coefficients = 13.484 and 0.883, respectively). Gap analysis showed a mismatch between cause-specific PMR burden and NCD research output, with a relative surplus of reports on cancer (pooled estimate +38.3%) and a relative deficit of reports on CVDs (pooled estimate -30.3%). The widening disparity between higher and lower-income countries and the discordance between research output and disease burden call for the need for ongoing collaboration among Arab academic institutions, funding agencies and researchers to guide country-specific and regional research agendas, support and conduct.

  15. A Chronology of Global Assistance Funding for NCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Funding from the global community for noncommunicable disease (NCD) prevention and control in developing countries is miniscule-dwarfed by donor support for communicable diseases, maternal and child health, and other traditional health concerns in low-income countries. Yet, NCD now constitute the bulk of illness and deaths in low-income countries with, to date, only a small uptick in donor funding evident as a response. This paper describes recent magnitude and trends in the development of assistance for NCD; identifies the main sources among the 3 groupings of multilateral, bilateral, and private philanthropic funders; and discusses issues in tracking NCD donor funding, and challenges to mobilizing donor funding for NCD. Finally, it concludes with a more (slightly) optimistic outlook. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. NCD health literacy--what can hospitals do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzan, Scott; Apfel, Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD) health literacy is a person's ability to access, understand and use information to prevent, treat and manage chronic illness. Poor health literacy is shown to be associated with riskier behaviour, poor health choices and poorer health. Hospitals can play an important role in enhancing people's NCD health literacy all the way along a patient's "NCD journey" from prevention to management by aligning their communications to the health literacy capacities of their users. The authors suggest training providers to communicate more effectively with patients, making their systems easier to navigate, simplifying written materials, incorporating the use of technology and mobile-health, and using individual and system level scorecards and checklists.

  17. 78 FR 21393 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Ginnie Mae Multiclass Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Ginnie Mae Multiclass Securities Program consists of Ginnie Mae Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit... Multiclass Securities Program consists of Ginnie Mae Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (``REMIC... activities, allowing the private sector to combine and restructure cash flows from Ginnie Mae Single Class...

  18. 42 CFR 426.565 - Board's role in making an LCD or NCD review record available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Board's role in making an LCD or NCD review record... LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.565 Board's role in making an LCD or NCD review... of the Board's LCD or NCD review record (as described in § 426.587). ...

  19. 42 CFR 426.523 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under... LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.523 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an NCD under review. (a) Circumstance under which an aggrieved party withdraws a complaint regarding an NCD. An...

  20. 42 CFR 426.518 - NCD record furnished to the aggrieved party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NCD record furnished to the aggrieved party. 426... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.518 NCD record furnished to the aggrieved party. (a) Elements of the NCD record furnished to the aggrieved party. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  1. 42 CFR 426.519 - NCD record furnished to the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NCD record furnished to the Board. 426.519 Section 426.519 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.519 NCD record furnished to the Board. The NCD record furnished to the...

  2. 42 CFR 426.587 - Record for appeal of a Board NCD decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Record for appeal of a Board NCD decision. 426.587... DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.587 Record for appeal of a Board NCD decision. (a) Elements of the Board's NCD review record furnished to the public. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  3. Her-entingen tegen Pseudo Vogelpest (NCD) op 'Het Spelderholt'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorst, van A.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Vogelpest of NCD is een gevreesde virusziekte, waartegen een entverplichting geldt. Na het uitbreken van de ziekte in het zuiden van Nederland is al het volwassen pluimvee op Het Spelderholt opnieuw geënt.

  4. Ncd motor binding and transport in the spindle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallen, Mark A; Liang, Zhang-Yi; Endow, Sharyn A

    2008-11-15

    The Ncd kinesin-14 motor is required for meiotic spindle assembly in Drosophila oocytes and produces force in mitotic spindles that opposes other motors. Despite extensive studies, the way the motor binds to the spindle to perform its functions is not well understood. By analyzing Ncd deleted for the conserved head or the positively charged tail, we found that the tail is essential for binding to spindles and centrosomes, but both the head and tail are needed for normal spindle assembly and function. Fluorescence photobleaching assays to analyze binding interactions with the spindle yielded data for headless and full-length Ncd that did not fit well to previous recovery models. We report a new model that accounts for Ncd transport towards the equator revealed by fluorescence flow analysis of early mitotic spindles and gives rate constants that confirm the dominant role the Ncd tail plays in binding to the spindle. By contrast, the head binds weakly to spindles based on analysis of the tailless fluorescence recovery data. Minus-end Ncd thus binds tightly to spindles and is transported in early metaphase towards microtubule plus-ends, the opposite direction to that in which the motor moves, to produce force in the spindle later in mitosis.

  5. 42 CFR 426.515 - CMS' role in making the NCD record available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS' role in making the NCD record available. 426... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.515 CMS' role in making the NCD record available. CMS will provide a copy of the NCD record (as described in § 426.518) to the Board and all parties to the NCD...

  6. Urbanization and noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors: WHO STEPwise Iranian NCD risk factors surveillance in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Zahra; Etemad, Koorosh; Yarahmadi, Shahin; Khodakarim, Soheila; Kameli, Mohammadesmail; Hezaveh, Alireza Mahdavi; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-27

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) according to the World Health Organization stepwise approach to surveillance of NCDs. This study is part of a NCD risk factor surveillance of 10 069 individuals in all provinces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, aged over 20 years, during 2011. By utilizing 2011 census data, urbanization levels were determined in all provinces and logistics regression was used to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors. Among males, urbanization had a positive correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.42-2.09), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.09-2.96), and high BMI (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.20-1.70). Among females there was a positive and significant correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 1.08-1.49), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 0.78-1.91) and high BMI (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.14-1.53). Thus, urbanization has a significant correlation with increases in NCD factors in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  7. Microtubule motor Ncd induces sliding of microtubules in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, Abiola; Cowan, Ann; Rodionov, Vladimir

    2007-09-01

    The mitotic spindle is a microtubule (MT)-based molecular machine that serves for equal segregation of chromosomes during cell division. The formation of the mitotic spindle requires the activity of MT motors, including members of the kinesin-14 family. Although evidence suggests that kinesins-14 act by driving the sliding of MT bundles in different areas of the spindle, such sliding activity had never been demonstrated directly. To test the hypothesis that kinesins-14 can induce MT sliding in living cells, we developed an in vivo assay, which involves overexpression of the kinesin-14 family member Drosophila Ncd in interphase mammalian fibroblasts. We found that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Ncd colocalized with cytoplasmic MTs, whose distribution was determined by microinjection of Cy3 tubulin into GFP-transfected cells. Ncd overexpression resulted in the formation of MT bundles that exhibited dynamic "looping" behavior never observed in control cells. Photobleaching studies and fluorescence speckle microscopy analysis demonstrated that neighboring MTs in bundles could slide against each other with velocities of 0.1 microm/s, corresponding to the velocities of movement of the recombinant Ncd in in vitro motility assays. Our data, for the first time, demonstrate generation of sliding forces between adjacent MTs by Ncd, and they confirm the proposed roles of kinesins-14 in the mitotic spindle morphogenesis.

  8. A point mutation in the microtubule binding region of the Ncd motor protein reduces motor velocity.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, J. D.; Song, H.; Endow, S A

    1996-01-01

    Non-claret disjunctional (Ncd) is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein in Drosophila that functions in meiotic spindle assembly in oocytes and spindle pole maintenance in early embryos. The partial loss-of-function mutant ncdD retains mitotic, but not meiotic, function. The predicted NcdD mutant protein contains a V556-->F mutation in the putative microtubule binding region of the Ncd motor domain. Here we report an analysis of the properties of recombinant Ncd and NcdD proteins. A GST...

  9. Two-state displacement by the kinesin-14 Ncd stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallen, Mark A; Liang, Zhang-Yi; Endow, Sharyn A

    2011-03-01

    The nonprocessive kinesin-14 Ncd motor binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP, undergoing a single displacement before releasing the microtubule. A lever-like rotation of the coiled-coil stalk is thought to drive Ncd displacements or steps along microtubules. Crystal structures and cryoelectron microscopy reconstructions imply that stalk rotation is correlated with ADP release and microtubule binding by the motor. Here we report FRET assays showing that the end of the stalk is more than ~9nm from the microtubule when wild-type Ncd binds microtubules without added nucleotide, but the stalk is within ~6nm of the microtubule surface when the microtubule-bound motor binds an ATP analogue, matching the rotated state observed in crystal structures. We propose that the stalk rotation is initiated when the motor binds to microtubules and releases ADP, and is completed when ATP binds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Veerpalu ja Mae püüavad kodus esikümnekohta / Veiko Visnapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Visnapuu, Veiko, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Käre pakane pole Otepää MK-võistluste etapiks valmistuvate suusatajate Andrus Veerpalu ja Jaak Mae treeninguplaane muutnud. Lisaks tabel: Veerpalu ja Mae teekond maailmakarikasarja etappidel tänavusel hooajal

  11. Fast biodegradation of toxic bisphenol a by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 (Ps.NR.22) isolated from Malaysian local lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Him, Nik Raikhan Nik; Zainuddin, Mohammad Fiqri; Basha, Anuar Zain Anuar

    2017-12-01

    The paper focused on microbial degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) as a safe and fast method to reduce BPA contamination in water. BPA is found in waste water, sea water and home water pipeline and it is nondegradable pollutant. Biodegradation is suggested to be practical solution for large volume of BPA. Biodegradation plays an important role and the effect of low concentration significantly decreased the degradation rate. Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 (Ps.NR.22) which has been isolated from a lake at Seksyen 2, Shah Alam, was used. In Malaysia, Ps.NR.22 isolation agar is used for the BPA degradation process. It was stained with Gram negative-rod shaped bacteria that confirmed to carry a 16S rRNA gene. BPA as a sole carbon has been tested at various concentrations. The research showed that BPA was degraded at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm and the bacteria growth rate was excellent in 20 ppm BPA. Degradation of BPA was carried out for 9 hours to 18 hours and the maximum degradation was recorded at 9 hours. The value of the highest peak of growth at 540 nm was 2.0617 using 20 ppm BPA. This novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 has great potential to be used in waste water treatment.

  12. 42 CFR 426.320 - Who may challenge an LCD or NCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may challenge an LCD or NCD. 426.320 Section... DETERMINATIONS General Provisions for the Review of LCDs and NCDs § 426.320 Who may challenge an LCD or NCD. (a) Only an aggrieved party may initiate a review of an LCD or NCD (including a deemed NCD), or provisions...

  13. Characterizing the cargo binding and regulatory function of the tail domain in Ncd motor protein

    OpenAIRE

    Lonergan, Natalie Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Non-claret disjunctional (Ncd) is a kinesin-14 microtubule motor protein involved in the assembly and stability of meiotic and mitotic spindles in Drosophila oocytes and early embryos, respectively. Ncd functions by cross-linking microtubules through the tail and motor domains. It was originally believed that the role of the Ncd tail domain was to only statically bind microtubules. However, the Ncd tail domain has recently been shown to have properties that stabilize and bundle...

  14. Urban food systems governance for NCD prevention in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban food systems governance for NCD prevention in Africa. There is a rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) across Africa, driven in part by the increasing consumption of unhealthy diets (including ultra-processed and fast foods). Unhealthy diets are becoming more available because food systems, ...

  15. 42 CFR 426.310 - LCD and NCD reviews and individual claim appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false LCD and NCD reviews and individual claim appeals... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS General Provisions for the Review of LCDs and NCDs § 426.310 LCD and NCD reviews and individual claim appeals. (a) LCD and NCD reviews are distinct from the claims appeal processes...

  16. 42 CFR 405.732 - Review of a national coverage determination (NCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of a national coverage determination (NCD... Reconsiderations and Appeals Under Medicare Part A § 405.732 Review of a national coverage determination (NCD). (a) General rule. (1) An NCD is a determination by the Secretary for whether or not a particular item or...

  17. 42 CFR 426.510 - Docketing and evaluating the acceptability of NCD complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Docketing and evaluating the acceptability of NCD... LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.510 Docketing and evaluating the acceptability of NCD complaints. (a) Docketing the complaint. The Board does the following upon receiving a complaint...

  18. 42 CFR 405.860 - Review of a national coverage determination (NCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of a national coverage determination (NCD... the Medicare Part B Program § 405.860 Review of a national coverage determination (NCD). (a) General rule. (1) An NCD is a determination by the Secretary for whether or not a particular item or service is...

  19. PSNR BASED OPTIMIZATION APPLIED TO ALGEBRAIC RECONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION ON A MULTI-CORE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Lakshmi Agnimarimuthu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work attempts to reveal a parallel Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (pART to reduce the computational speed of reconstructing artifact-free images from projections. ART is an iterative algorithm well known to reconstruct artifact-free images with limited number of projections. In this work, a novel idea has been focused on to optimize the number of iterations mandatory based on Peak to Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR to reconstruct an image. However, it suffers of worst computation speed. Hence, an attempt is made to reduce the computation time by running iterative algorithm on a multi-core parallel environment. The execution times are computed for both serial and parallel implementations of ART using different projection data, and, tabulated for comparison. The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing environment provides a source of high computational power leading to obtain reconstructed image instantaneously.

  20. Can the Success of HIV Scale-Up Advance the Global Chronic NCD Agenda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Anton M; Rabkin, Miriam; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Bongomin, Pido; Lukhele, Nomthandazo; Dlamini, Xolisile; Kidane, Altaye; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2016-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide but have received suboptimal attention and funding from the global health community. Although the first United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) for NCD in 2011 aimed to stimulate donor funding and political action, only 1.3% of official development assistance for health was allocated to NCD in 2015, even less than in 2011. In stark contrast, the UNGASS on human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in 2001 sparked billions of dollars in funding for HIV and enabled millions of HIV-infected individuals to access antiretroviral treatment. Using an existing analytic framework, we compare the global responses to the HIV and NCD epidemics and distill lessons from the HIV response that might be utilized to enhance the global NCD response. These include: 1) further educating and empowering communities and patients to increase demand for NCD services and to hold national governments accountable for establishing and achieving NCD targets; and 2) evidence to support the feasibility and effectiveness of large-scale NCD screening and treatment programs in low-resource settings. We conclude with a case study from Swaziland, a country that is making progress in confronting both HIV and NCD. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ncd and kinesin motor domains interact with both alpha- and beta-tubulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Motor domains of the Drosophila minus-end-directed microtubule (MT) motor protein ncd, were found to saturate microtubule binding sites at a stoichiometry of approximately one motor domain per tubulin dimer. To determine the tubulin subunit(s) involved in binding to ncd, mixtures of ncd motor domain and MTs were treated with the zero-length cross-linker 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide) (EDC). EDC treatment generated covalently cross-linked products of ncd and alpha-tubulin and o...

  2. Tackling the global NCD crisis: innovations in law and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bryan; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2013-01-01

    35 million people die annually of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), 80% of them in low- and middle-income countries - representing a marked epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases and from richer to poorer countries. The total number of NCDs is projected to rise by 17% over the coming decade, absent significant interventions. The NCD epidemic poses unique governance challenges: the causes are multifactorial, the affected populations diffuse, and effective responses require sustained multi-sectorial cooperation. The authors propose a range of regulatory options available at the domestic level, including stricter food labeling laws, regulation of food advertisements, tax incentives for healthy lifestyle choices, changes to the built environment, and direct regulation of food and drink producers. Given the realities of globalization, such interventions require global cooperation. In 2011, the UN General Assembly held a High-level meeting on NCDs, setting a global target of a 25% reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025. Yet concrete plans and resource commitments for reaching this goal are not yet in the offing, and the window is rapidly closing for achieving these targets through prevention - as opposed to treatment, which is more costly. Innovative global governance for health is urgently needed to engage private industry and civil society in the global response to the NCD crisis. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  3. Strategic investments in non-communicable diseases (NCD) research in Africa: the GSK Africa NCD Open Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew D; Dufton, Ann M; Katso, Roy M; Gatsi, Sally A; Williams, Pauline M; Strange, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, GSK announced a number of new strategic investments in Africa. One of these included investment of up to 25 million Pounds Sterling (£25 million) to create the world's first R&D Open Lab to increase understanding of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Africa. The vision is to create a new global R&D effort with GSK working in partnership with major funders, academic centres and governments to share expertise and resources to conduct high-quality research. The Africa NCD Open Lab will see GSK scientists collaborate with scientific research centres across Africa. An independent advisory board of leading scientists and clinicians will provide input to develop the strategy and selection of NCD research projects within a dynamic and networked open-innovation environment. It is hoped that these research projects will inform prevention and treatment strategies in the future and will enable researchers across academia and industry to discover and develop new medicines to address the specific needs of African patients.

  4. ‘Two-level’ measurements of processing speed as cognitive markers in the differential diagnosis of DSM-5 mild neurocognitive disorders (NCD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Lu; Sandra S M Chan; Linda C W Lam

    2017-01-01

    Processing speed is an updated diagnostic factor for neurocognitive disorders (NCD) in DSM-5. This study investigated the characteristics of processing speed and their diagnostic values in NCD patients. A flanker test was conducted in 31 adults with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular), 36 patients with NCD due to Alzheimer?s disease (NCD-AD), and 137 healthy controls. The processing speed was evaluated using two measurements: mean reaction time (RT) and intra-individual variability of ...

  5. How to Effectively Monitor and Evaluate NCD Programmes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anand; Gupta, Vivek; Ritvik; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Thakur, Js

    2011-12-01

    Program monitoring and evaluation (M and E) are important components of any program and are critical to sound strategic planning. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, launched the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardio-vascular diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) with the objectives to prevent and control common noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) through behaviour and lifestyle changes, and to provide early diagnosis and management of common NCDs. M and E of program requires identification of indicators that measure inputs, process, outputs, and outcomes. The frequency of collecting information for these indicators will vary depending on the level of use and type of indicator as well as time interval over which we expect to see a change in that parameter. A group of indicators for different domains in the three major strategies has been proposed. For effective monitoring and evaluation of NPCDCS, the way forward is to finalize the list of indicators; evolve sustainable systems for surveillance; collect baseline assessment of the indicators at district level; fix targets for each indicator for different time frames; periodic review at state and national level for monitoring progress; and establish external review mechanisms. Monitoring and evaluation require complex set of co-ordinated action, responsibility for which has to be taken up by the NCD Cell within the Ministries of Health at state and national level. However, the routine data collection and compilation could be the responsibility of Central Bureau of Health Intelligence. Integrated population-based surveys with existing disease and behaviour surveillance could be undertaken by National Centre for Disease Control. The national NCD cell should compile all these information into a meaningful policy brief so that appropriate programmatic interventions can be identified. The launch of a national program to tackle the burden of NCDs is just the beginning, and

  6. 42 CFR 426.500 - Procedure for filing an acceptable complaint concerning a provision (or provisions) of an NCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concerning a provision (or provisions) of an NCD. 426.500 Section 426.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.500 Procedure for filing an acceptable complaint concerning a provision (or provisions) of an NCD. (a) The complaint. An...

  7. Catch and release: 14-3-3 controls Ncd in meiotic spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasso, Mary

    2017-10-02

    During Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis, spindle assembly occurs without centrosomes and relies on signals from chromosomes. Beaven et al. (2017. J. Cell. Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201704120) show that 14-3-3 proteins bind and inhibit a key microtubule motor, Ncd, during oogenesis, but Aurora B releases Ncd inhibition near chromosomes, allowing Ncd to work in the right time and place. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  8. Management of NCD in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkley, William; Ghannem, Hassen; Irazola, Vilma; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Levitt, Naomi S; Miranda, J Jaime; Niessen, Louis; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sigamani, Alben; Smith, Richard; Tandon, Nikhil; Wu, Yangfeng; Xavier, Denis; Yan, Lijing L

    2014-12-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD), comprising cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are increasing in incidence rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Some patients have access to the same treatments available in high-income countries, but most do not, and different strategies are needed. Most research on noncommunicable diseases has been conducted in high-income countries, but the need for research in LMICs has been recognized. LMICs can learn from high-income countries, but they need to devise their own systems that emphasize primary care, the use of community health workers, and sometimes the use of mobile technology. The World Health Organization has identified "best buys" it advocates as interventions in LMICs. Non-laboratory-based risk scores can be used to identify those at high risk. Targeting interventions to those at high risk for developing diabetes has been shown to work in LMICs. Indoor cooking with biomass fuels is an important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in LMICs, and improved cookstoves with chimneys may be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 World Heart Federation (Geneva). All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco control: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania; Mirza, Zafar; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Latif, Ehsan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Jafarey, Naeem A

    2004-12-01

    Reliance on revenue generated from tobacco is one of the fundamental barriers to effective tobacco control in Pakistan. The tobacco control component of the National Action Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD) deems it critical to address this issue. A range of policy and environmental strategies are part of this comprehensive effort; these involve regulating access and limiting demand through restrictions on advertising, marketing, promotion and through price and taxation. The NAP-NCD also encompasses community and school interventions, enforcement of tobacco control policies, cessation programmes, mass media counter-marketing campaigns for both prevention and cessation, and surveillance and evaluation of efforts. As part of NAP-NCD, surveillance of tobacco use has been integrated with a population-based NCD surveillance system. Featuring tobacco prominently as part of an NCD behavioural change strategy and providing wide-ranging information relevant to all aspects of tobacco prevention and control and smoking cessation have been identified as priority area in NAP-NCD. Other priority areas include the gradual phasing out of all types of advertising and eventually a complete ban on advertising; allocation of resources for policy and operational research around tobacco and building capacity in the health system in support of tobacco control. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to develop and enforce legislation on smuggling contrabands and counterfeiting and legislation to subject tobacco to stringent regulations governing pharmaceutical products. The adoption of measures to discourage tobacco cultivation and assist with crop diversification; integration of guidance on tobacco use cessation into health services and insuring the availability and access to nicotine replacement therapy are also part of NAP-NCD.

  10. The Global Burden of Disease Study and the Preventable Burden of NCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, Catherine P; Roth, Gregory A; Moran, Andrew E

    2016-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) now account for more than one-half of the global burden of disease. Cardiovascular diseases account for about one-half of NCD deaths, and the majority of cardiovascular disease deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) study measures and benchmarks health loss from death or disability from more than 300 diseases in over 100 countries. According to GBD analyses, the rise of NCD is in part due to increased life expectancy due to reduced premature mortality from communicable, child, and maternal illnesses, but preventable risk factors also contribute and present targets for NCD control efforts. In addition to traditional NCD risk factors, like tobacco smoking, high blood pressure, and unhealthful diet, nontraditional risk factors like air pollution and unhealthful alcohol consumption also play a role. The GBD study continues to grow by gathering more data from country partners than ever before, and by measuring health at the national and subnational levels and in smaller time increments. The GBD study will continue to provide the data to set priorities for and measure progress in the global effort to control the rising burden of NCD. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial relationship between heads of dimeric Ncd in the presence of nucleotides and microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdo, Lukasz; Skowronek, Krzysztof; Kasprzak, Andrzej A

    2004-01-15

    Kinesins are molecular motors that produce mechanical work at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Here, we studied Ncd (non-claret disjunctional), a (-)-end-directed member of this superfamily. To gain insight into the mechanism by which Ncd generates force and movement, we measured distances between the heads in dimeric Ncd-250-700 using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). About 5% of Ncd heads were labeled with 1,5-IAEDANS (donor), and the remaining thiol groups were modified with QSY35-iodoacetamide (acceptor). Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that the probes were conjugated to Cys-670 in each head of the dimer. The measured donor-acceptor distance was about 35 A. Nucleotides (ADP, ATP, and AMP-PNP) in the presence and absence of microtubules had only small effects on the interhead distances. Similar results were obtained for bidirectional Ncd mutant in which Asn-340 was replaced by a lysine. The results argue against models of Ncd movement in which the heads undergo large spatial rearrangements during mechanochemical cycle and suggest Gly-347 as a possible pivot point for the head rotation.

  12. Minus-end-directed motor Ncd exhibits processive movement that is enhanced by microtubule bundling in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Ken'ya; Toyoshima, Yoko Yano

    2008-01-22

    Drosophila Ncd, a kinesin-14A family member, is essential for meiosis and mitosis. Ncd is a minus-end-directed motor protein that has an ATP-independent microtubule binding site in the tail region, which enables it to act as a dynamic crosslinker of microtubules to assemble and maintain the spindle. Although a tailless Ncd has been shown to be nonprocessive, the role of the Ncd tail in single-molecule motility is unknown. Here, we show that individual Ncd dimers containing the tail region can move processively along microtubules at very low ionic strength, which provides the first evidence of processivity for minus-end-directed kinesins. The movement of GFP-Ncd consists of both a unidirectional and a diffusive element, and it was sensitive to ionic strength. Motility of a truncation series of Ncd and removal of the tubulin tail suggested that the Ncd tail serves as an electrostatic tether to microtubules. Under higher ionic conditions, Ncd showed only a small bias in diffusion along "single" microtubules, whereas it exhibited processive movement along "bundled" microtubules. This property may allow Ncd to accumulate preferentially in the vicinity of focused microtubules and then to crosslink and slide microtubules, possibly contributing to dynamic spindle self-organization.

  13. Intra Frame Coding In Advanced Video Coding Standard (H.264) to Obtain Consistent PSNR and Reduce Bit Rate for Diagonal Down Left Mode Using Gaussian Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjanaik, N.; Parameshachari, B. D.; Hanumanthappa, S. N.; Banu, Reshma

    2017-08-01

    Intra prediction process of H.264 video coding standard used to code first frame i.e. Intra frame of video to obtain good coding efficiency compare to previous video coding standard series. More benefit of intra frame coding is to reduce spatial pixel redundancy with in current frame, reduces computational complexity and provides better rate distortion performance. To code Intra frame it use existing process Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO) method. This method increases computational complexity, increases in bit rate and reduces picture quality so it is difficult to implement in real time applications, so the many researcher has been developed fast mode decision algorithm for coding of intra frame. The previous work carried on Intra frame coding in H.264 standard using fast decision mode intra prediction algorithm based on different techniques was achieved increased in bit rate, degradation of picture quality(PSNR) for different quantization parameters. Many previous approaches of fast mode decision algorithms on intra frame coding achieved only reduction of computational complexity or it save encoding time and limitation was increase in bit rate with loss of quality of picture. In order to avoid increase in bit rate and loss of picture quality a better approach was developed. In this paper developed a better approach i.e. Gaussian pulse for Intra frame coding using diagonal down left intra prediction mode to achieve higher coding efficiency in terms of PSNR and bitrate. In proposed method Gaussian pulse is multiplied with each 4x4 frequency domain coefficients of 4x4 sub macro block of macro block of current frame before quantization process. Multiplication of Gaussian pulse for each 4x4 integer transformed coefficients at macro block levels scales the information of the coefficients in a reversible manner. The resulting signal would turn abstract. Frequency samples are abstract in a known and controllable manner without intermixing of coefficients, it avoids

  14. Drosophila Ncd reveals an evolutionarily conserved powerstroke mechanism for homodimeric and heterodimeric kinesin-14s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengwei; Dai, Wei; Hahn, Juergen; Gilbert, Susan P

    2015-05-19

    Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-14 Ncd cross-links parallel microtubules at the spindle poles and antiparallel microtubules within the spindle midzone to play roles in bipolar spindle assembly and proper chromosome distribution. As observed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-14 Kar3Vik1 and Kar3Cik1, Ncd binds adjacent microtubule protofilaments in a novel microtubule binding configuration and uses an ATP-promoted powerstroke mechanism. The hypothesis tested here is that Kar3Vik1 and Kar3Cik1, as well as Ncd, use a common ATPase mechanism for force generation even though the microtubule interactions for both Ncd heads are modulated by nucleotide state. The presteady-state kinetics and computational modeling establish an ATPase mechanism for a powerstroke model of Ncd that is very similar to those determined for Kar3Vik1 and Kar3Cik1, although these heterodimers have one Kar3 catalytic motor domain and a Vik1/Cik1 partner motor homology domain whose interactions with microtubules are not modulated by nucleotide state but by strain. The results indicate that both Ncd motor heads bind the microtubule lattice; two ATP binding and hydrolysis events are required for each powerstroke; and a slow step occurs after microtubule collision and before the ATP-promoted powerstroke. Note that unlike conventional myosin-II or other processive molecular motors, Ncd requires two ATP turnovers rather than one for a single powerstroke-driven displacement or step. These results are significant because all metazoan kinesin-14s are homodimers, and the results presented show that despite their structural and functional differences, the heterodimeric and homodimeric kinesin-14s share a common evolutionary structural and mechanochemical mechanism for force generation.

  15. Eduardo Mendicutti, Mae West y yo : Barcelona: Tusquets, 2011, 264 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxe, Facundo Nazareno

    2012-01-01

    En 2011, Eduardo Mendicutti presenta su novela más reciente, Mae West y yo, un texto literario que nos introduce en el mundo de Felipe Bonasera, un hombre gay maduro y aquejado por un cáncer que convierte a la muerte en un horizonte eventual. En Mae West y yo se nos presenta una historia de suspenso con tintes de cine de Hitchcock, plagado de guiños a los años dorados de Hollywood. Este recurso de la referencia constante al mundo cinematográfico de la meca del cine estadounidense no es inusua...

  16. How Can Progress on Global Tobacco Control Inform Progress on NCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, Derek

    2016-12-01

    Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland's appointment as Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 led to a stronger global focus on tobacco control, and eventually, all noncommunicable diseases (NCD) and mental health. Since the adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2003, global health has turned toward addressing all NCD. I pose 2 questions. 1) What lessons can we apply from the WHO FCTC development and implementation processes to broader aspects of NCD prevention and control? 2) In retrospect, what could we have done better? I also propose 3 lessons: 1) it takes a broad-based alliance to make progress; 2) visible and courageous leadership matters, and is aided by financial support; and 3) in developing the FCTC, WHO focused on a few messages: demonize industry, tax, and regulate tobacco. We now need to broaden public and private players required for progress, use insights on levering market forces for NCD control, and build approaches that demonstrate empathy for millions struggling with NCD risks. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in vertical jumping and mae-geri kicking velocity between international and national level karateka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Lower limb explosive strength and mae-geri kicking velocity are fundamental in karate competition; although it is unclear whether these variables could differentiate the high-level athletes. The objective of this research is to analyze the differences in the mae-geri kicking velocity and the counter-movement jump (CMJ between a group of international top level karateka and another group of national-level karateka.Methods: Thirteen international-level karateka and eleven national-level karateka participated in the study. After a standard warm-up, CMJ height (in cm and mae-geri kicking velocity (in m/s was measured using an IR-platform and a high-speed camera, respectively.Results: Proceeding with MANCOVA to analyze the differences between groups controlling the effect of age, the results show that the international-level karateka demonstrated significantly higher levels of CMJ than national-level competitors (+22.1%, F = 9.47, p = 0.006, η2 = 0.311. There were no significant differences between groups in the mae-geri kicking velocity (+5,7%, F=0.80; p=0.38; η2=0.03.Conclusion: Our data shows, first, the importance of CMJ assessment as a tool to detect talent in karate and, second, that to achieve international-level in karate it may be important to increase CMJ levels to values ​​similar to those offered here.

  18. Antibacterial activity of a modified unfilled resin containing a novel polymerizable quaternary ammonium salt MAE-HB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Yu, Fan; Sun, Xiang; Dong, Yan; Lin, Ping-Ting; Yu, Hao-Han; Xiao, Yu-Hong; Chai, Zhi-Guo; Xing, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2016-09-23

    Resins with strong and long-lasting antibacterial properties are critical for the prevention of secondary dental caries. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial effect and the underlying mechanism of action of an unfilled resin incorporating 2-methacryloxylethyl hexadecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-HB) against Streptococcus mutans UA159 (S. mutans UA159). MAE-HB was added into unfilled resin at 10 mass%, and unfilled resin without MAE-HB served as the control. Bacterial growth was inhibited on 10%-MAE-HB unfilled resin compared with the control at 1 d, 7 d, 30 d, or 180 d (P  0.05). No significant differences in the antibacterial activities of eluents from control versus 10%-MAE-HB unfilled resins were observed at any time point (P > 0.05). The number of bacteria attached to 10%-MAE-HB unfilled resin was considerably lower than that to control. Fe-SEM and CLSM showed that 10%-MAE-HB unfilled resin disturbed the integrity of bacterial cells. Expression of the bacterial glucosyltransferases, gtfB and gtfC, was lower on 10%-MAE-HB unfilled resin compared to that on control (P HB confers unfilled resin with strong and long-lasting antibacterial effects against S. mutans.

  19. Theoretical phase diagrams for [N(CD3)4]2ZnCl4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannikov, D. G.

    2013-11-01

    A theoretical phase diagram of [N(CD3)4]2ZnCl4 crystal is constructed in the plane of two thermodynamic-potential coefficients. The orientation of the temperature ( T) and pressure ( P) axes is chosen in the diagram. The first diagram is used as a basis to construct the second theoretical T-P phase diagram, expanded to the region of weak negative pressures for nondeuterated [N(CH3)4]2ZnCl4 crystal. It is suggested that this region can be observed for deuterated [N(CD3)4]2ZnCl4 crystal.

  20. 42 CFR 426.516 - Role of Medicare Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) and State agencies in the NCD review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Role of Medicare Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) and State agencies in the NCD review process. 426.516 Section 426.516 Public Health CENTERS FOR... OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.516 Role...

  1. Synthesis of Naphthyridine Carbamate Dimer (NCD) Derivatives Modified with Alkanethiol and Binding Properties of G-G Mismatch DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Miki, Shouta; Ul'Husna, Anisa; Michikawa, Akiko; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-18

    A series of new DNA binding molecules NCD-Cn-SH (n = 3, 4, 5, and 6) is reported, which possesses the NCD (naphthyridine carbamate dimer) domain selectively binding to the G-G mismatch in the 5'-CGG-3'/5'-CGG-3' sequence and a thiol moiety, which undergoes spontaneous dimerization to (NCD-Cn-S)2 upon oxidation under aerobic conditions. The S-S dimer (NCD-Cn-S)2 produced the 1:1 binding complex with improved thermal stability. The dimer binding to the CGG/CGG DNA showed higher positive cooperativity than the binding of monomer and previously synthesized NCTn derivative. The dimerization of NCD-Cn-SH was selectively accelerated on the CGG repeat DNA but not on the CAG repeat DNA.

  2. A criterion-related validity study of the nursing-care dependency (NCD) scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Buist, G.; Dassen, Th.W.N.

    The purpose of this study was to examine some aspects of the criterion-related validity of the Nursing-Care Dependency (NCD) scale. This 15-item counting scale has recently been developed for assessing the care dependency of demented or mentally handicapped in-patients. Its criterion-related

  3. Joint International Workshop on Professional Learning, Competence Development and Knowledge Management - LOKMOL and L3NCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memmel, Martin; Ras, Eric; Weibelzahl, Stephan; Burgos, Daniel; Olmedilla, Daniel; Wolpers, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Memmel, M., Ras, E., Weibelzahl, S., Burgos, D., Olmedilla, D., & Wolpers, M. (2006). Joint International Workshop on Professional Learning, Competence Development and Knowledge Management - LOKMOL and L3NCD. Proceedings of ECTEL 2006. October 2nd-4th, Crete, Greece. Retrieved October 2nd, 2006,

  4. The origin of minus-end directionality and mechanochemistry of Ncd motors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biman Jana

    Full Text Available Adaptation of molecular structure to the ligand chemistry and interaction with the cytoskeletal filament are key to understanding the mechanochemistry of molecular motors. Despite the striking structural similarity with kinesin-1, which moves towards plus-end, Ncd motors exhibit minus-end directionality on microtubules (MTs. Here, by employing a structure-based model of protein folding, we show that a simple repositioning of the neck-helix makes the dynamics of Ncd non-processive and minus-end directed as opposed to kinesin-1. Our computational model shows that Ncd in solution can have both symmetric and asymmetric conformations with disparate ADP binding affinity, also revealing that there is a strong correlation between distortion of motor head and decrease in ADP binding affinity in the asymmetric state. The nucleotide (NT free-ADP (φ-ADP state bound to MTs favors the symmetric conformation whose coiled-coil stalk points to the plus-end. Upon ATP binding, an enhanced flexibility near the head-neck junction region, which we have identified as the important structural element for directional motility, leads to reorienting the coiled-coil stalk towards the minus-end by stabilizing the asymmetric conformation. The minus-end directionality of the Ncd motor is a remarkable example that demonstrates how motor proteins in the kinesin superfamily diversify their functions by simply rearranging the structural elements peripheral to the catalytic motor head domain.

  5. Working stroke of the kinesin-14, ncd, comprises two substeps of different direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Bert; Dudek, Elzbieta; Hajdo, Lukasz; Kasprzak, Andrzej A; Vilfan, Andrej; Diez, Stefan

    2016-10-25

    Single-molecule experiments have been used with great success to explore the mechanochemical cycles of processive motor proteins such as kinesin-1, but it has proven difficult to apply these approaches to nonprocessive motors. Therefore, the mechanochemical cycle of kinesin-14 (ncd) is still under debate. Here, we use the readout from the collective activity of multiple motors to derive information about the mechanochemical cycle of individual ncd motors. In gliding motility assays we performed 3D imaging based on fluorescence interference contrast microscopy combined with nanometer tracking to simultaneously study the translation and rotation of microtubules. Microtubules gliding on ncd-coated surfaces rotated around their longitudinal axes in an [ATP]- and [ADP]-dependent manner. Combined with a simple mechanical model, these observations suggest that the working stroke of ncd consists of an initial small movement of its stalk in a lateral direction when ADP is released and a second, main component of the working stroke, in a longitudinal direction upon ATP binding.

  6. A homotetrameric kinesin-5, KLP61F, bundles microtubules and antagonizes Ncd in motility assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Mogilner, Alex; Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul; Wollman, Roy; Evans, James; Stahlberg, Henning; Scholey, Jonathan M

    2006-12-05

    Mitosis depends upon the cooperative action of multiple microtubule (MT)-based motors. Among these, a kinesin-5, KLP61F, and the kinesin-14, Ncd, are proposed to generate antagonistic-sliding forces that control the spacing of the spindle poles. We tested whether purified KLP61F homotetramers and Ncd homodimers can generate a force balance capable of maintaining a constant spindle length in Drosophila embryos. Using fluorescence microscopy and cryo-EM, we observed that purified full-length, motorless, and tailless KLP61F tetramers (containing a tetramerization domain) and Ncd dimers can all cross-link MTs into bundles in MgATP. In multiple-motor motility assays, KLP61F and Ncd drive plus-end and minus-end MT sliding at 0.04 and 0.1 microm/s, respectively, but the motility of either motor is decreased by increasing the mole fraction of the other. At the "balance point," the mean velocity was zero and MTs paused briefly and then oscillated, taking approximately 0.3 microm excursions at approximately 0.02 microm/s toward the MT plus end and then the minus end. The results, combined with quantitative analysis, suggest that these motors could act as mutual brakes to modulate the rate of pole-pole separation and could maintain a prometaphase spindle displaying small fluctuations in its steady-state length.

  7. The origin of minus-end directionality and mechanochemistry of Ncd motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Biman; Hyeon, Changbong; Onuchic, José N

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of molecular structure to the ligand chemistry and interaction with the cytoskeletal filament are key to understanding the mechanochemistry of molecular motors. Despite the striking structural similarity with kinesin-1, which moves towards plus-end, Ncd motors exhibit minus-end directionality on microtubules (MTs). Here, by employing a structure-based model of protein folding, we show that a simple repositioning of the neck-helix makes the dynamics of Ncd non-processive and minus-end directed as opposed to kinesin-1. Our computational model shows that Ncd in solution can have both symmetric and asymmetric conformations with disparate ADP binding affinity, also revealing that there is a strong correlation between distortion of motor head and decrease in ADP binding affinity in the asymmetric state. The nucleotide (NT) free-ADP (φ-ADP) state bound to MTs favors the symmetric conformation whose coiled-coil stalk points to the plus-end. Upon ATP binding, an enhanced flexibility near the head-neck junction region, which we have identified as the important structural element for directional motility, leads to reorienting the coiled-coil stalk towards the minus-end by stabilizing the asymmetric conformation. The minus-end directionality of the Ncd motor is a remarkable example that demonstrates how motor proteins in the kinesin superfamily diversify their functions by simply rearranging the structural elements peripheral to the catalytic motor head domain.

  8. A lever-arm rotation drives motility of the minus-end-directed kinesin Ncd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Nicholas F; Yoshioka, Craig; Milligan, Ronald A; Vale, Ronald D

    2006-02-16

    Kinesins are microtubule-based motor proteins that power intracellular transport. Most kinesin motors, exemplified by Kinesin-1, move towards the microtubule plus end, and the structural changes that govern this directional preference have been described. By contrast, the nature and timing of the structural changes underlying the minus-end-directed motility of Kinesin-14 motors (such as Drosophila Ncd) are less well understood. Using cryo-electron microscopy, here we demonstrate that a coiled-coil mechanical element of microtubule-bound Ncd rotates approximately 70 degrees towards the minus end upon ATP binding. Extending or shortening this coiled coil increases or decreases velocity, respectively, without affecting ATPase activity. An unusual Ncd mutant that lacks directional preference shows unstable nucleotide-dependent conformations of its coiled coil, underscoring the role of this mechanical element in motility. These results show that the force-producing conformational change in Ncd occurs on ATP binding, as in other kinesins, but involves the swing of a lever-arm mechanical element similar to that described for myosins.

  9. NCD and the Americans with Disabilities Act: 15 Years of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, Lex

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the National Council on Disability's role in the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the continuing efforts of the Council in evaluating the implementation, effectiveness and impact of the ADA. Since its inception in 1978, the National Council on Disability (NCD) has been at the forefront in advocating for…

  10. 'Two-level' measurements of processing speed as cognitive markers in the differential diagnosis of DSM-5 mild neurocognitive disorders (NCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hanna; Chan, Sandra S M; Lam, Linda C W

    2017-03-31

    Processing speed is an updated diagnostic factor for neurocognitive disorders (NCD) in DSM-5. This study investigated the characteristics of processing speed and their diagnostic values in NCD patients. A flanker test was conducted in 31 adults with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular), 36 patients with NCD due to Alzheimer's disease (NCD-AD), and 137 healthy controls. The processing speed was evaluated using two measurements: mean reaction time (RT) and intra-individual variability of RT. Mean RT represents the global processing speed. Intra-individual variability of RT is the short-term fluctuation of RT and consists of two indices, which are intra-individual coefficient of variation of reaction time (ICV-RT) and intra-individual standard deviations (iSD). We observed elevated ICV-RT and iSD in NCD-AD and NCD-vascular patients. Additionally, there was a slowed RT in NCD-AD patients. The intra-individual variability of RT had a moderate power to differentiate NCD subgroups. The mean RT was able to discriminate the NCD-AD from NCD-vascular patients. Our findings highlight the clinical utility of the combined 'two-level' measurements of processing speed to distinguish between individuals with different cognitive status. Furthermore, the 'two-level' features of processing speed embedded in the psychometric property may also reflect the diverse aetiology underlying certain 'disease-specific' neurocognitive disorders.

  11. Hematologic outcomes and blood utilization in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) pre- and post-national coverage determination (NCD): results from a multicenter chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David H; Langer, Corey J; McKenzie, R Scott; Piech, Catherine Tak; Senbetta, Mekré; Schulman, Kathy L; Stepanski, Edward J

    2012-09-01

    In July 2007, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) limited coverage of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) through a National Coverage Determination (NCD). The primary objective of this study was to compare transfusion rates in patients with CIA with lung, breast, or colorectal cancer before and after the NCD. Adult Medicare patients with CIA treated at 49 community oncology clinics were selected from two time periods based on clinics' NCD implementation date. Chart data were abstracted for 12 weeks post-CIA episode start, defined as hemoglobin (Hb) level NCD and 994 post-NCD patients from 49 sites were selected. Of the patients, 56% used ESAs post-NCD vs. 88% pre-NCD (p NCD (32.1 days) vs. pre-NCD (48.4 days, p NCD group reported significantly lower Hb levels, higher odds of receiving a transfusion (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI 1.05-1.89, p = 0.0238) and increased blood utilization of 53% (units transfused: OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.15-2.04, p = 0.0034). Decreased frequency and duration of ESA administration were reported in the post-NCD vs. pre-NCD period. Findings were accompanied by a modest but statistically significant increase in transfusions and a decrease in Hb values.

  12. A new species of Pseudopyrochroa Pic, 1906 (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae: Pyrochroinae) from the Mae Chaem District, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel K

    2014-04-02

    A new species of the fire-colored beetle genus Pseudopyrochroa Pic, 1906, is described from the Mae Chaem District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The new species, Pseudopyrochroa inthanonensis sp. nov., is superficially similar to Pseudopyrochroa basalis (Pic), Pseudopyrochroa cardoni (Fairmaire) and Pseudopyrochroa fainanensis (Pic) by virtue of body color, antennal form and prothoracic shape. It is the second species of the genus known from Thailand, the other being Pseudopyrochroa diversicornis (Blair).

  13. Fengycin produced by Bacillus subtilis NCD-2 plays a major role in biocontrol of cotton seedling damping-off disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinggang; Dong, Weixin; Li, Shezeng; Lu, Xiuyun; Wang, Peipei; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Ye; Ma, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain NCD-2 is strongly antagonistic toward phytopathogenic fungi, and functions as an excellent biocontrol agent for cotton soil-borne diseases. The aims of this study were to characterize the main active antifungal compound from strain NCD-2 and clarify its role in suppressing cotton damping-off disease. Strain NCD-2 and lipopeptide extract prepared from an NCD-2 culture strongly inhibited the growth of Rhizoctonia solani in vitro. The lipopeptides of strain NCD-2 were separated by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and the antifungal compound was identified as a cluster of fengycin homologs analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A fengycin-deficient mutant was obtained by in-frame deletion of the fengycin synthetase gene in B. subtilis NCD-2. Compared with the wild-type strain, this mutant showed decreased abilities to inhibit the growth of R. solani in vitro and to suppress cotton damping-off disease in vivo. Studies showed that the population of fengycin-deficient mutant was almost same as that of the wild-type NCD-2 strain in the cotton rhizosphere. However, the population of R. solani in the cotton rhizosphere colonized by the fengycin-deficient mutant was twice that in the cotton rhizosphere colonized by the NCD-2 wild-type strain. This study demonstrated that fengycin-type lipopeptides are the main antifungal active compounds produced by B. subtilis NCD-2. These compounds play a major role in restricting the population of R. solani in the cotton rhizosphere and in suppressing cotton damping-off disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The mitotic kinesin-14 Ncd drives directional microtubule-microtubule sliding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gero; Hajdo, Lukasz; Skowronek, Krzysztof J; Reuther, Cordula; Kasprzak, Andrzej A; Diez, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    During mitosis and meiosis, the bipolar spindle facilitates chromosome segregation through microtubule sliding as well as microtubule growth and shrinkage. Kinesin-14, one of the motors involved, causes spindle collapse in the absence of kinesin-5 (Refs 2, 3), participates in spindle assembly and modulates spindle length. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these activities are not known. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-14 (Ncd) alone causes sliding of anti-parallel microtubules but locks together (that is, statically crosslinks) those that are parallel. Using single molecule imaging we show that Ncd diffuses along microtubules in a tail-dependent manner and switches its orientation between sliding microtubules. Our results show that kinesin-14 causes sliding and expansion of an anti-parallel microtubule array by dynamic interactions through the motor domain on the one side and the tail domain on the other. This mechanism accounts for the roles of kinesin-14 in spindle organization.

  15. The C-terminus of kinesin-14 Ncd is a crucial component of the force generating mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęsna, Ewa; Kasprzak, Andrzej A

    2012-03-23

    Ncd, a member of kinesin-14 family motors, uses the power stroke, a lever-like pivoting action of a long and stiff element, to exert force and generate movement. To better understand the role of the Ncd C-terminus in this process we produced four Ncd mutants in which this segment was altered or deleted. For these proteins we measured their affinity to the microtubule, steady-state ATPase and gliding velocity in multiple motor assays. The mutations had a dramatic effect on all three parameters measured, suggesting that the C-terminal residues of Ncd play an important role in modulating the interaction of the motor with the microtubule. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reversible and irreversible coiled coils in the stalk domain of ncd motor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Tsukasa; Morii, Hisayuki; Shimizu, Takashi; Arisaka, Fumio; Kato, Yusuke; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2007-08-21

    Ncd is a microtubule minus end-directed motor protein from Drosophila, a member of the kinesin-14 family, and an essential protein in mitosis and meiosis. Full-length ncd exists as a dimer via the formation of an alpha-helical coiled coil in its central stalk domain (P192-R346), which is thought to be one of the key regions for its motility. In our previous studies, however, none of the various synthetic polypeptide fragments (up to 46 residues) from the stalk domain formed a coiled coil. Herein, we have investigated the structural properties of the full-length ncd stalk domain using recombinant polypeptides together with shorter segments. These new fragments did form coiled coils as verified by far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation, suggesting that a certain length of polypeptide would be required for dimer formation. Moreover, deletion mapping revealed that the cooperativity among the neighboring subdomains in the stalk domain is required for formation of the coiled coil. Interestingly, the intact stalk domain segments showed three-state transition in thermal unfolding measurements with CD, indicating the presence of two regions: (i) a coiled-coil region (P227-R306) that exhibits reversible denaturation at a lower temperature (20-30 degrees C) and (ii) a more rigid coiled-coil region (T307-E334) that exhibits irreversible denaturation at a high temperature (ca. 60 degrees C). These results imply that the N-terminal region of the stalk domain might be able to adopt both a coiled-coil conformation and a dissociated one, which might be relevant to the functions of ncd.

  17. The Digital Health Scorecard: A New Health Literacy Metric for NCD Prevention and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzan, Scott C; Weinberger, Michael B; Apfel, Franklin; Kocharian, Gary

    2013-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 3 out of 5 deaths worldwide are due to common, chronic conditions, such as heart and respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes. These noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are linked to multiple lifestyle risk factors, including smoking, the harmful use of alcohol, and physical inactivity. They are associated with other "intermediate" risk factors, such as elevated body mass index (BMI), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Taking action to reduce these 7 risk factors can help people protect themselves against leading causes of death. All of these risk factors are measurable and modifiable, but globally available, cost-effective, and easy-to-use outcome metrics that can drive action on all levels do not yet exist. The Digital Health Scorecard is being proposed as a dynamic, globally available digital tool to raise public, professional, and policy maker NCD health literacy (the motivation and ability to access, understand, communicate, and use information to improve health and reduce the incidence of NCD). Its aim is to motivate and empower individuals to make the behavioral and choice changes needed to improve their health and reduce NCD risk factors by giving unprecedented access to global data intelligence, creating awareness, making links to professional and community-based support services and policies, and providing a simple way to measure and track risk changes. Moreover, it provides health care professionals, communities, institutions, workplaces, and nations with a simple metric to monitor progress toward agreed local, national, and global NCD targets. Copyright © 2013 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. How could complementary feeding patterns affect the susceptibility to NCD later in life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, L S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general framework for thinking about pathways and potential mechanisms through which complementary feeding may influence the risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). To provide a context for the lack of clear and consistent evidence relating complementary feeding to NCD risk, methodological challenges faced in trying to develop an evidence base are described. Potential pathways through which complementary feeding may influence obesity-related NCD risk are described and illustrated with examples. Numerous aspects of complementary feeding, including diet composition as well as patterns of feeding have the potential to influence the early development of obesity, which in turn predicts later obesity and NCD risk. Specific dietary exposures during the period of complementary feeding also have the potential to program future disease risk through pathways that are independent of adiposity. These factors all require consideration when making recommendations for optimal complementary feeding practices aimed at prevention of future NCDs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and diabetes among adults living in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Biswas, Tuhin; Khandker, Nusrat Nausheen; Saha, Shekhar Ranjan; Bidat Chowdhury, Mohammed Mahiul; Khan, Abdullah Nurus Salam; Chowdhury, Enamul Hasib; Renzaho, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Despite one-third of the urban population in Bangladesh living in urban slums and at increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), little is known about the NCD risk profile of this at-risk population. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of the NCD risk factors and the association of NCD risk factors with socio-demographic factors among the adults of urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult slum dwellers (aged 25 and above) residing in three purposively selected urban slums of Dhaka for at least six months preceding the survey. The risk factors assessed were- currently smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, hypertension and body mass index (BMI). Information on self-reported diabetes was also taken. A total of 507 participants (252 females; 49.7%) were interviewed and their physical measures were taken using the WHO NCD STEPS instrument. The overall prevalence of NCD risk factors was: 36.0% (95% CI: 31.82-40.41) for smoking; 95.60% (95% CI: 93.60-97.40) for insufficient fruit and vegetable intake; 15.30% (95% CI:12.12-18.71) for low physical activity;13.70% (95% CI: 10.71-16.92) for hypertension; 22.70% (95% CI: 19.31-26.02) for overweight or obesity; and 5.00% (95%: 3.20-7.00) for self-reported diabetes. In the logistic regression model, the clustering of three or more NCD risk factors was positively associated with younger age groups (p = 0.02), no formal education (p NCD risk factors are markedly high among the urban slum adults. These findings are important to support the formulation and implementation of NCD-related polices and plan of actions that recognize urban slum populations in Bangladesh as a priority sub-population.

  20. Insights into the process of EB1-dependent tip-tracking of kinesin-14 Ncd. The role of the microtubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęsna, Ewa; Kasprzak, Andrzej A

    2016-12-01

    End-binding proteins are capable of tracking the plus-ends of growing microtubules (MTs). The motor protein Ncd, a member of the kinesin-14 family, interacts with EB1 protein and becomes a non-autonomous tip-tracker. Here, we attempted to find out whether at least for Ncd, the efficient EB1-mediated tip-tracking involves the interaction of the kinesin with the MT surface. We prepared a series of Ncd tail mutants in which the MT-binding sites were altered or eliminated. Using TIRF microscopy, we characterized their behavior as tip-trackers and measured the dwell times of single molecules of EB1 and Ncd tail or its mutated forms. The mutated forms of Ncd tail exhibited tip-tracking in the presence of EB1 and the effectiveness of this process was proportional to the affinity of the mutant's tail to MT. Even though the interaction of Ncd with EB1 was weak (Kd∼9μM) the half saturating concentration of EB1 for tip-tracking was 7nM. The dwell time of Ncd tail in the presence of EB1 was ∼1s. The dwell time of EB1 alone was shorter (∼0.3s) and increased considerably in the presence of a large excess of Ncd tail. We demonstrated that tip-tracking of kinesin-14 occurs through several concurrent mechanisms: binding of kinesin only to EB1 located at the MT end, interaction of the kinesin molecules with a composite site formed by EB1 and the MT tip, and probably surface diffusion of the tail along MT. The second mechanism seems to play a crucial role in efficient tip-tracking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. 14-3-3 regulation of Ncd reveals a new mechanism for targeting proteins to the spindle in oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, Robin; Bastos, Ricardo Nunes; Spanos, Christos; Romé, Pierre; Cullen, C Fiona; Rappsilber, Juri; Giet, Régis; Goshima, Gohta; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-02

    The meiotic spindle is formed without centrosomes in a large volume of oocytes. Local activation of crucial spindle proteins around chromosomes is important for formation and maintenance of a bipolar spindle in oocytes. We found that phosphodocking 14-3-3 proteins stabilize spindle bipolarity in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. A critical 14-3-3 target is the minus end-directed motor Ncd (human HSET; kinesin-14), which has well-documented roles in stabilizing a bipolar spindle in oocytes. Phospho docking by 14-3-3 inhibits the microtubule binding activity of the nonmotor Ncd tail. Further phosphorylation by Aurora B kinase can release Ncd from this inhibitory effect of 14-3-3. As Aurora B localizes to chromosomes and spindles, 14-3-3 facilitates specific association of Ncd with spindle microtubules by preventing Ncd from binding to nonspindle microtubules in oocytes. Therefore, 14-3-3 translates a spatial cue provided by Aurora B to target Ncd selectively to the spindle within the large volume of oocytes. © 2017 Beaven et al.

  2. 14-3-3 regulation of Ncd reveals a new mechanism for targeting proteins to the spindle in oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ricardo Nunes; Romé, Pierre; Cullen, C. Fiona; Rappsilber, Juri

    2017-01-01

    The meiotic spindle is formed without centrosomes in a large volume of oocytes. Local activation of crucial spindle proteins around chromosomes is important for formation and maintenance of a bipolar spindle in oocytes. We found that phosphodocking 14-3-3 proteins stabilize spindle bipolarity in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. A critical 14-3-3 target is the minus end–directed motor Ncd (human HSET; kinesin-14), which has well-documented roles in stabilizing a bipolar spindle in oocytes. Phospho docking by 14-3-3 inhibits the microtubule binding activity of the nonmotor Ncd tail. Further phosphorylation by Aurora B kinase can release Ncd from this inhibitory effect of 14-3-3. As Aurora B localizes to chromosomes and spindles, 14-3-3 facilitates specific association of Ncd with spindle microtubules by preventing Ncd from binding to nonspindle microtubules in oocytes. Therefore, 14-3-3 translates a spatial cue provided by Aurora B to target Ncd selectively to the spindle within the large volume of oocytes. PMID:28860275

  3. Involving private healthcare practitioners in an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system: lessons learned from Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Mareike; Phalkey, Revati; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rising impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on public health in India, lack of quality data and routine surveillance hampers the planning process for NCD prevention and control. Current surveillance programs focus largely on communicable diseases and do not adequately include the private healthcare sector as a major source of care in cities. The objective of the study was to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate a prototype for an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system among private healthcare practitioners providing primary care in Pune, India. We mapped all private healthcare providers in three selected areas of the city, conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey with regard to surveillance among 258 consenting practitioners, and assessed their willingness to participate in a routine NCD surveillance system. In total, 127 practitioners agreed and were included in a 6-month surveillance study. Data on first-time diagnoses of 10 selected NCDs alongside basic demographic and socioeconomic patient information were collected onsite on a monthly basis using a paper-based register. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. In total, 1,532 incident cases were recorded that mainly included hypertension (n=622, 41%) and diabetes (n=460, 30%). Dropout rate was 10% (n=13). The monthly reporting consistency was quite constant, with the majority (n=63, 50%) submitting 1-10 cases in 6 months. Average number of submitted cases was highest among allopathic practitioners (17.4). A majority of the participants (n=104, 91%) agreed that the surveillance design could be scaled up to cover the entire city. The study indicates that private primary healthcare providers (allopathic and alternate medicine practitioners) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of NCDs and can be involved in NCD surveillance, if certain barriers are addressed. Main barriers observed were lack of regulation of the private sector, cross-practices among

  4. Characteristics of Mae Moh lignite: Hardgrove grindability index and approximate work index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutthiphong Tara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to preliminarily study the Mae Moh lignite grindability tests emphasizing onHardgrove grindability and approximate work index determination respectively. Firstly, the lignite samples were collected,prepared and analyzed for calorific value, total sulfur content, and proximate analysis. After that the Hardgrove grindabilitytest using ball-race test mill was performed. Knowing the Hardgrove indices, the Bond work indices of some samples wereestimated using the Aplan’s formula. The approximate work indices were determined by running a batch dry-grinding testusing a laboratory ball mill. Finally, the work indices obtained from both methods were compared. It was found that allsamples could be ranked as lignite B, using the heating value as criteria, if the content of mineral matter is neglected. Similarly,all samples can be classified as lignite with the Hargrove grindability indices ranging from about 40 to 50. However, there isa significant difference in the work indices derived from Hardgrove and simplified Bond grindability tests. This may be due todifference in variability of lignite properties and the test procedures. To obtain more accurate values of the lignite workindex, the time-consuming Bond procedure should be performed with a number of corrections for different milling conditions.With Hardgrove grindability indices and the work indices calculated from Aplan’s formula, capacity of the roller-racepulverizer and grindability of the Mae Moh lignite should be investigated in detail further.

  5. Measuring teachers' knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the MAE-TDAH Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroa, Marian; Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa

    2014-10-28

    The lack of methodological rigor is frequent in most of instruments developed to assess the knowledge of teachers regarding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire, namely Questionnaire for the evaluation of teachers' knowledge of ADHD (MAE-TDAH), for measuring the level of knowledge about ADHD of infant and primary school teachers. A random sample of 526 teachers from 57 schools in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country and Navarre was used for the analysis of the psychometric properties of the instrument. The participant teachers age range was between 22 and 65 (M = 42.59; SD = 10.89), and there were both generalist and specialized teachers. The measure showed a 4 factor structure (Etiology of ADHD, Symptoms/Diagnosis of ADHD, General information about ADHD and Treatment of ADHD) with adequate internal consistency (Omega values ranged between .83 and .91) and temporal stability indices (Spearman's Rho correlation values ranged between .62 and .79). Furthermore, evidence of convergent and external validity was obtained. Results suggest that the MAE-TDAH is a valid and reliable measure when it comes to evaluating teachers' level of knowledge of ADHD.

  6. Explanation of the Wear Behaviour of NCD Coated Carbide Tools Facilitated by Appropriate Methods for Assessing the Coating Adhesion Deterioration at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-D. Bouzakis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the temperature dependent interface fatigue strength of Nano-Crystalline Diamond (NCD coatings facilitates a thorough understanding of the NCD coated cutting tools wear mechanisms. In the present paper, the fatigue strength of the interface region between a NCD film and its hardmetal substrate was investigated by inclined impact tests at various temperatures. Depending upon the impact load and the applied temperature, after a certain number of impacts, damages in the film-substrate interface develop, resulting in coating detachment and lifting. These effects were attributed among others to the release of highly compressive residual stresses in the NCD coating structure. The attained inclined impact test’s results contributed to the explanation of the wear-evolution of NCD-coated tools with diverse film-substrate adhesion qualities. The related milling experiments using as work material AA 7075 T6 verified the dominant effect of the film adhesion on the NCD coated tool life.

  7. Experiments on the applicability of MAE techniques for predicting sound diffraction by irregular terrains. [Matched Asymptotic Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Yves H.; Pierce, Allan D.; Kearns, James A.

    1987-01-01

    The sound field diffracted by a single smooth hill of finite impedance is studied both analytically, within the context of the theory of Matched Asymptotic Expansions (MAE), and experimentally, under laboratory scale modeling conditions. Special attention is given to the sound field on the diffracting surface and throughout the transition region between the illuminated and the shadow zones. The MAE theory yields integral equations that are amenable to numerical computations. Experimental results are obtained with a spark source producing a pulse of 42 microsec duration and about 130 Pa at 1 m. The insertion loss of the hill is inferred from measurements of the acoustic signals at two locations in the field, with subsequent Fourier analysis on an IBM PC/AT. In general, experimental results support the predictions of the MAE theory, and provide a basis for the analysis of more complicated geometries.

  8. Coiled coil in the stalk region of ncd motor protein is nonlocally sustained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mie; Morii, Hisayuki; Shimizu, Takashi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2006-03-14

    The dimeric structure of kinesin superfamily proteins plays an important role in their motile functions and characteristics. In this study, the coiled-coil-forming property of the stalk region (192-346) of Drosophila ncd, a C-terminal kinesin motor protein, was investigated by synthesizing various peptide fragments. The alpha helicity of a set of 46-residue peptides spanning the stalk region appeared too low to form a coiled-coil dimer, probably because of insufficient continuity of the hydrophobic residues at (a and d) core positions in amphipathic heptad repeats. On the other hand, several peptides with leucine residues introduced at core positions or with extensional sequences with high alpha helicity had an advantage in coiled-coil formation. When we analyzed the thermal and urea-induced unfolding of these dimeric peptides, we identified four domains having a relatively high potential to form coiled coils. Among them, three domains on the C-terminal side of the stalk region, i.e., (252-272), (276-330), and (336-346), were in the same heptad frame, although these potential coiled-coil domains were not self-sustaining individually. This is in sharp contrast to the fragment of human kinesin, (332-369), which has an extremely high tendency toward coiled-coil formation. One of the possible triggers for coiled-coil formation of the ncd stalk region may be the interaction between the motor domain and the C-terminal part of the stalk as previously revealed by X-ray crystallography. The residues, S331 and R335, seem to act as a breaking point for alpha-helix continuity. This would make the region (336-346), as the head-stalk joint, more flexible such as seen with a plus-end-directed kinesin, if this region had no interaction with the motor domain. These characteristic differences between ncd and kinesin suggest that the nonlocally sustained coiled coil of ncd is one of the factors important for minus-end-directed motility.

  9. ABNORMAL RETURN TRADING VOLUME ACTIVITY PADA PERISTIWA AMBRUKNYA FANNIE MAE DAN FREDDIE MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ani Pangastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis was a disaster for all nations in the world due to itsimpact once seemed to hamper the economy of a nation. This research studied the eventsthat would see if there was an effect of global economic crisis preceded by the U.S. Financialcrisis was triggered by the collapse of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in the property business(subprime mortgages on September 7th, 2008. This study used samples that had been pub-licly traded company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and entered into the sequenceof LQ-45 in the year of 2008. Hypothesis testing used was t-test on the average abnormalreturn and average trading volume of activity. Test results for the average abnormal returnshowed there were no significant differences before and after the Subprime Mortgage. Thetest results for the average trading volume of activity indicated the presence of a significantdifference before and after the Subprime Mortgage.

  10. Hysteresis-based mechanism for the directed motility of the Ncd motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Sirish Kaushik; Hwang, Wonmuk

    2011-09-07

    Ncd is a Kinesin-14 family protein that walks to the microtubule's minus end. Although available structures show its α-helical neck in either pre- or post-stroke orientations, little is known about the transition between these two states. Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and structural analyses, we find that the neck sequentially makes intermediate contacts with the motor head along its mostly longitudinal path, and it develops a 24° twist in the post-stroke orientation. The forward (pre-stroke to post-stroke) motion has an ∼4.5 k(B)T (where k(B) is the Boltzmann constant, and T=300 K) free-energy barrier and is a diffusion guided by the intermediate contacts. The post-stroke free-energy minimum is higher and is formed ∼10° before reaching the orientation in the post-stroke crystal structure, consistent with previous structural data. The importance of intermediate contacts correlates with the existing motility data, including those for mutant Ncds. Unlike the forward motion, the recovery stroke goes nearly downhill in free energy, powered in part by torsional relaxation of the neck. The hysteresis in the energetics of the neck motion arises from the mechanical compliance of the protein, and together with guided diffusion, it may be key to the directed motility of Ncd. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tšehhimaal võimsalt liikunud Veerpalu ja Mae tahavad hooaja teisel poolel saada kaksikvõidu / Veiko Visnapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Visnapuu, Veiko, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Suusatamise MK-etapist Nove Mestos. Samas ka: Abivägi pühendus Jaak Mae pjedestaalile aitamisele. Kristina Šmigun püüab nõrkusehetkedest üle saada. Lisa: Eesti suusatajate pjedestaalikohad maailmakarikasarjas

  12. Preliminary investigation on the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot District, Tak Province of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwalee Rattanapunya

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The increasing trend of prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot, Tak province was of a great concern on either pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics aspect. The study in a larger numbers of malaria patients in different endemic areas throughout the country with different time periods is underway.

  13. Adhesion and wear behaviour of NCD coatings on Si3N4 by micro-abrasion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F G; Neto, M A; Fernandes, A J S; Costa, F M; Oliveira, F J; Silva, R F

    2009-06-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings offer an excellent alternative for tribological applications, preserving most of the intrinsic mechanical properties of polycrystalline CVD diamond and adding to it an extreme surface smoothness. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics are reported to guarantee high adhesion levels to CVD microcrystalline diamond coatings, but the NCD adhesion to Si3N4 is not yet well established. Micro-abrasion tests are appropriate for evaluating the abrasive wear resistance of a given surface, but they also provide information on thin film/substrate interfacial resistance, i.e., film adhesion. In this study, a comparison is made between the behaviour of NCD films deposited by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) and microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) techniques. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic discs were selected as substrates. The NCD depositions by HFCVD and MPCVD were carried out using H2-CH4 and H2-CH4-N2 gas mixtures, respectively. An adequate set of growth parameters was chosen for each CVD technique, resulting in NCD films having a final thickness of 5 microm. A micro-abrasion tribometer was used, with 3 microm diamond grit as the abrasive slurry element. Experiments were carried out at a constant rotational speed (80 r.p.m.) and by varying the applied load in the range of 0.25-0.75 N. The wear rate for MPCVD NCD (3.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(-5) mm3 N(-1) m(-1)) is compatible with those reported for microcrystalline CVD diamond. The HFCVD films displayed poorer adhesion to the Si3N4 ceramic substrates than the MPCVD ones. However, the HFCVD films show better wear resistance as a result of their higher crystallinity according to the UV Raman data, despite evidencing premature adhesion failure.

  14. Non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors and diabetes among adults living in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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    Lal B Rawal

    Full Text Available Despite one-third of the urban population in Bangladesh living in urban slums and at increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, little is known about the NCD risk profile of this at-risk population. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of the NCD risk factors and the association of NCD risk factors with socio-demographic factors among the adults of urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh.A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult slum dwellers (aged 25 and above residing in three purposively selected urban slums of Dhaka for at least six months preceding the survey. The risk factors assessed were- currently smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, hypertension and body mass index (BMI. Information on self-reported diabetes was also taken. A total of 507 participants (252 females; 49.7% were interviewed and their physical measures were taken using the WHO NCD STEPS instrument.The overall prevalence of NCD risk factors was: 36.0% (95% CI: 31.82-40.41 for smoking; 95.60% (95% CI: 93.60-97.40 for insufficient fruit and vegetable intake; 15.30% (95% CI:12.12-18.71 for low physical activity;13.70% (95% CI: 10.71-16.92 for hypertension; 22.70% (95% CI: 19.31-26.02 for overweight or obesity; and 5.00% (95%: 3.20-7.00 for self-reported diabetes. In the logistic regression model, the clustering of three or more NCD risk factors was positively associated with younger age groups (p = 0.02, no formal education (p <0.001 and primary education level (p = 0.01, but did not differ by sex of the participants, monthly income and occupation.All NCD risk factors are markedly high among the urban slum adults. These findings are important to support the formulation and implementation of NCD-related polices and plan of actions that recognize urban slum populations in Bangladesh as a priority sub-population.

  15. NCD Prevention and Control in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Regional Approach to Policy and Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospedales, C James; Barcelo, Alberto; Luciani, Silvana; Legetic, Branka; Ordunez, Pedro; Blanco, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    This article describes efforts from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that have supported progress in country-driven planning and implementing of actions to address noncommunicable diseases (NCD), as well as mechanisms that PAHO has supported for countries in the Americas to share and build on each other's experiences. The Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for NCD, approved by all member states in 2006, is the major frame for this work. The strategy has 4 lines of action: policy and advocacy; surveillance; health promotion and disease prevention; and integrated management of NCD and risk factors. Cross-cutting strategies include resource mobilization, communication, training, and networks and partnerships. The strategy is operationalized through biannual work plans for which countries link and commit to achieving specific objectives. PAHO then provides technical support toward achieving these plans, and countries report progress annually. The CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention and Effective Management of NCD [Conjunto de Acciones para la Reducción y el Manejo de las Enfermedades No transmisibles]) Network provides a major platform for sharing, and the multisector Pan American Forum for Action on NCD has been launched to extend the network to include business and civil society. PAHO also supported civil society capacity building. Almost all member states have made substantial progress in implementing their national chronic disease programs, in most instances reporting exceeding the indicators of the strategic plan related to chronic diseases. From the Caribbean countries, leadership has been provided to achieve the historic UN High-Level Meeting on NCD in September 2011. The region is on track to meet the mortality reduction target set for 2013, though much remains to be done to further increase awareness of and resources for scaling up NCD prevention and control programs, given the huge health and economic burden, increasing costs

  16. A novel LSD1 inhibitor NCD38 ameliorates MDS-related leukemia with complex karyotype by attenuating leukemia programs via activating super-enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, N; Kawahara, M; Tatsumi, G; Kanai, A; Matsui, H; Yamamoto, R; Nagai, Y; Fujii, S; Shimazu, Y; Hishizawa, M; Inaba, T; Andoh, A; Suzuki, T; Takaori-Kondo, A

    2017-11-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) regulates gene expression by affecting histone modifications and is a promising target for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with specific genetic abnormalities. Novel LSD1 inhibitors, NCD25 and NCD38, inhibited growth of MLL-AF9 leukemia as well as erythroleukemia, megakaryoblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) overt leukemia cells in the concentration range that normal hematopoiesis was spared. NCD25 and NCD38 invoked the myeloid development programs, hindered the MDS and AML oncogenic programs, and commonly upregulated 62 genes in several leukemia cells. NCD38 elevated H3K27ac level on enhancers of these LSD1 signature genes and newly activated ~500 super-enhancers. Upregulated genes with super-enhancer activation in erythroleukemia cells were enriched in leukocyte differentiation. Eleven genes including GFI1 and ERG, but not CEBPA, were identified as the LSD1 signature with super-enhancer activation. Super-enhancers of these genes were activated prior to induction of the transcripts and myeloid differentiation. Depletion of GFI1 attenuated myeloid differentiation by NCD38. Finally, a single administration of NCD38 causes the in vivo eradication of primary MDS-related leukemia cells with a complex karyotype. Together, NCD38 derepresses super-enhancers of hematopoietic regulators that are silenced abnormally by LSD1, attenuates leukemogenic programs and consequently exerts anti-leukemic effect against MDS-related leukemia with adverse outcome.

  17. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Mae Klong Watershed, Western Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witwisitpong Maneechan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and diversity of aquatic insects and water quality variables were studied among three streams of the Mae Klong Watershed. In each stream, two sites were sampled. Aquatic insects and water quality variables were randomly sampled seven times in February, May, September, and December 2010 and in January, April, and May 2011. Overall, 11,153 individuals belonging to 64 families and nine orders were examined. Among the aquatic insects collected from the three streams, the order Trichoptera was most diverse in number of individuals, followed by Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Megaloptera, and Lepidoptera. The highest Shannon index of diversity of 2.934 and 3.2 was recorded in Huai Kayeng stream and the lowest was in Huai Pakkok stream (2.68 and 2.62. The high diversity of insect fauna in streams is an indication of larger microhabitat diversity and better water quality conditions prevailing in the streams. The evenness value was recorded as high in most sites. The high species diversity and evenness in almost all sites indicated good water quality.

  18. Assessing the sustainability of agriculture: a case of Mae Chaem Catchment, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praneetvatakul, S; Janekarnkij, P; Potchanasin, C; Prayoonwong, K

    2001-09-01

    Sustainability is not a new concept but rather a prominent concept at the present time. Researchers have categorized sustainability indicators into economic, social, and ecological aspects. Sustainability of agriculture in the context of development efforts has to meet production efficiency, resilience of ecosystems, appropriate technology, maintenance of the environment, cultural diversity, and satisfaction of the basic needs. The research objective of this study is to determine the critical indicators of agricultural sustainability in the Mae Chaem Catchment, northern Thailand. In assessing sustainability, the authors applied the sustainability indicator analysis developed by FAO. The results of the study show that food sufficiency in the Wat Chan subcatchment is the most sustainable aspect of agriculture. The least sustainable facets of agriculture in the Wat Chan subcatchment are land holding size, land tenure, and water shortage. While expansion of agricultural land in the watershed area is not legally permitted, a practice of agroforestry is recommended. Insecure land tenure may result in reduced incentives to improve land productivity. Thus, official recognition of land ownership is required. As the problem of water shortage is most critical in the lower reaches, increased participation in the allocation scheme by downstream villagers should be encouraged. Finally, the construction of a small-scale water storage in the lower part of the catchment to increase water supply should be considered.

  19. Facilitators and barriers to NCD prevention in Pakistanis-invincibility or inevitability: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowani, Ambreen; Ahmed, Hafiz Imtiaz; Khalid, Wardah; Muqeet, Abdul; Abdullah, Saad; Khoja, Shariq; Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran

    2016-05-23

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading causes of death globally. In Pakistan, they are among the top ten causes of mortality, especially in the productive age group (30-69 years). Evidence suggests that health perceptions and beliefs strongly influence the health behavior of an individual. We performed focus group interviews to delineate the same so as to design the user interface of a non-invasive stroke risk monitoring device. It was a qualitative study, designed to explore how health perceptions and beliefs influence behavior for NCD prevention. Four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with 30 stable participants who had diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, blood pressure, and stroke. The data was collected using a semi-structured interview guide designed to explore participants' perceptions of their illnesses, self-management behaviors and factors affecting them. The interviews were transcribed and content analysis was done using steps of content analysis by Morse and Niehaus [10]. Medication adherence, self-monitoring of blood sugars and blood pressures, and medical help seeking were the commonly performed self-management behaviors by the participants. Personal experience of illness, familial inheritance of disease, education and fear of premature death when life responsibilities were unfulfilled, emerged as strong facilitators of self-management behaviors. A sense of personal invincibility, Fatalism or inevitability, lack of personal threat realization, limited knowledge, inadequate health education, health care and financial constraints appeared as key barriers to the self-management of chronic disease in participants. Behavioural interventional messaging will have to engender a sense of personal vulnerability and yet empower self-efficacy solutions at the individual level to deal with both invincibility and inevitability barriers to adoption of healthy behavior.

  20. School-based primary NCD risk reduction: education and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Jacquie L; Hipkins, Rosemary; Siddiqi, Kamran; Huque, Rumana; Dixon, Robyn; Shirley, Debra; Tairea, Karen; Yaqona, Delaney; Mason-Jones, Amanda; Vickers, Mark H

    2017-04-01

    The rising global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has heightened awareness of the necessity for primary risk prevention programmes. These aim to facilitate long-term behaviour changes in children and adolescents that can reduce NCD risk factors and disease onset in later-life. School-based programmes designed to improve childhood and adolescent health behaviours and wellbeing contribute to this; however, design and impact assessment of these is complex. These programmes should be multidisciplinary, utilizing both educational and health expertise. Health outcomes may not be evident in the short term, but may occur with learning-related behaviour modifications, highly effective when sustained over a lifetime. Thus assessment must analyse short-term learning and behaviour impacts as well as long-term capability, behaviour and health outcomes.The focus of assessment measures in the health and education sectors differs and often lacks depth in one or other area. Educators generally focus on identifying evidence of learning related to capability, attitude and/or behaviour changes, while public health practitioners typically focus on health measures (e.g. body mass index (BMI), mental health, or risk behaviours).We argue that multidisciplinary approaches incorporating education and health viewpoints clarify issues relating to the potential value of schools as a setting to facilitate primary NCD risk reduction. To demonstrate this, we need to: 1) build stronger understandings of the features of effective learning for behavioural change and the best way to evaluate these, and 2) convincingly correlate these measures with long-term metabolic health indicators by tracking learner behaviour and health over time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of gases and particulate matter from electricity generation process on the radial growth of teak plantations surrounding Mae Moh power plant, Lampang province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narapong Sangram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate radial growth patterns and influences of polluting gases and particulate matter on the radial growth of teak plantations surrounding the Mae Moh Power Plant. Twenty-four 32-year-old teak trees were selected from Mae Jang and Mae Moh plantations, which were 5 km and 15 km from the Mae Moe power plant, respectively. Forty-eight sample cores were collected from the 24 trees (two cores per tree. The growth patterns of all the cores were analyzed following the standard methods of dendrochronology. The relationships between the growth pattern and the amounts of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter were measured as average daily rates and then analyzed. The study showed that the best-fit model for the relationship between the radial current annual increment at breast height (CAIdbh and time (Y was an exponential equation. The fitted equations were: CAIdbh = 10.657e(−0.031Y for Mae Moh plantation and CAIdbh = 12.518e(−0.032Y for Mae Jang plantation. The coefficient of determination for the fitted equations was 0.410 and 0.423 for the Mae Moh and Mae Jang plantations, respectively. Moreover, carbon monoxide (CO and sulfur dioxide (SO2 had a statistically significant effect on radial teak growth (RT in the Mae Jang plantation, with a coefficient of determination of 0.69 (RTmj = 0.571 + 0.429(CO − 0.023(SO2.

  2. DegQ regulates the production of fengycins and biofilm formation of the biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis NCD-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peipei; Guo, Qinggang; Ma, Yinan; Li, Shezeng; Lu, Xiuyun; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Ma, Ping

    2015-09-01

    Bacillus subtilis NCD-2 is an excellent biocontrol agent for tomato gray mold and cotton soil-borne diseases. The fengycin lipopeptides serve as a major role in its biocontrol ability. A previous study revealed that insertion of degQ with the mini-Tn10 transposon decreased the antifungal activity of strain NCD-2 against the growth of Botrytis cinerea. To clarify the regulation of degQ on the production of fengycin, we deleted degQ by in-frame mutagenesis. Compared with the wild-type strain NCD-2, the degQ-null mutant had decreased extracellular protease and cellulase activities as well as antifungal ability against the growth of B. cinerea in vitro. The lipopeptides from the degQ-null mutant also had significantly decreased antifungal activity against B. cinerea in vitro and in vivo. This result was confirmed by the decreased fengycin production in the degQ-null mutant that was detected by fast protein liquid chromatography analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR further demonstrated that degQ positively regulated the expression of the fengycin synthetase gene. In addition, the degQ-null mutant also had a flatter colony phenotype and significantly decreased biofilm formation ability relative to the wild-type strain. All of those characteristics from degQ-null mutant could be restored to the strain NCD-2 wild-type level by complementation of intact degQ in the mutant. Therefore, DegQ may be an important regulator of fengycin production and biofilm formation in B. subtilis NCD-2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Relaciones entre el salto vertical y la velocidad de mae-geri en karatecas de nivel internacional, especialidad kata

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    Víctor Martínez-Majolero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo persiguió dos objetivos: (1 describir la capacidad de salto vertical y la velocidad y el tiempo de ejecución de la técnica de pierna frontal mae-geri en karatecas de nivel internacional y (2 analizar el grado de covariación entre dichas variables. Los participantes fueron 13 karatecas españoles masculinos de nivel internacional, estilo shito-ryu y especialidad de katas. El estudio siguió un diseño descriptivo y correlacional. Las variables analizadas fueron: salto vertical CMJ, medido con una plataforma de infrarrojos Optojump, y velocidad y tiempo de ejecución de patada mae-geri, medida con una cámara de alta velocidad (Casio EXFC-100. Los datos registrados fueron: altura media de salto de 48,7 ± 0,12 cm; velocidad media de mae-geri de 19,8 ± 1,9 km/h y de 19,6 ± 1,4 km/h, y tiempo de ejecución de dicha patada de 264,85 ± 28,14 ms y de 274,69 ± 18,4 ms, pierna dominante y no dominante respectivamente. Las intensidades de correlación se situaron entre r = 0,72 y r = –0,80. El salto vertical mantuvo una relación alta y estadísticamente significativa con la velocidad y el tiempo de ejecución de la patada mae-geri, técnica de gran importancia en las katas de competición en karate. Esta información puede ser valiosa tanto para planificar el entrenamiento mediante pruebas simples y de bajo coste como para detectar talentos.

  4. A community based study of NCD risk factors among adult population in Dehradun, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Agarwal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Non-Communicable disease (NCD is one which is non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. NCDs account for leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. To decrease the burden of NCDs experts stress on the importance of prevention and control with respect to modifiable risk factors. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs.(1  Aims & Objectives: 1. To know the prevalence of risk factors leading to NCDs in the study population. 2. To know the socio-demographic correlates associated with risk factors of NCDs. 3. To suggest appropriate recommendations regarding modifiable risk factors of NCDs in study population. Material & Methods: A Cross-sectional study, Community-based study among 18+ population in field practice areas of Community Medicine Department, SGRRIM&HS, Dehradun. Sample Size: 300 each in urban and rural, total 60. Results: The prevalence of Smoking was 11.3%, Smokeless tobacco use 10.5%, Alcohol use 13.2%, Unhealthy diet 99.5%, Low physical activity 0.8%, High BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2 51.2%, above normal waist-hip ratio 57.0%, Raised blood pressure 58.5% and raised blood sugar 25.2%. Conclusion: Smoking is significantly associated with age, sex and occupation. Raised blood pressure is significantly associated with age, sex and social class.

  5. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiuri, Ruth; Boylan, Sinead; Morrice, Emily

    2015-10-16

    Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i) convened a workshop of academics (n = 25) from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii) conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii) convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation) were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities) was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms.

  6. INTERACTION’S EFFECT OF ORGANIC MATERIAL AND AGGREGATION ON EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF TPHS FROM PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH MAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ganjidoust and Gh. Naghizadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE is a type of low-temperature thermal desorption process that its numerous advantages have caused a wide spread use of it. Microwave heating is a potentially attractive technique as it provides volumetric heating process to improve heating efficiencies as compared with conventional techniques. The ability to rapidly heat the sample solvent mixture is inherent to MAE and the main advantage of this technique. Presently MAE has been shown to be one of the best technologies for removing environmental pollutants specially PAHs, phenols and PCBs from soils and sediments. Five different mixtures and types of aggregation (Sand, Top soil, Kaolinite besides three concentrations of crude oil as a contaminant (1000, 5000 and 10000 mg/L were considered. The results indicated that regardless of aggregation, the presence of humus component in soil reduces the efficiency. Minimum and maximum efficiencies were for sandy soil (containing organic components and kaolinite (without any organic content, respectively. According to the results of this research when some amount of humus and organic materials are available in the matrix, it causes the extraction efficiency to perform as a function of just humus materials but not aggregation. Increasing the concentration of crude oil reduced the efficiency with a sharp steep for higher concentration (5000-10000 mg/L and less steeper for lower concentration (1000-5000 mg/L. The concentration of the contaminant, works just as an independent function with extraction time and aggregation factors. The extraction period of 10 min. can be suggested as an optimum extraction time in FMAE for PAHs contaminated soils.

  7. Analysis of corrosion products in some metallic statuettes of the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (MAE-USP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Added, Nemitala; Barbosa, Marcel D.L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br; tabacniks@if.usp.br; nemitala@if.usp.br; mbarbosa@if.usp.br; Lima, Silvia Cunha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Lab. de Conservacao e Restauracao]. E-mail: silviacl@usp.br; Melo, Hercilio G.; Neiva, Augusto C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Eletroquimica e Corrosao]. E-mail: hgdemelo@usp.br; acneiva@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The recent acquisition of a sealed chamber with controlled humidity by the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of the University of Sao Paulo (MAE-USP) requires new methods for conservation and restoration of metallic objects in its collection. To establish new procedures for the identification of corrosion mechanisms and agents in the exhibition environment, and to set up new standards for conservation of the museum's collection, Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) elementary analysis of some metallic objects is in progress, using the external beam facility at LAMFI. The first analysis involved metallic objects from the collection of MAE, two African statuettes 'male Edans' from the Ogboni Secret Society, of the Ilobu-Ioruba ethnic group, one pectoral adornment from the Chimu culture, Peru and one anthropomorphic pendant from the Tairona culture, Colombia. The in air non destructive PIXE analysis allowed identifying major and some secondary components in the alloys and in the corrosion products on the samples, data that were used to identify the corrosion sources and to set up the exhibition environment. (author)

  8. Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisarat Songprasert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2–microglobulin (β2-MG in urine (as an internal exposure dose and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose. Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%–86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%–86% for heart failure, cerebral infraction, and nephrosis/nephritis. Additional DALYs is a useful approach for assessing the magnitude of environmental Cd exposure. The Mae Sot population lost more healthy life compared to populations living in a non- or less Cd polluted area. This method should be applicable to various types of environmental contamination problems if exposure assessment information is available.

  9. PSNR Evaluation of Media Traffic over TFRC

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda S. Sorour; Magdi A. Koutb; Mohammad A. Talaat

    2009-01-01

    Due to the remarkable increase in media traffic overthe existing best-effort IP Internet, the Internet congestion stateis expected to worsen. TCP-friendly rate control protocol TFRCis one of the most promising congestion control techniquesdeveloped so far. Those techniques have been thoroughly testedin terms of being TCP-friendly and fair. Yet, their impact on thevisual quality of the media traffic traversing Internet is stillquestionable. This paper investigates, in a simulatedenvironment, t...

  10. Prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases through evidence-based public health: implementing the NCD 2020 action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Günter; Brownson, Ross C; Grabauskas, Vilius; Shatchkute, Aushra; Stachenko, Sylvie

    2016-09-01

    The control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was addressed by the declaration of the 66th United Nations (UN) General Assembly followed by the World Health Organization's (WHO) NCD 2020 action plan. There is a clear need to better apply evidence in public health settings to tackle both behaviour-related factors and the underlying social and economic conditions. This article describes concepts of evidence-based public health (EBPH) and outlines a set of actions that are essential for successful global NCD prevention. The authors describe the importance of knowledge translation with the goal of increasing the effectiveness of public health services, relying on both quantitative and qualitative evidence. In particular, the role of capacity building is highlighted because it is fundamental to progress in controlling NCDs. Important challenges for capacity building include the need to bridge diverse disciplines, build the evidence base across countries and the lack of formal training in public health sciences. As brief case examples, several successful capacity-building efforts are highlighted to address challenges and further evidence-based decision making. The need for a more comprehensive public health approach, addressing social, environmental and cultural conditions, has led to government-wide and society-wide strategies that are now on the agenda due to efforts such as the WHO's NCD 2020 action plan and Health 2020: the European Policy for Health and Wellbeing. These efforts need research to generate evidence in new areas (e.g. equity and sustainability), training to build public health capacity and a continuous process of improvement and knowledge generation and translation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The Consortium for NCD Prevention and Control in Sub-Saharan Africa (CNCD-Africa): from concept to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Owuor, Jared O; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    CNCD-Africa was established in July 2009 in response to and in recognition of the continuously increasing burden of diseases such as injuries, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mental health in low- and middle-income countries, and specifically in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. CNCD-Africa aims to comprehensively address specific and common objectives while building capacity in the region to prevent and control NCDs. With support from key partners and funders, and a keen interest in opportunities to address NCDs from health promotion and equity perspectives, the Consortium has excelled in four key areas: convening; knowledge generation and sharing; advocacy; and networking. However, the path to successful and sustainable efforts remains laden with challenges and barriers. Retaining interest of network partners through flagship efforts and continued efforts to ascertain support from local and international partners with interest in NCDs across the region remain essential to CNCD-Africa core activities. A key lesson learnt from the early years of CNCD-Africa is that existing regional platforms can and should be used to showcase what is being done locally, and to share best practices and best-buys. In addition, partnerships and stakeholder involvement have been key for CNCD-Africa and are essential to NCD action. Sustaining such partnerships requires incentives for the various partners to keep actively involved in NCD action. This can be achieved through joint inception, project planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Another ingredient for success seems to be innovative financing for NCD efforts, which is possible through the establishment and sustaining of regional and global partnerships that are robust, locally relevant and respond to country needs.

  12. Prevention--a cost-effective way to fight the non-communicable disease epidemic: an academic perspective of the United Nations High-level NCD Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tanner, Marcel; Kessler, Claudia; Burri, Christian; Künzli, Nino

    2011-09-07

    The United Nations General Assembly has convened a Summit on non-communicable diseases (NCDs), an historic moment in the global combat of these disorders. Lifestyles in increasingly urban and globalised environments have led to a steep surge in NCD incidence in low and middle income countries, where two thirds of all NCD deaths occur (most importantly from cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease as well as diabetes). Treatment of NCDs is usually long term and expensive, thus threatening patients' and nations' budgets and putting them at high risk for poverty. The NCD Summit offers an opportunity for strengthening and shaping primary prevention, the most cost-effective instrument to fight major risk factors such as tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. From a Swiss perspective, we also emphasised the efforts for new laws on prevention and diagnosis registration, in accordance with the recommendations of the NCD summit in order to strengthen primary prevention and disease monitoring. In addition, the need for structural prevention across all policy sectors with leadership in environmental policy making to prevent NCDs as well as the need to adapt and strengthen primary health care are equally relevant for Switzerland. To compliment efforts in primary prevention, the field of NCDs requires special R&D platforms for affordable NCD drugs and diagnostics for neglected population segments in both Switzerland and low and middle income countries. Switzerland has a track record in research and development against diseases of poverty on a global scale that now needs to be applied to NCDs.

  13. Optimisation of focused ultrasound extraction (FUSE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of hydrocarbons in geological chert samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Maitane; Vallejo, Asier; Irazola, Mireia; Murelaga, Xabier; Baceta, Juan Ignacio; Tarriño, Andoni; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2010-12-15

    The analysis of hydrocarbons in chert rocks provides a worthwhile source of information regarding the geochemical features of a depositional setting. Since the typical analytical procedure requires long Soxhlet extractions and the use of large quantities of sample (30-50 g), in this work we have optimised the focused ultrasound extraction (FUSE) and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to make available a less severe procedure. In both cases a full experimental design including solvent mixture composition (Dichloromethane/Hexane/Acetone) and process variables (sonication time and cycles, and extraction temperature and time) by means of D-optimal designs. In the extracted fractions hydrocarbons (C(16)-C(40)) were analysed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the case of FUSE the process variables were the most sensitive variables and the optimum conditions were defined at 60:40 DCM/Hex mixture and a sonication time of 30 min and 9 cycles. In the case of MAE all the variables shown a significant effect on the extraction yield and the most adequate conditions (60:30:10 DCM/Hex/Ace mixture and an irradiation time of 15 min at 110 °C) were established from the analysis of the response surface. Both methods were systematically applied with different chert samples collected in Cucho (Trebiño County, Burgos, Spain) and we were able to assure quantitative extractions (>85%) in the first extraction. Additionally, from the distribution patterns of n-alkanes obtained in the different chert samples (nodular chert, laminar chert and massive-brechoid chert) collected in Cucho, we were able to distinguish different origins and diagenetic history. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of kinesiological patterns of the frontal kick, mae-geri, in karate experts and non-karate practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. VencesBrito

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently, coaches and researchers need to have a better comprehension of the kinesiological parameters that should be an important tool to support teaching methodologies and to improve skills performance in sports. The aim of this study was to (i identify the kinematic and neuromuscular control patterns of the front kick (mae-geri to a fixed target performed by 14 experienced karate practitioners, and (ii compare it with the execution of 16 participants without any karate experience, allowing the use of those references in the analysis of the training and learning process. Results showed that the kinematic and neuromuscular activity during the kick performance occurs within 600 ms. Muscle activity and kinematic analysis demonstrated a sequence of activation bracing a proximal-to-distal direction, with the muscles presenting two distinct periods of activity (1, 2, where the karateka group has a greater intensity of activation – root mean square (RMS and electromyography (EMG peak – in the first period on Rectus Femoris (RF1 and  Vastus Lateralis (VL1 and a lower duration of co-contraction in both periods on Rectus Femoris-Biceps Femoris and Vastus Lateralis-Biceps Femoris (RF-BF; VL-BF. In the skill performance, the hip flexion, the knee extension and the ankle plantar flexion movements were executed with smaller difference in the range of action (ROA in the karateka group, reflecting different positions of the segments. In conclusion, it was observed a general kinesiological pattern, which was similar in karateka and non-karateka practitioners. However, in the karateka group, the training induces a specialization in the muscle activity reflected in EMG and kinematic data, which leads to a better ballistic performance in the execution of the mae-geri kick, associated with a maximum speed of the distal segments, reached closer to the impact moment, possibly representing more power in the contact.

  15. Congruent Docking of Dimeric Kinesin and ncd into Three-dimensional Electron Cryomicroscopy Maps of Microtubule–Motor ADP Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Keiko; Löwe, Jan; Alonso, Maria; Cross, Robert A.; Amos, Linda A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a new map showing dimeric kinesin bound to microtubules in the presence of ADP that was obtained by electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction. The directly bound monomer (first head) shows a different conformation from one in the more tightly bound empty state. This change in the first head is amplified as a movement of the second (tethered) head, which tilts upward. The atomic coordinates of kinesin·ADP dock into our map so that the tethered head associates with the bound head as in the kinesin dimer structure seen by x-ray crystallography. The new docking orientation avoids problems associated with previous predictions; it puts residues implicated by proteolysis-protection and mutagenesis studies near the microtubule but does not lead to steric interference between the coiled-coil tail and the microtubule surface. The observed conformational changes in the tightly bound states would probably bring some important residues closer to tubulin. As expected from the homology with kinesin, the atomic coordinates of nonclaret disjunctional protein (ncd)·ADP dock in the same orientation into the attached head in a map of microtubules decorated with dimeric ncd·ADP. Our results support the idea that the observed direct interaction between the two heads is important at some stages of the mechanism by which kinesin moves processively along microtubules. PMID:10359615

  16. Traditional local medicines in the republic of Palau and non-communicable diseases (NCD), signs of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graz, Bertrand; Kitalong, Christopher; Yano, Victor

    2015-02-23

    The aim of this survey was to describe which traditional medicines (TM) are most commonly used for non-communicable diseases (NCD - diabetes, hypertension related to excess weight and obesity) in Pacific islands and with what perceived effectiveness. NCD, especially prevalent in the Pacific, have been subject to many public health interventions, often with rather disappointing results. Innovative interventions are required; one hypothesis is that some local, traditional approaches may have been overlooked. The method used was a retrospective treatment-outcome study in a nation-wide representative sample of the adult population (about 15,000 individuals) of the Republic of Palau, an archipelago of Micronesia. From 188 respondents (61% female, age 16-87, median 48,), 30 different plants were used, mostly self-prepared (69%), or from a traditional healer (18%). For excess weight, when comparing the two most frequent plants, Morinda citrifolia L. was associated with more adequate outcome than Phaleria nishidae Kaneh. (P=0.05). In case of diabetes, when comparing Phaleria nishidae (=Phaleria nisidai) and Morinda citrifolia, the former was statistically more often associated with the reported outcome "lower blood sugar" (P=0.01). Statistical association between a plant used and reported outcome is not a proof of effectiveness or safety, but it can help select plants of interest for further studies, e.g. through a reverse pharmacology process, in search of local products which may have a positive impact on population health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PhoR/PhoP two component regulatory system affects biocontrol capability of Bacillus subtilis NCD-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis strain NCD-2 is an important biocontrol agent against cotton verticillium wilt and cotton sore shin in the field, which are caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, respectively. A mutant of strain NCD-2, designated M216, with decreased antagonism to V. dahliae and R. solani, was selected by mini-Tn10 mutagenesis and in vitro virulence screening. The inserted gene in the mutant was cloned and identified as the phoR gene, which encodes a sensor kinase in the PhoP/PhoR two-component system. Compared to the wild-type strain, the APase activities of the mutant was decreased significantly when cultured in low phosphate medium, but no obvious difference was observed when cultured in high phosphate medium. The mutant also grew more slowly on organic phosphate agar and lost its phosphatidylcholine-solubilizing ability. The suppression of cotton seedling damping-off in vivo and colonization of the rhizosphere of cotton also decreased in the mutant strain when compared with the wild type strain. All of these characteristics could be partially restored by complementation of the phoR gene in the M216 mutant. PMID:21637491

  18. Prevention and control of mental illnesses and mental health: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania; Minhas, Fareed A; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Badar, Asma; Mohamud, Khalif Bile

    2004-12-01

    As part of the National Action Plan for Non-communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD), mental illnesses have been grouped alongside non-communicable diseases (NCD) within a combined strategic framework in order to synchronize public health actions. The systematic approach for mental illnesses is centred on safeguarding the rights of the mentally ill, reducing stigma and discrimination, and de-institutionalisation and rehabilitation of the mentally ill in the community outlining roles of healthcare providers, the community, legislators and policy makers. The approach has implications for support functions in a number of areas including policy building, manpower and material development and research. Priority action areas for mental health as part of NAP-NCD include the integration of surveillance of mental illnesses in a comprehensive population-based NCD surveillance system; creating awareness about mental health as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy; integration of mental health with primary healthcare; the development of sustainable public health infrastructure to support community mental health initiatives; building capacity of the health system in support of prevention and control activities; effective implementation of existing legislation and harmonizing working relationships with law enforcing agencies. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to integrate mental health into health services as part of a sustainable and integrated medical education programme for all categories of healthcare providers and the availability of essential psychotropic drugs at all healthcare levels. It lays emphasis on protecting the interests of special groups such as prisoners, refugees and displaced persons, women, children and individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, it promotes need-based research for contemporary mental health issues.

  19. In vitro antibacterial activity of a novel resin-based pulp capping material containing the quaternary ammonium salt MAE-DB and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanwei; Huang, Li; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Hongchen; Zhou, Wei; Ban, Jinghao; Wei, Jingjing; Liu, Yan; Gao, Jing; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to bacterial infection. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel, light-cured composite material containing bioactive calcium-silicate (Portland cement, PC) and the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB) and to evaluate its effects on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro. The experimental material was prepared from a 2 : 1 ratio of PC mixed with a resin of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, bisphenol glycerolate dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (4 : 3 : 1) containing 5 wt% MAE-DB. Cured resin containing 5% MAE-DB without PC served as the positive control material, and resin without MAE-DB or PC served as the negative control material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) served as commercial controls. S. mutans biofilm formation on material surfaces and growth in the culture medium were tested according to colony-forming units (CFUs) and metabolic activity after 24 h incubation over freshly prepared samples or samples aged in water for 6 months. Biofilm formation was also assessed by Live/Dead staining and scanning electron microscopy. S. mutans biofilm formation on the experimental material was significantly inhibited, with CFU counts, metabolic activity, viability staining, and morphology similar to those of biofilms on the positive control material. None of the materials affected bacterial growth in solution. Contact-inhibition of biofilm formation was retained by the aged experimental material. Significant biofilm formation was observed on MTA and Dycal. The synthesized material containing HEMA-BisGMA-TEGDMA resin with MAE-DB as the antimicrobial agent and PC to support mineralized tissue formation inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation even after aging in water for 6 months, but had no inhibitory effect on bacteria in solution. Therefore, this material shows

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity of a novel resin-based pulp capping material containing the quaternary ammonium salt MAE-DB and Portland cement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Yang

    Full Text Available Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to bacterial infection. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel, light-cured composite material containing bioactive calcium-silicate (Portland cement, PC and the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB and to evaluate its effects on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro.The experimental material was prepared from a 2 : 1 ratio of PC mixed with a resin of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, bisphenol glycerolate dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (4 : 3 : 1 containing 5 wt% MAE-DB. Cured resin containing 5% MAE-DB without PC served as the positive control material, and resin without MAE-DB or PC served as the negative control material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and calcium hydroxide (Dycal served as commercial controls. S. mutans biofilm formation on material surfaces and growth in the culture medium were tested according to colony-forming units (CFUs and metabolic activity after 24 h incubation over freshly prepared samples or samples aged in water for 6 months. Biofilm formation was also assessed by Live/Dead staining and scanning electron microscopy.S. mutans biofilm formation on the experimental material was significantly inhibited, with CFU counts, metabolic activity, viability staining, and morphology similar to those of biofilms on the positive control material. None of the materials affected bacterial growth in solution. Contact-inhibition of biofilm formation was retained by the aged experimental material. Significant biofilm formation was observed on MTA and Dycal.The synthesized material containing HEMA-BisGMA-TEGDMA resin with MAE-DB as the antimicrobial agent and PC to support mineralized tissue formation inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation even after aging in water for 6 months, but had no inhibitory effect on bacteria in solution. Therefore, this material

  1. Commentary on a meeting entitled 'Building global capacity for non-communicable diseases (NCD) prevention: Defining direction and roles'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, David; Pratt, Michael; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This Commentary summarizes the key points that arose during a three-day meeting held in Atlanta in July 2012 on Building Global Capacity for NCD Prevention. A wide spectrum of participants representing many sectors of global health, including ministries of health from several low and middle-income countries (LMICs), governmental institutions, non-governmental organizations, national disease associations, academia, and global and regional institutions participated. Presentations and group discussions led to agreement on a number of actions that should be taken to increase capacity for coping with NCDs in LMICs. Key areas of discussion were on the role of research, workforce development, resources, and governance. While there was considerable agreement on what should be done, the workshop participants had difficulty in prioritizing these activities. This led to an agreement by the gathered participants that a follow-up Delphi study be conducted to help with prioritization.

  2. Addressing the challenge of the emerging NCD epidemic: lessons learned from Botswana's response to the HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M J A; Mosepele, M; Tsima, B M; Gross, R

    2012-09-21

    Botswana has the second highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the world, and yet it has built one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive HIV programs. While public health infrastructure has responded remarkably to the HIV epidemic, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, in both HIV-infected and non-infected individuals, is increasing rapidly. Applying lessons learned from the scale-up of HIV/AIDS services may help with the implementation of an effective response to the challenges of the emerging NCD epidemic. We suggest that a successful response should include integrated service delivery, capacity building to provide disease-specific care, and strong partnerships to mobilize communities.

  3. Removal of tightly bound ADP induces distinct structural changes of the two tryptophan-containing regions of the ncd motor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Hisayuki; Shimizu, Takashi; Mizuno, Naoko; Edamatsu, Masaki; Ogawa, Kazuo; Shimizu, Youské; Toyoshima, Yoko Y

    2005-07-01

    ncd is a molecular motor belonging to the kinesin superfamily. In solution, it is a homo-dimer of a 700 amino acid polypeptide. The C-terminus of each polypeptide forms a globular domain of about 40 kDa, the motor domain with ATPase activity. The ATPase site of the motor domain of kinesin family members, including ncd, binds ADP tightly, the release of which is facilitated by microtubules during the mechanochemical ATPase cycle. Previously, we studied the spectroscopic characteristics of the ncd motor domain, focusing on interactions of the transition-moment-dipoles between ADP and aromatic amino acid side chains using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. In the present study, we generated several ncd motor domain mutants. In each, a tryptophanyl or specific tyrosyl residue was mutated. We found that Trp370 and Tyr442, the latter of which stacks directly with the adenine moiety of bound ADP, caused the bound ADP to exhibit peculiar CD signals. In addition, fluorescence measurements revealed that Trp370, but not Trp473, was responsible for the emission intensity change depending on the presence or absence of bound ADP. This fluorescence result implies that the structural change induced at the ADP-binding site (on the release of the ADP) is transmitted to the region that includes Trp370, which is relatively close to the ADP-binding site but not in direct contact with the ADP-binding region. In contrast, Trp473 in the region that is in contact with the alpha-helical coiled coil stalk did not experience the structural changes caused on removal of ADP. The distinct behavior of these two tryptophanyl residues suggests that the ncd motor domain has a bifacial architecture made up of a relatively deformable side including the nucleotide binding site and a more rigid one.

  4. Prevalence of parasitism among students of the Karen hill-tribe in Mae Chame district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Prownebon, Jarruratt; Kanmarnee, Penjit; Thaisom, Sunida; Yenthakam, Sutin; Nuchprayoon, Surang

    2004-09-01

    Infection caused by intestinal parasites is still a common health problem in a poor-hygiene population especially for children in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 Karen students (age: 3 to 19, males: 325, females: 456) to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in a mountainous area in the North of Thailand. The study was drawn from three schools in the Doi Inthanon region, in Mae Chame district of Chiang Mai province, from December 2002 to June 2003. The techniques used for the diagnosis were: stool concentration by using the 'formalin-ether' technique and perianal region examination by using the 'Scotch-tape' technique. The average rate of intestinal parasites for the group tested using the stool concentration technique was 42.06% (male: 46.87%, females: 38.82%); and 22.66% (males: 28.92%, females: 18.20%) when using the Scotch-tape technique.Among helminth-infected individuals, enterobiasis was found at the highest prevalence (15.49%). Other common infections were ascariasis (9.78%), trichuriasis (5.90%) and hookworm infection (2.20%). Strongyloildiasis was found only in 0.92%. For protozoa infection, the major cause is the non-pathogenic species "Entamoeba coli" (27.68%). The other non-pathogenic protozoa (Endolimax nana, Chilomastix meslini and Iodamoeba butschlii) had a low prevalence from ranged 0.18%-4.79%. The prevalence of pathogenic Giardia lamblia infection was 2.21%. Entamoeba histolytica infection was found in only one case. Based on the two techniques used, the results from the Scotch-tape provided a higher sensitivity for the detection of Taenia spp. and Enterobius vermicularis eggs. Drug treatment was given to all the infected students. School-based health education should be implemented in order to prevent and control the infections.

  5. Epidemiological study of non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors in tribal district of Kinnaur, HP: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Prakash Chand; Chauhan, Raman; Rana, Vivek; Vidyasagar; Lal, Kavinder

    There are no data available on the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors among the tribal population of hill state of Himachal Pradesh (HP). The epidemiological study of NCD risk factors was done in the tribal population of district Kinnaur of HP to estimate the burden of NCD risk factors and their risk determinants. WHO STEP wise approach was used for screening of the core NCD risk indicators in 3582 randomly selected natives of Kinnaur aged 20-70 years by trained Health workers of the district health services. The hypertension was prevalent in 19.7% (18.4-21.1%) and diabetes in 6.9% (6.1-7.8%) of the population. Awareness of hypertension and diabetes was 39.8% and 40.8% respectively. The adherence to prescribed medications was reported in 52.1% and 56.4% of patients of aware hypertension and diabetes respectively. Overall, 23.3% and 8.5% of the patients with hypertension and diabetes had controlled BP and blood glucose respectively. Overweight and obesity were observed in 38.2% (36.6-39.9%) and 8.8% (7.9-9.8%) of the population respectively. The consumption of tobacco and alcohol was reported in 22.6% and 24.9% of the population, respectively, and 34.5% were physically inactive. Physical inactivity, BMI, high alcohol consumption, and age were independently associated with risk of hypertension, while age was the only determinant of risk of diabetes. Education and women gender had a significant influence on tobacco and alcohol consumption behavior adjusted for age. NCD risk factors are prevalent in the tribal district of Kinnaur. The awareness, treatment, control of blood pressure and blood glucose were found to be suboptimum in the study subjects. Strengthening of primary health care services and community based interventions are urgently required to improve awareness and control of NCD risk factors in this tribal district of HP. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Plaadid : Jimmy Sommerville "Manage The Damage". Marc Almond "Open All Night". Mishka "Mishka". Ma$e "Double Up". Erinevad esitajad "On The Floor At The Botique : mixed by Lo Fidelity Allstars" / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    1999-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest : Jimmy Sommerville "Manage The Damage". Marc Almond "Open All Night". Mishka "Mishka". Ma$e "Double Up". Erinevad esitajad "On The Floor At The Botique: mixed by Lo Fidelity Allstars"

  7. IMPACT OF NUTRITIONAL COUNSELLING ON BODY MASS INDEX (BMI AND NUTRIENT INTAKE OF THE NON - COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PATIENTS (NCD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Good health is an important discussion of the quality of life. Health problem is a major concern in all over the world but especially in developing countries. Non-communicable diseases ( NCDs contribute the ill health. Diabetes, coronary heart disease, various forms of cancer, gastro intestinal disorder and various diseases of bones and joints are diet related NCDs. Nutritional counselling is one of the effective tools of changing the food habits of people. The data for this study is taken from the out patients services of Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism and Cardiology of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-5. Total 250 samples were included in the study. Age group 40 – 60 years were considered as study samples who attended the Endocrinology and Cardiology departments. Purposive sampling method was used in the study. Questionnaire cum interview method was adopted in the study. Anthropametric measurements were taken by using standard techniques. 24 hours diet recall method was also used in this study. Evaluation of councelling was done on basis of changes in BMI and nutrient intake. Result shows the positive impact of nutritional counselling in BMI and nutrient intake of NCD patients.

  8. Tackling NCD in LMIC: Achievements and Lessons Learned From the NHLBI-UnitedHealth Global Health Centers of Excellence Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelgau, Michael M; Sampson, Uchechukwu K; Rabadan-Diehl, Cristina; Smith, Richard; Miranda, Jaime; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Belis, Deshiree; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2016-03-01

    Effectively tackling the growing noncommunicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is a major challenge. To address research needs in this setting for NCDs, in 2009, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and UnitedHealth Group (UHG) engaged in a public-private partnership that supported a network of 11 LMIC-based research centers and created the NHLBI-UnitedHealth Global Health Centers of Excellence (COE) Program. The Program's overall goal was to contribute to reducing the cardiovascular and lung disease burdens by catalyzing in-country research institutions to develop a global network of biomedical research centers. Key elements of the Program included team science and collaborative approaches, developing research and training platforms for future investigators, and creating a data commons. This Program embraced a strategic approach for tackling NCDs in LMICs and will provide capacity for locally driven research efforts that can identify and address priority health issues in specific countries' settings. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The kinetics, current efficiency, and power consumption of electrochemical dye decolorization by BD-NCD film electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Ervin; Juang, Yaju; Huang, Chihpin

    2017-06-01

    Diamond film electrode has been known as a material with very wide potential window for water electrolysis which leads to its applicability in numerous electrochemical processes. Its capability to produce hydroxyl radicals, a very strong oxidants, prompts its popular application in wastewater treatment. Batch and batch recirculation reactor were applied to perform bulk electrolysis experiments to investigate the kinetics of dye decolorization under different operation conditions, such as pH, active species, and current density. Furthermore, COD degradation data from batch recirculation reactor operation was used as the basis for the calculation of current efficiency and power consumption in the decolorization process. The kinetics of decolorization process using boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BD-NCD) film electrode revealed that acidic condition is favored for the dye degradation, and the presence of chloride ion in the solution was found to be more advantageous than sulfate active species, as evidenced by the higher reaction rate constants. Applying different current density of 10, 20 and 30 mA cm-2, it was found that the higher the current density the faster the decolorization rate. General current efficiency achieved after nearly total decolorization and 80% COD removal in batch recirculation reactor was around 74%, with specific power consumption of 4.4 kWh m-3 (in terms of volume of solution treated) or 145 kWh kg-1(in terms of kg COD treated).

  10. Study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an NCD access to medicines initiative: evaluation of Novartis Access in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Wirtz, Veronika J; Vian, Taryn; Onyango, Monica A; Ashigbie, Paul G; Laing, Richard

    2016-11-25

    Novartis recently launched Novartis Access, an initiative to provide a basket of reduced price medicines for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) to be sold through the public and private non-profit sectors in programme countries. This study will evaluate the impact of Novartis Access on the availability and price of NCD medicines at health facilities and households in Kenya, the first country to receive the programme. This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial. 8 counties in Kenya will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control group using a covariate constrained randomisation method to maximise balance on demographic and health characteristics. In intervention counties, public and private non-profit health facilities will be able to order Novartis Access NCD medicines from the Mission for Essential Drugs and Supplies (MEDS). Data will be collected from a random sample of 384 health facilities and 800 households at baseline, midline after 1-year of intervention, and end-line after 2 years. Quarterly surveillance data will also be collected from health facilities and a subsample of households through phone-based interviews. Households will be eligible if at least one resident has been previously diagnosed and prescribed a medicine for an NCD addressed by Novartis Access, including hypertension and diabetes. The primary outcomes will be availability and price of NCD medicines at health facilities, and availability, price, and expenditures on NCD medicines at households. Impacts will be estimated using intention-to-treat analysis. This protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at Strathmore University and at Boston University. Informed consent will be obtained from all participants at the start of the trial. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, international conferences, and meetings and events organised with local stakeholders. NCT02773095. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  11. "They just come, pick and go." The Acceptability of Integrated Medication Adherence Clubs for HIV and Non Communicable Disease (NCD) Patients in Kibera, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Emilie; Edwards, Jeffrey K; Baert, Saar; Etienne, William; Khabala, Kelly; Bygrave, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the long-term management of HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is continuing to increase, along with the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). The need to provide large volumes of HIV patients with ART has led to significant adaptations in how medication is delivered, but access to NCD care remains limited in many contexts. Medication Adherence Clubs (MACs) were established in Kibera, Kenya to address the large numbers of patients requiring chronic HIV and/or NCD care. Stable NCD and HIV patients can now collect their chronic medication every three months through a club, rather than through individual clinic appointments. We conducted a qualitative research study to assess patient and health-care worker perceptions and experiences of MACs in the urban informal settlement of Kibera, Kenya. A total of 106 patients (with HIV and/or other NCDs) and health-care workers were purposively sampled and included in the study. Ten focus groups and 19 in-depth interviews were conducted and 15 sessions of participant observation were carried out at the clinic where the MACs took place. Thematic data analysis was conducted using NVivo software, and coding focussed on people's experiences of MACs, the challenges they faced and their perceptions about models of care for chronic conditions. MACs were considered acceptable to patients and health-care workers because they saved time, prevented unnecessary queues in the clinic and provided people with health education and group support whilst they collected their medication. Some patients and health-care workers felt that MACs reduced stigma for HIV positive patients by treating HIV as any other chronic condition. Staff and patients reported challenges recruiting patients into MACs, including patients not fully understanding the eligibility criteria for the clubs. There were also some practical challenges during the implementation of the clubs, but MACs

  12. Monitoring of arsenic in aquatic plants, water, and sediment of wastewater treatment ponds at the Mae Moh Lignite power plant, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateewattana, Jomjun; Trichaiyaporn, Siripen; Saouy, Maliwan; Nateewattana, Jintapat; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Pengchai, Petch; Choonluchanon, Somporn

    2010-06-01

    Mae Moh is a risky area for arsenic contamination caused by the effluent from biowetland ponds in Mae Moh lignite-fuelled power plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the arsenic concentrations of Mae Moh biowetland ponds and determine the main factors which are important for arsenic phytoremediation in the treatment system. The result revealed that arsenic concentrations in the supernant were in the range of less than 1.0 microg As L(-1) to 2.0 microg As L(-1) while those in the sediment were in the range of 25-200 microg As kg soil(-1). Both values were below the Thailand national standard of 0.25 mg As L(-1) for water and 27 mg As kg soil(-1) for the soil. Arsenic accumulation in the biomass of 5 aquatic plants at the biowetland ponds ranged from 123.83 to 280.53 mg As kgPlant(-1). Regarding the result of regression analysis (R (2) = 0.474 to 0.954), high concentrations of organic matter and other soluble ions as well as high pH value in the sediment could significantly enhance the removal of soluble arsenic in the wetland ponds. From the regression equation of accumulated arsenic concentration in each aquatic plant, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. (R (2) = 0.954), Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (R (2) = 0.850), and Typha angustifolia (L.) (R (2) = 0.841) were found to be preferable arsenic removers for wastewater treatment pond in the condition of low Eh value and high content of solid phase EC and phosphorus. On the other hand, Canna glauca (L.) (R (2) = 0.749) appeared to be favorable arsenic accumulator for the treatment pond in the condition of high Eh value and high concentration of soluble EC.

  13. Mapping research activity on mental health disorders in Europe: study protocol for the Mapping_NCD project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Brigham, Karen; Darlington, Meryl; Wright, John S F; Lewison, Grant; Kanavos, Panos; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2016-05-26

    Mental health disorders (MHDs) constitute a large and growing disease burden in Europe, although they typically receive less attention and research funding than other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study protocol describes a methodology for the mapping of MHD research in Europe as part of Mapping_NCD, a 2-year project funded by the European Commission which seeks to map European research funding and impact for five NCDs in order to identify potential gaps, overlaps, synergies and opportunities, and to develop evidence-based policies for future research. The project aims to develop a multi-focal view of the MHD research landscape across the 28 European Union Member States, plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, through a survey of European funding entities, analysis of research initiatives undertaken in the public, voluntary/not-for-profit and commercial sectors, and expert interviews to contextualize the gathered data. The impact of MHD research will be explored using bibliometric analyses of scientific publications, clinical guidelines and newspaper stories reporting on research initiatives. Finally, these research inputs and outputs will be considered in light of various metrics that have been proposed to inform priorities for the allocation of research funds, including burden of disease, treatment gaps and cost of illness. Given the growing burden of MHDs, a clear and broad view of the current state of MHD research is needed to ensure that limited resources are directed to evidence-based priority areas. MHDs pose a particular challenge in mapping the research landscape due to their complex nature, high co-morbidity and varying diagnostic criteria. Undertaking such an effort across 31 countries is further challenged by differences in data collection, healthcare systems, reimbursement rates and clinical practices, as well as cultural and socioeconomic diversity. Using multiple methods to explore the spectrum of MHD research funding activity across Europe

  14. Development of the MAE/UHPLC-MS-TOF method for determination of benzodiazepines in human bio-fluids for toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniakiewicz, Aneta; Wietecha-Posłuszny, Renata; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Nowak, Julia; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2015-04-10

    A rapid method of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry with time of flight detection (UHPLC-MS-TOF) was optimized and validated for the purpose of determination of five benzodiazepines in human serum and blood samples. Extraction parameters and conditions of the UHPLC-MS-TOF method were defined. Validation of the developed method was performed at three concentration levels: 10, 100 and 250 ng/mL of each drug for both serum and blood samples. For serum and blood the limit of detection was found in the ranges 0.46-2.58 ng/mL and 0.43-1.87 ng/mL, precision (RSD): 0.3-6.7% and 0.9-8.4%, accuracy of the assay (RE): -5.3 to +2.4% and -5.7 to +7.6%, recovery: 80.5-104.3% and 79.9-106.9%, matrix effects: 95.9-110.5% and 97.5-114.2%, respectively. Moreover, the optimized and validated MAE/UHPLC-MS-TOF method was applied to analysis of blood samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Activity of 2 methoxyestradiol (Panzem NCD) in advanced, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and primary peritoneal carcinomatosis: a Hoosier Oncology Group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Daniela; Schilder, Jeanne; Sutton, Gregory; Perkins, Susan; Breen, Tim; Quon, Check; Sidor, Carolyn

    2009-10-01

    2-Methoxyestradiol (Panzem, 2ME2) is an endogenous metabolite of estradiol that destabilizes microtubules and exerts anti-angiogenic properties. This study was conducted to determine the activity and safety of 2ME2 administered as a NanoCrystal dispersion (NCD) formulation in patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Eligible patients had relapsed, platinum-resistant or refractory EOC with measurable or detectable disease. There was no limit on the number of prior treatment regimens. 2ME2 NCD 1000 mg orally four times daily (q.i.d.) was administered continuously during 4 week cycles. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were assessment of toxicity, rate of clinical benefit defined as the number of patients experiencing an objective response, a CA125 response or stable disease (SD) >3 months, mean change in CA-125, progression-free survival (PFS), and pharmacokinetic analyses of 2ME2. Eighteen patients were enrolled. Median age was 65.5 (range 40-73). Patients had received a median of five prior treatments. The most common adverse events were fatigue (78%), nausea (78%), diarrhea (39%), neuropathy (50%), edema (39%), and dyspnea (44%), the majority being grade 1-2. There were no objective responses, but seven patients had SD as best response. Of those, two patients had SD for greater than 12 months. The rate of clinical benefit was 31.3%. Fairly stable plasma levels of 2ME2 ranging within the predicted therapeutic window were observed. The NCD formulation of 2ME2 is well tolerated in patients with heavily pretreated EOC. Few of these heavily pretreated patients had sustained stable disease.

  16. Three-dimensional fuzzy filter in color video sequence denoising implemented on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro, Hector; Peralta-Fabi, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we present a Fuzzy 3D filter for color video sequences to suppress impulsive noise. The difference between the designed algorithm in comparison with other state- of-the-art algorithms consists of employing the three RGB bands of the video sequence data and analyzing the fuzzy gradients values obtained in eight directions, finally processing two temporal neighboring frames together. The simulation results have confirmed sufficiently better performance of the novel 3D filter both in terms of objective metrics (PSNR, MAE, NCD, SSIM) as well as in subjective perception via human vision in the color sequences. An efficiency analysis of the designed and other promising filters have been performed on the DSP TMS320DM642 by Texas InstrumentsTM through MATLAB's SimulinkTM module, showing that the 3D filter can be used in real-time processing applications.

  17. Production of the Bioactive Compounds Violacein and Indolmycin Is Conditional in a maeA Mutant of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea i>S4054 Lacking the Malic Enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Thøgersen, Mariane; Delpin, Marina; Melchiorsen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    cluster was not interrupted by the transposon; instead the insertion was located to the maeA gene encoding the malic enzyme. Supernatant of the mutant strain inhibited Vibrio anguillarum and Staphylococcus aureus in well diffusion assays and in MIC assays at the same level as the wild type strain....... The mutant strain killed V. anguillarum in co-culture experiments as efficiently as the wild type. Using UHPLC-UV/Vis analyses, we quantified violacein and indolmycin, and the mutant strain only produced 7-10% the amount of violacein compared to the wild type strain. In contrast, the amount of indolmycin...... produced by the mutant strain was about 300% that of the wild type. Since inhibition of V. anguillarum and S. aureus by the mutant strain was similar to that of the wild type, it is concluded that violacein is not the major antibacterial compound in P. luteoviolacea. We furthermore propose that production...

  18. Megestrol acetate NCD oral suspension--Par Pharmaceutical: megestrol acetate nanocrystal dispersion oral suspension, PAR 100.2, PAR-100.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Par Pharmaceutical has developed megestrol acetate (Megace ES) oral suspension for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia and a significant weight loss associated with AIDS. Par Pharmaceutical used Elan Corporation's NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) technology to develop an advanced, concentrated formulation of megestrol acetate with improved bioavailability, more rapid onset of action, more convenient dosing and a lower dosing regimen compared with the original marketed formulation of megestrol acetate oral suspension. Patients are administered a teaspoon (5mL) of the new NCD formulation once daily, compared with a daily 20mL dosage cup of the original formulation. The new megestrol acetate NCD formulation represents a line-extension of Par's megestrol acetate oral suspension (800mg/20mL, Megace O/S) that has been marketed for anorexia, cachexia and AIDS-related weight loss since July 2001. Par's megestrol acetate is the generic version of Bristol-Myers Squibb's Megace Oral Suspension. NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) is a trademark of Elan Corporation. Par Pharmaceutical will market megestol acetate NCD oral suspension under the Megace brand name. The company licensed the Megace name from Bristol-Myers Squib in August 2003. The US FDA approved megestrol acetate oral suspension (625 mg/mL) in July 2005 for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or a significant, unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The NDA for the product was accepted for review by the agency in September 2004, following its submission in June of that year.Par Pharmaceutical commenced the first of two phase III clinical trials of megestrol acetate oral suspension (PAR 100.2) in cancer-induced anorexia in the first quarter of 2006. However, this trial was discontinued in September 2006 because of slow patient enrolment. The company intends to discuss future development options in this indication with the FDA.New formulations or dosage forms of megestrol acetate concentrated suspension are also in

  19. Screening of the Antimicrobial Activity against Drug Resistant Bacteria of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus Associated with Entomopathogenic Nematodes from Mae Wong National Park, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramaporn Muangpat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are symbiotic with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. These bacteria produce several secondary metabolites including antimicrobial compounds. The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify EPNs and their symbiotic bacteria from Mae Wong National Park, Thailand and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of symbiont extracts against drug resistant bacteria. A total of 550 soil samples from 110 sites were collected between August 2014 and July 2015. A total of EPN isolates were obtained through baiting and White trap methods, which yielded 21 Heterorhabditis and 3 Steinernema isolates. Based on molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis, the most common species found in the present study was P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii associated with H. indica. Notably, two species of EPNs, H. zealandica and S. kushidai, and two species of symbiotic bacteria, X. japonica and P. temperata subsp. temperata represented new recorded organisms in Thailand. Furthermore, the association between P. temperata subsp. temperata and H. zealandica has not previously been reported worldwide. Disk diffusion, minimal inhibitory concentration, and minimal bactericidal concentration analyses demonstrated that the crude compound extracted by ethyl acetate from P. temperata subsp. temperata could inhibit the growth of up to 10 strains of drug resistant bacteria. Based on HPLC-MS analysis, compound classes in bacterial extracts were identified as GameXPeptide, xenoamicin, xenocoumacin, mevalagmapeptide phurealipids derivatives, and isopropylstilbene. Together, the results of this study provide evidence for the diversity of EPNs and their symbiotic bacteria in Mae Wong National Park, Thailand and demonstrate their novel associations. These findings also provide an important foundation for further research regarding the antimicrobial activity of Photorhabdus bacteria.

  20. Prevalence of smoking and high blood pressure, two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases: the SuRF NCD (surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable disease) report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jamalizadeh, Ahmad; Kamiab, Zahra; Esmaeili Nadimi, Ali; Nejadghaderi, Mohsen; Saeidi, Ala; Porkarami, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years non-communicable diseases (NCDs) risk factors such as tobacco consumption and high blood pressure (BP) have been increased. This study aimed to determine the frequency of risk factors of the main NCDs among inhabitants of Rafsanjan city. Methods: Our study is a part of NCD surveillance in Iran (SuRF NCD). A total of 640 people enrolled and divided in four age groups in urban and rural areas in Rafsanjan (a city in Kerman province). Data were collected using the s...

  1. A phase II study of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) NanoCrystal® dispersion (NCD) in patients with taxane-refractory, metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael R; Hahn, Noah M; Pili, Roberto; Oh, William K; Hammers, Hans; Sweeney, Christopher; Kim, Kyungmann; Perlman, Scott; Arnott, Jamie; Sidor, Carolyn; Wilding, George; Liu, Glenn

    2011-12-01

    2ME2 (Panzem®) is a non-estrogenic derivative of estradiol with antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity. Preclinical data support antitumor activity in prostate cancer. This trial evaluated the efficacy of 2ME2 NCD in patients with taxane-refractory, metastatic CRPC. Patients with metastatic CRPC who had progressed on only one prior taxane-based regimen were eligible. All patients received 2ME2 NCD at 1,500 mg orally four times daily, repeated in 28 day cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at month 6, with a secondary endpoint of PSA response. An exploratory endpoint was metabolic response on FDG-PET imaging. A total of 50 pts was planned. The study was terminated after 21 pts when a futility analysis showed the primary endpoint was unlikely to be reached. The median number of cycles on study was 2 (range NCD did not appear to have clinically significant activity in this study. 2ME2 NCD was well-tolerated and showed some evidence of biologic activity. Given the aggressive biology in this taxane-refractory population, the potential benefit from a cytostatic agent like 2ME2 might better be realized in the pre-chemotherapy (or rising PSA only) stage of CRPC.

  2. Protection of avian influenza (AI vaccines for poultry against infection of field isolates A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 under laboratory condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study level of protection of avian influenza (AI commercial vaccines available in Indonesia (subtipe H5N1, H5N2 and H5N9 against infection of HPAI field isolates of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. There were 7 commercial vaccines used in this study, the each vaccines were injected in to 3 weeks old of layer chichickenen intramuscularly. At 3 weeks after vaccination, ten chichickenens from each group were challenged separately with the A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 isolates intranasaly with dose 106 ELD50 per 0,1 ml per chicken. Ten unvaccinated chicken were included in the challenge test as control. The study demonstrate that the AI vaccines with subtipe H5N1 protected chicken (100% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and 90-100% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding were not seen by 2 days post challenge. The AI vaccines with subtipe H5N2 protected chicken at 20-30% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and protected chicken at 70-100% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding still detected at 8 days post challenge. The AI vaccines AI with subtipe H5N9 did not protect chicken (0% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and protected chicken at 50% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding still detected by 8 days post challenge. This study concluded that AI vaccines with subtipe H5N1 are better than other AI subtipe vaccines in preventing HPAI virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 dan A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 infections under laboratory condition.

  3. New data on Mustelidae (Carnivora) from Southeast Asia: Siamogale thailandica, a peculiar otter-like mustelid from the late middle Miocene Mae Moh Basin, northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohé, Camille; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; de Bonis, Louis; Yamee, Chotima; Blondel, Cécile; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    We report new dental remains of Mustelidae from the late middle Miocene of Mae Moh Basin, northern Thailand, improving the poor fossil record of the family in Southeast Asia. Siamogale thailandica is a poorly known mustelid, previously recorded from just a single tooth. Here we present over a hundred new specimens attributable to this species. S. thailandica shows a combination of primitive and convergent features of the dentition that makes its original subfamilial assignment to Lutrinae doubtful. Evidence from the dental morphology suggests that it belongs to a bunodont otter-like mustelid that evolved in convergence with “true” otters (Lutrinae) toward a semi-aquatic way of life. Autapomorphic features such as the height and the position of the m1 metaconid and the shape of the P4 lingual shelf make S. thailandica unique among Mustelidae. The morphology of this species is mostly similar to Mionictis species and Lartetictis dubia, reported in the Miocene of North America and Europe, respectively. These similarities could imply immigration events to Thailand in the early or middle Miocene. Alternately, the lineage leading to Siamogale might have deeper origins from an endemic early Miocene Southeast Asian mustelid.

  4. Simulating the Impact of Future Land Use and Climate Change on Soil Erosion and Deposition in the Mae Nam Nan Sub-Catchment, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Tripathi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the possible impacts of climate change and land use change and its combined effects on soil loss and net soil loss (erosion and deposition in the Mae Nam Nan sub-catchment, Thailand. Future climate from two general circulation models (GCMs and a regional circulation model (RCM consisting of HadCM3, NCAR CSSM3 and PRECIS RCM ware downscaled using a delta change approach. Cellular Automata/Markov (CA_Markov model was used to characterize future land use. Soil loss modeling using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and sedimentation modeling in Idrisi software were employed to estimate soil loss and net soil loss under direct impact (climate change, indirect impact (land use change and full range of impact (climate and land use change to generate results at a 10 year interval between 2020 and 2040. Results indicate that soil erosion and deposition increase or decrease, depending on which climate and land use scenarios are considered. The potential for climate change to increase soil loss rate, soil erosion and deposition in future periods was established, whereas considerable decreases in erosion are projected when land use is increased from baseline periods. The combined climate and land use change analysis revealed that land use planning could be adopted to mitigate soil erosion and deposition in the future, in conjunction with the projected direct impact of climate change.

  5. Aproximación a una Metodología de Aprendizaje Emocional (MAE en las enseñanzas de Arquitectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios Rodríguez, Loreto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The teachings of Architecture in Spain have undergone significant changes in the legislative environment in the last 50 years. The formation of Architecture, based mostly in the workshop format, is an element of coordination between different learning techniques. This paper presents an approach to an Emotional Learning Method (ELM, which aims to integrate in the area of Bologna, a teaching methodology specifically sensitive to the teachings of Architecture. The results obtained in the last two years, since the introduction of the degree at the University of Nebrija have been specially promising and have provided a stimulus for teachers and students. We understand that this learning methodology is transferable to degree programs of both theoretical artistic, or humanistic character.

    Las enseñanzas de Arquitectura en España han sufrido cambios significativos en el ámbito normativo en los últimos 50 años. La formación de la Arquitectura, basada mayoritariamente en el formato de taller, constituye un elemento de articulación entre distintas técnicas de aprendizaje. En este trabajo se plantea una aproximación a un Método de Aprendizaje Emocional (MAE, que pretende integrar, en el ámbito de Bolonia, una metodología docente específicamente sensible a las enseñanzas de Arquitectura. Los resultados obtenidos en los dos últimos cursos, desde que se implantó la titulación en la Universidad Antonio de Nebrija, han sido prometedores y sobre todo han significado un estímulo para docentes y alumnos. Entendemos que esta metodología de aprendizaje es transferible a titulaciones de corte tanto teórico como artístico o humanista.

  6. αTubulin 67C and Ncd are essential for establishing a cortical microtubular network and formation of the Bicoid mRNA gradient in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Khalid; Akber, Mira; Cai, Xiaoli; Koul, Aabid; Hayder, Awais; Baumgartner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The Bicoid (Bcd) protein gradient in Drosophila serves as a paradigm for gradient formation in textbooks. To explain the generation of the gradient, the ARTS model, which is based on the observation of a bcd mRNA gradient, proposes that the bcd mRNA, localized at the anterior pole at fertilization, migrates along microtubules (MTs) at the cortex to the posterior to form a bcd mRNA gradient which is translated to form a protein gradient. To fulfil the criteria of the ARTS model, an early cortical MT network is thus a prerequisite. We report hitherto undiscovered MT activities in the early embryo important for bcd mRNA transport: (i) an early and omnidirectional MT network exclusively at the anterior cortex of early nuclear cycle embryos showing activity during metaphase and anaphase only, (ii) long MTs up to 50 µm extending into the yolk at blastoderm stage to enable basal-apical transport. The cortical MT network is not anchored to the actin cytoskeleton. The posterior transport of the mRNA via the cortical MT network critically depends on maternally-expressed αTubulin67C and the minus-end motor Ncd. In either mutant, cortical transport of the bcd mRNA does not take place and the mRNA migrates along another yet undisclosed interior MT network, instead. Our data strongly corroborate the ARTS model and explain the occurrence of the bcd mRNA gradient.

  7. Sexualidades disidentes en la narrativa española reciente: políticas sexuales, cine y subversión en Mae West y yo (2011) de Eduardo Mendicutti

    OpenAIRE

    Facundo Saxe

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo aborda la obra narrativa del español Eduardo Mendicutti y sus vínculos con la representación de la disidencia sexual en España en las últimas décadas. En particular, este trabajo focaliza en una de las últimas producciones en la narrativa del autor, Mae West y yo (2011). A partir del trabajo con una perspectiva queer en el texto mencionado, se abordan tópicos y dispositivos directamente relacionados con la disidencia sexual. En ese marco, la novela funciona como ejemplo del conj...

  8. Prevalence of smoking and high blood pressure, two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases: the SuRF NCD (surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable disease) report 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalizadeh, Ahmad; Kamiab, Zahra; Esmaeili Nadimi, Ali; Nejadghaderi, Mohsen; Saeidi, Ala; Porkarami, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years non-communicable diseases (NCDs) risk factors such as tobacco consumption and high blood pressure (BP) have been increased. This study aimed to determine the frequency of risk factors of the main NCDs among inhabitants of Rafsanjan city. Methods: Our study is a part of NCD surveillance in Iran (SuRF NCD). A total of 640 people enrolled and divided in four age groups in urban and rural areas in Rafsanjan (a city in Kerman province). Data were collected using the standardized stepwise protocol for NCD risk factor surveillance of the World Health Organization (WHO). This study focused on hypertension (HTN) and smoking. Results: A total of 640 people (46.9% male and 53.1% female) participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of HTN was 198 per 1000 population. 4.8% of those were below the age of 44, and 15% between 45 and 70 years old. Mean systolic BP was 127 ± 15.6 in male and 118 ± 19.65 in female and the statistical difference was significant (t = 5.55, P < 0.001). 79 (14.1%) of hypertensive live in urban and 32 (5.7%) live in rural areas (χ2 = 8.004, P = 0.005). The prevalence of current smokers was 112 per 1000 population; among them 56 (88.9%) were daily smokers. The mean age for starting smoking was 21.11 ± 7.16 years. Conclusion: Modifying risk factors such as HTN and smoking behavior through primary and secondary prevention programs by enhancing awareness and knowledge of lay people, improvement screening and treatment interventions, particularly for the youth is highly recommended.

  9. Sexualidades disidentes en la narrativa española reciente: políticas sexuales, cine y subversión en Mae West y yo (2011 de Eduardo Mendicutti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Saxe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la obra narrativa del español Eduardo Mendicutti y sus vínculos con la representación de la disidencia sexual en España en las últimas décadas. En particular, este trabajo focaliza en una de las últimas producciones en la narrativa del autor, Mae West y yo (2011. A partir del trabajo con una perspectiva queer en el texto mencionado, se abordan tópicos y dispositivos directamente relacionados con la disidencia sexual. En ese marco, la novela funciona como ejemplo del conjunto de textos del autor, los que funcionarían como una “historia cultural” de la sexualidad disidente en España en las últimas décadas.

  10. Índice de calidad ecológica con base en macroinvertebrados acuáticos para la cuenca del río Negro (ICE RN-MAE, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Forero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Los índices disponibles para la evaluación del estado ecológico de los ríos en Colombia están basados principalmente en hipótesis subjetivas generalizadas acerca de la toleración de los macroinvertebrados, un proceso que presenta limitaciones. En este estudio se presenta la aplicación de un método para establecer un índice de calidad ecológica para sistemas lóticos, basado en abundancia de macroinvertebrados y variables fisicoquímicas. Se tomó como caso de estudio la cuenca del rio Negro (Colombia. Este nuevo índice se ha formulado como alternativa al BMWP-Col y consiste en la determinación de un gradiente ambiental a partir de un Análisis de Correspondencia Canónica de correlaciones entre abundancias y registros fisicoquímicos. Los puntajes de las estaciones -obtenidos en las correlaciones- son estandarizados y usados en un modelo de Promedios Ponderados (WA; en el modelo se ponderan también las abundancias para estimar los valores óptimos y de tolerancia de cada taxón. Con ellos y la abundancia se calcula los valores del Índice de Calidad Ecológica con base en macroinvertebrados acuáticos para la cuenca del rio Negro (ICE RN-MAE. Se utilizan los valores del índice junto con las concentraciones de fósforo total (FT en un análisis de agrupamiento, para así clasificar los sitios de estudio. De ahí se obtienen finalmente los valores medios, máximos, mínimos y de desviación estándar del ICE RN-MAE y FT. Con ellos se definen los umbrales que corresponden a diferentes categorías de calidad ecológica (buena, regular y crítica.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Total Dissolved Nitrogen on a Coupled High-Temperature Combustion Total Organic Carbon-Nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection (HTC TOC-NCD) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xi; Sanders, Richard; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J; Achterberg, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    The marine biogeochemistries of carbon and nitrogen have come under increased scrutiny because of their close involvement in climate change and coastal eutrophication. Recent studies have shown that the high-temperature combustion (HTC) technique is suitable for routine analyses of dissolved organic matter due to its good oxidation efficiency, high sensitivity, and precision. In our laboratory, a coupled HTC TOC-NCD system with a sample changer was used for the automated and simultaneous determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in seawater samples. TOC control software was used for TOC instrument control, DOC data acquisition, and data analysis. TDN data acquisition and manipulation was undertaken under LabVIEW. The combined system allowed simultaneous determination of DOC and TDN in the same sample using a single injection and provided low detection limits and excellent linear ranges for both DOC and TDN. The risk of contamination has been remarkably reduced due to the minimal sample manipulation and automated analyses. The optimised system provided a reliable tool for the routine determination of DOC and TDN in marine waters.

  12. 3D filtering technique in presence of additive noise in color videos implemented on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Palacios, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    A filtering method for color videos contaminated by additive noise is presented. The proposed framework employs three filtering stages: spatial similarity filtering, neighboring frame denoising, and spatial post-processing smoothing. The difference with other state-of- the-art filtering methods, is that this approach, based on fuzzy logic, analyses basic and related gradient values between neighboring pixels into a 7 fi 7 sliding window in the vicinity of a central pixel in each of the RGB channels. Following, the similarity measures between the analogous pixels in the color bands are taken into account during the denoising. Next, two neighboring video frames are analyzed together estimating local motions between the frames using block matching procedure. In the final stage, the edges and smoothed areas are processed differently in a current frame during the post-processing filtering. Numerous simulations results confirm that this 3D fuzzy filter perform better than other state-of-the- art methods, such as: 3D-LLMMSE, WMVCE, RFMDAF, FDARTF G, VBM3D and NLM, in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via human vision system in the different color videos. An efficiency analysis of the designed and other mentioned filters have been performed on the DSPs TMS320 DM642 and TMS320DM648 by Texas Instruments through MATLAB and Simulink module showing that the novel 3D fuzzy filter can be used in real-time processing applications.

  13. Fuzzy Filtering Method for Color Videos Corrupted by Additive Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr I. Ponomaryov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for the denoising of color videos corrupted by additive noise is presented in this paper. The proposed technique consists of three principal filtering steps: spatial, spatiotemporal, and spatial postprocessing. In contrast to other state-of-the-art algorithms, during the first spatial step, the eight gradient values in different directions for pixels located in the vicinity of a central pixel as well as the R, G, and B channel correlation between the analogous pixels in different color bands are taken into account. These gradient values give the information about the level of contamination then the designed fuzzy rules are used to preserve the image features (textures, edges, sharpness, chromatic properties, etc.. In the second step, two neighboring video frames are processed together. Possible local motions between neighboring frames are estimated using block matching procedure in eight directions to perform interframe filtering. In the final step, the edges and smoothed regions in a current frame are distinguished for final postprocessing filtering. Numerous simulation results confirm that this novel 3D fuzzy method performs better than other state-of-the-art techniques in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD, and SSIM as well as subjective perception via the human vision system in the different color videos.

  14. Bidirectional Power Stroke by Ncd Kinesin

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, Anthony E.; Stewart, Russell J.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Skliar, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Optical trapping experiments reveal details of molecular motor dynamics. In noisy data, temporal structure within the power stroke of motors can be analyzed by ensemble averaging, but this obscures infrequent subcategories of events. We have here developed an analysis method that uses Kalman filtering of measurements, model-based estimation of the power strokes produced by the motor head, and automatic event classification to discriminate between different types of motor events. This method w...

  15. Mae Hansen, girl who got herself a life / Mae Rebane ; intervjueerinud Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hansen, Mae

    2011-01-01

    Ameerikas ärihariduse omandanud, pärast seda Eestis Sampo Pangas töötanud ja nüüd Taanis Danske Grupis töötav eestlanna oma tööst, töökorralduslikest erinevustest Eestis ja Taanis, eesmärkidest ja eraelust

  16. Aquele que "salva" a mae e o filho

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucia Araujo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    ... da escravidao e do comercio atlantico de africanos escravizados que se desenvolveu no Benim durante os ultimos anos, atraves de projetos oficiais liderados em grande parte pela UNESCO. Este processo teve por resultado promover a memoria publica do mercador brasileiro, dando-lhe mais visibilidade no espaco publico. Mais do que avancar simples fatos, o e...

  17. Kaur Salus rajab Eesti esimese kalastusmuuseumi / intervjueerinud Ralf Mae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salus, Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaa Ao küla meest Kaur Salust tunnevad loodusretkelised vast esmajoones näkitemaatika ja Näki matkaraja kaudu. Mõnevõrra vähem teatakse, et tegemist on kirgliku kalastusvarustuse kollektsionääriga, kel on muude tegevuste seas käsil ka esimese omalaadse eraalgatusliku kalastusmuuseumi loomine

  18. Salzburgis heliseva muusika jälgedes / Piret Mae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mae, Piret

    2004-01-01

    1965.a. esilinastus film "Helisev muusika" : režissöör Robert Wise : Ameerika Ühendriigid. Filmi aluseks olnud Margaretha von Trappi eluloost, filmivõtetest, mis sai filmis osalenud näitlejatest edasi

  19. Keila linna hämarad rahaasjad / Piret Mae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mae, Piret

    2004-01-01

    Järg 29. mai lk. 3, 5., 12. juuni lk. 3., 19. juuni lk. 3., 26. juuni lk. 3, 3., 10.,17. juuli lk. 3. Artiklis süüdistatakse Keila ekslinnapead, praegust Riigikogu liiget Leino Mäge linna rahaga tehtud hämarates tehingutes ja linnapea ametiseisundi ärakasutamises, et soetada endale kinnisvara

  20. Salmod tähistavad juubeleid / Ralf Mae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mae, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    2008. a. tähistab Eesti suurimate kalastustarvete hulgimüüjate hulka kuuluv Salmo&Luts OÜ 10. tegevusaastat, selle Lätis asuv emafirma SIA Salmo aga 20. tegevusaastat. Ettevõtte arengust ja tulevikuplaanidest räägib Salmo&Luts OÜ juhataja Aleksei Antiptshik

  1. Urban food systems governance for NCD prevention in Africa | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Intervention intégrée quant au risque de diabète après le diabète gestationnel en Afrique du Sud. Les femmes ayant souffert de diabète sucré de la grossesse, un diabète temporaire qui apparaît pendant la grossesse, présentent un risque élevé de développer le diabète de type 2 après leur grossesse.

  2. 3D pre-stack time migration; Kiruhihoffuho ni yoru sanjigen jugo mae jikan migration shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper reports pre-stack migration in elastic wave exploration as to its algorithm and examples of processed data. The time migration processing hypothesizes that seismic waves propagate linearly. It calculates travel time by dividing the sum of the straight distance from a vibration transmitting point to an image point and the straight distance from the image point to a vibration receiving point with RMS velocity given as a parameter. To maintain the relative relation of amplitude sizes, the signal on an elliptic body is made smaller in inverse proportion to the size of that elliptic body. With regard to apparent interval of input trace as seen from the reflection surface, or with regard to density, the signal is made smaller by cos{theta} times. While this program deals with three-dimensional migration, its output turns out as an arbitrary two-dimensional plane. The program requires a huge amount of data processing, whereas a method is used, that the input trace is divided, each group is processed by using separate computers, and the results are summed up. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. 78 FR 23281 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Ginnie Mae Multiclass Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    .... Members of affected public: For-profit business (mortgage companies, thrifts, savings & loans, etc... respondent responses burden hrs REMIC Securities: OID/Prices Letter......... Sponsor......... 15 8 120 0.5 60.... Final Data Statements Accountant for 15 8 120 32 3840 (attached to closing Sponsor. letter). Accountants...

  4. 77 FR 71433 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Ginnie Mae Multiclass Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... 3.75 1 3.75 Final Data Statements (attached to closing Accountant for Sponsor...... 15 8 120 32 3840 letter). Accountants' Closing Letter Accountant 15 8 120 8 960 Accountants' OCS Letter Accountant 15 8 120 8 960 Structuring Data Accountant 15 8 120 8 960 Financial Statements Accountant 15 8 120 1 120...

  5. 75 FR 5336 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Ginnie Mae Multiclass Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... 3.75 1 3.75 Final Data Statements (attached to closing Accountant for Sponsor...... 15 8 120 32 3,840 letter). Accountants' Closing Letter Accountant 15 8 120 8 960 Accountants' OCS Letter Accountant 15 8 120 8 960 Structuring Data Accountant 15 8 120 8 960 Financial Statements Accountant 15 8 120 1...

  6. Costume Development Model for Tourism Promotion in Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarobol A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study Pha Bong community’s dressing style and to develop a new ethnic costume that shows their identity to promote tourism in the province. Pha Bong Community is a community in Maehongson Province where two ethnic groups, people of Tai Yai (Shan and Sakor Karen, co-exist. The data collection methods include focus group and in-depth interview with target population, small group discussion and review of literature on costume development. The obtained data were then submitted to content analysis. First, it was found that they both have their own identity, resources, network marketing and inherited wisdom from their ancestors. Each group runs their business separately. Secondly, the research resulted in the creation of a new costume for the Pha Bong community created by members of two ethnic groups. This costume combines Karen symbol with Tai Yai (Shan clothing style. The motif and pattern of the fabric identify community members’ lifestyle, belief and value. It is recommended that development should be planned upon available resource and the need of the community. In addition, the community leader should encourage members to take parts in management and to cooperate for a sustainable development.

  7. Percepcao de maes sobre a sindrome da erupcao dentaria e suas manifestacoes clinicas na infancia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mota-Costa, Rossana; Medeiros-Junior, Antonio; Aciolly-Junior, Horacio; Costa de Araujo-Souza, Georgia; do Ceu Clara-Costa, Iris

    2010-01-01

    .... Discussao Concluiu-se que durante essa fase de erupcao dentaria os profissionais tenham uma posicao firme e definida, baseada em evidencias fartamente colocadas pela literatura, da relacao direta...

  8. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2014-01-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1–25:1) and time (2–6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capac...

  9. NCD Diamond Semiconductor System for Advanced Power Electronics Systems Integration : CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant, Anirudha [AKHAN Semiconductor, Inc., Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2016-07-22

    The integration of 2D materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) with diamond (3D) was achieved by forming an heterojunction between these two materials and its electrical performance was studied experimentally. The device charactertics did show good rectifying nature when p-type single crystal diamond was integrated with n-type MoS2. These results are very encouraging indicating possible applications in semiconductor electronics, however further studies are required for a detailed understanding of the transport phenomena at the MoS2/diamond interface.

  10. Religious Education Forum: The NCD and its Meaning for Catholic Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mariella

    1978-01-01

    The development of the National Catechetical Director for Catholics of the United States presents a challenge to Catholic teachers and catechists to make the concept of total religious education a reality. Its intent was to make the universal catechetical principles of the General Catechetical Directory (A Roman document) more specific and…

  11. Prevalence and correlates of diabetes mellitus in Malawi: population-based national NCD STEPS survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msyamboza, Kelias Phiri; Mvula, Chimwemwe J; Kathyola, Damson

    2014-05-12

    Previously considered as a disease of the affluent, west or urban people and not of public health importance, diabetes mellitus is increasingly becoming a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. However, population-based data to inform prevention, treatment and control are lacking. Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based, nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and September 2009 on participants aged 25-64 years. A multi-stage cluster sample design and weighting were used to produce a national representative data for that age range. Detailed findings on the magnitude of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting blood glucose are presented in this paper. Fasting blood glucose measurement was conducted on 3056 participants (70.2% females, 87.9% from rural areas). The age- sex standardised population-based mean fasting blood glucose was 4.3 mmol/L (95% CI 4.1-4.4 mmol/L) with no significant differences by age, sex and location (urban/rural). The overall prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 4.2% (95% CI 3.0%-5.4%). Prevalence of impaired blood glucose was higher in men than in women, 5.7% (95% CI 3.9%-7.5%) vs 2.7% (95% CI 1.6%- 3.8%), p prevalence of raised fasting blood glucose or currently on medication for diabetes was 5.6% (95% CI 2.6%- 8.5%). Although the prevalence of diabetes was higher in men than women, 6.5% (95% CI 2.6%-10.3%) vs 4.7% (95% CI 2.4%-7.0%), in rural than urban, 5.4% (95% CI 2.4%-8.4%) vs 4.4% (95% CI 2.8%-5.9%) and in males in rural than males in urban, 6.9% (95% CI 2.8%-11.0%) vs 3.2% (95% CI 0.1%-6.3%), the differences were not statistically significant, p > 0.05. Compared to previous estimates, prevalence of diabetes increased from prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose and diabetes mellitus call for the implementation of primary healthcare approaches such as the WHO package for essential non-communicable diseases to promote healthy lifestyles, early detection, treatment and control.

  12. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 is associated with raft membrane microdomains in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete Santos, A; Roentsch, J; Danielsen, E M

    2000-01-01

    of monocytes were characterized by the presence of GM1 ganglioside as raft marker molecule and by the high level of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Furthermore, similar to polarized cells, rafts in monocytic cells lack Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. Cholesterol depletion of monocytes by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin greatly...

  13. The fact in studying in the Paris university 30 years ago; 30nen mae no pari daigaku ryugakuki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Katsuhiro

    1999-09-01

    The Frenchman is the individualism, and the good semi-government egocentrically likes it of the fact, and the understanding is shown the person who suffered the disadvantage system side, and the ability is drawn, and intends to help it and is done. Friends of this suitable temperament in which there was not even in that the favor is sold helped very much the research. Generally the Frenchman is very enthusiastic for that circumstances are good for the self and the self-confidence. However, they have immediately and often accepted that there is for the failure on the way, and they have immediately and often accepted that the prospect becomes bad. On the other hand, it is excellent for their flashing sensitivity, and it is evaluated high over we. (NEDO)

  14. 75 FR 44803 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of a New Privacy Act System of Records (SORN), Ginnie Mae Master...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... telecommunication device for hearing- and speech- impaired individuals (TTY) is available at 1-800-877-8339 (Federal..., identity theft or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of this system or other systems or programs...

  15. 75 FR 44804 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of a New Privacy Act System of Records (SORN), Ginnie Mae Mortgage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ...-and speech-impaired individuals (TTY) is available at 1-800-877-8339 (Federal Information Relay... property interests, identity theft or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of this system or other...

  16. MAE-FMD: multi-agent evolutionary method for functional module detection in protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun Zhong; Jiao, Lang; Yang, Cui Cui; Lv, Jia Wei; Zhang, Ai Dong

    2014-09-30

    Studies of functional modules in a Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network contribute greatly to the understanding of biological mechanisms. With the development of computing science, computational approaches have played an important role in detecting functional modules. We present a new approach using multi-agent evolution for detection of functional modules in PPI networks. The proposed approach consists of two stages: the solution construction for agents in a population and the evolutionary process of computational agents in a lattice environment, where each agent corresponds to a candidate solution to the detection problem of functional modules in a PPI network. First, the approach utilizes a connection-based encoding scheme to model an agent, and employs a random-walk behavior merged topological characteristics with functional information to construct a solution. Next, it applies several evolutionary operators, i.e., competition, crossover, and mutation, to realize information exchange among agents as well as solution evolution. Systematic experiments have been conducted on three benchmark testing sets of yeast networks. Experimental results show that the approach is more effective compared to several other existing algorithms. The algorithm has the characteristics of outstanding recall, F-measure, sensitivity and accuracy while keeping other competitive performances, so it can be applied to the biological study which requires high accuracy.

  17. Pesquisas temáticas no Laboratório de Arqueologia Romana Provincial (LARP/MAE/USP)

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Maria Isabel D’Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Esta comunicação apresenta as pesquisas temáticas do Laboratório de Arqueologia Romana Provincial do Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia da Universidade de São Paulo (LARP), tendo em vista suas atividades em duas frentes, a acadêmica e a de cunho educativo, esta última veiculada por seus Projetos Piloto, através de web site próprio, voltados para a comunidade de educadores e alunos de todas as faixas etárias e formações escolares.As pesquisas individuais dos membros do LARP, voltadas para uma am...

  18. Location of vibracores from offshore of Dare County, North Carolina (ncd_cores.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging...

  20. Health assessment for Cape Fear Wood Preserving, Fayetteville, North Carolina, Region 4. CERCLIS No. NCD003188828. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-12

    The Cape Fear Wood Preserving site is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is located in Cumberland County, North Carolina, on the western side of Fayetteville near Highway 401. The site consists of 41 acres of which less than 10 acres were developed by the facility. Wood preserving operations began at the facility in 1953 and continued until 1983. Wood was treated using both creosote and the chromium-copper-arsenic process. Contaminants detected in water samples from on-site monitoring wells included benzene, chromium, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. During earlier investigations, 7 nearby domestic wells in the area were sampled for contamination. The site is considered to be of potential health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances.

  1. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region - largely from Asia and the Middle East - are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC's ongoing commitment to regional trade policy.

  2. Obesity, non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and dietary factors among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Wang, Dantong; Du, Shufa; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Zhihong; Su, Chang; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-12-01

    China's nutrition transition is characterized by dramatic increases in overweight and cardiometabolic (CM) risk. The burden of obesity, CM risk factors and dietary intake among Chinese children were explored. Children 7-12 y old from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey with available dietary intake data, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were included (n=663). CM risk prevalence was calculated; logistic regression was used to investigate the association of nutrient intakes with CM risk, adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, area of residence and income. 14% of Chinese school-aged children and ~20% of those from urban areas and higher income households had overweight/obesity (p=30% of those from urban areas and higher income households had impaired glucose/ HbA1c (p<0.05). More than half of the studied children had pre-dyslipidemia (i.e. at least one lipid measurement above borderline levels) and 21% of children had dyslipidemia. Approximately 30% of all children had energy intakes above requirements and 38% of them had excessive proportions of dietary fat and saturated fat. Children with higher intakes of total daily energy and total and added sugars had a greater likelihood of having impaired blood pressure and glucose/HbA1c. Childhood overweight and CM risk is prevalent in urban and rural areas of China and across different socioeconomic groups although disparities between classes still pervade. Several dietary factors such as sugars were significant correlates of CM risk.

  3. Contribution of the North Karelia Project to International Work in CVD and NCD Prevention and Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Korpelainen, Vesa; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    During the decades after the start of the North Karelia Project in 1971, cardiovascular diseases and related noncommunicable diseases have emerged as the greatest global public health burden. The prevention and control of these diseases have thus become a major challenge and target for global public health, as emphasized by the Political Declaration of the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in 2011. The experiences and results of the North Karelia Project have accordingly received much international attention and have in many ways contributed to the international work in the area, including the strategies and programs of the World Health Organization. The experience of the Project shows the great potential of population-based prevention of cardiovascular diseases and other noncommunicable diseases and that influencing lifestyles related to heart health with comprehensive health promotion and national policies is the cost-effective and sustainable way to improve contemporary public health. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Facing the noncommunicable disease (NCD) global epidemic--the battle of prevention starts in utero--the FIGO challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Lluis Cabero; Arulkumaran, Sir Sabaratnam

    2015-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for 36 million deaths every year. Of this death toll, nearly 80% (29 million) occur in low- and median-income countries. More than 9 million deaths attributed to NCDs occur in people under 60 years of age. National economies are suffering considerable losses due to premature death or disability to work resulting from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The knowledge that in utero and in early childhood certain processes can affect the risk of developing NCDs provides an opportunity to enforce interventions during this critical time, when they may have the greatest effect. Using appropriate protocols, the health-care provider can educate mothers about the risks of certain nutritional and environmental exposures and integrate health promotion on the agenda, as part of the social and economic development. All this could motivate a substantial reduction in the risk of NCDs. Current and future health challenges demand new and changing competencies that should form the basis for education, training, and workforce planning. The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) is aware of that responsibility and has joined hands with other agencies and organizations that make a considerable effort in providing appropriate prenatal care programs to prevent and treat most of the common preconditioning factors, especially in low-income countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Amount and quality of dietary proteins during the first two years of life in relation to NCD risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    During late infancy many infants have a protein intake, which is more than three times as high as the physiological need. Several observational studies have shown an association between a high-protein intake (>15 energy %) early in life and an increased risk of developing obesity and thereby non...... reason for the slower growth in breast-fed infants is the lower content of protein in breastmilk, but other qualities of breastmilk could also play a role. A high intake of protein, especially dairy protein, stimulates the growth factors insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and insulin, and it has been...... suggested that the lower risk of NCDs in breast-fed infants is mediated through a regulation of IGF-I. A low quality of protein, as in cereal-based diets with no animal foods as often seen in low-income countries, may contribute to undernutrition, which can also result in an increased risk of NCDs later...

  6. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC's ongoing commitment to regional trade policy.

  7. Vandetõlk kui uus avalik-õiguslik institutsioon Eesti õigusruumis : [bakalaureusetöö] / Mae Küttik ; Õigusinstituut ; juhendaja: Aare Reenumägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küttik, Mae

    2002-01-01

    Ladina notariaadi põhimõtete rakendamine võõrkeelsete dokumentide käsitlusele Eestis, vandetõlgile kohandatavad notari ametitegevust reguleerivad õigusaktid, vandetõlgi ametitegevust reguleerivad õigusaktid, vandetõlgi ja notari võrdlus

  8. My life as Mae Tid Chua [mothers who contracted HIV disease]: motherhood and women living with HIV/AIDS in central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Haritavorn, Niphattra

    2014-12-01

    literature suggests that many women living with HIV/AIDS have a desire to become mothers and indeed many of them have done so (Thiangtham and Bennett, 2009; Barnes, 2013; Cogna et al., 2013; Lazarus et al., 2013; Ross, 2013; Yeatman and Trinitapoli, 2013). However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the lived experiences of Thai women living with HIV/AIDS who have become mothers. In this paper, we explored the experiences of pregnancy and birth, motherhood, and infant feeding practices among women living with HIV/AIDS in Thailand. in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women living with HIV/AIDS in Thailand. motherhood was considered desirable by women living with HIV/AIDS who participated in our study. Despite living with a serious illness, becoming a mother permitted them to have a meaningful life. Motherhood prompted the women to stay alive for their children. However, the women lived with constant anxiety about the condition of their infants. Reproductive needs of the women in our study were often questioned by their health care providers. Many were advised by their doctors and nurses not to breast feed their newborn babies as this could transmit HIV to the child. Most women took into account their ability to care for their children in the future and thus did not wish to have many children. this paper contributes to conceptual understanding about the lived experiences of motherhood among women living with HIV/AIDS in Thailand. The findings have implications for midwifery care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A tribute to Sheik Humarr Khan and all the healthcare workers in West Africa who have sacrificed in the fight against Ebola virus disease: Mae we hush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Bangura, James; Garry, Robert F; Goba, Augustine; Grant, Donald S; Jacquerioz, Frederique A; McLellan, Susan L; Jalloh, Simbirie; Moses, Lina M; Schieffelin, John S

    2014-11-01

    The Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward in Sierra Leone, directed since 2005 by Dr. Sheikh Humarr Khan, is the only medical unit in the world devoted exclusively to patient care and research of a viral hemorrhagic fever. When Ebola virus disease unexpectedly appeared in West Africa in late 2013 and eventually spread to Kenema, Khan and his fellow healthcare workers remained at their posts, providing care to patients with this devastating illness. Khan and the chief nurse, Mbalu Fonnie, became infected and died at the end of July, a fate that they have sadly shared with more than ten other healthcare workers in Kenema and hundreds across the region. This article pays tribute to Sheik Humarr Khan, Mbalu Fonnie and all the healthcare workers who have acquired Ebola virus disease while fighting the epidemic in West Africa. Besides the emotional losses, the death of so many skilled and experienced healthcare workers will severely impair health care and research in affected regions, which can only be restored through dedicated, long-term programs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Technology Insertion (TI)/Industrial Process Improvement (IPI) Task Order Number 15, Data Base Documentation Book SA-ALC/MAE & MAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-14

    s c~~~QC4~± /vc~ ~-~QCeOQ-~~c ~3 D DB SECTION CODE_________ VDB PAGE NO._____________ ’EMPLOYEE r ?- M DATE Vb , V - )C-PAGE NO...891.9328 128 180 2256 8236 129 180 2295 8237 44 entries >1000 130 180 2311 8238 i.e. 35% >lO00hrs 131 180 2420 8239 132 180 2440 8242 133 180 2450 8243...55 8188 56- 8190 57 8197 58 8200 59 8203 60 82081 61 - 8215 . 62 8221 63 8222_ 64 8224 65 8230 -66 8235 67 _8236 68 8237 69 8239 . 70 8243 -71 8244 72

  11. High aminopeptidase N/CD13 levels characterize human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells and drive their increased adipogenic potential in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, Laura; Nardelli, Carmela; Raia, Maddalena; Mariotti, Elisabetta; Ferrigno, Maddalena; Quaglia, Filomena; Labruna, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Valentina; Capone, Angela; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Pastore, Lucio; Di Noto, Rosa; Martinelli, Pasquale; Sacchetti, Lucia; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2013-08-15

    Maternal obesity is associated to increased fetal risk of obesity and other metabolic diseases. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs) have not been characterized in obese women. The aim of this study was to isolate and compare hA-MSC immunophenotypes from obese (Ob-) and normal weight control (Co-) women, to identify alterations possibly predisposing the fetus to obesity. We enrolled 16 Ob- and 7 Co-women at delivery (mean/SEM prepregnancy body mass index: 40.3/1.8 and 22.4/1.0 kg/m2, respectively), and 32 not pregnant women. hA-MSCs were phenotyped by flow cytometry; several maternal and newborn clinical and biochemical parameters were also measured. The expression of membrane antigen CD13 was higher on Ob-hA-MSCs than on Co-hA-MSCs (P = 0.005). Also, serum levels of CD13 at delivery were higher in Ob- versus Co-pregnant women and correlated with CD13 antigen expression on Ob-hA-MSCs (r2 = 0.84, P women. In conclusion, antigen CD13, by influencing the adipogenic potential of hA-MSCs, could be an in utero risk factor for obesity. Our data strengthen the hypothesis that high levels of serum and MSC CD13 are obesity markers.

  12. Changes in health behaviors and self-rated health of participants in Meta Salud: a primary prevention intervention of NCD in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Catalina A; Bell, Melanie L; Cornejo, Elsa; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott; Rosales, Cecilia

    2015-03-01

    Meta Salud was a community health worker-facilitated intervention for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases in Northern Mexico. This analysis examined changes in perceived health, eating habits, and physical activity immediately and 3 months after the intervention. The impact on the resulting behavioral and psychological factors are reported. This was a nonrandomized intervention study with 1 baseline and 2 post-intervention follow-ups. Outcome evaluation consisted of anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests, and a lifestyle questionnaire. The most consistent patterns were increases in metabolic equivalent of task values expended per day from baseline to post-intervention (difference = 996; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 81 to 1,912) and to 3-month follow-up (difference = 1,073; 95% CI: 119 to 2,028); greater likelihood of meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention daily exercise recommendations, with an increase from 49% to 60% at post-intervention (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.4) and 63% at follow-up (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.7 to 2.7); lesser likelihood for consuming whole milk, from 38% to 59% (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.8 to 4.7); fewer daily servings of packaged foods, from 0.72 to 0.57 (difference = -0.16; 95% CI: -0.28 to -0.03); fewer days of poor mental health, from 9.3 to 5.8 (difference = -3.4; 95% CI: -5.1 to -1.7); and greater likelihood for reporting good self-rated health, from 41% to 54% post-intervention (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.6) and 57% at follow-up (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.4). Changes in other outcomes, although in the expected direction of association, were not statistically significant. The study identified important strategies for making feasible dietary changes in the consumption of whole milk, sugary drinks, and packaged foods, yet there is still a need to identify strategies for improving consumption of healthy foods. There was stronger evidence for ways of improving physical activity as opposed to other outcome measures. Overall, it highlights the importance of behavioral and psychosocial factors as key intervention targets in preventing noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2015 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Status report on hypertension in Africa--consultative review for the 6th Session of the African Union Conference of Ministers of Health on NCD's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, Steven; Akinyi, Hilda; Oti, Samuel; Olajide, Ademola; Agyemang, Charles; Aboderin, Isabella; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension has always been regarded as a disease of affluence but this has changed drastically in the last two decades with average blood pressures now higher in Africa than in Europe and USA and the prevalence increasing among poor sections of society. We have conducted a literature search on

  14. Electrical and magnetic properties of n-Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Mn sub x Te close to the metal-insulator transition

    CERN Document Server

    Read, D E

    2001-01-01

    temperatures and in zero field an activated form of the conductivity is observed. In applied magnetic fields (B > 50 mT) Efros-ShkIovskii variable range hopping is observed in the insulating phase. These results are attributed to the formation of a hard gap in the density of states, having a magnetic origin. At higher fields an insulator-metal phase transition occurs. In the metallic phase the conductivity can be described by a quantum correction to the zero temperature conductivity due to the effect of electron-electron interactions. Results obtained before and after illumination are consistent with scaling theory of electron localisation, having a critical exponent close to unity, indicative of the importance of electron-electron interactions. A reduction in the value of the critical field is seen after increasing the carrier density (B sub c = 2.0 and 1.3 T for n = 3.3 and 3.8 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3 respectively). At low temperatures an anisotropy in the resistivity has been measured for samples i...

  15. Functional co-localization of monocytic aminopeptidase N/CD13 with the Fc gamma receptors CD32 and CD64

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemann, Dagmar; Tcherkes, Anatolij; Hansen, Gert H

    2005-01-01

    microscopy as well as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by flow cytometry we show that monocytic CD13 co-localized with the Fc gamma receptor II/CD32 after Fc receptor ligation by a CD32-specific antibody. FRET was also observed between CD13 and the Fc gamma receptor I/CD64...

  16. 76 FR 10916 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... necessary. Please refer to the NCD Web site ( http://www.ncd.gov ) for any late changes to the meeting times... the NCD Chairman. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Anne Sommers, NCD, 1331 F Street, NW., Suite... attend and require accommodations should notify NCD as soon as possible to allow time to make...

  17. 42 CFR 426.555 - Prohibited provisions of the Board's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.555 Prohibited provisions of the Board's decision. The Board... provisions of an NCD. (b) Order CMS or its contractors to pay a specific claim. (c) Set a time limit for CMS to establish a new or revised NCD. (d) Review or evaluate an NCD other than the NCD under review. (e...

  18. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system. Green helmet project for briquette production plant - Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo chosa hokokusho. Briquette seizo setsubi ni kakawaru green helmet jigyo (Thai koku Mae Moh tanko)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This Green Helmet Project is intended to suppress generation of environment polluting substances in association with coal utilization in Thailand by demonstrating and improving the proliferation infrastructure for the clean coal technology to be used widely in Thailand. The project is also intended to serve for stabilized assurance of energies for Japan. The demonstration project related to briquette manufacturing facilities executed as one of the 'Projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system' is intended to manufacture at low cost a briquette which is low in odor, free of smoke, and suppressed largely of sulfur oxide generation. The briquette is made by adding clayish minerals, sulfur, a fixing agent and a binder into brown coal being a low grade coal. The project implements proliferation of the technology to reduce environmental load associated with coal utilization in developing countries according to the situation and needs of the counterpart countries. The present project has performed the site surveys and guidance of operation and maintenance techniques as follow-up works of the demonstration project having been completed by cooperation between Japan and Thailand. It is considered that what had been intended in the beginning has been achieved sufficiently. (NEDO)

  19. Copyright Protection of Color Imaging Using Robust-Encoded Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cedillo-Hernandez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a robust-encoded watermarking method applied to color images for copyright protection, which presents robustness against several geometric and signal processing distortions. Trade-off between payload, robustness and imperceptibility is a very important aspect which has to be considered when a watermark algorithm is designed. In our proposed scheme, previously to be embedded into the image, the watermark signal is encoded using a convolutional encoder, which can perform forward error correction achieving better robustness performance. Then, the embedding process is carried out through the discrete cosine transform domain (DCT of an image using the image normalization technique to accomplish robustness against geometric and signal processing distortions. The embedded watermark coded bits are extracted and decoded using the Viterbi algorithm. In order to determine the presence or absence of the watermark into the image we compute the bit error rate (BER between the recovered and the original watermark data sequence. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the well-known indices: Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Visual Information Fidelity (VIF and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM. The color difference between the watermarked and original images is obtained by using the Normalized Color Difference (NCD measure. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides good performance in terms of imperceptibility and robustness. The comparison among the proposed and previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.

  20. 75 FR 70951 - Notice, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... DISABILITY (NCD) Sunshine Act Meetings Notice, Correction Type: Quarterly Meeting. Summary: NCD published a.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark Quigley, Director of Communications, NCD, 1331 F Street, NW... Commission 9:30 a.m.-11:30 a.m. Continuation of NCD Open Meeting 11:30 a.m. Adjournment Dated: November 17...

  1. 78 FR 40516 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATES: The Members of the National Council on Disability (NCD) will.... MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: On Thursday afternoon, the Council will discuss and deliberate a draft NCD... NCD's standing committees. Following these reports, NCD will hear from a panel of policy experts on...

  2. 77 FR 4372 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATES: The Members of the National Council on Disability (NCD) will.... NCD staff will participate in the call from the NCD office at 1331 F Street NW., Suite 850, Washington, DC 20004. Interested parties may join the meeting in person at the NCD office or may join the phone...

  3. 77 FR 11594 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... ``NCD Meeting.'' Written comments on disability-related issues of concern or interest may be mailed to NCD's office at 1331 F Street NW., Suite 850, Washington, DC 20004 or faxed to the NCD office at (202) 272-2022. Comments may also be emailed to PublicComment@ncd.gov at any time. Contact Person for more...

  4. 42 CFR 426.300 - Review of LCDs, NCDs, and deemed NCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the receipt of an acceptable NCD complaint as described in § 426.500, the Board conducts an NCD review of a challenged provision (or provisions) of an NCD using the reasonableness standard. (c) The procedures established in this part governing the review of NCDs also apply in cases in which a deemed NCD is...

  5. 42 CFR 426.505 - Authority of the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Review of an NCD § 426.505 Authority of the Board. (a) The Board conducts a fair and impartial hearing... party from an NCD review for failure to comply with a Board order or procedural request without good... provided by § 426.465. (2) Conduct an NCD review or conduct NCD hearings on its own motion or on the motion...

  6. 76 FR 53967 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATES: The Members of the National Council on Disability (NCD) will.... NCD staff will participate in the call from the NCD office at 1331 F Street, NW., Suite 850, Washington, DC 20004. Interested parties may join the meeting in person at the NCD office or may join the...

  7. 76 FR 27369 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... determination made by the NCD Chairman. A public comment session will be held on Friday, May 20, from 1 p.m... passcode is ``NCD Meeting.'' Written comments on disability-related issues of concern or interest may be mailed to NCD's office at 1331 F Street, NW., Suite 850, Washington, DC 20004; faxed to the NCD office at...

  8. Bruno Maes, (éd., présent.), Pèlerinages et sanctuaires mariaux au xviie siècle. Manuscrit du père Vincent Laudun

    OpenAIRE

    Gugelot, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Statue préservée du feu, statue qui pleure, statue qui s’alourdit, statue qui s’anime, statue qui saigne, statue qui se déplace… chœurs harmonieux, cierge qui se déplace, cloche qui s’anime, eau qui brûle, éclairs, lamentations, loups qui s’entre-dévorent, mort ressuscité, odeurs suaves, et osier qui saigne. Cet index-inventaire à la Prévert des manifestations de la Vierge rappelle tout un monde grouillant où le surnaturel côtoie naturellement le quotidien. C’est celui décrit par le dominicai...

  9. Characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Co ceramic composite obtained by high energy mill; Caracterizacao de composito ceramico Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CO obtido por moagem de alta energia (MAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.L.; Assis, R.B. de; Carlos, E.M.; Oliveira, T.P.; Costa, F.A. da, E-mail: leonaldojs@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2014-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the ceramic composite Al{sub 2}O3-Co obtained by high energy grinding. The composites were obtained by milling Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Co in a high energy mill at a speed of 400 rpm, in proportions of 5 to 20% Cobalt (Co). Ceramic composites with 5 and 20% cobalt were sintered at 1200 and 1300 ° C, with a 60-minute plateau and a heating rate of 10 ° C / min. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG / DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show the significant effect of cobalt percentage and high energy grinding on the final properties of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Co ceramic composite, presenting satisfactory values for the composite with a 20% cobalt percentage, showing to be a promising material for application in cutting tools.

  10. Image resolution enhancement using edge extraction and sparse representation in wavelet domain for real-time application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Chavez-Roman, Herminio; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents the design and hardware implementation of novel framework for image resolution enhancement employing the wavelet domain. The principal idea of resolution enhancement consists of using edge preservation procedure and mutual interpolation between the input low-resolution (LR) image and the HF sub-band images performed via the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The LR image is used in the sparse representation for the resolutionenhancement process, employing a 1-D interpolation in set of angle directions; following, the computations of the new samples are found, estimating the missing samples. Finally, pixels are performed via the Lanczos interpolation. To preserve more edge information additional edge extraction in HF sub-bands is performed in the DWT decomposition of input image. The differences between the LL sub-band image and LR input image is used to correct the HF component, generating a significantly sharper reconstructed image. All sub-band images are used to generate the new HR image applying the inverse DWT (IDWT). Additionally, the novel framework employs a denoising procedure by using the Non-Local Means for the input LR image. An efficiency analysis of the designed and other state-of-the-art filters have been performed on the DSP TMS320DM648 by Texas Instruments through MATLAB's Simulink module and on the video card (NVIDIA®Quadro® K2000), showing that novel SR procedure can be used in real-time processing applications. Experimental results have confirmed that implemented framework outperforms existing SR algorithms in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE and SSIM) as well as in subjective perception, justifying better image resolution.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Total Dissolved Nitrogen on a Coupled High-Temperature Combustion Total Organic Carbon-Nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection (HTC TOC-NCD) System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Xi; Sanders, Richard; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J; Achterberg, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    .... Recent studies have shown that the high-temperature combustion (HTC) technique is suitable for routine analyses of dissolved organic matter due to its good oxidation efficiency, high sensitivity, and precision...

  12. Elastic properties of ultrathin diamond/AlN membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuerbig, V., E-mail: verena.zuerbig@iaf-extern.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics IAF, Tullastr. 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hees, J.; Pletschen, W.; Sah, R.E.; Wolfer, M.; Kirste, L.; Heidrich, N.; Nebel, C.E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics IAF, Tullastr. 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Ambacher, O. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics IAF, Tullastr. 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Lebedev, V. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics IAF, Tullastr. 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-05-02

    Nanocrystalline diamond- (NCD) and AlN-based ultrathin single layer and bilayer membranes are investigated towards their mechanical properties. It is shown that chemo-mechanical polishing and heavy boron doping of NCD thin films do not impact the elastic properties of NCD layers as revealed by negligible variations of the NCD Young's modulus (E). In addition, it is demonstrated that the combination of NCD elastic layer and AlN piezo-actuator is highly suitable for the fabrication of mechanically stable ultrathin membranes in comparison to AlN single layer membranes. The elastic parameters of NCD/AlN heterostructures are mainly determined by the outstanding high Young's modulus of NCD (E = 1019 ± 19 GPa). Such ultrathin unimorph membranes allow for fabrication of piezo-actuated AlN/NCD microlenses with tunable focus length. - Highlights: • Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and AlN circular membranes • No influence of polishing of NCD thin films on the mechanical properties of NCD • No influence of heavy boron-doping on the mechanical properties of NCD • Demonstration of mechanically stable piezo-actuated NCD/AlN membranes • Reported performance of AlN/NCD microlenses with adjustable focus length.

  13. Peak signal-to-noise ratio revisited: Is simple beautiful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; You, Junyong

    2012-01-01

    Heavy criticism has been directed against using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as a full reference quality metric for digitally processed images and video, since many studies have shown a weak correlation between subjective quality scores and the respective PSNR values. In this paper, we show...... quality models known from the literature. Therefore, the use of PSNR may be justified for comparative quality assessment with fixed content....

  14. 42 CFR 426.563 - Future new or revised or reconsidered NCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.563 Future new or revised or reconsidered NCDs. CMS may not reinstate an NCD provision(s) found to be unreasonable unless CMS has a different basis (such as additional...

  15. 42 CFR 426.535 - Subpoenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD...) Include the docket number and title of the NCD under review. (3) Provide notice that the subpoena is...

  16. 42 CFR 426.562 - Notice of the Board's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Review of an NCD § 426.562 Notice of the Board's decision. After the Board has made a decision regarding an NCD complaint, the Board sends a written notice of the decision to each party. The notice must— (a...

  17. 42 CFR 426.532 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD... 10 written interrogatory questions, relating to a specific NCD. (d) Types of documents. For the...

  18. 42 CFR 426.557 - Optional provisions of the Board's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.557 Optional provisions of the Board's decision. When appropriate, the Board may limit a decision holding invalid a specific provision(s) of an NCD to specific...

  19. Perception of non-communicable diseases predicts consumption of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Surjadi

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrated that perception of NCD was the most determinant factor of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Activities to improve practice of regular fruit and vegetable consumption are part of control of NCD risk factors.

  20. Bioactive Peptide of Marine Origin for the Prevention and Treatment of Non-Communicable Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The four main leading causes of NCD are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases and diabetes. Recognizing the devastating impact of NCD, novel prevention and treatment strategies are extensively sought. Marine organisms are considered as an important source of bioactive peptides that can exert biological functions to prevent and treatment of NCD. Recent pharmacological investigations report...

  1. Non-communicable diseases and HIV care and treatment: models of integrated service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Malia; Ojikutu, Bisola; Andrian, Soa; Sohng, Elaine; Minior, Thomas; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2017-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a growing cause of morbidity in low-income countries including in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Integration of NCD and HIV services can build upon experience with chronic care models from HIV programmes. We describe models of NCD and HIV integration, challenges and lessons learned. A literature review of published articles on integrated NCD and HIV programs in low-income countries and key informant interviews were conducted with leaders of identified integrated NCD and HIV programs. Information was synthesised to identify models of NCD and HIV service delivery integration. Three models of integration were identified as follows: NCD services integrated into centres originally providing HIV care; HIV care integrated into primary health care (PHC) already offering NCD services; and simultaneous introduction of integrated HIV and NCD services. Major challenges identified included NCD supply chain, human resources, referral systems, patient education, stigma, patient records and monitoring and evaluation. The range of HIV and NCD services varied widely within and across models. Regardless of model of integration, leveraging experience from HIV care models and adapting existing systems and tools is a feasible method to provide efficient care and treatment for the growing numbers of patients with NCDs. Operational research should be conducted to further study how successful models of HIV and NCD integration can be expanded in scope and scaled-up by managers and policymakers seeking to address all the chronic care needs of their patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 42 CFR 426.544 - Dismissals for cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Review of an NCD § 426.544 Dismissals for cause. (a) The Board may, at the request of any party, or on... Board must dismiss any complaint concerning NCD provision(s) if the following conditions exist: (1) The... the Board.) (6) CMS notifies the Board that the NCD provision(s) is (are) no longer in effect. (7) The...

  3. 42 CFR 426.547 - Issuance, notification, and posting of a Board's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.547 Issuance, notification, and posting of a Board's decision. The Board must do the following: (a) Issue to all parties to the NCD review, within 90 days of closing the NCD review record to the taking of evidence, one of the following: (1) A written...

  4. 42 CFR 426.560 - Effect of the Board's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Review of an NCD § 426.560 Effect of the Board's decision. (a) Valid under the reasonableness standard. If the Board finds that the provision (or provisions) of an NCD named in the complaint is (are) valid... provisions) of an NCD named in the complaint is (are) invalid under the reasonableness standard, then CMS...

  5. Application of the Right to Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources for Indigenous Peoples: Assessment of Current Legal Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Lijalem Enyew

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources (PSNR emerged in the era of decolonization. As a reaction to the irresponsible exploitation of natural resources by colonial powers, peoples under colonial rule and newly independent developing states asserted the right to control and dispose of their own natural resources. The UN General Assembly recognized and reinforced these claims by adopting a series of resolutions relating to the right to PSNR so as to facilitate the process of decolonization. However, the subjects of the right to PSNR have expanded to include ‘all peoples’ due to legal developments in international law pertaining to the right to self-determination of peoples and other human rights standards. This article explores the contemporary application of the right to PSNR for indigenous peoples, by virtue of their being ‘peoples’, tracing various developments in international law relating to indigenous peoples since the inception of PSNR in the 1950s.

  6. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ginnie Mae Housing Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Office of Administration Office of Economic Development Office of ... Ginnie Mae Housing Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Office of Administration Office of Economic Development Office of ...

  7. Super-resolution reconstruction in frequency, image, and wavelet domains to reduce through-plane partial voluming in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour, Ali, E-mail: ali.gholipour@childrens.harvard.edu; Afacan, Onur; Scherrer, Benoit; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Warfield, Simon K. [Department of Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Aganj, Iman [Radiology Department, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02129 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Sahin, Mustafa [Department of Neurology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate the use of super-resolution reconstruction (SRR), in frequency, image, and wavelet domains, to reduce through-plane partial voluming effects in magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: The reconstruction of an isotropic high-resolution image from multiple thick-slice scans has been investigated through techniques in frequency, image, and wavelet domains. Experiments were carried out with thick-slice T2-weighted fast spin echo sequence on the Academic College of Radiology MRI phantom, where the reconstructed images were compared to a reference high-resolution scan using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity image metric (SSIM), mutual information (MI), and the mean absolute error (MAE) of image intensity profiles. The application of super-resolution reconstruction was then examined in retrospective processing of clinical neuroimages of ten pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) to reduce through-plane partial voluming for improved 3D delineation and visualization of thin radial bands of white matter abnormalities. Results: Quantitative evaluation results show improvements in all evaluation metrics through super-resolution reconstruction in the frequency, image, and wavelet domains, with the highest values obtained from SRR in the image domain. The metric values for image-domain SRR versus the original axial, coronal, and sagittal images were PSNR = 32.26 vs 32.22, 32.16, 30.65; SSIM = 0.931 vs 0.922, 0.924, 0.918; MI = 0.871 vs 0.842, 0.844, 0.831; and MAE = 5.38 vs 7.34, 7.06, 6.19. All similarity metrics showed high correlations with expert ranking of image resolution with MI showing the highest correlation at 0.943. Qualitative assessment of the neuroimages of ten TSC patients through in-plane and out-of-plane visualization of structures showed the extent of partial voluming effect in a real clinical scenario and its reduction using SRR. Blinded expert evaluation of image resolution in

  8. Osteoblast adhesion, migration, and proliferation variations on chemically patterned nanocrystalline diamond films evaluated by live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Antonin; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Hubalek Kalbacova, Marie

    2017-05-01

    Cell fate modulation by adapting the surface of a biocompatible material is nowadays a challenge in implantology, tissue engineering as well as in construction of biosensors. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films are considered promising in these fields due to their extraordinary physical and chemical properties and diverse ways in which they can be modified structurally and chemically. The initial cell distribution, the rate of cell adhesion, distance of cell migration and also the cell proliferation are influenced by the NCD surface termination. Here, we use real-time live-cell imaging to investigate the above-mentioned processes on oxidized NCD (NCD-O) and hydrogenated NCD (NCD-H) to elucidate cell preference to the NCD-O especially on surfaces with microscopic surface termination patterns. Cells adhere more slowly and migrate farther on NCD-H than on NCD-O. Cells seeded with a fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplement in the medium move across the surface prior to adhesion. In the absence of FBS, the cells adhere immediately, but still exhibit different migration and proliferation on NCD-O/H regions. We discuss the impact of these effects on the formation of cell arrays on micropatterned NCD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1469-1478, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup, E-mail: kssong10@kumoh.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) surface is functionalized with F or O. • The cell adhesion and growth are evaluated on the functionalized NCD surface. • The cell adhesion and growth depend on the wettability of the surface. • Cell patterning was achieved by using of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. • Neuroblastoma cells were arrayed on the micro-patterned NCD surface. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O{sub 2} or C{sub 3}F{sub 8} gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  10. Oversight Hearing on Student Loan Marketing Associations. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Oversight hearings on the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) are presented. Sallie Mae was established by the Education Amendments of 1972 to provide liquidity for Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) lenders by purchasing GSL portfolios from lenders or making loans on GSL loans held by lenders. In 1982, Sallie Mae had total cumulative…

  11. Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanodot Hole Transport and Electronic Energy Transfer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Ran; Jeong, Hu Young; Seo, Young Soo; Choi, Won Kook; Hong, Young Joon

    2017-04-01

    Electroluminescence efficiency is crucial for the application of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) in practical devices. We demonstrate that nitrogen-doped carbon nanodot (N-CD) interlayer improves electrical and luminescent properties of QD-LEDs. The N-CDs were prepared by solution-based bottom up synthesis and were inserted as a hole transport layer (HTL) between other multilayer HTL heterojunction and the red-QD layer. The QD-LEDs with N-CD interlayer represented superior electrical rectification and electroluminescent efficiency than those without the N-CD interlayer. The insertion of N-CD layer was found to provoke the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from N-CD to QD layer, as confirmed by time-integrated and -resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Moreover, hole-only devices (HODs) with N-CD interlayer presented high hole transport capability, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy also revealed that the N-CD interlayer reduced the highest hole barrier height. Thus, more balanced carrier injection with sufficient hole carrier transport feasibly lead to the superior electrical and electroluminescent properties of the QD-LEDs with N-CD interlayer. We further studied effect of N-CD interlayer thickness on electrical and luminescent performances for high-brightness QD-LEDs. The ability of the N-CD interlayer to improve both the electrical and luminescent characteristics of the QD-LEDs would be readily exploited as an emerging photoactive material for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices.

  12. On the relationship between perceptual impact of source and channel distortions in video sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Reiter, Ulrich; You, Junyong

    2010-01-01

    It is known that peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) can be used for assessing the relative qualities of distorted video sequences meaningfully only if the compared sequences contain similar types of distortions. In this paper, we propose a model for rough assessment of the bias in PSNR results, when...... video sequences with both channel and source distortion are compared against video sequences with source distortion only. The proposed method can be used to compare the relative perceptual quality levels of video sequences with different distortion types more reliably than using plain PSNR....

  13. Evaluation of essential trace elements in preterm and full term milk and childhood formulas by neutron activation analysis; Avaliacao dos teores de elementos essenciais no leite materno de maes de recem-nascidos prematuros e a termo e em formulas infantis por meio da analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paola de Souza

    2009-07-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need of trace elements during infancy and their adequate availability in human milk. Deficiency of minor and trace elements can lead to various disorders in infants. During early childhood trace element requirements, are more critical due to faster growth rates. In this study, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in human colostrum samples from mothers of preterm and full-term newborns. Samples were collected by manual expression from the first to the fifth day after birth. After collection, human colostrum samples were frozen and freeze-dried for analyses. Few of the most commonly commercialized were also analyzed. The essential element concentrations were determined in 30 colostrum samples and 17 milk formula brands by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Multivariate analyses were applied and the results were separated in two clusters. However the separation was not related to the corresponding gestational age. Results of this study showed that the concentration levels of the essential element Ca, K and Na in the milk formula samples analyzed were in agreement with the printed information on the labels. All concentration levels were also within ANVISA and Codex Allimentarius recommended values and thus adequate for infant nutritional needs. (author)

  14. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation; Novos biotipos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin com germinacao alterada de conidios, obtidos pela exposicao a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    1997-12-31

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author) 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Optimal Machine Tools Selection Using Interval-Valued Data FCM Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine tool selection directly affects production rates, accuracy, and flexibility. In order to quickly and accurately select the appropriate machine tools in machining process planning, this paper proposes an optimal machine tools selection method based on interval-valued data fuzzy C-means (FCM clustering algorithm. We define the machining capability meta (MAE as the smallest unit to describe machining capacity of machine tools and establish MAE library based on the MAE information model. According to the manufacturing process requirements, the MAEs can be queried from MAE library. Subsequently, interval-valued data FCM algorithm is used to select the appropriate machine tools for manufacturing process. Through computing matching degree between manufacturing process machining constraints and MAEs, we get the most appropriate MAEs and the corresponding machine tools. Finally, a case study of an exhaust duct part of the aeroengine is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  16. Bioactive Peptide of Marine Origin for the Prevention and Treatment of Non-Communicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-03-09

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The four main leading causes of NCD are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases and diabetes. Recognizing the devastating impact of NCD, novel prevention and treatment strategies are extensively sought. Marine organisms are considered as an important source of bioactive peptides that can exert biological functions to prevent and treatment of NCD. Recent pharmacological investigations reported cardio protective, anticancer, antioxidative, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity effects of marine-derived bioactive peptides. Moreover, there is available evidence supporting the utilization of marine organisms and its bioactive peptides to alleviate NCD. Marine-derived bioactive peptides are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to a consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution focus on the bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms and elaborates its possible prevention and therapeutic roles in NCD.

  17. Bioactive Peptide of Marine Origin for the Prevention and Treatment of Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Pangestuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCD are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The four main leading causes of NCD are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases and diabetes. Recognizing the devastating impact of NCD, novel prevention and treatment strategies are extensively sought. Marine organisms are considered as an important source of bioactive peptides that can exert biological functions to prevent and treatment of NCD. Recent pharmacological investigations reported cardio protective, anticancer, antioxidative, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity effects of marine-derived bioactive peptides. Moreover, there is available evidence supporting the utilization of marine organisms and its bioactive peptides to alleviate NCD. Marine-derived bioactive peptides are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to a consumer’s well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution focus on the bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms and elaborates its possible prevention and therapeutic roles in NCD.

  18. Pertanyaan dan nasihat dokter untuk konsumsi sayur dan buah: penelitian potong lintang pada 10 puskesmas di Yogyakarta dan Sleman

    OpenAIRE

    Yayi Suryo Prabandari; Bagas Suryo Bintoro; Indira Utami Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mortality caused by noncommunicable disease (NCD) has increased in the last ten years in Indonesia in line with the elevation of NCD prevalence. The NCD mortality and prevalence can be prevented by practicing a healthy lifestyle. One of a healthy lifestyle is adequate vegetable and fruit consumption that unfortunately was still far from expectation in the Basic Health Survey 2007 and 2010. Puskesmas as primary health care should anticipate the problem by encouraging doctor to rout...

  19. 78 FR 3034 - Sunshine Act Meetings Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... (NCD) will hold a quarterly meeting on Tuesday, January 29, 2013, 9:00 a.m.- 5:00 p.m. (ET). PLACE: The...-2:15 p.m. NCD Progress Report Discussion 2:15-3:15 p.m. Agency briefing with FEMA Administrator... in writing to Lawrence Carter-Long, Public Affairs Specialist, at lcarterlong@ncd.gov , using the...

  20. Effects of nanotopography on the in vitro hemocompatibility of nanocrystalline diamond coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Shelby A; Lu, Qijin; Malinauskas, Richard A; Sumant, Anirudha V; Zheng, Jiwen; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J; Casey, Brendan J

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings have been investigated for improved wear resistance and enhanced hemocompatibility of cardiovascular devices. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of NCD surface nanotopography on in vitro hemocompatibility. NCD coatings with small (NCD-S) and large (NCD-L) grain sizes were deposited using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle testing, and Raman spectroscopy. NCD-S coatings exhibited average grain sizes of 50-80 nm (RMS 5.8 nm), while NCD-L coatings exhibited average grain sizes of 200-280 nm (RMS 23.1 nm). In vitro hemocompatibility testing using human blood included protein adsorption, hemolysis, nonactivated partial thromboplastin time, platelet adhesion, and platelet activation. Both NCD coatings demonstrated low protein adsorption, a nonhemolytic response, and minimal activation of the plasma coagulation cascade. Furthermore, the NCD coatings exhibited low thrombogenicity with minimal platelet adhesion and aggregation, and similar morphological changes to surface-bound platelets (i.e., activation) in comparison to the HDPE negative control material. For all assays, there were no significant differences in the blood-material interactions of NCD-S versus NCD-L. The two tested NCD coatings, regardless of nanotopography, had similar hemocompatibility profiles compared to the negative control material (HDPE) and should be further evaluated for use in blood-contacting medical devices. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 253-264, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, B; Cai, B.; Cox, G.A.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Habib, S.; Hallin, A.L.; Hime, A.; Huang, M.; Kraus, C.; Leslie, H.R.; Loach, J.C.; Martin, R.; McGee, S.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Oblath, N.S.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tolich, N.; Van Wechel, T.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wendland, J.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wright, A.

    2011-01-01

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of 3He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this Neutral Current Detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of the current pulses from the NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on 3He through the NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase 8B solar-neutrino measurement.

  2. Effect of sputtered titanium interlayers on the properties of nanocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cuiping, E-mail: licp226@126.com, E-mail: limingji@163.com; Li, Mingji, E-mail: licp226@126.com, E-mail: limingji@163.com; Wu, Xiaoguo; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Dai, Wei; Xu, Sheng [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Hongji [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2016-04-07

    Ti interlayers with different thicknesses were sputtered on Si substrates and then ultrasonically seeded in a diamond powder suspension. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films were deposited using a dc arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition system on the seeded Ti/Si substrates. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy tests showed that the roughness of the prepared Ti interlayer increased with increasing thickness. The effects of Ti interlayers with various thicknesses on the properties of NCD films were investigated. The results show nucleation, growth, and microstructure of the NCD films are strongly influenced by the Ti interlayers. The addition of a Ti interlayer between the Si substrate and the NCD films can significantly enhance the nucleation rate and reduce the surface roughness of the NCD. The NCD film on a 120 nm Ti interlayer possesses the fastest nucleation rate and the smoothest surface. Raman spectra of the NCD films show trans-polyacetylene relevant peaks reduce with increasing Ti interlayer thickness, which can owe to the improvement of crystalline at grain boundaries. Furthermore, nanoindentation measurement results show that the NCD film on a 120 nm Ti interlayer displays a higher hardness and elastic modulus. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images of a cross-section show that C atoms diffuse into the Ti layer and Si substrate and form TiC and SiC hard phases, which can explain the enhancement of mechanical properties of NCD.

  3. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, B; Habib, S; Hallin, A L [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Bichsel, H; Cox, G A; Formaggio, J A; McGee, S; Miller, M L; Oblath, N S [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cai, B; Kraus, C; Leslie, H R; Martin, R [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Deng, H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Detwiler, J; Loach, J C [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hime, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Huang, M [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0264 (United States); Monreal, B; Monroe, J, E-mail: nsoblath@mit.edu [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this neutral-current detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar-neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of current pulses from NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on {sup 3}He through NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array MC simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase {sup 8}B solar-neutrino measurement.

  4. Effects of martial arts exercise on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Zhang, Yan; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dagda, Raul Y.; Chaung, Eugene; Von Bergen, Vera; Doctolero, Susan; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and general health in different populations. However, very few studies have been conducted on martial arts exercise (MAE). The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life (QOL) in overweight/obese premenopausal women. We found that subjects in the MAE group did not lose body weight, while they significantly decreased fat-free mass and muscle mass as compared to those in the control group, who demonstrated an increase in these parameters. The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum IGF-I concentration, but no change in others. MAE may be a feasible and effective approach to improve body composition and QOL in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further studies using larger samples to establish possible benefits of MAE in various populations. PMID:24665215

  5. Sustained Rhythmic Brain Activity Underlies Visual Motion Perception in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Pérez-Schuster

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following moving visual stimuli (conditioning stimuli, CS, many organisms perceive, in the absence of physical stimuli, illusory motion in the opposite direction. This phenomenon is known as the motion aftereffect (MAE. Here, we use MAE as a tool to study the neuronal basis of visual motion perception in zebrafish larvae. Using zebrafish eye movements as an indicator of visual motion perception, we find that larvae perceive MAE. Blocking eye movements using optogenetics during CS presentation did not affect MAE, but tectal ablation significantly weakened it. Using two-photon calcium imaging of behaving GCaMP3 larvae, we find post-stimulation sustained rhythmic activity among direction-selective tectal neurons associated with the perception of MAE. In addition, tectal neurons tuned to the CS direction habituated, but neurons in the retina did not. Finally, a model based on competition between direction-selective neurons reproduced MAE, suggesting a neuronal circuit capable of generating perception of visual motion.

  6. Visual Phenomena Produced by Binocularly Disparate Dynamic Visual Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    here referred to as a purely central MAE, is produced by perceived movement which does not exist at the retinal level (Anstfs A Moulden, 1970; Papert ...The studies of Papert and of Anstis and Moulden have indicated that the purely central MAE is qualitatively different from either peripheral or...purely central MAEs produced by cyclopean stimuli which are themselves the result of binocular interaction. Papert (1964) produced purely central

  7. Observational insights into aerosol formation from isoprene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worton, David R; Surratt, Jason D; Lafranchi, Brian W; Chan, Arthur W H; Zhao, Yunliang; Weber, Robin J; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Gilman, Jessica B; de Gouw, Joost; Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar; Beaver, Melinda; Clair, Jason M St; Crounse, John; Wennberg, Paul; Wolfe, Glenn M; Harrold, Sara; Thornton, Joel A; Farmer, Delphine K; Docherty, Kenneth S; Cubison, Michael J; Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Frossard, Amanda A; Russell, Lynn M; Kristensen, Kasper; Glasius, Marianne; Mao, Jingqiu; Ren, Xinrong; Brune, William; Browne, Eleanor C; Pusede, Sally E; Cohen, Ronald C; Seinfeld, John H; Goldstein, Allen H

    2013-10-15

    Atmospheric photooxidation of isoprene is an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and there is increasing evidence that anthropogenic oxidant emissions can enhance this SOA formation. In this work, we use ambient observations of organosulfates formed from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) and methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) and a broad suite of chemical measurements to investigate the relative importance of nitrogen oxide (NO/NO2) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) SOA formation pathways from isoprene at a forested site in California. In contrast to IEPOX, the calculated production rate of MAE was observed to be independent of temperature. This is the result of the very fast thermolysis of MPAN at high temperatures that affects the distribution of the MPAN reservoir (MPAN / MPA radical) reducing the fraction that can react with OH to form MAE and subsequently SOA (F(MAE formation)). The strong temperature dependence of F(MAE formation) helps to explain our observations of similar concentrations of IEPOX-derived organosulfates (IEPOX-OS; ~1 ng m(-3)) and MAE-derived organosulfates (MAE-OS; ~1 ng m(-3)) under cooler conditions (lower isoprene concentrations) and much higher IEPOX-OS (~20 ng m(-3)) relative to MAE-OS (water content when aerosol pH is constant. However, the higher fraction of MAE ring opening products does not compensate for the lower MAE production under warmer conditions (higher isoprene concentrations) resulting in lower formation of MAE-derived products relative to IEPOX at the surface. In regions of high NOx, high isoprene emissions and strong vertical mixing the slower MPAN thermolysis rate aloft could increase the fraction of MPAN that forms MAE resulting in a vertically varying isoprene SOA source.

  8. Streptococcus pyogenes Malate Degradation Pathway Links pH Regulation and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluscio, Elyse

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Streptococcus pyogenes to infect different niches within its human host most likely relies on its ability to utilize alternative carbon sources. In examining this question, we discovered that all sequenced S. pyogenes strains possess the genes for the malic enzyme (ME) pathway, which allows malate to be used as a supplemental carbon source for growth. ME is comprised of four genes in two adjacent operons, with the regulatory two-component MaeKR required for expression of genes encoding a malate permease (maeP) and malic enzyme (maeE). Analysis of transcription indicated that expression of maeP and maeE is induced by both malate and low pH, and induction in response to both cues is dependent on the MaeK sensor kinase. Furthermore, both maePE and maeKR are repressed by glucose, which occurs via a CcpA-independent mechanism. Additionally, malate utilization requires the PTS transporter EI enzyme (PtsI), as a PtsI– mutant fails to express the ME genes and is unable to utilize malate. Virulence of selected ME mutants was assessed in a murine model of soft tissue infection. MaeP–, MaeK–, and MaeR– mutants were attenuated for virulence, whereas a MaeE– mutant showed enhanced virulence compared to that of the wild type. Taken together, these data show that ME contributes to S. pyogenes' carbon source repertory, that malate utilization is a highly regulated process, and that a single regulator controls ME expression in response to diverse signals. Furthermore, malate uptake and utilization contribute to the adaptive pH response, and ME can influence the outcome of infection. PMID:25583521

  9. Applied Orthogonal Experiment Design for the Optimum Microwave-Assisted Extraction Conditions of Polysaccharides from Rhodiolae Radix

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fenglin; Xiao, Furen; Gong, Jingli; Yu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    An experiment on polysaccharides from Rhodiolae Radix (PRR) extraction was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method with an objective to establishing the optimum MAE conditions of PRR. Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions, and the optimum conditions were obtained using orthogonal experiment design. The results showed that the optimum MAE conditions of PRR were as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:45 g/mL, irrad...

  10. 12 tegelast Pirandellot otsimas / Liina Jääts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jääts, Liina

    1999-01-01

    Luigi Pirandello "Täna õhtul improviseerime", lavastaja Jaanus Rohumaa, kunstnik Mae Kivilo. Esitavad EMA Kõrgema Lavakunstikooli 19. lennu üliõpilased. Esietendus 11. dets. Tallinna Linnateatris

  11. Roos on roos / Mart Sander

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sander, Mart, 1967-

    1999-01-01

    Luigi Pirandello "Täna õhtul improviseerime", lavastaja Jaanus Rohumaa, kunstnik Mae Kivilo. Esitavad EMA Kõrgema Lavakunstikooli 19. lennu üliõpilased. Esietendus 11. dets. Tallinna Linnateatris

  12. Effects of Crowding and Attention on High-Levels of Motion Processing and Motion Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The motion after-effect (MAE) persists in crowding conditions, i.e., when the adaptation direction cannot be reliably perceived. The MAE originating from complex moving patterns spreads into non-adapted sectors of a multi-sector adapting display (i.e., phantom MAE). In the present study we used global rotating patterns to measure the strength of the conventional and phantom MAEs in crowded and non-crowded conditions, and when attention was directed to the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted away from the adapting stimulus. The results show that: (i) the phantom MAE is weaker than the conventional MAE, for both non-crowded and crowded conditions, and when attention was focused on the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted from it, (ii) conventional and phantom MAEs in the crowded condition are weaker than in the non-crowded condition. Analysis conducted to assess the effect of crowding on high-level of motion adaptation suggests that crowding is likely to affect the awareness of the adapting stimulus rather than degrading its sensory representation, (iii) for high-level of motion processing the attentional manipulation does not affect the strength of either conventional or phantom MAEs, neither in the non-crowded nor in the crowded conditions. These results suggest that high-level MAEs do not depend on attention and that at high-level of motion adaptation the effects of crowding are not modulated by attention. PMID:25615577

  13. Kaks kurba armastuslugu / Mai Weiber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiber, Mai

    2000-01-01

    Luigi Pirandello "Täna õhtul improviseerime", lavastaja Jaanus Rohumaa, kunstnik Mae Kivilo. Esitavad EMA Kõrgema Lavakunstikooli 19. lennu üliõpilased. Esietendus 11. dets. Tallinna Linnateatris

  14. Magneto-acousto-electrical measurement based electrical conductivity reconstruction for tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Gepu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2017-08-17

    Based on the interaction of ultrasonic excitation and magneto-electrical induction, magneto-acousto-electrical (MAE) technology was demonstrated to have the capability of differentiating conductivity variations along the acoustic transmission. By applying the characteristics of the MAE voltage, a simplified algorithm of MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction was developed. With the analyses of acoustic vibration, ultrasound propagation, Hall Effect and magneto-electrical induction, theoretical and experimental studies of MAE measurement and conductivity reconstruction were performed. The formula of MAE voltage was derived and simplified for the transducer with strong directivity. MAE voltage was simulated for a 3-layer gel phantom and the conductivity distribution was reconstructed using the modified Wiener inverse filter and Hilbert transform, which was also verified by experimental measurements. The experimental results are basically consistent with the simulations, and demonstrate that the wave packets of MAE voltage are generated at tissue interfaces with the amplitudes and vibration polarities representing the values and directions of conductivity variations. With the proposed algorithm, the amplitude and polarity of conductivity gradient can be restored and the conductivity distribution can also be reconstructed accurately. The favorable results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate conductivity reconstruction with improved spatial resolution using MAE measurement for tissues with conductivity variations, especially suitable for non-dispersive tissues with abrupt conductivity changes. This study demonstrates that the MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction algorithm can be applied as a new strategy for non-destructive real-time monitoring of conductivity variations in biomedical engineering.

  15. Influence of boron doping on mechanical and tribological properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    substrates against alumina (Al2O3) balls, and increasing normal load from 1 to 10 N. The average friction coefficient decreased ... Thus, it will cost much time and work to polish MCD [6]. On the other hand, nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) or ultra-NCD film has low surface roughness and fine nano-scaled grains. Therefore, a.

  16. THERMAL STABILITY STUDY OF DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON FILMS CONTAINING CRYSTALLINE DIAMOND NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Campos Ramos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD particles are incorporated into diamond-like carbon (DLC films in order to prevent NCD-DLC electrochemical corrosion. In the current paper, the thermal stability of these films was investigated. The NCD-DLC films were deposited on 316L stainless steel substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The grain size of the diamond crystallites and their concentration were varied in order to obtain different NCD-DLC films. The samples were annealed to 50°C for 1 h. The annealing temperature increased until the complete graphitization of the films (ramp of 50°C. Raman scattering spectroscopy was used to evaluate in detail the chemical structure of the DLC and NCD-DLC films. The atomic arrangements and graphitization level according to the increasing temperature are discussed. The influence of NCD particle sizes and concentration on NCD-DLC thermal stability are also discussed. The results showed that the presence of crystalline diamond particles increased the graphitization temperature, which permits the use of NCD-DLC films in high temperature environments.

  17. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of nano-crystalline diamond films prepared at various substrate temperatures and pulsed plasma frequencies using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with linear antenna delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistrik, J., E-mail: jan.mistrik@upce.cz [Institute of Applied Physics and Mathematics, University of Pardubice, Studentska 95, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Janicek, P. [Institute of Applied Physics and Mathematics, University of Pardubice, Studentska 95, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Taylor, A.; Fendrych, F.; Fekete, L.; Jager, A. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Nesladek, M. [IMOMEC Division, IMEC, Institute for Materials Research, University Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, B3590 (Belgium)

    2014-11-28

    A series of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films were deposited by a custom made microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with linear antenna delivery at different substrate temperatures (520–600 °C) and pulsed plasma frequencies (2.7–14.3 kHz) in a hydrogen rich working gas mixture of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}. Films were deposited onto naturally oxidized Si wafers pre-seeded with nanodiamond particles. Spectro-ellipsometry characterization of the NCD films was carried out considering various model structures (single and bi-layer models) and various NCD optical constant parameterizations (Tauc–Lorentz and effective medium approximation with different non-diamond component representations). It has been shown that substrate temperature can be lowered with a simultaneous increase in pulsed plasma frequency while still providing high quality NCD films with non-diamond component fraction in the bulk layer of about 5% (identically estimated by ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy). Films' thickness and their surface roughness were found consistent with atomic force and secondary electron microscopies. Among various NCD structure models the most appropriate has been selected. - Highlights: • Assessment of most appropriate model structure for nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) films • Interrelation between deposition conditions and diamond quality of NCD films • Identification of non-diamond component in NCD films • Comparison of results obtained by ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopies.

  18. Effective and Fast Near Duplicate Detection via Signature-Based Compression Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting near duplicates on the web is challenging due to its volume and variety. Most of the previous studies require the setting of input parameters, making it difficult for them to achieve robustness across various scenarios without careful tuning. Recently, a universal and parameter-free similarity metric, the normalized compression distance or NCD, has been employed effectively in diverse applications. Nevertheless, there are problems preventing NCD from being applied to medium-to-large datasets as it lacks efficiency and tends to get skewed by large object size. To make this parameter-free method feasible on a large corpus of web documents, we propose a new method called SigNCD which measures NCD based on lightweight signatures instead of full documents, leading to improved efficiency and stability. We derive various lower bounds of NCD and propose pruning policies to further reduce computational complexity. We evaluate SigNCD on both English and Chinese datasets and show an increase in F1 score compared with the original NCD method and a significant reduction in runtime. Comparisons with other competitive methods also demonstrate the superiority of our method. Moreover, no parameter tuning is required in SigNCD, except a similarity threshold.

  19. Normalized Compression Distance of Multisets with Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Cohen (Andrew); P.M.B. Vitányi (Paul)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractNormalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free, feature-free, alignment-free, similarity measure between a pair of finite objects based on compression. However, it is not sufficient for all applications. We propose an NCD of finite nonempty multisets (a.k.a. multiples) of

  20. Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors of common non-communicable diseases among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Oti, Samuel; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The four common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 80% of NCD-related deaths worldwide. The four NCDs share four common risk factors. As most of the existing evidence on the common NCD risk factors is based on analysis of a single factor at a time, there is a need to investigate the

  1. Increased charge storage capacity of titanium nitride electrodes by deposition of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; McDonald, Matthew; Sørensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of depositing a thin layer of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) on titanium nitride (TiN) coated electrodes and the effect this has on charge injection properties. The charge storage capacity increased by applying the B-NCD film...

  2. Effect of Image Linearization on Normalized Compression Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jonathan; Wu, Jia Jie; Furst, Jacob; Rogers, John; Raicu, Daniela

    Normalized Information Distance, based on Kolmogorov complexity, is an emerging metric for image similarity. It is approximated by the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) which generates the relative distance between two strings by using standard compression algorithms to compare linear strings of information. This relative distance quantifies the degree of similarity between the two objects. NCD has been shown to measure similarity effectively on information which is already a string: genomic string comparisons have created accurate phylogeny trees and NCD has also been used to classify music. Currently, to find a similarity measure using NCD for images, the images must first be linearized into a string, and then compared. To understand how linearization of a 2D image affects the similarity measure, we perform four types of linearization on a subset of the Corel image database and compare each for a variety of image transformations. Our experiment shows that different linearization techniques produce statistically significant differences in NCD for identical spatial transformations.

  3. Photo- and thermionic emission of MWPECVD nanocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicala, G., E-mail: grazia.cicala@ba.imip.cnr.it [CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Magaletti, V. [ALTA S.p.A., Via Gherardesca 5, 56121 Ospedaletto, Pisa (Italy); Valentini, A.; Nitti, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Bari “A. Moro”, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Bellucci, A.; Trucchi, D.M. [CNR-ISM UOS Montelibretti, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, RM (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Photo- and thermionic emission of MWPECVD NCD films was compared. • The amount of incorporated hydrogen in the film was tuned by changing the grain size. • Higher emission was found in NCD film with BL grown at higher deposition temperature. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films with and without a diamond buffer layer (BL) have been grown on p-type silicon substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique at different values of deposition temperature (652–884 °C). The photo- and thermionic electron emission properties of NCD films have been investigated, illustrated and explained by analyzing the surface morphology and the grain shape determined by atomic force microscopy, the chemical-structural properties by Raman spectroscopy and nanocrystallites size by X-ray diffraction. The NCD films with BL grown at the highest deposition temperature have shown the highest photo- and thermionic emission currents.

  4. Electrochemically grafted polypyrrole changes photoluminescence of electronic states inside nanocrystalline diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galář, P., E-mail: pavel.galar@mff.cuni.cz; Malý, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague 121 16 (Czech Republic); Čermák, J.; Kromka, A.; Rezek, B. [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Cukrovarnická 10, Prague 160 00 (Czech Republic)

    2014-12-14

    Hybrid diamond-organic interfaces are considered attractive for diverse applications ranging from electronics and energy conversion to medicine. Here we use time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence spectroscopy in visible spectral range (380–700 nm) to study electronic processes in H-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD) with 150 nm thin, electrochemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy) layer. We observe changes in dynamics of NCD photoluminescence as well as in its time-integrated spectra after polymer deposition. The effect is reversible. We propose a model where the PPy layer on the NCD surface promotes spatial separation of photo-generated charge carriers both in non-diamond carbon phase and in bulk diamond. By comparing different NCD thicknesses we show that the effect goes as much as 200 nm deep inside the NCD film.

  5. Nanocrystalline diamond surfaces for adhesion and growth of primary neurons, conflicting results and rational explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya Mikhailovna Ojovan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a variety of proliferating cell types, it was shown that the surface of nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and development without the need of complex chemical functionalization prior to cell seeding. In an extensive series of experiments we found that, unlike proliferating cells, post-mitotic primary neurons do not adhere to bare NCD surfaces when cultured in defined medium. These observations raise questions on the potential use of bare NCD as an interfacing layer for neuronal devices. Nevertheless, we also found that classical chemical functionalization methods render the hostile bare NCD surfaces with adhesive properties that match those of classically functionalized substrates used extensively in biomedical research and applications. Based on the results, we propose a mechanism that accounts for the conflicting results; which on one hand claim that un-functionalized NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and growth, while other reports demonstrate the opposite.

  6. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel openers diazoxide and nicorandil lower intraocular pressure by activating the Erk1/2 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Uttio; Bahler, Cindy K.; Holman, Bradley H.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure is the most prevalent and only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, a degenerative disease of the optic nerve. While treatment options to slow disease progression are available, all current therapeutic and surgical treatments have unwanted side effects or limited efficacy, resulting in the need to identify new options. Previous reports from our laboratory have established a novel ocular hypotensive effect of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) openers including diazoxide (DZ) and nicorandil (NCD). In the current study, we evaluated the role of Erk1/2 signaling pathway in KATP channel opener mediated reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP). Western blot analysis of DZ and NCD treated primary normal trabecular meshwork (NTM) cells, human TM (isolated from perfusion cultures of human anterior segments) and mouse eyes showed increased phosphorylation of Erk1/2 when compared to vehicle treated controls. DZ and NCD mediated pressure reduction (pNCD) was abrogated by U0126 (DZ + U0126: -9.7 ± 11.5%, p = 0.11; NCD + U0126: -0.1 ± 11.5%, p = 1.0). In contrast, U0126 had no effect on latanoprostfree acid-induced pressure reduction (-52.5 ± 6.8%, n = 4, p = 0.001). In mice, DZ and NCD reduced IOP (DZ, 14.9 ± 3.8%, NCD, 16.9 ± 2.5%, n = 10, pNCD + U0126, 0.9 ± 2.2%, n = 10, p>0.1). Histologic evaluation of transmission electron micrographs from DZ + U0126 and NCD + U0126 treated eyes revealed no observable morphological changes in the ultrastructure of the conventional outflow pathway. Taken together, the results indicate that the Erk1/2 pathway is necessary for IOP reduction by KATP channel openers DZ and NCD. PMID:28594895

  7. Fine-tuned transcriptional regulation of malate operons in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortera, Pablo; Espariz, Martín; Suárez, Cristian; Repizo, Guillermo; Deutscher, Josef; Alarcón, Sergio; Blancato, Víctor; Magni, Christian

    2012-03-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, the mae locus is constituted by two putative divergent operons, maePE and maeKR. The first operon encodes a putative H(+)/malate symporter (MaeP) and a malic enzyme (MaeE) previously shown to be essential for malate utilization in this bacterium. The maeKR operon encodes two putative proteins with significant similarity to two-component systems involved in sensing malate and activating its assimilation in bacteria. Our transcriptional and genetic assays showed that maePE and maeKR are induced in response to malate by the response regulator MaeR. In addition, we observed that both operons were partially repressed in the presence of glucose. Accordingly, the cometabolism of this sugar and malate was detected. The binding of the complex formed by CcpA and its corepressor P-Ser-HPr to a cre site located in the mae region was demonstrated in vitro and explains the carbon catabolite repression (CCR) observed for the maePE operon. However, our results also provide evidence for a CcpA-independent CCR mechanism regulating the expression of both operons. Finally, a biomass increment of 40 or 75% was observed compared to the biomass of cells grown only on glucose or malate, respectively. Cells cometabolizing both carbon sources exhibit a higher rate of glucose consumption and a lower rate of malate utilization. The growth improvement achieved by E. faecalis during glucose-malate cometabolism might explain why this microorganism employs different regulatory systems to tightly control the assimilation of both carbon sources.

  8. Fast single image super-resolution using estimated low-frequency k-space data in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianhua; Mou, Zhiying; Qin, Binjie; Li, Wanqing; Yang, Feng; Robini, Marc; Zhu, Yuemin

    2017-07-01

    Single image super-resolution (SR) is highly desired in many fields but obtaining it is often technically limited in practice. The purpose of this study was to propose a simple, rapid and robust single image SR method in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI). The idea is based on the mathematical formulation of the intrinsic link in k-space between a given (modulus) low-resolution (LR) image and the desired SR image. The method consists of two steps: 1) estimating the low-frequency k-space data of the desired SR image from a single LR image; 2) reconstructing the SR image using the estimated low-frequency and zero-filled high-frequency k-space data. The method was evaluated on digital phantom images, physical phantom MR images and real brain MR images, and compared with existing SR methods. The proposed SR method exhibited a good robustness by reaching a clearly higher PSNR (25.77dB) and SSIM (0.991) averaged over different noise levels in comparison with existing edge-guided nonlinear interpolation (EGNI) (PSNR=23.78dB, SSIM=0.983), zero-filling (ZF) (PSNR=24.09dB, SSIM=0.985) and total variation (TV) (PSNR=24.54dB, SSIM=0.987) methods while presenting the same order of computation time as the ZF method but being much faster than the EGNI or TV method. The average PSNR or SSIM over different slice images of the proposed method (PSNR=26.33 dB or SSIM=0.955) was also higher than the EGNI (PSNR=25.07dB or SSIM=0.952), ZF (PSNR=24.97dB or SSIM=0.950) and TV (PSNR=25.70dB or SSIM=0.953) methods, demonstrating its good robustness to variation in anatomical structure of the images. Meanwhile, the proposed method always produced less ringing artifacts than the ZF method, gave a clearer image than the EGNI method, and did not exhibit any blocking effect presented in the TV method. In addition, the proposed method yielded the highest spatial consistency in the inter-slice dimension among the four methods. This study proposed a fast, robust and efficient single image SR

  9. Image filter effectiveness characterization based on HVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Vladimir V.; Ponomarenko, Nikolay N.; Krivenko, Sergey S.; Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.

    2008-02-01

    It is a quite common that acquired images are noisy and image filtering is a necessary step to enhance them. Usually image filtering effectiveness is characterized in terms of MSE or PSNR although nowadays it is well understood that these criteria do not always correspond adequately to visual perception of processed images. Recently several new measures of image quality have been proposed. In particular, two metrics, called PSNR-HVS and PSNR-HVS-M, were designed and successfully tested. Both take into account different sensitivity of a human eye to spatial frequencies, the latter one also accounts for the masking effects. Using these two metrics as well as a traditional PSNR and used by NASA metric DCTune, we have analyzed performance of five different filters (standard mean and median, sigma, Lee and DCT based filters) for a set of test images corrupted by an additive Gaussian noise with a wide set of variance values. It has been shown that there are many situations when PSNR after filtering improves while one or all other metrics manifest image quality decreasing. Most often this happens if noise variance is small and/or an image contains texture. Comparisons show that DCT based filter commonly outperforms other considered filters in the sense of denoised image visual quality. At the same time, the standard mean filter produces worse visual quality of processed images even its scanning window size is 3x3.

  10. Age, chronic non-communicable disease and choice of traditional Chinese and western medicine outpatient services in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoh Eng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 Hong Kong reunified with China and the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM started with this change in national identity. However, the two latest discussion papers on Hong Kong's healthcare reform have failed to mention the role of TCM in primary healthcare, despite TCM's public popularity and its potential in tackling the chronic non-communicable disease (NCD challenge in the ageing population. This study aims to describe the interrelationship between age, non-communicable disease (NCD status, and the choice of TCM and western medicine (WM services in the Hong Kong population. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the Thematic Household Survey (THS 2005 dataset. The THS is a Hong Kong population representative face to face survey was conducted by the Hong Kong Administrative Region Government of China. A random sample of respondents aged >15 years were invited to report their use of TCM and WM in the past year, together with other health and demographic information. A total of 33,263 persons were interviewed (response rate 79.2%. Results Amongst those who received outpatient services in the past year (n = 18,087, 80.23% only visited WM doctors, 3.17% consulted TCM practitioners solely, and 16.60% used both type of services (double consulters. Compared to those who only consulted WM doctor, multinomial logistic regression showed that double consulters were more likely to be older, female, NCD patients, and have higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Further analysis showed that the association between age and double consulting was curvilinear (inverted U shaped regardless of NCD status. Middle aged (45-60 years NCD patients, and the NCD free "young old" group (60-75 years were most likely to double consult. On the other hand, the relationship between age and use of TCM as an alternative to WM was linear regardless of NCD status. The NCD free segment of the population was more inclined to use TCM alone

  11. Applying airline safety practices to medication administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Theresa M

    2003-04-01

    Medication administration errors (MAE) continue as major problems for health care institutions, nurses, and patients. However, MAEs are often the result of system failures leading to patient injury, increased hospital costs, and blaming. Costs include those related to increased hospital length of stay and legal expenses. Contributing factors include distractions, lack of focus, poor communication, and failure to follow standard protocols during medication administration.

  12. Process optimisation of microwave-assisted extraction of peony ( Paeonia suffruticosa Andr .) seed oil using hexane-ethanol mixture and its characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoli Sun; Wengang Li; Jian Li; Yuangang Zu; Chung-Yun Hse; Jiulong Xie; Xiuhua Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and hexane mixture agent microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was conducted to extract peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) seed oil (PSO). The aim of the study was to optimise the extraction for both yield and energy consumption in mixture agent MAE. The highest oil yield (34.49%) and lowest unit energy consumption (14 125.4 J g

  13. Salvador Dali : 1904-1989

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Sürrealismi joonte levimine mööblikujundusse - Salvador Dali Edvard Jamesile kavandatud diivan "Mae Westi huuled". Diivani ideeks Dali maal "Mae Westi nägu, mida võiks kasutada sürrealistliku ruumina", mille järgi on sisustatud üks ruum 1973. a. Hispaanias Figuerases avatud Dali majamuuseumis. 2 ill

  14. Magnetoactive elastomer as an element of a magnetic retina fixator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. A.; Nadzharyan, T. A.; Alekhina, Yu A.; Stepanov, G. V.; Kazimirova, E. G.; Perov, N. S.; Kramarenko, E. Yu

    2017-09-01

    We explore the possibility of creating an effective retinal fixator on the basis of magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) and systems of permanent magnets. MAEs consist of silicone elastomer matrix with embedded magnetic iron microparticles. We study theoretically and experimentally magnetic forces acting between MAE samples and permanent magnets in various configurations. The theoretical model is based around classical magnetostatics and Maxwell equations with different parameters accounting for peculiarities of the material and the setup. Approximation of the experimentally measured magnetization curves for MAE samples was used to find input parameters for the theoretical model. To test the model, we conducted a series of experimental measurements of magnetic forces accompanied by model predictions for the system of one cylindrical magnet and a cuboid MAE sample. Calculated dependences of the average pressure arising from magnetic interactions on the distance between the closest faces of MAE samples and a permanent magnet are in a good agreement with the experimental data. The proof on concept for smaller magnetic systems required for eye surgery includes data for 10 magnets configuration and a thin MAE band. This research demonstrates high prospects of using MAE as an element of a magnetic fixator for treatment of complicated retinal detachments.

  15. Velocity dependence of the interocular transfer of dynamic motion afteraffects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, R.; Lankheet, M.J.M.; van de Grind, W.A.V.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2002-01-01

    It is well established that motion aftereffects (MAEs) can show interocular transfer (IOT); that is, motion adaptation in one eye can give a MAE in the other eye. Different quantification methods and different test stimuli have been shown to give different IOT magnitudes, varying from no to almost

  16. Velocity dependence of the interocular transfer of dynamic motion aftereffects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, R.; Lankheet, M.J.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2003-01-01

    It is well established that motion aftereffects (MAEs) can show interocular transfer (IOT); that is, motion adaptation in one eye can give a MAE in the other eye. Different quantification methods and different test stimuli have been shown to give different IOT magnitudes, varying from no to almost

  17. Nanocrystalline-diamond thin films with high pH and penicillin sensitivity prepared on a capacitive Si-SiO{sub 2} structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poghossian, A. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: a.poghossian@fz-juelich.de; Abouzar, M.H.; Razavi, A.; Baecker, M. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Bijnens, N. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Williams, O.A.; Haenen, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Division IMOMEC, IMEC vzw., Diepenbeek (Belgium); Moritz, W. [Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, P. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    A capacitive field-effect EDIS (electrolyte-diamond-insulator-semiconductor) sensor with improved pH and penicillin sensitivity has been realised using a nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD) film as sensitive gate material. The NCD growth process on SiO{sub 2} as well as an additional surface treatment in oxidising medium have been optimised to provide high pH-sensitive, non-porous O-terminated films without damage of the underlying SiO{sub 2} layer. The surface morphology of O-terminated NCD thin films and the layer structure of EDIS sensors have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. To establish the relative coverage of the surface functional groups generated by the oxidation of NCD surfaces, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity of NCD thin films has been studied by water contact-angle measurements. A nearly Nernstian pH sensitivity of 54-57 mV/pH has been observed for O-terminated NCD films treated in an oxidising boiling mixture for 80 min and in oxygen plasma. The high pH-sensitive properties of O-terminated NCD have been used to develop an EDIS-based penicillin biosensor. A freshly prepared penicillin biosensor possesses a high sensitivity of 85 mV/decade in the concentration range of 0.1-2.5 mM penicillin G. The lower detection limit is 5 {mu}M.

  18. Nanocrystalline diamond protects Zr cladding surface against oxygen and hydrogen uptake: Nuclear fuel durability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škarohlíd, Jan; Ashcheulov, Petr; Škoda, Radek; Taylor, Andrew; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Tomáštík, Jan; Fendrych, František; Kopeček, Jaromír; Cháb, Vladimír; Cichoň, Stanislav; Sajdl, Petr; Macák, Jan; Xu, Peng; Partezana, Jonna M; Lorinčík, Jan; Prehradná, Jana; Steinbrück, Martin; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2017-07-25

    In this work, we demonstrate and describe an effective method of protecting zirconium fuel cladding against oxygen and hydrogen uptake at both accident and working temperatures in water-cooled nuclear reactor environments. Zr alloy samples were coated with nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers of different thicknesses, grown in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition apparatus. In addition to showing that such an NCD layer prevents the Zr alloy from directly interacting with water, we show that carbon released from the NCD film enters the underlying Zr material and changes its properties, such that uptake of oxygen and hydrogen is significantly decreased. After 100-170 days of exposure to hot water at 360 °C, the oxidation of the NCD-coated Zr plates was typically decreased by 40%. Protective NCD layers may prolong the lifetime of nuclear cladding and consequently enhance nuclear fuel burnup. NCD may also serve as a passive element for nuclear safety. NCD-coated ZIRLO claddings have been selected as a candidate for Accident Tolerant Fuel in commercially operated reactors in 2020.

  19. Chronic non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, N; Alberti, K G M M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) account for almost 60% of global mortality, and 80% of deaths from NCD occur in low- and middle-income countries. One quarter of these deaths--almost 9 million in 2005--are in men and women aged globalisation of the food, tobacco and alcohol industries. Because NCD have a major impact on men and women of working age and their elderly dependents, they result in lost income, lost opportunities for investment, and overall lower levels of economic development. Reductions in the incidences of many NCD and their complications are, however, already possible. Up to 80% of all cases of cardiovascular disease or type-2 diabetes and 40% of all cases of cancer, for example, are probably preventable based on current knowledge. In addition, highly cost-effective measures exist for the prevention of some of the complications of established cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Achieving these gains will require a broad range of integrated, population-based interventions as well as measures focused on the individuals at high risk. At present, the international-assistance community provides scant resources for the control of NCD in poor countries, partly, at least, because NCD continue to be wrongly perceived as predominantly diseases of the better off. As urbanization continues apace and populations age, investment in the prevention and control of NCD in low-and middle-income countries can no longer be ignored.

  20. Noncommunicable chronic disease in Bangladesh: overview of existing programs and priorities going forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Koehlmoos, Tracey L P; Rashid, Mashida; Peters, David H; Anderson, Gerard

    2011-05-01

    This paper reviews existing NCD programs in Bangladesh and identifies key priorities for the country to help address the NCD burden. To identify existing chronic disease programs in Bangladesh, country experts were interviewed and literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Ovid Medline (January 1970 to June 2009) for potentially relevant studies focused on tobacco-related illnesses, diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Programs not being implemented at the time of the study were excluded. Programs underway at the time of the study were included. Bangladesh has a total of 11 NCD programs at varying levels of development. Roughly half of the programs involved diabetes; three addressed the reduction of primary risk factors and about half provided infrastructure (e.g., hospitals or clinics) for NCD services or health professional training. The programs were roughly divided between the government and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). The Bangladeshi government and non-government organizations have taken several steps to implement appropriate NCD programs, but there are many areas where efforts could be enhanced or strengthened. Key among them is improved monitoring and evaluation of NCD programs and the development of nationally representative NCD surveillance data which includes prevalence and associated risk factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bottom-up diamond nanorod growth in HFCVD from nanocrystalline diamond film as a template-free method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motahari, Hamid; Malekfar, Rasoul

    2017-07-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films are being used in a large number of applications. Also, diamond nanorods (DNRs) exhibit distinctive features that are not present in diamond films, because of the tunable large surface-to-volume ratio and tubular configuration. In this work, we report on the synthesis of DNRs by means of the bottom-up and template-free method from NCD films by the hot filament chemical vapor deposition system. The substrate materials used for diamond deposition were stainless steel (AISI 316) and chromium nitride-coated stainless steel. On both substrates, NCD films and then DNRs have been synthesized. The micro-Raman confirms that the synthesized structure is NCD. In addition, the grazing incident x-ray diffraction pattern confirms the presence of cubic diamond and rhombohedral diamond as a film on the CrN and Cr2N interlayer. Also, the DNRs are encased in an amorphous carbon (a-C) shell. The DNRs are grown on the NCD grains by a bottom-up technology and template-free method. Their orientations are almost random in the diamond thin-film surface. In addition, the density of DNRs on the NCD film for the CrN interlayer is more than for the stainless-steel substrate. The NCD/DNR films are dense, adhesive, continuous, and almost uniform on the CrN-coated stainless-steel substrate.

  2. Optimization of Cvd Diamond Coating Type on Micro Drills in Pcb Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X. L.; He, Y.; Sun, F. H.

    2016-12-01

    The demand for better tools for machining printed circuit boards (PCBs) is increasing due to the extensive usage of these boards in digital electronic products. This paper is aimed at optimizing coating type on micro drills in order to extend their lifetime in PCB machining. First, the tribotests involving micro crystalline diamond (MCD), nano crystalline diamond (NCD) and bare tungsten carbide (WC-Co) against PCBs show that NCD-PCB tribopair exhibits the lowest friction coefficient (0.35) due to the unique nano structure and low surface roughness of NCD films. Thereafter, the dry machining performance of the MCD- and NCD-coated micro drills on PCBs is systematically studied, using diamond-like coating (DLC) and TiAlN-coated micro drills as comparison. The experiments show that the working lives of these micro drills can be ranked as: NCD>TiAlN>DLC>MCD>bare WC-Co. The superior cutting performance of NCD-coated micro drills in terms of the lowest flank wear growth rate, no tool degradation (e.g. chipping, tool tipping) appearance, the best hole quality as well as the lowest feed force may come from the excellent wear resistance, lower friction coefficient against PCB as well as the high adhesive strength on the underneath substrate of NCD films.

  3. Objective Video Quality Assessment of Direct Recording and Datavideo HDR-40 Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofia Andreana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital Video Recorder (DVR is a digital video recorder with hard drive storage media. When the capacity of the hard disk runs out. It will provide information to users and if there is no response, it will be overwritten automatically and the data will be lost. The main focus of this paper is to enable recording directly connected to a computer editor. The output of both systems (DVR and Direct Recording will be compared with an objective assessment using the Mean Square Error (MSE and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR parameter. The results showed that the average value of MSE Direct Recording dB 797.8556108, 137.4346100 DVR MSE dB and the average value of PSNR Direct Recording and DVR PSNR dB 19.5942333 27.0914258 dB. This indicates that the DVR has a much better output quality than Direct Recording.

  4. Intra prediction using face continuity in 360-degree video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhart, Philippe; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a new reference sample derivation method for intra prediction in 360-degree video coding. Unlike the conventional reference sample derivation method for 2D video coding, which uses the samples located directly above and on the left of the current block, the proposed method considers the spherical nature of 360-degree video when deriving reference samples located outside the current face to which the block belongs, and derives reference samples that are geometric neighbors on the sphere. The proposed reference sample derivation method was implemented in the Joint Exploration Model 3.0 (JEM-3.0) for the cubemap projection format. Simulation results for the all intra configuration show that, when compared with the conventional reference sample derivation method, the proposed method gives, on average, luma BD-rate reduction of 0.3% in terms of the weighted spherical PSNR (WS-PSNR) and spherical PSNR (SPSNR) metrics.

  5. Satellite image compression using wavelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Alb. Joko; Soesianto, F.; Dwiandiyanto, B. Yudi

    2010-02-01

    Image data is a combination of information and redundancies, the information is part of the data be protected because it contains the meaning and designation data. Meanwhile, the redundancies are part of data that can be reduced, compressed, or eliminated. Problems that arise are related to the nature of image data that spends a lot of memory. In this paper will compare 31 wavelet function by looking at its impact on PSNR, compression ratio, and bits per pixel (bpp) and the influence of decomposition level of PSNR and compression ratio. Based on testing performed, Haar wavelet has the advantage that is obtained PSNR is relatively higher compared with other wavelets. Compression ratio is relatively better than other types of wavelets. Bits per pixel is relatively better than other types of wavelet.

  6. Prevalence of DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in Dementia-Free Older Adults: Results of the Population-Based LIFE-Adult-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, Veronica; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2017-04-01

    The DSM-5 introduces mild neurocognitive disorder (miNCD) as a syndrome that recognizes the potential clinical importance of acquired cognitive deficits being too mild to qualify for diagnosis of dementia. We provide new empirical data on miNCD including total, age-, and sex-specific prevalence rates; number and types of neurocognitive domains being impaired; and diagnostic overlap with the well-established mild cognitive impairment (MCI) concept. Cross-sectional results of an observational cohort study (LIFE-Adult-Study). General population. A total of 1,080 dementia-free individuals, aged 60-79 years. We calculated weighted point prevalence rates with confidence intervals (95% CI) for miNCD and analyzed diagnostic overlap between miNCD and MCI by calculating overall percentage agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient. Weighted total prevalence of miNCD was 20.3% (95% CI: 17.8-23.0). Prevalence was similar in both sexes, but significantly higher in older age. Two-thirds (66.2%) of the individuals with miNCD showed impairment restricted to only one out of six possible neurocognitive domains. Learning and memory was the most frequently (38.3%) impaired domain in all miNCD-cases, followed by social cognition (26.1%). Analysis of diagnostic overlap with MCI yielded an overall agreement of 98.6% and a kappa of 0.959. By considering all six predefined neurocognitive domains, our study observed a substantial proportion of dementia-free older adults having miNCD. Provision of information on the underlying etiology/ies may be of prime importance in future studies aiming at evaluating the clinical relevance of the miNCD syndrome. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparedness of HIV care and treatment clinics for the management of concomitant non-communicable diseases: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Claudia; Aris, Eric; Mhalu, Aisa; Siril, Hellen; Christian, Beatrice; Koda, Happiness; Samatta, Talumba; Maghimbi, Martha Tsere; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Chalamilla, Guerino; Hawkins, Claudia

    2016-09-21

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological studies have reported an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD) among people living with HIV. NCD management can be feasibly integrated into HIV care; however, clinic readiness to provide NCD services in these settings should first be assessed and gaps in care identified. A cross-sectional survey conducted in July 2013 assessed the resources available for NCD care at 14 HIV clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Survey items related to staff training, protocols, and resources for cardiovascular disease risk factor screening, management, and patient education. 43 % of clinics reported treating patients with hypertension; however, only 21 % had a protocol for NCD management. ECHO International Health standards for essential clinical equipment were used to measure clinic readiness; 36 % met the standard for blood pressure cuffs, 14 % for glucometers. Available laboratory tests for NCD included blood glucose (88 %), urine dipsticks (78 %), and lipid panel (57 %). 21 % had a healthcare worker with NCD training. All facilities provided some form of patient education, but only 14 % included diabetes, 57 % tobacco cessation, and 64 % weight management. A number of gaps were identified in this sample of HIV clinics that currently limit the ability of Tanzanian healthcare workers to diagnose and manage NCD in the context of HIV care. Integrated NCD and HIV care may be successfully achieved in these settings with basic measures incorporated into existing infrastructures at minimal added expense, i.e., improving access to basic functioning equipment, introducing standardized treatment guidelines, and improving healthcare worker education.

  8. Monitoring and accountability for the Pacific response to the non-communicable diseases crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Tolley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the Pacific. In 2011, Pacific Forum Leaders declared “a human, social and economic crisis” due to the significant and growing burden of NCDs in the region. In 2013, Pacific Health Ministers’ commitment to ‘whole of government’ strategy prompted calls for the development of a robust, sustainable, collaborative NCD monitoring and accountability system to track, review and propose remedial action to ensure progress towards the NCD goals and targets. The purpose of this paper is to describe a regional, collaborative framework for coordination, innovation and application of NCD monitoring activities at scale, and to show how they can strengthen accountability for action on NCDs in the Pacific. A key component is the Dashboard for NCD Action which aims to strengthen mutual accountability by demonstrating national and regional progress towards agreed NCD policies and actions. Discussion The framework for the Pacific Monitoring Alliance for NCD Action (MANA draws together core country-level components of NCD monitoring data (mortality, morbidity, risk factors, health system responses, environments, and policies and identifies key cross-cutting issues for strengthening national and regional monitoring systems. These include: capacity building; a regional knowledge exchange hub; innovations (monitoring childhood obesity and food environments; and a robust regional accountability system. The MANA framework is governed by the Heads of Health and operationalised by a multi-agency technical Coordination Team. Alliance membership is voluntary and non-conditional, and aims to support the 22 Pacific Island countries and territories to improve the quality of NCD monitoring data across the region. In establishing a common vision for NCD monitoring, the framework combines data collected under the WHO Global Framework for NCDs with a set of action

  9. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  10. Effective interventions for the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases in primary care: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeijs, S.P.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Baltag, V.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Organising effective responses to the growing problem of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) is among the biggest challenges of (primary) health care systems. In particular tackling, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) requires coordinated approaches close to

  11. Knowledge of diabetes and hypertension among members of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communicable diseases (NCD) that contribute to a large number of adult morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of diabetes and hypertension and the associated risk factors among members of teaching staff.

  12. Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries. The Centre for Tobacco Control in Africa (CTCA), based at Makerere University in Uganda, serves as a regional centre, providing tools and evidence to support tobacco control ...

  13. All projects related to | Page 188 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries. Topic: SOCIAL PROBLEMS, LOW INCOME GROUPS, MIDDLE CLASS, SCHOLARSHIPS, POLICY MAKING, RESEARCH NETWORKS, Social Policy, PUBLIC HEALTH, ...

  14. Analysis of the corporate political activity of major food industry actors in Fiji

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Wate, Jillian; Tukana, Isimeli; Sacks, Gary

    2016-01-01

    .... Some food products processed sold and marketed by the food industry are major contributors to the NCD epidemic, and the food industry is widely identified as having strong economic and political power...

  15. Incidence of Lung Transplants in the Medicare Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On April 30, 2012, CMS issued a national coverage determination (NCD) to allow coverage of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) for the treatment of bronchiolitis...

  16. Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries. The Centre for Tobacco Control in Africa (CTCA), based at Makerere University in Uganda, serves as a regional centre, providing tools and evidence to support tobacco control ...

  17. Inpatient Complications After Transsphenoidal Surgery in Cushing's Versus Non-Cushing's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; Raikundalia, Milap D; Pines, Morgan J; Baredes, Soly; Folbe, Adam J; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) harbors a potential for hypopituitarism, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and other complications. We utilized the Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database (NIS) to compare inpatient complication rates between Cushing's disease (CD) and non-Cushing's disease (NCD) patients undergoing TSS. Inpatient hospitalization data for 960 CD and 12 110 NCD patients who underwent TSS between 2002 and 2010 were accessed. Demographic information, outcomes, and complication rates were evaluated. Patients with CD had a female predilection (81.7%) and were younger (40.5 ± 14.4 years) than NCD patients (47.8% female; 52.1 ± 16.3 years) (P iatrogenic pituitary disorders overall. No differences were noted in the rate of early CSF leaks between postoperative TSS CD and NCD patients. Postoperative diabetes insipidus did not significantly differ between groups after adjusting for confounders. Only odds of urinary/renal complications in CD patients was significant after adjustment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romo, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents...

  19. Fabrication of a Micro-Needle Array Electrode by Thermal Drawing for Bio-Signals Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel micro-needle array electrode (MAE fabricated by thermal drawing and coated with Ti/Au film was proposed for bio-signals monitoring. A simple and effective setup was employed to form glassy-state poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA into a micro-needle array (MA by the thermal drawing method. The MA was composed of 6 × 6 micro-needles with an average height of about 500 μm. Electrode-skin interface impedance (EII was recorded as the insertion force was applied on the MAE. The insertion process of the MAE was also simulated by the finite element method. Results showed that MAE could insert into skin with a relatively low compression force and maintain stable contact impedance between the MAE and skin. Bio-signals, including electromyography (EMG, electrocardiography (ECG, and electroencephalograph (EEG were also collected. Test results showed that the MAE could record EMG, ECG, and EEG signals with good fidelity in shape and amplitude in comparison with the commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes, which proves that MAE is an alternative electrode for bio-signals monitoring.

  20. Experimental design for optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of benzodiazepines in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, P; Vázquez, C; Lorenzo, R A; Carro, A M; Alvarez, I; Cabarcos, P

    2010-05-01

    A simple and fast microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) method has been evaluated as an alternative to solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the determination of six benzodiazepines widely prescribed in European countries (alprazolam, bromazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam and tetrazepam) in human plasma. For MAE optimization a Doehlert experimental design was used with extraction time, temperature and solvent volume as influential parameters. A desirability function was employed in addition to the simultaneous optimization of the MAE conditions. The analysis of variance showed that the solvent volume had a positive influence on the extraction of all the analytes tested, achieving a statistically significant effect. Also, the extraction time had a statistically significant effect on the extraction of four benzodiazepines. The selected MAE conditions-89 degrees C, 13 min and 8 mL of chloroform/2-propanol (4:1, v/v)-led to recoveries between 89.8 +/- 0.3 and 102.1 +/- 5.2% for benzodiazepines using a high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode-array detection. The comparison of MAE and SPE shows better results for MAE, with a lower number of steps in handling the sample and greater efficiency. The applicability of MAE was successfully tested in 27 plasma samples from benzodiazepine users.

  1. Simultaneous adaptation to non-collinear retinal motion and smooth pursuit eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J Rhys; Freeman, Tom C A

    2011-07-15

    Simultaneously adapting to retinal motion and non-collinear pursuit eye movement produces a motion aftereffect (MAE) that moves in a different direction to either of the individual adapting motions. Mack, Hill and Kahn (1989, Perception, 18, 649-655) suggested that the MAE was determined by the perceived motion experienced during adaptation. We tested the perceived-motion hypothesis by having observers report perceived direction during simultaneous adaptation. For both central and peripheral retinal motion adaptation, perceived direction did not predict the direction of subsequent MAE. To explain the findings we propose that the MAE is based on the vector sum of two components, one corresponding to a retinal MAE opposite to the adapting retinal motion and the other corresponding to an extra-retina MAE opposite to the eye movement. A vector model of this component hypothesis showed that the MAE directions reported in our experiments were the result of an extra-retinal component that was substantially larger in magnitude than the retinal component when the adapting retinal motion was positioned centrally. However, when retinal adaptation was peripheral, the model suggested the magnitude of the components should be about the same. These predictions were tested in a final experiment that used a magnitude estimation technique. Contrary to the predictions, the results showed no interaction between type of adaptation (retinal or pursuit) and the location of adapting retinal motion. Possible reasons for the failure of component hypothesis to fully explain the data are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Music Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Community Dwelling Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016, decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03, appetite (p = 0.006, and fatigue (p = 0.011. The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042. The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels.

  3. Effects of music aerobic exercise on depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in community dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu Kuan; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Tsuei, Feng-Shiou; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Yang, Kuender D

    2015-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE) for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016), decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03), appetite (p = 0.006), and fatigue (p = 0.011). The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042). The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels.

  4. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  5. Microwave-assisted extraction of glucosinolates from Eruca sativa seeds and soil: comparison with existing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omirou, Michalis; Papastylianou, Ioannis; Iori, Renato; Papastephanou, Chara; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K; Ehaliotis, Costantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary plant metabolites that are abundant in brassicas and their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates, are toxic to soil pathogens. Efficiency and extraction time are critical for routine analysis of GSLs in plant tissues. Robust analytical procedures are required for the extraction of GSL from soil. Development and optimisation of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for the recovery of GSL from plant tissues and soil and comparison of its efficiency with other established extraction methods. Solvents, temperature, microwave power and extraction time were examined as parameters controlling MAE efficiency. In rocket seeds the efficiency of MAE was determined through recovery of GSLs from seeds and of sinigrin (1) that was used as internal standard. MAE was then compared with the certified ISO-9167 method and an ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). MAE was also applied for the extraction of GSLs from soils fortified with 1 at three fortification levels. The efficiency of MAE was compared with a recently proposed agitation-filtration (AGIT) extraction method. The optimum conditions identified for extraction of GSLs from seeds were: methanol extraction at 250 W and 80 degrees C for 10 min. MAE and ISO methods showed comparable efficiencies and higher than UAE. In soil, both methods resulted in nearly 100% recovery of 1 at all fortification levels, although MAE achieved this recovery after a single extraction step compared with AGIT, which required two. The MAE developed is a simple and rapid method for the extraction of GSLs from plant tissues and soil that can be applied to a large number of samples, thus reducing the time of analysis. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in south Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Margetts, Barrie M.; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M.

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition ‘track’ from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538)....

  7. A a Analys among Eth sis of g exotic hiopia genetic c suga using m c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    DB 386/60 Do. 1974. 67. L 60-35. Do. Unknown. 81. C132-81. Do. 2003. 54. DB 414/60 Do. 1974. 68. L 60-40. Do. 1974. 82. NCD 310. Natal. 1953. 55. 56. DB 414/66 Do. 1983. 69. M 31/45. Mauritius. 1957. 83. NCD 349. Do. 1970. 1959. Ebene 1/37 Unknown. 1957. 70. M 53/263. Do. Unknown. 84. PR 905. Puerto Rico.

  8. Experimentell studie av sensationen hos färger

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Elin

    2009-01-01

    There are a large number of studies on colour and its influence on human feelings, but there are only a few studies on the association between feelings and colour combinations. This studie investigates the association between colour combinations consisting of three equally sized colours and the feelings they convey. The methodology used in this studie follows the instructions from the Nippon Colour & Design Research Institute (NCD) in Japan, NCD have studied consumer psychology towards co...

  9. n-Type phosphorus-doped nanocrystalline diamond: electrochemical and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Zivcova, Z. Vlckova; Frank, O.; Drijkoningen, Sien; Haenen, Ken; Mortet, Vincent; Kavan, L.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemical characterization of n-type phosphorus-doped nanocrystalline diamond (P-NCD) is carried out. The P-NCD films are grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and doped with phosphorus at a concentration of 10 000 ppm in the gas phase. Micro-Raman spectroscopy determines the film quality (presence of graphitic or amorphous phases). All electrochemical measurements are performed in aqueous 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte solution....

  10. ANALYSIS OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE BURDEN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    D. Nehru; C. Paranthakan; V. P. Kannan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Non-communicable diseases(NCD), also known as chronic diseases are not detected early since they remain asymptomatic in the initial stage. On communicable disease screening, OP services are started in government healthcare setup. Objective of this study is to find out the magnitude of NCDs in the outpatient screening programme. MATERIALS AND METHODS The secondary data was collected from records available in NCD screening OP for a period of 4 years in Thanjavur Medi...

  11. Non-Communicable Disease Preventive Screening by HIV Care Model

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Corinne M.; Chang, Yuchiao; Regan, Susan; Triant, Virginia A.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has evolved, with an increasing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden emerging and need for long-term management, yet there are limited data to help delineate the optimal care model to screen for NCDs for this patient population. Objective: The primary aim was to compare rates of NCD preventive screening in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by type of HIV care model, focusing on metabolic/cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer scr...

  12. Biological evaluation of ultrananocrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Shelby A; Kumar, Girish; Zheng, Jiwen; Sumant, Anirudha V; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J

    2016-12-01

    Nanostructured biomaterials have been investigated for achieving desirable tissue-material interactions in medical implants. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings are the two most studied classes of synthetic diamond coatings; these materials are grown using chemical vapor deposition and are classified based on their nanostructure, grain size, and sp(3) content. UNCD and NCD are mechanically robust, chemically inert, biocompatible, and wear resistant, making them ideal implant coatings. UNCD and NCD have been recently investigated for ophthalmic, cardiovascular, dental, and orthopaedic device applications. The aim of this study was (a) to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of UNCD and NCD coatings and (b) to determine if variations in surface topography and sp(3) content affect cellular response. Diamond coatings with various nanoscale topographies (grain sizes 5-400 nm) were deposited on silicon substrates using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed uniform coatings with different scales of surface topography; Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carbon bonding typical of diamond coatings. Cell viability, proliferation, and morphology responses of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to UNCD and NCD surfaces were evaluated. The hBMSCs on UNCD and NCD coatings exhibited similar cell viability, proliferation, and morphology as those on the control material, tissue culture polystyrene. No significant differences in cellular response were observed on UNCD and NCD coatings with different nanoscale topographies. Our data shows that both UNCD and NCD coatings demonstrate in vitro biocompatibility irrespective of surface topography.

  13. The Preventable Risk Integrated ModEl and Its Use to Estimate the Health Impact of Public Health Policy Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Scarborough; Harrington, Richard A.; Anja Mizdrak; Lijuan Marissa Zhou; Aiden Doherty

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD) scenario models are an essential part of the public health toolkit, allowing for an estimate of the health impact of population-level interventions that are not amenable to assessment by standard epidemiological study designs (e.g., health-related food taxes and physical infrastructure projects) and extrapolating results from small samples to the whole population. The PRIME (Preventable Risk Integrated ModEl) is an openly available NCD scenario model that estimat...

  14. Anisotropic Spin-Orbit Coupling and Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy in Vicinal Co Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Dudzik, Esther; Shick, Alexander B.

    2001-08-06

    The anisotropy of the spin-orbit interaction, <<{lambda}{sub a}> , in vicinal Co films has been measured using x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD). A linear increase in <{lambda}{sub a}> with Co step density is found using a new sum rule and represents the first experimental confirmation that XMLD probes the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). X-ray magnetic circular dichroism is used to confirm that the XMLD arises from changes in the local step-edge electronic structure. The XMLD sum rule gives a larger MAE compared to macroscopic values and is discussed with respect to other local probes of the MAE.

  15. Closed vessel microwave assisted extraction - An innovative method for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeztan, S.; Duering, R.-A.

    2012-04-01

    Determination of metal concentrations in plant samples is important for better understanding of effects of toxic metals that are biologically magnified through the food chain and compose a great danger to all living beings. In recent years the use of microwave assisted extraction for plant samples has shown tremendous research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future. Generally conventional procedures have disadvantages including consuming of time and solvents. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare a new closed vessel microwave extraction (MAE) method with the combination of EDTA (MAE-EDTA) for the determination of metal contents (Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by ICP-OES. Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another MAE procedure (MAE-H) which is applied with the mixture of 69% nitric acid (HNO3) and 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, conventional plant extraction (CE) method, for which the dissolution of plant samples were handled in HNO3 after dry ashing at 420° C, was used as a reference method. Approximately 0.5 g of sample was digested in 5 ml HNO3, 3 ml H2O2, and 5 ml deionized H2O for MAE-H and in 8 ml EDTA solution for MAE-EDTA. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. Thereby, the applicability of both MAE-H and MAE-EDTA procedures could be demonstrated. For 58 plant samples MAE-H showed the same extraction yields as CE in the determination of trace metal contents of the investigated elements in plant samples. MAE-EDTA gave similar values when compared to MAE-H and highly linear relationships were found for determination of Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn amounts. The recoveries for the CRMs were within the range 89.6-115%. Finally, strategic characteristics of MAE-EDTA for determination metal contents (Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn) in plant samples are: (i) applicability to a large set

  16. The role of IGCC technology in power generation using low-rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juangjandee, Pipat

    2010-09-15

    Based on basic test results on the gasification rate of Mae Moh lignite coal. It was found that an IDGCC power plant is the most suitable for Mae Moh lignite. In conclusion, the future of an IDGCC power plant using low-rank coal in Mae Moh mine would hinge on the strictness of future air pollution control regulations including green-house gas emission and the constraint of Thailand's foreign currency reserves needed to import fuels, in addition to economic consideration. If and when it is necessary to overcome these obstacles, IGCC is one variable alternative power generation must consider.

  17. Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Jun Kyung; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Background Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemok...

  18. Superior hardness and Young's modulus of low temperature nanocrystalline diamond coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicala, G., E-mail: grazia.cicala@ba.imip.cnr.it [CNR-IMIP Bari, Via G. Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Magaletti, V. [ALTA S.p.A., via Gherardesca 5, 56121 Ospedaletto (Pisa) (Italy); Senesi, G.S. [CNR-IMIP Bari, Via G. Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Carbone, G. [DIMeG-Politecnico di Bari Viale Japigia 182, 70126 Bari (Italy); Altamura, D.; Giannini, C. [CNR-IC Bari, Via G. Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Bartali, R. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings with thickness of about 3 μm were grown on silicon substrates at four deposition temperatures ranging from 653 to 884 °C in CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar microwave plasmas. The morphology, structure, chemical composition and mechanical and surface properties were studied by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation and Water Contact Angle (WCA) techniques. The different deposition temperatures used enabled to modulate the chemical, structural and mechanical NCD properties, in particular the grain size and the shape. The characterization measurements revealed a relatively smooth surface morphology with a variable grain size, which affected the incorporated hydrogen amount and the sp{sup 2} carbon content, and, as a consequence, the mechanical properties. Specifically, the hydrogen content decreased by increasing the grain size, whereas the sp{sup 2} carbon content increased. The highest values of hardness (121 ± 25 GPa) and elastic modulus (1036 ± 163 GPa) were achieved in NCD film grown at the lowest value of deposition temperature, which favored the formation of elongated nanocrystallites characterized by improved hydrophobic surface properties. - Highlights: • We produce the hardest NCD coating at the lowest deposition temperature. • We modify the deposition temperature to tailor the grain size and shape of the NCD coatings. • We assess the mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) of superhard NCD coating on a soft silicon substrate.

  19. Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and a Novel Curcumin Derivative on Notch1 Signaling in Hepatoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Talaat Abdel Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and a novel curcumin derivative (NCD on HepG2 cells (hepatoma cell line and to investigate their effect on Notch1 signaling pathway target genes. HepG2 cells were divided into HepG2 control group, HepG2 cells treated with MSC conditioned medium (MSCs CM, HepG2 cells treated with a NCD, HepG2 cells treated with MSCs CM and NCD, and HepG2 cells treated with MSCs CM (CM of MSCs pretreated with a NCD. Expression of Notch1, Hes1, VEGF, and cyclin D1 was assessed by real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in HepG2 cells. In addition, HepG2 proliferation assay was performed in all groups. Notch1 and its target genes (Hes1 and cyclin D1 were downregulated in all treated groups with more suppressive effect in the groups treated with both MSCs and NCD. Also, treated HepG2 cells showed significant decrease in cell proliferation rate. These data suggest that modulation of Notch1 signaling pathway by MSCs and/or NCD can be considered as a therapeutic target in HCC.

  20. SiV center photoluminescence induced by C=O termination in nanocrystalline diamond and graphite loops hybridized films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yingshuang; Fan, Dong; Lu, Shaohua; Shen, Yaogen; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-12-01

    We performed a series of thermal oxidation at different temperatures on nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films to construct various surface termination states of NCD grains and investigated their effects on silicon-vacancy (SiV) photoluminescence (PL) at 738 nm. Experiments and first principles calculations show that the negative electron affinity surface induced by C-H bond termination quenches the SiV PL, while the positive electron affinity surface originating from C=O bond termination removes this quenching. Moreover, oxidation at 600 °C results in the transition from amorphous carbon to graphite loops with an interlayer space of 0.4 nm, so that NCD and graphite loops' hybridized structure is formed. This allows oxygen atoms to contact with inside NCD grains to form more C=O bonds on the surface, producing much larger positive electron affinity in the surface. It traps the excited state electrons, lets them scatter back to the ground state, and emits SiV PL. These results reveal that C=O bonds play a crucial role in SiV PL of NCD grains and well explain the experimentally observed quenching effect. A novel way by changing the surface termination states is proposed to control the PL of NCD grains with SiV centers for potential quantum information processing and biological sensing.

  1. You can treat my HIV - But can you treat my blood pressure? Availability of integrated HIV and non-communicable disease care in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Colin; Scott, Vera; Hoffman, Risa; Mwagomba, Beatrice

    2017-02-15

    Many patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Malawi have or will develop non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The current capacity of ART sites to provide care for NCDs is not known. This study aimed to assess the capacity of ART sites to provide care for hypertension and diabetes in rural Malawi. Twenty-five health centres and five hospitals in two rural districts in northern Malawi. A cross-sectional survey was performed between March and May 2014 at all facilities. Qualitative interviews were held with three NCD coordinators. Treatment of hypertension and diabetes was predominantly hospital-based. Sixty percent of hospitals had at least one clinician and one nurse trained in NCD care, whereas 5% of health centres had a clinician and 8% had a nurse trained in NCD care. Hundred percent of hospitals and 92% of health centres had uninterrupted supply of hydrochlorothiazide in the previous 6 months, but only 40% of hospitals and no health centres had uninterrupted supply of metformin. Hundred percent of hospitals and 80% of health centres had at least one blood pressure machine, and 80% of hospitals and 32% of health centres had one glucometer. Screening for hypertension amongst ART patients was only conducted at one hospital and no health centres. At health centres, integrated NCD and ART care was more common, with 48% (12/25) providing ART and NCD treatment in the same consultation. The results reflect the status of the initial stages of the Malawi NCD programme at sites currently providing ART care.

  2. A Hybrid Unequal Error Protection / Unequal Error Resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Following that Unequal Error Protection against channel noise is provided to the layers by the use of ... of the Peak to Peak Signal to Noise power Ratio (PSNR) and the Mean Structural Similarity. Index (MSSIM) metric. Keywords: ..... compensation. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. pp. 438–452.

  3. Land cover classification using reformed fuzzy C-means

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For that purpose reformed fuzzy C means algorithm has been used. The segmented images are compared using image quality metrics. The image quality metrics used are peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), error image and compression ratio. The time taken for image segmentation is also used as a comparison parameter.

  4. Land cover classification using reformed fuzzy C-means

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used. The segmented images are compared using image quality metrics. The image quality metrics used are peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), error image and com- pression ratio. The time taken for image segmentation is also used as a comparison parameter. The techniques have been applied to classify the land cover.

  5. Digital Imagery Compression Best Practices Guide - A Motion Imagery Standards Profile (MISP) Compliant Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    is shown on the Y- axis. Higher levels of PSNR translate to higher levels of quality for the encoding results. For each of the three compression...coding for generic audiovisual service | Information Technology – Coding of audio-visual objects Part 10: Advanced Video Coding. ITU-T Rec. H.264 (03

  6. Penapisan Derau Gaussian, Speckle dan Salt&Pepper Pada Citra Warna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Purwanti Ningrum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality of digital image can decrease becouse some noises. Noise can come from lower quality of image recorder, disturb when transmission data process and weather. Noise filtering can make image better becouse will filtering that noise from the image and can improve quality of digital image. This research have aim to improve color image quality with filtering noise. Noise (Gaussian, Speckle, Salt&Pepper will apply to original image, noise from image will filtering use Bilateral Filter method, Median Filter method and Average Filter method so can improve color image quality. To know how well this research do, we use PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio criteria with compared original image and filtering image (image after using noise and filtering noise. This research result with noise filtering Gaussian (variance = 0.5, highest PSNR value found in the Bilateral Filter method is 27.69. Noise filtering Speckle (variance = 0.5, highest PSNR value found in the Average Filter method is 34.12. Noise filtering Salt&Pepper (variance = 0.5, highest PSNR value found in the Median Filter method is 31.27.   Keywords— Bilateral Filter, image restoration, derau Gaussian, Speckle dan Salt&Pepper

  7. A qualitative study of governance of evolving response to non-communicable diseases in low-and middle- income countries: current status, risks and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Nusrat, Sharmin; Hawken, Laura H

    2012-10-16

    Segmented service delivery with consequent inefficiencies in health systems was one of the main concerns raised during scaling up of disease-specific programs in the last two decades. The organized response to NCD is in infancy in most LMICs with little evidence on how the response is evolving in terms of institutional arrangements and policy development processes. Drawing on qualitative review of policy and program documents from five LMICs and data from global key-informant surveys conducted in 2004 and 2010, we examine current status of governance of response to NCDs at national level along three dimensions- institutional arrangements for stewardship and program management and implementation; policies/plans; and multisectoral coordination and partnerships. Several positive trends were noted in the organization and governance of response to NCDs: shift from specific NCD-based programs to integrated NCD programs, increasing inclusion of NCDs in sector-wide health plans, and establishment of high-level multisectoral coordination mechanisms.Several areas of concern were identified. The evolving NCD-specific institutional structures are being treated as 'program management and implementation' entities rather than as lead 'technical advisory' bodies, with unclear division of roles and responsibilities between NCD-specific and sector-wide structures. NCD-specific and sector-wide plans are poorly aligned and lack prioritization, costing, and appropriate targets. Finally, the effectiveness of existing multisectoral coordination mechanisms remains questionable. The 'technical functions' and 'implementation and management functions' should be clearly separated between NCD-specific units and sector-wide institutional structures to avoid duplicative segmented service delivery systems. Institutional capacity building efforts for NCDs should target both NCD-specific units (for building technical and analytical capacity) and sector-wide organizational units (for building

  8. A qualitative study of governance of evolving response to non-communicable diseases in low-and middle- income countries: current status, risks and options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Manju

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmented service delivery with consequent inefficiencies in health systems was one of the main concerns raised during scaling up of disease-specific programs in the last two decades. The organized response to NCD is in infancy in most LMICs with little evidence on how the response is evolving in terms of institutional arrangements and policy development processes. Methods Drawing on qualitative review of policy and program documents from five LMICs and data from global key-informant surveys conducted in 2004 and 2010, we examine current status of governance of response to NCDs at national level along three dimensions— institutional arrangements for stewardship and program management and implementation; policies/plans; and multisectoral coordination and partnerships. Results Several positive trends were noted in the organization and governance of response to NCDs: shift from specific NCD-based programs to integrated NCD programs, increasing inclusion of NCDs in sector-wide health plans, and establishment of high-level multisectoral coordination mechanisms. Several areas of concern were identified. The evolving NCD-specific institutional structures are being treated as ‘program management and implementation’ entities rather than as lead ‘technical advisory’ bodies, with unclear division of roles and responsibilities between NCD-specific and sector-wide structures. NCD-specific and sector-wide plans are poorly aligned and lack prioritization, costing, and appropriate targets. Finally, the effectiveness of existing multisectoral coordination mechanisms remains questionable. Conclusions The ‘technical functions’ and ‘implementation and management functions’ should be clearly separated between NCD-specific units and sector-wide institutional structures to avoid duplicative segmented service delivery systems. Institutional capacity building efforts for NCDs should target both NCD-specific units (for building

  9. Enhanced growth and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells on boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica Grausova

    Full Text Available Intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films have been proven to be promising substrates for the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of bone-derived cells. To understand the role of various degrees of doping (semiconducting to metallic-like, the NCD films were deposited on silicon substrates by a microwave plasma-enhanced CVD process and their boron doping was achieved by adding trimethylboron to the CH(4:H(2 gas mixture, the B∶C ratio was 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm. The room temperature electrical resistivity of the films decreased from >10 MΩ (undoped films to 55 kΩ, 0.6 kΩ, and 0.3 kΩ (doped films with 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm of B, respectively. The increase in the number of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in 7-day-old cultures on NCD films was most apparent on the NCD films doped with 133 and 1000 ppm of B (153,000 ± 14,000 and 152,000 ± 10,000 cells/cm(2, respectively, compared to 113,000 ± 10,000 cells/cm(2 on undoped NCD films. As measured by ELISA per mg of total protein, the cells on NCD with 133 and 1000 ppm of B also contained the highest concentrations of collagen I and alkaline phosphatase, respectively. On the NCD films with 6700 ppm of B, the cells contained the highest concentration of focal adhesion protein vinculin, and the highest amount of collagen I was adsorbed. The concentration of osteocalcin also increased with increasing level of B doping. The cell viability on all tested NCD films was almost 100%. Measurements of the concentration of ICAM-1, i.e. an immunoglobuline adhesion molecule binding inflammatory cells, suggested that the cells on the NCD films did not undergo significant immune activation. Thus, the potential of NCD films for bone tissue regeneration can be further enhanced and tailored by B doping and that B doping up to metallic-like levels is not detrimental for cells.

  10. Plaadid / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest "30 Seconds To Mars", E-Rotic "Sexual Healing", Mandarava & Buchert "Feng Shui", Vanessa Mae "The Best Of", Leann Rimes "Twisted Angel" Xzibit "Man vs Mashine", India. Airie "Voyage To India", Tori Amos "Scarlet Walk"

  11. 78 FR 74212 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ...-normal proportion of its assets in cash in response to adverse market, economic, or political conditions... to, the absence of adverse market, economic, political, or other conditions, including extreme... (FCBanks); Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae); Resolution Funding Corporation (REFCORP...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-05

    Orth, Robins,. Trzesniewski, Maes, & Schmitt, 2009; Toupxane, Gize-Roud, & Haratiyan, 2014). Religious systems, with creating and providing values beyond human entity, with her/his relation to the supreme power of eternity ...

  13. Water based microwave assisted extraction of thiamethoxam residues from vegetables and soil for determination by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Rajib; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kulshrestha, Gita

    2012-02-01

    A microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method for determination of thiamethoxam residues in vegetable and soil samples was standardized. Insecticide spiked vegetable and soil samples were extracted by MAE using water as an extraction solvent, cleaned up by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography on photodiode array detector. The recoveries of the insecticide from various vegetable (tomato, radish, brinjal, okra, French been, sugarbeet) and soil (sandy loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay loam, loamy sand) samples at 0.1 and 0.5 μg g(-1) spiking levels ranged from 79.8% to 86.2% and from 82.1% to 87.0%, respectively. The recoveries by MAE were comparable to those obtained by the conventional blender and shake-flask extraction techniques. The precision of the MAE method was demonstrated by relative standard deviations of <3% for the insecticide.

  14. Improving medication administration in nursing home residents with swallowing difficulties: sustainability of the effect of a multifaceted medication safety programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijt, Clementine C. M.; Klopotowska, Joanna E.; Kluft-van Driel, Chantal; Le, Nhut; Binnekade, Jan; van der Kleij, Bea; van der Schors, Tjalling; van den Bemt, Patricia; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine

    2013-01-01

    Crushing solid oral dosage forms is an important risk factor for medication administration errors (MAEs) in patients with swallowing difficulties. Nursing home (NH) residents, especially those on psychogeriatric wards, have a high prevalence of such difficulties. Six different psychogeriatric wards

  15. African Journal of Psychiatry: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cleaton-Jones, Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA Jeremy Coplan, New York, USA Ian Hindmarch, Surrey, ENGLAND Trevor Hurwitz, Vancouver, CANADA Gabor Keitner, Providence, USA Brian Leonard, Galway, IRELAND Bernard Lerer, Jerusalem, ISRAEL Michael Maes, Maastricht, NETHERLANDS Donatella Marazziti, ...

  16. Microwave-assisted extraction of essential oils from herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Ugarte, Gabriel Abraham; Juárez-Becerra, Gladys Paola; Sosa-Morales, María Elena; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) has been recognized as a technique with several advantages over other extraction methods, such as reduction of costs, extraction time, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions. In this study, MAE was performed to obtain essential oils from two different herbs (basil and epazote). A factorial design was conducted in order to determine the effect of solvent quantity, power, and heating time on essential oil yields. Chemical composition, physical properties and yield percentage of essential oils from MAE were compared with essential oils obtained by steam distillation (SD). Amount of solvent and heating time significantly affected the yields (p essential oils from basil and epazote were not affected by the extraction method (MAE or SD), with similar yielding obtained by both methods (p < 0.05).

  17. Magnetic anisotropy of graphene quantum dots decorated with a ruthenium adatom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Beljakov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation of magnetic storage devices by decoration of a graphene sheet by magnetic transition-metal adatoms, utilizing the high in-plane versus out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE, has recently been proposed. This concept is extended in our density-functional-based modeling study by incorporating the influence of the graphene edge on the MAE. We consider triangular graphene flakes with both armchair and zigzag edges in which a single ruthenium adatom is placed at symmetrically inequivalent positions. Depending on the edge-type, the graphene edge was found to influence the MAE in opposite ways: for the armchair flake the MAE increases close to the edge, while the opposite is true for the zigzag edge. Additionally, in-plane pinning of the magnetization direction perpendicular to the edge itself is observed for the first time.

  18. Orkney mineviku hiilgus / Andri Baburin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baburin, Andri

    2011-01-01

    Šotimaa põhjarannikul asetseva Orkney saarestiku vaatamisväärsustest: Maes How megaliitkalme, Stennessi kiviring, Brodgari megaliitring, Old Man of Hoy nimeline liivakivisammas, Scapa Flow muuseum

  19. Hepatoprotective action of ethanolic extracts of Melia azedarach Linn. and Piper longum Linn and their combination on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswary, H; Vasuki, R; Samudram, P; Geetha, A

    2011-04-01

    A comparison of analysis in evaluating the hepatoprotective action of ethanolic extract of M. azedarach (MAE) and P. longum (PLE) with their combination biherbal extract (BHE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage is reported in albino rats. There was a marked elevation of serum marker enzyme levels in CCl4 treated rats, which were restored towards normalization in the drug (MAE and/or PLE:50 mg/kg body weight po, once daily for 14 days) treated animals. The biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. The combined BHE showed more significant reduction of the enzymes than MAE or PLE against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. The results strongly indicate that BHE has more potent hepatoprotective action than MAE or PLE individually against CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rats. Among these extracts, BHE showed similar hepatoprotective action to silymarin, which was the positive control in this study.

  20. Tehases Polymer valmistatakse kummilelude asemel kultuuri / Mari Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Kristiine linnaosas tegutsevast loovinimeste koondumispaigast kultuuritehasest Polymer. Kultuuritehases töötavad maalikunstnik Alice Kask, skulptor Neeme Külm, teatrikunstnik Mae Kivilo, filmikunstnik Mare Raidma. Vaata ka www.kultuuritehas.ee

  1. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carvill, Gemma L; McMahon, Jacinta M; Schneider, Amy; Zemel, Matthew; Myers, Candace T; Saykally, Julia; Nguyen, John; Robbiano, Angela; Zara, Federico; Specchio, Nicola; Mecarelli, Oriano; Smith, Robert L; Leventer, Richard J; Møller, Rikke S; Nikanorova, Marina; Dimova, Petia; Jordanova, Albena; Petrou, Steven; Helbig, Ingo; Striano, Pasquale; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Mefford, Heather C

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, targeted resequencing of 644 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies led to the identification of six SLC6A1 mutations in seven individuals, all of whom have epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures (MAE...

  2. South African Medical Journal - Vol 68, No 17 (1983)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic abortion on psychiatric grounds Part III. Implementing the Abortion and Sterilization Act (1975-1981) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Eleanor S. Nash, Mae Navias, 639-644 ...

  3. Suvelavastus lastele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    5. juunil Linnateatri hoovil asuvas lavaaugus "Prints ja kerjus", Mark Twaini romaani järgi kirjutanud Peeter Sauter, lavastaja Jaanus Rohumaa, kujundaja Mae Kivilo, osades Indrek Sammul, Tõnno Linnas

  4. Jaanus Rohumaa suur suvetükk (hingelt) lastele / Rünno Saaremäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saaremäe, Rünno

    1999-01-01

    Tallinna Linnateatris Mark Twaini - Peeter Sauteri "Prints ja kerjus", lavastaja Jaanus Rohumaa, helilooja Marko Kõlar, kunstnik Mae Kivilo, peaosades Indrek Sammul ja Tõnno Linnas.Ka kolm vastust Lavastajalt, Printsilt ja Kerjuselt

  5. Peeter Sauter kirjutas oma "Printsi ja kerjuse" / Peeter Sauter ; interv. Margus Kasterpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sauter, Peeter, 1962-

    1999-01-01

    Vabaõhuetendus "Prints ja kerjus" Linnateatri lavaaugus, Mark Twaini romaani ainetel kirjutanud Peeter Sauter, lavastaja Jaanus Rohumaa, kunstnik Mae Kivilo, helilooja Margo Kõlar, osades Indrek Sammul ja Tõnno Linnas

  6. The Borrower's Guide to Financing Solar Energy Systems - A Federal Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiffert, P.

    1999-03-30

    This booklet describes authorized lending programs and loan guarantees provided by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and several Federal agencies, including DOE, that consumers and businesses can use to finance solar heat or electric systems and energy efficient mortgages.

  7. Modern acoustic emission technique and its application in aviation industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Rongsheng

    2006-12-22

    This paper proposes the concept of modern acoustic emission (MAE) technique and describes its application in aviation industry. Modern AE is characterized by the combination of AE parameter and waveform analysis based on the understanding of AE source mechanism, the property of sound wave propagation and the interaction between sound wave and the medium in which the sound wave is propagating. Another feature of MAE is characterized by the application of so-called fully digital AE apparatus with low noise, high speed of data transmission and accurate AE source locating capability. MAE is merely an imagination without the realization of the advanced fully digital AE instrument. The application of MAE in monitoring the conditions of aircraft structures during a fatigue test was taken as an example for showing the important role played by AE. Roles of AE in the evaluation of (environment-related) corrosion damage of aircraft were also presented.

  8. Plaadid / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Ashanti "Concerte Rose", My Chemical Romance "Three Cheers For Sweet Revenge", Bee Gees "Number Ones", Def Leppard "Best of...", Vanessa-Mae "Choregraphy", Tencu "O O O", Kuti, Femi "Africa Shrine"

  9. HMBS Pool-Level HECM Saver Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Disclosure Data Download makes available monthly disclosure information about Ginnie Mae MBS for periods 201204 and later. HMBS Monthly data is available for periods...

  10. Causes of medication administration errors in hospitals: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keers, Richard N; Williams, Steven D; Cooke, Jonathan; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2013-11-01

    Underlying systems factors have been seen to be crucial contributors to the occurrence of medication errors. By understanding the causes of these errors, the most appropriate interventions can be designed and implemented to minimise their occurrence. This study aimed to systematically review and appraise empirical evidence relating to the causes of medication administration errors (MAEs) in hospital settings. Nine electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, ASSIA, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, Health Management Information Consortium and Social Science Citations Index) were searched between 1985 and May 2013. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to identify eligible publications through title analysis followed by abstract and then full text examination. English language publications reporting empirical data on causes of MAEs were included. Reference lists of included articles and relevant review papers were hand searched for additional studies. Studies were excluded if they did not report data on specific MAEs, used accounts from individuals not directly involved in the MAE concerned or were presented as conference abstracts with insufficient detail. A total of 54 unique studies were included. Causes of MAEs were categorised according to Reason's model of accident causation. Studies were assessed to determine relevance to the research question and how likely the results were to reflect the potential underlying causes of MAEs based on the method(s) used. Slips and lapses were the most commonly reported unsafe acts, followed by knowledge-based mistakes and deliberate violations. Error-provoking conditions influencing administration errors included inadequate written communication (prescriptions, documentation, transcription), problems with medicines supply and storage (pharmacy dispensing errors and ward stock management), high perceived workload, problems with ward-based equipment (access, functionality

  11. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Cannabinoids in Hemp Nut Using Response Surface Methodology: Optimization and Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Yen, Ching-Chi; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Wu, Yu-Tse

    2017-11-03

    Hemp nut is commonly incorporated into several food preparations; however, most countries set regulations for hemp products according to their cannabinoid content. In this study, we have developed an efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for cannabinoids (i.e., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol) in hemp nut. Optimization of the MAE procedure was conducted through single factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). A comparative study was also conducted to determine the differences in the extraction yields and morphology of hemp nut between MAE and reference extraction methods, namely heat reflux extraction (HRE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Among the independent variables in RSM, the temperature was the most significant parameter. The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: extraction solvent of methanol, microwave power of 375 W, temperature of 109 °C, and extraction time of 30 min. Compared with reference extraction methods, MAE achieved the highest extraction yields of total cannabinoids in hemp nut (6.09 μg/g for MAE; 4.15 μg/g for HRE; 5.81 μg/g for SE; 3.61 μg/g for SFE; 3.73 μg/g for UAE) with the least solvent consumption and shortest time. Morphological observations showed that substantial cell rupturing occurred in the microstructure of hemp nut after MAE, indicating enhanced dissolution of the target compounds during the extraction process. The MAE method is thus a rapid, economic, and environmentally friendly extraction method that is both effective and practical for industrial applications.

  12. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Cannabinoids in Hemp Nut Using Response Surface Methodology: Optimization and Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemp nut is commonly incorporated into several food preparations; however, most countries set regulations for hemp products according to their cannabinoid content. In this study, we have developed an efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE method for cannabinoids (i.e., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol in hemp nut. Optimization of the MAE procedure was conducted through single factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM. A comparative study was also conducted to determine the differences in the extraction yields and morphology of hemp nut between MAE and reference extraction methods, namely heat reflux extraction (HRE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. Among the independent variables in RSM, the temperature was the most significant parameter. The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: extraction solvent of methanol, microwave power of 375 W, temperature of 109 °C, and extraction time of 30 min. Compared with reference extraction methods, MAE achieved the highest extraction yields of total cannabinoids in hemp nut (6.09 μg/g for MAE; 4.15 μg/g for HRE; 5.81 μg/g for SE; 3.61 μg/g for SFE; 3.73 μg/g for UAE with the least solvent consumption and shortest time. Morphological observations showed that substantial cell rupturing occurred in the microstructure of hemp nut after MAE, indicating enhanced dissolution of the target compounds during the extraction process. The MAE method is thus a rapid, economic, and environmentally friendly extraction method that is both effective and practical for industrial applications.

  13. Reducing the Deficit: Spending and Revenue Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    included outlays for the Troubled Asset Relief Program ( TARP ) and subsidies for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (two institutions that facili- tate the...resulted from unusually large negative outlays recorded for the TARP and deposit insurance, as well as from a drop in payments to Fannie Mae and...includes energy conservation as well as solar , wind, and other renewable energy sources, the federal government provides support through other means

  14. Quality improvements in decreasing medication administration errors made by nursing staff in an academic medical center hospital: a trend analysis during the journey to Joint Commission International accreditation and in the post-accreditation era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Fen; Jin, Jing-Fen; Feng, Xiu-Qin; Huang, Xin; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhao, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Medication errors may occur during prescribing, transcribing, prescription auditing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring. Medication administration errors (MAEs) are those that actually reach patients and remain a threat to patient safety. The Joint Commission International (JCI) advocates medication error prevention, but experience in reducing MAEs during the period of before and after JCI accreditation has not been reported. An intervention study, aimed at reducing MAEs in hospitalized patients, was performed in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China, during the journey to JCI accreditation and in the post-JCI accreditation era (first half-year of 2011 to first half-year of 2014). Comprehensive interventions included organizational, information technology, educational, and process optimization-based measures. Data mining was performed on MAEs derived from a compulsory electronic reporting system. The number of MAEs continuously decreased from 143 (first half-year of 2012) to 64 (first half-year of 2014), with a decrease in occurrence rate by 60.9% (0.338% versus 0.132%, Pmedications decreased from 32 (the second half-year of 2011) to 16 (the first half-year of 2014), with a decrease in occurrence rate by 57.9% (0.0787% versus 0.0331%, Pmedication errors. The number of MAEs in surgical wards was twice that in medicinal wards. Compared with non-intensive care units, the intensive care units exhibited higher occurrence rates of MAEs (1.81% versus 0.24%, Pmedication administration. JCI accreditation may help health systems enhance the awareness and ability to prevent MAEs and achieve successful quality improvements.

  15. Sea surface temperature predictions using a multi-ocean analysis ensemble scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jieshun; Li, Zhongxian; Chen, Haishan; Zeng, Gang

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the global sea surface temperature (SST) predictions by a so-called multiple-ocean analysis ensemble (MAE) initialization method which was applied in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). Different from most operational climate prediction practices which are initialized by a specific ocean analysis system, the MAE method is based on multiple ocean analyses. In the paper, the MAE method was first justified by analyzing the ocean temperature variability in four ocean analyses which all are/were applied for operational climate predictions either at the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts or at NCEP. It was found that these systems exhibit substantial uncertainties in estimating the ocean states, especially at the deep layers. Further, a set of MAE hindcasts was conducted based on the four ocean analyses with CFSv2, starting from each April during 1982-2007. The MAE hindcasts were verified against a subset of hindcasts from the NCEP CFS Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) Project. Comparisons suggested that MAE shows better SST predictions than CFSRR over most regions where ocean dynamics plays a vital role in SST evolutions, such as the El Niño and Atlantic Niño regions. Furthermore, significant improvements were also found in summer precipitation predictions over the equatorial eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, for which the local SST prediction improvements should be responsible. The prediction improvements by MAE imply a problem for most current climate predictions which are based on a specific ocean analysis system. That is, their predictions would drift towards states biased by errors inherent in their ocean initialization system, and thus have large prediction errors. In contrast, MAE arguably has an advantage by sampling such structural uncertainties, and could efficiently cancel these errors out in their predictions.

  16. Design and construction of miniature artificial ecosystem based on dynamic response optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Enzhu

    The miniature artificial ecosystem (MAES) is a combination of man, silkworm, salad and mi-croalgae to partially regenerate O2 , sanitary water and food, simultaneously dispose CO2 and wastes, therefore it have a fundamental life support function. In order to enhance the safety and reliability of MAES and eliminate the influences of internal variations and external dis-turbances, it was necessary to configure MAES as a closed-loop control system, and it could be considered as a prototype for future bioregenerative life support system. However, MAES is a complex system possessing large numbers of parameters, intricate nonlinearities, time-varying factors as well as uncertainties, hence it is difficult to perfectly design and construct a prototype through merely conducting experiments by trial and error method. Our research presented an effective way to resolve preceding problem by use of dynamic response optimiza-tion. Firstly the mathematical model of MAES with first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations including parameters was developed based on relevant mechanisms and experimental data, secondly simulation model of MAES was derived on the platform of MatLab/Simulink to perform model validation and further digital simulations, thirdly reference trajectories of de-sired dynamic response of system outputs were specified according to prescribed requirements, and finally optimization for initial values, tuned parameter and independent parameters was carried out using the genetic algorithm, the advanced direct search method along with parallel computing methods through computer simulations. The result showed that all parameters and configurations of MAES were determined after a series of computer experiments, and its tran-sient response performances and steady characteristics closely matched the reference curves. Since the prototype is a physical system that represents the mathematical model with reason-able accuracy, so the process of designing and

  17. Promoting Food Safety and Food Security in Rural Tourism Destination

    OpenAIRE

    Sikhiram N.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at two villages, Ban Mae Kampong, Mae On, Chiang Mai and Ban Pa Miang, Muang, Lampang, Northern Thailand. This community is supported by Thai government tourism ministry to develop their skills in order to create and offer rural tourism. The study focus on community member groups who are involved with rural tourism activities; Homestay members, food preparation management members, tour guides, community leader groups, in order to assess the acceptance, collaboration a...

  18. Radar Measurements of Ocean Surface Waves using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    Beck Honoring Symposium on Marine Hydrodynamics, 11, American Society of Mechanical Engineers ( ASME ). doi: 10.1115/0MAE201542420. Chatterjee, A...Milewski W.M. , Kusters J.G. , and G. Farquharson, 2015, Development of an environmental and ship motion forecasting system. ASME . International...Engineers ( ASME ). doi : 10.1115/0MAE2015-42422. Diamessis, P.J. , Gurka, R. , and A. Liberzon, 2010, Spatial characterization of vortical structures

  19. Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Jun Kyung; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-04-23

    Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  20. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times...

  1. Provider risk factors for medication administration error alerts: analyses of a large-scale closed-loop medication administration system using RFID and barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeonsoo; Yoon, Dukyong; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Hwang, Hee; Park, Rae Woong

    2016-12-01

    To determine the risk factors and rate of medication administration error (MAE) alerts by analyzing large-scale medication administration data and related error logs automatically recorded in a closed-loop medication administration system using radio-frequency identification and barcodes. The subject hospital adopted a closed-loop medication administration system. All medication administrations in the general wards were automatically recorded in real-time using radio-frequency identification, barcodes, and hand-held point-of-care devices. MAE alert logs recorded during a full 1 year of 2012. We evaluated risk factors for MAE alerts including administration time, order type, medication route, the number of medication doses administered, and factors associated with nurse practices by logistic regression analysis. A total of 2 874 539 medication dose records from 30 232 patients (882.6 patient-years) were included in 2012. We identified 35 082 MAE alerts (1.22% of total medication doses). The MAE alerts were significantly related to administration at non-standard time [odds ratio (OR) 1.559, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.515-1.604], emergency order (OR 1.527, 95%CI 1.464-1.594), and the number of medication doses administered (OR 0.993, 95%CI 0.992-0.993). Medication route, nurse's employment duration, and working schedule were also significantly related. The MAE alert rate was 1.22% over the 1-year observation period in the hospital examined in this study. The MAE alerts were significantly related to administration time, order type, medication route, the number of medication doses administered, nurse's employment duration, and working schedule. The real-time closed-loop medication administration system contributed to improving patient safety by preventing potential MAEs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films with phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, Christo [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Reintanz, Philipp M. [Institute of Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Kulisch, Wilhelm [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Degenhardt, Anna Katharina [Institute of Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Weidner, Tobias [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Baio, Joe E. [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Merz, Rolf; Kopnarski, Michael [Institut für Oberflächen- und Schichtanalytik (IFOS), Kaiserslautern (Germany); Siemeling, Ulrich [Institute of Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Reithmaier, Johann Peter [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Popov, Cyril, E-mail: popov@ina.uni-kassel.de [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Grafting of phthalocyanines on nanocrystalline diamond films with different terminations. • Pc with different central atoms and side chains synthesized and characterized. • Attachment of Pc on H- and O-terminated NCD studied by XPS and NEXAFS spectroscopy. • Orientation order of phthalocyanine molecules on NCD surface. - Abstract: Phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives containing different central metal atoms (Mn, Cu, Ti) and different peripheral chains were synthesized and comprehensively characterized. Their interaction with nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films, as-grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition or after their modification with oxygen plasma to exchange the hydrogen termination with oxygen-containing groups, was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The elemental composition as determined by XPS showed that the Pc were grafted on both as-grown and O-terminated NCD. Mn, Cu and Ti were detected together with N stemming from the Pc ring and S in case of the Ti-Pc from the peripheral ligands. The results for the elemental surface composition and the detailed study of the N 1s, S 2p and O 1s core spectra revealed that Ti-Pc grafted better on as-grown NCD but Cu-Pc and Mn-Pc on O-terminated films. Samples of Mn-Pc on as-grown and O-terminated NCD were further investigated by NEXAFS spectroscopy. The results showed ordering of the grafted molecules, laying flat on the H-terminated NCD surface while only the macrocycles were oriented parallel to the O-terminated surface with the peripheral chains perpendicular to it.

  3. [Gait speed and the appearance of neurocognitive disorders in older adults: Results of a Peruvian cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, José F; Nieto-Gutierrez, Wendy; Tellez, Walter A; Ventocilla-Gonzales, Iris; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro

    The prevention and management of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) among older adults can be improved by early identification of risk factors such as walking speed. The objective of the study is to assess the association between gait speed and NCD onset in a population of Peruvian older adults. Cohort conducted in older adults who attended the geriatrics service of Naval Medical Center (Callao, Peru). During the baseline assessment, participants' gait speed was recorded. Subsequently, participants were followed-up annually for 5 years, with a mean of 21 months. NCD onset was defined as the occurrence of a score ≤24 points on the Mini Mental State Examination (screening test) during follow-up. The hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox regression. The study included 657 participants, with a mean age of 73.4±9.2 (SD) years, of whom 47.0% were male, 47.8% had a gait speed <0.8 m/s, and 20.1% developed NCD during the follow up. It was found that older adults who had gait speed <0.8 m/s at baseline were more likely to develop NCD than those who had a gait speed ≥0.8 m/s (adjusted HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.34-1.47). A longitudinal association was found between decreased gait speed and NCD onset, suggesting that gait speed could be useful to identify patients at risk of NCD onset. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Tracing Africa's progress towards implementing the Non-Communicable Diseases Global action plan 2013-2020: a synthesis of WHO country profile reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaaba, Gertrude Nsorma; Stronks, Karien; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-04-05

    Half of the estimated annual 28 million non-communicable diseases (NCDs) deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are attributed to weak health systems. Current health policy responses to NCDs are fragmented and vertical particularly in the African region. The World Health Organization (WHO) led NCDs Global action plan 2013-2020 has been recommended for reducing the NCD burden but it is unclear whether Africa is on track in its implementation. This paper synthesizes Africa's progress towards WHO policy recommendations for reducing the NCD burden. Data from the WHO 2011, 2014 and 2015 NCD reports were used for this analysis. We synthesized results by targets descriptions in the three reports and included indicators for which we could trace progress in at least two of the three reports. More than half of the African countries did not achieve the set targets for 2015 and slow progress had been made towards the 2016 targets as of December 2013. Some gains were made in implementing national public awareness programmes on diet and/or physical activity, however limited progress was made on guidelines for management of NCD and drug therapy and counselling. While all regions in Africa show waning trends in fully achieving the NCD indicators in general, the Southern African region appears to have made the least progress while the Northern African region appears to be the most progressive. Our findings suggest that Africa is off track in achieving the NCDs indicators by the set deadlines. To make sustained public health gains, more effort and commitment is urgently needed from governments, partners and societies to implement these recommendations in a broader strategy. While donors need to suit NCD advocacy with funding, African institutions such as The African Union (AU) and other sub-regional bodies such as West African Health Organization (WAHO) and various country offices could potentially play stronger roles in advocating for more NCD policy efforts in Africa.

  5. Tracing Africa’s progress towards implementing the Non-Communicable Diseases Global action plan 2013–2020: a synthesis of WHO country profile reports

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    Gertrude Nsorma Nyaaba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Half of the estimated annual 28 million non-communicable diseases (NCDs deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs are attributed to weak health systems. Current health policy responses to NCDs are fragmented and vertical particularly in the African region. The World Health Organization (WHO led NCDs Global action plan 2013–2020 has been recommended for reducing the NCD burden but it is unclear whether Africa is on track in its implementation. This paper synthesizes Africa’s progress towards WHO policy recommendations for reducing the NCD burden. Methods Data from the WHO 2011, 2014 and 2015 NCD reports were used for this analysis. We synthesized results by targets descriptions in the three reports and included indicators for which we could trace progress in at least two of the three reports. Results More than half of the African countries did not achieve the set targets for 2015 and slow progress had been made towards the 2016 targets as of December 2013. Some gains were made in implementing national public awareness programmes on diet and/or physical activity, however limited progress was made on guidelines for management of NCD and drug therapy and counselling. While all regions in Africa show waning trends in fully achieving the NCD indicators in general, the Southern African region appears to have made the least progress while the Northern African region appears to be the most progressive. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Africa is off track in achieving the NCDs indicators by the set deadlines. To make sustained public health gains, more effort and commitment is urgently needed from governments, partners and societies to implement these recommendations in a broader strategy. While donors need to suit NCD advocacy with funding, African institutions such as The African Union (AU and other sub-regional bodies such as West African Health Organization (WAHO and various country offices could potentially play

  6. Mitos sobre la prevención y el control de las enfermedades no transmisibles en América Latina Myths on prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in Latin America

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    María Cristina Escobar

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available El incremento de las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT y la posibilidad de evitarlo hacen apremiante la puesta en marcha o el reforzamiento de los programas preventivos de este tipo de padecimientos en América Latina. Sin embargo, existe una serie de mitos alrededor de las ENT, que dificulta la aplicación de dichos programas; en estos mitos subyace la idea de que éstas son: a degenerativas e incurables; b enfermedades de la vejez, y c enfermedades de los ricos. Asimismo, existen mitos según los cuales los programas preventivos de las ENT son: a difíciles de implementar; b costosos, y c ineficaces. En este trabajo se presentan datos que demuestran que tales mitos no son ciertos, y se discuten los retos a vencer para encontrar una política equilibrada de salud que resalte la importancia de las ENT sin olvidar la de las otras enfermedades.Given the increase of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD and the possibility to avoid it, it is urgent to implement or strengthen NCD preventive programs in Latin America. However, many myths hinder the implementation of NCD programs. Myths on NCD include: a NCD are degenerative and incurable; b they are diseases of the elderly; c they are diseases of the rich. Like wise there are myths about NCD preventive programs are: a difficult to implement, b expensive, and c ineffective. We present data that demonstrate how these myths are untrue and discuss the challenges to find a balanced health policy that emphasizes the importance of NCD without overlooking other diseases.

  7. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films - Coating characterization and first cell biological results.

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    Strąkowska, Paulina; Beutner, René; Gnyba, Marcin; Zielinski, Andrzej; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD>HAp/B-NCD>uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  8. The natural history of myoclonic astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a short review of the natural history of myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE; Doose syndrome) and the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). In the 1989 classification of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE, 1989), MAE and LGS were initially included in group 2.2: "Cryptogenic or symptomatic generalized epilepsies and syndromes." The subsequent classification of the Proposed Diagnostic Scheme for People with Epileptic Seizures and with Epilepsy (see Ref. 8) placed MAE in axis 3 in the "generalized epilepsy" group and LGS, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI or Dravet syndrome) and atypical benign partial epilepsy/pseudo-Lennox syndrome (ABPE/PLS) in the "epileptic encephalopathy" group. The semiology of MAE and LGS and their differential diagnosis from SMEI and ABPE/PLS are described. Before the onset of SMEI, MAE, and ABPE/PLS, the development of the child is usually normal. In contrast, in LGS, development is frequently retarded at the onset, depending on the etiopathogenesis of the underlying brain disease. The course of MAE is highly variable with regard to seizure outcome (complete remission in some cases, persistent epilepsy in others) and cognitive development (normal or delayed). The course of LGS and SMEI is generally poor, both with regard to the epilepsy and to the cognitive development whereas the course and seizure outcome of ABPE/PLS is favorable; the patients will be seizure-free at puberty. However, the neuropsychological outcome is less favorable; most patients remain mentally retarded.

  9. [Check valve and non-oxygen microwave assisted extraction of Chinese herbs: study of a novel technique for extraction of essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaobing; Li, Jin; Ma, Bin; Yu, Yanlin

    2011-09-01

    A novel green extraction technique of check valve & non-oxygen microwave assisted extraction (CVNO-MAE) for essential oils extraction was established. CVNO-MAE is a combination of microwave heating, vacuum pump and check valve, performed at anaerobic environment without added any solvent or water. CVNO-MAE has been compared with a conventional technique, solvent free microwave extraction (SFME), for the extraction of essential oils from two Chinese herbs: Curcuma phaeocaulis and Mentha haplocalyx. GC-MS analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 36 and 37 compounds in the essential oils of C. phaeocaulis and M. haplocalyx, respectively. There was an obvious difference in the quality of essential oils obtained by the two kinds of extraction methods. The CVNO-MAE method yielded an essential oil of C. phaeocaulis with lower amounts of oxygenated compounds (45.53%) than SFME (62.38%). Higher amounts of oxygenated compounds (89.57%) were present in the M. haplocalyx essential oil of SFME in comparison with CVNO-MAE (82.74%). CVNO-MAE is a fast low temperature extraction method carried in under pressure, appears as a good alternative for the extraction of essential oils from Chinese herbs and a green technology.

  10. Magic angle effect in MR imaging of ankle tendons: influence of foot positioning on prevalence and site in asymptomatic subjects and cadaveric tendons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengiardi, Bernard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Hodler, Juerg; Zanetti, Marco [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoettle, Philip B.; Vienne, Patrick [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Bode, Beata [Zurich University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-10-15

    The influence of foot positioning on prevalence of the magic angle effect (MAE) in ankle tendons was investigated. In 30 asymptomatic volunteers and five cadaveric feet, MR imaging of the ankle was performed in the supine (neutral position of the foot) and prone (plantar-flexed foot) position. MAE was considered if increased T1-weighted signal at a certain site was seen in one position only. Histological correlation was obtained at 25 sites of the cadaveric posterior tibialis tendons (PTT). MAE occurred in 6/30 vs 1/30 (supine vs prone) anterior tibialis tendons (ATT), 30/30 vs 0/30 extensor hallucis longus and 27/30 vs 0/30 extensor digitorum longus tendons, 29/30 vs 0/30 PTTs, 30/30 vs 0/30 flexor digitorum and flexor hallucis longus tendons, 30/30 vs 1/30 peroneus brevis and 23/30 vs 1/30 peroneus longus tendons. At 12/25 cadaveric PTT sites where MAE was exclusively responsible for the increased signal, histology revealed normal tissue (11/12) or minimal degeneration (1/12). In conclusion, the supine body position with neutral position of the foot, a high prevalence (77-100%) of MAE in ankle tendons except for the ATT (20%) is seen. MAE is almost absent in the prone body position with plantar flexion of the foot. (orig.)

  11. Food effect on the bioavailability of two distinct formulations of megestrol acetate oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Benoit; Musaji, Naomi; Gillespie, John A

    2009-01-01

    Megestrol acetate oral suspension (MAOS) is an appetite stimulant indicated for cachexia in patients with AIDS. It is available in its original formulation, Megace (MAOS), and as a nanocrystal dispersion, Megace ES (MA-ES). Three studies were conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of these formulations under fed and fasting conditions. An open-label, crossover trial was conducted in 24 healthy males randomized to MA-ES 625 mg/5 mL given with a high-calorie, high-fat meal, or after an overnight fast. Blood samples were drawn at multiple time points and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Two separate, open-label reference studies evaluated MAOS 800 mg/20 mL in 40 fed or 40 fasting healthy male volunteers. In fasting MA-ES subjects, the average maximum concentration (C(max)) was 30% less than the fed C(max) value. For MAOS, fasting C(max) was 86% less than fed C(max). In fasting subjects, the area under the curve was 12,095 ng.h/mL for MA-ES, and 8,942 ng.h/mL for MAOS. In fed subjects, the absorption of the two formulations was comparable. Bioavailability and absorption are greater for MA-ES than MAOS in fasting subjects. MA-ES may be a preferred formulation of megestrol acetate when managing cachectic patients whose caloric intake is reduced.

  12. Hoek's formula, a cystatin C-based prediction formula for determining the glomerular filtration rate, is the most effective method for original adjusting the dosage of vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A; Suemaru, K; Otsuka, T; Ido, K; Nishimiya, T; Sakai, I; Hasegawa, H; Yasukawa, M; Inoue, T; Murase, M; Araki, H

    2007-11-01

    Some formulas using the serum cystatin C level to estimate the GFR have recently been reported. However, there has been no report of a serum cystatin C-based formula for adjusting the dosage of the drugs cleared by the kidney. In this study, we compared the predictive performance of the serum vancomycin trough concentration predicted using serum cystatin C-based formulas. The data were collected from 158 hospitalized patients. Five formulas have been published to predict the GFR using serum cystatin C. The cystatin C-based formulas were divided into two groups, formulas with or without anthropometric data. We predicted the serum vancomycin trough concentrations using VCM-TDM S_edition ver. 1.00 software. In formulas with anthropometric data, the mean absolute error (MAE) using Hoek's formula was 2.38, the MAE using Grubb's 1 formula was 4.13, the MAE using Sjöström's formula was 2.90, and the MAE using Cockcroft and Gault formula based on creatinine was 4.42. On the other hand, in formulas without an anthropometric data group, the MAE using Larsson's formula was 3.07, and the MAE using Grubb's 2 formula was 3.63. These results suggested that Hoek's formula is the most useful formula for determining the initial dosage settings for vancomycin.

  13. Ultra-soft PDMS-based magnetoactive elastomers as dynamic cell culture substrata.

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    Matthias Mayer

    Full Text Available Mechanical cues such as extracellular matrix stiffness and movement have a major impact on cell differentiation and function. To replicate these biological features in vitro, soft substrata with tunable elasticity and the possibility for controlled surface translocation are desirable. Here we report on the use of ultra-soft (Young's modulus <100 kPa PDMS-based magnetoactive elastomers (MAE as suitable cell culture substrata. Soft non-viscous PDMS (<18 kPa is produced using a modified extended crosslinker. MAEs are generated by embedding magnetic microparticles into a soft PDMS matrix. Both substrata yield an elasticity-dependent (14 vs. 100 kPa modulation of α-smooth muscle actin expression in primary human fibroblasts. To allow for static or dynamic control of MAE material properties, we devise low magnetic field (≈40 mT stimulation systems compatible with cell-culture environments. Magnetic field-instigated stiffening (14 to 200 kPa of soft MAE enhances the spreading of primary human fibroblasts and decreases PAX-7 transcription in human mesenchymal stem cells. Pulsatile MAE movements are generated using oscillating magnetic fields and are well tolerated by adherent human fibroblasts. This MAE system provides spatial and temporal control of substratum material characteristics and permits novel designs when used as dynamic cell culture substrata or cell culture-coated actuator in tissue engineering applications or biomedical devices.

  14. Development of a microwave assisted extraction method for the analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork stoppers by SIDA-SBSE-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestner, Jochen; Fritsch, Stefanie; Rauhut, Doris

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this research work was focused on the replacement of the time-consuming soaking of cork stoppers which is mainly used as screening method for cork lots in connection with sensory analysis and/or analytical methods to detect releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) of natural cork stoppers. Releasable TCA from whole cork stoppers was analysed with the application of a microwave assisted extraction method (MAE) in combination with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The soaking of corks (SOAK) was used as a reference method to optimise MAE parameters. Cork lots of different quality and TCA contamination levels were used to adapt MAE. Pre-tests indicated that an MAE at 40 degrees C for 120 min with 90 min of cooling time are suitable conditions to avoid an over-extraction of TCA of low and medium tainted cork stoppers in comparison to SOAK. These MAE parameters allow the measuring of almost the same amounts of releasable TCA as with the application of the soaking procedure in the relevant range (SIDA) was applied to optimise quantification of the released TCA with deuterium-labelled TCA (TCA-d(5)) using a time-saving GC-MS technique in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The developed MAE method allows the measuring of releasable TCA from the whole cork stopper under improved conditions and in connection with a low use of solvent and a higher sample throughput. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Penyembunyian Data pada File Video Menggunakan Metode LSB dan DCT

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    Mahmuddin Yunus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penyembunyian data pada file video dikenal dengan istilah steganografi video. Metode steganografi yang dikenal diantaranya metode Least Significant Bit (LSB dan Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan penyembunyian data pada file video dengan menggunakan metode LSB, metode DCT, dan gabungan metode LSB-DCT. Sedangkan kualitas file video yang dihasilkan setelah penyisipan dihitung dengan menggunakan Mean Square Error (MSE dan Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR.Uji eksperimen dilakukan berdasarkan ukuran file video, ukuran file berkas rahasia yang disisipkan, dan resolusi video. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan tingkat keberhasilan steganografi video dengan menggunakan metode LSB adalah 38%, metode DCT adalah 90%, dan gabungan metode LSB-DCT adalah 64%. Sedangkan hasil perhitungan MSE, nilai MSE metode DCT paling rendah dibandingkan metode LSB dan gabungan metode LSB-DCT. Sedangkan metode LSB-DCT mempunyai nilai yang lebih kecil dibandingkan metode LSB. Pada pengujian PSNR diperoleh databahwa nilai PSNR metode DCTlebih tinggi dibandingkan metode LSB dan gabungan metode LSB-DCT. Sedangkan nilai PSNR metode gabungan LSB-DCT lebih tinggi dibandingkan metode LSB.   Kata Kunci— Steganografi, Video, Least Significant Bit (LSB, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT, Mean Square Error (MSE, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR                             Abstract Hiding data in video files is known as video steganography. Some of the well known steganography methods areLeast Significant Bit (LSB and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT method. In this research, data will be hidden on the video file with LSB method, DCT method, and the combined method of LSB-DCT. While the quality result of video file after insertion is calculated using the Mean Square Error (MSE and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. The experiments were conducted based on the size of the video file, the file size of the inserted secret files, and

  16. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens

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    Q. H. Shang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i basal diet (control, ii naturally contaminated diet (NCD, and iii NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD. The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01 of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01 than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05 and cholesterol (p<0.05 on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01 the high-density lipoprotein (HDL on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01 the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01 concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05 on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01 the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01 and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05 on d 21, and improved (p<0.01 the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins.

  17. Systematic literature review of hospital medication administration errors in children

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    Ameer A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Ameer,1 Soraya Dhillon,1 Mark J Peters,2 Maisoon Ghaleb11Department of Pharmacy, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK; 2Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK Objective: Medication administration is the last step in the medication process. It can act as a safety net to prevent unintended harm to patients if detected. However, medication administration errors (MAEs during this process have been documented and thought to be preventable. In pediatric medicine, doses are usually administered based on the child's weight or body surface area. This in turn increases the risk of drug miscalculations and therefore MAEs. The aim of this review is to report MAEs occurring in pediatric inpatients. Methods: Twelve bibliographic databases were searched for studies published between January 2000 and February 2015 using “medication administration errors”, “hospital”, and “children” related terminologies. Handsearching of relevant publications was also carried out. A second reviewer screened articles for eligibility and quality in accordance with the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Key findings: A total of 44 studies were systematically reviewed. MAEs were generally defined as a deviation of dose given from that prescribed; this included omitted doses and administration at the wrong time. Hospital MAEs in children accounted for a mean of 50% of all reported medication error reports (n=12,588. It was also identified in a mean of 29% of doses observed (n=8,894. The most prevalent type of MAEs related to preparation, infusion rate, dose, and time. This review has identified five types of interventions to reduce hospital MAEs in children: barcode medicine administration, electronic prescribing, education, use of smart pumps, and standard concentration. Conclusion: This review has identified a wide variation in the prevalence of hospital MAEs in children. This is attributed to

  18. Ab initio study of magnetocrystalline anisotropy, magnetostriction, and Fermi surface of L10 FeNi (tetrataenite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werwiński, Mirosław; Marciniak, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    We present results of ab initio calculations of several L10 FeNi characteristics, such as the summary of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies (MAEs), the full potential calculations of the anisotropy constant K 3, and the combined analysis of the Fermi surface and 3D {k} -resolved MAE. Other calculated parameters are the spin and orbital magnetic moments, the magnetostrictive coefficient λ0 0 1 , the bulk modulus B 0, and the lattice parameters. The MAEs summary shows rather big discrepancies among the experimental MAEs from the literature and also among the calculated MAE’s. The MAEs calculated in this work with the full potential and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) are equal to 0.47 MJ m-3 from WIEN2k, 0.34 MJ m-3 from FPLO, and 0.23 MJ m-3 from FP-SPR-KKR code. These results suggest that the MAE in GGA is below 0.5 MJ m-3 . It is expected that due to the limitations of the GGA, this value is underestimated. The L10 FeNi has further potential to improve its MAE by modifications, like e.g. tetragonal strain or alloying. The presented 3D {k} -resolved map of the MAE combined with the Fermi surface gives a complete picture of the MAE contributions in the Brillouin zone. The obtained, from the full potential FP-SPR-KKR method, magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants K 2 and K 3 are several orders of magnitude smaller than the MAE/K 1 and equal to -2.0 kJ m-3 and 110 J m-3 , respectively. The calculated spin and orbital magnetic moments of the L10 FeNi are equal to 2.72 and 0.054 μB for Fe and 0.53 and 0.039 μB for Ni atoms, respectively. The calculations of geometry optimization lead to a c/a ratio equal to 1.0036, B 0 equal to 194 GPa, and λ0 0 1 equal to 9.4  ×  10‑6.

  19. Mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon and water-soluble organic carbon in Beijing, China

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    Y. Cheng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The mass absorption efficiency (MAE of elemental carbon (EC in Beijing was quantified using a thermal-optical carbon analyzer. The MAE measured at 632 nm was 8.45±1.71 and 9.41±1.92 m2 g−1 during winter and summer respectively. The daily variation of MAE was found to coincide with the abundance of organic carbon (OC, especially the OC to EC ratio, perhaps due to the enhancement by coating with organic aerosol (especially secondary organic aerosol, SOA or the artifacts resulting from the redistribution of liquid-like organic particles during the filter-based absorption measurements. Using a converting approach that accounts for the discrepancy caused by measurements methods of both light absorption and EC concentration, previously published MAE values were converted to the equivalent-MAE, which is the estimated value if using the same measurement methods as used in this study. The equivalent-MAE was found to be much lower in the regions heavily impacted by biomass burning (e.g., below 2.7 m2 g−1 for two Indian cities. Results from source samples (including diesel exhaust samples and biomass smoke samples also demonstrated that emissions from biomass burning would decrease the MAE of EC. Moreover, optical properties of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC in Beijing were presented. Light absorption by WSOC exhibited strong wavelength (λ dependence such that absorption varied approximately as λ−7, which was characteristic of the brown carbon spectra. The MAE of WSOC (measured at 365 nm was 1.79±0.24 and 0.71±0.20 m2 g−1 during winter and summer respectively. The large discrepancy between the MAE of WSOC during winter and summer was attributed to the difference in the precursors of SOA such that anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs should be more important as the precursors of SOA in winter. The MAE of WSOC in Beijing was much higher than results from

  20. The Preventable Risk Integrated ModEl and Its Use to Estimate the Health Impact of Public Health Policy Scenarios

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    Peter Scarborough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncommunicable disease (NCD scenario models are an essential part of the public health toolkit, allowing for an estimate of the health impact of population-level interventions that are not amenable to assessment by standard epidemiological study designs (e.g., health-related food taxes and physical infrastructure projects and extrapolating results from small samples to the whole population. The PRIME (Preventable Risk Integrated ModEl is an openly available NCD scenario model that estimates the effect of population-level changes in diet, physical activity, and alcohol and tobacco consumption on NCD mortality. The structure and methods employed in the PRIME are described here in detail, including the development of open source code that will support a PRIME web application to be launched in 2015. This paper reviews scenario results from eleven papers that have used the PRIME, including estimates of the impact of achieving government recommendations for healthy diets, health-related food taxes and subsidies, and low-carbon diets. Future challenges for NCD scenario modelling, including the need for more comparisons between models and the improvement of future prediction of NCD rates, are also discussed.

  1. Polydopamine-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films as a platform for bio-sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Georgievski, Ognen, E-mail: georgievski@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Neykova, Neda, E-mail: neykova@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 16253 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering Trojanova 13, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Proks, Vladimir [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Houdkova, Jana; Ukraintsev, Egor; Zemek, Josef; Kromka, Alexander [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 16253 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rypaček, František [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-30

    Diamond exhibits good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, and thus, it is particularly suitable for bio-functionalization and bio-sensing. Modification of the diamond surface can be achieved through mussel-inspired surface chemistry based on polydopamine (PDA) while maintaining the intrinsic properties of the surface. We present a comparative study on the polymerization/deposition of PDA from an aqueous solution of dopamine on hydrogen- (H) and oxygen- (O) terminated nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD). The dopamine polymerization/deposition was performed under mild conditions, which resulted in a confluent PDA layer. A detailed investigation of the growth kinetics of the PDA film on H- and O-terminated NCD substrates was performed using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The chemical composition, the functional group distribution, the surface topography and the wetting properties of the adherent PDA films were evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and water contact angle goniometry, respectively. According to the results, a PDA layer can be used as a platform for future bio-functionalization and/or optical bio-sensing applications. - Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) was modified through polydopamine (PDA) chemistry. ► PDA's growth kinetics on H- and O-terminated NCD films were investigated. ► The growth kinetics and composition of PDA were independent of the NCD termination.

  2. A green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using native cyclodextrins as stabilizing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Suárez-Cerda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a comparative study of the effect of the NCD size as a stabilizing agent, on the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs by an easy green method was reported. The nanoparticles were synthesized through the chemical reduction of aqueous solutions of copper (II sulfate with ascorbic acid, using different native cyclodextrins (NCDs (α-, β-, or γ-NCD as stabilizing agents. Cu-NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDX, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The pattern showed in the typical selected area electron diffraction (SAED and lattice fringes, evidence that the crystalline structure of Cu-NPs is face-centered cubic (FCC with a (111, (200 and (220 lattice planes of Cu. The analysis of the TEM images show that the size of the Cu-NPs depends on the type of native cyclodextrin (NCD, also it was observed that the nanoparticles are spherical and with a size between ∼2 and 33 nm. The smaller Cu-NPs were obtained with α-NCD (mode 4 nm, while the nanoparticles obtained with β-NCD show the narrow size distribution (mode 6.5 nm. The average particle size and particle size distribution of Cu-NPs depend upon the type of CDs.

  3. Physical Frailty, Cognitive Impairment, and the Risk of Neurocognitive Disorder in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Gao, Qi; Feng, Lei; Lee, Tih Shih; Tsoi, Tung; Chong, Mei Sian; Lim, Wee Shiong; Collinson, Simon; Yap, Philip; Yap, Keng Bee; Ng, Tze Pin

    2017-03-01

    The independent and combined effects of physical and cognitive domains of frailty in predicting the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia are not firmly established. This study included cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of physical frailty (Cardiovascular Health Study criteria), cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]), and neurocognitive disorder (DSM-5 criteria) among 1,575 community-living Chinese older adults from the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. At baseline, 2% were frail, 32% were prefrail, and 9% had cognitive impairment (MMSE score impairment. Physical frailty categories were not significantly associated with incident NCD, but continuous physical frailty score and MMSE score showed significant individual and joint associations with incident mild NCD and dementia. Compared with those who were robust and cognitively normal, prefrail or frail old adults without cognitive impairment had no increased risk of incident NCD, but elevated odds of association with incident NCD were observed for robust with cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 4.04, p impairment (OR = 2.22, p = .044), and especially for frail with cognitive impairment (OR = 6.37, p = .005). The prevalence of co-existing frailty and cognitive impairment (cognitive frailty) was 1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-1.4), but was higher among participants aged 75 and older at 5.0% (95% CI: 1.8-8.1). Physical frailty is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment, and co-existing physical frailty and cognitive impairment confers additionally greater risk of incident NCD.

  4. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channel openers diazoxide and nicorandil lower intraocular pressure by activating the Erk1/2 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttio Roy Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Elevated intraocular pressure is the most prevalent and only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, a degenerative disease of the optic nerve. While treatment options to slow disease progression are available, all current therapeutic and surgical treatments have unwanted side effects or limited efficacy, resulting in the need to identify new options. Previous reports from our laboratory have established a novel ocular hypotensive effect of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP openers including diazoxide (DZ and nicorandil (NCD. In the current study, we evaluated the role of Erk1/2 signaling pathway in KATP channel opener mediated reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP. Western blot analysis of DZ and NCD treated primary normal trabecular meshwork (NTM cells, human TM (isolated from perfusion cultures of human anterior segments and mouse eyes showed increased phosphorylation of Erk1/2 when compared to vehicle treated controls. DZ and NCD mediated pressure reduction (p0.1. Histologic evaluation of transmission electron micrographs from DZ + U0126 and NCD + U0126 treated eyes revealed no observable morphological changes in the ultrastructure of the conventional outflow pathway. Taken together, the results indicate that the Erk1/2 pathway is necessary for IOP reduction by KATP channel openers DZ and NCD.

  5. Embryonic health: new insights, mHealth and personalised patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2015-05-01

    The worldwide epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCD), including obesity, is a burden to which poor lifestyles contribute significantly. Events in early life may enhance susceptibility to NCD, with transmission into succeeding generations. This may also explain, in part, why interventions in adulthood are less effective to reduce NCD risk. New insights reveal that the early embryo, in particular, is extremely sensitive to signals from gametes, trophoblastic tissue and periconception maternal lifestyles. Embryonic size and growth as determinants of embryonic health seem to impact future health. A relatively small embryo for gestational age is associated with pregnancy complications, as well as with the risk of early features of NCD in childhood. Although personal lifestyles are modifiable, they are extremely difficult to change. Therefore, adopting a life course approach from the periconception period onwards and integrated into patient care with short-term reproductive health benefits may have important implications for future prevention of NCD. The current reproductive population is used to Internet and social media. Therefore, they can be reached via mobile phone (mHealth) platforms that provide personalised lifestyle (pre)pregnancy programs. This will offer opportunities and possibly great benefits for the health of current and succeeding generations.

  6. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, Z., E-mail: remes@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000–1500 cm{sup −1} spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  7. Investigation of bonded hydrogen defects in nanocrystalline diamond films grown with nitrogen/methane/hydrogen plasma at high power conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. J.; Hou, Haihong; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Jiang, X. F.; Pinto, J. L.; Ye, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the influence of some growth parameters such as high microwave power ranging from 3.0 to 4.0 kW and N2 additive on the incorporation of bonded hydrogen defects in nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films grown through a small amount of pure N2 addition into conventional 4% CH4/H2 plasma using a 5 kW microwave plasma CVD system. Incorporation form and content of hydrogen point defects in the NCD films produced with pure N2 addition was analyzed by employing Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time. A large amount of hydrogen related defects was detected in all the produced NCD films with N2 additive ranging from 29 to 87 μm thick with grain size from 47 nm to 31 nm. Furthermore, a specific new H related sharp absorption peak appears in all the NCD films grown with pure N2/CH4/H2 plasma at high powers and becomes stronger at powers higher than 3.0 kW and is even stronger than the 2920 cm-1 peak, which is commonly found in CVD diamond films. Based on these experimental findings, the role of high power and pure nitrogen addition on the growth of NCD films including hydrogen defect formation is analyzed and discussed.

  8. Boron Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Films for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Petrák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria there is an increased demand for monitoring the functionality of bacteria membranes, the disruption of which can be induced by peptide-lipid interactions. In this work we attempt to construct and disrupt supported lipid membranes (SLB on boron doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS was used to study in situ changes related to lipid membrane formation and disruption by peptide-induced interactions. The observed impedance changes were minimal for oxidized B-NCD samples, but were still detectable in the low frequency part of the spectra. The sensitivity for the detection of membrane formation and disruption was significantly higher for hydrogenated B-NCD surfaces. Data modeling indicates large changes in the electrical charge when an electrical double layer is formed at the B-NCD/SLB interface, governed by ion absorption. By contrast, for oxidized B-NCD surfaces, these changes are negligible indicating little or no change in the surface band bending profile.

  9. The ATPase cross-bridge cycle of the Kar3 motor domain. Implications for single head motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Andrew T; Gilbert, Susan P

    2003-02-07

    Kar3 is a minus-end directed microtubule motor involved in meiosis and mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisae. Unlike Drosophila Ncd, the other well characterized minus-end directed motor that is a homodimer, Kar3 is a heterodimer with a single motor domain and either the associated polypeptides Cik1 or Vik1. Our mechanistic studies with Ncd showed that both motor domains were required for ATP-dependent motor domain detachment from the microtubule. We have initiated a series of experiments to compare the mechanistic requirements for Kar3 motility in direct comparison to Ncd. The results presented here show that the single motor domain of Kar3 (Met(383)-Lys(729)) exhibits characteristics similar to monomeric Ncd. The microtubule-activated steady-state ATPase cycle of Kar3 (k(cat) = 0.5 s(-1)) is limited by ADP release (0.4 s(-1)). Like monomeric Ncd, Kar3 does not readily detach from the microtubule with the addition of MgATP. These results show that the single motor domain of Kar3 is not sufficient for ATP-dependent microtubule dissociation, suggesting that structural elements outside of the catalytic core are required for the cyclic interactions with the microtubule for force generation.

  10. Basic Risk Factors Awareness in Non-Communicable Diseases (BRAND) Study Among People Visiting Tertiary Care Centre in Mysuru, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, Thippeswamy; Chikkegowda, Prathima

    2016-04-01

    Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are the major causes of mortality and morbidity globally. Awareness about NCDs and their risk factors has an important role in prevention and management strategies of these NCDs. 1) To assess the awareness of risk factors contributing to NCDs among the patients visiting tertiary care hospital in Mysuru district; 2) To compare the difference in awareness of risk factors for NCDs among the urban and rural patients with/ without NCD visiting the tertiary care hospital. A cross- sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care centre- JSS Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka from March 2013 - August 2013. The patients visiting Medicine OPD during the period were the study subjects. The subjects were allocated into 4 groups: Urban without any NCD, Urban with atleast one NCD, rural without NCD, rural with atleast one NCD. A pretested questionnaire regarding awareness of risk factors for NCDs was used in the study and frequency and proportions were used to analyse the data. A total of 400 subjects, 100 subjects in each group were included in the study. Out of these subjects about 65% of the urban group and 42% of the rural group subjects were aware of the NCDs and their risk factors. Least awareness was observed among the rural subjects without any NCDs (35%). The awareness of risk factors of NCDs and knowledge regarding prevention of NCDs was not satisfactory. The results highlighted the need and scope for health education and interventions to improve the awareness about NCDs and their risk factors.

  11. Autophagic or necrotic cell death triggered by distinct motifs of the differentiation factor DIF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, M F; Kubohara, Y; Kikuchi, H; Oshima, Y; Golstein, P

    2009-04-01

    Autophagic or necrotic cell death (ACD and NCD, respectively), studied in the model organism Dictyostelium which offers unique advantages, require triggering by the same differentiation-inducing factor DIF-1. To initiate these two types of cell death, does DIF-1 act through only one or through two distinct recognition structures? Such distinct structures may recognize distinct motifs of DIF-1. To test this albeit indirectly, DIF-1 was modified at one or two of several positions, and the corresponding derivatives were tested for their abilities to induce ACD or NCD. The results strongly indicated that distinct biochemical motifs of DIF-1 were required to trigger ACD or NCD, and that these motifs were separately recognized at the onset of ACD or NCD. In addition, both ACD and NCD were induced more efficiently by DIF-1 than by either its precursors or its immediate catabolite. These results showed an unexpected relation between a differentiation factor, the cellular structures that recognize it, the cell death types it can trigger and the metabolic state of the cell. The latter seems to guide the choice of the signaling pathway to cell death, which in turn imposes the cell death type and the recognition pattern of the differentiation factor.

  12. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A.; López, Víctor H.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán S.; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P.; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The temperature (T) factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (ethanol) (CS) were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14%) and (4.27% ± 0.10%) for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis. PMID:27164081

  13. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant’s MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18–21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents’ decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  15. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Esquivel-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The temperature (T factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (ethanol (CS were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14% and (4.27% ± 0.10% for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis.

  16. Low-level motion analysis of color and luminance for perception of 2D and 3D motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Masanori; Ogiya, Mistuharu; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

    2012-06-26

    We investigated the low-level motion mechanisms for color and luminance and their integration process using 2D and 3D motion aftereffects (MAEs). The 2D and 3D MAEs obtained in equiluminant color gratings showed that the visual system has the low-level motion mechanism for color motion as well as for luminance motion. The 3D MAE is an MAE for motion in depth after monocular motion adaptation. Apparent 3D motion can be perceived after prolonged exposure of one eye to lateral motion because the difference in motion signal between the adapted and unadapted eyes generates interocular velocity differences (IOVDs). Since IOVDs cannot be analyzed by the high-level motion mechanism of feature tracking, we conclude that a low-level motion mechanism is responsible for the 3D MAE. Since we found different temporal frequency characteristics between the color and luminance stimuli, MAEs in the equiluminant color stimuli cannot be attributed to a residual luminance component in the color stimulus. Although a similar MAE was found with a luminance and a color test both for 2D and 3D motion judgments after adapting to either color or luminance motion, temporal frequency characteristics were different between the color and luminance adaptation. The visual system must have a low-level motion mechanism for color signals as for luminance ones. We also found that color and luminance motion signals are integrated monocularly before IOVD analysis, showing a cross adaptation effect between color and luminance stimuli. This was supported by an experiment with dichoptic presentations of color and luminance tests. In the experiment, color and luminance tests were presented in the different eyes dichoptically with four different combinations of test and adaptation: color or luminance test in the adapted eye after color or luminance adaptation. Findings of little or no influence of the adaptation/test combinations indicate the integration of color and luminance motion signals prior to the

  17. National Clinical Database feedback implementation for quality improvement of cancer treatment in Japan: from good to great through transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Miyata, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Wakabayashi, Go; Konno, Hiroyuki; Miyakawa, Shuichi; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mori, Masaki; Satomi, Susumu; Kokudo, Norihiro; Iwanaka, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    The National Clinical Database (NCD) of Japan was established in April, 2010 with ten surgical subspecialty societies on the platform of the Japan Surgical Society. Registrations began in 2011 and over 4,000,000 cases from more than 4100 facilities were registered over a 3-year period. The gastroenterological section of the NCD collaborates with the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, which shares a similar goal of developing a standardized surgical database for surgical quality improvement, with similar variables for risk adjustment. Risk models of mortality for eight procedures; namely, esophagectomy, partial/total gastrectomy, right hemicolectomy, low anterior resection, hepatectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy, and surgery for acute diffuse peritonitis, have been established, and feedback reports to participants will be implemented. The outcome measures of this study were 30-day mortality and operative mortality. In this review, we examine the eight risk models, compare the procedural outcomes, outline the feedback reporting, and discuss the future evolution of the NCD.

  18. Interfaces in nano-/microcrystalline multigrade CVD diamond coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Flávia A; Salgueiredo, Ermelinda; Oliveira, Filipe J; Silva, Rui F; Baptista, Daniel L; Peripolli, Suzana B; Achete, Carlos A

    2013-11-27

    The interfaces of multilayered CVD diamond films grown by the hot-filament technique were characterized with high detail using HRTEM, STEM-EDX, and EELS. The results show that at the transition from micro- (MCD) to nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), a thin precursor graphitic film is formed, irrespectively of the NCD gas chemistry used (with or without argon). On the contrary, the transition of the NCD to MCD grade is free of carbon structures other than diamond, the result of a higher substrate temperature and more abundant atomic H in the gas chemistry. At those transitions WC nanoparticles could be found due to contamination from the filament, being also present at the first interface of the MCD layer with the silicon nitride substrate.

  19. Gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline diamond at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Davydova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an integrated NH3 sensor based on a hydrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD-sensitive layer coated on an interdigitated electrode structure. The gas sensing properties of the sensor structure were examined using a reducing gas (NH3 at room temperature and were found to be dependent on the electrode arrangement. A pronounced response of the sensor, which was comprised of dense electrode arrays (of 50 µm separation distance, was observed. The sensor functionality was explained by the surface transfer doping effect. Moreover, the three-dimensional model of the current density distribution of the hydrogenated NCD describes the transient flow of electrons between interdigitated electrodes and the hydrogenated NCD surface, that is, the formation of a closed current loop.

  20. Caveolae/lipid rafts in fibroblast-like synoviocytes: ectopeptidase-rich membrane microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemann, D; Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, L

    2001-01-01

    Membrane peptidases play important roles in cell activation, proliferation and communication. Human fibroblast-like synoviocytes express considerable amounts of aminopeptidase N/CD13, dipeptidyl peptidase IV/CD26, and neprilysin/CD10, transmembrane proteins previously proposed to be involved...... level, aminopeptidase N/CD13 and dipeptidyl peptidase IV/CD26 were found in caveolae, in particular in intracellular yet surface-connected vesicle-like structures and 'rosettes' made up of several caveolae. In addition, clusters of peptidases were seen at the cell surface in flat patches ranging in size...... from about 60 to 160 nm. Cholesterol depletion of synoviocytes by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin disrupted >90% of the caveolae and reduced the raft localization of aminopeptidase N/CD13 without affecting Ala-p-nitroanilide-cleaving activity of confluent cell cultures. In co-culture experiments with T...

  1. High stability electron field emitters made of nanocrystalline diamond coated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H., E-mail: nhtai@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Srinivasu, K.; Leou, K. C. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, I. N., E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-16

    We report enhanced life-time stability for the electron field emitters prepared by coating nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Upon overcoming the problem of poor stability in CNTs, the NCD-CNTs exhibit excellent life-time stability of 250 min tested at different applied voltages of 600 and 900 V. In contrast, the life-time stability of CNTs is only 33 min even at relatively low voltage of 360 V and starts arcing at 400 V. Hence, the NCD-CNTs with improved life-time stability have great potential for the applications as cathodes in flat panel displays and microplasma display devices.

  2. Rectification properties of n-type nanocrystalline diamond heterojunctions to p-type silicon carbide at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masaki; Amano, Ryo; Shimoda, Naotaka [Graduate School of Automotive Science, Kyushu University, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kato, Yoshimine, E-mail: yoshimine.kato@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Teii, Kungen [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2014-04-14

    Highly rectifying heterojunctions of n-type nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films to p-type 4H-SiC substrates are fabricated to develop p-n junction diodes operable at high temperatures. In reverse bias condition, a potential barrier for holes at the interface prevents the injection of reverse leakage current from the NCD into the SiC and achieves the high rectification ratios of the order of 10{sup 7} at room temperature and 10{sup 4} even at 570 K. The mechanism of the forward current injection is described with the upward shift of the defect energy levels in the NCD to the conduction band of the SiC by forward biasing. The forward current shows different behavior from typical SiC Schottky diodes at high temperatures.

  3. Sensation seeking and cocaine dependence in adults with reported childhood ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballon, Nicolas; Brunault, Paul; Cortese, Samuele

    2015-04-01

    To compare measures of sensation seeking in a clinical group of cocaine-dependent (CD) patients with and without a history of probable childhood ADHD and in non-cocaine-dependent (NCD) healthy volunteers. Patients (n = 75; 42 with and 33 without probable childhood ADHD) and comparisons (n = 84) were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, the Wender Utah Rating Scale for childhood ADHD, and the Zuckerman Seeking Sensation Scale. We found significantly higher prevalence rates of probable childhood ADHD in CD versus NCD (p < .001). The mean total scores of sensation seeking were significantly higher in CD versus NCD participants (p < .001) as well as in CD patients with versus those without a probable history of childhood ADHD (p < .001). Our study sets the basis for longitudinal investigation assessing whether the persistence of high level of sensation seeking in adults with childhood ADHD contributes to the transition to cocaine dependence. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  4. XPS and ToF-SIMS investigation of nanocrystalline diamond oxidized surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrengo, S.; Canteri, R.; Dell’Anna, R.; Minati, L. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Pasquarelli, A. [Institute of Electron Devices and Circuits, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Speranza, G., E-mail: speranza@fbk.eu [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    This work aims at studying the different chemical bonds formed on hydrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films after oxidation. Three different oxidation treatments applied to NCD, namely oxygen plasma, ozone oxidation and piranha solution were investigated using three different analysis techniques namely X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV photoelectron spectroscopy and TOF-secondary ion mass spectrometry. The combination of these techniques allowed us to better discriminate the nature of the carbon oxygen bonds produced by the different oxidation treatments. We demonstrate that the carbon-oxygen bonds induced by UV irradiation possess a different nature with respect to those generated by plasma or piranha solution. In particular the prevalent electrostatic nature of the carbon-oxygen bonds induced by UV irradiation can explain a negative electron affinity recovery upon NCD annealing, not possible in the case of the other two oxidation processes.

  5. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC. SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method.

  6. A New Steganography Technique Based on Difference Scheme of RGB Channels and Text Using Histogram Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding the fact that communication is taking place, by hiding information in other information. The motivation for this work includes provision of protection of information during transmission without any detection of information. We also propose a new technique namely „A New Steganography Technique Based on Difference Scheme of RGB Channels and Text Using Histogram Analysis‟. The proposed technique can encode any colored image files in order to protect confidential text data from unauthorized access. It can be applied to a very small images (24 × 24 as well as large images (1024 × 1024. We use Image quality parameters Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and Mean Square Error. The proposed method has higher PSNR value and lower MSE values. The PSNR value is greater than 50 and MSE value is in fractions.

  7. Modeling the Color Image and Video Quality on Liquid Crystal Displays with Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Objective image and video quality metrics focus mostly on the digital representation of the signal. However, the display characteristics are also essential for the overall Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we use a model of a backlight dimming system for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD......) and show how the modeled image can be used as an input to quality assessment algorithms. For quality assessment, we propose an image quality metric, based on Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) computation in the CIE L*a*b* color space. The metric takes luminance reduction, color distortion and loss...... of uniformity in the resulting image in consideration. Subjective evaluations of images generated using different backlight dimming algorithms and clipping strategies show that the proposed metric estimates the perceived image quality more accurately than conventional PSNR....

  8. "Can you see me now?" An objective metric for predicting intelligibility of compressed American Sign Language video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramello, Francis M.; Hemami, Sheila S.

    2007-02-01

    For members of the Deaf Community in the United States, current communication tools include TTY/TTD services, video relay services, and text-based communication. With the growth of cellular technology, mobile sign language conversations are becoming a possibility. Proper coding techniques must be employed to compress American Sign Language (ASL) video for low-rate transmission while maintaining the quality of the conversation. In order to evaluate these techniques, an appropriate quality metric is needed. This paper demonstrates that traditional video quality metrics, such as PSNR, fail to predict subjective intelligibility scores. By considering the unique structure of ASL video, an appropriate objective metric is developed. Face and hand segmentation is performed using skin-color detection techniques. The distortions in the face and hand regions are optimally weighted and pooled across all frames to create an objective intelligibility score for a distorted sequence. The objective intelligibility metric performs significantly better than PSNR in terms of correlation with subjective responses.

  9. Estudio de dos estructuras neuronales feedforward para la compresión de imágenes digitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Eduardo Gaona Barrera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows and explains the process implemented for the development of feed- forward neural networks with the aim of compress digital image color. It sets oul sorne traditional techniques and develops tvvo topologies to implement feed forward. During the development of networks, fue items that are considered: number of layers, number of neurons, image type, size and munber of blocks to train, to optimize performance during final training. It also discusses the standard quality of the image obtained, as peak signal noise relation (PSNR and cornpression, which typically obtain values above 35dB in terms of PSNR and 2 bits per pixel in gray or 3 bpp color images, with maximum time of 3 seconds for images less than I mega pixel. Finally out some dravvbacks and presents conclusions of this type of compression.

  10. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT MENGGGUNAKAN METODE LINEAR FILTERING DAN STATIONARY WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Tena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is image enhancement using the linear filtering and the Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT method. The linear filtering method using in this research is median filter, low pass filter and wiener filter and the SWT method using wavelet haar/db1. The Noise as input for source image is salt&pepper and gaussian. The quality of image enhancement determined by qualitative and quantitative assesments. Quantitative performance of the method can be measured by MSE and PSNR. The research shows that ever greater of  the noise density cause the value of MSE uphill progressively but the value of PSNR decrease progressively. The qualitative assessment depend on the everyone perception to the image enhancement. The result obtained shows that the SWT method better than linear filtering method.

  11. Forward-backward processing technique for image denoising using FDZP 2D filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar Verma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fractional differential zero phase (FDZP 2D filter is constructed which is based on the technique of zero-phase filtering utilizing the concept of R–L integral with fractional differentiation. The constructed filter mask is used to denoise an image with the forward-backward processing which gives high robustness for images corrupted with Gaussian noise with varying degree of standard deviation and with speckle noise. The proposed FDZP 2D filter has high edge preserving capability that is also quantitatively evaluated using the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR performance measure. From the quantitative analysis, the PSNR value is much better than those obtained using Gaussian smoothing, Alexander fractional differential (AFD, Alexander fractional integral (AFI, anisotropic diffusion and kuan filters for standard and ultrasonic image of liver, respectively. The experiments illustrate that the improvements achieved are compatible with other existing filters.

  12. Spatiotemporal Variation of China’s State-Owned Construction Land Supply from 2003 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available State-owned construction land is the dominant legal land source for construction in China and its supply influences urban expansion, house prices, and economic development, among other factors. Surprisingly, limited attention has been directly devoted to the spatiotemporal variation in land supply or the driving factors. This paper applied a centroid model and hotspot analysis, and created a newly increased construction land dependence-degree index (NCD to present the spatiotemporal variations of China’s construction land supply magnitude and pattern from 2003 to 2014, using land supply data from 339 cities. A two-way fixed effect model was introduced to reveal the influence of the socio-economic driving factors. The results showed that China’s state-owned construction land supply area (CLSA and newly increased construction land supply area (NCSA both increased during the period from 2003 to 2014, the geographic centroid of CLSA and NCSA moved northwest. NCD showed an overall increasing trend, and hotspots with high NCD migrated from the east region to the west region and shifted from an “east hot and west cold” pattern in 2003 to an “east cold and west hot” pattern in 2014. The gross domestic product (GDP has a U-shape effect on CLSA and NCD. The population, average annual wage of workers, and investment in fixed assets (fiv have positive effects on CLSA, and fiv also has a positive effect on NCD. The increasing ratio of tertiary industry added value to secondary industry added value reduces CLSA and NCD, and the effects of state policies vary from year to year. Different land supply policies should be implemented for cities in different development stages.

  13. Performance of the third-generation models of severity scoring systems (APACHE IV, SAPS 3 and MPM-III) in acute kidney injury critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Verônica Torres; de Castro, Isac; Liaño, Fernando; Muriel, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Palomares, José R; Yu, Luis

    2011-12-01

    Severity scores are useful to guarantee similar disease severity among groups in clinical trials and to enable comparison between different studies. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the third generation models of severity scoring systems [simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) 3, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) IV and mortality probability model (MPM)-III] in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Three hundred and sixty-six consecutive AKI critically ill patients were prospectively assessed in six ICUs of an academic tertiary care center. Scores were applied on AKI diagnosis day (DD) and on the day of nephrology consultation (NCD). Discrimination was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCROC) and calibration by Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) goodness-of-fit test. Hospital mortality rate was 67.8%. SAPS 3 general and Central and South America (CSA) customized equations presented identical good discrimination (AUCROC curve: 0.80 on NCD) and satisfactory HL tests on both analyzed days (P > 0.100). CSA SAPS 3 equation predicted mortality more accurately [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) on NCD = 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-1.34)]. APACHE IV and MPM-III scores presented similar discrimination compared to SAPS 3 on both analyzed days (P > 0.05). APACHE IV presented satisfactory HL tests over time (P > 0.100) but underestimated mortality [SMR on DD = 1.92 (95% CI 1.61-2.23); SMR on NCD = 1.46 (95% CI 1.48-1.96)]. MPM-III showed unsatisfactory HL test results (P = 0.027 on DD; P = 0.045 on NCD) and underestimated mortality [SMR on NCD = 2.09 (95% CI 1.48-1.96)]. SAPS 3, especially the geographical customized equation, presented good discrimination and calibration performances, accurately predicting mortality in this group of AKI critically ill patients.

  14. Impact of school policies on non-communicable disease risk factors - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Bassi, Shalini; Nazar, Gaurang P; Saluja, Kiran; Park, MinHae; Kinra, Sanjay; Arora, Monika

    2017-04-04

    Globally, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are identified as one of the leading causes of mortality. NCDs have several modifiable risk factors including unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and alcohol abuse. Schools provide ideal settings for health promotion, but the effectiveness of school policies in the reduction of risk factors for NCD is not clear. This study reviewed the literature on the impact of school policies on major NCD risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to identify, collate and synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of school policies on reduction of NCD risk factors. A search strategy was developed to identify the relevant studies on effectiveness of NCD policies in schools for children between the age of 6 to 18 years in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Data extraction was conducted using pre-piloted forms. Studies included in the review were assessed for methodological quality using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) quality assessment tool. A narrative synthesis according to the types of outcomes was conducted to present the evidence on the effectiveness of school policies. Overall, 27 out of 2633 identified studies were included in the review. School policies were comparatively more effective in reducing unhealthy diet, tobacco use, physical inactivity and inflammatory biomarkers as opposed to anthropometric measures, overweight/obesity, and alcohol use. In total, for 103 outcomes independently evaluated within these studies, 48 outcomes (46%) had significant desirable changes when exposed to the school policies. Based on the quality assessment, 18 studies were categorized as weak, six as moderate and three as having strong methodological quality. Mixed findings were observed concerning effectiveness of school policies in reducing NCD risk factors. The findings demonstrate that schools can be a good setting for initiating positive changes in reducing NCD risk factors, but more research is

  15. Medicalization of global health 3: the medicalization of the non-communicable diseases agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocalyn Clark

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition ‘diseases’ so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach. However, while both individual- and population-level targets are identified in the current NCD action plans, most recommended strategies tend towards the individualistic approach and do not address root causes of the NCD problem. These so-called population strategies risk being reduced to expectations of individual and behavioural change, which may have limited success and impact and deflect attention away from government policies or regulation of industry. Industry involvement in NCD agenda-setting props up a medicalized approach to NCDs: food and drink companies favour focus on individual choice and responsibility, and pharmaceutical and device companies favour calls for expanded access to medicines and treatment coverage. Current NCD framing creates expanded roles for physicians, healthcare workers, medicines and medical monitoring. The professional rather than the patient view dominates the NCD agenda and there is a lack of a broad, engaged, and independent NGO community. The challenge and opportunity lie in defining priorities and developing strategies that go beyond a narrow medicalized framing of the NCD problem and its solutions.

  16. You can treat my HIV – But can you treat my blood pressure? Availability of integrated HIV and non-communicable disease care in northern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Vera; Hoffman, Risa; Mwagomba, Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    Background Many patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Malawi have or will develop non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The current capacity of ART sites to provide care for NCDs is not known. Aim This study aimed to assess the capacity of ART sites to provide care for hypertension and diabetes in rural Malawi. Setting Twenty-five health centres and five hospitals in two rural districts in northern Malawi. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed between March and May 2014 at all facilities. Qualitative interviews were held with three NCD coordinators. Results Treatment of hypertension and diabetes was predominantly hospital-based. Sixty percent of hospitals had at least one clinician and one nurse trained in NCD care, whereas 5% of health centres had a clinician and 8% had a nurse trained in NCD care. Hundred percent of hospitals and 92% of health centres had uninterrupted supply of hydrochlorothiazide in the previous 6 months, but only 40% of hospitals and no health centres had uninterrupted supply of metformin. Hundred percent of hospitals and 80% of health centres had at least one blood pressure machine, and 80% of hospitals and 32% of health centres had one glucometer. Screening for hypertension amongst ART patients was only conducted at one hospital and no health centres. At health centres, integrated NCD and ART care was more common, with 48% (12/25) providing ART and NCD treatment in the same consultation. Conclusions The results reflect the status of the initial stages of the Malawi NCD programme at sites currently providing ART care. PMID:28235324

  17. Engineering the interface characteristics on the enhancement of field electron emission properties of vertically aligned hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaran, K.J.; Hoang, D.Q.; Drijkoningen, S.; Pobedinskas, P.; Haenen, K. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Srinivasu, K.; Leou, K.C. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China); Korneychuk, S.; Turner, S.; Verbeeck, J. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp (Belgium); Lin, I.N. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui (China)

    2016-10-15

    Utilization of Au and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) as interlayers noticeably modifies the microstructure and field electron emission (FEE) properties of hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls (hBNNWs) grown on Si substrates. The FEE properties of hBNNWs on Au could be turned on at a low turn-on field of 14.3 V μm{sup -1}, attaining FEE current density of 2.58 mA cm{sup -2} and life-time stability of 105 min. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the Au-interlayer nucleates the hBN directly, preventing the formation of amorphous boron nitride (aBN) in the interface, resulting in enhanced FEE properties. But Au forms as droplets on the Si substrate forming again aBN at the interface. Conversely, hBNNWs on NCD shows superior in life-time stability of 287 min although it possesses inferior FEE properties in terms of larger turn-on field and lower FEE current density as compared to that of hBNNWs-Au. The uniform and continuous NCD film on Si also circumvents the formation of aBN phases and allows hBN to grow directly on NCD. Incorporation of carbon in hBNNWs from the NCD-interlayer improves the conductivity of hBNNWs, which assists in transporting the electrons efficiently from NCD to hBNNWs that results in better field emission of electrons with high life-time stability. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. You can treat my HIV – But can you treat my blood pressure? Availability of integrated HIV and non-communicable disease care in northern Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Pfaff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Malawi have or will develop non-communicable diseases (NCDs. The current capacity of ART sites to provide care for NCDs is not known.Aim: This study aimed to assess the capacity of ART sites to provide care for hypertension and diabetes in rural Malawi.Setting: Twenty-five health centres and five hospitals in two rural districts in northern Malawi.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed between March and May 2014 at all facilities. Qualitative interviews were held with three NCD coordinators.Results: Treatment of hypertension and diabetes was predominantly hospital-based. Sixty percent of hospitals had at least one clinician and one nurse trained in NCD care, whereas 5% of health centres had a clinician and 8% had a nurse trained in NCD care. Hundred percent of hospitals and 92% of health centres had uninterrupted supply of hydrochlorothiazide in the previous 6 months, but only 40% of hospitals and no health centres had uninterrupted supply of metformin. Hundred percent of hospitals and 80% of health centres had at least one blood pressure machine, and 80% of hospitals and 32% of health centres had one glucometer. Screening for hypertension amongst ART patients was only conducted at one hospital and no health centres. At health centres, integrated NCD and ART care was more common, with 48% (12/25 providing ART and NCD treatment in the same consultation.Conclusions: The results reflect the status of the initial stages of the Malawi NCD programme at sites currently providing ART care. 

  19. Impact of disease severity on healthcare costs in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart C; Pockros, Paul J; Terrault, Norah A; Hoop, Robert S; Buikema, Ami; Nerenz, David; Hamzeh, Fayez M

    2012-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases total healthcare costs but the effect of the severity of liver disease associated with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) on healthcare costs has not been well studied. We analyzed the demographics, healthcare utilization, and healthcare costs of CHC patients in a large U.S. private insurance database (January, 2002 to August, 2010), with at least 1 year of baseline enrollment and 30 days of continuous follow-up. Patients were stratified by liver disease severity: noncirrhotic liver disease (NCD), compensated cirrhosis (CC), and endstage liver disease (ESLD), as defined by the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) codes. Mean all-cause and HCV-related healthcare costs per-patient-per-month (PPPM) during follow-up (mean 634 days) are reported in 2010 U.S.$ from the payer's perspective. A total of 53,796 patients with CHC were included (NCD: 41,858 [78%]; CC: 3,718 [7%]; and ESLD: 8,220 [15%]). Mean all-cause PPPM healthcare costs were 32% and 247% higher for patients with CC and ESLD compared to those with NCD ($1,870 and $4,931 versus $1,420; P < 0.001) and were independent of age or comorbid conditions. Pharmacy, ambulatory, and inpatient care collectively accounted for 90% of NCD costs and 93% of CC and ESLD costs. The largest cost components were inpatient costs for those with ESLD (56%) and ambulatory costs for those with CC and NCD (37% and 36%, respectively). Overall, 56% of costs were HCV-related and this proportion increased with severity (46%, 57%, and 71% for patients with NCD, CC, and ESLD, respectively). The direct healthcare costs associated with CHC are high, increase in association with the progression of liver disease, and are highest in those with ESLD. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Access to Treatment for Diabetes and Hypertension in Rural Cambodia: Performance of Existing Social Health Protection Schemes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bigdeli

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCD pose challenges to Cambodia's health system. Medicines for NCD are on the National Essential Medicines List but no clinical guidelines support their utilization. Two social health protection schemes aimed at the informal sector population exist (Health Equity Funds and Insurance together with two disease-specific interventions (a Peer Educator Network and Chronic Diseases Clinics targeted at NCD patients. This study examines performance of these various schemes in relation to NCD.Cross-sectional household survey among 709 individuals self-reporting diabetes and/or hypertension in three geographical locations in rural Cambodia using a structured questionnaire investigating diagnostic and treatment pathways, health seeking behaviour, health expenditures, and financial coping mechanisms.Two third of respondents with NCD were female and 55% did not belong to any scheme. The majority (59% were diagnosed in the private sector and only 56% were on allopathic treatment that was mainly sought in the private sector (49%. Outpatient treatment cost was higher in the private sector and when using multiple providers of care. The majority were indebted, 11% due to health-related expenses. Contrary to social health protection schemes, disease-specific interventions offered better access to allopathic treatment and provided medicines in accordance with NEML.The benefit packages of existing social health protection schemes and services in the public health sector should be adjusted to cater for the needs of people living with NCD in rural Cambodia. Initiatives that offer active disease management strategies and promote patients and community participation appear more successful in increasing treatment adherence and decreasing the risk of financial hardship.

  1. Fast vector quantization using a Bat algorithm for image compression

    OpenAIRE

    Karri, Chiranjeevi; Jena, Umaranjan

    2017-01-01

    Linde–Buzo–Gray (LBG), a traditional method of vector quantization (VQ) generates a local optimal codebook which results in lower PSNR value. The performance of vector quantization (VQ) depends on the appropriate codebook, so researchers proposed optimization techniques for global codebook generation. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and Firefly algorithm (FA) generate an efficient codebook, but undergoes instability in convergence when particle velocity is high and non-availability of brigh...

  2. Fusion of Thresholding Rules During Wavelet-Based Noisy Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekhtin Yury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new method for combining semisoft thresholding rules during wavelet-based data compression of images with multiplicative noise is suggested. The method chooses the best thresholding rule and the threshold value using the proposed criteria which provide the best nonlinear approximations and take into consideration errors of quantization. The results of computer modeling have shown that the suggested method provides relatively good image quality after restoration in the sense of some criteria such as PSNR, SSIM, etc.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES FOR SYNTHETIC VIDEOS

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Abdalla; Ahmad Mazhar; Mosa Salah

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of three state of the art video codecs on synthetic videos. The evaluation is based on both subjective and objective quality metrics. The subjective quality of the compressed video sequences is evaluated using the Double Stimulus Impairment Scale (DSIS) assessment metric while the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) is used for the objective evaluation. An extensive number of experiments are conducted to study the effect of frame rate and resolution o...

  4. Is A Magnetic Sensor Capable of Evaluating A Vision-Based Face Tracking System?

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Zhengrong; Li, Haibo

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses an important issue, how to evaluate a vision-based face tracking system? Although nowadays it is getting popular to employ a magnetic sensor to evaluate the performance of such systems. The related issues such as condition and limitation of usage are often omitted. In this paper we studied this accepted evaluation methodology together with another evaluation method, Peak Signal to Noise (PSNR) commonly used inimage coding community. The condition of proper usage of magnet...

  5. Content-Aware Adaptive Compression of Satellite Imagery Using Artificial Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    filetype] PSNR Peak Signal to Noise Ratio RMSE Root Mean Square Error ROC Receiver Operating Characteristic SPAWAR Space and Naval Warfare Systems...orbiting satellites the quest to see more has driven the observer from the atmosphere and into orbit. Satellite- borne observation has its roots in the...source image is supplied to the feature extractor which performs the exact same processes on this image as the training image. Note that due to the 2n

  6. Music Genre Classification Using MIDI and Audio Features

    OpenAIRE

    Cataltepe Zehra; Yaslan Yusuf; Sonmez Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    We report our findings on using MIDI files and audio features from MIDI, separately and combined together, for MIDI music genre classification. We use McKay and Fujinaga's 3-root and 9-leaf genre data set. In order to compute distances between MIDI pieces, we use normalized compression distance (NCD). NCD uses the compressed length of a string as an approximation to its Kolmogorov complexity and has previously been used for music genre and composer clustering. We convert the MIDI pieces to a...

  7. [Personality and psychic deadaptation of airline pilots with neurocirculatory dystonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapivnitskaia, T A

    2006-01-01

    In-depth clinical psychological investigation of airline pilots with neurocirculatory dystonia (n=194, mean age 38.57 +/- 0.85) and essentially healthy control pilots (n=183, mean age 38.4+/-0.92) revealed distinctive features in NCD pilots' mentality and behavior including personality, interpersonal communication, type of thinking, stress reaction, protection tactics, and mental dysfunctions. Psychic deadaptation such as symptoms of psychic asthenia, paranoia, depression, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior had a negative effect on the clinical course and led to medical disqualification of 15% of NCD pilots.

  8. Growth and tribological properties of diamond films on silicon and tungsten carbide substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, R.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique was used to deposit microcrystalline diamond (MCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on silicon (Si) and tungsten carbide (WC-6Co) substrates. Friction coefficient of larger diamond grains deposited on WC-6Co substrate shows less value approximately 0.2 while this differs marginally on films grown on Si substrate. The study claims that for a less friction coefficient, the grain size is not necessarily smaller. However, the less friction coefficient (less than 0.1 saturated value) in MCD and NCD deposited on Si is explained by the formation of graphitized tribolayer. This layer easily forms when diamond phase is thermodynamically unstable.

  9. CHD2 mutations are a rare cause of generalized epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivisano, Marina; Striano, Pasquale; Sartorelli, Jacopo; Giordano, Lucio; Traverso, Monica; Accorsi, Patrizia; Cappelletti, Simona; Claps, Dianela Judith; Vigevano, Federico; Zara, Federico; Specchio, Nicola

    2015-10-01

    Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 2 (CHD2) gene mutations have been reported in patients with myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (MAE), as well as in patients with Lennox-Gastaut, Dravet, and Jeavons syndromes and other epileptic encephalopathies featuring generalized epilepsy and intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of CHD2 mutations in a series of patients with MAE. Twenty patients affected by MAE were included in the study. We analyzed antecedents, age at onset, seizure semiology and frequency, EEG, treatment, and neuropsychological outcome. We sequenced the CHD2 gene with Sanger technology. We identified a CHD2 frameshift mutation in one patient (c.4256del19). He was a 17-year-old boy with no familial history for epilepsy and normal development before epilepsy onset. Epilepsy onset was at 3years and 5months: he presented with myoclonic-atonic seizures, head drops, myoclonic jerks, and absences. Interictal EEGs revealed slow background activity associated with generalized epileptiform abnormalities and photoparoxysmal response. His seizures were highly responsive to valproic acid, and an attempt to withdraw it led to seizure recurrence. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed moderate intellectual disability. Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 2 is not the major gene associated with MAE. Conversely, CHD2 could be responsible for a proper phenotype characterized by infantile-onset generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity, which might overlap with MAE, Lennox-Gastaut, Dravet, and Jeavons syndromes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction for recovering carotenoids from Gac peel and their effects on antioxidant capacity of the extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuyen, Hoang V; Nguyen, Minh H; Roach, Paul D; Golding, John B; Parks, Sophie E

    2018-01-01

    The peel of Gac fruit ( Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) contains high levels of bioactive compounds, especially carotenoids which possess significant antioxidant capacities. However, the peel of Gac is regarded as a waste from the production of carotenoid-rich oil from Gac fruit. In this study, carotenoids of Gac peel were extracted by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The effect of extraction time and different levels of microwave and ultrasonic powers on the yield of total carotenoid and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were investigated. The results showed that an extraction at 120 W for 25 min and an extraction at 200 W for 80 min were the most effective for MAE and UAE of the Gac peel samples, respectively. The maximum carotenoid and antioxidant capacity yields of UAE were significantly higher than those of the MAE. The antioxidant capacity of extract obtained by the UAE was also significantly higher that of the conventional extraction using the same ratio of solvent to material. The results showed that both MAE and UAE could be used to reduce the extraction time significantly in comparison with conventional extraction of Gac peel while still obtained good extraction efficiencies. Thus, MAE and UAE are recommended for the improvement of carotenoid and antioxidant capacity extraction from Gac peel.

  11. Moderate physical activity of music aerobic exercise increases lymphocyte counts, specific subsets, and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lai, Hsiu-Ling; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu-Kuan; Yang, Yu-Yeng; Yang, Kuender D

    2014-09-01

    Moderate physical activity has been shown to promote immunity. Different moderate physical activities may have different effects on immunity. This study investigated the impacts of a 12-week regular music aerobic exercise (MAE) program on leukocyte distribution, lymphocyte subsets, and lymphocyte polarization. The study used a case-control design with pretest and posttest. Forty-seven middle-age women were recruited for this study. Three participants dropped out, 22 completed the 12-week MAE program, and the other 22 participants who had heat-intolerance or limited schedule eligibility were enrolled as the control group without the MAE exercise. Results showed that the MAE exercise for 12 weeks didn't change red blood cells or total leukocytes but increased lymphocyte counts. The women in MAE group revealed significant increases (P ≤ 0.01) of CD3CD4, CD3CD8, and CD4CD25 cells, associated with Treg polarization showing enhanced FoxP3 but not T-bet, Gata-3, or RORγT expression (P physical activity of music aerobic exercise to enhance lymphocyte function of middle-aged women.

  12. High-speed homogenization coupled with microwave-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the direct determination of alkaloids and flavonoids in fresh Isatis tinctoria L. hairy root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2015-06-01

    A new, simple and efficient analysis method for fresh plant in vitro cultures-namely, high-speed homogenization coupled with microwave-assisted extraction (HSH-MAE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-was developed for simultaneous determination of six alkaloids and eight flavonoids in Isatis tinctoria hairy root cultures (ITHRCs). Compared with traditional methods, the proposed HSH-MAE offers the advantages of easy manipulation, higher efficiency, energy saving, and reduced waste. Cytohistological studies were conducted to clarify the mechanism of HSH-MAE at cellular/tissue levels. Moreover, the established LC-MS/MS method showed excellent linearity, precision, repeatability, and reproducibility. The HSH-MAE-LC-MS/MS method was also successfully applied for screening high-productivity ITHRCs. Overall, this study opened up a new avenue for the direct determination of secondary metabolic profiles from fresh plant in vitro cultures, which is valuable for improving quality control of plant cell/organ cultures and sheds light on the metabolomic analysis of biological samples. Graphical Abstract HSH-MAE-LC-MS/MS opened up a new avenue for the direct determination of alkaloids and flavonoids in fresh Isatis tinctoria hairy root cultures.

  13. Dialect Variation and Reading: Is Change in Nonmainstream American English Use Related to Reading Achievement in First and Second Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Nicole Patton; Connor, Carol McDonald; Petscher, Yaacov; Conlin, Catherine Ross

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, we examined (a) whether children who spoke Nonmainstream American English (NMAE) frequently in school at the beginning of 1st grade increased their use of Mainstream American English (MAE) through the end of 2nd grade, and whether increasing MAE use was associated with (b) language and reading skills and school context and (c) greater gains in reading skills. Method A longitudinal design was implemented with 49 children who spoke NMAE moderately to strongly. Spoken production of NMAE forms, word reading, and reading comprehension were measured at the beginning, middle, and end of 1st and 2nd grades. Various oral language skills were also measured at the beginning of 1st grade. Results Results indicate that most children increased their MAE production during 1st grade and maintained these levels in 2nd grade. Increasing MAE use was predicted by children’s expressive vocabulary and nonword repetition skills at the beginning of 1st grade. Finally, the more children increased their MAE production, the greater were their reading gains from 1st grade through 2nd grade. Conclusions The findings extend previous reports of a significant association between NMAE use and specific reading skills among young children and have implications for theory, educational practice, and future research. PMID:22199203

  14. Evaluation and optimization of downstream process parameters for extraction of betulinic acid from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques.

  15. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Kumar Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM, three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w. To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques.

  16. Magnetic anisotropy of metal functionalized phthalocyanine 2D networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guojun [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Zhang, Yun [Department of Physics and Information Technology, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Baoji 721016 (China); Xiao, Huaping, E-mail: hpxiao@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Cao, Juexian, E-mail: jxcao@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2016-06-15

    The magnetic anisotropy of metal including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, W, Re, Os, Ir atoms functionalized phthalocyanine networks have been investigated with first-principles calculations. The magnetic moments can be expressed as 8-n μ{sub B} with n the electronic number of outmost d shell in the transition metals. The huge magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) is obtained by torque method. Especially, the MAE of Re functionalized phthalocyanine network is about 20 meV with an easy axis perpendicular to the plane of phthalocyanine network. The MAE is further manipulated by applying the external biaxial strain. It is found that the MAE is linear increasing with the external strain in the range of −2% to 2%. Our results indicate an effective approach to modulate the MAE for practical application. - Graphical abstract: The charge density redistribution (ρ{sub MPc}-ρ{sub M}-ρ{sub Pc}) and spin density of the CoPc molecule, from top- and side-views. Purple and green isosurfaces indicate charge depletion and accumulation, respectively. Display Omitted.

  17. Extraction time and temperature affect the extraction efficiencies of coumarin and phenylpropanoids from Cinnamomum cassia bark using a microwave-assisted extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2017-09-15

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), an efficient extraction tool, was employed to extract a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamadehyde, and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde) from Cinnamomum cassia bark using water as the extraction solvent. Six marker compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector using a validated analytical method. To investigate the influences of temperature and time on the extraction yields of the six marker compounds, the water extracts of C. cassia bark were prepared using a MAE method at six different extraction temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95°C) and times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12min). Their influences were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained demonstrated that higher extraction temperature and longer extraction time positively affected coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol contents, but negatively affected extract contents of cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (all p-extraction of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde was affected by both positively and negatively by increasing temperature and time. These changes during MAE were assumed by the chemical natures of the marker compounds with various functional groups. In conclusion, temperature and times significantly affected the extraction efficiencies of a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids from C. cassia bark when a water-based MAE method was used. This study provides a novel approach to the preparation of the water extract of C. cassia bark using MAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques. PMID:24324374

  19. Mulberry anthocyanin extract regulates glucose metabolism by promotion of glycogen synthesis and reduction of gluconeogenesis in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fujie; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Lingxia; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry has been demonstrated to possess important biological activities such as antioxidation and antiinflammation. However, research on the ability of mulberry for diabetes improvement mainly focuses on the leaves and less on the fruit. This study showed that a mulberry anthocyanin extract (MAE) had a significant effect on increasing the glucose consumption in HepG2 cells. The MAE enhanced the glycogen content and suppressed levels of glucose production. The enzyme activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were decreased in HepG2 cells after MAE treatment due to PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) inhibition. Moreover, the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) was increased by the MAE, leading to an expression enhancement of glycogen synthase 2 (GYS2). And this effect was blocked by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. In summary, our results suggested that the MAE regulates glucose metabolism by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway that relates to glycogen synthesis as well as through the inhibition of key molecules that promote gluconeogenesis.

  20. Ionic Liquid-Based Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquids (IL-based microwave-assisted approach for extraction and determination of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth. was proposed for the first time. Several ILs with different cations and anions and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions, including sample particle size, extraction time and liquid-solid ratio, were investigated. Two M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim] Br solution with 0.80 M HCl was selected as the optimal solvent. Meanwhile the optimized conditions a ratio of liquid to material of 30:1, and the extraction for 10 min at 70 °C. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (CHRE and the regular MAE, IL-MAE exhibited a higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time (from 1.5 h to 10 min. The optimized extraction samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. IL extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.Benth consisted mainly of flavonoids, among which myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, β-sitosterol, triacontane and hexacontane were identified. The study indicated that IL-MAE was an efficient and rapid method with simple sample preparation. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine the chemical composition of the ethyl acetate/MAE extract of Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth, and it maybe become a rapid method to determine the composition of new plant extracts.

  1. Design and application of permanent magnet flux sources for mechanical testing of magnetoactive elastomers at variable field directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiptmair, F; Major, Z; Haßlacher, R; Hild, S

    2015-08-01

    Magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) are a class of smart materials whose mechanical properties can be rapidly and reversibly changed by an external magnetic field. Due to this tunability, they are useable for actuators or in active vibration control applications. An extensive magnetomechanical characterization is necessary for MAE material development and requires experiments under cyclic loading in uniform but variable magnetic fields. MAE testing apparatus typically rely on fields of adjustable strength, but fixed (transverse) direction, often provided by electromagnets. In this work, two permanent magnet flux sources were developed as an add-on for a modular test stand, to allow for mechanical testing in uniform fields of variable direction. MAE specimens, based on a silicone matrix with isotropic and anisotropic carbonyl iron particle distributions, were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis under different field and loading configurations. The magneto-induced increase of stiffness and energy dissipation was determined by the change of the hysteresis loop area and dynamic modulus values. A distinct influence of the composite microstructure and the loading state was observed. Due to the very soft and flexible matrix used for preparing the MAE samples, the material stiffness and damping behavior could be varied over a wide range via the applied field direction and intensity.

  2. Fast vector quantization using a Bat algorithm for image compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjeevi Karri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Linde–Buzo–Gray (LBG, a traditional method of vector quantization (VQ generates a local optimal codebook which results in lower PSNR value. The performance of vector quantization (VQ depends on the appropriate codebook, so researchers proposed optimization techniques for global codebook generation. Particle swarm optimization (PSO and Firefly algorithm (FA generate an efficient codebook, but undergoes instability in convergence when particle velocity is high and non-availability of brighter fireflies in the search space respectively. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called BA-LBG which uses Bat Algorithm on initial solution of LBG. It produces an efficient codebook with less computational time and results very good PSNR due to its automatic zooming feature using adjustable pulse emission rate and loudness of bats. From the results, we observed that BA-LBG has high PSNR compared to LBG, PSO-LBG, Quantum PSO-LBG, HBMO-LBG and FA-LBG, and its average convergence speed is 1.841 times faster than HBMO-LBG and FA-LBG but no significance difference with PSO.

  3. Spectral Separation of Quantum Dots within Tissue Equivalent Phantom Using Linear Unmixing Methods in Multispectral Fluorescence Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Najafzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Non-invasive Fluorescent Reflectance Imaging (FRI is used for accessing physiological and molecular processes in biological media. The aim of this article is to separate the overlapping emission spectra of quantum dots within tissue-equivalent phantom using SVD, Jacobi SVD, and NMF methods in the FRI mode. Materials and Methods In this article, a tissue-like phantom and an optical setup in reflectance mode were developed. The algorithm of multispectral imaging method was then written in Matlab environment. The setup included the diode-pumped solid-state lasers at 479 nm, 533 nm, and 798 nm, achromatic telescopic, mirror, high pass and low pass filters, and EMCCD camera. The FRI images were acquired by a CCD camera using band pass filter centered at 600 nm and high pass max at 615 nm for the first region and high pass filter max at 810 nm for the second region. The SVD and Jacobi SVD algorithms were written in Matlab environment and compared with a Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF and applied to the obtained images. Results PSNR, SNR, CNR of SVD, and NMF methods were obtained as 39 dB, 30.1 dB, and 0.7 dB, respectively. The results showed that the difference of Jacobi SVD PSNR with PSNR of NMF and modified NMF algorithm was significant (p

  4. Quantification of the accuracy limits of image registration using peak signal-to-noise ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Yoshinori; Ishida, Takayuki

    2017-03-01

    A new method was developed for quantifying the accuracy limits of image registration devices and the distortion of anatomical structures in verification images without image registration. A correlation was found between peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the amount of parallel movement (1-10 mm at 1-mm intervals) of a rectangular parallelepiped phantom [correlation coefficient (CC) -0.91, contribution ratio (CR) 0.83]. Rotating the phantom from 1° to 10° at 1° intervals produced a similar correlation with PSNR (CC -0.91, CR 0.83). To allow for manual registration, the grid pattern of the Mylar top plate was extracted from 455 pelvic portal images of 21 patients using a band-pass filtering technique. This revealed a different correlation between the original data (CC -0.62, CR 0.38) and averaged data (CC -0.96, CR 0.92), but this is considered to have been caused by structural distortion and manual matching errors. Thus, PSNR can be used to evaluate the accuracy limits of image registration and provide a judgment index that can be used in re-planning or re-setup in adaptive radiotherapy.

  5. Comparison of two SVD-based color image compression schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wei, Musheng; Zhang, Fengxia; Zhao, Jianli

    2017-01-01

    Color image compression is a commonly used process to represent image data as few bits as possible, which removes redundancy in the data while maintaining an appropriate level of quality for the user. Color image compression algorithms based on quaternion are very common in recent years. In this paper, we propose a color image compression scheme, based on the real SVD, named real compression scheme. First, we form a new real rectangular matrix C according to the red, green and blue components of the original color image and perform the real SVD for C. Then we select several largest singular values and the corresponding vectors in the left and right unitary matrices to compress the color image. We compare the real compression scheme with quaternion compression scheme by performing quaternion SVD using the real structure-preserving algorithm. We compare the two schemes in terms of operation amount, assignment number, operation speed, PSNR and CR. The experimental results show that with the same numbers of selected singular values, the real compression scheme offers higher CR, much less operation time, but a little bit smaller PSNR than the quaternion compression scheme. When these two schemes have the same CR, the real compression scheme shows more prominent advantages both on the operation time and PSNR.

  6. BETTER FINGERPRINT IMAGE COMPRESSION AT LOWER BIT-RATES: AN APPROACH USING MULTIWAVELETS WITH OPTIMISED PREFILTER COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N R Rema

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multiwavelet based fingerprint compression technique using set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT algorithm with optimised prefilter coefficients is proposed. While wavelet based progressive compression techniques give a blurred image at lower bit rates due to lack of high frequency information, multiwavelets can be used efficiently to represent high frequency information. SA4 (Symmetric Antisymmetric multiwavelet when combined with SPIHT reduces the number of nodes during initialization to 1/4th compared to SPIHT with wavelet. This reduction in nodes leads to improvement in PSNR at lower bit rates. The PSNR can be further improved by optimizing the prefilter coefficients. In this work genetic algorithm (GA is used for optimizing prefilter coefficients. Using the proposed technique, there is a considerable improvement in PSNR at lower bit rates, compared to existing techniques in literature. An overall average improvement of 4.23dB and 2.52dB for bit rates in between 0.01 to 1 has been achieved for the images in the databases FVC 2000 DB1 and FVC 2002 DB3 respectively. The quality of the reconstructed image is better even at higher compression ratios like 80:1 and 100:1. The level of decomposition required for a multiwavelet is lesser compared to a wavelet.

  7. Influence of operating parameters on the use of the microwave-assisted process (MAP) for the extraction of azadirachtin-related limonoids from neem (Azadirachta indica) under atmospheric pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, J; Yaylayan, V A; Raghavan, G S; Paré, J R; Liu, Z; Bélanger, J M

    2001-10-01

    The use of the microwave-assisted process (MAP) for the extraction of azadirachtin-related limonoids (AZRL) from various parts of the neem tree was investigated under different operating conditions. The influence of microwave power, solvent, and irradiation time on the recovery of AZRL was studied. The efficiency of the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the seed kernel, the seed shell, the leaf, and the leaf stem was compared to that of conventional extraction methods. The content of AZRL in the extracts was estimated with a vanillin-based colorimetric assay and a multivariate calibration technique. The results showed that the MAE technique can enhance the extraction of AZRL from different parts of neem possessing microstructures. Investigation of the influence of the solvent also indicted that the solvent used not only influences the efficiency but also affects the selectivity of the MAE.

  8. Microwave-assisted extraction and a new determination method for total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yao; Chen, Yu; Hu, Bohan; Wu, Hui; Lai, Furao; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was applied to isolate total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW). The optimal extracting conditions were established as 75% ethanol as solvent, ratio of solid/liquid 1:20 (g/ml), temperature 75 °C, irradiation power 600 W and three extraction cycles of 6 min each. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of DZW processed by four different extractions provided visual evidence of the disruption effect on DZW. Diosgenin was quantified by HPLC and examined further by LC-ESI/MS after acid hydrolysis. Total steroid saponins were calculated using diosgenin from total steroid saponins. The MAE procedure was optimized, validated and compared with other conventional extraction processes. This report provides a convenient technology for the extraction and quantification of total saponins of DZW combining MAE with HPLC and LC-ESI/MS for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Different extraction methods of biologically active components from propolis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankova Vassya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propolis is widely used in apitherapy, preparations, and food and beverage additives. Various extraction techniques were applied in the extraction of the biologically active constituents of poplar type propolis in order to compare their efficiency. The methods employed were: traditional maceration extraction, ultrasound extraction (UE, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE. Results The total amounts of extracted phenolics and flavonoids were determined, and the effectiveness of the methods compared. MAE was very rapid but led to the extraction of a large amount of non-phenolic and non-flavonoid material. UE gave the highest percentage of extracted phenolics. Conclusion Compared to the maceration extraction, MAE and UE methods provided high extraction yield, requiring short timeframes and less labour. UE was shown to be the most efficient method based on yield, extraction time and selectivity.

  10. Quality improvements in decreasing medication administration errors made by nursing staff in an academic medical center hospital: a trend analysis during the journey to Joint Commission International accreditation and in the post-accreditation era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang HF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hua-fen Wang,1 Jing-fen Jin,1 Xiu-qin Feng,1 Xin Huang,1 Ling-ling Zhu,2 Xiao-ying Zhao,3 Quan Zhou4 1Division of Nursing, 2Geriatric VIP Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Office of Quality Administration, 4Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Medication errors may occur during prescribing, transcribing, prescription auditing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring. Medication administration errors (MAEs are those that actually reach patients and remain a threat to patient safety. The Joint Commission International (JCI advocates medication error prevention, but experience in reducing MAEs during the period of before and after JCI accreditation has not been reported. Methods: An intervention study, aimed at reducing MAEs in hospitalized patients, was performed in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China, during the journey to JCI accreditation and in the post-JCI accreditation era (first half-year of 2011 to first half-year of 2014. Comprehensive interventions included organizational, information technology, educational, and process optimization-based measures. Data mining was performed on MAEs derived from a compulsory electronic reporting system. Results: The number of MAEs continuously decreased from 143 (first half-year of 2012 to 64 (first half-year of 2014, with a decrease in occurrence rate by 60.9% (0.338% versus 0.132%, P<0.05. The number of MAEs related to high-alert medications decreased from 32 (the second half-year of 2011 to 16 (the first half-year of 2014, with a decrease in occurrence rate by 57.9% (0.0787% versus 0.0331%, P<0.05. Omission was the top type of MAE during the first half-year of 2011 to the first half-year of 2014, with a decrease by 50% (40 cases versus 20 cases. Intravenous administration error was the

  11. LDA+DMFT Approach to Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy of Strong Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xin Zhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges posed by the need of finding strong rare-earth-free magnets demand methods that can predict magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE. We argue that correlated electron effects, which are normally underestimated in band-structure calculations, play a crucial role in the development of the orbital component of the magnetic moments. Because magnetic anisotropy arises from this orbital component, the ability to include correlation effects has profound consequences on our predictive power of the MAE of strong magnets. Here, we show that incorporating the local effects of electronic correlations with dynamical mean-field theory provides reliable estimates of the orbital moment, the mass enhancement, and the MAE of YCo_{5}.

  12. Inhibitory effect of mycoplasma-released arginase. Activity in mixed-lymphocyte and tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Tscherning, T; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1990-01-01

    Non-fermenting mycoplasma species deplete culture media for arginine through arginase activity linked to their arginine deiminase pathway, resulting in proliferation arrest and cell death in mycoplasma-contaminated cell cultures. The presence of only 2-3 Mycoplasma (M.) arginini-contaminated T...... cells in a one-way allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte culture (MLC) significantly inhibits development of cytotoxic T-cell activity. Likewise, strong degrees of inhibition are observed after addition of nanogram doses of M. arginini extracts (MAE) to MLC or cell proliferation cultures. M. arginini-induced cell...... inhibition can be reversed by addition of excess arginine to the culture medium. Antisera raised against non-fermenting, but not against fermenting, mycoplasma species block the inhibitory effect of MAE. SDS-PAGE separation of MAE disclosed a broad band at 60 kDa which contained arginase activity when...

  13. Prediction of long-term prognosis by heteroplasmy levels of the m.3243A>G mutation in patients with the mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayssoil, A; Laforêt, P; Bougouin, W; Jardel, C; Lombès, A; Bécane, H M; Berber, N; Stojkovic, T; Béhin, A; Eymard, B; Duboc, D; Wahbi, K

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to determine the prognostic value of urine and blood heteroplasmy in patients with the m.3243A>G mutation. Adults with the m.3243A>G mutation referred to our institution between January 2000 and May 2014 were retrospectively included. The relationship between their baseline clinical characteristics, their mutation load in urine and blood, and major adverse events (MAEs) during follow-up, defined as medical complications requiring a hospitalization or complicated by death, was studied. Of the 43 patients (age 45.6 ± 13.3 years) included in the study, 36 patients were symptomatic, including nine with evidence of focal brain involvement, and seven were asymptomatic. Over a 5.5 ± 4.0 year mean follow-up duration, 14 patients (33%) developed MAEs. Patients with MAEs had a higher mutation load than others in urine (60.1% ± 13.8% vs. 40.6% ± 26.2%, P = 0.01) and in blood (26.9% ± 18.4% vs. 16.0% ± 12.1%, P = 0.03). Optimal cutoff values for the prediction of MAEs were 45% for urine and 35% for blood. In multivariate analysis, mutation load in urine ≥45% [odds ratio 25.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-567.8; P = 0.04], left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio 16.7; 95% CI 1.3- 222.5; P = 0.03) and seizures (odds ratio 48.3; 95% CI 2.5-933; P = 0.01) were associated with MAEs. Patients with the m.3243A>G mutation are at high risk of MAEs, which can be independently predicted by mutation load in urine ≥45%, a personal history of seizures, and left ventricular hypertrophy. © 2016 EAN.

  14. Intensification of marrubiin concentration by optimization of microwave-assisted (low CO2 yielding) extraction process for Marrubium vulgare using central composite design and antioxidant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vineet; Nanda, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Marrubium vulgare Linn (Lamiaceae) was generally extracted by conventional methods with low yield of marrubiin; these processes were not considered environment friendly. This study extracts the whole plant of M. vulgare by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and optimizes the effect of various extraction parameters on the marrubiin yield by using Central Composite Design (CCD). The selected medicinal plant was extracted using ethanol: water (1:1) as solvent by MAE. The plant material was also extracted using a Soxhlet and the various extracts were analyzed by HPTLC to quantify the marrubiin concentration. The optimized conditions for the microwave-assisted extraction of selected medicinal plant was microwave power of 539 W, irradiation time of 373 s and solvent to drug ratio, 32 mL per g of the drug. The marrubiin concentration in MAE almost doubled relative to the traditional method (0.69 ± 0.08 to 1.35 ± 0.04%). The IC50 for DPPH was reduced to 66.28 ± 0.6 μg/mL as compared to conventional extract (84.14 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The scanning electron micrographs of the treated and untreated drug samples further support the results. The CCD can be successfully applied to optimize the extraction parameters (MAE) for M. vulgare. Moreover, in terms of environmental impact, the MAE technique could be assumed as a 'Green approach' because the MAE approach for extraction of plant released only 92.3 g of CO2 as compared to 3207.6 g CO2 using the Soxhlet method of extraction.

  15. Suivi thérapeutique pharmacologique de trois médicaments antiépileptiques: retour sur vingt années d’expérience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serragui, Samira; Zalagh, Fatima; Tanani, Driss Soussi; Ouammi, Lahcen; Moussa, Latifa Ait; Badrane, Narjis; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le suivi thérapeutique pharmacologique (STP) des médicaments antiépileptiques (MAE) est un outil très utilisé dans la gestion de l'épilepsie. Au Maroc, ce dosage est réalisé au Centre Anti Poison et de Pharmacovigilance du Maroc (CAPM) depuis Avril 1995. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective s'étalant sur 20 ans. Elle concerne le STP du Phénobarbital (PB), de la Carbamazépine (CBZ) et de l'Acide Valproique (AVP). Résultats Le STP des 3 MAE représentaient 58,85% de l'ensemble des demandes de STP reçue par le CAPM. Le dosage du PB était classé en première position suivi par celui de la CBZ et enfin par l'AVP. La faible demande de STP au Maroc pouvait être expliquée par le faible nombre de neurologues auquel s'ajoutaient des facteurs sociaux. Grâce à son prix très accessible par les patients, le PB est le MAE le plus prescrit dans notre pays expliquant ainsi la demande élevée de son dosage. Quant aux motifs de STP des 3 MAE, ils étaient essentiellement liés à l'âge, à l'apparition d'effets indésirables, à l'association de MAE ou dans le cas de vérification de l'observance des malades. Conclusion Des efforts sont à fournir pour promouvoir l'intérêt du STP des MAE dans la prise en charge de l'épilepsie au Maroc. PMID:28154702

  16. Clinical Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Rotational Atherectomy Followed by Drug-eluting Stent Implantation: A Single-center Real-world Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenza, Lucky R; Jayme, Ada Cherryl; Khe Sui, James Ho

    2017-01-01

    Rotational atherectomy (RA) is used to improve procedural success of percutaneous catheter interventions (PCIs) of complex and heavily calcified coronary lesions. We report the clinical experience and outcomes in our institution with the use of RA, followed by drug-eluting stent implantation. Data of 81 patients treated with PCI and adjunctive RA were analyzed. Clinical follow-up for the occurrence of major adverse events (MAEs) was obtained in all patients and correlated with significant variables using multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Mean age was 67.9 ± 9.2 years, 61.7% had diabetes, 20.9% had chronic kidney disease, and 48.1% had previous acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Mean SYNTAX score was 29.8 ± 12.2, with a 92.5% angiographic success rate achieved. In-hospital MAEs rate was 7.4% while mortality rate was 8.6%. On median follow-up of 12.2 months, incidence of MAEs of 13.5% with a 75% free incidence from MAEs at 34 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that a history of previous ACS, ejection fraction, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, platelet to lymphocyte ratio, SYNTAX score, burr to artery ratio, and attainment of angiographic success were significant predictors of MAEs. RA followed by drug-eluting stent implantation is a safe and effective method in improving procedural success as well as short- and long-term outcomes of PCI in our center. A combination of clinical and procedural factors is predictive for the occurrence of MAEs and should be taken into account in the application of this technique.

  17. Oscillatory shear stress stimulates endothelial production of O2- from p47phox-dependent NAD(P)H oxidases, leading to monocyte adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinah; Saha, Aniket; Boo, Yong Chool; Sorescu, George P.; McNally, J. Scott; Holland, Steven M.; Dikalov, Sergei; Giddens, Don P.; Griendling, Kathy K.; Harrison, David G.; hide

    2003-01-01

    Arterial regions exposed to oscillatory shear (OS) in branched arteries are lesion-prone sites of atherosclerosis, whereas those of laminar shear (LS) are relatively well protected. Here, we examined the hypothesis that OS and LS differentially regulate production of O2- from the endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase, which, in turn, is responsible for their opposite effects on a critical atherogenic event, monocyte adhesion. We used aortic endothelial cells obtained from C57BL/6 (MAE-C57) and p47phox-/- (MAE-p47-/-) mice, which lack a component of NAD(P)H oxidase. O2- production was determined by dihydroethidium staining and an electron spin resonance using an electron spin trap methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine. Chronic exposure (18 h) to an arterial level of OS (+/- 5 dynes/cm2) increased O2- (2-fold) and monocyte adhesion (3-fold) in MAE-C57 cells, whereas chronic LS (15 dynes/cm2, 18 h) significantly decreased both monocyte adhesion and O2- compared with static conditions. In contrast, neither LS nor OS were able to induce O2- production and monocyte adhesion to MAE-p47-/-. Treating MAE-C57 with a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase compound, polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase, also inhibited OS-induced monocyte adhesion. In addition, over-expressing p47phox in MAE-p47-/- restored OS-induced O2- production and monocyte adhesion. These results suggest that chronic exposure of endothelial cells to OS stimulates O2- and/or its derivatives produced from p47phox-dependent NAD(P)H oxidase, which, in turn, leads to monocyte adhesion, an early and critical atherogenic event.

  18. Evaluation of extraction protocols for anti-diabetic phytochemical substances from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila A; James, Dorcas B; Inuwa, Hajara M; Habila, James D

    2016-12-15

    To examine the efficacy of three extraction techniques: Soxhlet-extraction (SE), cold-maceration (CM) and microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) using 80% methanol as solvent. The study was performed on each of 50 g of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Occimum gratissimum (OG) leaves respectively. The percentage yield, duration of extraction, volume of solvent used, qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents present was compared. The biological activities (hypoglycemic effect) were investigated using albino wistar rat model of diabetes mellitus (n = 36) with a combined dose (1:1) of the two plants leaf extracts (250 mg/kg b.w.) from the three methods. The extracts were administered orally, once daily for 21 d. In this report, the percentage VA extract yield from MAE was highest (20.9% ± 1.05%) within 39 min using 250 mL of solvent, when compared to the CM (14.35% ± 0.28%) within 4320 min using 900 mL of solvent and SE (15.75% ± 0.71%) within 265 min using 500 mL of solvent. The percentage differences in OG extract yield between: MAE vs SE was 41.05%; MAE vs CM was 46.81% and SE vs CM was 9.77%. The qualitative chemical analysis of the two plants showed no difference in the various phytoconstituents tested, but differs quantitatively in the amount of the individual phytoconstituents, as MAE had significantly high yield (P > 0.05) on phenolics, saponins and tannins. SE technique gave significantly high yield (P > 0.05) on alkaloid, while CM gave significant high yield on flavonoids. The extracts from CM exhibited a significantly (P > 0.05) better hypoglycemic activity within the first 14-d of treatment (43.3% ± 3.62%) when compared to MAE (36.5% ± 0.08%) and SE methods (33.3% ± 1.60%). However, the percentage hypoglycemic activity, 21 d post-treatment with 250 mg/kg b.w. extract from MAE was 72.6% ± 1.03% and it was more comparable to 10 mg/kg b.w. glibenclamide treated group (75.0% ± 0.73%), unlike the SE (69.5% ± 0.71%) and CM (69.1% ± 1.03%). CM technique

  19. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Scott, Jeffrey G; Harrington, Laura C

    2005-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), two important vectors of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, were collected from Mae Sot, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Ratchasima, Surat Thani, and Phatthalung, Thailand, from July 2003 to April 2004. The patterns of insecticide susceptibility to temephos, malathion, and permethrin of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were determined. Ae. aegypti from all study sites were resistant to permethrin, they but were susceptible to malathion. Resistance to temephos was detected in all strains of Ae. aegypti, except those from Nakhon Ratchasima. Ae. albopictus larvae had low levels of resistance to all three insecticides, except Mae Sot and Phatthalung strains, which were resistant to permethrin.

  20. Evaluation of extraction protocols for anti-diabetic phytochemical substances from medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila A; James, Dorcas B; Inuwa, Hajara M; Habila, James D

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the efficacy of three extraction techniques: Soxhlet-extraction (SE), cold-maceration (CM) and microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) using 80% methanol as solvent. METHODS The study was performed on each of 50 g of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Occimum gratissimum (OG) leaves respectively. The percentage yield, duration of extraction, volume of solvent used, qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents present was compared. The biological activities (hypoglycemic effect) were investigated using albino wistar rat model of diabetes mellitus (n = 36) with a combined dose (1:1) of the two plants leaf extracts (250 mg/kg b.w.) from the three methods. The extracts were administered orally, once daily for 21 d. RESULTS In this report, the percentage VA extract yield from MAE was highest (20.9% ± 1.05%) within 39 min using 250 mL of solvent, when compared to the CM (14.35% ± 0.28%) within 4320 min using 900 mL of solvent and SE (15.75% ± 0.71%) within 265 min using 500 mL of solvent. The percentage differences in OG extract yield between: MAE vs SE was 41.05%; MAE vs CM was 46.81% and SE vs CM was 9.77%. The qualitative chemical analysis of the two plants showed no difference in the various phytoconstituents tested, but differs quantitatively in the amount of the individual phytoconstituents, as MAE had significantly high yield (P > 0.05) on phenolics, saponins and tannins. SE technique gave significantly high yield (P > 0.05) on alkaloid, while CM gave significant high yield on flavonoids. The extracts from CM exhibited a significantly (P > 0.05) better hypoglycemic activity within the first 14-d of treatment (43.3% ± 3.62%) when compared to MAE (36.5% ± 0.08%) and SE methods (33.3% ± 1.60%). However, the percentage hypoglycemic activity, 21 d post-treatment with 250 mg/kg b.w. extract from MAE was 72.6% ± 1.03% and it was more comparable to 10 mg/kg b.w. glibenclamide treated group (75.0% ± 0.73%), unlike the SE (69.5% ± 0.71%) and CM (69.1% ± 1

  1. Fabrication of a Micro-Needle Array Electrode by Thermal Drawing for Bio-Signals Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Ren; Qing Jiang; Keyun Chen; Zhipeng Chen; Chengfeng Pan; Lelun Jiang

    2016-01-01

    A novel micro-needle array electrode (MAE) fabricated by thermal drawing and coated with Ti/Au film was proposed for bio-signals monitoring. A simple and effective setup was employed to form glassy-state poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) into a micro-needle array (MA) by the thermal drawing method. The MA was composed of 6 ? 6 micro-needles with an average height of about 500 ?m. Electrode-skin interface impedance (EII) was recorded as the insertion force was applied on the MAE. The inser...

  2. Hidden treasures in co-shaping community environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2011-04-01

    In this column the author focuses on the concepts of growing community, cultivating trust, and keeping passion as part of co-shaping community. These concepts surfaced in the story of Mae Gonzalez, a 90 year-old nurse who is still active in her nursing practice. Her story, intermingled throughout this column, demonstrates the importance of historical consciousness to current nursing. Three of the processes from Parse's description of community as well as her concepts of true presence and human dignity are highlighted as Mae shared her treasures of growing community, cultivating trust, and keeping passion.

  3. Mean absolute error and root mean square error: which is the better metric for assessing model performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, Gary

    2017-04-01

    The mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are two metrics that are often used interchangeably as measures of ocean forecast accuracy. Recent literature has debated which of these should be preferred though their conclusions have largely been based on empirical arguments. We note that in general, RM SE2 = M AE2 + V ARk [|ɛ|] PIC PIC such that RMSE includes both the MAE as well as additional information related to the variance (biased estimator) of the errors ɛ with sample size k. The greater sensitivity of RMSE to a small number of outliers is directly attributable to the variance of absolute error. Further statistical properties for both metrics are derived and compared based on the assumption that the errors are Gaussian. For an unbiased (or bias corrected) model both MAE and RMSE are shown to estimate the total error standard deviation to within a constant coefficient such that ° -- M AE ≈ 2/πRM SE PIC . Both metrics have comparable behaviour in response to model bias and asymptote to the model bias as the bias increases. MAE is shown to be an unbiased estimator while RMSE is a biased estimator. MAE also has a lower sample variance compared with RMSE indicating MAE is the most robust choice. For real-time applications where there is a likelihood of "bad" observations we recommend ° - ° ---° - π- -1- π- π- TESD = 2 M AE ± √k- 2 - 1 2M AE PIC as an unbiased estimator of the total error standard deviation with error estimates (one standard deviation) based on the sample variance and defined as a scaling of the MAE itself. A sample size (k) on the order of 90 and 9000 provides an error scaling of 10% and 1% respectively. Nonetheless if the model performance is being analysed using a large sample of delayed-mode quality controlled observations then RMSE might be preferred where the second moment sensitivity to large model errors is important. Alternatively for model intercomparisons the information might compactly represented by a

  4. Improved Forecasting Methods for Naval Manpower Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    AIC -149.46 MAE 0.0164618 AICC -149.03 MAPE 1.736367 HQC -148.52 Durbin - Watson 1.9265 Regress R-square 0.2304 Total R-square 0.2304 Parameter...0.01745 SBC -146.93 AIC -156.9654 MAE 0.01269 AICC -152.0958 MAPE 1.33947 HQC -153.6932 Durbin - Watson 2.0679 Regress R-square 0.5625 Total R...177.4369 Durbin - Watson 2.0837 Regress R- square 0.5469 Total R-square 0.5469 Parameter Estimates Variable DF Estimate Standard Error t

  5. Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera ; Chrysomelidae) in the Campus and Agricultural Research Stations of Chiang Mai University, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, S.; Tayutivutukul, J; Nakamura, H.

    2005-01-01

    Qualitative surveys of leaf beetles were conducted at 5 survey sites (Chiang Mai University, Mae Hia Staion, Chang Kien Station, Nong Hoi Station, Suburb of Chiang Mai City) in Chiang Mai, Thailand using sweeping and beating methods from October 19th to October 30th, 2003. A total of 24 species of 8 subfamilies was collected from five survey sites ; 11 species, 3 species, 2 species, 11 species, 4 species from Chiang Mai University, Mae Hia Station, Chang Kien Station, Nong Hoi Station, Suburb...

  6. Microwave-assisted extraction of embelin from Embelia ribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, C

    2007-02-01

    A rapid and efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) process for the selective extraction of embelin from Embelia ribes was developed. Solvent selection, microwave energy input and solid loading were optimized. The rate of extraction and purity of embelin depended upon the solvent used and exposure time to microwaves. Maximum MAE was achieved in acetone with total yield of 92% (w/w) embelin with 90% (w/w) purity with 1% (w/v) raw material loading at 150 W power level in 80 s. Non-polar solvents, such as hexane and dichloromethane, were not effective for the selective extraction of embelin.

  7. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvill, Gemma L; McMahon, Jacinta M; Schneider, Amy

    2015-01-01

    GAT-1, encoded by SLC6A1, is one of the major gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters in the brain and is responsible for re-uptake of GABA from the synapse. In this study, targeted resequencing of 644 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies led to the identification of six SLC6A1 mutations...... of the electrophysiological properties of Gat1-deficient mice, including spontaneous spike-wave discharges. Overall, pathogenic mutations occurred in 6/160 individuals with MAE, accounting for ~4% of unsolved MAE cases....

  8. Righting the ADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many Americans with disabilities feel that a series of negative court decisions is reducing their status to that of "second-class citizens," a status that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was supposed to remedy forever. In this report, the National Council on Disability (NCD), which first proposed the enactment of an ADA and…

  9. Two Distinct Cyclodipeptide Synthases from a Marine Actinomycete Catalyze Biosynthesis of the Same Diketopiperazine Natural Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Elle D; Knuckley, Bryan; Alqahtani, Norah; Porwal, Suheel; Ban, Jisun; Karty, Jonathan A; Viswanathan, Rajesh; Lane, Amy L

    2016-07-15

    Diketopiperazine natural products are structurally diverse and offer many biological activities. Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) were recently unveiled as a novel enzyme family that employs aminoacyl-tRNAs as substrates for 2,5-diketopiperazine assembly. Here, the Nocardiopsis sp. CMB-M0232 genome is predicted to encode two CDPSs, NozA and NcdA. Metabolite profiles from E. coli expressing these genes and assays with purified recombinant enzymes revealed that NozA and NcdA catalyze cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (1) biosynthesis from tryptophanyl-tRNA and do not accept other aromatic aminoacyl-tRNA substrates. Fidelity is uncommon among characterized CDPSs, making NozA and NcdA important CDPS family additions. Further, 1 was previously supported as a biosynthetic precursor of the nocardioazines; the current study suggests that Nocardiopsis sp. may derive this precursor from both NozA and NcdA. This study offers a rare example of a single bacterium encoding multiple phylogenetically distinct enzymes that yield the same secondary metabolite and provides tools for chemoenzymatic syntheses of indole alkaloid diketopiperazines.

  10. Search | Page 10 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help inform policy options for increasing physical activity among children and youth in sub-Saharan Africa as a key strategy to reduce the NCD ... Malawi | IDRC - International Development Research Centre. This project will develop and test novel, creative, and bold business models that increase the ...

  11. 76 FR 81953 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ....333, Clinical Research, 93.306, 93.333, 93.337, 93.393-93.396, 93.837-93.844, 93.846-93.878, 93.892...: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel, Member Conflict: Biological Chemistry and... Emphasis Panel, RFA Panel: Fogarty International Research Training and Planning Awards (NCD-LIFESPAN). Date...

  12. Comparison of Some Risk Factors for Diabetes Across Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and market forces. Lifestyle changes have been implicated as risk factors for most of the noncommunicable disease (NCD) including diabetes. Some of the lifestyle factors, which have been identified as risk factors for diabetes are physical inactivity, obesity, alcohol, and tobacco use.[1-4] Prevalence and association of these ...

  13. One-Pot Fabrication of Dendritic NiO@carbon-nitrogen Dot Electrodes for Screening Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naeem; El-Safty, Sherif A; Abdelsalam, Mamdouh E; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-08-21

    Selective and sensitive glucose sensors with fast response for screening diabetic blood level are demanded. In this paper, the one-pot nanoarchitecture of dendritic NiO@carbon-nitrogen (C-N) dots (designated as NCD) sphere-wrapping Ni foam electrodes are reported as an effective and sensitive glucose sensor in blood samples. In this construction design, the NCD sphere electrode with excessive surface defects, large fractions of catalytic active sites, high surface area, and mobility of electron transfer through the actively surface NCD sphere can massively enhance the electrocatalytic activity for nonenzymatic glucose detection in diabetic blood. This portable sensor enables highly sensitive recognition of glucose detection (≈0.01 × 10 -6 m) over a wider linear range (≈0.005-12 × 10 -3 m) with rapid response time of a few seconds. The key result is that the engineered NCD sphere electrodes function as simple, easy-to-use electrochemical sensing assays of glucose levels in diabetic blood patients with a wide range of precision or linearity, recyclability, and excellent selectivity, even in the presence of potentially interfering organic (ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, lactose, maltose, and sucrose) and inorganic (NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , KCl, and K 2 SO 4 ) species. The results demonstrate the potential for the electrochemical sensors to be used in preventing serious health problems associated with diabetes mismanagement. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Diseases of poultry in Akure, Nigeria: a ten year analysis of clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest diseases reported were Newcastle, 9.8%, chronic respiratory disease, 8.8%, helminthoses, 8.5%, fowl pox, 7.0%, coccidiosis, 0.5%, Gumboro, 0.07% and pneumonia, 0.004%. Incidence of Newcastle disease (NCD) was highest in the dry season with peak of outbreak in January and occurred most in chicks ...

  15. Nursing-care dependency : Development of an assessment scale for demented and mentally handicapped patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Buist, Girbe; Dassen, T

    1996-01-01

    This article describing the first phase in the development of an assessment scale of nursing-care dependency (NCD) for Dutch demented and mentally handicapped patients focuses on the background to the study and the content validation of the nursing-care dependency scale. The scale aims to

  16. 77 FR 63877 - Notice of Quarterly Report (April 1, 2012-June 30, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Land Registration Areas. Volume of products passing through post- harvest treatment. ] Rural... value agriculture (HVA) Post-Harvest Credit Facility launched. HVA Post-Harvest Credit Facility Policies... communicable diseases- improved medical primary health care treatment and (NCD-PHC) facilities control of NCDIs...

  17. Finding the Gaps: A Comparative Analysis of Disability Laws in the United States to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the National Council on Disability (NCD), and others, better understand how the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, if ratified by the United States, might impact U.S. disability laws by examining the degree to which U.S. law is consistent with the CRPD. The paper endeavors to analyze the…

  18. 75 FR 69473 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    .... Welcome and Introductions 9:30 a.m.-1 p.m. Strategic Planning 1 p.m.-3 p.m. Forum Planning 3 p.m.-5 p.m... 9:30 a.m.-2 p.m. NCD Board Attends State Department Event (off-site-- not open to the public) 2:30 p...

  19. Serological and Virological Study of Newcastle Disease and Avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological survey on the prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and virological detection by RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, were carried out in 6 regions of Senegal from June to November 2008. Rural chickens were raised in free ...

  20. Multimorbidity in non-communicable diseases in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension was the commonest NCD diagnosis encountered (13.1%), followed by type 2 diabetes (3.9%), osteoarthritis (2.2%), asthma (2.0%), epilepsy (1.9%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (0.6%). The majority of patients (66.9%) consulted a nurse and 33.1% a doctor. Overall 48.4% of patients had ...

  1. Multi-sectoral Action for Non-communicable Disease Prevention in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This is especially true among the poor, given their lack of access to proper care and medicine. Often, communicable diseases and NCDs co-exist in the same individual; one can increase the risk or impact of the other. Current projections indicate that by 2020, the largest increase in NCD deaths will occur in Africa.

  2. Politica Nacional sobre Discapacidad: Un Informe del Progreso, Diciembre 2000-Diciembre 2001 (National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2000-December 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This report (written in Spanish) of the National Council on Disability (NCD) describes the nation's progress in advancing public policies to increase the inclusion, empowerment, and independence of people with disabilities in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The report covers December 2000 through December 2001. It reviews…

  3. 77 FR 68785 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    .../ACC TVT) Registry, one registry overseen by the National Cardiovascular Data Registry, meets the requirements specified in the NCD on TAVR. The TVT Registry will support a national surveillance system to... health status. The conduct of the STS/ACC TVT Registry and the KCCQ-10 is in accordance with Section 1142...

  4. An Ecological Framework to Support Small-Scale Shared Housing for Persons with Neurocognitive Disorders of the Alzheimer's and Related Types: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin N. Bortnick

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The SHA model has many benefits for person's with NCD and may be especially advantageous for those in the early stages of the disease process. The occupational therapy profession should continue to raise awareness of SHAs and consider ecological theory as a valid basis for their expansion.

  5. Onderzoek naar invloed van lichtschema op titers bij vleeskuikens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, van J.H.; Harn, van J.; Voorst, van S.

    1998-01-01

    Het is bekend dat het toepassen van een lichtschema van invloed is op de uitval als gevolg van infectieziektes. Dit was aanleiding voor het PP om onderzoek te doen naar de antilichaamtiters tegen NCD, IB en Gumboro bij vleeskuikens die bij verschillende lichtschema's gehouden werden.

  6. Potential regenerative treatment strategies for intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369494954; Willems, Nicole; Penning, Louis C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110369181; Ito, Keita; Meij, Björn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164045805; Tryfonidou, Marianna A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/24306599X

    Pain due to spontaneous intervertebral disc (IVD) disease is common in dogs. In chondrodystrophic (CD) dogs, IVD disease typically develops in the cervical or thoracolumbar spine at about 3-7 years of age, whereas in non-chondrodystrophic (NCD) dogs, it usually develops in the caudal cervical or

  7. Childhood physical activity, sports and exercise and noncommunicable disease: a special focus on India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Establishing the relationship between childhood physical inactivity and noncommunicable disease (NCD) is difficult, since chronic disease and mortality are not direct health outcomes of physical inactivity in children. Published literature explores the relationship of physical inactivity with appearance of early childhood disease risk markers, the adverse impact of which may take some time to appear. Promoting childhood physical activity has multiple benefits including delay in evolution of risk factors contributing to adult degenerative disease. It is clear from available literature that physical inactivity or its surrogates constitute an important independent risk factor for NCD. This is likely to be underestimated not only because of measurement issues, but also because physical inactivity may act through other risk factors for NCD. To recognize and intervene on the issue of physical inactivity in children is important not only for the benefit of the child but in the context of NCD in later life. Studies on physical inactivity and its functional correlates are limited in India and this would be an important area for future research.

  8. Tissue-specific interactions between nuclear proteins and the aminopeptidase N promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kärnström, U; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1991-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N/CD13 is a metallopeptidase found in many tissues. Aminopeptidase N activity is high in the small intestinal mucosa, moderate in the liver, and low in the spleen. Using DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts from these tissues, three cis...

  9. Non-communicable disease training for public health workers in low- and middle-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davila, Evelyn P; Suleiman, Zubeda; Mghamba, Janneth

    2015-01-01

    of the training's outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The applied NCD epidemiology and control training piloted in Tanzania was well received and showed improvements in knowledge, skill and self-efficacy and changes in workplace behavior and institutional and organizational changes. Further evaluations are needed to better...

  10. South Sudan should address non-communicable diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, and cardiovascular disease accounting for the bulk of the cases, according to WHO. Certain risk factors ... its health system, the issue of the emerging NCD burden should not be ignored. Anecdotal evidence ... Management Information System (HMIS); establish cancer registries and screening programmes to track ...

  11. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of infectious diseases alga primary care level is now well established, but a coordinated approach to NCDs at this level does not exist. Over the last 3 years, a program of. NCD clinics (epilepsy, diabetes, asthma and cardiac) has been established in rural health centers in the region around Gondar in Northern.

  12. Breaking the School-to-Prison Pipeline for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In conjunction with its fall quarterly meeting, NCD convened a stakeholder forum in Atlanta in October 2014 to receive testimony on the role of special education in the School-to-Prison Pipeline. The findings and recommendations in this report are based upon the culmination of that testimony, interviews with experts, and review of available…

  13. Development of Bioelastic Materials for the Prevention of Adhesions: Polypenta- and Polytetrapeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-14

    Young’s) modulus for X2 0-poly(GVGVP) is about 1 x 106 dynes/cm 2 (105 Newtons/m 2 ) with little or no hysteresis and with extensions of up to 200...34rptesand prvninfibronectin on corneal epithelial cell growth," I of adhesions application of bioelastic materials," Bio~ncd. Mater. Res., 26, 1239-1275

  14. Preventing non-communicable disease in Oman, a legislative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahlani, Sabah; Mabry, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) is a major global concern and is projected to increase by 15% over the next 10 years. NCD is the leading cause of mortality in Oman and other countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Some of the most successful interventions to address NCD include legislations like banning smoking in public places. A desk review of available policies and legislations related to the behavioural risk factors of NCD from the GCC and from Oman was conducted with a focus on policies and legislations related to food, physical activity and tobacco. The review identified numerous documents; most were policies and resolutions related to tobacco control. Although only a few documents were laws, a majority were issued by non-health sectors. This policy review is the first effort in the GCC to consolidate information on the regulatory framework for the three key risk behaviours in the region, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Further work is needed to strengthen the regulatory framework, at both the national and regional levels, to strengthen tobacco control as well as to improve dietary patterns and physical activity levels. Given that a bulk of laws, regulations and policies are beyond the scope of the health sector, significant advocacy efforts are required to generate a multisectoral response. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Neutrophil CD64 combined with PCT, CRP and WBC improves the sensitivity for the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ai-Ping; Liu, Jun; Yue, Lei-He; Wang, Hong-Qi; Yang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Guo-Hui

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) combined with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) can increase the sensitivity and accuracy of neonatal sepsis diagnosis. The serum levels of nCD64, CRP, PCT and WBC were detected in 60 patients with neonatal sepsis and 60 patients with non-sepsis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC), and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of these markers on neonatal sepsis. Serum levels of nCD64, PCT, CRP and WBC were higher in the sepsis group than non-sepsis group (pneonatal sepsis were increased to 95.5%. Except for WBC, the birth weight and gestational age had no effects on the diagnostic value of these serum biomarkers. nCD64 and PCT are better diagnostic biomarkers for early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis as compared to CRP. With the help of optimal cut-off value based on ROC curve and logistic regression analysis, the combination of these biomarkers could improve the sensitivity for the diagnosis of suspected late-onset neonatal sepsis based on common serum biomarkers.

  16. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Kulmala, M.; Nieminen, T.; Roebeling, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD) in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An

  17. Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Physical Activity among Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, a significant proportion of the population is exposed either directly or indirectly to tobacco smoke, and a large proportion of the adult population is physically inactivity. Thus, NCD prevention policy addressing lifestyle changes such as no smoking should not be limited to work places but should be population ...

  18. Targeting non-communicable diseases: Beyond tobacco | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    Nov 1, 2013 ... The burden of disease is shifting, with an increasing portion of illness caused by non-communicable diseases (NCD) such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. These are the leading causes of death and disability around the world and will be responsible for more than 75% of all deaths in ...

  19. Food systems brochure - project list Oct 2016 ENGLISH.PUB

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    Coherence of NCD prevention and agri-food policies in. Argentina. (2015–18, Argentina, Fundación Interamericana del. Corazón). Overcoming obstacles to adoption of Brazil's national dietary guidelines. (2016–19, Brazil, Brazilian Institute for Consumer. Protection). • Integrated intervention for diabetes risk after gestational.

  20. Opinion: Using digital tech to improve life for refugees | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-22

    Dec 22, 2016 ... These circumstances give rise to increased rates of non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as diabetes, hypertension, and respiratory infections. They also make pregnancy and childbirth more risky for women. A health research project funded by Canada's International Development Research Centre ...