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Sample records for psm cochran-armitage trend

  1. RSCABS: An R package for performing the Rao-Scott Adjusted Cochran-Armitage trend test By Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSCABS[3] (Rao-Scott adjusted Cochran-Armitage trend test By Slices) is a modification to the Rao-Scott[5] adjusted Cochran-Armitage trend test[1, 2] that allows for testing at each individual severity score often seen in histopathological data. The test was originally developed ...

  2. Differentiating the Cochran-Armitage Trend Test and Pearson's χ2 Test: Location and Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Ku, Hung-Chih; Huang, Zhipeng; Xing, Guan; Xing, Chao

    2017-09-01

    In genetic case-control association studies, a standard practice is to perform the Cochran-Armitage (CA) trend test with 1 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) under the assumption of an additive model. However, when the true genetic model is recessive or near recessive, it is outperformed by Pearson's χ2 test with 2 d.f. In this article, we analytically reveal the statistical basis that leads to the phenomenon. First, we show that the CA trend test examines the location shift between the case and control groups, whereas Pearson's χ2 test examines both the location and dispersion shifts between the two groups. Second, we show that under the additive model, the effect of location deviation outweighs that of the dispersion deviation and vice versa under a near recessive model. Therefore, Pearson's χ2 test is a more robust test than the CA trend test, and it outperforms the latter when the mode of inheritance evolves to the recessive end. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  3. [Comparison of application of Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear regression analysis for rate trend analysis in epidemiology study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Z; Wang, C; Shen, C F; Zhang, Y; Zhang, H; Song, G D; Xue, X D; Xu, Z L; Zhang, S; Jiang, G H

    2017-05-10

    We described the time trend of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from 1999 to 2013 in Tianjin incidence rate with Cochran-Armitage trend (CAT) test and linear regression analysis, and the results were compared. Based on actual population, CAT test had much stronger statistical power than linear regression analysis for both overall incidence trend and age specific incidence trend (Cochran-Armitage trend P value

  4. Optimal Trend Tests for Genetic Association Studies of Heterogeneous Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-06-09

    The Cochran-Armitage trend test is a standard procedure in genetic association studies. It is a directed test with high power to detect genetic effects that follow the gene-dosage model. In this paper, the author proposes optimal trend tests for genetic association studies of heterogeneous diseases. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the power gain of the optimal trend tests over the conventional Cochran-Armitage trend test is striking when the genetic effects are heterogeneous. The easy-to-use R 3.1.2 software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) code is provided. The optimal trend tests are recommended for routine use.

  5. Age trend of the male to female sex ratio in surgical gastric cancer patients at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junxiu; He, Yongjun; Guo, Zhen

    2014-08-21

    In previous reports concerning the association between sex disparity and age, gastric cancer (GC) patients were simply divided into younger and older groups by age. We analyzed the age trend of the male to female sex ratio (MFSR) in GC based on patient sequential age in order to observe the changing process of MFSR with age. One thousand seven hundred fifty-one surgical gastric adenocarcinoma patients aged 26 to 85 years were investigated between January 1996 and December 2010. The patients were grouped by age intervals of 5 years. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to determine how the MFSR changed with age. The median age of the 1,751 patients with GC was 60 years (26 to 85 years). There were 1,334 male and 417 female patients (MFSR was 3.20). Cochran-Armitage trend test analysis showed that total MFSR increased significantly with age (Z = 5.964, P trend test showed that MFSR increased significantly with age from 26 to 60 years (Z = 7.433, P trend until 60 years of age. The male GC patients showed an increasing tendency, and female GC patients showed a decreasing tendency with age. This trend reached a plateau phase after 60 years of age.

  6. Local CD variation in 65nm node with PSM processes STI topography characterization (I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yiming; Chang, Simon; Zhang, Gary; Kirmse, Karen; Rogers, Duncan; Olsen, Leif; Lewellen, John

    2006-03-01

    LCDV. b) STI S-H usually makes the CD larger in both PSM processes, especially for the isolated gates in the alt-PSM process. From our observations, it is generally true that the narrower the transistor width, the higher the gate CD will be. However, CD variation trends in the att-PSM process are not so explicit as observed with alt-PSM. c) One should be very careful when trying to improve the CD uniformity by reducing STI step-height by using a blanket etch back because OPC errors are tightly combined with STI step-heights. d) Improving the STI S-H uniformity is always welcome because it will improve the AWLV. e) The narrow isolated gate is the best CD feature to monitor the interaction of AWLV with STI S-H uniformity.

  7. Transferring PSM craft skills in a 2 hour session

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, E.J.A. van; Morill, N.; Shaw, D.; Belton, V.; Harvey, P.; Rouwette, E.

    2007-01-01

    Many of those involved in the Problem Structuring Methods (PSM) community have commented on the struggle that novices face in building the craft skills associated with conducting a PSM intervention. As part of this year's Operational Research Society Conference, we have three 2-hour practical

  8. A Market Failure Perspective on Value Creation in PSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lowe, Gregory Ferrell; Lund, Anker Brink

    2014-01-01

    Public service media is present in most countries because public intervention of this kind compensates market-failure by providing merit goods that are not provided by commercial players to the public writ large. Nonetheless, PSM is often regarded as a negative for private media providers...... in electronic media. This chapter outlines the market failure thesis to consider the ways and degrees to which it is still valid for broadcasting (PSB), and important whether there are grounds for its application in broadband (PSM)....

  9. Trends in Use of Risk-Reducing Mastectomy in a Context of Celebrity Decisions and Media Coverage: An Observational Study in the United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jialin; Jorm, Louisa; Sedrakyan, Art

    2017-09-25

    To examine trends in risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and immediate breast reconstruction in New York State and New South Wales, especially before and after Angelina Jolie's announcement of her surgery in 2013. Hospital discharge data, 2004-2014. Trends in procedures were assessed using Poisson regression and the Cochrane-Armitage test. Extracted using procedure codes. There was an increase in RRM procedures after May 2013 in both regions, with a peak during late 2013-early 2014. The average bimonthly RRM procedures were significantly higher after Jolie's announcement than before. In both countries, we found a substantial increase of RRM after Jolie's announcement, highlighting the impact of celebrity health care coverage on preventive surgical choice and the need for decision aids to assist patients. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11s PSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Nazrul Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of IEEE 802.11 power save mode (PSM, a lot of work has been done to enhance the energy saving ability of the wireless nodes. The ultimate goal of the research is to make the networking equipment carbon neutral and prolong the lifetime of the energy limited device for various applications; in some cases it is a trade-off between energy efficiency and delay. However, few studies have been made until now in the area of IEEE 802.11s based link specific power mode. The essence of this method is the ability of a node to maintain different power modes with its different peer nodes at the same time. A new peer service period (PSP mechanism is also proposed in IEEE 802.11s amendment for transmitting to a receiver operating in PSM. In this paper the performance of the link specific power mode is studied for a single- and a multilink network in terms of energy, delay throughput, and sleep duration. It is found that at small load the energy saving could be as high as eighty percent when compared with the active mode operation. A stochastic model, based on discrete time discrete state Markov chain, is developed for one peer link operation to study the system behavior closely during PSM operation.

  11. A Study of United States Army Product Support Manager (PSM) Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    in order to be an effective PSM • Product support management; Design interface; Sustaining engineering ; Supply support; Maintenance planning and...the men and women of the Armed Forces whose mission and objectives require the proper equipment and weapon systems. The concept of product support is...conduct an analysis of the effectiveness of that PSM training in relation to weapon system acquisition support. PRODUCT SUPPORT MANAGER (PSM

  12. Quantitative comparison between PW-PSM and PW-TSM Doppler systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation-based quantitative comparison between pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler systems using the conventional phase-shift measurement (PSM) technique and the newer time-shift measurement (TSM) technique is presented. A PSM system applying an autocorrelator is compared with a TSM system. The performa......A simulation-based quantitative comparison between pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler systems using the conventional phase-shift measurement (PSM) technique and the newer time-shift measurement (TSM) technique is presented. A PSM system applying an autocorrelator is compared with a TSM system...

  13. SCCmec-associated psm-mec mRNA promotes Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchang; Zhang, Xuemei; Huang, Wenfang; Yin, Yibing

    2016-10-01

    Biofilm formation is considered the major pathogenic mechanism of Staphylococcus epidermidis-associated nosocomial infections. Reports have shown that SCCmec-associated psm-mec regulated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus virulence and biofilm formation. However, the role of psm-mec in S. epidermidis remains unclear. To this purpose, we analysed 165 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis to study the distribution, mutation and expression of psm-mec and the relationship between this gene and biofilm formation. Next, we constructed three psm-mec deletion mutants, one psm-mec transgene expression strain (p221) and two psm-mec point mutant strains (pM, pAG) to explore its effects on S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Then, the amount of biofilm formation, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and Triton X-100-induced autolysis of the constructed strains was measured. Results of psm-mec deletion and transgene expression showed that the gene regulated S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Compared with the control strains, the ability to form biofilm, Triton X-100-induced autolysis and the amount of eDNA increased in the p221 strain and the two psm-mec mutants pM and pAG expressed psm-mec mRNA without its protein, whereas no differences were observed among the three constructed strains, illustrating that psm-mec mRNA promoted S. epidermidis biofilm formation through up-regulation of bacterial autolysis and the release of eDNA. Our results reveal that acquisition of psm-mec promotes S. epidermidis biofilm formation.

  14. Exploring the Context Dependency of the PSM-Performance Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggard, Mikkel; Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    autonomy that a public organization provides its employees and (b) the service users’ capacity to affect the organization’s service provision. We test a set of moderation hypotheses using school data (teacher survey data with administrative data on schools and student). Using within-student between-teachers......The public service motivation (PSM) of public employees matters to their performance at work. Yet research on how context factors moderate the PSM–performance relationship is sparse. This article shows how the PSM–performance relationship may depend on two context factors: (a) the extent of work...... fixed effects regression, we find a stronger PSM–performance relationship in organizational contexts involving greater regulation of employee work autonomy for users with low to moderate user capacity....

  15. Exploring the Context Dependency of the PSM-Performance Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggard, Mikkel; Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    The public service motivation (PSM) of public employees matters to their performance at work. Yet research on how context factors moderate the PSM–performance relationship is sparse. This article shows how the PSM–performance relationship may depend on two context factors: (a) the extent of work...... autonomy that a public organization provides its employees and (b) the service users’ capacity to affect the organization’s service provision. We test a set of moderation hypotheses using school data (teacher survey data with administrative data on schools and student). Using within-student between......-teachers fixed effects regression, we find a stronger PSM–performance relationship in organizational contexts involving greater regulation of employee work autonomy for users with low to moderate user capacity....

  16. Trends in the Quality of Treatment for Patients With Intact Cervical Cancer in the United States, 1999 Through 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Grace L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jiang, Jing [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Meyer, Larissa A. [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine (LAM), The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eifel, Patricia J., E-mail: peifel@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: High-quality treatment for intact cervical cancer requires external radiation therapy, brachytherapy, and chemotherapy, carefully sequenced and completed without delays. We sought to determine how frequently current treatment meets quality benchmarks and whether new technologies have influenced patterns of care. Methods and Materials: By searching diagnosis and procedure claims in MarketScan, an employment-based health care claims database, we identified 1508 patients with nonmetastatic, intact cervical cancer treated from 1999 to 2011, who were <65 years of age and received >10 fractions of radiation. Treatments received were identified using procedure codes and compared with 3 quality benchmarks: receipt of brachytherapy, receipt of chemotherapy, and radiation treatment duration not exceeding 63 days. The Cochran-Armitage test was used to evaluate temporal trends. Results: Seventy-eight percent of patients (n=1182) received brachytherapy, with brachytherapy receipt stable over time (Cochran-Armitage P{sub trend}=.15). Among patients who received brachytherapy, 66% had high–dose rate and 34% had low–dose rate treatment, although use of high–dose rate brachytherapy steadily increased to 75% by 2011 (P{sub trend}<.001). Eighteen percent of patients (n=278) received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and IMRT receipt increased to 37% by 2011 (P{sub trend}<.001). Only 2.5% of patients (n=38) received IMRT in the setting of brachytherapy omission. Overall, 79% of patients (n=1185) received chemotherapy, and chemotherapy receipt increased to 84% by 2011 (P{sub trend}<.001). Median radiation treatment duration was 56 days (interquartile range, 47-65 days); however, duration exceeded 63 days in 36% of patients (n=543). Although 98% of patients received at least 1 benchmark treatment, only 44% received treatment that met all 3 benchmarks. With more stringent indicators (brachytherapy, ≥4 chemotherapy cycles, and duration not exceeding 56

  17. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform risk analyses and guide public policy regarding antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to selected antimicrobial agents over time. We collected data retrospectively for all bovine E. coli isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We investigated temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant E. coli for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 3373 bovine E. coli isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 2.7% (enrofloxacin) to 91.3% (oxytetracycline). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to several agents: chlortetracycline, florfenicol, neomycin, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, a significantly increasing trend in prevalence of resistance to enrofloxacin was also evident. These results do not support the idea that current antimicrobial use practices on dairy operations are driving a general increase in the emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant E. coli in the region served by the laboratory. However, resistance to some drugs remained consistently high during the study period, and increasing resistance to enrofloxacin is a key area of concern.

  18. Beauty, brains or health: trends in ovum recipient preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Homero; Lee, Joseph; Rodriguez-Purata, Jorge; Witkin, Georgia; Sandler, Benjamin; Copperman, Alan B

    2014-10-01

    What do ovum donation (OD) recipients request most from their ideal donor: beauty, brains, health or physical self-resemblance? Previous data have shown recipients primarily requested "similar appearance or gene pool." We consider the possibility that these criteria may have changed due to a positive social shift towards OD participation and have evaluated recipients' requests for donor criteria over a span of 5 years. Donor trait preferences of OD recipients (n=438) enrolled in a private, academic OD program from 2008-2012 were assessed in this retrospective cohort analysis. Requests were categorized by appearance, ethnicity, intellect, ability, and mental health. Statistical analyses were conducted by Cochran-Armitage trend tests with significance at ptrend did not reach statistical significance. Our study demonstrates an increase in the percentage of OD recipients' requests for health, athleticism, and intelligence over our 5-year analysis. It appears that the current recipient is more likely to request a donor with practical traits that would serve their offspring overall quality of life rather than self-reflective traits such as physical resemblance or their genetic composition. We believe that improved awareness and acceptance of OD as a treatment of infertility will continue to inform practical considerations and approaches toward donor recruitment and the donor-recipient matching process.

  19. PSM-Mec - A Virulence Determinant that Connects TranscriptionalRegulation, Virulence, and Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available PSM-mec is a secreted virulence factor that belongs to the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM family of amphipathic, alpha-helical peptide toxins produced by Staphylococcus species. All known PSMs are core genome-encoded with the exception of PSM-mec, whose gene is found in specific sub-types of SCCmec methicillin resistance mobile genetic elements present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. In addition to the cytolytic translational product, PSM-mec, the psm-mec locus encodes a regulatory RNA. In S. aureus, the psm-mec locus influences cytolytic capacity, methicillin resistance, biofilm formation, cell spreading and the expression of other virulence factors, such as other PSMs, which results in a significant impact on immune evasion and disease. However, these effects are highly strain-dependent, which is possibly due to differences in PSM-mec peptide versus psm-mec RNA-controlled effects. Here, we summarize the functional properties of PSM-mec and the psm-mec RNA molecule and their roles in staphylococcal pathogenesis and physiology.

  20. Epidemiology of prevalent cancer among Iranian women and its incidence trends from 2003-2009 in Iran

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    Razi S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: cancer is one of the most common causes of deaths in the world. Cancer incidence and prevalence is increasing in the world. There is no clear trend is available on incidence of these cancers in Iran, therefore, this study aimed to determine the incidence of 10 common cancers among Iranian women from 2003 to 2009. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing existing data. Data from a national registry of cancer cases were received. Data included the records from the cancer registry system in Iranian women during 2003 to 2009. The incidence rates were then standardized using direct method. We used Cochrane Armitage Test for linear trend by Winpepi software to determine the variation in the incidence of cancers. Results: The results show that the proportion of all cancers is rising in women as compared to all population. Breast, skin, colorectal, gastric, esophageal, thyroid, leukemia, ovary, brain and uterus were the most common cancer among Iranian women. During the years of the survey, these cancers are significantly increased. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the incidence of cancer in women is increased. screening programs can be useful in reducing the cancers.

  1. The pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloid Psm2 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by affecting PI3K/Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xing-Li; Su, Wen; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yue-Hu; Ming, Xin; Kong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Psm2, one of the pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloids isolated from whole Selaginella moellendorffii plants, has shown a potent antiplatelet activity. In this study, we further evaluated the antiplatelet effects of Psm2, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Human platelet aggregation in vitro and rat platelet aggregation ex vivo were investigated. Agonist-induced platelet aggregation was measured using a light transmission aggregometer. The antithrombotic effects of Psm2 were evaluated in arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antiplatelet activity of Psm2, ELISAs, Western blotting and molecular docking were performed. The bleeding risk of Psm2 administration was assessed in a mouse tail cutting model, and the cytotoxicity of Psm2 was measured with MTT assay in EA.hy926 cells. Psm2 dose-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, U4619, thrombin and collagen with IC50 values of 0.64, 0.37, 0.35 and 0.87 mg/mL, respectively. Psm2 (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) administered to rats significantly inhibited platelet aggregation ex vivo induced by ADP. Psm2 (1, 3, 10 mg/mL, iv) administered to rats with the A-V shunt dose-dependently decreased the thrombus formation. Psm2 inhibited platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and collagen with IC50 values of 84.5 and 96.5 mg/mL, respectively, but did not affect the binding of fibrinogen to GPIIb/IIIa. Furthermore, Psm2 inhibited AktSer473 phosphorylation, but did not affect MAPK signaling and Src kinase activation. Molecular docking showed that Psm2 bound to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase β (PI3Kβ) with a binding free energy of -13.265 kcal/mol. In addition, Psm2 did not cause toxicity in EA.hy926 cells and produced only slight bleeding in a mouse tail cutting model. Psm2 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by affecting PI3K/Akt signaling. Psm2 may be a lead compound or drug candidate that could be developed for the prevention or treatment of thrombotic

  2. Trends and Variation in Use of Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Mastectomy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Jiang, Jing; Momoh, Adeyiza O.; Alderman, Amy; Giordano, Sharon H.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Kronowitz, Steven J.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Concerns exist regarding breast cancer patients' access to breast reconstruction, which provides important psychosocial benefits. Patients and Methods Using the MarketScan database, a claims-based data set of US patients with employment-based insurance, we identified 20,560 women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer from 1998 to 2007. We evaluated time trends using the Cochran-Armitage test and correlated reconstruction use with plastic-surgery workforce density and other treatments using multivariable regression. Results Median age of our sample was 51 years. Reconstruction use increased from 46% in 1998 to 63% in 2007 (P mastectomy also increased: from 3% in 1998 to 18% in 2007 (P mastectomy were more likely to receive reconstruction (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; P mastectomy (OR, 0.5; P < .001), or patients in the highest income quartile (OR, 0.7; P = .006). Delayed reconstruction was performed in 21% of patients who underwent reconstruction. Conclusion Breast reconstruction has increased over time, but it has wide geographic variability. Receipt of other treatments correlates with the use of and approaches toward reconstruction. Further research and interventions are needed to ensure equitable access to this important component of multidisciplinary treatment of breast cancer. PMID:24550418

  3. The Role of Explicit and Tacit Knowledge in Purchasing and Supply Management (PSM) Today and in Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Kelly, Steve; Schulze, Heike

    While research has shed considerable light on the organizational-level maturity of PSM organizations, the individual competencies of PSM, especially in light of current developments in the workplace such as digitization, have received relatively less attention. Firstly, this paper identifies the ...

  4. New PSM optimized for stable resolution of fine holes in FPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashiki, Nobuhisa; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Hayase, Michihiko

    2017-07-01

    Recently, due to increases in the definition of high function panels for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, LCD panel TFT and OLED (organic electro luminescence display) circuits are becoming increasingly denser and more miniaturized by the year. TFT and OLED circuits are composed of several layers, such as gate, semiconductor and contact hole (C / H). It is particularly difficult to obtain a stable resolution for C/H due to the decrease in the C/H process margin (EL, DOF, MEEF) as a result of increases in the density of the circuit. Moreover, C/H productivity has also markedly decreased due to an increase in the exposure dose. In response to this, attenuated phase shift mask (Att. PSM) for large size photomasks have been proposed as a means to improve the process margin in FPD. We have developed new PSM that can further improve the process margin and the productivity of C/H via the effective positioning of a high transmittance phase shift film. Using a 1.5um sized hole as the target, we confirmed the improvement effect of the optimized PSM via a software simulation and an exposure test. Hereafter it is necessary for us to optimize the new PSM for each panel process so as to allow us to use this mask in actual processes.

  5. Trends in Surgical Management of Shoulder Instability

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    Bonazza, Nicholas A.; Liu, Guodong; Leslie, Douglas L.; Dhawan, Aman

    2017-01-01

    Background: Optimal surgical management of anterior shoulder instability remains controversial. There is a need to assess the most recent trends for primary and revision shoulder stabilization surgery using a national database significantly larger than those previously utilized. Hypothesis: Most shoulder stabilization procedures are performed arthroscopically. Examining revision procedures, we hypothesized that open procedures would result in decreased revision stabilizations compared with arthroscopic procedures and that most revision procedures would be open Bankart or bone transfer procedures regardless of the index procedure technique. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The MarketScan Database was searched using International Classification of Diseases–Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes to identify patients who underwent any shoulder stabilization procedure between 2008 and 2012. Regression analysis was used to evaluate trends between patient groups. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to identify differences in trends seen yearly. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to compare the likelihood of undergoing a revision stabilization procedure. Results: A total of 66,564 shoulder stabilization procedures were identified from 2008 through 2012: 60,248 arthroscopic stabilization procedures (90.5%) and 6316 open stabilization procedures (9.5%), including 1623 bone block procedures. Arthroscopic stabilization procedures increased in total number and percentage of all procedures in each year of the study. Bone block procedures increased in number each year, although other open procedures decreased during the study period. Males underwent more stabilization procedures, while patients between the ages of 10 and 19 years were most likely to undergo any procedure. Patients who underwent bone block stabilization were significantly less likely to undergo a second stabilization procedure during the study period when

  6. A digitally controlled PWM/PSM dual-mode DC/DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaowei, Zhen; Bo, Zhang; Ping, Luo; Sijian, Hou; Jingxin, Ye; Xiao, Ma

    2011-11-01

    A digitally controlled pulse width modulation/pulse skip modulation (PWM/PSM) dual-mode buck DC/DC converter is proposed. Its operation mode can be automatically chosen as continuous conduction mode (CCM) or discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). The converter works in PSM at DCM and in 2 MHz PWM at CCM. Switching loss is reduced at a light load by skipping cycles. Thus high conversion efficiency is realized in a wide load current. The implementations of PWM control blocks, such as the ADC, the digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) and the loop compensator, and PSM control blocks are described in detail. The parameters of the loop compensator can be programmed for different external component values and switching frequencies, which is much more flexible than its analog rivals. The chip is manufactured in 0.13 μm CMOS technology and the chip area is 1.21 mm2. Experimental results show that the conversion efficiency is high, being 90% at 200 mA and 67% at 20 mA. Meanwhile, the measured load step response shows that the proposed dual-mode converter has good stability.

  7. A novel process simulation model (PSM) for anaerobic digestion using Aspen Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Karthik; Kankanala, Harshavardhan R; Lundin, Magnus; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-09-01

    A novel process simulation model (PSM) was developed for biogas production in anaerobic digesters using Aspen Plus®. The PSM is a library model of anaerobic digestion, which predicts the biogas production from any substrate at any given process condition. A total of 46 reactions were used in the model, which include inhibitions, rate-kinetics, pH, ammonia, volume, loading rate, and retention time. The hydrolysis reactions were based on the extent of the reaction, while the acidogenic, acetogenic, and methanogenic reactions were based on the kinetics. The PSM was validated against a variety of lab and industrial data on anaerobic digestion. The P-value after statistical analysis was found to be 0.701, which showed that there was no significant difference between discrete validations and processing conditions. The sensitivity analysis for a ±10% change in composition of substrate and extent of reaction results in 5.285% higher value than the experimental value. The model is available at http://hdl.handle.net/2320/12358 (Rajendran et al., 2013b). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Periodically Swapping Modulation (PSM) Strategy for Three-Level (TL) DC/DC Converter with Balanced Switch Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Zhang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The asymmetrical modulation strategy is widely used in various types of three-level (TL) DC/DC converters, while the current imbalance among the power switches is one of the important issues. In this paper, a novel periodically swapping modulation (PSM) strategy is proposed for balancing the power...... switches’ currents in various types of TL DC/DC converters. In the proposed PSM strategy, the driving signals of the switch pairs are swapped periodically, which guarantees that the currents through the power switches are kept balanced in every two switching periods. Therefore, the proposed PSM...... strategy can effectively improve the reliability of the converter by balancing the power losses and thermal stresses among the power switches. The operation principle and performances of the proposed PSM strategy are analyzed in detail. Finally, the simulation and experimental results are presented...

  9. Reducing bird-strike risk at Portsmouth International Airport (PSM) through research on breeding upland sandpiper habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to identify the habitat use and behavior of the upland sandpiper, : a state-endangered bird species, at Portsmouth International Airport (PSM), which is near the Great Bay National : Wildlife Refuge (GBNW...

  10. Changing trends in the prevalence of common mental disorders in Taiwan: a 20-year repeated cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tiffany Szu-Ting; Lee, Chau-Shoun; Gunnell, David; Lee, Wen-Chung; Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann

    2013-01-19

    Macrosocial changes might affect mental health. We investigated whether the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) changed over a 20-year period of industrialisation in Taiwan. We used the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire to assess mental status of Taiwanese adults in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Respondents with scores of 3 or higher were classified as having probable CMDs. We assessed trends of probable CMDs with the Cochran-Armitage test and their risk factors (sex, age, marital status, educational level, employment status, and physical health) with multivariable logistic regression. The trends were compared with national rates of unemployment, divorce, and suicide. Of 10,548 respondents, 9079 (86·1%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of probable CMDs doubled from 11·5% in 1990 to 23·8% in 2010 (time trend prates of unemployment, divorce, and suicide at all five timepoints. Significant risk factors for probable CMDs were female sex (adjusted odds ratio 1·6, 95% CI 1·4-1·8), 6 or fewer years of education (1·3, 1·1-1·5), unemployment (1·4, 1·1-1·7), and poor physical health that limited daily activities (6·5, 5·4-8·0). When we controlled for these factors in multivariable models, the time trends remained significant (prates of unemployment, divorce, and suicide increased in parallel with prevalence of probable CMDs in Taiwan. Therefore, clinical and social preventive measures both seem important during times of change to the economy and labour market. Taiwan National Science Council. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in antimicrobial resistance in bloodstream infection isolates at a large urban hospital in Malawi (1998-2016): a surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicha, Patrick; Cornick, Jennifer E; Bar-Zeev, Naor; French, Neil; Masesa, Clemens; Denis, Brigitte; Kennedy, Neil; Mallewa, Jane; Gordon, Melita A; Msefula, Chisomo L; Heyderman, Robert S; Everett, Dean B; Feasey, Nicholas A

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial bloodstream infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few facilities are able to maintain long-term surveillance. The Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme has done sentinel surveillance of bacteraemia since 1998. We report long-term trends in bloodstream infection and antimicrobial resistance from this surveillance. In this surveillance study, we analysed blood cultures that were routinely taken from adult and paediatric patients with fever or suspicion of sepsis admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from 1998 to 2016. The hospital served an urban population of 920 000 in 2016, with 1000 beds, although occupancy often exceeds capacity. The hospital admits about 10 000 adults and 30 000 children each year. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done by the disc diffusion method according to British Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy guidelines. We used the Cochran-Armitage test for trend to examine trends in rates of antimicrobial resistance, and negative binomial regression to examine trends in icidence of bloodstream infection over time. Between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2016, we isolated 29 183 pathogens from 194 539 blood cultures. Pathogen detection decreased significantly from 327·1/100 000 in 1998 to 120·2/100 000 in 2016 (p1998 at 7·7% and represented 18·4% of S aureus isolates in 2016. The rapid expansion of ESBL and fluoroquinolone resistance among common Gram-negative pathogens, and the emergence of MRSA, highlight the growing challenge of bloodstream infections that are effectively impossible to treat in this resource-limited setting. Wellcome Trust, H3ABionet, Southern Africa Consortium for Research Excellence (SACORE). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcription and translation products of the cytolysin gene psm-mec on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

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    Chikara Kaito

    Full Text Available The F region downstream of the mecI gene in the SCCmec element in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA contains two bidirectionally overlapping open reading frames (ORFs, the fudoh ORF and the psm-mec ORF. The psm-mec ORF encodes a cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM-mec. Transformation of the F region into the Newman strain, which is a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA strain, or into the MW2 (USA400 and FRP3757 (USA300 strains, which are community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA strains that lack the F region, attenuated their virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. Introducing the F region to these strains suppressed colony-spreading activity and PSMα production, and promoted biofilm formation. By producing mutations into the psm-mec ORF, we revealed that (i both the transcription and translation products of the psm-mec ORF suppressed colony-spreading activity and promoted biofilm formation; and (ii the transcription product of the psm-mec ORF, but not its translation product, decreased PSMα production. These findings suggest that both the psm-mec transcript, acting as a regulatory RNA, and the PSM-mec protein encoded by the gene on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

  13. Characterization of a cryptic plasmid pSM429 and its application for heterologous expression in psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas

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    Chen Bo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoalteromonas is an important genus widespread in marine environment, and a lot of psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas strains thrive in deep sea and polar sea. By now, there are only a few genetic systems for Pseudoalteromonas reported and no commercial Pseudoalteromonas genetic system is available, which impedes the study of Pseudoalteromonas, especially for psychrophilic strains. The aim of this study is to develop a heterologous expression system for psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas. Results A cryptic plasmid pSM429 isolated from psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas sp. BSi20429 from the Arctic sea ice, was sequenced and characterized. The plasmid pSM429 is 3874 bp in length, with a G+C content of 28%. Four putative open reading frames (ORFs were identified on pSM429. Based on homology, the ORF4 was predicted to encode a replication initiation (Rep protein. A shuttle vector (Escherichia coli, Pseudoalteromonas, pWD, was constructed by ligating pSM429 and pUC19 and inserting a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT cassette conferring chloramphenicol resistance. To determine the minimal replicon of pSM429 and to check the functionality of identified ORFs, various pWD derivatives were constructed. All derivatives except the two smallest ones were shown to allow replication in Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM20429, a plasmid-cured strain of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BSi20429, suggesting that the orf4 and its flanking intergenic regions are essential for plasmid replication. Although not essential, the sequence including some repeats between orf1 and orf2 plays important roles in segregational stability of the plasmid. With the aid of pWD-derived plasmid pWD2, the erythromycin resistance gene and the cd gene encoding the catalytic domain of a cold-adapted cellulase were successfully expressed in Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM20429. Conclusions Plasmid pSM429 was isolated and characterized, and the regions essential for plasmid replication and

  14. Variation in Locoregional Prostate Cancer Care and Treatment Trends at Commission on Cancer Designated Facilities: A National Cancer Data Base Analysis 2004 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löppenberg, Björn; Sood, Akshay; Dalela, Deepansh; Karabon, Patrick; Sammon, Jesse D; Vetterlein, Malte W; Noldus, Joachim; Peabody, James O; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Abdollah, Firas

    2017-12-01

    Contemporary treatment trends for prostate cancer show increased rates of active surveillance. However, nationwide applicability of these reports is limited. Additionally, the effect of Commission on Cancer facility type on prostate cancer treatment patterns is unknown. We used the National Cancer Data Base to identify men diagnosed with prostate cancer, between 2004 and 2013. Our cohort was stratified on the basis of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network prostate cancer risk classes. Cochran-Armitage tests were used to evaluate temporal trends. Random effects hierarchical logit models were used to assess treatment variation at Commission on Cancer facility and institution level. In 825,707 men, utilization of radiation therapy declined and utilization of radical prostatectomy increased for all prostate cancer risk groups between 2004 and 2013 (P < .0001). Observation for low-risk prostate cancer increased from 16.3% in 2004 to 2005 to 32.0% in 2012 to 2013 (P < .0001). Significant treatment variation was observed on the basis of Commission on Cancer facility type. Across all risk groups, the lowest rates of radical prostatectomy and highest rates of external beam radiation therapy were observed in community cancer programs. The highest rates of observation for low-risk disease were observed in academic centers. Treatment variation according to institution ranged from 14% (95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.15) for androgen deprivation therapy up to 59% (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.73) for cryotherapy. The increased utilization of observation in low-risk prostate cancer is an encouraging finding, which appears to be mainly derived by a decrease in radiotherapy utilization in this risk group. Regardless of tumor characteristics, significant variations in treatment modality exist among different facility types and institutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Five-year trends in epidemiology and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, St. Petersburg, Russia: results from perinatal HIV surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissin, Dmitry M; Mandel, Michele G; Akatova, Natalia; Belyakov, Nikolay A; Rakhmanova, Aza G; Voronin, Evgeny E; Volkova, Galina V; Yakovlev, Alexey A; Jamieson, Denise J; Vitek, Charles; Robinson, Joanna; Miller, William C; Hillis, Susan

    2011-10-27

    The HIV epidemic in Russia has increasingly involved reproductive-aged women, which may increase perinatal HIV transmission. Standard HIV case-reporting and enhanced perinatal HIV surveillance systems were used for prospective assessment of HIV-infected women giving birth in St. Petersburg, Russia, during 2004-2008. Trends in social, perinatal, and clinical factors influencing mother-to-child HIV transmission stratified by history of injection drug use, and rates of perinatal HIV transmission were assessed using two-sided χ2 or Cochran-Armitage tests. Among HIV-infected women who gave birth, the proportion of women who self-reported ever using injection drugs (IDUs) decreased from 62% in 2004 to 41% in 2008 (P<0.0001). Programmatic improvements led to increased uptake of the following clinical services from 2004 to 2008 (all P<0.01): initiation of antiretroviral prophylaxis at ≤28 weeks gestation (IDUs 44%-54%, non-IDUs 45%-72%), monitoring of immunologic (IDUs 48%-64%, non-IDUs 58%-80%) and virologic status (IDUs 8%-58%, non-IDUs 10%-75%), dual/triple antiretroviral prophylaxis (IDUs 9%-44%, non-IDUs 14%-59%). After initial increase from 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5%-7.8%) in 2004 to 8.5% (CI 6.1%-11.7%) in 2005 (P<0.05), perinatal HIV transmission decreased to 5.3% (CI 3.4%-8.3%) in 2006, and 3.2% (CI 1.7%-5.8%) in 2007 (P for trend<0.05). However, the proportion of women without prenatal care and without HIV testing before labor and delivery remained unchanged. Reduced proportion of IDUs and improved clinical services among HIV-infected women giving birth were accompanied by decreased perinatal HIV transmission, which can be further reduced by increasing outreach and HIV testing of women before and during pregnancy.

  16. Secular trends in children's sweetened-beverage consumption (1973 to 1994): the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshwari, Ranganathan; Yang, Su-Jau; Nicklas, Theresa A; Berenson, Gerald S

    2005-02-01

    To determine whether children's sweetened-beverage consumption has changed over a 21-year period (1973 to 1994) in Bogalusa, LA, and whether trends in energy intake, milk consumption, and body mass index (BMI) varied among the sweetened-beverage consumption groups. Information on food and nutrient intake was derived from a single 24-hour dietary recall collected from children who participated in one of seven cross-sectional surveys. A total of 1,548 10-year-old children (65% white, 35% African American; 51% female, 49% male) were randomly selected to participate in the study. The Cochran-Armitage Trend test was applied to examine the trends in sweetened-beverage consumption by 10-year-old children over a 21-year period. A general linear model was used to examine the trend in milk consumption, energy intake, and BMI among the sweetened-beverage consumption groups. The percentage of children consuming sweetened beverages significantly decreased from 83% (1973) to 81% (1994) (P beverage consumption over time, the mean gram consumption significantly increased from 1973 to 1994 for those children who were in the medium (P beverage consumption groups; however, there were no significant differences in total BMI across the sweetened-beverage consumption groups. The total gram amount of milk consumption was significantly lower in the medium to high sweetened-beverage consumption groups compared with the lower to no sweetened-beverage consumption groups. Total energy intake remained unchanged from 1973 to 1994 within all four sweetened-beverage consumption groups. Total energy intake was significantly higher in the high sweetened-beverage consumption group compared with the other three sweetened-beverage consumption groups. Children's sweetened-beverage consumption has changed over a 21-year period. The percentage of children consuming sweetened beverages decreased from 1973 to 1994, particularly consumption of soft drinks and coffee with sugar. Data suggest that there was

  17. Impact of psm-mec in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ST764) Strains Isolated from Keratitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Kaito, Chikara; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant pathogen in keratitis, and the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is increasing. In our previous study, genotypes of MRSA isolates from keratitis cases were classified into ST5 or ST764 lineage by multi-locus sequence typing. In this study, we examined the virulence properties of these MRSA keratitis isolates and its virulence determinants. There was no difference in the prevalence of virulence genes, such as adhesion and toxins, between ST5 and ST764 isolates. All ST5 isolates carried the intact psm-mec gene, which suppresses exotoxin production and colony spreading, but promotes biofilm formation. In contrast, all ST764 isolates had one point mutation in the psm-mec gene. Biofilm production in ST5 isolates was significantly higher than that in ST764 isolates, whereas colony spreading, hemolytic activity, and production of alpha-phenol-soluble modulins were higher in ST764 than in ST5 isolates. The toxicity of ST764 supernatants to corneal epithelial cells was higher than that of ST5 supernatants. These results suggest that the point mutation in the psm-mec gene contributes to the difference in virulence properties between ST5 and ST764 isolates in MRSA keratitis.

  18. A Computational Tool for Testing Dose-related Trend Using an Age-adjusted Bootstrap-based Poly-k Test

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    Hojin Moon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A computational tool for testing for a dose-related trend and/or a pairwise difference in the incidence of an occult tumor via an age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test and the original poly-k test is presented in this paper. The poly-k test (Bailer and Portier 1988 is a survival-adjusted Cochran-Armitage test, which achieves robustness to effects of differential mortality across dose groups. The original poly-k test is asymptotically standard normal under the null hypothesis. However, the asymptotic normality is not valid if there is a deviation from the tumor onset distribution that is assumed in this test. Our age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test assesses the significance of assumed asymptotic normal tests and investigates an empirical distribution of the original poly-k test statistic using an age-adjusted bootstrap method. A tumor of interest is an occult tumor for which the time to onset is not directly observable. Since most of the animal carcinogenicity studies are designed with a single terminal sacrifice, the present tool is applicable to rodent tumorigenicity assays that have a single terminal sacrifice. The present tool takes input information simply from a user screen and reports testing results back to the screen through a user-interface. The computational tool is implemented in C/C++ and is applied to analyze a real data set as an example. Our tool enables the FDA and the pharmaceutical industry to implement a statistical analysis of tumorigenicity data from animal bioassays via our age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test and the original poly-k test which has been adopted by the National Toxicology Program as its standard statistical test.

  19. Caesarean Section in Peru: Analysis of Trends Using the Robson Classification System.

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    Vilma Tapia

    Full Text Available Cesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide while the reasons appear to be multiple, complex and, in many cases, country specific. Over the last decades, several classification systems for caesarean section have been created and proposed to monitor and compare caesarean section rates in a standardized, reliable, consistent and action-oriented manner with the aim to understand the drivers and contributors of this trend. The aims of the present study were to conduct an analysis in the three Peruvian geographical regions to assess levels and trends of delivery by caesarean section using the Robson classification for caesarean section, identify the groups of women with highest caesarean section rates and assess variation of maternal and perinatal outcomes according to caesarean section levels in each group over time.Data from 549,681 pregnant women included in the Peruvian Perinatal Information System database from 43 maternal facilities in three Peruvian geographical regions from 2000 and 2010 were studied. The data were analyzed using the Robson classification and women were studied in the ten groups in the classification. Cochran-Armitage test was used to evaluate time trends in the rates of caesarean section rates and; logistic regression was used to evaluate risk for each classification.The caesarean section rate was 27% and a yearly increase in the overall caesarean section rates from 2000 to 2010 from 23.5% to 30% (time trend p<0.001 was observed. Robson groups 1, 3 (nulliparous and multiparas, respectively, with a single cephalic term pregnancy in spontaneous labour, 5 (multiparas with a previous uterine scar with a single, cephalic, term pregnancy and 7 (multiparas with a single breech pregnancy with or without previous scars showed an increase in the caesarean section rates over time. Robson groups 1 and 3 were significantly associated with stillbirths (OR 1.43, CI95% 1.17-1.72; OR 3.53, CI95% 2.95-4.2 and maternal mortality (OR

  20. Novel pattern trimming and shrink material (PTM (PTD) and PSM (NTI)) for ArF/EUV extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Tokio; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, as next-generation lithography, various exposure techniques have been studied such as Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL), Directed Self Assembly (DSA) and multiple patterning processes. In particular, EUVL is the most promising candidate for the high volume manufacturing below N7 node. However, there are many problems to be solved such as materials, through put of the exposure tool and mask defect. With respect to the DSA, the fine patterning with block copolymer has been studied. But the DSA process also has the several problems such as the complicated process flow in chemo process, quality of the block copolymer and defect. On the other hand, although the multiple patterning has been applied the device manufacturing for several years, there are some problems such as significant increase in cost due to increasing of the process steps and the overlay accuracy at the multiple process steps. Therefore, Pattern Trimming Materials (PTM) and Pattern Shrink Materials (PSM) were developed for miniaturization using the current exposure technology. The PTM is applied on a resist pattern produced in a Positive Tone Development (PTD) process and trim the resist pattern. It is possible to control the trimming amount by changing the formulation and the baking process. It has been confirmed that the effectiveness of PTM is not only for the L/S pattern, but also for the 2D pattern like pillar pattern. At the same time, it is confirmed that the PTM can improve the Line Width Roughness (LWR) and Local Critical Dimension Uniformity (LCDU). On the other hand, the PSM is applied on the pattern prepared in a Negative Tone Imaging (NTI) process and then it can shrink the resist pattern after baking. We adopted the new concept for pattern shrinkage process which dramatically improved LCDU with the hole shrinkage. In this paper, we demonstrated the L/S and pillar pattern trimming by PTM and the C/H shrink by PSM with ArF immersion (ArF im) condition and EUV condition

  1. Trend and Seasonal Patterns of Injuries and Mortality Due to Motorcyclists Traffic Accidents; A Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Marjan; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Esmaeilpour Aghdam, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Maleki, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    To investigate trend and seasonal pattern of occurrence and mortality of motorcycle accidents in patients referred to hospitals of Isfahan. This cross-sectional study was carried out using traffic accidents data of Isfahan province, extracted from Ministry of Health (MOH) database from 2006 to 2010. During the study period, 83648 people injured due to motorcycle traffic accidents were referred to hospitals, all of them entered in the study. Logistic regression model was used to calculate the hospital mortality odds ratio, and Cochrane-Armitage test was used for assessment of linear trend. During the study period, the hospital admission for motorcycle accident was 83,648 and 89.3% (74743) of them were men. Mean age in accidents time was 26.41±14.3 years. The injuries and death sex ratio were 8.4 and 16.9, respectively. Lowest admission rate was during autumn and highest during summer. The injury mortality odds ratio was 1.01 (CI 95% 0.73-1.39) in the Spring, 1.34 (CI95% 1.01-1.79) in summer and 1.17 (CI95% 0.83-1.63). It was also calculated to be 2.51 (CI95% 1.36-4.64) in age group 40-49, 2.39 (CI95% 1.51-5.68) in 50-59 and 4.79 (CI95% 2.49-9.22) in 60-69 years. The mortality odds ratio was 3.53 (CI95% 2.77-4.5) in rural place, 1.33 (CI95% 1.15-1.54) in men, and 2.44 (CI95% 2.09-2.85) in the road out of town and village. In addition, trend of motorcycle accidents mortality was increasing (p<0.001). Motorcycle accidents injuries are more common in men, summer, young age and rural roads. These high risk groups need more attention, care and higher training.

  2. Mortality Trends in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery: An Analysis of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; He, Xia; Mayer, John E; Austin, Erle H; Quintessenza, James A; Karl, Tom R; Vricella, Luca; Mavroudis, Constantine; O'Brien, Sean M; Pasquali, Sara K; Hill, Kevin D; Husain, S Adil; Overman, David M; St Louis, James D; Han, Jane M; Shahian, David M; Cameron, Duke; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2016-10-01

    Previous analyses of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database have demonstrated a reduction over time of risk-adjusted operative mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting. The STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database (STS CHSD) was queried to assess multiinstitutional trends over time in discharge mortality and postoperative length of stay (PLOS). Since 2009, operations in the STS CHSD have been classified according to STAT (The Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery) Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality Categories. The five STAT Mortality Categories were chosen to be optimal with respect to minimizing variation within categories and maximizing variation between categories. For this study, all index cardiac operations from 1998 to 2014, inclusive, were grouped by STAT Mortality Category (exclusions: patent ductus arteriosus ligation in patients weighing less than or equal to 2.5 kg and operations that could not be assigned to a STAT Mortality Category). End points were discharge mortality and PLOS in survivors for the entire period and for 4-year epochs. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to test the null hypothesis that the mortality was the same across epochs, by STAT Mortality Category. The analysis encompassed 202,895 index operations at 118 centers. The number of centers participating in STS CHSD increased in each epoch. Overall discharge mortality was 3.4% (6,959 of 202,895) for 1998 to 2014 and 3.1% (2,308 of 75,337) for 2011 to 2014. Statistically significant improvement in discharge mortality was seen in STAT Mortality Categories 2, 3, 4, and 5 (p values for STAT Mortality Categories 1 through 5 are 0.060, <0.001, 0.015, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). PLOS in survivors was relatively unchanged over the same time intervals. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the finding of declining risk-stratified rates of discharge mortality over time is not simply attributable to the addition

  3. Ready, Set, Go: African American Preadolescents' Sexual Thoughts, Intentions, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim S.; Fasula, Amy M.; Lin, Carol Y.; Levin, Martin L.; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Forehand, Rex

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of preadolescent sexuality is limited. To help fill this gap, we calculated frequencies, percentages, and confidence intervals for 1,096 preadolescents' reports of sexual thoughts, intentions, and sexual behavior. Cochran-Armitage trend tests accounted for age effects. Findings show that 9-year-olds are readying for sexual activity,…

  4. Contemporary use trends and survival outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy or bladder-preservation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, David B; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Ghiraldi, Eric M; Ristau, Benjamin T; Geynisman, Daniel M; Churilla, Thomas M; Horwitz, Eric M; Sobczak, Mark L; Chen, David Y T; Viterbo, Rosalia; Greenberg, Richard E; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Smaldone, Marc C

    2017-11-15

    The current study was performed to examine temporal trends and compare overall survival (OS) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) or bladder-preservation therapy (BPT) for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The authors reviewed the National Cancer Data Base to identify patients with AJCC stage II to III urothelial carcinoma of the bladder from 2004 through 2013. Patients receiving BPT were stratified as having received any external-beam radiotherapy (any XRT), definitive XRT (50-80 grays), and definitive XRT with chemotherapy (CRT). Treatment trends and OS outcomes for the BPT and RC cohorts were evaluated using Cochran-Armitage tests, unadjusted Kaplan-Meier curves, adjusted Cox multivariate regression, and propensity score matching, using increasingly stringent selection criteria. A total of 32,300 patients met the inclusion criteria and were treated with RC (22,680 patients) or BPT (9620 patients). Of the patients treated with BPT, 26.4% (2540 patients) and 15.5% (1489 patients), respectively, were treated with definitive XRT and CRT. Improved OS was observed for RC in all groups. After adjustments with more rigorous statistical models controlling for confounders and with more restrictive BPT cohorts, the magnitude of the OS benefit became attenuated on multivariate (any XRT: hazard ratio [HR], 2.115 [95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.045-2.188]; definitive XRT: HR, 1.870 [95% CI, 1.773-1.972]; and CRT: HR, 1.578 [95% CI, 1.474-1.691]) and propensity score (any XRT: HR, 2.008 [95% CI, 1.871-2.154]; definitive XRT: HR, 1.606 [95% CI, 1.453-1.776]; and CRT: HR, 1.406 [95% CI, 1.235-1.601]) analyses. In the National Cancer Data Base, receipt of BPT was associated with decreased OS compared with RC in patients with stage II to III urothelial carcinoma. Increasingly stringent definitions of BPT and more rigorous statistical methods adjusting for selection biases attenuated observed survival differences. Cancer 2017;123:4337-45. © 2017

  5. Trends in traumatic brain injury mortality in China, 2006-2013: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peixia; Yin, Peng; Ning, Peishan; Wang, Lijun; Cheng, Xunjie; Liu, Yunning; Schwebel, David C; Liu, Jiangmei; Qi, Jinlei; Hu, Guoqing; Zhou, Maigeng

    2017-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant global public health problem, but has received minimal attention from researchers and policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Epidemiological evidence of TBI morbidity and mortality is absent at the national level for most LMICs, including China. Using data from China's Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs) system, we conducted a population-based longitudinal analysis to examine TBI mortality, and mortality differences by sex, age group, location (urban/rural), and external cause of injury, from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013 in China. Mortality data came from the national DSPs system of China, which has coded deaths using the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) since 2004. Crude and age-standardized mortality with 95% CIs were estimated using the census population in 2010 as a reference population. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to examine the significance of trends in mortality from 2006 to 2013. Negative binomial models were used to examine the associations of TBI mortality with location, sex, and age group. Subgroup analysis was performed by external cause of TBI. We found the following: (1) Age-adjusted TBI mortality increased from 13.23 per 100,000 population in 2006 to 17.06 per 100,000 population in 2008 and then began to fall slightly. In 2013, age-adjusted TBI mortality was 12.99 per 100,000 population (SE = 0.13). (2) Compared to females and urban residents, males and rural residents had higher TBI mortality risk, with adjusted mortality rate ratios of 2.57 and 1.71, respectively. TBI mortality increased substantially with older age. (3) Motor vehicle crashes and falls were the 2 leading causes of TBI mortality between 2006 and 2013. TBI deaths from motor vehicle crashes in children aged 0-14 years and adults aged 65 years and older were most often in pedestrians, and motorcyclists were the first or second leading category of road user for the other

  6. Trends in traumatic brain injury mortality in China, 2006-2013: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixia Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a significant global public health problem, but has received minimal attention from researchers and policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Epidemiological evidence of TBI morbidity and mortality is absent at the national level for most LMICs, including China. Using data from China's Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs system, we conducted a population-based longitudinal analysis to examine TBI mortality, and mortality differences by sex, age group, location (urban/rural, and external cause of injury, from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013 in China.Mortality data came from the national DSPs system of China, which has coded deaths using the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10 since 2004. Crude and age-standardized mortality with 95% CIs were estimated using the census population in 2010 as a reference population. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to examine the significance of trends in mortality from 2006 to 2013. Negative binomial models were used to examine the associations of TBI mortality with location, sex, and age group. Subgroup analysis was performed by external cause of TBI. We found the following: (1 Age-adjusted TBI mortality increased from 13.23 per 100,000 population in 2006 to 17.06 per 100,000 population in 2008 and then began to fall slightly. In 2013, age-adjusted TBI mortality was 12.99 per 100,000 population (SE = 0.13. (2 Compared to females and urban residents, males and rural residents had higher TBI mortality risk, with adjusted mortality rate ratios of 2.57 and 1.71, respectively. TBI mortality increased substantially with older age. (3 Motor vehicle crashes and falls were the 2 leading causes of TBI mortality between 2006 and 2013. TBI deaths from motor vehicle crashes in children aged 0-14 years and adults aged 65 years and older were most often in pedestrians, and motorcyclists were the first or second leading category of road user for

  7. Processo de Separação por Membrana (PSM: aplicação da tecnologia na indústria láctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jânio Sousa Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is characterized by being a industry intensive technology , but the innovations in this area are often incremental, whose dynamics is based on new combinations of existing knowledge. Among the various sectors of the food industry, the dairy sector plays an important role in the Brazilian economy and stands out among the top four. Starting from the significant growth in this sector three points deserve more attention being: intolerance / allergy to protein (casein or lactose, coproduct whey and waste water. In order to minimize and solve these barriers industry in the processes membrane separation (PSM have been used in industry with the aim to separate, purify or concentrate determined components in the mixture of interest. The present work aims to bring to the fore the importance and the use of ultrafiltration in the dairy sector. Was delimited a qualitative approach to research, which gave through archival and bibliographic research .The ultrafiltration technology has provided great advances with regard to technology in dairy and becoming able to work with materials that were previously considered as waste in agro industries processing as whey, brine and residual water dairy others.

  8. PENINGKATAN KETERAMPILAN MELAKUKAN PROSEDUR KEARSIPAN MENGGUNAKAN KARTU KENDALI DENGAN METODE DEMONSTRASI MELALUI MEDIA ALAT PERAGA BAGI SISWA KELAS XI-AP SMK PSM RANDUBLATUNG BLORA TAHUN AJARAN 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Sri Yuliani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Observasi awal di SMK PSM Randublatung Blora kelas XI Administrasi Perkantoran ditemukan bahwa keterampilan siswa dalam prosedur mengarsip menggunakan kartu kendali masih rendah. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari proses pengisian kartu kendali masih banyak yang salah dan tidak rangkap tiga, selain itu siswa dalam mengarsip banyak yang bertanya dengan temannya. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas XI AP SMK PSM Randublatung Blora tahun ajaran 2 013/2014. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah tes dan non tes. Instrumen tes berupa tes evaluasi untuk mengetahui hasil belajar siswa. Instrumen non tes berupa lembar pengamatan keterampilan siswa. Hasil penelitian pada siklus I menunjukkan rata-rata tingkat keterampilan siswa sebesar 61,71% termasuk dalam kategori cukup. Untuk hasil penelitian siklus II menunjukkan rata -rata tingkat keterampilan siswa sebesar 85,79% termasuk dalam kategori sangat baik. Based on the first observation, is students grade XI AP SMK PSM Randublatung Blora founded that students; skill in archives procedure using control card is still low. It can be seen from t he mistake on the filling of control card and it is not triplicate. Besides, there are many students that ask to their friends in achieving. The subject of this research is students grade XI AP SMK PSM Randublatung Blora year 2013/2014. Test instrument is evaluation test to know the students’ studying result. Non test instrument is a sheet of skill observation and a sheet of students’ activity observation. Observation result on cycle I show that the average of student skill is 61,71% include in enough category. Meanwhile, the cycle II show that the average of student skill is 85,79% include in very good category. © 2014 UniversitasNegeri Semarang

  9. Regional, Seasonal, and Temporal Variations in the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Pigs at Slaughter in Denmark (1997-2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2009-01-01

    and explanatory variables region, season, and the year of isolate sampling were analyzed using a logistic regression model. The Cochran-Armitage test provided evidence of significant temporal trends for ampicillin-resistant E. coli (an increasing trend, p streptomycin-resistant E. coli (a decreasing...... trend, p streptomycin...... that for streptomycin-resistant E. coli presented an overall significant decrease over time. The estimated odds ratios from the logistic regression model indicated varying risks for the occurrence of resistance by season and by region. The winter months were associated with an increased risk for the occurrence...

  10. Billing Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Billing Trends. Internet access: Bandwidth becoming analogous to electric power. Only maximum capacity (load) is fixed; Charges based on usage (units). Leased line bandwidth: Billing analogous to phone calls. But bandwidth is variable.

  11. Skiing trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...

  12. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  13. [Trend sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R; Pralle, H

    2015-06-01

    Popular trend sports are characterized by intensive and high speed performance. Due to the high energy mechanism in falls, typical injury distributions and patterns result. In a retrospective study the injury patterns and frequencies in mountain bike athletes were analyzed and pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic options in the treatment of high energy injuries to the carpal bones are shown. Based on a retrospective survey over 2 successive years, active mountain bike athletes (World Cup Series) were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Injury patterns and frequencies were analyzed. The pathophysiology, diagnostics and therapy of high energy carpal injuries are discussed. In this study 107 World Cup mountain bike athletes were enrolled. Injuries of the extremities were found in more than 75% of athletes with a higher prevalence in the upper extremities (40.7%) than the lower extremities (34.84%), followed by injuries of the head and face (13.3%, of which 10.6% were traumatic brain injuries) and the trunk (10.6%). Fractures and dislocations of the hand and wrist were found in approximately half of the athletes (50.9%). In popular trend sports injuries of the extremities are common, especially of the carpal bones and ligaments. It is important to distinguish stable from destabilizing injuries in order to provide adequate therapeutic options.

  14. Correcting for cryptic relatedness by a regression-based genomic control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yaning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic control (GC method is a useful tool to correct for the cryptic relatedness in population-based association studies. It was originally proposed for correcting for the variance inflation of Cochran-Armitage's additive trend test by using information from unlinked null markers, and was later generalized to be applicable to other tests with the additional requirement that the null markers are matched with the candidate marker in allele frequencies. However, matching allele frequencies limits the number of available null markers and thus limits the applicability of the GC method. On the other hand, errors in genotype/allele frequencies may cause further bias and variance inflation and thereby aggravate the effect of GC correction. Results In this paper, we propose a regression-based GC method using null markers that are not necessarily matched in allele frequencies with the candidate marker. Variation of allele frequencies of the null markers is adjusted by a regression method. Conclusion The proposed method can be readily applied to the Cochran-Armitage's trend tests other than the additive trend test, the Pearson's chi-square test and other robust efficiency tests. Simulation results show that the proposed method is effective in controlling type I error in the presence of population substructure.

  15. The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR and Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganism (PSM on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (cv. N80 under Different Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilizers Levels in Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Bahari saravi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and phosphate solubilizing microorganism (PSM on yield and yield components of wheat a pot experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during 2009. Experiment was arranged in factorial based on completely randomized design in three replicates. Treatments were included bio-fertilizer in four levels (non-inoculation control, Phosphate Barvare 2 (Pseudomonas fluorescens+Bacillus subtilis, Supernitroplus (Azotobacter brasilense+Azospirillum lipoferum and Nitroxine (Azospirillum + Pseudomona + Bacillus, three levels of chemical nitrogen fertilizer (0, 75 and 150 kg urea/ha and three levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg super phosphate triple/ha. Results showed that the studied treatments (biofertilizer, nitrogen and phosphate inorganic fertilizers had significant effect on grain number per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield and harvest index. Interaction effect between biofertilizer and chemical fertilizers was significant in terms of grain yield. The maximum grain yield was resulted from simultaneously applying of Nitroxine and 75 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer. By contrast, the highest straw yield was obtained when 150 kg nitrogen fertilizer was used. Grain yield had the maximum correlation with biological yield (r=0.85**. Grain yield positively and significantly correlated with grain number per spike (r=0.73**, 1000 grain weight (r=0.68**, straw yield (r=0.56** and harvest index (r=0.69**. In conclusion biofertilizer inoculations could reduce application of nitrogen and phosphorus chemical fertilizers and increase plant performance.

  16. Fertilizer trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  17. PSM and Media Personalisation – a Conflict?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2008-01-01

    interviews during the design process of ‘MitDR’, tensions between the concept of PSB and the concept of personalisation are identified. The findings from the ‘MitDR’ project are analysed as a balance between getting attention and insisting on intention with Herbert Simon’s concept of attention economy......, and with a proposed concept of ‘narrative economy’. Furthermore it is discussed whether PSBs have customers and whether the management method of Customer Relation Management is relevant in relation to PSB....

  18. [Influential factors of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium on the study of association between gene polymorphism and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A-qun; Zang, Jing; Feng, Yun-xia; Wang, Kai-juan

    2009-11-01

    According to the data collected from gastric cancer families comparative study, the influence factors of Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium in the association studies of gene polymorphism and disease were analyzed to reveal the reasons that affecting the equilibrium deviation in the group. Varieties of risk genotype for gastric cancer were analyzed and detected with H-W equilibrium, genetic linkage disequilibrium analysis and Cochran-Armitage trend test. (1) Significant deviations from H-W equilibrium were observed in IL-1B-31, IL-1B-511, IL-1RN and TNF-A-308 of the cases and controls (P < 0.01). MIF-173 tended to be equilibrium in the population. (2) Deviations from expectations of phenotypes combination probability were observed in two-site H-W chi(2) tests (P < 0.01). (3) The Cochran-Armitage trend test showed that distribution of IL-1B-511 and IL-1RN were significantly different (P < 0.05), suggesting that population stratification might have existed in the group. (1) Affected by frequency-dependent selection, under the combination of linkage disequilibrium, mutations and interaction, genotype frequency of IL-1B-31, IL-1B-511, IL-1RN and TNF-A-308 showed deviation from H-W equilibrium in population. (2) Two-site genetic equilibrium test model seemed better to reflect the differences of phenotypic combination fitness. (3) Population stratification was another factor to express the deviation from H-W equilibrium.

  19. REALISASI ISI KEPUTUSAN PESAMUAN AGUNG III MUDP BALI NO. 01/KEP/PSM-3 MDP BALI/X/2010 TERKAIT DENGAN ANAK PEREMPUAN TERMASUK BERHAK MEWARIS (STUDI KASUS DI KABUPATEN BULELENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Sudiatmaka

    2016-08-01

    perubahan awig-awig yang telah dimiliki dan berlaku. Dalam aplikasi putusan Pesamuan Agung III MUDP Bali, mendapat respon negarif dari anak laki-laki yang kurang memahami asas komunalitas di antara anak laki-laki maupun perempuan, tetapi jika dilihat pemberi waris dalam bentuk paweweh tampaknya anak laki-laki pun tidak keberatan. Tanggapan positif masyarakat Buleleng menghormati hak perempuan Bali dalam bidang kehidupan sosial dan ekonomi dengan kebijaksanaan memberikan kesempatan sebagai pewaris di dalam keluarga. Kata Kunci: Decision Tree, Diskriminasi Perlakuan, Hukum Adat, Kebijakan, Keputusan, Kontradiktif , Mewaris, Perempuan Bali. Abstract The background of this research is the study of the legal status of women Bali weak in terms of inheritance, because according to the Customary Law Bali rightful heir only male offspring and the families of men and male foster child. Women in the Indigenous people of Bali are still suffering discrimination in terms of provision law. In general, this study aims to (1 to determine the form of policy making in the traditional decision-making process regarding inheritance in Buleleng district; (2 to determine the actual contents of Bali Province MUDP decision No.01/Kep/PSM-3/ MDP BALI/X/2010, October 15, 2010 on Bali receives 1/2 of the women's inheritance rights purusa after the deduction of 30% for inheritance and conservation purposes. (3 To know the views and acceptance of women in Buleleng against the great implementasion pesamuan III MUDP Bali; (4 to determine the effect of fixing SK MUDP Bali Province No.01/ Kep/PSM-3/MDP BALI/X/2010, and the holding capacity for indigenous peoples in Buleleng regency. This study will be conducted over two years, ie from 2015 to 2016. The output of the study described as follows: (1 the outcome of the first: the design and development of a policy on customary provisions that guarantee the rights of women in law, and Textbook , (2 the outcome of II: scientific articles in journals accredited

  20. Persisting Racial Disparities in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Utilization and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Ramachandran, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The purpose was to study whether racial disparities in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) utilization and outcomes have declined over time. We used the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2011. We used chi-squared test to compare characteristics, Cochran-Armitage test to compare utilization rates, and Cochran-Armitage test and logistic regression to compare time-trends in outcomes by race. From 1998 to 2011, 176,141 Whites and 7694 Blacks underwent TSA. Compared to Whites, Blacks who underwent TSA were younger (69.1 vs. 64.2 years; p racial disparities increased from 1998 to 2011 (p disparities did not change over time (p = 0.31). These disparities in utilization were borderline significant in adjusted analyses. There were no racial differences in proportion discharged to inpatient medical facility in 1998-2000, 15.2 vs. 15.0 % (p = 0.95), and in 2009-2011, 12.3 vs. 11.1 % (p = 0.37), respectively. We found increasing racial disparities in TSA utilization. Some disparities in outcomes exist as well. Patients, surgeons, and policy-makes should be aware of these findings and take action to reduce racial disparities.

  1. Business process trends

    OpenAIRE

    von Rosing, Mark; Polovina, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Business process and business process management (BPM) concepts have matured over the years and new technology, concepts, standards and solutions appear. In this chapter\\ud we will therefore focus on the current and future process trends. We will elaborate on the importance of trends, the maturity of the subject, giving a perspective on what emerging trends, industry trends, mega trends are, what is hyped at the moment, and what has reached a market adoption where it has started to become the...

  2. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  3. Marketing Trends to Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  4. Heroin: Statistics and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... opioid overdose Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  5. NASA trend analysis procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  6. Energy Trends 2012; Energie Trends 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dril, T. (ed.); Gerdes, J. (ed.) [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Marbus, S. (ed.) [Energie-Nederland, Den Haag (Netherlands); Boelhouwer, M. (ed.) [Netbeheer Nederland, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In Energy Trends 2012, all figures and developments in the field of energy in the Netherlands are presented in conjunction. The book provides information on energy use by consumers and businesses, provides insight into the international energy trade, energy production and development of energy networks [Dutch] In Energie Trends 2012 staan alle cijfers en ontwikkelingen op het gebied van energie in Nederland in samenhang gepresenteerd. Het boek biedt informatie over energiegebruik door consumenten en bedrijven, geeft inzage in de internationale energiehandel en energieproductie en biedt inzicht in de ontwikkeling van de energienetten.

  7. Trends in Web characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, João; Gomes, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—The Web is permanently changing, with new technologies and publishing behaviors emerging everyday. It is important to track trends on the evolution of the Web to develop efficient tools to process its data. For instance, Web trends influence the design of browsers, crawlers and search engines. This study presents trends on the evolution of the Web derived from the analysis of 3 characterizations performed within an interval of 5 years. The Web portion used as a c...

  8. Computer architecture technology trends

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This year's edition of Computer Architecture Technology Trends analyses the trends which are taking place in the architecture of computing systems today. Due to the sheer number of different applications to which computers are being applied, there seems no end to the different adoptions which proliferate. There are, however, some underlying trends which appear. Decision makers should be aware of these trends when specifying architectures, particularly for future applications. This report is fully revised and updated and provides insight in

  9. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  10. Trend Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-11

    including breaking news, meme , and commemorative day, on the context patterns. Table 2 shows the example pattern of classifying context pattern feature...used the following rule to find the ‘ meme ’. If the trending topic contains ‘#’ AND ‘subject+verb’, then trending topic is ‘ Meme ’. Table 2 Context

  11. No Contribution of GAD-65 and IA-2 Autoantibodies around Time of Diagnosis to the Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen U.; Pipper, Christian B.; Mortensen, Henrik B.

    2016-01-01

    -normal regression model was used. Nine hundred children and adolescents had complete records and were included in the analysis. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate changes in prevalence of autoantibody positivity by period. Results. No significant changes in levels of GADA and IA-2A were found over...... associated antigen-2A (IA-2A) mirrored the 3.4% annual increase in incidence of T1D. Methods. From the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register, we randomly selected 500 patients and 500 siblings for GADA and IA-2A analysis (1997 through 2005). Blood samples were taken within three months after onset. A robust log......Aims. A new perspective on autoantibodies as pivotal players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has recently emerged. Our key objective was to examine whether increased levels of autoantibodies against the β-cell autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (isoform 65) (GADA) and insulinoma...

  12. Healthy food trends -- kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... drugs), you may need to limit vitamin K foods. Vitamin K can affect how these medicines work. ...

  13. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000731.htm Healthy food trends -- quinoa To use the sharing features on ... Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  14. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000728.htm Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds To use the sharing features on ... Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  15. Health Plans - Trend Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page contains several useful trend and competition indicators. Certain files will be updated monthly while others will be updated quarterly. The files are the...

  16. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  17. Association of rs2294008 and rs9297976 Polymorphisms in PSCA Gene with Gastric Cancer Susceptibility in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdikulova, Shahlo; Dalimova, Dilbar; Abdurakhimov, Abror; Adilov, Bekzod; Navruzov, Sarimbek; Yusupbekov, Abror; Djuraev, Mirjalol; Abdujapparov, Suleyman; Egamberdiev, Dilshod; Mukhamedov, Rustam

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in the development of gastric cancer (GC), a prevalent malignancy in Central Asia. Recent studies have shown that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes are associated with increased GC risk, indicating that genetic variation contributes to gastric carcinogenesis. Located on chromosome 8q24.2, the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene encodes a 123-amino acid glycoprotein related to the cell-proliferation inhibition and cell-death induction activity. SNPs in PSCA gene have been found to be associated with gastric cancer risk in a genome-wide association study, but results were not conclusive. This study aimed to investigate the association between two polymorphic variants of PSCA gene (rs2294008 and rs9297976) and the susceptibility to gastric cancer in Uzbekistan. Two hundred sixty eight patients with gastric cancer and a control group of 248 healthy individuals were included in this study. DNA samples isolated from these groups were genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. Comparative analysis of resulting genotypes showed a statistically significant association between CT genotype and gastric cancer (p=0.03, additive model of inheritance, Cochran-Armitage trend test). Comparative analysis of the distribution of genotypes of rs2976392 polymorphism did not show a statistically significant difference; however, analysis of the distribution of the rs2976392 genotypes in a subgroup of young women revealed a statistically significant (p = 0.04, additive model of inheritance, Cochran-Armitage trend test) increase in the incidence of AA (38%) and AG (56%) genotypes in patients with GC, compared to the controls (20% and 40%). Our findings support that PSCA rs2294008 and rs9297976 polymorphism may contribute to the susceptibility to gastric cancer. Genotyping of these polymorphisms can potentially be recommended as one of the criteria for identification of high risk groups for gastric cancer development in Uzbekistan.

  18. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  19. The Trend-in-trend Research Design for Causal Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xinyao; Small, Dylan S; Leonard, Charles E; Hennessy, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time trends in prevalence that are correlated with time trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased. The trend-in-trend design first divides the study population into strata based on the cumulative probability of exposure given covariates, which effectively stratifies on time trend in exposure, provided there is a trend. Next, a covariates-free maximum likelihood model estimates the odds ratio (OR) using data on exposure prevalence and outcome frequency within cumulative probability of exposure strata, across multiple periods. In simulations, the trend-in-trend design produced ORs with negligible bias in the presence of unmeasured confounding. In empiric applications, trend-in-trend reproduced the known positive association between rofecoxib and myocardial infarction (observed OR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4), and known null associations between rofecoxib and severe hypoglycemia (OR = 1.1 [0.92, 1.3]) and nonvertebral fracture (OR = 0.84 [0.64, 1.1]). The trend-in-trend method may be useful in settings where there is a strong time trend in exposure, such as a newly approved drug or other medical intervention. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B178.

  20. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, R.H.

    1968-01-01

    1. This work, the first volume of a series dealing with evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, is concerned with the egg system of about 400 species. The data are presented systematically in chapters 1 and 2 with a critical review of the literature after each family.

    2. Chapter 3 evaluates facts

  1. Tropospheric ozone trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.; Roemer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of chemical reactive trace gases have substantially altered the composition of the troposphere. These perturbations have caused tropospheric O3 increases, in particular in the Northern Hemisphere. It remains, however, difficult to accurately establish O3 trends throughout the

  2. Travel and tourism trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    1995-01-01

    Demographic trends which impact leisure time activities are highlighted, with particular emphasis given to the impacts of the growth of minority populations. Data was collected from recreationists to National Forests and from residents of an urban community. The data indicate a shift in outdoor recreation activities.

  3. Ten Top Tech Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  4. Trends in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, E

    2001-05-01

    The terms trend and cerebral palsy are defined emphazing the non-diagnostic nature of the cerebral palsy label. Criteria necessary for valid estimation of trends include constant methods of estimating population based numerators and denominators over a number of years, which render them hard to obtain, particularly in developing countries. Trends in cerebral palsy are an important source of aetiological hypotheses for congenital cerebral palsy, provide corroborative evidence for existing hypotheses and may direct strategies to prevent post neonatally acquired cerebral palsy. In developed countries the overall frequency of congenital cerebral palsy has changed little during the last decades. However this masks a dramatic increase in the frequency in the infants born most preterm, a decline in those born moderately preterm and little change in those born at term, but the severity of impairments of those born very preterm is decreasing while for those born at term severity in increasing. These changes may be the result of the increasing ability of perinatal care to rescue very vulnerable infants. There is less agreement in trends of post neonatally acquired cerebral palsy which are more sensitive to social well being.

  5. Trends in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  6. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...

  7. Cotton trends in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Cotton trends in India. A crop of significant economic importance, valued at over Rs. 15000 Crs. Provides income to 60 million people. Crucial raw material for Rs 83000 Crores textile industry out of which Rs 45754 crores is exports. Approx. 20 Million acres of cotton provides ...

  8. Trends in Therapeutic Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…

  9. Trends in ICT 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, Paul van; Rust, Christa

    2003-01-01

    The study "Trends in ICT 2003" surveyed Dutch managers about important IT aspects. Results of the study are presented in brief. Topics treated are security, privacy, e-commerce, use of intranet, monitoring of employee WWW use, who makes IT decisions, implementation of contingency plans, the cause of

  10. [Development trend of nanomedicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has had a great impact on science, technology, and society since 2000, and its applications in medicine are also progressing in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. In this review, international trends in nanomedicine regulation are introduced, including the definition of nanomedicines and the evaluation of liposomes and iron nanoparticles.

  11. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  12. Outdoor recreation participation trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Barbara L. McDonald; R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; Jack Martin; Jim Bason; Vernon R. Leeworthy

    1999-01-01

    As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends, the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. The primary source of data is the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). The NSRE is the latest in the continuing series of National Recreation...

  13. Trends in corporate greening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    , if a general change of attitude has taken place in the business community or if companies just comply with the required minimum standard set by legislation. Based on a series of surveys this paper reports on the trends in implementing corporate environmental management in Danish industry up till the entrance...... of the new millennium in order to indicate how practice has evolved....

  14. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  15. Wireless Tech Trends 2010. Trend: smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2010-02-01

    THE LANDSCAPE: Physician use of handhelds is by no means a new concept. But as the devices--particularly the RIM BlackBerry, Apple iPhone and Google Android--become more sophisticated and more applications become available, the game is changing, quickly. And with so many hospitals upgrading their infrastructures to offer ubiquitous wireless coverage, clinicians are using smartphones in the hospital setting to access online tools such as drug references, and communicate with colleagues. For ClOs, it's a no-brainer--physicians and nurses are already carrying these devices, so why not capitalize on the trend by enabling users to access clinical information and link to patient records. A number of organizations have adopted this thinking and are on the road to enabling EMR access via mobile devices. And while there are certainly sticking points, it's an area that many say is poised for significant growth in the next few years. Many innovative organizations are looking to provide access to electronic records and other clinical data through smartphones. Plans are already being formulated to leverage the devices to facilitate patient handoff and sign-out, as well as to link charge capture with quality measures. Cutting-edge organizations are looking to create actionable information for clinicians through software that can analyze data, track patients'progress, and send out alerts when conditions worsen.

  16. Secular trends in growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudvoye, Julie; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2017-06-01

    Human adult height has been increasing world-wide for a century and a half. The rate of increase depends on time and place of measurement. Final height appears to have reached a plateau in Northern European countries but it is still increasing in southern European countries as well as Japan. While mean birth length has not changed recently in industrialized countries, the secular trend finally observed in adult height mostly originates during the first 2 years of life. Secular trend in growth is a marker of public health and provides insights into the interaction between growth and environment. It has been shown to be affected by income, social status, infections and nutrition. While genetic factors cannot explain such rapid changes in average population height, epigenetic factors could be the link between growth and environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Electricity market modeling trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventosa, Mariano E-mail: mariano.ventosa@iit.upco.es; Baillo, Alvaro; Ramos, Andres; Rivier, Michel

    2005-05-01

    The trend towards competition in the electricity sector has led to efforts by the research community to develop decision and analysis support models adapted to the new market context. This paper focuses on electricity generation market modeling. Its aim is to help to identify, classify and characterize the somewhat confusing diversity of approaches that can be found in the technical literature on the subject. The paper presents a survey of the most relevant publications regarding electricity market modeling, identifying three major trends: optimization models, equilibrium models and simulation models. It introduces a classification according to their most relevant attributes. Finally, it identifies the most suitable approaches for conducting various types of planning studies or market analysis in this new context.

  18. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  19. Trends in Internet Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Panchanathan, Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Internet marketing involves the usage of the Internet to market and sell goods or services. In this thesis we wished to seek answers for the following questions with the help of web, email surveys taking into consideration consumer perspective, company perspective and 3rd party internet marketing agency perspective. Our survey sample was based on a small set of companies, consumers and internet marketing agencies. The survey results helped us in predicting the trends in internet marketing. We...

  20. Discrimination between deterministic trend and stochastic trend processes

    OpenAIRE

    Caiado, Jorge; Crato, Nuno

    2005-01-01

    Most of economic and financial time series have a nonstationary behavior. There are different types of nonstationary processes, such as those with stochastic trend and those with deterministic trend. In practice, it can be quite difficult to distinguish between the two processes. In this paper, we compare random walk and determinist trend processes using sample autocorrelation, sample partial autocorrelation and periodogram based metrics.

  1. TREND MECHANISMS IN CONTEMPORARY FASHION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Explores a spatial approach to trend mechanisms that is argued to be more contemporary than the traditional temporal appraoch.......Explores a spatial approach to trend mechanisms that is argued to be more contemporary than the traditional temporal appraoch....

  2. High School and Youth Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trends Nationwide Trends Prevention and Treatment Lessons from Prevention Research Substance Abuse in the Military Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Get this Publication Español PDF (653KB) Cite this ...

  3. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2015-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  4. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  5. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trends in contemporary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a wide spectrum of hot topics and current trends in mathematics, including noncommutative algebra via deformation theory,  optimal transportation, nonlinear potential theory, kinetic theory and gas dynamics, geometric numerical integration, finite simple groups of small essential dimension, optimal control problems, extended Dynkin diagrams, spin glasses, aspherical closed manifolds, Boltzmann systems, birational geometry of projective varieties and directed graphs, nonlinear diffusion, geometric constructions of extremal metrics on complex manifolds, and Pell’s equation in polynomials. The book comprises a selection of contributions by leading international mathematicians who were speakers at the "INdAM Day", an initiative dating back to 2004 at which the most recent developments in contemporary mathematics are presented.

  7. Philippine population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Philippine population trends and prospects. The population growth rate, which has been 2% in this century, is declining in most regions of the Philippines. The 1980 census showed a decline in the proportion of the population under 15 uears old. The size of the working-age population and the aged rose slightly. The median age in 1980 was 18.6 years as opposed to 16.9 years in 1970. Men still outnumber women in the Philippines. Urbanization has increased by 10% from 1948 to 1980, a relatively sluggish urban growth rate. In 1960, the total fertility rate was 6.5; this declined to 5.2 in 1975. The regions that are most exposed to modernization have the lowest fertility. Philippine surveys show that urban population (especially metro Manilans), the college educated, and those married to white collar workers have the smallest family size. Age at marriage also influences fertility. Mortality has declined continuously during the 20th century, and especially from 1968-1980. The 1980 census shows a higher population growth rate than expected. This makes replacement level fertility unlikely by the end of the century. Projections demonstrate that the population size of the country will be at least 71 million and perhaps as much as 80 million by the end of the century. These population figures highlight the following development issues: 1) an increasing number of jobs for the growing numbers of people in the working ages, 15-64; 2) lower productivity due to large numbers of young inexperienced workers; 3) larger numbers of retired people in relation to workers; 4) an imbalance in educational opportunities and health care between rural and urban areas; 5) the inability of the family planning program to reach high fertility sub-groups; 6) the need for rural development programs; and 7) the increasing interrelationship between demographic and development trends.

  8. TRENDS IN ROMANIAN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjol Florentina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an industry of the future, having the potential to provide significant revenues, and an industry of 'beauty', because it will protect, preserve and contribute to arranging the environment affected by other human activities. This is why it is very important to know the evolution of this underdeveloped field in our country. This paper is intended as a study on current trends in Romanian tourism without any claim of being an exhaustive research on the industry, describing the main indices of tourist traffic and their influence on Romanian tourism. Nowadays, we witness three main trends in Romanian tourism: sustainability, ecotourism and the increasing presence of cultural tourism. Ecotourism, as a form of tourism, has emerged from people's need to withdraw in nature, to visit and learn about the natural areas which have or have not a national or international protection status. Cultural tourism appears as a type of tourism clearly differentiated from other forms or types of tourism, particularly through motivation. It can be defined as a form of tourist mobility whose primary goal is broadening the horizon of knowledge by uncovering its architectural and artistic heritage and the areas in which it originates. Sustainability for tourism, as for other industries, has three independent aspects: economic, socio-cultural and environmental. Sustainability implies permanence, which means that sustainable tourism requires the optimal use of resources, minimizing the negative economic, socio-cultural and ecological impact, maximizing the benefits upon local communities, national economies and conservation of nature. Regarding statistical data, in what quantity is concerned, there is an increase in Romanian tourism, but in what quality is concerned there is a setback for tourism in the last years. This aspect should make public authorities take concern in improving the infrastructure and the quality of the touristical activity and in diversifying

  9. Trends in croatian hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina GRZINIC

    2008-01-01

    Tourism and hotel business is becoming one of the leading industries of the world. Therefore, an increased attention needs to be paid to the study of trends in tourism because they determine the trends in hotel industry. The purpose of the paper is to point out the importance of hotel industry as one of the most important elements of development in tourist economies. The paper aims at introducing the newest trends in modern hotel industry and offering a review of the recent trends of demand a...

  10. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  11. Trends in environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.E. [Arthur D. Little of Canada Limited, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Changes wrought by environmental regulations in the way companies produce, develop, and deliver their products and services were discussed. Some `tell-tale` signs of a vacuum of industry leadership in environmental affairs were identified. These included: lack of a `visible` corporate environmental policy, role confusion, limited action in response to plans, process myopia, poorly utilized data, hidden accomplishments, and an adversarial relationship with the regulatory bodies. Key trends in environmental management, and the necessary attributes for effective environmental management expected of the next generation of industry leaders were briefly described, including (1) the incorporation of environmental plans into the core of the business process, and into corporate strategy; (2) the formation of business-led, line-driven, rather than staff driven plans; and (3) increased measurement and broad dissemination of environmental successes, and their incorporation into the company`s strategic leverage. The overwhelming importance of commitment at the highest level, and the value of a business-oriented approach over a functional approach for effective environmental management were stressed.

  12. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  13. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has been a tremendous innovation, through which applications became available online, accessible through an Internet connection and using any computing device (computer, smartphone or tablet. According to one of the most recent studies conducted in 2012 by Everest Group and Cloud Connect, 57% of companies said they already use SaaS application (Software as a Service, and 38% reported using standard tools PaaS (Platform as a Service. However, in the most cases, the users of these solutions highlighted the fact that one of the main obstacles in the development of this technology is the fact that, in cloud, the application is not available without an Internet connection. The new challenge of the cloud system has become now the offline, specifically accessing SaaS applications without being connected to the Internet. This topic is directly related to user productivity within companies as productivity growth is one of the key promises of cloud computing system applications transformation. The aim of this paper is the presentation of some important aspects related to the offline cloud system and regulatory trends in the European Union (EU.

  14. Selected Trends of the Cybercrime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Požár

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution paid particular attention to trends of the cybercrime in future period dedicated to combating negative phenomena in the context of cyberspace. The structure of article concern of definition of cybercrime, its legal classification especially choosing trends of cybercrime in future period.

  15. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  16. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  17. Trends in advanced wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the present trends within wastewater handling and treatment. The trend is towards the extremes, either local low-tech treatment or centralized advanced treatment plants. The composition of the wastewater will change and it will be regarded as a resource. There will be more...

  18. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  19. Developing a Critical View on E-Learning Trend Reports: Trend Watching or Trend Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Trend watching reports are an indispensable resource in the e-learning domain. Many HRD departments consider these reports as essential cornerstones for the development of their e-learning strategy. But what is the quality of the forecasts made in these reports? In this article, several methods of forecasting trends are discussed, resulting in a…

  20. Trends at a Glance | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Methodology for Characterizing Trends | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Benzene | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Arsenic | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Radon | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Home | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Which Trend is your Friend?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Ari; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    , that these trend indicators are closely related. In fact, they are equivalent representations in their most general forms. They also capture many other types of filters, such as the Hodrick–Prescott (HP) filter, the Kalman filter, and all other linear filters. We show how these filters can be represented through......Managed futures funds and commodity trading advisers (CTAs) use heuristics or statistical measures often called “filters” to trade on price trends. Two key statistical measures of trends are “time-series momentum” and “moving-average crossovers.” We show, empirically and theoretically...... “trend signature plots,” demonstrating their dependence on past prices and returns by horizon....

  7. Incidence | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Trend Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Rebecca; Le Compte, Aaron; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are being increasingly used to monitor glycemia in people with diabetes. One advantage with CGM is the ability to monitor the trend of sensor glucose (SG) over time. However, there are few metrics available for assessing the trend accuracy of CGM devices. The aim of this study was to develop an easy to interpret tool for assessing trend accuracy of CGM data. SG data from CGM were compared to hourly blood glucose (BG) measurements and trend accuracy was quantified using the dot product. Trend accuracy results are displayed on the Trend Compass, which depicts trend accuracy as a function of BG. A trend performance table and Trend Index (TI) metric are also proposed. The Trend Compass was tested using simulated CGM data with varying levels of error and variability, as well as real clinical CGM data. The results show that the Trend Compass is an effective tool for differentiating good trend accuracy from poor trend accuracy, independent of glycemic variability. Furthermore, the real clinical data show that the Trend Compass assesses trend accuracy independent of point bias error. Finally, the importance of assessing trend accuracy as a function of BG level is highlighted in a case example of low and falling BG data, with corresponding rising SG data. This study developed a simple to use tool for quantifying trend accuracy. The resulting trend accuracy is easily interpreted on the Trend Compass plot, and if required, performance table and TI metric. PMID:24876437

  9. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    rinaldi, eleonora; colella, simone; santoleri, rosalia

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, seen as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool in order to understand the response of marine ecosystem to human pressures. This is particularly important along the coastal regions, in which the strong anthropization and the irrational exploitation of resources represent a persistent threat to the biodiversity. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using Ocean Color (OC) data to monitor the environmental changes in Mediterranean Sea and to develop a method for detecting trend from OC data that can constitute a new indicator of the water quality within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation. In this study the Mediterranean merged Case1-Case2 chlorophyll product, produced by CNR-ISAC and distributed in the framework of MyOcean, is analyzed. This product is obtained by using two different bio-optical algorithms for open ocean (Case1) and coastal turbid (Case2) waters; this improves the quality of the Chl satellite estimates, especially near the coast. In order to verify the real capability of the this product for estimating Chl trend and for selecting the most appropriated statistical test to detect trend in the Mediterranean Sea, a comparison between OC and in situ data are carried out. In-situ Chl data are part of the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet) of the European Environmental Agency (EEA). Four different statistical approaches to estimate trend have been selected and used to compare trend values obtained with in-situ and OC data. Results show that the best agreement between in-situ and OC trend is achieved using the Mann- Kendall test. The Mediterranean trend map obtained applying this test to the de-seasonalized OC time series shows that, in accordance with the results of many authors, the case 1 waters of Mediterranean sea are characterized by a negative trend. However, the most intense trend signals, both negative

  10. A generalized sequential Bonferroni procedure using smoothed weights for genome-wide association studies incorporating information on Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium among cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guimin; Kang, Guolian; Wang, Jiexun; Chen, Wenan; Qin, Huaizen; Jiang, Bo; Li, Qizhai; Sun, Chuanyu; Liu, Nianjun; Archer, Kellie J; Allison, David B

    2012-01-01

    For genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with case-control designs, one of the most widely used association tests is the Cochran-Armitage (CA) trend test assuming an additive mode of inheritance. The CA trend test often has higher power than other association tests under additive and multiplicative disease models. However, it can have very low power under a recessive disease model in GWAS. Although tests (such as MAX3) robust to different genetic models have been developed, they often have relatively lower power than the CA trend test under additive and multiplicative models. The goal of this study is to propose an efficient method that not only has higher power than the CA trend test under dominant and recessive models but also maintains the power of the CA trend test under additive and multiplicative models. We employed the generalized sequential Bonferroni (GSB) procedure of Holm to incorporate information from a Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) test into the CA trend test based on estimating weights from the p values of the HWD test. We proposed to smooth the weights to reduce possible noise. Results from extensive simulation studies showed that the proposed GSB procedure can achieve the goal described above. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Trends in building automation; Trends in der Gebaeudeautomation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2000-07-01

    This article reviews the three main trends in building automation found by the author at the Light and Building trade fair in Frankfurt in 2000. The fair, which took place for the first time in 2000, attracted 1800 exhibitors from 46 countries and featured products from the air-conditioning, building automation, lighting and electrical installations areas. Integrated planning and implementation is contrasted with the structure of the exhibition, which still reflects trade association structures instead of technical integration of different systems. A further trend - that of standardisation of building automation systems is discussed and illustrated with examples such as EIB, LON and BACNet. Latest developments in the professional association scene are looked at and marketing and practice are reviewed using examples from various companies active in this area. The third trend looked at is that of building automation via Internet, which is becoming attractive for the management of properties distributed over larger areas.

  13. Global fertility and population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. CURRENT TRENDS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality industry is a complex product-service economic activity which besides accommodation, food and beverages offers a variety of complementary and ancillary services in order to meet modern needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers. Contemporary needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers (increased need for security and preservation of health; emphasis on ecology and healthy food; pure nature stay; growing demand for adventure activities and excitement; convention facilities and incentive offerings; visits to towns, big sports, cultural, religious, business events; new travel motivation have led to the emergence of new trends in hospitality offering design. Wellness and spa hotels, boutique hotels, all inclusive hotels, slow-food restaurants, and wine and lounge bars are just some of the main trends, and successful hoteliers and caterers will examine each of the trends and devise development politics in accordance with the new requirements and global market needs.

  15. TRENDS IN CROATIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina GRZINIC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and hotel business is becoming one of the leading industries of theworld. Therefore, an increased attention needs to be paid to the study oftrends in tourism because they determine the trends in hotel industry. Thepurpose of the paper is to point out the importance of hotel industry as one ofthe most important elements of development in tourist economies. The paperaims at introducing the newest trends in modern hotel industry and offering areview of the recent trends of demand and the directions of hotel industrydevelopment. The importance of hotel industry on both micro and macro, i.e.global level is increasing. Besides a series of theoretical representations andconclusions, this paper brings some concrete data and examples frompractice in hotel management.

  16. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs......Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  17. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Colella

    Full Text Available In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity. Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication. Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020 and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I and coastal (i.e., Case II waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However

  18. Hospitalisation for lower respiratory tract infection in children in the province of Quebec, Canada, before and during the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G; Deceuninck, G; Zhou, Z; Boucher, F D; Bonnier Viger, Y; Gilca, R; DE Wals, P

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may reduce this burden. This study's goal was to analyse trends in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) hospitalisations before and during a routine vaccination programme targeting all newborns with PCV was started in the province of Quebec, Canada in December 2004. The study population included hospital admissions with a main diagnosis of LRTI among 6-59 month-old Quebec residents from April 2000 to December 2014. Trends in proportions and rates were analysed using Cochran-Armitage tests and Poisson regression models. We observed a general downward trend in all LTRI hospitalisations rate: from 11·55/1000 person-years in 2000-2001 to 9·59/1000 in 2013-2014, a 17·0% reduction, which started before the introduction of PCV vaccination. Downward trends in hospitalisation rates were more pronounced for all-cause of pneumonia (minus 17·8%) than for bronchiolitis (minus 15·4%). There was also a decrease in the mean duration of hospital stay. There was little evidence that all-cause pneumonia decreased over the study period due mainly to the introduction of PCVs. Trends may be related to changes in clinical practice. This study casts doubt on the interpretation of ecological analyses of the implementation of PCV vaccination programmes.

  19. Emerging trends in ICT security

    CERN Document Server

    Akhgar, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Emerging Trends in ICT Security, an edited volume, discusses the foundations and theoretical aspects of ICT security; covers trends, analytics, assessments and frameworks necessary for performance analysis and evaluation; and gives you the state-of-the-art knowledge needed for successful deployment of security solutions in many environments. Application scenarios provide you with an insider's look at security solutions deployed in real-life scenarios, including but limited to smart devices, biometrics, social media, big data security, and crowd sourcing. Provides a multidisciplinary approach

  20. Current trends in malarial chemotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Current trends in malarial chemotherapy. Emmanuel C. Ibezim* and Uche Odo. Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Accepted 21 August, 2006. Malaria is a tropical disease caused by the genus Plasmodium. The sexual stage of the plasmodium is carried by ...

  1. Current Trends in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revue des Langues Vivantes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Examines the effects of Chomsky's theories of linguistics and language acquisition on language teaching methodology, specifically on the use of the audio-lingual method. Current trends in methodology move in two basic directions: 1) towards relaxation of the tighter restrictions of the audio-lingual method, and 2) towards development of techniques…

  2. Recent Trends in Karst Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    1984-01-01

    Recent trends related to the karst processes and the evolution of karst landscapes are discussed. The hydrochemical processes responsible for the origin of karst are expanded on to illustrate the present scope of karst studies. These geomorphological studies are combined with concepts and techniques from hydraulics, chemistry, and mathematics. (JN)

  3. Quality Improvement Practices and Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens J.; Hartz, Ove; Edgeman, Rick L.

    1998-01-01

    The following article, "Quality Improvement Practices and Trends in Denmark," is the first in a series of papers arranged for and co-authored by Dr. Rick L. Edgeman. Rick is a member of QE's Editorial Board and is on sabbatical from Colorado State University. During the year, Rick and his family...

  4. Trends in Public Library Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond M.

    1987-01-01

    Review of trends in public library buildings covers cycles in building activity; financial support; site selection; expansion, remodeling, or conversion of existing buildings; size of buildings; and such architectural concerns as flexible space, lighting, power, accommodation of computer systems, heat and ventilation, fire protection, security,…

  5. Optical Computing-Research Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Optical Computing - Research Trends. Debabrata Goswami. General Article Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 8-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0008-0021. Keywords.

  6. Global trends on local grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Jette Johanne

    2006-01-01

    and built upon similar efforts in Namibia in the 1990s. Steensen´s contribution stresses that any educational system will have to lie firmly on local grounds, that international trends must be analysed strategically as well as critically and that such analysis, for example through Critical Practitioner...

  7. Trends in Turkish Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisoglu, Behice; Sahin, Abdullah; Goktas, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine trends in the subject areas, methods, data collection tools, data analysis methods, and sample types used in recent studies on Turkish education, published in journals from 2000-2011. A total of 558 articles from 44 journals were selected from databases by the purposive sampling method and examined using…

  8. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  9. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Chemical. Sciences) is based on 18 papers presented at the Ninth Symposium on Modern Trends in. Inorganic Chemistry (MTIC-IX) held during 12–14 December 2001 at the Indian. Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata. We have also ...

  10. Housing & woodworking: latest trends & impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Karen. Koenig

    2014-01-01

    Trends in housing and other construction-related sectors continue to have a significant impact on the wood products industry, particularly cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. This fifth annual survey assesses the market conditions for secondary woodworking manufacturers involved in construction-based sectors and includes information on their status and...

  11. Forest resource trends in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson

    1994-01-01

    Even though forests occupy only 12% of the land area of Illinois, they play a valuable role in the health of the state's environment and that of its citizens. Many of these benefits have been reviewed in Forest Resources of Illinois: An Atlas and Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Trends (Iverson et al. 1989), and summarized in...

  12. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  13. Emerging trends in surface metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonardo, P.M.; Lucca, D.A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    Recent advancements and some emerging trends in the methods and instruments used for surface and near surface characterisation are presented, considering the measurement of both topography and physical properties. In particular, surfaces that present difficulties in measurement or require new pro...

  14. Trends in Surgical Wound Healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, F.

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of acute and chronic wound pathophysiology has progressed considerably over the past decades. Unfortunately, improvement in clinical practice has not followed suit, although new trends and developments have improved the outcome of wound treatment in many ways. This review focuses...... on promising clinical development in major wound problems in general and on postoperative infections in particular Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  15. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  16. Modern trends in hypercomplex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kähler, Uwe; Sabadini, Irene; Sommen, Franciscus

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the session "Quaternionic and Clifford Analysis" at the 10th ISAAC Congress held in Macau in August 2015. The covered topics represent the state-of-the-art as well as new trends in hypercomplex analysis and its applications.

  17. EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEARCE, FRANK C.

    THE NEW HOPE PROJECT WAS AN EFFORT TO TRAIN THE UNEMPLOYED AND THE EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. AN ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYMENT TRENDS WAS MADE OF THOSE GROUPS WHO HAD COMPLETED THEIR TRAINING IN SELECTED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS SUCH AS CUSTODIAN, NURSE AIDE, WAITRESS, SALES, AND SERVICE STATION. WITH THE EXCEPTION OF SERVICE STATION AND CUSTODIAN TRAINEES,…

  18. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  19. Maternal Mortality Trend in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    preeclampsia are treated with diazepam while the evidence shows that magnesium sulfate is the best drug for preeclampia/eclampsia treatment. Besides improving the prenatal and delivery care, availing magnesium sulfate as part of emergency obstetric care is of paramount importance. The decreasing trend in abortion is ...

  20. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P.

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  1. Requirements Engineering: Solutions and Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, C.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Aurum, A.; Wohlin, C.

    2005-01-01

    This last chapter of the book describes solutions and trends in the discipline of RE. Starting from a wrap-up of what was presented throughout this book, it suggests a framework of requirements engineering and indicates what current solutions are available in this framework. Beyond providing a short

  2. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    projections of research in frontier areas of inorganic chemistry, includ- ing organometallics, bio-inorganic chemistry, catalysis and materials chemistry. We do hope that the wide range of topics covered in this Issue reflect the current trends of research in inorganic chemistry in India and prac- titioners of inorganic chemistry ...

  3. Publication trends in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Sandra; Spanagel, Rainer

    2011-10-01

    As opportunities to use and abuse drugs have tremendously increased during the past 50 years, so has addiction research. Here, we provide a systematic review on publication trends in the addiction research field. We examined publication trends in different subject categories of journals including general and multi-disciplinary science, neuroscience, pharmacology, psychiatry and, as a final and most important category, substance abuse. In this first report, we provide a brief comprehensive overview on what has been published in terms of addiction in the general and multi-disciplinary science category versus Addiction Biology within the past decade. We reviewed the literature within three time windows 1999/2000, 2004/2005 and 2009/2010 and selected the number of publications (1) according to the country/region where the original study was conducted; (2) according to the drug classes; (3) according to animal versus human studies; (4) and in terms of methodological trends such as genetic association studies and neuro-imaging. We found a 350% increase in addiction-related publications in the general and multi-disciplinary science category within the past decade. This increase, however, was mainly due to increased publication output from the United States. Concerning drug classes, alcohol-, nicotine- and psychostimulant-related publications clearly increased between 1999 and 2010, whereas published papers related to opioids decreased over time. There were also strongly increasing trends for genetic and imaging studies in the addiction field over time. These publication trends are also reflected to a certain degree by published studies in Addiction Biology. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Epidemiology of Injury-Related Death in Children under 5 Years of Age in Hunan Province, China, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lili, Xiong; Jian, He; Liping, Li; Zhiyu, Liu; Hua, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Injury is an important cause of childhood mortality in China. We described the epidemiology and trends of injury-related deaths of children children rates in urban and rural area were calculated from census data; Cochran-armitage trend test was used to assess the time trends. Injury was the leading cause of death in children rate in urban areas. The three leading causes of injury-related death were drowning (43.63%), suffocation (27.57%), and traffic accidents (14.34%). Suffocation was the leading cause in children children 1-4 years of age (62.80%). Drowning and suffocation accounted for 67.74% and 65.11%, of injury-related deaths that occurred at home; while the traffic injury deaths (54.12%) occurred mainly in transit. Injury-related fatalities in children <5 years of age followed time trends that were different in rural and urban areas. Effective childhood injury prevention may require different prevention policies combination depending on epidemiological characteristics such as development of injury surveillance and public education on injury knowledge. There is a need for evidence-based surveillance of risk factors for development of effective injury prevention programs.

  5. Spatio-temporal analysis of cutaneous leishmaniasis using geographic information system among Iranian Army Units and its comparison with the general population of Iran during 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Dabbagh-Moghaddam, Arasb; Mohebali, Mehdi; Safiri, Saeid; Barati, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the time trend and distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iranian Army Units (IAUs) and general population (GP). with using census, Data on CL incidence in IAUs (from AJA University of Medical Sciences) and GP (from Ministry of Health) during 2005-2014 were extracted and entered into the GIS software. Cochran-Armitage test, choropleth map, hot-spot analysis and high/low clustering analysis were used to determine time trend, distribution of disease, hot-spots, and possible abnormal clustering, respectively. The number of infected individuals in IAUs and GP were 6533 and 153,499 respectively (with incidence rates of 143.68 per 100,000 and 25.86 per 100,000, respectively). Time trend analysis revealed the departure from linear trend for the incidence in IAUs (p maps; in IAUs, Khozestan from southwest, Esfahan from central and Kermanshah from west parts of Iran and among GP; Fars, Yazd, and Kerman in southern-east of Iran showed a high incidence rates. In IAUs, Esfahan and Khuzestan provinces was hot-spots of CL (p < 0.05), but in GP, provinces like Fars and Khorasan-shomali was hot-spots (p < 0.05). No clustering pattern of disease was observed in either study populations. Observed spatiotemporal variability in CL among IAUs and GP warrants proper health programs particularly to Khozestan and Esfahan in IAUs and Fars and Khorasan-shomali in GP are highly recommended.

  6. Continuous glucose monitoring and trend accuracy: news about a trend compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Matthew; Gottlieb, Rebecca; Le Compte, Aaron; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2014-09-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are being increasingly used to monitor glycemia in people with diabetes. One advantage with CGM is the ability to monitor the trend of sensor glucose (SG) over time. However, there are few metrics available for assessing the trend accuracy of CGM devices. The aim of this study was to develop an easy to interpret tool for assessing trend accuracy of CGM data. SG data from CGM were compared to hourly blood glucose (BG) measurements and trend accuracy was quantified using the dot product. Trend accuracy results are displayed on the Trend Compass, which depicts trend accuracy as a function of BG. A trend performance table and Trend Index (TI) metric are also proposed. The Trend Compass was tested using simulated CGM data with varying levels of error and variability, as well as real clinical CGM data. The results show that the Trend Compass is an effective tool for differentiating good trend accuracy from poor trend accuracy, independent of glycemic variability. Furthermore, the real clinical data show that the Trend Compass assesses trend accuracy independent of point bias error. Finally, the importance of assessing trend accuracy as a function of BG level is highlighted in a case example of low and falling BG data, with corresponding rising SG data. This study developed a simple to use tool for quantifying trend accuracy. The resulting trend accuracy is easily interpreted on the Trend Compass plot, and if required, performance table and TI metric. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. NRSE technologies and trends workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, W.S.; Lee, T.K.; Jo, D.K.; Jeong, M.W.; Kim, H.W.; Yoon, K.S. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The object of this workshop are to exchange scientific knowledge of exports, to collect the information on the current research trends and policies through the presentations of NRSE technologies and their case studies both at home and aboard. Another objects are to promote the international cooperation in the field of new and renewable energy research, and to provide a chance for taking new technologies to industries for the practical use or for commercialization. Research and development trends in NRSE technologies by major research institutions are investigated to make a comparative review as a reference for the future NRSE projects. Coupled with the government`s`s NRSE development policy, it has played an important role to make an increased public relations with the general public with respect to the development necessity of NRSE. The forum was very useful for an increased exchange of views on NRSE technologies of mutual interest between NRSE lectures and participants. (author)

  8. Trends in Mobile Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Adrian; Ondrus, Jan

    Major software companies, such as Apple and Google, are disturbing the relatively safe and established actors of the mobile application business. These newcomers have caused significant structural changes by imposing and enforcing their own rules for the future of mobile application development. The implications of these changes do not only concern the mobile network operators and mobile phone manufacturers. This changed environment also brings additional opportunities and constraints for current mobile application developers. Therefore, developers need to assess what their options are and how they can take advantages of these current trends. In this paper, we take a developer’s perspective in order to explore how the structural changes will influence the mobile application development markets. Moreover, we discuss what aspects developers need to take into account in order to position themselves within the current trends.

  9. Fashion and death: Trends Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Jakemiu Araújo Bortolon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fashion is composed of cycles subpostos trends that seek to eliminate the past for a new one, which makes it ephemeral and eternal at the same time. This study investigates how is the relationship between these cycles of trends over time, through a brief history of fashion, considering the theoretical rules of Simmel, Crane and Caldas. They will still be used concepts proposed by Agamben, such as: device, in order to classify the system of the fashion; contemporaneidade, to understand the action of that factor in relation to the time and profanation, to identify the capacity to maintain in the society. It is ended that the fashion, as well as the death, renews the society, it destroys and it creates the new, as a system naturalized artificially

  10. Development Trends of World Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yuetong

    2009-01-01

    Energy has been one of the most important issues and challenge humans face in the 21st century which has a bearing on international economic and social development, global climate changes and environment protection. With a focus on development trends of world energy, this paper analyses the current world energy status and from the perspectives of energy sources, regions, end-use sectors, the balance of energy production and consumption, and in the context of its implications on the global env...

  11. Centrifugal Trends in Collective Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca DIMITRIU

    2013-01-01

    Labour Law is dealing with a period of tremendous changes, which may even jeopardise its legitimacy. Solidarity between employees has lost its vigour since the organisational culture of the company shows a trend towards internal competition. Indeed, decreased union membership and increased number of collective labour agreements seems to definitely mark a new era of labour relations. Today, solidarity, a basic principle of the collective labour law, seems to have diminished; employees perceive...

  12. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  13. Developing a critical view on e-learning reports: Trend watching or trend setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; Van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Boon, J., Rusman, E., Van der Klink, M., & Tattersall, C. (2005). Developing a critical view on e-learning trend reports: trend watching or trend setting? International Journal of Training and Development, 9(3), 205-211.

  14. Std trends in chengalpattu hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy V

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective data analysis was carried out to find the trends in frequency and distribution of different STDs at Chengalpattu during 1988-1994. Of the 4549 patients who attended the clinic 3621 (79.6% were males and 928 (20.4% were females. The commonest STD was Chancroid (24.4% in men and Syphillis (29% in women. Balanoposthitis (11.4% ranked third among STDs in males. Though the STD attendance showed a declining trend, most diseases showed a constant distribution. The percentage composition of secondary and latent syphillis, Genital Warts, Genital Herpes and the Non-Venereal group showed an increased composition in recent years. Primary syphillis in females showed a definite declining trend. The HIV sero-positive detection rate was 2.06%. Of the 1116 patients screened for HIV antibody, 23 patients were detected sero-positive. Time Series Regression Analysis was used to predict the number of patients who would attend the STD clinic with various STDs in 1995 and 1996 to help in the understanding of the disease load and pattern in future, in resources management and in developing and evaluating preventive measures.

  15. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  16. Increasing antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group bacteria and emergence of MRSP in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, L; Bond, R; Graham, P A; Jackson, B; Lloyd, D H; Loeffler, A

    2015-02-14

    Frequencies of antimicrobial resistance were determined amongst 14,555 clinical Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) isolates from UK dogs and cats to estimate resistance trends and quantify the occurrence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Reports from two diagnostic laboratories (13,313 general submissions, 1242 referral centre only submissions) were analysed retrospectively (2003/2006-2012). MRSP were defined by phenotypic resistance to meticillin and concurrent broad β-lactam resistance; a subset was confirmed genetically (SIG-specific nuc and mecA). Trends were analysed by Cochran-Armitage test. Resistance remained below 10 per cent for cefalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and the fluoroquinolones. Increasing resistance trends were seen in both laboratories for ampicillin/amoxicillin (both PResistance to cefalexin increased over time in referral hospital isolates (Presistance to important antimicrobials was identified overtime and the emergence of MRSP from UK clinical cases was confirmed. Attention to responsible use of antibacterial therapy in small animal practice is urgently needed. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Comparison of cardiovascular mortality in the Great East Japan and the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquakes - a large-scale data analysis of death certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Misa; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Nakai, Michikazu; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Ogawa, Hisao; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Toh, Ryuji; Morino, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Naito, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Large earthquakes have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. In Japan, the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji (H-A) Earthquake was an urban-underground-type earthquake, whereas the 2011 Great East Japan (GEJ) Earthquake was an ocean-trench type. In the present study, we examined how these different earthquake types affected CVD mortality. We examined death certificate data from 2008 to 2012 for 131 municipalities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures (n=320,348) and from 1992 to 1996 for 220 municipalities in Hyogo, Osaka, and Kyoto prefectures (n=592,670). A Poisson regression model showed significant increases in the monthly numbers of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-related deaths (incident rate ratio [IRR] GEJ=1.34, P=0.001; IRR of H-A=1.57, Pearthquakes. Two months after the earthquakes, AMI deaths remained significant only for H-A (IRR=1.13, P=0.029). When analyzing the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) after the earthquakes using the Cochran-Armitage trend test, seismic intensity was significantly associated with AMI mortality for 2 weeks after both the GEJ (P for trend=0.089) and H-A earthquakes (P for trend=0.005). Following the GEJ and H-A earthquakes, there was a sharp increase in CVD mortality. The effect of the disaster was sustained for months after the H-A earthquake, but was diminished after the GEJ Earthquake.

  18. General organic beekeeping data and market trends

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador V.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation "General organic beekeeping data and market trends" was part of the workshop "Organic beekeeping and market trends" at the BioFach Congress 2011. The aim of this workshop was to inform and discuss the current situation of production and market trends of organic beekeeping products.

  19. Connecticut Public Higher Education: 2005 System Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the public higher education system trends in Connecticut for 2005. This report contains the following sections: (1) FY 2005-2007 Operating Budget Summary; (2) Higher Education in a Statewide Context; (3) General Fund and Operating Budget Expenditure Trends; (4) Comparative Funding Indicators; (5) Enrollment Trends; (6) Degrees…

  20. Connecticut Public Higher Education: 2008 System Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the public higher education system trends in Connecticut for 2008. This report contains the following sections: (1) FY 2007-2009 Operating Budget Summary; (2) Higher Education in a Statewide Context; (3) General Fund and Operating Budget Expenditure Trends; (4) Comparative Funding Indicators; (5) Enrollment Trends; (6) Degrees…

  1. Connecticut Public Higher Education: 2007 System Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the public higher education system trends in Connecticut for 2007. This report contains the following sections: (1) FY 2007-2009 Operating Budget Summary; (2) Higher Education in a Statewide Context; (3) General Fund and Operating Budget Expenditure Trends; (4) Comparative Funding Indicators; (5) Enrollment Trends; (6) Degrees…

  2. Connecticut Public Higher Education: 2006 System Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the public higher education system trends in Connecticut for 2006. This report contains the following sections: (1) FY 2006-2007 Operating Budget Summary; (2) Higher Education in a Statewide Context; (3) General Fund and Operating Budget Expenditure Trends; (4) Comparative Funding Indicators; (5) Enrollment Trends; (6) Degrees…

  3. Connecticut Public Higher Education: 2004 System Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the public higher education system trends in Connecticut for 2004. This report contains the following sections: (1) FY 2003-2005 Operating Budget Summary; (2) Higher Education in a Statewide Context; (3) General Fund and Operating Budget Expenditure Trends; (4) Comparative Funding Indicators; (5) Enrollment Trends; (6) Degrees…

  4. Global trends in adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R W

    Increasingly, morbidity and mortality trends for young people in developing nations are paralleling those in the industrialized world. As infectious causes of mortality diminish, unintentional injuries, suicide, homicide, war, and maternal mortality represent the primary causes of death in the second decade of life for most nations where data are maintained. As developing nations increasingly place priority on the education of their youth, early marriage and precocious child rearing are discouraged, and other problems, such as out-of-wedlock childbirth and illicit abortions, emerge. Problems such as substance abuse and suicide arise with the urban migration, increased unemployment, and disruption of traditional social structures that are experienced as developing countries industrialize.

  5. Measuring temporal trends in biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Buckland, S. T.; Yuan, Y.; Marcon, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Yuan was part-funded by EPSRC/NERC Grant EP/1000917/1 and Marcon by ANR-10-LABX-25-01. In 2002, nearly 200 nations signed up to the 2010 target of the Convention for Biological Diversity, ‘to significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010’. In order to assess whether the target was met, it became necessary to quantify temporal trends in measures of diversity. This resulted in a marked shift in focus for biodiversity measurement. We explore the developments in measuring biodiver...

  6. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  7. Digital watermarking techniques and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Rosales, Hamurabi Gamboa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-arts application of digital watermarking in audio, speech, image, video, 3D mesh graph, text, software, natural language, ontology, network stream, relational database, XML, and hardware IPs. It also presents new and recent algorithms in digital watermarking for copyright protection and discusses future trends in the field. Today, the illegal manipulation of genuine digital objects and products represents a considerable problem in the digital world. Offering an effective solution, digital watermarking can be applied to protect intellectual property, as well as fingerprinting, enhance the security and proof-of-authentication through unsecured channels.

  8. Emerging trends in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Syed Faraz

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the state of the art in communication networks with the help of illustrative diagrams and recent references published in reputed journals and magazines. The book gives readers a glimpse into the next generation of communication networks. It explores topics that are currently in the research phase and/or are expected to be deployed in recent future such as LTE networks and IPv6 networks. This book is written for students/researchers who wish to come up to date with the recent trends in telecommunications.

  9. Trends in Banking System Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mihaela Savu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The research comprises four chapters: internationalization and banking concentration – in the last two decades, banking systems from developed economies undergoing an unprecedented process of transformation: due to the internationalization and to the concentration of the banking activities; multinational banks – globalization led to the appearance of new centers of power, exercising a seemingly growing influence; banking partnerships/alliances – have become an alternative to the organic growth strategies, engaging in diverse organizational structures, from distribution agreements on various financial services to the formation of new entities; free banking areas – have set the pace for new trends in the global financial services industry.

  10. Trends in packaged steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Oil and gas-fired packaged steam generators are used in many industrial plants. They generate saturated or superheated steam up to 250,000 lb/hr, 1000 psig, and 950 F. They may be used for continuous steam generation or as standby boilers in cogeneration systems. Numerous variables affect the design of this equipment. A few important considerations should be addressed at an early point by the plant engineer specifying or evaluating equipment options. These considerations include trends such as customized designs that minimize operating costs and ensure emissions regulations are met. The paper discusses efficiency considerations first.

  11. Future trends in parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wretlind, A

    1975-01-01

    With our present knowledge of total, intravenous nutrition it is now possible to eliminate, or greatly reduce, the incidence of malnutrition, as a complication of various medical and surgical conditions in modern hospitals. There is a tendency to include supplementary or total intravenous nutrition in the feeding program of the hospital, to ensure that the patients get an adequate daily amount of nutrients. The trend in the development of intravenous nutrition is, to supply all nutrients in the same proportions as those in which they enter the general circulation following a well-balanced oral food intake. Various mixtures of amino acids have been used as part of a complete intravenous nutrition. All studies in this field indicate a trend to use those amino acids mixtures which contain the essential and the nonessential L-amino acids in the same proportions as are found in the aminogram of proteins with high biological value. There is a trend to include fat, as fat emulsion (soybean oil-egg yolk-phospholipid emulsion), for intravenous nutrition, in an amount corresponding to about 40 energy percent as both the source of energy and of essential fatty acids for the body. To make an intravenous nutrition as complete as possible, all essential minerals should be included. Phosphorus is of special interest here as it aids in the prevention of hypophatemia and tissue anoxia caused by deficiency of diphosphateglycerate in the erythrocytes. Zinc may also be mentioned because of its importance for wound healing. There is also a tendency to include all the 13 necessary vitamins in an intravenous feeding program. In this connection vitamin K1 is of special importance. If patients on intravenous nutrition are treated with antibiotics, this may result in a change in the intestinal flora and a loss of intestinal vitamin K production, causing vitamin K deficiency, with severe or fatal bleeding. Consequently, vitamin K1 should be given daily to every patient on intravenous

  12. Development trends in academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kavčič-Čolić

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of some development trends and problems which most of academic libraries in developed countries are facing, i.e. continous adjustment to the changing environment,library digitalization, cooperation with other libraries, their participation in academic curricula, user information literacy development, new services development, development of new methods of measuring efficiency, new work organization, etc. This contribution is based on EBSLG (European Business Schools Librarians' Group meeting,held in Goteborg, Sweeden, in June 1999, the main topic of which was the development of services in digital libraries and their influences on users and librarians.

  13. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While pyrometallurgical processes are old technology and were the dominant and logical route used to treat sulfide concentrates they are now challenged by new hydrometallurgical processes. In these new processes there have been attempts in the past few years to avoid using autoclaves in the treatment of concentrates of zinc, copper, and nickel. The situation has been recently reversed and pressure hydrometallurgy is being applied in many operations. An outline of these processes is given and the future trend is discussed.

  14. A comparison of Internet search trends and sexually transmitted infection rates using Google trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy K; Mehta, Supriya D

    2014-01-01

    Google Trends was used to determine the relationship between sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related search engine trends and STI rates. Trends seem to be similar to the relative rates of STIs and to regional differences in rates. Search engine trends are an innovative tool to integrate into STI surveillance.

  15. Cogeneration: technical concepts, trends, prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    In the National Energy Plan, President Carter cited cogeneration as an important technique for conserving domestic energy resources. Cogeneration offers important advantages over conventional approaches in, namely: energy efficiency, fuel flexibility, economics, environment, and power reliability. The basic concepts underlying current and future cogeneration systems, and the types of hardware, fuels, and overall system applications adaptable for use by the different market sectors, are described. Trends in usage are traced and explored, and early cogeneration installations are reviewed to provide insight into the factors underlying those trends. The European experience is compared with the United States experience, and key factors influencing successes and failures are analyzed. Factors that have prompted renewed interest in cogeneration over the past few years are identified, barriers to widespread adoption in all market sectors are discussed, and Federal efforts currently under way to encourage both technological and market development are highlighted in the final section. Brief case studies of cogeneration installations in the various sectors are presented throughout the document to illustrate various aspects of system operation and capabilities. All demonstrate that cogeneration is a viable technological alternative that offers the United States one more strategy for working toward its goal of energy self-sufficiency both now and over the long term. (MCW)

  16. Isolated head injury is a cause of shock in pediatric trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alison; Poehling, Katherine A; Miller, Chadwick D; Tooze, Janet A; Petty, John

    2013-08-01

    Current trauma resuscitation protocols from the American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, recommend intravascular volume expansion to treat shock after major trauma, assuming that hemorrhage is present. However, this assumption may not be correct. The purpose of this study was to identify the proportion of children with severe shock after trauma presenting with isolated head injury versus hemorrhagic injury. A retrospective review of all pediatric trauma patients (aged 0-15 years) was conducted over a 5-year period. Severe shock was defined as the presence of both an elevated blood lactate level and low blood pressure for age. Traumatic injuries were classified as hemorrhagic injuries, head injuries, combined hemorrhagic and head injuries, or other injuries, by analyzing International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnostic codes. A total of 31 (5%) of 680 pediatric trauma patients presented with severe shock. Among these 31 pediatric trauma patients, 9 (29%) had isolated head injury. Isolated head injury among children with shock was most frequently observed among children younger than 5 years (50%), and a decreased trend was noted with increasing age (23% for children 5-11 years and 0% for children 12-15 years [P = 0.03, Cochran-Armitage exact trend test]). Isolated head injury was observed in 29% of children 0 to 15 years of age with severe shock after trauma and in 50% of children younger than 5 years. Head injury is an important cause of severe shock in pediatric trauma, particularly among young children.

  17. Hysteroscopic sterilization in a large group practice: experience and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Ulrike K; Masters, Steven J; Smid, Marcela C; Hung, Yun-Yi; Jacobson, Gavin F

    2009-12-01

    To estimate device placement and tubal occlusion rates for hysteroscopic sterilization and evaluate risk factors for failure. Women undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from January 2004 to December 2006 were identified. Risk factors assessed included age, parity, body mass index (BMI), operative location, and provider experience with the technique. Occlusion was determined by hysterosalpingogram. Univariable analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of successful placement and occlusion. The Cochrane-Armitage test was performed for trend analysis. Hysteroscopic sterilization was attempted in 884 women by 118 physicians at 30 Kaiser Permanente Northern California facilities. The initial placement attempt was successful in 850 patients (96.2%). Patient age, nulliparity, and BMI were not predictive of successful placement. Bilateral occlusion was demonstrated by hysterosalpingogram in 687 of 739 patients (93.0%). There were no significant differences in age, nulliparity, and BMI between those with and without occlusion. Loss to follow-up before a hysterosalpingogram was obtained was 13%. There was no significant increase in occlusion rate with experience (P for trend=.6). High placement and occlusion rates were noted from the first insertions, and success was not related to age, parity, BMI, or operator experience. III.

  18. A comparison of the education and work experiences of immigrant and the United States of America-trained nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenko, O; Gupte, G; Shan, G

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the education and work experience of immigrant and American-trained registered nurses from 1988 to 2008. The USA increasingly relies on immigrant nurses to fill a significant nursing shortage. These nurses receive their training overseas, but can obtain licenses to practice in different countries. Although immigrant nurses have been in the USA workforce for several decades, little is known about how their education and work experience compares with USA-trained nurses. Yet much is presumed by policy makers and administrators who perpetuate the stereotype that immigrant nurses are not as qualified. We analysed the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses datasets from 1988 to 2008 using the Cochran-Armitage trend tests. Our findings showed similar work experience and upward trends in education among both groups of nurses. However, American-trained nurses were more likely to further advance their education, whereas immigrant nurses were more likely to have more work experience and practice in a wider range of healthcare settings. Although we discovered differences between nurses trained in the USA and abroad, we theorize that these differences even out, as education and work experience each have their own distinct caregiving advantages. Immigrant nurses are not less qualified than their American-trained counterparts. However, healthcare providers should encourage them to further pursue their education and certifications. Even though immigrant nurses' education and work experience are comparable with their American counterparts, workforce development policies may be particularly beneficial for this group. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  19. No Contribution of GAD-65 and IA-2 Autoantibodies around Time of Diagnosis to the Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Type 1 Diabetes: A 9-Year Nationwide Danish Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen U. Thorsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. A new perspective on autoantibodies as pivotal players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D has recently emerged. Our key objective was to examine whether increased levels of autoantibodies against the β-cell autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (isoform 65 (GADA and insulinoma associated antigen-2A (IA-2A mirrored the 3.4% annual increase in incidence of T1D. Methods. From the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register, we randomly selected 500 patients and 500 siblings for GADA and IA-2A analysis (1997 through 2005. Blood samples were taken within three months after onset. A robust log-normal regression model was used. Nine hundred children and adolescents had complete records and were included in the analysis. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate changes in prevalence of autoantibody positivity by period. Results. No significant changes in levels of GADA and IA-2A were found over our 9-year study period. No trends in autoantibody positivity—in either patients or siblings—were found. Levels of GADA and IA-2A were significantly associated with HLA risk groups and GADA with age. Conclusion. The prevalence of positivity and the levels of GADA and IA-2A have not changed between 1997 and 2005 in newly diagnosed patients with T1D and their siblings without T1D.

  20. Human Calmodulin-Like Protein CALML3: A Novel Marker for Normal Oral Squamous Mucosa That Is Downregulated in Malignant Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is often diagnosed only at advanced stages due to a lack of reliable disease markers. The purpose of this study was to determine if the epithelial-specific human calmodulin-like protein (CALML3 could be used as marker for the various phases of oral tumor progression. Immunohistochemical analysis using an affinity-purified CALML3 antibody was performed on biopsy-confirmed oral tissue samples representing these phases. A total of 90 tissue specimens were derived from 52 patients. Each specimen was analyzed in the superficial and basal mucosal cell layers for overall staining and staining of cellular subcompartments. CALML3 was strongly expressed in benign oral mucosal cells with downregulation of expression as squamous cells progress to invasive carcinoma. Based on the Cochran-Armitage test for trend, expression in the nucleus and at the cytoplasmic membrane significantly decreased with increasing disease severity. Chi-square test showed that benign tissue specimens had significantly more expression compared to dysplasia/CIS and invasive specimens. Dysplasia/CIS tissue had significantly more expression than invasive tissue. We conclude that CALML3 is expressed in benign oral mucosal cells with a statistically significant trend in downregulation as tumorigenesis occurs. CALML3 may thus be a sensitive new marker for oral cancer screening.

  1. Terahertz applications: trends and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Thierry; Bouye, Clementine; Cochard, Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The objective of our work [1] was to determine the opportunities and challenges for Terahertz application development for the next years with a focus on systems: for homeland security and for Non Destructive Testing (NDT). Terahertz radiation has unique abilities and has been the subject of extensive research for many years. Proven concepts have emerged for numerous applications including Industrial NDT, Security, Health, Telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, there has been no widely deployed application and Businesses based on THz technologies are still in their infancy. Some technological, market and industrial barriers are still to be broken. We summarize the final analysis and data: study of the technology trends and major bottlenecks per application segment, main challenges to be addressed in the next years, key opportunities for THz technologies based on market needs and requirements.

  2. Technology Trends in Cloud Infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is growing at an exponential pace with an increasing number of workloads being hosted in mega-scale public clouds such as Microsoft Azure. Designing and operating such large infrastructures requires not only a significant capital spend for provisioning datacenters, servers, networking and operating systems, but also R&D investments to capitalize on disruptive technology trends and emerging workloads such as AI/ML. This talk will cover the various infrastructure innovations being implemented in large scale public clouds and opportunities/challenges ahead to deliver the next generation of scale computing. About the speaker Kushagra Vaid is the general manager and distinguished engineer for Hardware Infrastructure in the Microsoft Azure division. He is accountable for the architecture and design of compute and storage platforms, which are the foundation for Microsoft’s global cloud-scale services. He and his team have successfully delivered four generations of hyperscale cloud hardwar...

  3. Occupational Trends and Program Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rosenthal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher education that respond to the economic base in their region will remain competitive and be better positioned to obtain public funds and donor support. In addition to mandated program viability standards based on measures such as graduation rate, individual institutions and state coordinating boards can use ten-year occupational trend data to assess future program viability. We used an occupational demand model to determine whether academic programs can meet projected statewide needs for high demand and high growth occupations. For example, computer engineering, the highest growth rate occupation in Alabama, is projected to have 365 annual average job openings, with 93.6% total growth over ten years. But only 46 computer engineering majors graduate annually from all Alabama institutions of higher education. We recommend using an occupational demand model as a planning tool, decision-making tool, and catalyst for collaborative initiatives.

  4. Temporal trends in sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    , method of measuring SC and semen volume, exclusion criteria and indicators of completeness of covariate data]. The slopes of SC and TSC were estimated as functions of sample collection year using both simple linear regression and weighted meta-regression models and the latter were adjusted for pre......-determined covariates and modification by fertility and geographic group. Assumptions were examined using multiple sensitivity analyses and nonlinear models. OUTCOMES: SC declined significantly between 1973 and 2011 (slope in unadjusted simple regression models -0.70 million/ml/year; 95% CI: -0.72 to -0.69; P ...BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...

  5. New trends in shape optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Leugering, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This volume reflects “New Trends in Shape Optimization” and is based on a workshop of the same name organized at the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg in September 2013. During the workshop senior mathematicians and young scientists alike presented their latest findings. The format of the meeting allowed fruitful discussions on challenging open problems, and triggered a number of new and spontaneous collaborations. As such, the idea was born to produce this book, each chapter of which was written by a workshop participant, often with a collaborator. The content of the individual chapters ranges from survey papers to original articles; some focus on the topics discussed at the Workshop, while others involve arguments outside its scope but which are no less relevant for the field today. As such, the book offers readers a balanced introduction to the emerging field of shape optimization.

  6. Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band, together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields.

  7. Supporting data for Environmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Information has been compiled as a companion document to ' Environmental Trends ' to provide analysts and researchers with statistical data to understand better how natural and man-made environments were changing. Subjects include land and climate; wetlands; wild areas; historic places; risk zones; settlement patterns; housing units; housing conditions; neighborhood conditions; transportation systems, including use and impacts on the environment such as noise, energy consumption; material use and solid waste; toxic substances, including radiation; cropland , forests and rangeland; wildlife, including extinct, threatened and endangered species; energy; water resources, water quality and air quality; and the biosphere. Statistics in the tables were taken from various published and unpublished sources. Therefore, the number of significant figures for the same information may differ. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Conference Trends in Logic XI

    CERN Document Server

    Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics.   The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field.   The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...

  9. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  10. Trend patterns in global sea surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, S.M.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2009-01-01

    to isolate low-frequency variability from time series of SST anomalies for the 1982-2006 period. The first derived trend pattern reflects a systematic decrease in SST during the 25-year period in the equatorial Pacific and an increase in most of the global ocean. The second trend pattern reflects mainly ENSO......Isolating long-term trend in sea surface temperature (SST) from El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) variability is fundamental for climate studies. In the present study, trend-empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, a robust space-time method for extracting trend patterns, is applied...... variability in the Pacific Ocean. The examination of the contribution of these low-frequency modes to the globally averaged SST fluctuations indicates that they are able to account for most (>90%) of the variability observed in global mean SST. Trend-EOFs perform better than conventional EOFs when...

  11. Nonparametric estimation in trend-renewal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Haugedal, Per Erik

    2017-01-01

    This thesis gives an introduction to stochastic modeling of repairable systems with failure and maintenance data, in particular the nonhomogeneous Poisson process and the trend-renewal process. It is studying kernel-based methods for nonparametric estimation of the trend function of trend-renewal processes and presents a method using weighted kernel estimation. These weights are found by maximization of the likelihood function that they are included in. The method is then tested on both real ...

  12. Global contamination trends of persistent organic chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loganathan, Bommanna G; Lam, Paul K. S

    2012-01-01

    "Composed by a diverse group of experts, this reference covers the history, present status, and projected future trends of environmental contamination from highly toxic synthetic chemical pollutants...

  13. Trends in food choice and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    'Trends' in the way we eat are discussed in this chapter. Three potential trends are taken as points of departure, namely health concerns, convenience, and process characteristics. Some of the evidence provided may not necessarily be evidence of a trend itself, but can be regarded as indicators...... or important issues taht may change the way we eat. However, the food industry plays a major part in shaping these trends, and both direction and speed will depend on how the food industry handles these developments....

  14. American families: trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanzo, J; Rahman, M O

    1993-01-01

    Discussion focused on the nature of the roles of the family, a review of the major demographic changes (marriage, cohabitation, nonfamily households, remarriage, fertility, teenage pregnancy, and female employment) affecting the American family in the past decades, and the nature of the impact on women, men, and children. There were four major trends identified: 1) increased proportions of children living in single-parent families due to high rates of divorce and increased childbearing outside of marriage; 2) increased proportions of adults in nontraditional living arrangements; 3) increased female labor force participation during all stages of the life cycle; and 4) decreased proportions of children and increased proportions of older people out of total population due to declining mortality and fertility rates. Family formation arises out of childbearing and childrearing roles, the need for companionship and emotional support, and the opportunities for specialization and trade, and the economies of scale. The costs of family living may include the potential for disagreement, conflict, loss of privacy, and time and money. There were a number of reasons identified for not maintaining traditional families consisting of a married couple with children. The trends were for later age at marriage: 24.4 years in 1992 for women, increased cohabitation (almost 50% cohabiting prior to first marriage in 1985-86), decreased number of married couple households, and increased number of adults in non-family households. The divorce rate has risen over the past 100 years with peaks in the 1970s; the reasons were identified as increased baby boomers and new marriages, increased labor participation of women, and changes in gender roles. The stabilization and slight decline in rates may be due to a natural leveling, the likelihood of greater stability within new marriages, and the aging of the baby boomers. An anticipated increase in divorce rates in the future was also justified

  15. Future trends in electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshabini, Aicha; Wang, Gangqiang; Barlow, Fred

    2006-03-01

    Electronic packaging is traditionally defined as the back-end process that transforms bare integrated circuits (IC) into functional products. As the IC feature size decreases and the size of silicon wafer increases, the cost per IC is reduced and the performance is enhanced. The future IC chips will be larger in size, have more input/output terminals (I/Os), and require higher power. In addition to the advancements in IC technology, electronic packaging is also driven by the market requirements for low cost, small size, and multi-functional electronic products. In response to these requirements, packaging related areas such as design, packaging architectures, materials, processes, and manufacturing equipment are all changing rapidly. Wafer-level packaging (WLP) offers the benefits of low cost and smallest size for single chip packages, since the package is done at wafer level other than individual die. After packages reach the horizontal limit of dimensions, 3D stacking solution provides more efficient packages through expanding packages in the vertical dimension. Functional integration is achieved with 3D stacking architectures. System in package (SiP), one of the solutions to system integration, incorporates electronics, non-electronic devices such as optical devices, biological devices, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), etc, and interconnection in a single package, to form smart structures or microsystems. MEMS devices require specialized packaging to serve new market applications. This paper and presentation describe the technology requirements and challenges of these advancing packaging areas. The potential solutions and future trends are presented.

  16. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  17. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geography includes rich, diverse and comprehensive themes that give us an understanding of our changing environment and interconnected world. It includes the study of the physical environment and resources; cultures, economies and societies; people and places; and global development and civic participation. As a subject, geography is particularly valuable because it provides information for exploring contemporary issues from a different perspective. This geographical information affects us all at work and in our daily lives and helps us make informed decisions that shape our future. All these facts result in a wide discussion on many topical issues in contemporary geography didactics. Subjects of research are the new geography and economics curriculum as well as construction of modern learning process. The paper presents briefly some of the current trends and key issues of geodidactics. As central notions we consider and analyze the training/educational goals, geography curriculum, target groups and environment of geography training, training methods as well as the information sources used in geography education. We adhere that all the above-mentioned finds its reflection in planning, analysis and assessment of education and thus in its quality and effectiveness.

  18. New trends in parathyroid scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, A; Rubello, D; Casara, D

    2001-09-01

    The paper focusses on the recent advances in parathyroid imaging in both diagnostic and surgical fields which justify the present favourable trend towards a considerable expansion of nuclear medicine applications in this area. The main methodological advances in parathyroid scintigraphy are the rebirth of the dual-tracer (subtraction) technique with technetium-99m sestamibi, the possibility of also using 99mTc-tetrofosmin within a dual-tracer (subtraction) methodology and the more extensive use of single-photon emission tomography, which the authors believe will become the standard methodology. The indications for parathyroid scintigraphy have been affected by advances in hyperparathyroidism surgery, including wider use of unilateral neck exploration and of minimally invasive radioguided surgery. As these techniques can only be performed in hyperparathyroid patients with a single adenoma, careful pre-operative assessment is required, and parathyroid scintigraphy undoubtedly is the most accurate localisation method. To date, the majority of papers have also demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of scintigraphically guided limited neck surgery. The authors conclude that: (1) parathyroid scintigraphy can be recommended not only in persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism but also in hyperparathyroid patients prior to first surgery; (2) scintigraphy should always be performed by applying the most accurate technique available because reliable scintigraphy gains or reinforces the surgeon's trust, reliably guides cost-effective operative strategies and justifies the recognition of new potential diagnostic indications.

  19. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  20. Recent research trends in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Tandon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research being an investigative process is employed to increase or revise the current knowledge. Scientific research involves the conduct of a methodical study to prove a hypothesis or give an answer to a specific question with the main aim of finding definitive answer. This paper aims to advance knowledge of research and develop interest in the postgraduate students. It also throws light on the existing and emerging research strengths within a “high-performance culture.” The trends in dental research worldwide are looked at, in particular, a comparison between the publication status in two countries, namely India and Australia. The current themes in dental research are also discussed to facilitate future projects for the aspiring pediatric dentists. Stress is given to the importance of evidence-based dentistry as the current times call for high-quality and ethical papers which are devoid of plagiarism. The common reasons for failure of a research are explored and the strengthening factors are highlighted. Proper planning of a pertinent research project is beneficial to the researcher as well as the dental community.

  1. Recent Trends in Antitrust Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Siragusa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss a selection of the most relevant features of the most recent trends in antitrust enforcement. Firstly, anticompetitive signalling will be addressed: its assessment depends on the kind of information provided. Where such information is of public knowledge or is very well known by the market participants, signalling should not be deemed as anticompetitive. Secondly, the Power Cable case has raised for the first time various problematic issues, such as the possibility to impose parental liability on a purely financial investor, even where the presumed direct infringer would have been able to pay the fine. This appears to be irreconcilable with the objectives for which the case law on parental liability has been elaborated. Thirdly, as to the concept of restriction of competition by object, it is argued that the Intel case does not disavow the principles established in Cartes Bancaires. Indeed, the finding of a violation and the different methodology applied in the first case are only due to its specific factual circumstances. Finally, the nouvelle vague of the case law on the anticompetitive abuse of rights has led to two opposite approaches, one at the EU and the other at the Italian level. The first one, based on the finding of objective circumstances, is perfectly consistent with existing EU case law, while the second, exclusively focused on the exclusionary intent, seems to be in sharp contrast with it. The hope is that the Court of Justice will intervene to resolve this contradiction.

  2. [Asthma mortality trends in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Ramírez, M; Segura Méndez, N H; Martínez-Cairo Cueto, S

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate mortality and morbidity from asthma in Mexico by federative entity (state) of residence, age, and sex during the period between 1960 and 1988. Statistics published by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Information Science were reviewed, as were vital statistics and information from other sources. Data were selected on mortality, hospital admissions, and outpatient visits, as well as population by federative entity, age, and sex. Mortality and morbidity rates were adjusted for age using the direct method. From 1960 to 1987, mortality decreased for both sexes. The groups with the highest asthma mortality were those under 4 years of age and those over 50. From 1960 to the present, the state with the highest mortality was Tlaxcala. Hospitalizations increased from 10 to 140 per 100,000 population for the country as a whole. When both outpatient visits and hospitalizations were considered, the morbidity rates rose from 180 to 203.4 per 100,000 between 1960 and 1970. In 1970, hospital morbidity was higher among males than females. From 1960 up to the 1990s, the highest rates of hospitalization and outpatient visits were registered among those under 4 and those over 60. The states with the highest asthma hospitalization rates were Morelos, Baja California Sur, Nuevo León, Durango, and Tamaulipas. It is concluded that asthma mortality in Mexico is showing a downward trend, while morbidity is increasing considerably, especially among adolescents.

  3. ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL TREND IN ETHIOPIA INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and uninterrupted rainfall data series are required to interpret such changes. These data series could be subjected to statistical techniques to identify significant trends and their slope. Therefore, Rainfall being an important climatic element, the study of its variation, particularly, trends (gradual change) of total annual and ...

  4. The smoothness criterion as a trend diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fogarty; Weber, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    The smoothness criterion is used in the design of symmetric moving average trend filters in time series and in graduation in actuarial studies. This measure of smoothness is used to motivate a diagnostic for determining the order of local polynomial trend.

  5. Key Trends Shaping the Global Logistics Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handfield, Robert; Straube, Frank; Pfohl, Hans-Christian

    A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013).......A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013)....

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Massachusetts, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Massachusetts for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Massachusetts showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kentucky, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kentucky for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kentucky showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls.…

  8. Social conditions and trends in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Linda E. Kruger

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, scientists at the Pacific Northwest Research Station initiated several social science studies in response to information gaps identified while developing the Tongass Land Management Plan. Results presented here summarize findings from studies of demographic trends and tourism trends in the region based on data available through 2002. Demographic...

  9. Time Trends in Bullying Behavior in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Lenzi, Michela; Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Cavallo, Franco; Santinello, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the severity of outcomes associated with involvement in bullying and the resources spent in an effort to reduce its prevalence, it is important to investigate trends in the bullying's occurrence. The main aim of this study was to identify trends from 2002 to 2010 in prevalence of bullying and victimization among Italian…

  10. Current Trends In Educational Technology: Implication On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the current trends in educational technology and the implication on educational managers in Nigeria. The current trends in the field of educational technology are centred on the influence of information and communication technology on the development of educational management. Various challenges ...

  11. Top Four Trends in Student Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The modern student information systems (SIS) is a powerful administrative tool with robust functionality. As such, it is essential that school and district administrators consider the top trends in modern student information systems before going forward with system upgrades or new purchases. These trends, described herein, are: (1) Support for…

  12. Historical trends in physics bachelor degree output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Robert

    1998-09-01

    This article examines long-term historical trends in physics B.S. production, and possible factors responsible for those trends. The factors considered include: a changing profile of college entrants, the increasing lure of engineering, differential grade inflation, old-fashioned pedagogy, and poor teaching. Finally, the article considers whether it matters to society whether physics major enrollments continue to decline.

  13. Benchmarking 2009: Trends in Education Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Jessica; Kilgore, Gin

    2009-01-01

    "Benchmarking 2009: Trends in Education Philanthropy" is Grantmakers for Education's (GFE) second annual study of grantmaking trends and priorities among members. As a national network dedicated to improving education outcomes through philanthropy, GFE members are mindful of their role in fostering greater knowledge in the field. They believe it's…

  14. Analysis of temperature trends in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosic, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Unkašević, Miroslava; Marković, Slobodan; Petrović, Predrag

    2017-04-01

    An analysis of air temperature trends in Northern Serbia for the annual and seasonal time series is performed for two periods: 1949-2013 and 1979-2013. Three data sets of surface air temperatures: monthly mean temperatures, monthly maximum temperatures, and monthly minimum temperatures are analyzed at 9 stations that have altitudes varying between 75 m and 102 m. Monthly mean temperatures are obtained as the average of the daily mean temperatures, while monthly maximum (minimum) temperatures are the maximum (minimum) values of daily temperatures in corresponding month. Positive trends were found in 29 out of 30 time series, and the negative trend was found only in winter during the period 1979-2013. Applying the Mann-Kendall test, significant positive trends were found in 15 series; 7 in the period 1949-2013 and 8 in the period 1979-2013; and no significant trend was found in 15 series. Significant positive trends are dominated during the year, spring, and summer, where it was found in 14 out of 18 cases. Significant positive trends were found 7, 5, and 3 times in mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, respectively. It was found that the positive temperature trends are dominant in Northern Serbia.

  15. Education: IUPAC Surveys Trends in University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The most obvious international trend, based on results from 22 countries, is the growing tendency for chemistry curricula to come under much closer and more critical scrutiny than in the past. There is also a definite trend toward introduction of instrumental methods in laboratory courses. (CP)

  16. The smoothness criterion as a trend diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The smoothness criterion is used in the design of symmetric moving average trend filters in time series and in graduation in actuarial studies. This measure of smoothness is used to motivate a diagnostic for determining the order of local polynomial trend.

  17. The smoothness criterion as a trend diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Weber

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The smoothness criterion is used in the design of symmetric moving average trend filters in time series and in graduation in actuarial studies. This measure of smoothness is used to motivate a diagnostic for determining the order of local polynomial trend.

  18. Converging social trends - emerging outdoor recreation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Reidel

    1980-01-01

    I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...

  19. Estimating the trend in employment growth

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Aaronson; Scott Brave

    2013-01-01

    For the unemployment rate to decline, the U.S. economy needs to generate above-trend job growth. We currently estimate trend employment growth to be around 80,000 jobs per month, and we expect it to decline over the remainder of the decade, due largely to changing labor force demographics and slower population growth.

  20. Common Stochastic Trends in the Current Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumah, F.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Solow residuals are used as proxies for productivity shocks in many empirical studies.Considering the shortcomings of this approach this paper proposes the common trends approach as an alternative.The common trends econometric technique is utilized here in an attempt to identify and analyze the long

  1. Fast scanning tomosynthesis for the detection of pulmonary nodules: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector-row computed tomography as the reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Ichiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Abe, Takayuki; Sato, Yuji; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Ogawa, Kenji

    2011-08-01

    : To evaluate the diagnostic performance of fast scanning tomosynthesis in comparison with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary nodules, using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as the reference, and to assess the association of the true-positive fraction (TPF) with the size, CT attenuation value, and location of the nodules. : The institutional review board approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Fifty-seven patients with and 59 without pulmonary nodules underwent chest MDCT, fast scanning tomosynthesis, and radiography. The images of tomosynthesis and radiography were randomly read by 3 blinded radiologists; MDCT served as the reference standard. Free-response receiver-operating characteristic (FROC) and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, Cochran-Armitage trend or Fisher exact test, a conditional logistic regression model, and McNemar test were used. : Both FROC and ROC analyses revealed significantly better performance (P performance of fast scanning tomosynthesis for the detection of pulmonary nodules was significantly superior to that of radiography. The TPF was affected by the size, CT attenuation value, and location of the nodule, in both fast scanning tomosynthesis and radiography.

  2. Retrospective reports of developmental stressors, syndemics, and their association with sexual risk outcomes among gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Tyler G; Rotondi, Nooshin K; Ing, Stanley; Myers, Ted; Calzavara, Liviana M; Loutfy, Mona R; Hart, Trevor A

    2015-10-01

    Gay and bisexual men (GBM) continue to have a disproportionately higher HIV incidence than any other group in Canada and the United States. This study examined how multiple co-occurring psychosocial problems, also known as a syndemic, contribute to high-risk sexual behavior among GBM. It also examined the impact of early life adversity on high-risk sexual behavior as mediated by syndemic severity. A sample of 239 GBM completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Syndemic variables included depression, polysubstance use, and intimate partner violence. Early life adversity variables measured retrospectively included physical and verbal bullying by peers and physical and sexual abuse by adults. A Cochran-Armitage trend test revealed a proportionate increase between number of syndemic problems and engagement in high-risk sex (p risk sex via syndemic severity: verbal bullying by peers and physical abuse by adults. There was also an overall effect of physical bullying by peers on high-risk sexual behavior, but no specific direct or indirect effects were observed. Consistent with syndemic theory, results provide evidence that certain types of early life adversity impact high-risk sex later in life via syndemic problems. Behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk among GBM should address anti-gay discrimination experienced before adulthood as well as adult psychological problems.

  3. Non-carcinogenicity of capsaicinoids in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, A; Sano, N; Uehara, H; Minami, T; Otsuka, H; Izumi, K

    1998-12-01

    The carcinogenicity of a mixture of capsaicinoids (64.5% capsaicin and 32.6% dihydrocapsaicin) was examined in B6C3F1 mice. In a 13-week toxicity study, renal toxicity was observed in 1% capsaicinoid-treated males. Next, groups of 50 mice of each sex were given 0, 0.025, 0.083 or 0.25% capsaicinoids in powdered diet for 79 weeks and killed in week 83. Food intake was reduced in mice of all capsaicinoid-treated groups, especially females, because of the pungency of capsaicinoids, and inhibition of body weight gain was apparent in females. The numbers of tumour-bearing females in the high-dose groups were significantly lower than that in the controls, and the incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms in both sexes were negatively correlated with the dose of capsaicinoids (Cochran-Armitage trend test). Renal cell adenomas developed in one mouse each of 0.025 and 0.25% capsaicinoid-treated males. The incidences of other tumours were similar in the treated and control groups. Thus, the present study indicated that a mixture of capsaicinoids is not carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice.

  4. Simple Algorithms to Calculate Asymptotic Null Distributions of Robust Tests in Case-Control Genetic Association Studies in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Kam Fung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The case-control study is an important design for testing association between genetic markers and a disease. The Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT is one of the most commonly used statistics for the analysis of case-control genetic association studies. The asymptotically optimal CATT can be used when the underlying genetic model (mode of inheritance is known. However, for most complex diseases, the underlying genetic models are unknown. Thus, tests robust to genetic model misspecification are preferable to the model-dependant CATT. Two robust tests, MAX3 and the genetic model selection (GMS, were recently proposed. Their asymptotic null distributions are often obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, because they either have not been fully studied or involve multiple integrations. In this article, we study how components of each robust statistic are correlated, and find a linear dependence among the components. Using this new finding, we propose simple algorithms to calculate asymptotic null distributions for MAX3 and GMS, which greatly reduce the computing intensity. Furthermore, we have developed the R package Rassoc implementing the proposed algorithms to calculate the empirical and asymptotic p values for MAX3 and GMS as well as other commonly used tests in case-control association studies. For illustration, Rassoc is applied to the analysis of case-control data of 17 most significant SNPs reported in four genome-wide association studies.

  5. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) variant is associated with familial breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwinkel, Barbara; Shanmugam, Kalai S; Hemminki, Kari; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Kiechle, Marion; Bartram, Claus R; Frank, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Background The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a critical component of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Aberrant TCF7L2 expression modifies Wnt signaling and mediates oncogenic effects through the upregulation of c-MYC and cyclin D. Genetic alterations in TCF7L2 may therefore affect cancer risk. Recently, TCF7L2 variants, including the microsatellite marker DG10S478 and the nearly perfectly linked SNP rs12233372, were identified to associate with type 2 diabetes. Methods We investigated the effect of the TCF7L2 rs12255372 variant on familial breast cancer (BC) risk by means of TaqMan allelic discrimination, analyzing BRCA1/2 mutation-negative index patients of 592 German BC families and 735 control individuals. Results The T allele of rs12255372 showed an association with borderline significance (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.01-1.42, P = 0.04), and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend revealed an allele dose-dependent association of rs12255372 with BC risk (Ptrend = 0.04). Conclusion Our results suggest a possible influence of TCF7L2 rs12255372 on the risk of familial BC. PMID:17109766

  6. Genotype screening of APLN rs3115757 variant in Egyptian women population reveals an association with obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboouf, Mostafa A; Hamdy, Nadia M; Amin, Ashraf I; El-Mesallamy, Hala O

    2015-07-01

    Apelin is one of adipokines that plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity and vascular integrity. A definite genetic variant of apelin gene (APLN), rs3115757, was recently introduced to potentially influence apelin expression in adipocytes. The aim of our study was to explore the sights of a potential association of this functional variant with obesity traits, insulin resistance indices as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence. Genotype screening for rs3115757 variant in 151 Egyptian female samples was conducted. Fasting levels of serum insulin and lipid profile, in addition to plasma glucose were measured. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to decide the risk allele and evaluate the association between the candidate variant and obesity using a case-control design. The homozygous G risk allele carriers showed higher values of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (P=0.001,0.02, respectively) as compared to CC or CG genotypes. As for GG genotype carriers, the risk of developing morbid obesity in lean subjects, (BMIresistant to insulin. Significantly after correction for BMI and age effects, GG genotype carriers showed 14% and 41% increment in insulin level and resistance (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.23, P=0.001), (OR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.70, Pobesity disorders and as significant as insulin resistance complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of a cartoon and photograph montage storybook in preparing children for voiding cystourethrogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebarski, Kathleen S; Daley, Jamie; Gebarski, Matthew W; Keshavarzi, Nahid; Hernandez, Ramiro J; Ivanzic, Vesna; Gebarski, Stephen S

    2013-11-01

    Undergoing voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) can be distressing for children. To assess the efficacy of a cartoon and photograph montage storybook in preparing children for VCUG. Outpatient children (ages 2-14 years) who had VCUGs between December 2011 and June 2012 were randomly assigned to two groups; one group received the storybook a week before the procedure. Parents and guardians were asked to complete an anonymous survey rating their child's tolerance of the exam from 1 to 5, worst to best, immediately after VCUG. The VCUG technologist also rated the child's tolerance. Children prepared for VCUG with the storybook had less distress than those without. Results were analyzed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel and Cochran-Armitage Trend exact tests, a P value of both tests of 0.0092 indicating a statistically significant difference between the tolerance scores of children prepared with the storybook and those without. Effects of gender and history of VCUG were not statistically significant. Two-thirds of all children had no other source of information. The cartoon and photograph montage storybook format of preparing children for VCUG was effective in increasing their tolerance for the procedure. The storybook should be mailed out in advance because the majority of families did not pursue information on preparing their children for VCUG.

  8. Comparison of dental esthetic perceptions of young adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavand, Golnaz; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M; Warren, John J

    2012-01-01

    To compare dental esthetic perceptions of adolescents at age 13 with those of parents and to assess associations with dental fluorosis. Adolescents aged 13 underwent dental examinations for fluorosis on maxillary anterior teeth using the Fluorosis Risk Index. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires concerning satisfaction with adolescents' dental appearance. McNemar and Bowker tests of symmetry were used for comparisons of esthetics ratings between parents and adolescents. Comparison of satisfaction between subjects with fluorosis and subjects with no fluorosis was made using Cochran-Armitage Trend and Fisher's Exact tests. From 376 adolescents included in the study, 26 percent had definitive fluorosis, mostly at a mild level. Fifteen percent of adolescents were dissatisfied with dental appearance, and concerns were mainly about color (45 percent) and alignment (35 percent). Adolescents were less satisfied with overall dental appearance (P 0.05). Parents of subjects with fluorosis were more dissatisfied with dental appearance (P = 0.014) and color (P appearance and color, and were more concerned with tooth shape than were parents. For both parents and adolescents, decreased satisfaction was associated with the number of zones with definitive fluorosis. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. The impact of maternal body mass index on external cephalic version success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Shahrukh; Contag, Stephen; Yao, Ruofan

    2018-01-21

    The purpose of this study is to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and success of ECV. This is a cross-sectional analysis of singleton live births in the USA from 2010 to 2014 using birth certificate data. Patients were assigned a BMI category according to standard WHO classification. Comparisons of success of ECV between the BMI categories were made using chi-square analysis with normal BMI as the reference group. Cochran-Armitage test was performed to look for a trend of decreasing success of ECV as BMI increased. The odds for successful ECV were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for possible confounders. A total of 51,002 patients with documented ECV were available for analysis. There was a decreased success rate for ECV as BMI increased (p success rate of ECV; women with a normal BMI had 65.0% success rate of ECV. Multivariate analyses demonstrated significant decrease in success of ECV in women with BMI of 40 kg/m 2 or greater (OR 0.621, CI 0.542-0.712). Among women with BMI of 40 kg/m 2 or greater with successful ECV, 59.5% delivered vaginally. In contrast, 81.0% of women with normal BMI and successful ECV delivered vaginally. Morbidly obese women have decreased success rate of ECV as BMI increases and decreased vaginal delivery rates after successful ECV.

  10. Diverticulitis Outcomes are Equivalent Between Level 1 Trauma Centers and Community Hospitals in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Stephen C; Arumugam, Dena; Dombrovskiy, Viktor Y

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, general surgeons provide emergency general surgery (EGS) coverage by assigned call. The acute care surgery (ACS) model is new and remains confined mostly to academic centers. Some argue that in busy trauma centers, on-call trauma surgeons may be unable to also care for EGS patients. In New Jersey, all three Level 1 Trauma Centers (L1TC) have provided ACS services for many years. Analyzing NJ state inpatient data, we sought to determine whether outcomes in one common surgical illness, diverticulitis, have been different between L1TC and nontrauma centers (NTC) over a 10-year period. The NJ Medical Database was queried for patients aged 18 to 90 hospitalized from 2001 to 2010 for acute diverticulitis. Demographics, comorbidities, operative rates, and mortality were compiled and analyzed comparing L1TC to NTC. For additional comparison between L1TC and NTC, 1:1 propensity score matching with replacement was accomplished. χ(2), t test, and Cochran-Armitage trend test were used. From 2001 to 2010, 88794 patients were treated in NJ for diverticulitis. 2621 patients (2.95%) were treated at L1TCs. Operative rates were similar between hospital types. Patients treated at L1TCs were more often younger (63.1 ± 0.3 vs 64.7 ± 0.1; P diverticulitis are equivalent between LT1C and NTC in NJ. Trauma centers in NJ more commonly provide care to minority and uninsured patients.

  11. Genotypic association analysis using discordant-relative-pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T; Yang, Y-N; Cheng, X; DeAngelis, M M; Hoh, J; Zhang, H

    2009-01-01

    In practice, family-based design has been widely used in disease-gene association analysis. The major advantage of such design is that it is not subject to spurious association due to population structure such as population stratification (PS) and admixture. A disadvantage is that parental genotypes are hard to obtain if the disease is late onset for which a discordant-relative-pair design is useful. Designs of such kind include full-sib-pair, half-sib-pair, first-cousin-pair, and so on. The closer the relatedness of the pair, the less possible that they are subject to population stratification. On the other hand, the association test using close relative-pairs may be less powerful due to over-matching. Trade-off between these two factors (population structure and over-matching) is the major concern of this study. Some tests, namely McNemar's test, matched Cochran-Armitage trend tests (CATTs), matched maximum efficient robust test (MERT), and Bhapkar's test, are used for testing disease-gene association based on relative-pair designs. These tests are shown to be valid in the presence of PS but not admixture. Numerical studies show that the McNemar's test, additive CATT, MERT, and Bhapkar's test are robust in power, but none of them is uniformly more powerful than the others. In most simulations, the power of any of the tests increases as the pair is more distant. The proposed methods are applied to two real examples.

  12. Prediction of Outcome After Emergency High-Risk Intra-abdominal Surgery Using the Surgical Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihoric, Mirjana; Toft Tengberg, Line; Bay-Nielsen, Morten; Bang Foss, Nicolai

    2016-12-01

    With current literature quoting mortality rates up to 45%, emergency high-risk abdominal surgery has, compared with elective surgery, a significantly greater risk of death and major complications. The Surgical Apgar Score (SAS) is predictive of outcome in elective surgery, but has never been validated exclusively in an emergency setting. A consecutive prospective single-center cohort study of 355 adults undergoing emergency high-risk abdominal surgery between June 2013 and May 2014 is presented. The primary outcome measure was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcome measures were postoperative major complications, defined according to the Clavien-Dindo scale as well as the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program guidelines, and intensive care unit admission. The SAS was calculated postoperatively. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate the incidence of both outcomes. Area under the curve was used to demonstrate the scores' discriminatory power. One hundred eighty-one (51.0%) patients developed minor or no complications. The overall incidence of major complications was 32.7% and the overall death rate was 16.3%. Risk of major complications, death, and intensive care unit admission increased significantly with decreasing SAS (P high-risk abdominal surgery. Despite its predictive value, the SAS cannot in its current version be recommended as a standalone prognostic tool in an emergency setting.

  13. [Pidemiological analysis of pesticide poisoning in hangzhou during 2006-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hao, Li; Zhang, Xuhui; Chen, Jianchun; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Long

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this current investigation was to describe the distribution characteristics of pesticides poisoning in Hangzhou during 2006-2013. The registration data of pesticide poisoning in Hangzhou during 2006-2013 were collected from health disserve surveillance information system which was part of China information system for disease control and prevention. The statistical analysis method included Pearson Chi-square test and Cochran-Armitage trend test. There were totally 6232 cases with pesticide poisoning during 2006-2013, of which 414 cases died. The fatality rate of poisoning patients was 6.64%. The pesticides, especially organophosphorus pesticides, were the main poison that caused poisoning, and patients with pesticide poisoning accounted for 80.60% of all the poisoning patient. There was more female patients than male patients among non-productive pesticide poisoning, but on the contrary among productive pesticide poisoning. The incidence of pesticides poisoning had significant increase in the third season. Occupational pesticide poisoning and non-occupational pesticide poisoning had the different distribution character. Non-occupational pesticide poisoning was the chief reason of pesticide poisoning. The pesticides, especially organophosphorus pesticides, were the main poisons threatening the health of people in Hangzhou, and the effective prevention and control measures should be taken immediately.

  14. The role of alternative GJB2 transcription in screening for neonatal sensorineural deafness in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzefall, Thomas; Lucas, Trevor; Koenighofer, Martin; Ramsebner, Reinhard; Frohne, Alexandra; Czeiger, Shelly; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Schoefer, Christian; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Frei, Klemens

    2017-04-01

    Alterations within a novel putative Exon 1a within the gap junction beta 2 (GJB2) gene may play a role in the development of genetic hearing impairment in Austria. Mutations in the GJB2 gene are the most common cause of hereditary sensorineural deafness. Genome-wide screening for alternative transcriptional start sites in the human genome has revealed the presence of an additional GJB2 exon (E1a). This study tested the hypothesis of whether alternative GJB2 transcription involving E1a may play a role in the development of congenital sensorineural deafness in Austria. GJB2 E1a and flanking regions were sequenced in randomized normal hearing control subjects and three different patient groups with non-syndromic hearing impairment (NSHI), and bioinformatic analysis was performed. Statistical analysis of disease association was carried out using the Cochran-Armitage test for trend. A single change 2410 bp proximal to the translational start site (c.-2410T > C, rs7994748, NM_004004.5:c.-23 + 792T > C) was found to be significantly associated with the common c.35delG GJB2 mutation (p = .009). c.35delG in combination with c.-2410CC occurred at a 6.9-fold increased frequency compared to the control group. Additionally, one patient with idiopathic congenital hearing loss was found to be homozygous c.-2410CC.

  15. Real-time video communication improves provider performance in a simulated neonatal resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jennifer L; Carey, William A; Lang, Tara R; Lohse, Christine M; Colby, Christopher E

    2014-11-01

    To determine if a real-time audiovisual link with a neonatologist, termed video-assisted resuscitation or VAR, improves provider performance during a simulated neonatal resuscitation scenario. Using high-fidelity simulation, 46 study participants were presented with a neonatal resuscitation scenario. The control group performed independently, while the intervention group utilized VAR. Time to effective ventilation was compared using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Providers' use of the corrective steps for ineffective ventilation per the NRP algorithm was compared using Cochran-Armitage trend tests. The time needed to establish effective ventilation was significantly reduced in the intervention group when compared to the control group (mean time 2 min 42 s versus 4 min 11 s, presuscitation scenario significantly reduces the time to establish effective ventilation and improves provider adherence to NRP guidelines. This technology may be a means for regional centers to support local providers during a neonatal emergency to improve patient safety and improve neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the prescribing pattern of bisphosphonate and raloxifene in Korean women with osteoporosis: from a national health insurance claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmee; Shin, Ju-Young; Lee, Joongyub; Song, Hong-Ji; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the differences of prescribing pattern between bisphosphonate and raloxifene users among Korean women with osteoporosis, focusing on the underlying conditions, concurrent medications, nature of healthcare utilization, and regional disparity. We used the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service National Patients Sample database of the year 2010. Study subjects were defined as female osteoporosis patients aged over 50 years with both the diagnosis of osteoporosis and prescriptions of bisphosphonate or raloxifene. The frequency and the proportion of bisphosphonate and raloxifene were compared using chi-square test and the trend of the proportion using the Cochran-Armitage test. Medications were quantified as defined daily doses per 1,000 patients per day. The prescription pattern was visualized by using the Quantum Geographic Information Systems program. Of the 1,367,367 people who utilized medical services in 2010, the final number of study subjects was 26,881--26,032 (96.8%) bisphosphonate and 849 (3.2%) raloxifene recipients. Raloxifene users were younger than bisphosphonate users and were more frequently patients with a lipid disorder (16.0% vs. 22.1%, p-value raloxifene users was higher in tertiary care institutions (21.6% vs. 44.7%, p-value raloxifene use was higher in the Seoul metropolitan area. These differences in demographic and clinical profiles of each recipient may influence prescription decisions.

  17. Training for prescribing in-office and home phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathryn L; Huang, Karen E; Huang, William W; Feldman, Steven R

    2015-11-01

    One reason phototherapy use is lacking in the United States may be inadequate phototherapy education during dermatology training. The purpose of this study was to estimate the level of dermatology resident training with prescribing phototherapy and to see whether inadequate education may be contributing to the underuse of phototherapy in the United States. A questionnaire was developed to assess resident education and comfort with prescribing phototherapy from the resident perspective. Botulinum toxin and radiation therapy training were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Responses were tabulated and comparisons made using Fisher's exact test and Cochran-Armitage trend test. A total of 88 residents responded. 42% and 81% of respondents reported not receiving didactic education on prescribing in-office and home phototherapy, respectively, compared to 13% for botulinum toxin and 91% for radiation therapy. 29% and 76% reported not being comfortable prescribing in-office and home phototherapy, respectively, compared to 36% for botulinum toxin and 91% for radiation therapy. Phototherapy education satisfaction was positively correlated with comfort of prescribing, and comfort prescribing was positively correlated with actual prescribing of phototherapy. Training for prescribing phototherapy is lacking. Augmenting phototherapy training may help make home phototherapy more accessible for patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 variant is associated with familial breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmutzler Rita K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 is a critical component of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Aberrant TCF7L2 expression modifies Wnt signaling and mediates oncogenic effects through the upregulation of c-MYC and cyclin D. Genetic alterations in TCF7L2 may therefore affect cancer risk. Recently, TCF7L2 variants, including the microsatellite marker DG10S478 and the nearly perfectly linked SNP rs12233372, were identified to associate with type 2 diabetes. Methods We investigated the effect of the TCF7L2 rs12255372 variant on familial breast cancer (BC risk by means of TaqMan allelic discrimination, analyzing BRCA1/2 mutation-negative index patients of 592 German BC families and 735 control individuals. Results The T allele of rs12255372 showed an association with borderline significance (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.01-1.42, P = 0.04, and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend revealed an allele dose-dependent association of rs12255372 with BC risk (Ptrend = 0.04. Conclusion Our results suggest a possible influence of TCF7L2 rs12255372 on the risk of familial BC.

  19. Comparison of Dental Esthetic Perceptions of Young Adolescents and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavand, Golnaz; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.; Warren, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare dental esthetic perceptions of adolescents at age 13 with those of parents and to assess associations with dental fluorosis. Methods As part of the Iowa Fluoride Study, 550 adolescents aged 13 underwent dental examinations for fluorosis on maxillary anterior teeth using the Fluorosis Risk Index. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires concerning satisfaction with the adolescents’ dental appearance. McNemar and Bowker tests of symmetry were used for comparisons of esthetics ratings between parents and adolescents. Comparison of satisfaction between fluorosis and non-fluorosis subjects was made using Cochran-Armitage Trend and Fisher’s Exact tests. Results Excluding subjects with orthodontic treatment, 376 adolescents were included and 26% of them had definitive fluorosis, mostly at a mild level. Fifteen percent of adolescents were dissatisfied with dental appearance, and concerns were mainly about the tooth color (45%) and alignment (35%). Adolescents were less satisfied with overall dental appearance (PFluorosis status (yes/no) was not significantly associated with adolescents’ satisfaction or areas of concern (p>0.05). Parents of subjects with fluorosis were more dissatisfied with dental appearance (P=0.014) and color (Pfluorosis was negatively associated with both adolescent (P=0.03) and parent (P=0.002) satisfaction. Conclusion Adolescents generally had less satisfaction with dental appearance and color and they were more concerned with tooth shape than parents. For both parents and adolescents, decreased satisfaction was associated with the number of zones with definitive fluorosis. PMID:22364682

  20. Travel trends in New England and the Northeast United States: updating post 9-11 trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the travel market trends in New England after September 11, 2001 (9- 11). Comparisons of travel to New England are also made with overall national domestic travel trends and vacation travel trends. The primary purpose is to examine the markets that travel to both the Northeast United States and New England1 regions to determine if and when the...

  1. Marketing: Trends and behaviour patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order for marketing to act proactively, it must acknowledge the trends (mega and metatrends which anticipate future changes reagrding the customer as well as changes in consumption, regarding products and rivals. From yesterday's industrial era, through space conquering era and today's dominating information era, the world is turning toward 'the era of the man'. Human potential (talent, innovativeness, creativity grows to be the main determinant of economic development will have to face new reality which will have higher importance for management companies and individuals, as well. Societies and economies underlay significant transformations on a daily basis which occur randomly. Whatsoever, it might seem to the observer that these transformations are almost tangible. For example, the presently overwhelming business models are shored to be redefined in the forecoming period. Present models that rose out of the recent recession have imposed hard times to societies which will probably strengthen them. It will be necessary to reconcept the social system and redefine values. In marketing and business the upcoming of new power calls for new conceptions and practice. Marketers understand the need for a full, cohesive approach that leaves behind traditional marketing. This new holistic conception is based on development, design and realization of marketing programmes, processes and activities by which the width and interrelatedness of effects are acknowledged, e.g. that everything has its importance in marketing and that a wide, integrated perspective is necessary. Changes regarding the customer are headed towards searching for one's identity, while behaviour aims at the way the customer wants himself/herself to be seen by the environment.

  2. Aquaculture: global status and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392

  3. Some Trends in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. von Spakovsky

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional answers to what the 2nd Law is are well known. Some are based on the microstate of a system wandering rapidly through all accessible phase space, while others are based on the idea of a system occupying an initial multitude of states due to the inevitable imperfections of measurements that then effectively, in a coarse grained manner, grow in time (mixing. What has emerged are two somewhat less traditional approaches from which it is said that the 2nd Law emerges, namely, that of the theory of quantum open systems and that of the theory of typicality. These are the two principal approaches, which form the basis of what today has come to be called quantum thermodynamics. However, their dynamics remains strictly linear and unitary, and, as a number of recent publications have emphasized, “testing the unitary propagation of pure states alone cannot rule out a nonlinear propagation of mixtures”. Thus, a non-traditional approach to capturing such a propagation would be one which complements the postulates of QM by the 2nd Law of thermodynamics, resulting in a possibly meaningful, nonlinear dynamics. An unorthodox approach, which does just that, is intrinsic quantum thermodynamics and its mathematical framework, steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics. The latter has evolved into an effective tool for modeling the dynamics of reactive and non-reactive systems at atomistic scales. It is the usefulness of this framework in the context of quantum thermodynamics as well as the theory of typicality which are discussed here in some detail. A brief discussion of some other trends such as those related to work, work extraction, and fluctuation theorems is also presented.

  4. Aquaculture: global status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems.

  5. Explaining NDVI trends in northern Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus; Fog, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    by a distinct spatial pattern and strongly dominated by negative trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The aim of the paper is to explain this distinct pattern. When studied over the period 2000–2012, using NDVI data from the MODIS sensor the spatial pattern of NDVI trends indicates that non......-climatic factors are involved. By relating NDVI trends to landscape elements and land use change we demonstrate that NDVI trends in the north-western parts of the study area are mostly related to landscape elements, while this is not the case in the south-eastern parts, where rapidly changing land use, including....... expansion of irrigation, plays a major role. It is inferred that a process of increased redistribution of fine soil material, water and vegetation from plateaus and slopes to valleys, possibly related to higher grazing pressure, may provide an explanation of the observed pattern of NDVI trends. Further work...

  6. Analysis of gravity data using trend surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Asimopolos, Laurentiu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we have developed algorithms and related software programs for calculating of trend surfaces of higher order. These methods of analysis of trends, like mobile media applications are filtration systems for geophysical data in surface. In particular we presented few case studies for gravity data and gravity maps. Analysis with polynomial trend surfaces contributes to the recognition, isolation and measurement of trends that can be represented by surfaces or hyper-surfaces (in several sizes), thus achieving a separation in regional variations and local variations. This separation is achieved by adjusting the trend function at different values. Trend surfaces using the regression analysis satisfy the criterion of least squares. The difference between the surface of trend and the observed value in a certain point is the residual value. Residual sum of squares of these values should be minimal as the criterion of least squares. The trend surface is considered as regional or large-scale and the residual value will be regarded as local or small-scale component. Removing the regional trend has the effect of highlighting local components represented by residual values. Surface analysis and hyper-surfaces principles are applied to the surface trend and any number of dimensions. For hyper-surfaces we can work with polynomial functions with four or more variables (three variables of space and other variables for interest parameters) that have great importance in some applications. In the paper we presented the mathematical developments about generalized trend surfaces and case studies about gravimetric data. The trend surfaces have the great advantage that the effect of regional anomalies can be expressed as analytic functions. These tendency surfaces allows subsequent mathematical processing and interesting generalizations, with great advantage to work with polynomial functions compared with the original discrete data. For gravity data we estimate the depth of

  7. Archaeometry: changes and current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Ruiz, Ignacio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks through the definition of the term Archaeometry and its different meanings since the first use of the term in the1950s to the present. It is also concerned with the historical background of Archaeometry, its evolution throughout recent decades and the fields currently covered by this new area of knowledge, which must be understood within the limits of archaeology. In addition, a bibliometric analysis has served to show in depth the trends of archaeometric studies and to assess their role in current archaeological research. Finally, some ideas on the particular knowledge generated by Archaeometry as well as its future and immediate perspectives are also discussed.  

    Este trabajo realiza un recorrido por la definición del término Arqueometría y las distintas acepciones que ha ido teniendo desde su aparición en la década de los 50 del siglo pasado hasta el presente. También se profundiza en los antecedentes históricos, en la evolución acaecida en las últimas décadas y en los campos de actuación cubiertos en la actualidad por esta nueva área de conocimiento, cuyo desarrollo no puede entenderse al margen de la propia arqueología. Un análisis bibliométrico ha servido además para conocer en profundidad las tendencias en este tipo de estudios arqueométricos y valorar el papel que juegan en la investigación arqueológica actual. Por último, se discuten algunas ideas sobre las particulares características del conocimiento generado por la Arqueometría, así como su futuro y perspectivas más inmediatas.

  8. Space Biophysics: Accomplishments, Trends, Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    the protective environment of Earth, the biophysical properties underlying these changes must be studied, characterized and understood. This lecture reviews the current state of NASA biophysics research accomplishments and identifies future trends and challenges for biophysics research on the International Space Station and beyond.

  9. Trends in global earthquake loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnst, Isabel; Wenzel, Friedemann; Daniell, James

    2016-04-01

    Based on the CATDAT damage and loss database we analyse global trends of earthquake losses (in current values) and fatalities for the period between 1900 and 2015 from a statistical perspective. For this time period the data are complete for magnitudes above 6. First, we study the basic statistics of losses and find that losses below 10 bl. US satisfy approximately a power law with an exponent of 1.7 for the cumulative distribution. Higher loss values are modelled with the General Pareto Distribution (GPD). The 'transition' between power law and GPD is determined with the Mean Excess Function. We split the data set into a period of pre 1955 and post 1955 loss data as in those periods the exposure is significantly different due to population growth. The Annual Average Loss (AAL) for direct damage for events below 10 bl. US differs by a factor of 6, whereas the incorporation of the extreme loss events increases the AAL from 25 bl. US/yr to 30 bl. US/yr. Annual Average Deaths (AAD) show little (30%) difference for events below 6.000 fatalities and AAD values of 19.000 and 26.000 deaths per year if extreme values are incorporated. With data on the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that reflects the annual expenditures (consumption, investment, government spending) and on capital stock we relate losses to the economic capacity of societies and find that GDP (in real terms) grows much faster than losses so that the latter one play a decreasing role given the growing prosperity of mankind. This reasoning does not necessarily apply on a regional scale. Main conclusions of the analysis are that (a) a correct projection of historic loss values to nowadays US values is critical; (b) extreme value analysis is mandatory; (c) growing exposure is reflected in the AAL and AAD results for the periods pre and post 1955 events; (d) scaling loss values with global GDP data indicates that the relative size - from a global perspective - of losses decreases rapidly over time.

  10. Cometary Orbital Trends with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael S.; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori M.; Knight, Matthew M.; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane H.; Bauer, James M.

    2017-10-01

    Cometary mass-loss, i.e., activity, is nominally driven by the sublimation of volatiles. The three most abundant volatiles in the average comet are water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Of the three, CO2 is the most challenging to measure directly, and cannot be observed from the ground due to telluric absorptions. Owing to observations made by several space telescopes, including ISO, Spitzer, Akari, and WISE, as well as spacecraft missions to comets, we have a good estimate of the range of CO2 abundances in the comet population (~5-30% with respect to water). However, spacecraft missions have shown that the production of H2O, CO2 and CO are not fully understood. At each of three well-studied comets (9P/Tempel 1, 103P/Hartley 2, and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko), CO2 and H2O have had distinct distributions in the coma, suggesting different release mechanisms or heterogeneous source regions. For 67P, this resulted in relative abundances that varied along the comet’s orbit, demonstrating that a single measurement of the CO2-to-water abundance ratio in a cometary coma is not necessarily reflective of the bulk nucleus composition.To improve our understanding of CO2 production in comets, we began a time-domain survey of 24 targets with the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2015. Most targets are observed multiple times on month-long timescales, and some comets are observed on year-long timescales. We present a summary of the Spitzer project at the 2.5-year mark, including total CO2 production rates at heliocentric distances beyond 3 au, number and size of CO2 active areas, and seasonal variations in dust and CO2 production. We also compare the Spitzer results to comets observed in the NEOWISE survey (Bauer et al. 2017, this meeting). The NEOWISE data is complementary in that it provides observations of many targets with limited selection biases, whereas the Orbital Trends Survey observes a small number of targets in detail.This work is based on observations made with the

  11. Socially disparate trends in lifespan variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality trends in life expectancy are not informative as to changes in social disparity in the age-at-death distribution. The purpose of the study was to investigate social differentials in trends and patterns of adult mortality in Denmark. METHODS: Register data on income...... and mortality from 1986 to 2014 were used to investigate trends in life expectancy, life disparity and the threshold age that separates 'premature' and 'late' deaths. Mortality compression was quantified and compared between income quartiles. RESULTS: Since 1986, male life expectancy increased by 4.2 years...

  12. TRENDS OF ROMANIAN BANKING NETWORK DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Georgeta PANAIT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, two trends occurred in the banking world: downsizing of personnel, on the one hand and the reduction of retail units held, on the other hand. The first trend was most notable in countries with unstable or weak economy. The effects were seen immediately. Reducing of the operating costs and more applied of the territorial structure and staff was a decision that credit institutions in Romania took relatively late. Worldwide banks began a restructuring otherwise dictated by this time not so economic crises new market trends - increasing access to the internet for the population and use of the internet in a growing proportion of internet banking

  13. Hemispheric asymmetry in stratospheric NO2 trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yela, Margarita; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Gonzalez-Bartolomé, David; Puentedura, Olga; Funke, Bernd; Iglesias, Javier; Rodríguez, Santiago; García, Omaira; Ochoa, Héctor; Deferrari, Guillermo

    2017-11-01

    Over 20 years of stratospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) data from ground-based zenith DOAS spectrometers were used for trend analysis, specifically, via multiple linear regression. Spectrometers from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) cover the subtropical latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (Izaña, 28° N), the southern Subantarctic (Ushuaia, 55° S) and Antarctica (Marambio, 64° S, and Belgrano, 78° S). The results show that for the period 1993-2014, a mean positive decadal trend of +8.7 % was found in the subtropical Northern Hemisphere stations, and negative decadal trends of -8.7 and -13.8 % were found in the Southern Hemisphere at Ushuaia and Marambio, respectively; all trends are statistically significant at 95 %. Belgrano only shows a significant decadal trend of -11.3 % in the summer/autumn period. Most of the trends result from variations after 2005. The trend in the diurnal build-up per hour (DBU) was used to estimate the change in the rate of N2O5 conversion to NO2 during the day. With minor differences, the results reproduce those obtained for NO2. The trends computed for individual months show large month-to-month variability. At Izaña, the maximum occurs in December (+13.1 %), dropping abruptly to lower values in the first part of the year. In the Southern Hemisphere, the polar vortex dominates the monthly distributions of the trends. At Marambio, the maximum occurs in mid-winter (-21 %), whereas at the same time, the Ushuaia trend is close to its annual minimum (-7 %). The large difference in the trends at these two relatively close stations suggests a vortex shift towards the Atlantic/South American area over the past few years. Finally, the hemispheric asymmetry obtained in this work is discussed in the framework of the results obtained by previous works that considered tracer analysis and Brewer-Dobson circulation. The results obtained here provide evidence that the NO2 produced by N2O

  14. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. NCI Dictionary | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Environmental effects, heritability estimates and genetic trends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-01

    Sep 1, 1997 ... Keywords: Dohne Merino, genetic trends, live weight, wool traits, yearling per- ..... The regression of yearling live weight on birth date approached significance (p ... The addition of random effects apart from maternal per-.

  17. Tourism Trends Among Generation Y in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joanna Kowalczyk-Anioł

    2012-01-01

    .... The similarities are also visible in tourism - new, post-modernist trends, such as gap year and internet couch surfing portals, as forms of independent travel organization, are becoming more and more popular...

  18. Alcohol Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  20. Irrigation trends in Kansas, 1991–2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet examines trends in total reported irrigation water use and acres irrigated as well as irrigation water use by crop type and system type in Kansas for...

  1. Chemical Exposures | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Temporal trends in total phosphorus, temperature, oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, in Roodeplaat Dam, Cyanophyta used to be the dominant group annually, but from 1997–2000, a Scenedesmus sp. (Chlorophyta) became increasingly important in the phytoplankton composition. Keywords: blooms, dominant organisms, eutrophication, species assemblages, temperature changes, trends ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vital Statistics Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Provisional number of marriages and marriage rate: United States, 2000-2014 Year ...

  5. Ovarian Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Trends in Nonprofit Corporation Law in 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleck, Howard L.

    1976-01-01

    About half of the formal organizations and enterprises in the United States are nonprofit in nature. Trends in laws affecting them are reviewed, including tax exemption, officer status, civil rights, management practices, and federal court interposition. (LBH)

  7. Petrographic features, geochemical trends and mass balance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrographic features, geochemical trends and mass balance computation, in relation to the evolution of anatectic migmatites in the granulite facies terrain of the Manalur area, Tamil Nadu, south India.

  8. Trends in tools; Computers in Libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.M. Bierens

    2007-01-01

    In april '07 vond in de VS het congres 'Computers in Libraries' plaats. Gerard Bierens en Liesbeth Mantel signaleren de opvallendste trends. 'De bibliotheekcatalogus gaat onherroepelijk onder het mes.'

  9. Trends and Perspective in Industrial Maintenance Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    increased attention. Trends and perspective in industrial maintenance are presented. The result of benchmarking studies from Scandinavia and United States are also presented and compared. Case studies that examine maintenance methods, knowledge, organization and information systems in three Danish...

  10. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000726.htm Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes To use the sharing ... Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  11. Kidney Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. De-trending of turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparison between long term raw and de-trended turbulence intensity values recorded at offshore and coastal sites under different weather systems. Within the traditional framework of turbulence interpretation, where turbulence is considered as a stationary...... process imposed on a given constant mean wind speed, measured raw turbulence intensities consist of contributions from the atmospheric turbulence as well as from the change in mean wind speed levels. The change in mean wind speed will appear as a trend in the wind speed time series. Wind resource...... contribution to the wind speed turbulence intensity for a number of representative locations. A linear de-trending process has been implemented during indexing of the time-series. The observed de-trended turbulence intensities are reduced 3 – 15 % compared to the raw turbulence intensity. This reduction...

  13. De-trending of turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, turbulence is considered as a stationary stochastic process imposed on a given constant mean wind speed. However, measured (raw) turbulence intensities often display the characteristics of a non-stationary process, where the mean wind speed changes slowly with time. The change...... this requires access to the basic time-series. However, including a suitable modelling of the mean wind speed time variation, it is possible to estimate an approximate (linear) trend correction based on statistical data only. This paper presents such an algorithm for de-trending of turbulence standard deviation...... de-trending is performed and subsequently compared with the prediction from the proposed algorithm. The de-trended turbulence intensities are reduced in the range of 3 – 15 % compared to the raw turbulence intensity. The performed analysis shows that the proposed model, based on statistical...

  14. Red Meat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Global cyber trends a South African reality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber trends are a reality across the globe. Not only are technology and electronic devices and media used more regularly in easing everyday activities, but these technological advances are also used in sophisticated criminal activities. Regardless...

  16. Trends in the Development of Hybrid Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Josef Morkus

    2016-01-01

    ... of the batteries and more sophisticated forms of hybrid drive control. Specific trends include the charging of electric or hybrid buses at bus stops and the regulation-influenced development of competitive and racing vehicles...

  17. Commercialising public research new trends and strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris

    2013-01-01

    This report describes recent trends in government and institutional level policies to enhance the transfer and exploitation of public research. It also benchmarks a set of countries, universities and public research institutions (PRI) based on both traditional and new indicators.

  18. Fat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Poverty reduction in China: Trends and causes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yin; Wan, Guanghua

    2006-01-01

    Applying the Shapley decomposition to unit-record household survey data, this paper investigates the trends and causes of poverty in China in the 1990s. The changes in poverty trends are attributed to two proximate causes; income growth and shifts in relative income distribution. The Foster-Greer-Thorbecke measures are computed and decomposed, with different datasets and alternative assumptions about poverty lines and equivalence. Among the robust results are: (i) both income growth and favou...

  20. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, (Finland); Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods. 14 refs, 10 figs.

  1. Reliability of regional climate model trends

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. van Oldenborgh; Doblas Reyes, F. J.; Drijfhout, S.S.; Hawkins, Ed

    2013-01-01

    A necessary condition for a good probabilistic forecast is that the forecast system is shown to be reliable: forecast probabilities should equal observed probabilities verified over a large number of cases. As climate change trends are now emerging from the natural variability, we can apply this concept to climate predictions and compute the reliability of simulated local and regional temperature and precipitation trends (1950–2011) in a recent multi-model ensemble of climate model simulation...

  2. Long Trend Dynamics in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chunyan; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    2011-01-01

    A main characteristic of social media is that its diverse content, copiously generated by both standard outlets and general users, constantly competes for the scarce attention of large audiences. Out of this flood of information some topics manage to get enough attention to become the most popular ones and thus to be prominently displayed as trends. Equally important, some of these trends persist long enough so as to shape part of the social agenda. How this happens is the focus of this paper...

  3. Trend spotting--whither health science librarianship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeannette

    2011-12-01

    This feature surveys 20th-century trends in health sciences librarianship. It sets the scene for a series of features looking at 21st-century trends in various countries and regions. Whilst the mission of the health science library remains constant, librarians must find ways of adjusting their role and the services they provide to take account of changes in the external environment. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  4. Evolution of Trends in European Medical Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Mihalas, George

    2014-01-01

    This presentation attempts to analyze the trends in Medical Informatics along half a century, in the European socio-political and technological development context. Based on the major characteristics which seem dominant in some periods, a staging is proposed, with a description of each period – the context, major ideas, views and events. A summary of major features of each period is also added. This paper has an original presentation of the evolution of major trends in medical informatics. PMID:24648618

  5. New trends of library reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, W.M.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Reference service is considered as the heart of the library services. It is a service, facilitated by a reference librarian, which meets the information needs of users with desired information. Like many other library services, library reference service also has changed with the impact of emerging technologies and in par with changing social needs. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these new trends of library reference services. These new trends are divided into four main areas name...

  6. Historical trends in public general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, P

    1991-01-01

    This article examines utilization trends in Canadian public general hospitals from 1976 to 1986-87. These trends are then compared with a previous period, and with hospital trends in the United States. Findings for this report are based on both provincial and national data. There was an overall decline in the number of hospitals with a decrease in small (1-49 beds) and an increase in large (300+ beds) hospitals. The net result is a 7% increase in the number of beds, though due to the larger population there was a 3% decrease in the bed rate per population. The bed occupancy rate increased from 77% to 83% and the average length of stay also increased. The number of separations increased slightly but rates per population declined. Patient-days per population increased in most provinces and there was a significant increase in long-stay units. Despite general uniformity amongst the provinces there were some notable variations. The trends indicate a reversal of the situation in the 1953-1973 period which was marked by an expansion in the hospital system. Hospitals in the United States showed somewhat similar trends with the exception of length of stay. The trends may be ascribed to factors such as increased efficiency, the development of alternatives to inpatient care, technical improvements, demographic changes and the individuality of the provincial health care systems.

  7. E-Learning Trends and Hypes in Academic Teaching. Methodology and Findings of a Trend Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Helge; Heise, Linda; Heinz, Matthias; Moebius, Kathrin; Koehler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    What comes next in the field of academic e-learning? Which e-learning trends will dominate the discourse at universities? Answering such questions is the basis for the adaptation of service strategies and IT-infrastructures within institutions of Higher Education. The present paper therefore introduces methodology and findings of a trend study in…

  8. Biodiversity Trends and Threats in Europe; development and test of a species trend indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heer M de; Kapos V; Brink BJE ten; NLB

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a trial of a species population trend indicator for evaluating progress towards the 2010 biodiversity target in Europe, using existing data. The indicator integrates trends on different species (groups), and can be aggregated across habitats and countries. Thus, the indicator

  9. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control.

  10. Trends and balances: 1985-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of Trends and Balances to be presented to the staff of Oak Ridge National (ORNL) and other interested parties. Each year at the end of the planning cycle the Laboratory publishes its official planning document, the Institutional Plan. Trends and Balances is brought out as a condensation of that more formal document and is intended to provide a reference to the kinds of plans that have occupied senior laboratory management over the past year. An institution as large as ORNL changes slowly, so some of the information in this document overlaps that contained in the previous edition of Trends and Balances. Much, however, is different. A new section, for example, describes what senior Laboratory management feels are five new directions for science and technology at ORNL. This document is intended to provide new insights into the programs and structure of the Laboratory.

  11. Trends, demands and challenges in TCAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bork, Ingo [Synopsys, Inc., 700 E. Middlefield Rd., Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)]. E-mail: ingo.bork@synopsys.com; Moroz, Victor [Synopsys, Inc., 700 E. Middlefield Rd., Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bomholt, Lars [Synopsys, Inc., 700 E. Middlefield Rd., Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Pramanik, Dipu [Synopsys, Inc., 700 E. Middlefield Rd., Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2005-12-05

    Currently, TCAD is most heavily used in the device research and process integration phases of a technology life cycle. However, a major trend visible in the industry is the demand to apply TCAD tools far beyond the integration phase into manufacturing and yield optimization. Short IC product lifetimes make fast yield ramp-up critical for being profitable and TCAD tools build a bridge between IC design and manufacturing. Another major trend is to use TCAD to evaluate layout dependent stress variations and account for these variations in the design flow of standard cells, libraries and custom ICs. This article gives an overview of those trends and addresses resulting challenges for TCAD models and tools.

  12. New trends in computational collective intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang-Wook; Trawiński, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This book consists of 20 chapters in which the authors deal with different theoretical and practical aspects of new trends in Collective Computational Intelligence techniques. Computational Collective Intelligence methods and algorithms are one the current trending research topics from areas related to Artificial Intelligence, Soft Computing or Data Mining among others. Computational Collective Intelligence is a rapidly growing field that is most often understood as an AI sub-field dealing with soft computing methods which enable making group decisions and processing knowledge among autonomous units acting in distributed environments. Web-based Systems, Social Networks, and Multi-Agent Systems very often need these tools for working out consistent knowledge states, resolving conflicts and making decisions. The chapters included in this volume cover a selection of topics and new trends in several domains related to Collective Computational Intelligence: Language and Knowledge Processing, Data Mining Methods an...

  13. Changing trends in diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify any changing trends in the incidence and caesarean section (CS) rate of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over a 10- year period, between 1999 and 2008. Although the incidence of pre-gestational DM has not significantly changed over the course of the last 10 years, there is an obvious rising trend in the incidence of GDM. Despite an increase in the overall CS rate during this time period, a parallel increase in the CS rate has not been observed among women whose pregnancies are complicated either by gestational or by pre-gestational diabetes (PGD).

  14. Current and future trends in cloud CRM

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis is committed to mapping CRM applications available in cloud and trends within. The goal is to describe what CRM is, how it evolved into Cloud CRM, analyze main differences between the two approaches and analyze trends that can be observed in CRM market and CRM applications. This is coupled with description of the most common CRM solutions and products available both on-premises as well as on-demand. In the first part, the thesis introduces theory behind Customer Relationshi...

  15. Trends in VBA Disability Compensation Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Trends in VBA Disability Compensation Spending Sarah K. Burns Kristen M. Guerrera David E...license under the clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. Trends in VBA Disability Compensation Spending Sarah K. Burns Kristen M. Guerrera...53.9 billion in 2014. The most recent 15-year period shows a fundamental change in participation in the Veterans Benefit Administration ( VBA

  16. Quantitative Communication Research: Review, Trends, and Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Levine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends in quantitative communication research are reviewed. A content analysis of 48 articles reporting original communication research published in 1988-1991 and 2008-2011 is reported. Survey research and self-report measurement remain common approaches to research. Null hypothesis significance testing remains the dominant approach to statistical analysis. Reporting the shapes of distributions, estimates of statistical power, and confidence intervals remain uncommon. Trends over time include the increased popularity of health communication and computer mediated communication as topics of research, and increased attention to mediator and moderator variables. The implications of these practices for scientific progress are critically discussed, and suggestions for the future are provided.

  17. Trends in Design of Water Hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a R&D-view on trends in development and best practise in design of both low-pressure and high-pressure tap water hydraulic components and systems for motion control as well as open-ended solutions various industrial applications. The focus is on the advantages using...... characteristics are presented and the trends in industrial applications and need for future are discussed....... ordinary tap water and the range of application areas are illustrated with examples, in particular within the food processing industry, humidification operations, water mist systems for fire fighting, high water pressure cleaners, water moisturising systems for wood processing, lumber drying process...

  18. CURRENT TRENDS OF ROMANIAN RURAL FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina IORGA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The profound changes experienced by the Romanian society had a profound social impact on the structure and functions of the rural family. The paper aims to highlight the main trends recorded using a number of indicators: ruralization rate, birth rate, infant mortality rate, percentage of children born outside marriage, fertility rate, percentage of population aged 65 and over. Statistics from censuses and statistical yearbooks were processed to identify the trends of the Romanian rural family: changes in reproductive behavior, increased aging, declining birth rates.

  19. Increase in spinal deformity surgery in patients age 60 and older is not associated with increased complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David C; Berven, Sigurd H; Burch, Shane; Metz, Lionel N

    2017-05-01

    Surgical treatment for adult spinal deformity improves patient quality of life; however, trends in surgical utilization in the elderly, who may be at higher risk for complications, remain unclear. To identify trends in the utilization of adult deformity and determine complication rates among older patients. This is a retrospective database analysis. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried from 2004 to 2011 to identify adult patients who underwent spinal fusion of eight or more levels using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) coding. Incidence of surgery, complication rates, length of stay, and total hospital charges. The incidence of surgery was normalized to United States census data by age group. Trends in complications, length of stay, and inflation-adjusted hospital charges were determined using linear regression and Cochran-Armitage trend testing. An estimated 29,237 patients underwent adult spinal deformity surgery with an increase from 2,137 to 5,030 cases per year from 2004 to 2011. Surgical incidence among patients 60 years and older increased from 1.9 to 6.5 cases per 100,000 people from 2004 to 2011 (pspinal deformity increased 3.4-fold among patients ≥60 years from 2004 to 2011, with an associated 1.8-fold increase in hospital charges. Although the exact reasons for the striking increase in hospital charges remain unclear, some of the increase is likely related to decreasing reimbursement of charges by payors over the same period of time. The large majority of cases were performed in large academic centers, and growth in deformity trained spine specialists in these centers may have contributed to this trend. Despite the increased utilization of surgery for adult spinal deformity, in-hospital complications remained stable across all ages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Health Economics in Radiation Oncology: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Timothy K.; Goodman, Chris D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Boldt, R. Gabriel [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Warner, Andrew; Palma, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Rodrigues, George B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Lock, Michael I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Mishra, Mark V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zaric, Gregory S. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Ivey Business School, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Louie, Alexander V., E-mail: Dr.alexlouie@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: Despite the rising costs in radiation oncology, the impact of health economics research on radiation therapy practice analysis patterns is unclear. We performed a systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) and cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to identify trends in reporting quality in the radiation oncology literature over time. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of radiation oncology economic evaluations up to 2014 was performed, using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards guideline informed data abstraction variables including study demographics, economic parameters, and methodological details. Tufts Medical Center CEA registry quality scores provided a basis for qualitative assessment of included studies. Studies were stratified by 3 time periods (1995-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). The Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear trend test were used to identify trends over time. Results: In total, 102 articles were selected for final review. Most studies were in the context of a model (61%) or clinical trial (28%). Many studies lacked a conflict of interest (COI) statement (67%), a sponsorship statement (48%), a reported study time horizon (35%), and the use of discounting (29%). There was a significant increase over time in the reporting of a COI statement (P<.001), health care payer perspective (P=.019), sensitivity analyses using multivariate (P=.043) or probabilistic methods (P=.011), incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (P<.001), secondary source utility weights (P=.010), and cost effectiveness acceptability curves (P=.049). There was a trend toward improvement in Tuft scores over time (P=.065). Conclusions: Recent reports demonstrate improved reporting rates in economic evaluations; however, there remains significant room for improvement as reporting rates are still suboptimal. As fiscal pressures rise, we will rely on economic assessments to guide our practice decisions

  1. Early diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in Massachusetts birth cohorts, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Susan E; Davin, Carol A; Barfield, Wanda D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Clements, Karen; Diop, Hafsatou; Osbahr, Tracy; Smith, Lauren A

    2011-06-01

    We examined trends in autism spectrum disorder diagnoses by age 36 months (early diagnoses) and identified characteristics associated with early diagnoses. Massachusetts birth certificate and early-intervention program data were linked to identify infants born between 2001 and 2005 who were enrolled in early intervention and receiving autism-related services before age 36 months (through December 31, 2008). Trends in early autism spectrum disorders were examined using Cochran-Armitage trend tests. χ² Statistics were used to compare distributions of selected characteristics for children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify independent predictors of early diagnoses. A total of 3013 children (77.5 per 10,000 study population births) were enrolled in early intervention for autism spectrum disorder by age 36 months. Autism spectrum disorder incidence increased from 56 per 10,000 infants among the 2001 birth cohort to 93 per 10,000 infants in 2005. Infants of mothers younger than 24 years of age, whose primary language was not English or who were foreign-born had lower odds of an early autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Maternal age older than 30 years was associated with increased odds of an early autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Odds of early autism spectrum disorders were 4.5 (95% confidence interval: 4.1-5.0) times higher for boys than girls. Early autism spectrum disorder diagnoses are increasing in Massachusetts, reflecting the national trend observed among older children. Linkage of early-intervention program data with population-based vital statistics is valuable for monitoring autism spectrum disorder trends and planning developmental and educational service needs.

  2. Exploiting Synteny in Cucumis for Mapping of Psm, A Unique Locus Controlling Paternal Mitochondrial Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three genomes of cucumber show different modes of transmission, nuclear DNA bi-parentally, plastid DNA maternally, and mitochondrial DNA paternally. The mosaic (MSC) phenotype of cucumber is associated with mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and is a valuable tool for studying mitochondrial trans...

  3. Real Time Physiological Status Monitoring (RT-PSM): Accomplishments, Requirements, and Research Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Potter Glen L. Manglapus Reed W. Hoyt Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division March 2016 U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine...where the alertness status of individuals is the critical assessment needed. A variant of the sleep watch, developed collaboratively by Harris ...of the chest sensors (Tharion, Buller, Potter et al. 2013) (Figure 11). Figure 11. Soldier field-tested system improvements in the Hidalgo

  4. Construction Of Psm 1.8 R – S (Type – A) Roofing Sheet Machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to carry out this study the researcher resorted to making designs of a machine that can produce vibration, high enough to remove air spaces or vacuum in a mixture and at the same time make for effective cohesion in a mixture. In the course of the trial and error design, the researcher came up with five major ...

  5. Compensation Trends into the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelluto, George L.; Klein, Deborah P.

    1990-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the work force and society--increasing numbers of women workers, early retirement, structural changes in the economy, and changes in employer-employee relationships--have had substantial impact on the compensation package. These trends point to continued changes in pay, paid leave, insurance, and retirement and savings plans.…

  6. Future Trends in the Kinesiology Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2016-01-01

    Kinesiology emerged from its preventative medicine and education roots to establish itself as a recognized field of inquiry with numerous sub-disciplines. This article presents four trends in modern science that will likely influence the future of kinesiology sciences. Will recent increases in greater scientific specialization be overcome by the…

  7. Beam Loss and Residual Activation Trending

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, George W; Ruffin, Ariel T; Williams, Theodore L

    2005-01-01

    The SNS Front End, Drift Tube Linac and most of the Coupled Cavity Linac have been operated during commissioning. Beam loss data were taken with differential Beam Current Monitors, and Beam loss Monitors during commissioning. Residual activation data were taken at various times during and after the run. An analysis of beam loss trending, beam loss monitor data and residual activation will be shown.

  8. Mobile-Computing Trends: Lighter, Faster, Smarter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The new era of mobile computing promises greater variety in applications, highly improved usability, and speedier networking. The 3G iPhone from Apple is the poster child for this trend, but there are plenty of other developments that point in this direction. Previous surveys, in LLT, and by researchers at the UK's Open University, have…

  9. Monitoring Trends in Research Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebennikov, Leonid; Shah, Mahsood

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present approaches effectively used by a large multi-campus Australian university to improve the research student experience as a direct result of their feedback. These approaches include: identifying trends in the research student experience and areas needing improvement through the Research Student…

  10. Changing trends in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is an important and common cause for baldness. Despite recent advances, the drug therapy of this condition remains unsatisfactory. Surgical hair restoration is the only permanent method of treating this condition. Introduction of recent techniques such as follicular unit transplantation have improved the cosmetic results and patient satisfaction. This article discusses the latest trends in hair restoration surgery.

  11. Inferring population trends of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to investigate life-history trends of an A. angustifolia population in a subtropical forest in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Predictions based on the Lozenge regeneration ... The population had λ = 0.9977 (0.9864 < λ < 1.0020; CI 95%), indicating a declining stability. The basal area remained stable, whereas tree ...

  12. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  13. Climate trends in southern Africa (with erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Jury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The observed and projected changes in the climate of southern Africa in the period 1900–2100 were analysed. Ten observed, reanalysed and model-simulated climate data sets were explored for changes in surface air temperature, rainfall, air pressure, winds, ocean currents and sea surface height. The analysis of spatial and temporal climate trends from historical observations provided a context to assess two coupled model simulations (IPSL, MIROC based on the A1B emission scenario. Temperatures in the satellite era exhibited upward trends greater than +0.4 °C/year in the MIROC and IPSL A1B model simulations; between +0.02 °C/year and +0.03 °C/year in NCDC, HADCRU, CFS-R and NCEPe data sets; +0.01 °C/year in NCEPr and GHCN observations; and +0.002 °C/year in the ECMWF data set. Although rainfall trends in the satellite era were minimal in many data sets because of drought in the early 1980s, there was a significant downtrend in the IPSL simulation of -0.013 mm/day per year. When averaging the longer data sets together over the 20th century, the southern African rainfall trend was -0.003 mm/day per year. Other key features of the analyses include a poleward drift of the sub-tropical anticyclones and a +1.5 mm/year rise in sea surface height along the coast.

  14. Daycase laparoscopic gynaecological procedures- current trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend towards a multimodal approach to postoperative pain and prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) improves postoperative profile of day case gynaecological patients. Expertise in providing a pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide is desirable even as other options for lifting the abdominalwall ...

  15. Dermatological Emergencies: Current Trends in Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    necrolysis and Stevens Johnson syndrome is mainly clinical. In TEN, the disease is more severe with epidermal detachment greater than 30% [5, 6] while in Stevens Johnson syndrome, epidermal. Dermatological Emergencies: Current Trends in Management. Falodun O and Ogunbiyi A. Dermatology Unit, Department of ...

  16. ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL TREND IN ETHIOPIA INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requires transformation of the data to normal if the data is non-normally distributed, which .... is evident from Table l, column 5 and 6, the data are positively skewed and the relallf.Ve peaked~ness is large for some stations. Most of the data could not be represented by normlil distribution. ... generalize trend at regional level.

  17. Unconventional methods and innovation trends in hydrometallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Havlík Tomá

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview of innovation trends as well as non-traditional methods in hydrometallurgy are given in this contribution. A special attention is devoted to the elimination of elemental sulfur originated on a leached surface, leaching temperature lowering, sulfur removal from the leached surface, the use of high-energy fields in hydrometallurgy, the use of more effective leaching agents and mechanochemical leaching.

  18. 60 GHz communications, technology and applications trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Marc; Baron, Francois

    1992-12-01

    Trends in military and civilian communication systems lead to the increasing use of millimeter wave frequencies. Alcatel Telspace is developing millimeter wave techniques to make a prototype of communication link operating in the oxygen absorption band near 60 GHz, leading to the successful design and manufacturing of millimeter wave subunits: stable frequency sources and non-preamplified receiver front end.

  19. Parallel computing: numerics, applications, and trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trobec, Roman; Vajteršic, Marián; Zinterhof, Peter

    2009-01-01

    ... and/or distributed systems. The contributions to this book are focused on topics most concerned in the trends of today's parallel computing. These range from parallel algorithmics, programming, tools, network computing to future parallel computing. Particular attention is paid to parallel numerics: linear algebra, differential equations, numerica...

  20. Analysis of Engineering Discipline Grade Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Charles D.; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun

    2008-01-01

    Among the academic community, there is a perception that there is an upward shift in grade point average over an extended period of time without a corresponding increase in achievement. This trend has become an alarming topic among educators, industry and the general public. Some attribute increases in GPA to improvements in student quality while…

  1. Workplace Trends In HVAC/R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lynn; Todd, CeCe

    2013-01-01

    This article presents trends in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC/R) industry, with an emphasis on the importance of technician training programs as exemplified at the East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) in Mesa, Arizona. The article states that HVAC workers are increasingly helping their consumers "go…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Illinois students showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There was mixed progress made in narrowing achievement gaps in reading and math…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Florida students showed gains almost across the board in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Progress has been made in narrowing achievement gaps in both…

  7. Inflationary Trends in Law and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, B.; Nicholson, P.

    2013-01-01

    This Article analyzes two seemingly contradictory trends in the study and practice of law and development. First, it looks at the ever-rising level of expectations and ambitions about what law can do for development. Second, it looks at the increasingly vocal criticism and frustration, both from

  8. [Future trends of urbanization in the Philippines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otomo, A

    1982-09-01

    The author uses a Markov chain model to predict the future rate of urbanization in the Philippines based on current migration trends. The model suggests that urbanization will level off at about 52.5 percent, which is below the current level in Western societies. A major concentration in the Manila metropolitan area is also projected. (summary in ENG)

  9. Authorship trends in the surgical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, R W; Kerin, M J; Sweeney, K J

    2010-08-01

    Authorship is increasingly influential in career progression and academic promotion. This study aimed to examine authorship trends in surgical titles between 1998 and 2008, and to compare these trends with those in general medicine publications. Clinical trials published in high-impact medical and surgical titles were identified. The number of authors associated with these studies and trends over time were analysed using PubReMiner. Trends were then compared between titles with and without author contribution forms (ACFs). Author numbers in top-cited articles were correlated with citation rates. Some 6290 trials involving 54,120 different authorships were identified. A significant difference was found between authorship numbers associated with clinical trials in medicine versus those in surgery (P = 0.003). Introduction of ACFs did not influence the number of authors per trial (P = 0.670). The top 100 most highly cited articles accounted for 114,935 citations; author number correlated with subsequent citation rate (r = 0.26, P = 0.011). Author numbers have increased in the past decade, in both medical and surgical journals. Although medical output is associated with significantly higher levels of authorship, the difference cannot be explained by complexity of research alone. Copyright (c) 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Physiotherapy Education: Global Trends, Perspectives and Future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advances in technology and the recent transformation in global communication, which are increasingly reducing the spatial limitation in education, have influenced perspectives on how education is delivered. This paper presents a global trend in higher education with particular reference to education and training in ...

  11. TESOL Methods: Changing Tracks, Challenging Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravadivelu, B.

    2006-01-01

    This article traces the major trends in TESOL methods in the past 15 years. It focuses on the TESOL profession's evolving perspectives on language teaching methods in terms of three perceptible shifts: (a) from communicative language teaching to task-based language teaching, (b) from method-based pedagogy to postmethod pedagogy, and (c) from…

  12. Trends in Schooling: Demography, Performance and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Robert D.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing "Social Indicators" (1979), discusses growth and distribution of schooling in the U.S., trends in student test performance, and major organizational changes in elementary/secondary education. Comments on quality of available data and suggests improvements for future reporting of educational indicators. (Reprint of article is available…

  13. Current trends in free software research

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Bosch, Ramon; Vila Marta, Sebastià

    2009-01-01

    This report analyzes how scientific research is studying free software. We find which research is being done on free software by looking into scientific journals and conferences publications. The data thus obtained is analized and the most salient trends related to free software discovered. We also reviewed the main works published in each free software research area.

  14. Trends in life expectancy in wellbeing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; van den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's

  15. Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

  16. Trends in disability-free life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; van den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To assess trends in Disability-Free Life Expectancy, in life expectancy with disabilities according to levels of severity and in Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2000. Method: The disability-free life expectancy, a composite population health status

  17. On Parallel Computing–Indian Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 11. On Parallel Computing – Indian Trends. U N Sinha. Article-in-a-Box Volume 3 Issue 11 November 1998 pp 2-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/11/0002-0005 ...

  18. Harnassing Today's Trends to Guide Nursing's Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Geraldene

    1986-01-01

    Trends that are reshaping both the delivery system and America's educational system are discussed. They include the shrinking applicant pool, nursing's image of a low-status occupation with poor work conditions and few rewards, a call for more baccalaureate and higher degree nurses, and a decrease in the need for technical nurses. (CT)

  19. The recent warming trend in North Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Anais J.; Kawamura, Kenji; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Fettweis, Xavier; Box, Jason E.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Clow, Gary D.; Landais, Amaelle; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2017-06-01

    The Arctic is among the fastest warming regions on Earth, but it is also one with limited spatial coverage of multidecadal instrumental surface air temperature measurements. Consequently, atmospheric reanalyses are relatively unconstrained in this region, resulting in a large spread of estimated 30 year recent warming trends, which limits their use to investigate the mechanisms responsible for this trend. Here we present a surface temperature reconstruction over 1982-2011 at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Project, 51°W, 77°N), in North Greenland, based on the inversion of borehole temperature and inert gas isotope data. We find that NEEM has warmed by 2.7 ± 0.33°C over the past 30 years, from the long-term 1900-1970 average of -28.55 ± 0.29°C. The warming trend is principally caused by an increase in downward longwave heat flux. Atmospheric reanalyses underestimate this trend by 17%, underlining the need for more in situ observations to validate reanalyses.

  20. Trends in wilderness recreation use characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; David N. Cole; Joseph W. Roggenbuck

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies at the Leopold Institute have included analysis of use and user trends at the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Desolation Wilderness, Shining Rock Wilderness, the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex, Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Eagle Cap Wilderness. Some sociodemographics, like age, education, and the proportion of female visitors, have...

  1. Popular dispute resolution mechanisms in Ethiopia: Trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popular dispute resolution mechanisms in Ethiopia: Trends, opportunities, challenges and prospects. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... To this effect, they have sponsored national and regional forums, conferences and workshops; established research institutions and centres as well as sponsored ...

  2. Trends in Student Aid: 1980 to 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincy, Lynn

    Student financial aid trends for 1980 to 1984 are described in a narrative summary and statistical tables and graphs. Information is provided on 1984-1985 estimated student aid by source (institutional aid, state grants, veterans benefits, Pell grants, federal campus-based aid, Guaranteed Student Loans, and other federal programs. Data are also…

  3. Trends in Student Aid: 1980 to 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchantin, Meg; And Others

    Student financial aid trends from 1980 to 1986 are described in a narrative summary accompanied by statistical tables and graphs. Information is provided on 1985-1986 estimated student aid by source (institutional aid, state grants, veterans benefits, Pell Grants, federal campus-based aid, Guaranteed Student Loans and Parent Loans for…

  4. Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the focus of this paper was to document trends in climate change communication research conducted among farmers, with a specific focus on the themes that have dominated current studies, major research methods in use, major theories that are applied, sampling techniques that are frequently used, media of ...

  5. Current Trends in Higher Education Technology: Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damewood, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on how technology in use changes over time, and the current trend of simulation technology as a supported classroom technology. Simulation-based training as a learning tool is discussed within the context of adult learning theories, as is the technology used and how today's higher education technology administrators support…

  6. TRENDS IN ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN ENROLLMENTS AND GRADUATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALDEN, JOHN D.

    TECHNICIAN ENROLLMENTS AND GRADUATES WERE SURVEYED (1965-66) IN FIVE CLASSIFICATIONS WITH VARYING EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS--(1) ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN, (2) PHYSICIAL SCIENCE TECHNICIAN, (3) INDUSTRIAL TECHNICIAN, (4) PRE-ENGINEERING TRANSFER, AND (5) BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY. THE DATA WERE USED TO DETERMINE PRESENT TRENDS IN MANPOWER TRAINING AND…

  7. Internet applications, sites, trends and happenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Raitt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This column aims to draw your attention to various interesting Web sites that I have come across and that may appeal to you. It also aims to keep you up to date with news and views on Internet trends, developments and statistics. It offers essentially a personal selection rather than comprehensive coverage.

  8. Retail Trade. International Trends and National Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Olivier

    1991-01-01

    This brief examines trends in the retail trade, especially in grocery stores, from an international perspective. A comparison of recent national studies finds the following: (1) significant differences in structure and organization exist, especially in the role of traditional small shops versus large chain grocery stores; (2) increasing store size…

  9. Recent trends in space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, John W.; Cheng, Qingsha S.; Hailu, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We review recent trends in the art of Space Mapping (SM) technology for modeling and design of engineering devices and systems. The SM approach aims at achieving a satisfactory solution with a handful of computationally expensive so-called "fine" model evaluations. SM procedures iteratively updat...

  10. New Hampshire - an outdoor recreation trend leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    George T. Hamilton

    1980-01-01

    It seems appropriate (at least to me) that a national symposium focusing on trends in outdoor recreation be held in the Granite State; a state which has played historically a role in the evolution of a variety of recreation activities far out of proportion to its size and population. After all, outdoor recreation is more than 150 years old here in New Hampshire.

  11. Trends in testen: modellen en verhalen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Roos, N

    2012-01-01

    De achttiende editie van de Nederlandse Testdag had als thema ‘Boosting the value of testing’. Belangrijkste trends waren de integratie van het testproces binnen Agile en Scrum, het nut van verhalen vertellen en de meerwaarde van modelgebaseerd testen. Mariëlle Stoelinga doet verslag.

  12. Benchmarking 2010: Trends in Education Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    "Benchmarking 2010" offers insights into the current priorities, practices and concerns of education grantmakers. The report is divided into five sections: (1) Mapping the Education Grantmaking Landscape; (2) 2010 Funding Priorities; (3) Strategies for Leveraging Greater Impact; (4) Identifying Significant Trends in Education Funding; and (5)…

  13. FOOD PRICE TREND ANALYSIS: LESSONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    FOOD PRICE TREND ANALYSIS: LESSONS FOR STRENGTHENING FOOD. SECURITY POLICY IN TANZANIA. F. MARO and F. MWAIJANDE1. Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH). P. O. Box 4102, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 1Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF), P. O. Box ...

  14. Leprosy trends in Zambia 1991-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapata, Nathan; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Grobusch, Martin Peter; O'Grady, Justin; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2012-01-01

    To document leprosy trends in Zambia over the past two decades to ascertain the importance of leprosy as a health problem in Zambia. Retrospective study covering the period 1991-2009 of routine national leprosy surveillance data, published national programme review reports and desk reviews of

  15. School Desegregation Trends in Gauteng Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, C. E. N.; Nkomo, M.; Weber, E.

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized 2003 to 2006 school enrollment data from the Gauteng Department of Education (GDE) to examine school desegregation trends and interracial exposure among learners from different race groups. Descriptive analyses revealed findings consistent with the literature wherein a majority of schools served mainly homogeneous populations.…

  16. TRENDS IN SPUTUM SMEAR CONVERSION AMONG SMEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Trends in sputum smear conversion among smear-positive pulmo- nary tuberculosis patients. 1Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Scienc- es, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana; 3Bacteriology Laboratory, 4Chest ...

  17. The British Family: Contemporary Trends and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Kathleen E.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that significant changes have occurred in recent times to the structure and dynamics of family life in Britain. Examines trends and issues related to marriage, cohabitation, fertility, extramarital births, divorce, one-parent families, remarriage and stepfamilies, children in families, employment, and the future of social policy in Britain.…

  18. Digital library research : current developments and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This column gives an overview of current trends in digital library research under the following headings: digital library architecture, systems, tools and technologies; digital content and collections; metadata; interoperability; standards; knowledge organisation systems; users and usability; legal, organisational, economic, and social issues in digital libraries.

  19. Community Participation in Housing Development Trends: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from this study reveal that community participation in the housing development trends in Khayelitsha has, so far, been limited. The study recommends that both the national and the provincial government must adopt a participatory development approach towards the implementation of housing provision, so as to ...

  20. Trends in Invasive Infection with MRSA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-17

    Dr. James Hadler, Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at the Yale School of Public Health, discusses recent trends in MRSA.  Created: 7/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/19/2012.

  1. Divergent mortality trends by ethnicity in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard; Carter, Karen; Naidu, Shivnay; Linhart, Christine; Azim, Syed; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D

    2013-12-01

    To examine trends in infant mortality rate (IMR), adult mortality and life expectancy (LE) in the two major Fijian ethnic groups since 1975. Estimates of IMR, adult mortality (15-59 years) and LE by ethnicity are calculated from previously unreported Fiji Ministry of Health data and extracted from published sources. Over 1975-2008: IMR decreased from 33 to 20 deaths/1,000 live births in i-Taukei (Fiji Melanesians); and 38 to 18 in Fijians of Indian descent. Increased adult male mortality among i-Taukei and decline among Fijians of Indian descent led to an equal probability of dying in 2007 of 29%; while in female adults the probability trended upwards in i-Taukei to 25%, and declined in Fijians of Indian descent to 17%. Life expectancy in both ethnicities increased until 1985 (to 64 years for males; 68 for females) then forming a plateau in males of both ethnicities, and Fijian females of Indian descent, but declining in i-Taukei females to 66 years in 2007. Despite IMR declines over 1975-2008, LE for i-Taukei and Fijians of Indian descent has not increased since 1985, and has actually decreased in i-Taukei women, consistent with trends in adult mortality (15-59 years). Mortality analyses in Fiji that consider the entire population mask divergent trends in the major ethnic groups. This situation is most likely a consequence of non-communicable disease mortality, requiring further assessment and a strengthened response.

  2. Trends in Divorce and Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Oliver C.

    In this paper an attempt is made to present a comprehensive picture of the effects of separation and divorce on children. After information on trends in divorce is presented to indicate how many families and children are involved, three comprehensive reviews of one-parent families are discussed. Because some detrimental effects are associated with…

  3. Trends in hiking and backcountry use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward L. Spencer; Herbert E. Echelberger; Raymond E. Leonard; Craig Evans

    1980-01-01

    Pedestrian movement in backcountry settings has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. But the rate of increase seems to be levelling. Some indicators of this trend include the publishing business, the number of equipment manufacturers and outlets, the number of backcountry outfitters, and consultation with entrepreneurs

  4. Housing trends & impacts on wood products manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; Karen. Koenig

    2012-01-01

    While there are some signs of improvement in the business conditions and sales volume faced by the secondary wood industry in relation to the housing market, they are slow in coming. This third annual housing market survey looks at the trends in the industry and analyzes what has changed in terms of market conditions, company performance and the actions being taken by...

  5. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  6. Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.J.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Rijk, de T.C.; Jong, de J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed

  7. Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This issue contains data on trends and indicators of New England higher education, including demography, admissions, enrollment, degrees, educational attainment and income, student migration, retention and graduation, financing higher education, and university research and development. It also includes articles related to the data and on New…

  8. NEJHE's Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemer, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the New England Journal of Higher Education (NEJHE) Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, featuring 64 tables and charts exploring New England's demography, high school performance and graduation, college enrollment, college graduation rates and degree production, higher education financing, and university research.…

  9. Recreation trends: indicators of environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Feuchter

    1980-01-01

    As you probably know, tomorrow is Earth Day-80, the 10th anniversary of the original Earth Day, so it is certainly appropriate that we talk these next few days about environmental quality and the relationship of outdoor recreation to that quality. However, perhaps the title should be more of a question such as: Are recreation trends indicators of environmental quality...

  10. Trends in emerging and high risk activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. White; Richard Schreyer; Kent Downing

    1980-01-01

    Newly emerging and high risk activities have increased markedly in the last generation, yet little is known about trends in participation. Factors such as technological innovation and creative experimentation with traditional activities appear to play a major role in the development of new activities. Christy's criteria for mass demand in recreation are used to...

  11. Digital Library Education: Global Trends and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem, Magaji

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines trends and issues in digital education programmes globally, drawing examples of developmental growth of Library Information Science (LIS), schools and digital education courses in North America, Britain, and Southern Asia, the slow growth of LIS schools and digital education in Nigeria and some countries in Africa and India. The…

  12. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS IN THE GLOBAL DENTAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica BULAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the key trends of the market, and segments the global dental equipment and consumables market by components and into various geographic regions in way of market size. It discusses the key market drivers, main players, restraints and opportunities of the global dental equipment and consumables market.

  13. Commercial kidney transplantation: Trends, outcomes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Many experts believe that commercial organ transplants continue unabated despite international efforts to curb them. The aim was to determine the trends, outcomes and challenges of commercial living unrelated renal transplants (LURT) as seen in our institution. Materials and Methods: A ...

  14. International Student Recruitment: Trends and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Santa

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current trends in international student recruitment. Focusing specifically on recruitment of Chinese students, important aspects of China's educational system relevant to recruitment are presented. Barriers to Chinese student recruitment are then discussed. Successful, employed, international graduates validate…

  15. Applications and development trends in biopesticides | Leng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications and development trends in biopesticides. P Leng, Z Zhang, G Pan, M Zhao. Abstract. Biopesticides are very effective in the agricultural pest control without causing serious harm to ecological chain or worsening environmental pollution. The research and development of practical applications in the field of ...

  16. New Trends in Facility Asset Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matt

    2000-01-01

    Explains new, positive trends in facility asset management that encompasses greater acceptance and involvement of facility managers in the financial planning process, greater awareness of the need for maintenance, and facility administrators taking a greater role with business officers. The new climate for alternative renewal financing proposals…

  17. Influenza forecasting with Google Flu Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004-2011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by

  18. [Trendency analysis of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight in China from 1996 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hao; He, Chunhua; Miao, Lei; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Qi; Li, Xiaohong; Shen, Liqin

    2015-02-01

    To study the secular trend and characteristics of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight (IMRPL) in China from 1996 to 2013. Data used in this study was collected from the population-based Child's Health Surveillance Network of China. The Cochran-Armitage Trend test and Poisson regression were used to test the trend of IMRPL and explore the differences of the trend among different regions or areas. The nationwide IMRPL was 629.9 per 100 000 live births in 1996 and it decreased to 214.6 per 100 000 live births in 2013. The average annual decline rate was 6.14%, while the proportion of infant mortality due to premature birth or low birth weight in all infant deaths was on the rise with the average annual growth rate of 1.52%. And the proportion increased to 22.6% in 2013. IMRPLin rural and urban areas fell 28.1% and 66.6% respectively during 1996 and 2013. But the differences between urban and rural areas was obvious. During the same period, the average IMRPLin the central region was 1.40 times (95%CI:1.31-1.49) of that in the eastern region. And the average IMRPL in the western region was 2.25 times (95%CI:2.12-2.40) of that in the eastern region. The differences among different regions was obvious. Male infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight was 1.09 times (95%CI:1.05-1.14) of that in female infant from 1996 to 2013. The risk of IMRPL decreased substantially in China from 1996 to 2013. And the risk of IMRPL decreased more in rural areas than that in urban areas. The differences among different regions and areas were obvious. Premature birth or low birth weight as one of main factors has become a serious threat for health of Chinese children.

  19. Reporting quality of randomized controlled trials in orthodontics--what affects it and did it improve over the last 10 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Satpal S; Sandhu, Jasleen; Kaur, Harsimrat

    2015-08-01

    Objectives were to investigate the factors affecting the overall reporting quality and the reporting quality trend of each item over the last 10 years for orthodontic randomized controlled trials (RCTs). MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were searched (2003-12) to retrieve studies. Four major orthodontic journals and reference list of included articles were hand searched to identify additional RCTs. The overall reporting quality for all included RCTs (2003-12) was assessed using CONSORT, 2001 (ORQs 2001, score 0-20). In addition, CONSORT, 2010 (ORQs 2010, score 0-27), was used for RCTs published after 2010. Generalized estimated equations (GEEs) model was used for analysis (ORQs 2001 and ORQs 2010). Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to evaluate the reporting quality trend of each individual item based on the CONSORT, 2001. Totally 309 relevant studies were identified, out of which 86 were published after 2010. The median for total ORQs 2001 and ORQs 2010 was 9 (interquartile range 7-12) and 12 (interquartile range 9-15), respectively. Year and journal of publication were significant predictors for both ORQs 2001 and ORQs 2010. Location, sample size, and multicentre trials were significant predictors only for ORQs 2001, and not for ORQs 2010. Trend test showed that reporting quality of four items, namely identification of trial as randomized, sample size, blinding, and randomization has improved significantly with time. There is an improvement in the reporting quality. However, it is still suboptimal. To improve the reporting quality, the CONSORT guidelines should be followed strictly. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Smoking and predictors of nicotine dependence in a homeless population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchalla, Iris; Strehlau, Verena; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Li, Kathy; Schuetz, Christian; Krausz, Michael

    2011-10-01

    To assess prevalence rates of tobacco use and dependence in a sample of homeless individuals and to investigate trends for demographic and clinical characteristics across different levels of nicotine dependence (nonsmokers vs. lowly dependent smokers vs. highly dependent smokers). A cross-sectional study of 489 homeless men and women in 3 Canadian cities. Each subject was assessed using structured clinical interviews and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Cochran-Armitage trend tests were applied to determine unadjusted trends in sociodemographic and clinical variables across levels of nicotine dependence. A generalized logit model was computed to adjust for potential confounding. The mean age was 37.9 years; 39.2% of the participants were women. About 80.8% were current smokers; the mean FTND score was 5.0. Although no significant differences were found between nonsmokers and smokers with low nicotine dependence, smokers with high nicotine dependence were only half as likely as nonsmokers to be Aboriginal, were 2.39 times more likely to have ever been incarcerated, and 2.44 times more likely to have current drug dependence. There were significant trends for the use of cocaine, opioids, and alcohol, with nonsmokers having the lowest and highly dependent smokers having the highest rates of using these substances. Available public health smoking cessation treatment opportunities should be made available within health care services for the homeless. There is also a need for developing and implementing tobacco dependence treatment programs, which are accessible and tailored to meet the needs of this specific population, accounting for polysubstance use and concurrent substance dependence and mental health disorders.

  1. Biodiversity Trends and Threats in Europe; development and test of a species trend indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heer M de; Kapos V; Brink BJE ten; NLB

    2005-01-01

    Dit rapport presenteert een test van een samengestelde soorttrendindicator ten behoeve van de evaluatie van de 2010 biodiversiteitsdoelstelling, gebruik makend van bestaande data. De indicator integreert trends van verschillende soortgroepen, en kan worden geaggregeerd over habitats en landen.

  2. Understanding stability trends along the lanthanide series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    The stability trends across the lanthanide series of complexes with the polyaminocarboxylate ligands TETA(4-) (H4TETA=2,2',2'',2'''-(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-1,4,8,11-tetrayl)tetraacetic acid), BCAED(4-) (H4BCAED=2,2',2'',2'''-{[(1,4-diazepane-1,4-diyl)bis(ethane-2,1-diyl)]bis(azanetriyl)}tetraacetic acid), and BP18C6(2-) (H2BP18C6=6,6'-[(1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazacyclooctadecane-7,16-diyl)bis(methylene)]dipicolinic acid) were investigated using DFT calculations. Geometry optimizations performed at the TPSSh/6-31G(d,p) level, and using a 46+4f(n) ECP for lanthanides, provide bond lengths of the metal coordination environments in good agreement with the experimental values observed in the X-ray structures. The contractions of the Ln(3+) coordination spheres follow quadratic trends, as observed previously for different isostructural series of complexes. We show here that the parameters obtained from the quantitative analysis of these data can be used to rationalize the observed stability trends across the 4f period. The stability trends along the lanthanide series were also evaluated by calculating the free energy for the reaction [La(L)](n+/-)(sol)+Ln(3+)(sol)→[Ln(L)](n+/-)(sol)+La(3+)(sol). A parameterization of the Ln(3+) radii was performed by minimizing the differences between experimental and calculated standard hydration free energies. The calculated stability trends are in good agreement with the experimental stability constants, which increase markedly across the series for BCAED(4-) complexes, increase smoothly for the TETA(4-) analogues, and decrease in the case of BP18C6(2-) complexes. The resulting stability trend is the result of a subtle balance between the increased binding energies of the ligand across the lanthanide series, which contribute to an increasing complex stability, and the increase in the absolute values of hydration energies along the 4f period. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Trends of tropospheric ozone over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, M.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the study on the title subject is to investigate the phenomena which have contributed to the observed trends of surface concentrations of ozone (O{sub 3}) and related species in The Netherlands and nearby countries. The presence in the European troposphere of relatively high concentrations of so-called ozone precursors establish a net chemical production of ozone. Since the atmospheric residence time of methane (CH{sub 4}) is much longer than that of all other VOC-species the rest is often referred to as non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The photo-stationary state relations are a set of three chemical reactions which rapidly converts ozone and nitrogen monoxide (NO) into nitrogen dioxide and oxygen (O{sub 2}) and vice versa. In NO{sub x}-rich environments such as in The Netherlands, this set of reactions transforms much of the ozone into NO{sub 2} which therefore can be regarded as potential ozone. Under such conditions it is convenient to use oxidant which is a conserved quantity for the photo-stationary state relations. The combination of NO{sub x} and VOCs produces ozone, but also other secondary species such as peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN). There are, however, a few differences between the formation of ozone and PAN and there are differences in their background levels as well. PAN concentrations in Europe are strongly determined by local (European) production, much more than the ozone concentrations in Europe. Therefore, studying trends of PAN concentrations is useful in distinguishing the contributions of different processes to the trends of ozone. Important aspects which possibly have contributed to trends of ozone concentrations are mentioned and discussed. Several aspects concerning the quantitative analysis of trends of surface concentrations of ozone, oxidant, PAN, NOX and NMVOS were investigated. The emphasis in this study is on the contribution of European emission changes since 1980 to the trends of ozone and oxidant

  4. Zika pandemic online trends, incidence and health risk communication: a time trend study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Gbenga; Neumark, Yehuda; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Abu Ahmad, Wiessam; Levine, Hagai

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to describe the online search trends of Zika and examine their association with Zika incidence, assess the content of Zika-related press releases issued by leading health authorities and examine the association between online trends and press release timing. Using Google Trends, the 1 May 2015 to 30 May 2016 online trends of Zika and associated search terms were studied globally and in the five countries with the highest numbers of suspected cases. Correlations were then examined between online trends and Zika incidence in these countries. All Zika-related press releases issued by WHO/Pan America Health Organization (PAHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the study period were assessed for transparency, uncertainty and audience segmentation. Witte's Extended Parallel Process Model was applied to assess self-efficacy, response efficacy, susceptibility and severity. AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average with an eXogenous predictor variable (ARIMAX) (p,d,q) regression modelling was used to quantify the association between online trends and the timing of press releases. Globally, Zika online search trends were low until the beginning of 2016, when interest rose steeply. Strong correlations (r=0.748-0.922; ptrends and the number of suspected Zika cases in four of the five countries studied. Compared with press releases issued by WHO/PAHO, CDC press releases were significantly more likely to provide contact details and links to other resources, include figures/graphs, be risk-advisory in nature and be more readable and briefer. ARIMAX modelling results indicate that online trends preceded by 1 week press releases by WHO (stationary-R(2)=0.345; ptrends can aid in pandemic surveillance. Identification of shortcomings in the content and timing of Zika press releases can help guide health communication efforts in the current pandemic and future public health emergencies.

  5. Trends in MODIS Geolocation Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. E.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Data from the two MODIS instruments have been accurately geolocated (Earth located) to enable retrieval of global geophysical parameters. The authors describe the approach used to geolocate with sub-pixel accuracy over nine years of data from M0DIS on NASA's E0S Terra spacecraft and seven years of data from MODIS on the Aqua spacecraft. The approach uses a geometric model of the MODIS instruments, accurate navigation (orbit and attitude) data and an accurate Earth terrain model to compute the location of each MODIS pixel. The error analysis approach automatically matches MODIS imagery with a global set of over 1,000 ground control points from the finer-resolution Landsat satellite to measure static biases and trends in the MO0lS geometric model parameters. Both within orbit and yearly thermally induced cyclic variations in the pointing have been found as well as a general long-term trend.

  6. Trends in Publication of Nursing Informatics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeoneui; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Oh, Janet; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 741 journal articles on nursing informatics published in 7 biomedical/nursing informatics journals and 6 nursing journals from 2005 to 2013 to begin to understand publication trends in nursing informatics research and identify gaps. We assigned a research theme to each article using AMIA 2014 theme categories and normalized the citation counts using time from publication. Overall, nursing informatics research covered a broad spectrum of research topics in biomedical informatics and publication topics seem to be well aligned with the high priority research agenda identified by the nursing informatics community. The research themes with highest volume of publication were Clinical Workflow and Human Factors, Consumer Informatics and Personal Health Records, and Clinical Informatics, for which an increasing trend in publication was noted. Articles on Informatics Education and Workforce Development; Data Mining, NLP, Information Extraction; and Clinical Informatics showed steady and high volume of citations. PMID:25954387

  7. Physician Assistant and Nurse Practitioner Malpractice Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Douglas M; Nicholson, Jeffrey G; Hooker, Roderick S

    2017-10-01

    Trends in malpractice awards and adverse actions (e.g., revocation of provider license) following an act or omission constituting medical error or negligence were examined. The National Practitioner Data Bank was used to compare rates of malpractice reports and adverse actions for physicians, physician assistants (PAs), and nurse practitioners (NPs). During 2005 through 2014, there ranged from 11.2 to 19.0 malpractice payment reports per 1,000 physicians, 1.4 to 2.4 per 1,000 PAs, and 1.1 to 1.4 per 1,000 NPs. Physician median payments ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 times higher than PAs or NPs. Diagnosis-related malpractice allegations varied by provider type, with physicians having significantly fewer reports (31.9%) than PAs (52.8%) or NPs (40.6%) over the observation period. Trends in malpractice payment reports may reflect policy enactments to decrease liability.

  8. The Company : Consumer Trends and Business Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Fábio Cordeiro da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the society, the market trends, and the business ethics applied to consumption. The methodology used in this study is the literature search, covering the different media, giving priority to the doctrine inherent in the concerned themes, the websites, the specialized magazines, and other sources for theoretical basis. This study discusses the difference among consumption, consumerism, and hyperconsumerism; conceptualizes the fads, trends, and megatrends in the market and raises questions about the future consumer profile; verifies that credit facilitates the phenomenon of hyper-consumption and over-indebtedness. It works the relation of marketing as propellant brands, advertisements, and advertising; addresses the Ethics applied to consumption as a science that relates to the economy and the consumer market.

  9. Data Centre Technology and Market Trends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; GUERRI, Marco; GRIGORE, Alexandru; BONFILLOU, Eric; VALSAN, Liviu

    2015-01-01

    In this ITTF session we will provide an overview of data center technologies and market trends in the fields of server processors, memory architectures, server platforms, storage technology (both solid state and spinning media), Intel future roadmaps, Open Compute Project hardware and server-side networking. We will begin with a peek into the evolution of processors over the last 40+ years and provide an outlook into future processor trends. The highlights of the most recent Intel server processor generation (Xeon E5-2600 v3, Haswell-EP) will be presented together with the specifics of the new generation of DDR memory technology employed. Alternative processor architectures from contenders like ARM Holdings (with their AArch64 architecture) and IBM (with their OpenPOWER initiative) will be discussed. An overview of existing enterprise solid state technology will be given, showing the kind of performance provided by the currently available enterprise SSD drives and future directions for non volatile memory b...

  10. Library and information sciences trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the development, trends and research of library and information sciences (LIS) in the digital age. Inside, readers will find research and case studies written by LIS experts, educators and theorists, most of whom have visited China, delivered presentations there and drafted their articles based on feedback they received. As a result, readers will discover the LIS issues and concerns that China and the international community have in common. The book first introduces the opportunities and challenges faced by the library and information literacy profession and discusses the key role of librarians in the future of information literacy education. Next, it covers trends in LIS education by examining the vision of the iSchool movement and detailing its practice in Syracuse University. The book then covers issues in information seeking and retrieval by showing how visual data mining technology can be used to detect the relationship and pattern between terms on the Q&A of a social media site....

  11. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  12. Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    prevalence-defined as fasting plasma glucose of 7.0 mmol/L or higher, or history of diagnosis with diabetes, or use of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs-in 200 countries and territories in 21 regions, by sex and from 1980 to 2014. We also calculated the posterior probability of meeting the global diabetes......BACKGROUND: One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target, and how changes...... in prevalence, together with population growth and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. METHODS: We pooled data from population-based studies that had collected data on diabetes through measurement of its biomarkers. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends in diabetes...

  13. Global interpersonal inequality: Trends and measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    inequality is decomposed into within-country and between-country inequality. The paper illustrates that the relationship between global interpersonal inequality and these constituent components is a complex one. In particular, we demonstrate that the changes in China’s and India’s income distributions over......This paper discusses different approaches to the measurement of global interpersonal in equality. Trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975-2005 are measured using data from UNU-WIDER’s World Income Inequality Database. In order to better understand the trends, global interpersonal...... the past 30 years have simultaneously caused inequality to rise domestically in those countries, while tending to reduce global inter-personal inequality. In light of these findings, we reflect on the meaning and policy relevance of global vis-à-vis domestic inequality measures...

  14. Research and Practical Trends in Geospatial Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpik, A. P.; Musikhin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  15. Conservation trend indicators. Interim and final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.

    1980-08-21

    This report outlines major conservation trends for the four US energy consuming sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Tables on residential use include data on gas, electricity, and fuel oil. Data is not available for renewable sources or for bottled gas, kerosene, or propane. Commercial data is also reported for gas, electricity, and fuel oil, and total consumption is examined on a square foot basis. Industrial trends are shown for the ten most energy intensive industries. In addition, industrial efficiencies by fuel are analyzed. For the transportation sector, petroleum products (particularly gasoline) are the major fuels considered, and selected energy intensities are examined. The discussion on each sector will cover findings, data sources, and data interpretation. Recommendations on reporting are part of the residential section of this report.

  16. RESEARCH AND PRACTICAL TRENDS IN GEOSPATIAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Karpik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  17. Future trends in commercial and military systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, F. E.

    Commercial and military satellite communication systems are addressed, with a review of current applications and typical communication characteristics of the space and earth segments. Drivers for the development of future commercial systems include: the pervasion of digital techniques and services, growing orbit and frequency congestion, demand for more entertainment, and the large potential market for commercial 'roof-top' service. For military systems, survivability, improved flexibility, and the need for service to small mobile terminals are the principal factors involved. Technical trends include the use of higher frequency bands, multibeam antennas and a significant increase in the application of onboard processing. Military systems will employ a variety of techniques to counter both physical and electronic threats. The use of redundant transmission paths is a particularly effective approach. Successful implementation requires transmission standards to achieve the required interoperability among the pertinent networks. For both the military and commercial sectors, the trend toward larger numbers of terminals and more complex spacecraft is still persisting.

  18. Technology trends for business productivity increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albeiro Patiño Builes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This reflection paper aims to summarize some of the technology trends that companies can use in their business processes to increase productivity and improve the competitiveness of the sector and country. It is based mainly on an official documentation study of both national and international authorized entities. First, some characteristics of the ICT and its influence in companies over the last years are shown; and finally, the conceptualization and benefits that Internet, Telework, e-Learning and Cloud computing represent today to companies in the productive sector are analyzed. It is concluded that ICT, and trends based on them, can make simpler and more agile processes in companies, and also, strengthen their skills to face increasingly demanding markets, whenever globalization and Free Trade Agreements (FTA call to companies from all sectors to be more effective and efficient.

  19. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Centineo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and current trend among investment practitioners (known also under the notion smart beta. It aims at familiarizing with this investment approach from a practical perspective and highlighting its diversifying benefits in a portfolio context with the potential to outperform the market on risk-adjusted basis.

  20. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    did not indicate that sickness absence behavior has become more common in Denmark during the past 20 years; although, an increase was seen in the beginning of this century. It is apparent that the many reports on sickness absence that highlight an increasing trend are based on sickness benefit...... a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  1. Trends of semiconductivity in 3d oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    Open shell transition metal oxides are usually described as Mott insulators, which are often viewed as being disparate from semiconductors. Based on the premise that the presence of a Mott gap and semiconductivity are not mutually exclusive, this work reviews electronic structure calculations on the binary 3d oxides, so to distill trends and design principles for semiconducting transition metal oxides. This class of materials possesses the potential for discovery, design, and development of novel functional semiconducting compounds, e.g., for energy applications. This presentation gives an overview for the band-structure trends of 3d oxides with special attention on the hybridization between the 3d crystal field symmetries with the sp bands, and on how this interactions affect the effective masses and the likelihood of self-trapping of electrons or holes. Supported by DOE-SC-BES as part on an Energy Frontier Research Center.

  2. Bibliography on Future Trends in Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    counterterrorism; combating terrorism Library of Congress — Federal Research Division Future Trends in Terrorism 60 Pilat , Joseph F. "Chemical and Biological...diagnose anxiety , depression, bereavement, and organic brain syndromes to provide treatment, reassurance, and the relief of pain. Keyword(s): first...travel attitude, age, gender, education, income, and presence of children in a household. The study is based on a mail survey of 240 tourists from the

  3. Unconventional methods and innovation trends in hydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlík Tomáš

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of innovation trends as well as non-traditional methods in hydrometallurgy are given in this contribution. A special attention is devoted to the elimination of elemental sulfur originated on a leached surface, leaching temperature lowering, sulfur removal from the leached surface, the use of high-energy fields in hydrometallurgy, the use of more effective leaching agents and mechanochemical leaching.

  4. EVALUASI TREND KUALITAS PENDIDIKAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sabar Budi Raharjo

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk memperoleh informasi tentang tanggapan dan kelayakan satuan pendidikan terhadap penerapan delapan standar nasional pendidikan (SNP), trend kuantitas dan kualitas pendidikan, status akreditasi sekolah, tingkat pemenuhan, rasional dan tanggapan terhadap SNP, urutan delapan standar nasional yang harus dicapai, standar nasional yang paling sulit dicapai, tingkat kepuasan peserta didik terhadap pelayanan sekolah dan hambatan-hambatan dalam mencapai SNP....

  5. Trends and highlights of VCI 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This report attempts to summarize the presentations given at this conference. Topics related to R&D of gaseous and solid state detectors clearly point to several trends in particle physics instrumentation. More established techniques are represented by reports on recent experiments and facilities which can be considered the highlights in this research field. The extension of these techniques to space, arctic ice and deep sea are opening new frontiers of particle physics.

  6. Social BI. Trends and development needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Mihai PREDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to show that the need to implement BI solutions that integrate social networks data is increasingly more acute. Companies need to understand that efficient decision making has to take into account the importance that social medial has nowadays. In addition, the software developing companies have to keep up to date with new trends generated within these communication channels and adapt their solutions to this dynamic environment.

  7. Overeducation in Europe: Trends, Convergence and Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    McGuinness, Seamus; Bergin, Adele; Whelan, Adele

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines patterns in overeducation between countries using a specifically designed panel dataset constructed from the quarterly Labour Force Surveys of 28 EU countries over a twelve to fifteen year period. It is not the case that overeducation has been rising rapidly over time in all countries and where overeducation has grown the trend has been very gradual. Furthermore, overeducation rates were found to be static or falling in approximately fifty percent of the 28 EU countries. T...

  8. Tajikistan: economic development trends since independence

    OpenAIRE

    Zaurbekov, Selin

    2007-01-01

    Current economic development in the Republic of Tajikistan (RT) is mostly driven by migrant remittances, which make up from 20% to 50% of GDP, and by large government investments in the power and aluminum industries. Let us examine these key sectors of the economy first separately and then in combination so as to determine the trends and prospects of the whole economy. In analyzing remittances, experts usually pay attention to their share in GDP. But the larger this share, the greater is the ...

  9. Austin Chalk trend, upper Gulf Coast, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holifield, R.

    1982-01-01

    The application of innovative geologic and geophysical interpretations and of carefully tailored well completion techniques has created the opportunity for profitable, low-risk drilling programs in the Austin Chalk Formation of S. Texas. This discussion focuses on selected information that should be beneficial for exploration and development activities in the Austin Chalk. The Giddings field is discussed in some detail, since this field is the center of the greatest activity in the Austin Chalk trend.

  10. PEDIATRIC FITNESS: SECULAR TRENDS AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant R. Tomkinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book describes and discusses children's physical capacity in terms of aerobic and anaerobic power generation according to secular trends and geographic variability. PURPOSE To discuss the controversial issue of whether present day's children and adolescents are fitter than their equals of the past and whether they are fitter if they live in the more prosperous countries. AUDIENCE Pediatricians, medical practitioners, physical educators, exercise and/or sport scientists, exercise physiologists, personal trainers and graduate students in relevant fields will find this book helpful when dealing with contemporary trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. FEATURES The volume starts by examining the general picture on children fitness by the editors. The individual chapter's authors discuses the data gathered since the late 1950s on secular trends and geographic changeability in aerobic and anaerobic pediatric fitness performances of children and adolescents from 23 countries in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East and North America. There are chapters proposing that there is proof that there has been a world-wide decline in pediatric aerobic performance in recent decades, relative stability in anaerobic performance, and that the best performing children come from northern and central Europe. In final chapters possible causes to that end are considered, including whether weakening in aerobic performance are the result of distributional or widespread declines, and whether increases in obesity alone can explain the failure in aerobic performance. ASSESSMENT The editors have assembled a volume of Medicine and Sports Science that is necessary and essential reading for all who are interested in understanding and improving the fitness of children. The readers will find useful information in this book on secular trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. I believe, the book will serve as a first

  11. Feminization of agriculture: Trends and driving forces

    OpenAIRE

    Lastarria-Cornhiel, Susana

    2006-01-01

    "This paper will describe how women have increased their labor in two types of agricultural production - smallholder production and agro-export agriculture - and the economic and socio-cultural forces that are driving this trend. Finally, this paper examines whether women's participation in income-producing activities, whether as wage workers or as family workers in cash cropping, contributes to empowerment and improves their status within the household." (Excerpt from Executive Summary)

  12. Emerging trends in computing and communication

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Kunal; Khan, Gitosree

    2014-01-01

    The book presents papers delivered by researchers, industrial experts and academicians at the Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing and Communication (ETCC 2014). As such, the book is a collection of recent and innovative works in the field Network Security and Cryptography, Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics, Data Mining and Data Warehouse, Communication and Nanotechnology and VLSI and Image Processing.

  13. Cultural Diffusion and Trends in Facebook Photographs

    OpenAIRE

    You, Quanzeng; García-García, Darío; Paluri, Mahohar; Luo, Jiebo; Joo, Jungseock

    2017-01-01

    Online social media is a social vehicle in which people share various moments of their lives with their friends, such as playing sports, cooking dinner or just taking a selfie for fun, via visual means, that is, photographs. Our study takes a closer look at the popular visual concepts illustrating various cultural lifestyles from aggregated, de-identified photographs. We perform analysis both at macroscopic and microscopic levels, to gain novel insights about global and local visual trends as...

  14. Current trends in Bayesian methodology with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Satyanshu K; Dey, Dipak K; Loganathan, Appaia

    2015-01-01

    Collecting Bayesian material scattered throughout the literature, Current Trends in Bayesian Methodology with Applications examines the latest methodological and applied aspects of Bayesian statistics. The book covers biostatistics, econometrics, reliability and risk analysis, spatial statistics, image analysis, shape analysis, Bayesian computation, clustering, uncertainty assessment, high-energy astrophysics, neural networking, fuzzy information, objective Bayesian methodologies, empirical Bayes methods, small area estimation, and many more topics.Each chapter is self-contained and focuses on

  15. Time-trends in gastroprotection with NSAIDs

    OpenAIRE

    Valkhoff, Vera E.; Van Soest, Eva Marianne; Sturkenboom, Miriam C; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preventive strategies are advocated in patients at risk of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) complications associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Aim: We examined time trends in preventive strategies. Methods: In a study population comprising of 50,126 NSAID users ? 50 yrs from the Integrated Primary Care Information database, we considered two preventive strategies: co-prescription of gastroprotective agents and prescription of a cyc...

  16. Smart Grid Technologies: Trends and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Buran Anna; Nizkodubov Gavriil; Pryahin Ilya

    2017-01-01

    The study explores the role of Smart Grid technologies, giving sustainable, reliable and safe energy. These technologies will provide an economic benefit to the government, the investors and the consumers. The paper overviews global trends and perspectives of using Smart Grid technologies in Russia and in other countries. The Smart Grid concept is especially important for Russia, because there are many power supply problems in the energy sector. This study is expected to be important for rese...

  17. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Centineo; Santo Centineo

    2017-01-01

    This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and curre...

  18. Recent Trends in Household Financial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana C.; Teles, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies general patterns of household financial behaviour for three groups of countries: The Early Financialisers, the Economic and Monetary Union Core and the Latecomers. Even though they stand in different positions as regards the development of their respective financial systems and household engagement with finance, there is a shared trend of growth of household debt and financial wealth, denoting common institutional changes across Europe and thus the systematic character o...

  19. New Trends in Mobile Technology Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Cojocaru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mobile device market proved one of the most dynamic, with the leader in intelligent phones changing at least four times during the last decade. At least one important acquisition was registered during 2013 (when Microsoft bought Nokia’s mobile phone division and this event is slated to induce major shifts within the structure of this market. With this story we aim to provide information related to trends foreseen for this market.

  20. New Trends in Logistics as Retail Support

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda Renko; Dejan Ficko; Kristina Petljak

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Informatisation, internationalisation and globalisation have dramatically changed retail sector; speeding up the retail processes, creating new sale formats, fastening the increase of income etc. During the last decade, logistics influenced the development of retailing by cutting down costs and increasing the service quality level. The main purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of market trends that affected logistics and directly caused changes in Croatian retailin...

  1. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indra Neil; Schenk, Ryan; Norton, Catherine N

    2008-05-13

    Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs) and societal importance (e.g., world wars). The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  2. Integrated Project Delivery (IPD Research Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahvandi, Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Project Delivery (IPD is introduced as a vibrant approach to enhance project implementation, having particular position in recent studies among construction researchers. This study analyzes the research trends on the field of IPD to provide an appropriate vision for future researchers in this specialized field. While so far no comprehensive research has been done in this field, this study provides a comprehensive review of existing studies through in-depth literature review method. This research evaluates studies conducted in the field of IPD, which is a basis for future researchers to improve conditions of IPD implementation in different countries. For that this study Using library studies, the trend of researches conducted on various concepts and domains during various years, has been investigated. Future studies can simply use the outputs of this research to shape their research flow on establishing continuing progress of IPD. The data obtained from descriptive analyses are illustrated quantitatively, followed by comprehensive analyses and discussion of the results. Moreover, this study concluded that during recent years, the trend of studies conducted about IPD has increased, particularly articles examined challenges. In the next step, more studies have been performed in the field of construction. Those articles are preferred that have evaluated principles, challenges, and solutions for resolving barriers. Proper IPD implementation facilitates enhanced share of information and early identification of stakeholders through a proper timing as vital keys to realize objectives of the construction projects, reduce risks, and increase the chance of project success.

  3. Otolaryngology Education: Recent Trends in Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Nathan D; Okland, Tyler S; Rodriguez, Kenny; Mann, Scott E

    2017-06-01

    Objectives (1) Evaluate peer-reviewed publications regarding education in otolaryngology since 2000. (2) Analyze publication trends as compared with overall otolaryngology publications. Study Design Bibliometric analysis. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods A search for articles regarding education in otolaryngology from 2000 to 2015 was performed with MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, yielding 1220 articles; 362 relevant publications were categorized by topic, subspecialty, subject, article type, and funding source. Impact factors for each journal by year were obtained, and trends of each category over time were analyzed. These were then compared with publication numbers and impact factors for all otolaryngology journals. Results From 2000 to 2015, publications in otolaryngology education increased more rapidly than the field of otolaryngology overall. The most published topics included operative skills training, surgical simulation, and professionalism/career development. Recently there has been a decline in publications related to residency administration and duty hours relative to other topics. Only 12.2% of publications reported a funding source, and only 12.2% of studies were controlled. Conclusion Recent trends in otolaryngology literature reflect an increasing focus on education; however, this work is underfunded and often lacks high-quality evidence.

  4. Speed trends in male distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Timothy N; Carter, Rickey E; Rosedahl, Jordan K; Joyner, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The major cycling "Grand Tours" have shown an attenuation of performance over the last decade. This has been interpreted as circumstantial evidence that newer anti-doping strategies have reduced the use of performance-enhancing drugs. To examine this idea under more controlled conditions, speed trends for world class 5000 m, 10000 m, and marathon performances by men from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed. We obtained comprehensive records from the International Association of Athletics Federations, Association of Road Racing Statisticians, and the Track and Field All-time Performances database webpages. The top 40 performances for each event and year were selected for regression analysis. For the three distances, we noted cumulative performance improvements in the 1990s thru the mid-2000s. After the peak speed years of the mid 2000 s, there has been limited improvement in the 5000 m and 10,000 m and world records set during that time remain in place today, marking the longest period of time between new records since the early 1940s. By contrast marathon speed continues to increase and the world record has been lowered four times since 2007, including in 2013. While the speed trends for 5000 m and 10000 m track results parallel those seen in elite cycling, the marathon trends do not. We discuss a number of explanations other than improved anti-doping strategies that might account for these divergent findings.

  5. [Mortality trends in cerebrovascular diseases in Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babus, V

    1994-01-01

    The research comprised all deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) in Croatia between 35 and 74 years of age over the period 1958-1987. The total number of deaths in that period increased by 40% and the number of deaths from CVD by 264%. At the same time, the rates standardized by age and sex increased by 62%. Proportional mortality rate from this disease increased from 7.1% in the year 1958 to 14.9% in 1987. The specific mortality rates over a 5-year period have shown a trend of increase in all male age groups and stagnation or decrease in females. A cohort data analysis shows a periodical and not cohort impact on mortality curve in the research period. The research shows that although mortality trends of CVD stagnated or even declined in some communities during the recent years, the secular trend for the entire country had a tendency of constant rise over the whole period of research. Therefore, the short-term prognosis predicts further increase of both the number and rate of deaths from CVD in our country.

  6. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk Ryan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. Results From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs and societal importance (e.g., world wars. The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Conclusion Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  7. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribut......This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis...... of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first...... two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded...

  8. Vesicular stomatitis forecasting based on Google Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Zhou, GuangYa; Chen, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Background Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an important viral disease of livestock. The main feature of VS is irregular blisters that occur on the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, hoof crown and nipple. Humans can also be infected with vesicular stomatitis and develop meningitis. This study analyses 2014 American VS outbreaks in order to accurately predict vesicular stomatitis outbreak trends. Methods American VS outbreaks data were collected from OIE. The data for VS keywords were obtained by inputting 24 disease-related keywords into Google Trends. After calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, it was found that there was a relationship between outbreaks and keywords derived from Google Trends. Finally, the predicted model was constructed based on qualitative classification and quantitative regression. Results For the regression model, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the predicted outbreaks and actual outbreaks are 0.953 and 0.948, respectively. For the qualitative classification model, we constructed five classification predictive models and chose the best classification predictive model as the result. The results showed, SN (sensitivity), SP (specificity) and ACC (prediction accuracy) values of the best classification predictive model are 78.52%,72.5% and 77.14%, respectively. Conclusion This study applied Google search data to construct a qualitative classification model and a quantitative regression model. The results show that the method is effective and that these two models obtain more accurate forecast. PMID:29385198

  9. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  10. Speed trends in male distance running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy N Kruse

    Full Text Available The major cycling "Grand Tours" have shown an attenuation of performance over the last decade. This has been interpreted as circumstantial evidence that newer anti-doping strategies have reduced the use of performance-enhancing drugs. To examine this idea under more controlled conditions, speed trends for world class 5000 m, 10000 m, and marathon performances by men from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed. We obtained comprehensive records from the International Association of Athletics Federations, Association of Road Racing Statisticians, and the Track and Field All-time Performances database webpages. The top 40 performances for each event and year were selected for regression analysis. For the three distances, we noted cumulative performance improvements in the 1990s thru the mid-2000s. After the peak speed years of the mid 2000 s, there has been limited improvement in the 5000 m and 10,000 m and world records set during that time remain in place today, marking the longest period of time between new records since the early 1940s. By contrast marathon speed continues to increase and the world record has been lowered four times since 2007, including in 2013. While the speed trends for 5000 m and 10000 m track results parallel those seen in elite cycling, the marathon trends do not. We discuss a number of explanations other than improved anti-doping strategies that might account for these divergent findings.

  11. Time trends in bullying behavior in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Lenzi, Michela; Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Cavallo, Franco; Santinello, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Given the severity of outcomes associated with involvement in bullying and the resources spent in an effort to reduce its prevalence, it is important to investigate trends in the bullying's occurrence. The main aim of this study was to identify trends from 2002 to 2010 in prevalence of bullying and victimization among Italian adolescents. The survey reported here is part of the larger population-based cross-sectional (2002, 2006, and 2010) "Health Behaviour in School Aged Children" (HBSC) transnational study. The sample was comprised of 13,174 Italian middle and secondary school students (11- to 15-year-olds; 50.3% girls). Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. Measures included involvement in bullying as either a perpetrator or a victim. Trends were determined using Gamma statistics. Consistent and robust decreases in the prevalence of bullying between 2002 and 2010 were detected in Italy. During this time frame both frequent and occasional bullying and victimization decreased by half. We measured a strong decrease in involvement in bullying behavior in Italy, in particular after 2006, when the Italian government invested more systematically in the prevention effort on bullying. This is encouraging news for policymakers and practitioners working in the field of bullying prevention. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  12. Impact assessment of a maternal health project in a megacity, Nigeria: toward a future with more demand for maternal health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Sadatoshi; Koga, Sumiko; Suzui, Emiko; Tsukada, Yoshiko; Ohashi, Kazutomo; Johnson, Taiwo

    2017-10-01

    To improve the quantity and quality of maternal health services in Lagos State, Nigeria having a maternal mortality ratio of 555 per 100 000 live births, a four-year project was implemented since February 2010. The major activity of the project was training for both the service supply and demand sides. This study aimed to examine the impact of the project on coverages and quality of the services in target areas, and guide statewide policies. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was applied to understand trends in the service coverages during 2009-2013. The same test was performed to analyse trends in the proportions of perineal conditions (i.e. intact or tear) and to evaluate variations in midwives' snkill during 2011-2013. The paired t-test was used to analyse changes in midwives' knowledge. The project interventions contributed to a significant increase in the overall service coverages, including improvements in midwifery knowledge and possibly in their skills. However, the service coverage was still limited as of the termination of the project. To instal the interventions and maximise the effect of them state-wide, it is recommended to undertake five tasks: (i) establishment of public primary health centres offering 24-h maternal health services; (ii) redeployment and recruitment of public health personnel; (iii) expansion of midwifery trainings and continuous education by the local trainers; (iv) review of grass-roots level activities; and (v) scrutiny of barriers to maternal health services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Spatial Analysis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qianqian; Guo, Wei; Tang, Weiming; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Nanci; Ding, Zhengwei; Cai, Chang; Cui, Yan; Sun, Jiangping

    2017-04-01

    Studies have shown a recent upsurge in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, especially in urban areas. For intervention planning and resource allocation, spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS case-clusters were required to identify epidemic foci and trends among MSM in China. Information regarding MSM recorded as HIV/AIDS cases during 2006-2015 were extracted from the National Case Reporting System. Demographic trends were determined through Cochran-Armitage trend tests. Distribution of case-clusters was examined using spatial autocorrelation. Spatial-temporal scan was used to detect disease clustering. Spatial correlations between cases and socioenvironmental factors were determined by spatial regression. Between 2006 and 2015, in China, 120 371 HIV/AIDS cases were identified among MSM. Newly identified HIV/AIDS cases among self-reported MSM increased from 487 cases in 2006 to >30 000 cases in 2015. Among those HIV/AIDS cases recorded during 2006-2015, 47.0% were 20-29 years old and 24.9% were aged 30-39 years. Based on clusters of HIV/AIDS cases identified through spatial analysis, the epidemic was concentrated among MSM in large cities. Spatial-temporal clusters contained municipalities, provincial capitals, and main cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Chengdu, and Guangzhou. Spatial regression analysis showed that sociodemographic indicators such as population density, per capita gross domestic product, and number of county-level medical institutions had statistically significant positive correlations with HIV/AIDS among MSM. Assorted spatial analyses revealed an increasingly concentrated HIV epidemic among young MSM in Chinese cities, calling for targeted health education and intensive interventions at an early age.

  14. Five-year decreased incidence of surgical site infections following gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement surgery through active surveillance by the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Adiyani, L; Sung, J; Choi, J Y; Kim, H B; Kim, Y K; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, Sang-Oh; Han, S H; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H M; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Yoo, J D; Koo, H-S; Cho, E H; Lee, K W

    2016-08-01

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection has been associated with a reduction in surgical site infection (SSI). To evaluate the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) in order to assess its effects on SSI since it was introduced. SSI data after gastrectomy, total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2008 and 2012 were analysed. The pooled incidence of SSI was calculated for each year; the same analyses were also conducted from hospitals that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years. Standardized SSI rates for each year were calculated by adjusting for SSI risk factors. SSI trends were analysed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The SSI rate following gastrectomy was 3.12% (522/16,918). There was a significant trend of decreased crude SSI rates over five years. This trend was also evident in analysis of hospitals that had participated for more than three years. The SSI rate for THA was 2.05% (157/7656), which decreased significantly from 2008 to 2012. The risk factors for SSI after THA included the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index, trauma, reoperation, and age (60-69 years). The SSI rate for TKA was 1.90% (152/7648), which also decreased significantly during a period of five years. However, the risk-adjusted analysis of SSI did not show a significant decrease for all surgical procedures. The SSI incidence of gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement declined over five years as a result of active surveillance by KONIS. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Proposal for a Flexible Trend Specification in DSGE Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slanicay Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a flexible trend specification for estimating DSGE models on log differences. I demonstrate this flexible trend specification on a New Keynesian DSGE model of two economies, which I consequently estimate on data from the Czech economy and the euro area, using Bayesian techniques. The advantage of the trend specification proposed is that the trend component and the cyclical component are modelled jointly in a single model. The proposed trend specification is flexible in the sense that smoothness of the trend can be easily modified by different calibration of some of the trend parameters. The results suggest that this method is capable of finding a very reasonable trend in the data. Moreover, comparison of forecast performance reveals that the proposed specification offers more reliable forecasts than the original variant of the model.

  16. Trends and determinants of cycling in the Washington, DC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes cycling trends, policies, and commuting in the Washington, DC area. The analysis is divided into two parts. : Part 1 focuses on cycling trends and policies in Washington (DC), Alexandria (VA), Arlington County (VA), Fairfax Count...

  17. Population and trends in the global mean temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Fisher ideal index, developed to measure price inflation, is applied to define a population-weighted temperature trend. This method has the advantages that the trend is representative for the population distribution throughout the sample but without conflating the trend in the population

  18. Status and trends of U.S. pulpwood market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2009-01-01

    Global trends in pulp, paper, and paperboard have deeply affected U.S. pulpwood markets since the late 1990s. Global trends included a shift of growth in paper and paperboard production from North America to Europe and Asia over the past decade. This trend was associated with generally slower growth in U.S. industrial production and displacement of growth in print...

  19. Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.L.; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Tree-ring analysis is often used to assess long-term trends in tree growth. A variety of growth-trend detection methods (GDMs) exist to disentangle age/size trends in growth from long-term growth changes. However, these detrending methods strongly differ in approach, with possible implications

  20. Modeling Alaska boreal forests with a controlled trend surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Jingjing Liang

    2012-01-01

    An approach of Controlled Trend Surface was proposed to simultaneously take into consideration large-scale spatial trends and nonspatial effects. A geospatial model of the Alaska boreal forest was developed from 446 permanent sample plots, which addressed large-scale spatial trends in recruitment, diameter growth, and mortality. The model was tested on two sets of...

  1. A STUDY ABOUT EFFECT OF SOCIO ECONOMIC TRENDS ON STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Paras Jain *, Mr.Soman Malaiya

    2016-01-01

    Students are influenced by current socio economic trends. Awareness for quality education, studies in English medium schools, girl’s education promotion, participation in activities, advance teaching pedagogy, learning by activities, expense on education, family support are current socio economic trends. These trends influence positively quality education concept.

  2. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  3. Reading Instruction: Present and Future Needs and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nila Banton

    This paper discusses some of the larger trends in present day American society and education, indicates how these trends are affecting reading, and points out some possible directions for future development. The trends discussed include "Sex Equality," which discusses sexism in basal tests, male teachers of reading, and the greater number of boys…

  4. PDT: Photometric DeTrending Algorithm Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Won

    2016-05-01

    PDT removes systematic trends in light curves. It finds clusters of light curves that are highly correlated using machine learning, constructs one master trend per cluster and detrends an individual light curve using the constructed master trends by minimizing residuals while constraining coefficients to be positive.

  5. Trends in health expectancies in the Netherlands, 1981-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R.J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Water, H.P.A. van de

    1993-01-01

    We studied trends in health expectancies (HE) in the Netherlands from 1981 till 1990. The trends studied are based on perceived health. Because of changes in the questionnaires, it was not justified to use long term and short term disabilities to calculate trends. For the same reasons, we had to

  6. MONITORING FOR POLICY-RELEVANT REGIONAL TRENDS OVER TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term trend describes the continuing directional change in the value of an indicator, generally upward or generally downward. Many policy questions concern trend across a number of sites, such as lakes in a region, rather than trend at a single site. Power to detect regional t...

  7. Revolutionary business trends in supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijušković Veljko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary turbulent business conditions in the era of high technology bring inherent rapid changes. In order to survive, the imperative set upon all market players is not the position of a follower but more of an anticipator and trend setter. These unexpected changes erase existing business models, traditional enterprise paradigms and customary philosophies. A business isolated in its way of seeing operations and unconnected with other strategic constituents within the supply chain is destined to fail. On the other hand, even those businesses that do get involved with contemporary trends are not automatically guaranteed with the market survival. The spirit of change must therefore be deeply integrated within the organization, so that the new 'mantra' could become strategic but also operative driver on all fronts of doing business, at all times. The goal of this paper is to try to illustrate and categorize comprehensive fundamental changes which are more and more present in the modern supply chains. The analysis shows that the spirit of business model changes is not a fiction but reality, thus their deepness truly revolutionizes the functioning of traditional supply chains. The first part of the paper shows actual market situation within the supply chains. 'Kaleidoscope of changes' in the chain shows that its operations have been altered compared to traditional way of doing business, having assimilated the fact that final customers identify multiple dimensions of value while choosing products or services. The market survival demands the perception and possession of all these dimensions. The second part explains the supply chain changes focusing on ten most important trends. Their implementation creates revolutionary effects compared to traditional business matrix. Finally, the third part, identifies key challenges and inhibitors that might emerge during the 'restructuring' of the traditional supply chains, as a real-life situation limitation

  8. Managed care trends in statin usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalo, G R

    2001-10-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors ("statins") have become the drug class of choice for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Six product brands encompassing 20 dosage strengths have been available during the past two years. The objective of this review is to describe dosing trends for the six statin brands and to determine if and how these trends vary among managed care plans as a function of product market share. Utilization of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors was examined using the NDC Health Information Services (Phoenix, Ariz.) database for the two-year period ending December 2000. This database contains unit dispensing data at the dosage-strength level for 1,079 managed care plans. Trends in market share, mean daily dose, and dosage distribution of the six current statin brands were examined. The relationship of market share to mean dose was also examined for each brand. Market share decreased for all statin brands during the two-year period, except for the two newest entries, atorvastatin (up 9.7 share points) and cerivastatin (up 4.6 share points). The mean dose of all statins increased during the two-year period. A statistically significant negative correlation between market share and mean dose was found for atorvastatin and a positive correlation was found for fluvastatin (P share was significantly correlated to lower mean doses of all other statin brands. That is, higher use of atorvastatin was associated with lower doses of all statin products. In developing a cost-management strategy, managed care organizations should take historical and anticipated market-share changes and dose-mix changes into account along with the product's clinical efficacy and total cost of care.

  9. Seasonal trends in adolescent pregnancy conception rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Kaitlyn; Nguyen, Laura N; Jamieson, Mary Anne; Palerme, Stephanie

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if a seasonal trend exists in adolescent pregnancies and to compare the teen conception rate per month to an adult population. The study was conducted in a tertiary care Canadian hospital that has a one-site model of care. A retrospective chart review of all adolescent pregnancies over a 5-year period (N = 838) was undertaken. From the 13,554 adult pregnancies over the same time period, a random sample of 838 pregnancies was chosen for similar chart review. A chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of pregnancies conceived in each calendar month between the two groups. Pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortions, elective terminations, ectopic pregnancies, as well as obstetrical deliveries, were included. There was a significantly different monthly trend seen in adolescent pregnancy conceptions when compared with the adult group (χ² = 24.38, df = 11, P = 0.0112). The adolescent group was observed to have a unique peak in the number of pregnancies conceived in March (10.5% of pregnancies conceived compared to 7.3% in adults). In addition, 8.5% of conceptions in adolescents occurred in December compared to 10.4% in adults. There are several plausible explanations for the modest but real differences identified in this study including trends in fecundity/fertility or social/school events that lead to increased sexual activity. Peaks in conception indicate times when a greater need for health care services exists, and when preventive education can be most effective. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  11. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  12. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  13. Trend Switching Processes in Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene

    For an intriguing variety of switching processes in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes at a specific point from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. Financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("bubble collapse"), on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for very short time scales. Our analysis is based on a German DAX Future data base containing 13,991,275 transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10- 2 s. For a parallel analysis, we use a data base of all S&P500 stocks providing 2,592,531 daily closing prices. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching processes have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have features similar to those present in phase transitions. We find that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales - such as the most recent financial crisis - are no outliers but in fact single dramatic representatives caused by the formation of upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from the very large down to the very small.

  14. Wind Energy: Trends And Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Alam, Mansoor; Boyapati, Premchand; Chandna, Pankaj; Kumar, Ashok; Lack, Lewis; Nims, Douglas; Wang, Lingfeng

    2010-09-15

    With attention now focused on the damaging impact of greenhouse gases, wind energy is rapidly emerging as a low carbon, resource efficient, cost-effective sustainable technology in many parts of the world. Despite higher economic costs, offshore appears to be the next big step in wind energy development alternative because of the space scarcity for installation of onshore wind turbine. This paper presents the importance of off-shore wind energy, the wind farm layout design, the off-shore wind turbine technological developments, the role of sensors and the smart grid, and the challenges and future trends of wind energy.

  15. Impact of Wikipedia on citation trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Hosseini-Nami, Seyed Mohammad Amin; Alishah, Khadijeh; Hadi, Mahdieh; Karimi, Ali; Hosseinian, Saeedeh; Fard, Rouhallah Ramezani; Mirhassani, Reihaneh Sadat; Hosseini, Zhaleh; Shojaie, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the "visibility" of an article influences its citation count. More specifically, it is believed that the social media can influence article citations.Here we tested the hypothesis that inclusion of scholarly references in Wikipedia affects the citation trends. To perform this analysis, we introduced a citation "propensity" measure, which is inspired by the concept of amino acid propensity for protein secondary structures. We show that although citation counts generally increase during time, the citation "propensity" does not increase after inclusion of a reference in Wikipedia.

  16. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  17. Transportation Energy Efficiency Trends, 1972--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fan, Y. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The US transportation sector, which remains 97% dependent on petroleum, used a record 22.8 quads of energy in 1993. Though growing much more slowly than the economy from 1975 to 1985, energy use for transportation is now growing at nearly the same rate as GDP. This report describes the analysis of trends in energy use and energy intensity in transportation into components due to, (1) growth in transportation activity, (2) changes in energy intensity, and (3) changes in the modal structure of transportation activities.

  18. Trends in Surface Temperature at High Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The earliest signal of a climate change is expected to be found in the polar regions where warming is expected to be amplified on account of ice-albedo feedbacks associated with the high reflectivity of snow and ice. Because of general inaccessibility, there is a general paucity of in situ data and hence the need to use satellite data to observe the large-scale variability and trends in surface temperature in the region. Among the most important sensors for monitoring surface temperature has been the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) which was first launched in 1978 and has provided continuous thermal infrared data since 1981. The top of the atmosphere data are converted to surface temperature data through various schemes that accounts for the unique atmospheric and surface conditions in the polar regions. Among the highest source of error in the data is cloud masking which is made more difficult in the polar region because of similar Signatures of clouds and snow lice covered areas. The availability of many more channels in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on board Terra satellite in December 1999 and on board Aqua in May 2002 (e.g., 36 visible and infrared channels compared to 5 for AVHRR) made it possible to minimize the error. Further capabilities were introduced with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) which has the appropriate frequency channels for the retrieval of sea surface temperature (SST). The results of analysis of the data show an amplified warming in the Arctic region, compared with global warming. The spatial distribution of warming is, however, not uniform and during the last 3 decades, positive temperature anomalies have been most pronounced in North America, Greenland and the Arctic basin. Some regions of the Arctic such as Siberia and the Bering Sea surprisingly show moderate cooling but this may be because these regions were anomalously warm in the 1980s when the satellite record

  19. Conscious Sedation: Emerging Trends in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sharan, Radhe; Makkar, Vega; Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Kataria, Amar Parkash

    2017-01-01

    Dental fear and anxiety is a common problem in pediatric patients. There is considerable variation in techniques used to manage them. Various sedation techniques using many different anesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past few years. Children are not little adults; they differ physically, psychologically, and emotionally. The purpose of this review is to survey recent trends and concerning issues in the rapidly changing field of pediatric sedation. We will study the topic from the perspective of an anesthesiologist. It will also provide information to practitioners on the practice of conscious sedation in dentistry and will also outline the route of administration, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of various drugs used.

  20. [China: urban trends, 1949-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, G

    1992-11-01

    Trends in urbanization in China since the Communist regime took power in 1949 are analyzed. The author notes that until the late 1970s China was unique in achieving a relatively high rate of industrialization while keeping the rate of urbanization down to only 13%. However, since the economic reforms instituted by Deng Xiaoping, urbanization has increased from 13% in 1978 to 22% in 1990. Changes in urbanization in response to changing government policies are described, with particular emphasis on those occurring during the 1980s, and to differences between rural and urban economic conditions.

  1. Hypersensitivity and nanoparticles: update and research trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Teodora; Matea, Cristian T; Iancu, Cornel; Agoston-Coldea, Lucia; Mocan, Lucian; Orasan, Remus

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds a great promise for a wide range of medical-intent applications (diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis of various diseases). Their advantages are due to their size, versatility and potential for multiple simultaneous applications. However, concerns have been formulated by scientific world due to insufficient data on toxicity of nanomaterials. One area of interest is represented by the interactions between nanoparticles and the components of the immune system. We review herein reported data on hypersensitivity reactions. The role exerted by nanoparticles in both immunostimulation and immunosuppression in allergen-driven mechanisms was studied, as well as future trends in worldwide research.

  2. Latest trends in international monopolization of capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslava Stolyarchuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the character and features of international monopolization of production and capital at different stages of the capitalist market system development. On the basis of research of the latest trends in international monopolization of capital we substantiate its global character, manifesting in coverage of almost all world countries of and all social reproduction phases at industrial, territorial and regional levels. It is also proved the inconsistency of global corporations influence on the parameters of the world economic equilibrium, multidimensional manifestation of which can be seen in deepening of the asymmetry in socio-economic development of the countries and regions of the world.

  3. Trends of contact lens prescribing in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Mera F; Bakkar, May; Gammoh, Yazan; Morgan, Philip

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate contact lens prescribing trends among optometrists in Jordan. Optometrists from 173 practices in Jordan were surveyed about prescribing contact lenses in their practice. Practitioners were required to record information for the last 10 patients that visited their practice. Demographic data such as age and gender was obtained for each patient. In addition, data relating to lens type, lens design, replacement methods and the care regime advised to each patient were recorded. Practitioners were required to provide information relating to their education and years of experience. The influence of education and experience with respect to lens prescribing trends was explored using linear regression models for the proportions of lens types fitted for patients. A total of 1730 contact lens fits were analyzed. The mean (±SD) age of lens wearers was 26.6 (±7.9) years, of whom 65% were female. Conventional hydrogel lenses were the most prescribed lenses, accounting for 60.3% of the fits, followed by silicone hydrogel lenses (31.3%), and rigid lenses (8.4%). In terms of lens design, spherical lenses appeared to be most commonly prescribed on monthly basis. Daily disposable lenses were second most prescribed lens modality, accounting for 20.4% of the study sample. Multi-purpose solution (MPS) was the preferred care regimen, with a prevalence of 88.1% reported in the study sample, compared to hydrogen peroxide (1-step and 2-step), which represented only 2.8% of the patients in this study. A relationship was established between the two educational groups for rigid lens prescribing (F=17.4, p<0.0001), while the experience of the optometrist was not a significant factor (F=0.4, p=0.54). This work has provides an up-to-date analysis of contact lens prescribing trends among optometrists in Jordan. Contact lens prescribing in terms of lens type, lens design, modality of wear and care regimen agree with global market trends with small variations. This report will help

  4. Trend-Spotting in the Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Askitas, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    I create a time series of weekly ratios of Google searches, in the US, on buying and selling in the Real Estate Category of Google Trends. I call this ratio the Google US Housing Market BUSE Index or simply the BUSE index. It expresses the number of "buy"-searches for each "sell"-search which, by means of certain regularity assumptions on the distribution of Internet users, I think is a good proxy of the number of prospective home buyers for each prospective home seller in the pool of prospec...

  5. Trends Prediction Using Social Diffusion Models

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Yaniv; Pan, Wei; Pentland, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the ability to predict trends in social media has been growing rapidly in the past few years with the growing dominance of social media in our everyday’s life. Whereas many works focus on the detection of anomalies in networks, there exist little theoretical work on the prediction of the likelihood of anomalous network pattern to globally spread and become “trends”. In this work we present an analytic model for the social diffusion dynamics of spreading network patterns. Our...

  6. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Gupta, Girish; De, Sudipta; Franco, Ana; Balu, Alina Mariana; Luque, Rafael

    2015-12-30

    Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  7. Trends in Microfabrication Capabilities & Device Architectures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lentine, Tony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mudrick, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Okandan, Murat [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodrigues, Arun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The last two decades have seen an explosion in worldwide R&D, enabling fundamentally new capabilities while at the same time changing the international technology landscape. The advent of technologies for continued miniaturization and electronics feature size reduction, and for architectural innovations, will have many technical, economic, and national security implications. It is important to anticipate possible microelectronics development directions and their implications on US national interests. This report forecasts and assesses trends and directions for several potentially disruptive microfabrication capabilities and device architectures that may emerge in the next 5-10 years.

  8. NEW TRENDS REGARDING OFDI FROM RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among emerging economies, the Russian Federation is the second largest outward investor, surpassed only by China, but ahead of Brazil, India and South Africa. Alongside other multinationals from BRICS countries, TNCs from Russia started to emerge in the international rankings of global companies. The propose of the paper is to present the importance of developing and transition economies as investors, to provide background information and new trends of OFDI from BRICS countries, pointing out the outward expansion of Russian multinational corporations in recent years. The paper basically investigates the main patterns of Russian outward foreign direct investment (OFDI, including its dynamics and geographical destinations.

  9. From Transnational Trends to Local Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Even though interest in monitoring the social impacts of capitalist development continues to grow, few observers demonstrate how both the monitoring and the impact occurs at the local level and how these are replications of global trends. This chapter will examine how the socioeconomic monitoring...... mechanisms of mining companies are seeking to fulfill three key functions: (1) to comply with local and national mining legislation, (2) demonstrate to the company’s peers that its projects are globally competitive (Sklair, 2002) and (3) to legitimate the existence of the mining project to society at large...

  10. Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni P

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr

  11. New trends in beer flavour compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio; Sancho, Daniel; Blanco, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Energy use trends in the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, L. [Cemex Corporation (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The overheads/viewgraphs give statistics and trace trends on the use of coal in the cement industry in the different regions of the world. Coal is still the dominant fuel in the cement industry in North America, Asia and Europe but in Latin America the choice depends on each country's domestic energy structure. Petcoke is becoming an important fuel in Europe and the US and also Brazil. The differences in the coal and petcoke markets that influence the cement consumer are discussed. Although Cemex has in the last decade favored petcoke, the market for petcoke in the cement industry is expected to remain small.

  13. Organizational Development of Russian SMEs: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Velinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research paper sheds a light on Russian SMEs transition and specifically on their current development and evolution. The paper attempts to explain what are the main drivers and antecedents on SMEs during the period 2010-2015. Along with it, it is applied detailed analysis of Russian SMEs in terms of key performance indicators, turnover and volume of sales. Further, are given potential developments and trends within SMEs in Russia. The paper draws attention to socio-economic and political factors influencing SMEs development.

  14. Recent trends in urban renewal in Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csanádi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines recent social processes in central Budapest, focusing on social sustainability and gentrification, and presents the potential social conflicts emerging in this area. We examine the recent history of the housing market and areas of gentrification in the city centre. The second part of the article presents the trends and possible long-term effects of real-estate development in the research area. The article concludes that the gentrification events in central Budapest could be a warning signal of future social displacement and social exclusion.

  15. The trends of Italy's international tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Alivernini; Enrico Beretta; Luigi Cannari; Massimo Gallo

    2013-01-01

    The book brings together a series of research papers presented at a workshop on "The trends of Italy's international tourism", held at the Bank of Italy in Rome on 22 June 2012, on occasion of the release, on Bank of Italy's website, of microdata from the Survey on international tourism in Italy. In the first session of this workshop, a paper synthesised the main results of the Survey for the period 1997-2011 and another paper analysed the developments of tourism market shares of Italian regi...

  16. Older People's Mobility: Segments, Factors, Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu

    2015-01-01

    demographic, health-related, or transport-related factors. This paper reviews these studies and compares the segments of older people that different studies have identified. First, as a result of a systematic comparison, we identified four generic segments: (1) an active car-oriented segment; (2) a car...... people’s travel behaviour. Based on this, we proposed a theoretical model on how the different determinants work together to form the four mobility patterns related to the identified segments. Finally, based on current trends and expectations, we assessed which segments are likely to increase or decrease...

  17. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  18. Smart Grid Technologies: Trends and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buran Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the role of Smart Grid technologies, giving sustainable, reliable and safe energy. These technologies will provide an economic benefit to the government, the investors and the consumers. The paper overviews global trends and perspectives of using Smart Grid technologies in Russia and in other countries. The Smart Grid concept is especially important for Russia, because there are many power supply problems in the energy sector. This study is expected to be important for researchers and engineers studying Smart Grid technologies.

  19. Global and Regional Trends in Child Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Nguyen, Minh Cong

    2015-01-01

    Nguyen and Wodon suggest that better measurement of child marriage can be obtained by adopting the techniques used for the measurement of poverty. The objective of this article is to use that approach to provide estimates of global and regional trends over time in the extent of child marriage – not only its incidence, but also what we refer to as the child marriage gap and the squared child marriage gap, two measures that take into account how young girls are when they marry.

  20. Internet applications, sites, trends and happenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Raitt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This column aims to draw your attention to various interesting Web sites which I have come across and which might appeal to you, and to keep you up to date with news and views on Internet trends, developments and statistics. It offers essentially a personal selection rather than comprehensive coverage. Although some sites may not cover products or services available in South Africa, they are included because they may inspire you to either contribute missing data or become an entrepreneur and create a similar local site.