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Sample records for psittacine circovirus infection

  1. A retrospective study of circovirus infection in pigeons: nine cases (1986-1993).

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    Woods, L W; Latimer, K S; Niagro, F D; Riddell, C; Crowley, A M; Anderson, M L; Daft, B M; Moore, J D; Campagnoli, R P; Nordhausen, R W

    1994-04-01

    Circovirus infections were diagnosed in 12 pigeons from the United States 4 pigeons from Australia, and 1 pigeon from Canada (1986-1993). Circovirus was identified by electron microscopic examination of basophilic botryoid cytoplasmic inclusions that had a histologic appearance similar to that of psittacine beak and feather disease virus inclusions. Inclusions were seen in splenic, bursal, gut-associated, and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue macrophages and in bursal epithelial cells. Inclusions were composed of paracrystalline arrays of tightly packed, nonenveloped icosahedral virions 14-17 nm in diameter. Histologic changes in the spleens ranged from lymphofollicular hyperplasia with mild discrete lymphocellular necrosis to lymphoid depletion and diffuse histiocytosis. Lesions in the bursa of Fabricius ranged from mild lymphocellular necrosis to severe cystic bursal atrophy. Remaining histologic findings coincided with concurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. Immunoperoxidase staining and DNA in situ hybridization demonstrated that pigeon circovirus is distinct from psittacine beak and feather disease virus; however both viruses apparently share some homologous DNA sequences. Clinical and diagnostic findings indicate that pigeon circovirus may be similar to psittacine beak and feather disease virus with respect to acquired immunodeficiency and subsequent multiple secondary infections.

  2. The prevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus infection in native parrots in New Zealand.

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    Ha, H J; Alley, M R; Cahill, J I; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D

    2009-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) infection in native parrots in New Zealand. One hundred and sixty-nine wild native parrots and 143 captive native parrots throughout New Zealand were examined for the presence of BFDV, from June 2003 to January 2005. Feathers of each bird, and blood samples from 15 birds, were collected and submitted for PCR assay to detect BFDV. All of the samples from wild native parrots were negative for BFDV by PCR assays. Similarly, of the 143 PCR tests from captive native parrots 139 (97%) were negative for BFDV. However, a pair of red-crowned parakeets and two Antipodes Island parakeets from different captive facilities were found to be infected with BFDV. The infected birds showed no clinical signs suggestive of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), although the second Antipodes Island parakeet was found dead, and had pathological changes consistent with acute septicaemia. The results indicate a very low prevalence of BFDV among free-living native parrots although captive birds, in particular native parakeets, are susceptible to BFDV infection, and the Antipodes Island parakeets may be susceptible to PBFD.

  3. Pigeon circovirus infection in disqualified racing pigeons from Taiwan.

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    Huang, Yen-Li; Castaneda, Omir Adrian; Thongchan, Duangsuda; Khatri-Chhetri, Rupak; Tsai, Shinn-Shyong; Wu, Hung-Yi

    2017-08-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia) infected with pigeon circovirus (PiCV) have been reported worldwide. The present study diagnosed PiCV infection in tissue samples of disqualified racing pigeons in Taiwan, using molecular and microscopy diagnostics. Among the 164 dead pigeons examined, 96.95% (159/164) tested positive for PiCV. Severe histopathological lesions, with characteristic inclusions, were observed in various organs of the PiCV-infected pigeons. Multiglobular basophilic intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were found in the bursa of Fabricius and non-lymphoid tissues. The present study identified, for the first time, the presence of inclusion bodies in the thyroid gland, oesophagus, gizzard, and in the third eyelid of circovirus-infected pigeons. The presence of inclusion bodies in the third eyelid and mucosa of the gizzard was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. A high detection rate of PiCV and some severe lesions evident in disqualified racing pigeons, as well as PiCV sequences in this study were highly similar with those detected in European countries suggesting an epidemiological association possibly due to imported pigeons.

  4. A high prevalence of beak and feather disease virus in non-psittacine Australian birds.

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    Amery-Gale, Jemima; Marenda, Marc S; Owens, Jane; Eden, Paul A; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2017-07-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a circovirus and the cause of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD). This disease is characterized by feather and beak deformities and is a recognized threat to endangered Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos). The role that non-psittacine birds may play as reservoirs of infection is unclear. This study aimed to begin addressing this gap in our knowledge of PBFD. Liver samples were collected from birds presented to the Australian Wildlife Health Centre at Zoos Victoria's Healesville Sanctuary for veterinary care between December 2014 and December 2015, and tested for BFDV DNA using polymerase chain reaction coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses.Results/Key findings. Overall BFDV was detected in 38.1 % of 210 birds. BFDV was detected at high prevalence (56.2 %) in psittacine birds, in the majority of cases without any observed clinical signs of PBFD. We also found that BFDV was more common in non-psittacine species than previously recognized, with BFDV detected at 20.0 % prevalence in the non-psittacine birds tested, including species with no clear ecological association with psittacines, and without showing any detectable clinical signs of BFDV infection. Further research to determine the infectivity and transmissibility of BFDV in non-psittacine species is indicated. Until such work is undertaken the findings from this study suggest that every bird should be considered a potential carrier of BFDV, regardless of species and clinical presentation. Veterinary clinics and wildlife rehabilitation facilities caring for birds that are susceptible to PBFD should reconsider biosecurity protocols aimed at controlling BFDV.

  5. Circovirus in Dogs FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports Tools for K-12 Educators Circovirus in Dogs FAQ November 22, 2013 Update November 22, 2013: ... information. Canine circovirus infections have been documented in dogs with vomiting and diarrhea. The distribution of the ...

  6. Pathologic and microbiologic aspects of pet psittacine infected by Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium

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    Raul A.S. Siqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The role of Escherichia coli in healthy microbiota of psittacine is controversial, and the presence of Salmonella sp. indicates possible disease. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the presence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. in a psittacine pet that died in Fortaleza, Brazil, correlating pathogenicity aspects of the isolates through the evaluation of lesions and antimicrobial susceptibility. Psittacine pets sent to the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies, State University of Ceará, that died in 2014 and 2015 were necropsied. Fragments of liver, kidneys, intestine, lung, heart, spleen and brain were collected for microbiological and histopathological analyses. Scores were attributed to lesions and isolated strains submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility test. From the seventy necropsied birds, nineteen were positive for E. coli and one for Salmonella Typhimurium. Congestive lesions and lymphoplasmocitic inflammatory infiltrate were observed varying from light to moderate and were the main findings. In the analyzed strains, multidrug resistance against different groups of antibiotics was observed. In conclusion, according to the results, E. coli strains and the Salmonella Typhimurium isolate produced significant lesions in the psittacine pets, and multidrug resistance may hinder treatments with antibiotics used in avian pet medicine.

  7. Rectal stenosis in pigs associated with Salmonella Typhimurium and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infection

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    Tatiane Terumi Negrão Watanabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rectal stricture is an acquired annular fibrous constriction of the rectum that results from a variety of chronic necrotizing enteric diseases. In pigs, it is in most cases a sequel of Salmonella infection. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is a known pathogen causing immunosuppression in pigs worldwide. PCV2 infected pigs may be predisposed to salmonellosis. In this report, rectal stenosis was observed in 160 pigs from a herd that experienced an outbreak of enteric salmonellosis over a 4-month period. Distension of the abdominal wall and diarrhea were the main clinical signs observed. Five animals were analyzed showing annular cicatrization of the rectal wall 5.0-7.0 cm anterior to the anorectal junction and Salmonella-positive immunostaining in the large intestine. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from fragments of the large intestine. Porcine circovirus type 2 antigen was observed in the mesenteric lymph-node in 4 pigs and in the large intestine in 3 pigs.

  8. Cloning and sequencing of columbid circovirus (coCV), a new circovirus from pigeons.

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    Mankertz, A; Hattermann, K; Ehlers, B; Soike, D

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of columbid circovirus (CoCV) isolated from pigeons is described. CoCV was amplified using a consensus primer PCR approach directed against conserved sequences within the rep genes of vertebrate circoviruses. The genome of CoCV is circular and 2037 nt in size. It displays 55% homology to the genome of psittacine beak and feather disease virus and is more distantly related (circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest classification of CoCV as member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae.

  9. Psittacine incubation and pediatrics.

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    Romagnano, April

    2012-05-01

    Psittacine pediatric medicine and surgery can only continue to be practiced by avian veterinarians if psittacine aviculture (the successful captive breeding of parrot species) is active and thriving. Although beautiful, intelligent parrots are popular as beloved pets and reside in zoo and private collections around the world, private psittacine aviculture is in a transition period recovering from difficult economic times. Many of the larger aviculturists have left and the rise of the small aviculturist has significantly changed the industry.

  10. Leukogram abnormalities in gnotobiotic pigs infected with porcine circovirus type 2.

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    Gauger, P C; Lager, K M; Vincent, A L; Opriessnig, T; Cheung, A K; Butler, J E; Kehrli, M E

    2011-12-29

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a single-stranded circular DNA virus that is the causative agent of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), a disease complex affecting swine around the world. Although this virus is believed to negatively affect the host's immune system, the mechanism by which PCV2 induces disease is not completely understood. This report describes a series of PCV2 experiments using the gnotobiotic pig model in which a relationship was demonstrated between abnormal leukograms and development of clinical disease in PCV2-infected pigs. When compared to control pigs the leukogram was characterized by a decrease in lymphocytes within 14 days post inoculation (dpi) followed by an increase in neutrophils 7-14 days later. No significant changes in the circulating monocyte, basophil, and eosinophil cell populations were detected. The combination of an absolute neutrophilia and lymphopenia produced a neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio that was predictive of clinical disease and was inversely correlated with the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Based on previous reports, the lymphopenia may be attributed to a direct cytolytic effect of the virus and could negatively affect the pig's immune response. The role of the neutrophilia in the pathogenesis of PCVAD in gnotobiotic pigs is unknown. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar

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    Iratxe Díez-Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa. Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2. Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts.

  12. Differential proteome analysis of host cells infected with porcine circovirus type 2.

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    Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Jiyong; Wu, Yongping; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Ma, Guangpeng; Wang, Zhongtian; Jin, Yulan; He, Jialing; Yan, Yan

    2009-11-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which is an emerging swine immunosuppressive disease. To uncover cellular protein responses in PCV2-infected PK-15 cells, the comprehensive proteome profiles were analyzed utilizing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF identification. Multiple comparisons of 2-DE revealed that the majority of changes in protein expression occurred at 48-96 h after PCV2 infection. A total of 34 host-encoded proteins, including 15 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated proteins, were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. According to cellular function, the differential expression proteins could be sorted into several groups: cytoskeleton proteins, stress response, macromolecular biosynthesis, energy metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, signal transduction, gene regulation. Western blot analysis demonstrated the changes of alpha tubulin, beta actin, and cytokeratin 8 during infection. Colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation analyses confirmed that the cellular alpha tubulin interacts with the Cap protein of PCV2 in the infected PK-15 cells. These identified cellular constituents have important implications for understanding the host interactions with PCV2 and brings us a step closer to defining the cellular requirements for the underlying mechanism of PCV2 replication and pathogenesis.

  13. Proteomic analysis of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine circovirus type 2.

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    Cheng, Shuang; Zhang, Min; Li, Wentao; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yingyu; He, Qigai

    2012-06-18

    Post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which is primarily caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), is an emerging swine immunosuppressive disease. To characterize the interaction between target immune cells and PCV2, the differential proteomes of porcine alveolar macrophages, with and without PCV2 infection, were analyzed at different time points with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF identification. Mass spectrometry identified 21 altered host-encoded protein spots (9 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated protein spots), which included cytoskeleton proteins, macromolecular biosynthesis-associated proteins, stress response proteins, signal transduction proteins, energy metabolism, and ubiquitin proteasome pathway-associated proteins. The majority of the changes occurred 48h after PCV2 infection. Moreover, 9 corresponding genes of the differentially expressed proteins were quantified by real time RT-PCR to examine the transcriptional profiles. Western blot analysis further confirmed the differential expression of proteins, including SFN, PSME1, PRP19, HSPB1, TUBA|B, CK-19 and ACTB, in the proteomic profiles. Subcellular distribution analysis of the cytoskeletal proteins and PCV2 clearly demonstrated interactions between PCV2 and the differential protein β-tubulin. Thus, this work effectively provides useful and dynamic protein-related information to further understand the underlying pathogenesis of PCV2 infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cellular adaptive immune response against porcine circovirus type 2 in subclinically infected pigs

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    Gerber Heidi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is a dominant causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, a multifactorial disease complex with putative immunosuppressive characteristics. Little is known about adaptive PCV2-specific immune responses in infected pigs. Therefore, the T and B cell responses following PCV2 infection in 3-week old SPF piglets infected with PCV2 or PCV2 plus porcine parvovirus (PPV were studied. Results All animals were asymptomatically infected. At 7 days post infection (d p.i., B lymphocyte and T lymphocyte numbers decreased in the dual infected, but not in the single infected piglets. At this time point a transient PCV2 viraemia was noted in the PCV2 infected groups. Antibodies against the infecting virus were detectable at day 24-28 p.i. for anti-PCV2 antibodies and at day 10 p.i. for anti-PPV antibodies, with no apparent influence of PCV2 on the early PPV antibody development. In the animals infected with PPV alone, IFN-γ secreting cells (SC that were not specific for PCV2 were detected by ELISPOT assay at day 7 p.i. Interestingly, this response was absent in the PCV2/PPV dual infected animals. PCV2-specific IFN-γ SC were observed in the PCV2/PPV infected group at 7 d p.i. and in the PCV2 single infected group at 21 d p.i. A reduction in the numbers of IFN-γ SC was observed following anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 antibody treatment, suggesting roles for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the response against PCV2 infection. This was supported by an observed increase in the percentage of IFN-γ positive CD8hi cytotoxic T cells as well as IFN-γ positive CD8-/low helper T cells after PCV2 in vitro re-stimulation. Conclusions Infection of weaned SPF piglets with PCV2 alone or combined with PPV does not induce disease and in both cases a relatively slow anti-PCV2 antibody response and weak T lymphocyte responses were found. Knowledge on such immunological characteristics is important for both PCV2

  15. Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia in Swine Associated with Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection

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    Ching-Chang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP is a chronic respiratory disease. Although the pathogenesis of BOOP is still incompletely understood, BOOP is responsive to steroids and has a good prognosis. In our five pigs with chronic postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, typical BOOP lesions were revealed. All five porcine lungs showed typical intraluminal plugs, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 was identified. They also exhibited similar pathologic findings such as proliferation of type II pneumocytes and myofibroblasts (MFBs, extracellular collagen matrix (ECM deposition, and fragmentation of elastic fibers. MFBs migration correlative molecules, for instance, gelatinase A, B and osteopontin, appeared strongly in the progressing marginal area of polypoid intraluminal plugs of fibrotic lesion. These molecules colocalized with the active MFBs. Both gelatinase activity and intercellular level of active MFBs were significantly increased (<.05. Porcine chronic bronchopneumonia leads to BOOP and it is associated with PCV2 persistent infection. Swine BOOP demonstrates similar cellular constituents with human BOOP. Perhaps their molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis operate in a similar way. Thus we infer that the swine BOOP can be considered as a potential animal model for human BOOP associated with natural viral infection. Moreover, it is more convenient to obtain samples.

  16. Effect of dietary selenium yeast supplementation on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infections in mice.

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    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to determine the protective role of dietary selenium (Se yeast supplementation in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infected mice. Forty-eight Kun Ming female mice were randomly assigned to Se yeast group (0.3%Se +basal diet, n = 24 and control group (basal diet, n = 24. After 3 days of adaptive feeding and 15 days treatment with the experimental feed, mice were challenged by intraperitioneal injection of PCV2 at the dosage of 2000 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infection dose, TCID50. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β levels were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20 days post infection (dpi. The PCV2 virus load in the liver, spleen and lung, and the microscopic lesions in the liver, spleen and lung also were determined on 5, 10, 15, and 20 dpi. Dietary Se yeast supplementation decreased (Pμ0.05 the serum levels of TNF-α, but had no significant effect on the activity of SOD and the levels of MDA, CRP and IL-1β between experimental and control groups. Dietary Se yeast supplementation had little effect on the PCV2 virus load in the liver, spleen and lung. However, mice in the selenium yeast group showed a significant decrease in microscopic lesion scores in the lung and spleen compared with those in the control group (Pμ0.05. These data indicate Se yeast attenuated the PCV2 infection through altering the systemic inflammation and maintaining the normal organ morphology.

  17. Prevalence of porcine circovirus 2 infection in pig population in Slovakia.

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    Csank, T; Pistl, J; Polláková, J; Holoda, E; Harvan, M

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) infection in the pig population in Slovakia was investigated. Sera from pigs suspected for post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) as well as clinically healthy pigs were tested for viral DNA and specific IgM and IgG antibodies. Pigs (n = 198) were categorized to weaning, grower and fattening ones and sows. The results showed that PCV-2 antibodies were present in 53.4% of PMWS-suspects, in 50.0% of healthy pigs and in 69.0% of sows. In PMWS-suspect grower pigs, 40.7% were positive for IgM+IgG antibodies and 22.2% for viral DNA. In PMWS-suspect fattening pigs, 50.0% were positive for IgM+IgG antibodies and 25.0% for viral DNA. In healthy fattening pigs, almost 90.0% were positive for IgG antibodies and 38.5% for viral DNA. The highest proportion of PMWS-suspects was in grower pigs and specific antibodies were increasing with the age of pigs. A combination of positivities for IgG+IgM antibodies and viral DNA was a highly significant marker of PMWS. Viral DNA was detected in seropositive as well as seronegative PMWS-suspects. Overall, in all categories of pigs tested, specific antibodies and viral DNA were detected in 54.0% and 35.5%, respectively.

  18. Dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 infection and excretion in pigs from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome affected farms from Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Sibila, M.

    Serological and non-quantitative DNA detection techniques (PCR) have been widely used to monitor porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection dynamics (1,2). In spite of available epidemiological information, very few data on PCV2 load dynamics of Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) a...

  19. [Case report: Porcine circovirus type 2 infection in an European wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the state of Brandenburg, Germany].

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    Schulze, C; Neumann, G; Grütze, I; Engelhardt, A; Mirle, C; Ehlert, F; Hlinak, A

    2003-10-01

    This case represents the first case of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV-2)--infection in a free living European wild boar associated with morphological lesions, which are regarded as characteristic for Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in domestic pigs. The animal, an approximately 10 month old male, was found dead in a rural area within the state of Brandenburg, Germany. The closest commercial pig farm is located in 3 km distance from the spot where the carcass was found. At necropsy, the animal was found to be in a runted condition. Morphological investigation revealed two lesion complexes. Firstly, lymphatic depletion was present in different organs. Mainly the white pulp of the spleen was affected, where lymph follicles and periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths were nearly completely depleted of lymphoid cells. The former lymphatic areas could only be identified by the presence of histiocytic cells. Secondly, there were widely distributed lesions indicative of a bacterial septicemia i.e. purulent-necrotizing lymphadenitis, pulpous hyperplasia of the spleen, miliary lytic liver necroses and foci of fibrinous pneumonia. Within the lesions, bacterial colonies were found (short Gram-negative rods). Bacteriology revealed a septicemic Salmonella choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf--infection. Virologically, the animal was tested with negative results for Classical Swine Fever Virus and PRRSV. The unusual depletion of the lymphatic tissue mainly in the spleen led to the suspicion of a PCV-2 infection. Typical circoviral particles were found by negative-contrast electron microscopy in samples from spleen and lymph nodes. Using a commercial antiserum against Porcine Circovirus, positive staining was found by fluorescence microscopy in tonsils, spleen and lymph nodes. Finally, the virus was identified to be PCV-2 by species-specific PCR. The presented case rises the questions if PCV-2 is endemic in the European wild boar population at least in certain areas, if it is

  20. Molecular characterization of porcine circovirus 2 isolated from diseased pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

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    Liu Chengqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we isolated a porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 strain from piglets co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. The complete genome of this strain was sequenced, phylogenetic and polymorphic analyses were carried out. BLAST searches revealed the highest sequence identity (99.5% nt and 99.3% aa to Guangxi strain EF675230. The phylogenetic tree showed that clustering of the isolates didn't strongly correlate to geographical distribution. Polymorphic analyses demonstrated that the amino acids at most of the polymorphic sites in Open Reading Frame 1(ORF1 and 2 (ORF2belong to the same amino acid group according to chemical or structural properties, and revealed that highly polymorphic regions overlapped with the known immunoreactive epitopes of ORF2.

  1. Preclinical detection of porcine circovirus type 2 infection using an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay.

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    Yong Huang

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has emerged as one of the most important pathogens affecting swine production globally. Preclinical identification of PCV2 is very important for effective prophylaxis of PCV2-associated diseases. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (UNDP-PCR for PCV2 detection. Magnetic microparticles coated with PCV2 specific DNA probes were used to enrich PCV2 DNA from samples, then gold nanoparticles coated with PCV2 specific oligonucleotides were added to form a sandwich nucleic acid-complex. After the complex was formed, the oligonucleotides were released and characterized by PCR. This assay exhibited about 500-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR, with a detection limit of 2 copies of purified PCV2 genomic DNA and 10 viral copies of PCV2 in serum. The assay has a wide detection range for all of PCV2 genotypes with reliable reproducibility. No cross-reactivity was observed from the samples of other related viruses including porcine circovirus type 1, porcine parvovirus, porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and classical swine fever virus. The positive detection rate of PCV2 specific UNDP-PCR in 40 preclinical field samples was 27.5%, which appeared greater than that by conventional and real-time PCR and appeared application potency in evaluation of the viral loads levels of preclinical infection samples. The UNDP-PCR assay reported here can reliably rule out false negative results from antibody-based assays, provide a nucleic acid extraction free, specific, ultrasensitive, economic and rapid diagnosis method for preclinical PCV2 infection in field, which may help prevent large-scale outbreaks.

  2. Recognition of the Different Structural Forms of the Capsid Protein Determines the Outcome following Infection with Porcine Circovirus Type 2

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    Trible, Benjamin R.; Suddith, Andrew W.; Kerrigan, Maureen A.; Cino-Ozuna, Ada G.; Hesse, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein (CP) is the only protein necessary for the formation of the virion capsid, and recombinant CP spontaneously forms virus-like particles (VLPs). Located within a single CP subunit is an immunodominant epitope consisting of residues 169 to 180 [CP(169–180)], which is exposed on the surface of the subunit, but, in the structural context of the VLP, the epitope is buried and inaccessible to antibody. High levels of anti-CP(169–180) activity are associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the immune response to monomer CP in the development of PCVAD. The approach was to immunize pigs with CP monomer, followed by challenge with PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). To maintain the CP immunogen as a stable monomer, CP(43–233) was fused to ubiquitin (Ub-CP). Size exclusion chromatography showed that Ub-CP was present as a single 33-kDa protein. Pigs immunized with Ub-CP developed a strong antibody response to PCV2, including antibodies against CP(169–180). However, only low levels of virus neutralizing activity were detected, and viremia levels were similar to those of nonimmunized pigs. As a positive control, immunization with baculovirus-expressed CP (Bac-CP) resulted in high levels of virus neutralizing activity, small amounts of anti-CP(169–180) activity, and the absence of viremia in pigs following virus challenge. The data support the role of CP(169–180) as an immunological decoy and illustrate the importance of the structural form of the CP immunogen in determining the outcome following infection. PMID:23035215

  3. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

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    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican double...

  4. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

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    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection. PMID:25417715

  5. Characterization of immune responses to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection and vaccination in pigs

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    Fort de Puig, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 6 maig 2010 El Circovirus porcí tipus 2 (PCV2) és l'agent causal de la circovirosi porcina (CP), una malaltia multifactorial que afecta porcs en fases de transició i engreix i que causa importants pèrdues econòmiques a la indústria porcina d'arreu del món. Les característiques histopatològiques de la CP i el fet que els animals malalts pateixin sovint infeccions secundàries i oportunístiques indica que aquesta malaltia implica una greu alteració del sistema immuni...

  6. JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways contribute to porcine circovirus type 2 infection.

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    Wei, Li; Zhu, Zhongwu; Wang, Jing; Liu, Jue

    2009-06-01

    Infection with a wide variety of viruses often perturbs host cell signaling pathways including the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated kinase (JNK/SAPK) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38/MAPK), which are important components of cellular signal transduction pathways. The present study demonstrated for the first time that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is the primary causative agent of an emerging swine disease, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, can activate JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways in PCV2-infected PK15 cells. However, PCV2 at an early stage of infection, as well as UV-irradiated PCV2, failed to activate these two MAPK families, which demonstrated that PCV2 replication was necessary for their activation. We further found that PCV2 activated the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK downstream targets c-Jun and ATF-2 with virus replication in the cultured cells. The roles of these kinases in PCV2 infection were further evaluated using specific inhibitors: the JNK inhibitor 1 for JNK1/2 and SB202190 for p38. Inhibition of JNK1/2 and p38 kinases by these specific inhibitors did result in significant reduction of PCV2 viral mRNA transcription and protein synthesis, viral progeny release, and blockage of PCV2-induced apoptotic caspase-3 activation in the infected cells. Taken together, these data suggest that JNK/SAPK and p38 MAPK pathways play important roles in the PCV2 replication and contribute to virus-mediated changes in host cells.

  7. Interaction of porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Su-Jin; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccinations on disease severity in an experimental PCV2-M. hyopneumoniae dual challenge model. Vaccine effectiveness was evaluated using microbiological (PCV2 viremia and M. hyopneumoniae nasal shedding), immunological (neutralizing antibodies and interferon-γ-secreting cells), and pathological (gross lung lesions, histopathologic pulmonary and lymphoid lesions, and the presence of PCV2 antigen and M. hyopneumoniae DNA within the lesions) evaluations. Although M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of PCV2-associated lesions and lesion-associated PCV2 antigen in dually challenged pigs, vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone did not reduce PCV2 viremia, PCV2-induced lesions, or PCV2 antigen in dually challenged pigs. In addition, vaccination against PCV2 did not reduce the nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, the M. hyopneumoniae-induced pulmonary lesions or the lesion-associated M. hyopneumoniae DNA in dually challenged pigs. Dual challenge with PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae did not interfere with the induction of active immunity induced by a previous single vaccination for either PCV2 or M. hyopneumoniae. The results of this study demonstrated that (i) vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone did not decrease the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by M. hyopneumoniae and (ii) vaccination against PCV2 alone decreased the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by M. hyopneumoniae in dually challenged pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs by prenatal porcine circovirus 2 infection and postnatal porcine parvovirus infection or immunostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y; Lee, Y H; Ahn, K-K; Kim, B; Chae, C

    2008-11-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) was reproduced in prenatally porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2)-infected pigs by either postnatal infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) or by immunostimulation. Twenty-four randomly selected piglets from 3 sows, which had been experimentally infected during gestation with PCV2, were randomly divided into 3 groups; group 1 (prenatal PCV2 infection, with postnatal PPV infection), group 2 (prenatal PCV2 infection, with postnatal keyhole limpet hemocyanin, emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant [KLH/ICFA] injection), and group 3 (prenatal PCV2 infection only). Twenty-four randomly selected piglets from 3 uninfected sows were randomly divided into 3 groups; group 4 (no prenatal infection, with postnatal PCV2 and PPV infection), group 5 (no prenatal infection, with postnatal PCV2 infection), and group 6 (negative control pigs). Body weight in negative control pigs (group 6) was increased significantly compared with pigs in groups 1, 2, and 4 at 49, 52, 56, 59, and 63 days of age. The granulomatous inflammatory reaction and lymphoid depletion that are typical lesions in pigs with PMWS were observed in the lymph node of piglets in groups 1, 2, and 4 at 63 days of age. Pigs in group 3 had significantly fewer PCV2-positive cells than those from groups 1, 2, 4, or 5. When the prenatally PCV2-infected pigs were infected with PPV or injected with immunostimulant in the postnatal period, they developed PMWS. Thus, factors that potentiate the progression of prenatal PCV2 infection to PMWS are postnatal infection with PPV or immune stimulation.

  9. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  10. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    de Castro Alessandra MMG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV, Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%. PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1 or 2b (n = 10. Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7% and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

  11. Canine Circovirus 1 (CaCV-1) and Canine Parvovirus 2 (CPV-2): Recurrent Dual Infections in a Papillon Breeding Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiwong, T; Wise, A G; Maes, R K; Mullaney, T; Kiupel, M

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of sudden death and bloody diarrhea were reported in March 2013 and February 2014 in a breeding colony of Papillon dogs. During the first outbreak, 1 adult dog and 2 eight-month-old puppies died. During the second outbreak, 2 ten-week-old puppies died. One puppy from the first outbreak and 2 puppies from the second outbreak were examined at necropsy. Histologically, all 3 puppies had severe segmental crypt necrosis of the small intestine and marked lymphoid follicle depletion in the spleen and Peyer's patches. Real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated abundant canine parvovirus (CPV-2) DNA (Ctcanine circovirus 1 (CaCV-1). Very high levels of CaCV-1 DNA (Ct<13) were detected in small intestine, lymph nodes, and spleen. In situ hybridization for CaCV-1 detected rare positive nuclei of regenerating crypt epithelium but abundant amounts of CaCV-1 nucleic acid in the cytoplasm and nuclei of histiocytes in all lymphoid tissues, including granulomatous inflammatory foci and hepatic Kupffer cells. Significant levels of CaCV-1 DNA were detected in blood and serum (Ct as low as 13) but not feces from 3 surviving dogs at 2 months or 1 year after the outbreak, respectively. We hypothesize that CPV-2 infection predisposed dogs to CaCV-1 infection and ultimately resulted in more severe clinical disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Occurrence and Tissue Distribution of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Identified by Immunohistochemistry in Danish Finishing Pigs at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    Infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may be subclinical or lead to the development of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD), which includes the entities of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). PCV2 infection and PMWS occur i...

  13. Reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in immunostimulated and non-immunostimulated 3-week-old piglets experimentally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekjær-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Nielsen, Jens; Stadejek, T.

    2002-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in swine is causally associated with the newly recognised pathogen, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). In this study, 3-week-old SPF PCV2-seronegative piglets were inoculated intranasally with PCV2. The effect of immunostimulation on the induction...

  14. Campylobacter colonization is not associated with proventricular dilatation disease in psittacines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbow H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Holden Bulbow, Jing Wu, Debra Turner, Michael McEntire, Ian Tizard Schubot Exotic Bird Health Center, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Psittacine proventricular dilatation disease (PDD is a neurological disease caused by parrot bornaviruses. A competing theory suggests that intestinal colonization by Campylobacter species may also be a potential cause of PDD or that their presence may be required for disease development. This theory proposes that PDD results from the activities of antiganglioside antibodies on enteric neurons in a manner similar to the pathogenesis of Guillain–Barré syndrome in humans. We therefore cultured feces from domestic chickens as well as from multiple parrot species to determine whether Campylobacter spp. could be detected in the latter. We failed to detect Campylobacter in a flock of cockatiels known to be highly susceptible to experimental parrot bornavirus-induced PDD. Even in naturally infected psittacines suffering from clinical PDD, no Campylobacter species were detected. Conversely, Campylobacter was readily cultured from domestic poultry samples and confirmed by using matrix-associated laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy/real-time polymerase chain reaction. We conclude that not only are Campylobacter infections of psittacines uncommon, but also that infection by Campylobacter species is not related to the etiology of PDD. Keywords: bornavirus, campylobacter, proventricular dilatation disease, parrots, chickens

  15. Colostral transmission of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2): reproduction of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs fed milk from PCV-2-infected sows with post-natal porcine parvovirus infection or immunostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yooncheol; Shin, Jeoung Hwa; Chae, Chanhee

    2010-06-01

    Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) was reproduced in pigs fed colostrum and milk from porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2)-infected sows and infected post-natally with porcine parvovirus (PPV) or immunostimulated. Pregnant sows were inoculated intranasally with either PCV-2 (n=5) or PCV-2-free PK-15 cell lysates (control, n=10) 3 weeks before the expected farrowing date. Newborn piglets from five of the control sows were introduced to PCV-2-infected sows (n=6 for each sow) and allowed to feed on the colostrum for 12 h and then given 15 ml milk five times a day for 7 days. Newborn piglets from the other five control sows were fed colostrum and milk from their own sows. After 7 days, two piglets from each group were randomly selected to confirm PCV-2 infection. Twenty-one pigs fed by PCV-2-infected sows were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to post-natal PPV infection (group 1), immunostimulation (group 2) or no post-natal treatment (group 3). Twenty-one pigs fed by uninfected sows were also randomly divided and subjected to post-natal PCV-2 and PPV infection (group 4), post-natal PCV-2 infection (group 5) or no treatment (group 6, negative control). Body weight was significantly greater in group 6 than in groups 1, 2 and 4 at 49, 52, 56, 59 and 63 days of age. The typical granulomatous inflammatory reaction and lymphoid depletion of PMWS was observed in the lymph nodes of groups 1, 2 and 4 at 63 days of age. Group 3 had significantly fewer PCV-2-positive cells than groups 1, 2 and 4. In conclusion, PCV-2 shed from colostrum and milk is infectious and reproduces PMWS with post-natal PPV infection or immune stimulation.

  16. Psittacine wellness management and environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupley, Agnes E; Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this article is to present practical ways to provide a healthier lifestyle to the commonly kept companion psittacine pets. Necessary information for bird owners to provide for the physical and mental health of their bird is presented. This information is exquisitely important for people keeping birds as pets to know and apply. It is the exotic veterinarian's responsibility to educate clients on how to provide properly for the pet's mental and physical well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproductive management of captive psittacine collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Darrel K

    2002-09-01

    This discussion is intended to stimulate the reader to further investigate avicultural husbandry techniques, flock management procedures, and avian behavior. It is not intended to address in detail all the steps necessary to produce successful reproduction in the aviary, but to encourage more involvement in the study of aviculture and the captive psittacine behaviors. Veterinarians are encouraged to ally themselves with professional or skilled aviculturists and participate in the noble endeavor of aviculture. Only then will the clinician understand the miracle of reproduction beyond that defined by a textbook.

  18. Molecular Diagnosis of Beak and Feather Disease in Native Brazilian Psittacines

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    AV Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The incidence of the psittacine beak and feather disease virus (BFDV was investigated in Brazilian native parrots with normal feathering arriving at rescue and triage centers for wild animals (CETAS, IBAMA in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. BFDV DNA was investigated by previously described PCR technique for the partial amplification of BFDV ORF-1 in DNA extracts from blood, cloacal swab or liver of psittacines. Some birds provided more than one sample. Nine species of psittacines were sampled between January 2009 and October 2010. Blood (n=46 or cloacal swab (n=128 samples were obtained from psittacines immediately upon arrival at the triage centers. Liver samples were collected from necropsied birds dead on arrival (n=167. All swab samples were negative, except for one Ara ararauna individual (n=3 which blood presented the BFDV DNA. On the other hand, 11 liver samples were positive for BFDV DNA, with a prevalence of 7.8% in Amazona aestiva (n=140. No BFDV DNA was detected in the liver of Amazona amazonica (n=11, A. vinacea (n=5, A. rhodochorytha (n=4, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (n=3, Ara ararauna, (n=3, Aratinga leucophtalma (n=2, Guarouba guarouba (n=1 and Pionus maximiliani (n=1. In most cases, alopecia was not associated with BFDV detection in liver, and liver histopathology was inconclusive. Although all cloacal swab samples were negative, a few psittacines (n=19 that died at CETAS-Belo Horizonte were retested, and 21% were detected as positive in liver. A group of psittacines (n=16 was clinically evaluated, and despite showing feather dystrophy, all birds were negative in the cloacal swabs, except for one, which blood sample was positive (A. ararauna. The obtained sequences of the BFDV strains BH 215 and BH 732 were deposited in the GenBank (JQ649409 and JQ649410. A 98% similarity with strain sequences described in Australia, Japan, and New Zealand was observed. It is possible that these strains arrived in Brazil through the

  19. Cryptococcosis outbreak in psittacine birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, T F; Werther, K; Miranda, E T; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of cryptococcosis occurred in a breeding aviary in São Paulo, Brazil. Seven psittacine birds (of species Charmosyna papou, Lorius lory, Trichoglossus goldiei, Psittacula krameri and Psittacus erithacus) died of disseminated cryptococcosis. Incoordination, progressive paralysis and difficulty in flying were seen in five birds, whereas superficial lesions coincident with respiratory alterations were seen in two birds. Encapsulated yeasts suggestive of Cryptococcus sp. were seen in faecal smears stained with India ink in two cases. Histological examination of the birds showed cryptococcal cells in various tissues, including the beak, choana, sinus, lungs, air sacs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines and central nervous system. High titres of cryptococcal antigen were observed in the serum of an affected bird. In this case, titres increased during treatment and the bird eventually died. Yeasts were isolated from the nasal mass, faeces and liver of one bird. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serovar B was identified based on biochemical, physiological and serological tests. These strains were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration 64 microg/ml) to fluconazole. This is the first report of C. neoformans var. gattii occurring in psittacine birds in Brazil.

  20. Avian malaria in captive psittacine birds: detection by microscopy and 18S rRNA gene amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, N O; Passos, L F; Júnior, L M C; Goulart, C E; Sherlock, T M; Braga, E M

    2009-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the occurrence of malaria infection among captive psittacine birds (n=127) from three zoological gardens in Brazil. Malaria infection was evaluated by the association of direct examination of blood smears with amplification of the 18SSU rRNA gene of the Plasmodium genus, demonstrating an overall occurrence of 36%. Most infected bird species were Amazona aestiva (28/73), Ara ararauna (6/10), and Amazona amazonica (3/10). The low parasitemias observed among the infected birds suggest a chronic infection. The sequence analyses of 10 isolates indicate a potential occurrence of four distinct Plasmodium lineages. These findings provide new data on malarial infection in captive psittacine birds, and emphasize the need for better control of importation and exportation of these birds.

  1. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in dead captive psittacines in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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    AM Gomes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg infection of wild native Brazilian psittacines (Psittaciformes which died of any cause during sorting, rehabilitation, or conservation, was investigated by PCR. Two previously described PCR methodologies using Mg specific primers were employed for the analyses of 140 swab samples (cloaca, trachea, or palatine cleft. Average positive Mg detection in cloacal swabs was 51.9%, with 80.0% (n=5 of Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, 60.0% (n=3 Dusky Parrots (Pionus fuscus, 52.5% (n=59 Amazon Parrots (Amazona aestiva, 50.0% (n=2 Orange-winged Parrots (Amazona amazonica, 50.0% (n=2 Jandaya Parakeetsor Jandaya Conures (Aratinga jandaya, 0% (n=2 Golden Conures or Golden Parakeets (Guarouba guarouba, and 0% (n=2 Hyacinth Macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus. Palatine cleft swab sampling was more sensitive to detect Mg, with 85.4% (n=17 detection rate, as compared to 67.4% (n=46 obtained with tracheal samples, and 53.5% (n=77 with cloacal swabs. The surprisingly high Mg incidence in psittacines kept in conservation or triage environments is possibly due to the proximity or cohabitation with several bird species during confinement and housing psittacines of different origins together. The implementation of biosecurity measures and species-specific facilities is recommended.

  2. T-cell reprogramming through targeted CD4-coreceptor and T-cell receptor expression on maturing thymocytes by latent Circoviridae family member porcine circovirus type 2 cell infections in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausmann, Stefanie; Sydler, Titus; Summerfield, Artur; Lewis, Fraser I; Weilenmann, Roseline; Sidler, Xaver; Brugnera, Enrico

    2015-03-01

    Although porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases have been evaluated for known immune evasion strategies, the pathogenicity of these viruses remained concealed for decades. Surprisingly, the same viruses that cause panzootics in livestock are widespread in young, unaffected animals. Recently, evidence has emerged that circovirus-like viruses are also linked to complex diseases in humans, including children. We detected PCV2 genome-carrying cells in fetal pig thymi. To elucidate virus pathogenicity, we developed a new pig infection model by in vivo transfection of recombinant PCV2 and the immunosuppressant cofactor cyclosporine A. Using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we found evidence that PCV2 dictates positive and negative selection of maturing T cells in the thymus. We show for the first time that PCV2-infected cells reside at the corticomedullary junction of the thymus. In diseased animals, we found polyclonal deletion of single positive cells (SPs) that may result from a loss of major histocompatibility complex class-II expression at the corticomedullary junction. The percentage of PCV2 antigen-presenting cells correlated with the degree of viremia and, in turn, the severity of the defect in thymocyte maturation. Moreover, the reversed T-cell receptor/CD4-coreceptor expression dichotomy on thymocytes at the CD4(+)CD8(interm) and CD4SP cell stage is viremia-dependent, resulting in a specific hypo-responsiveness of T-helper cells. We compare our results with the only other better-studied member of Circoviridae, chicken anemia virus. Our data show that PCV2 infection leads to thymocyte selection dysregulation, adding a valuable dimension to our understanding of virus pathogenicity.

  3. Effect of vaccination against sub-clinical Porcine Circovirus type 2 infection in a high-health finishing pig herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John

    2017-01-01

    the effect of vaccination against PCV2 in a sub-clinically infected, high-health finishing herd in terms of viral load in serum, feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial treatments. The study was conducted as a randomised clinical field trial with a parallel group design. Vaccination against PCV2...... significantly (p vaccinated group, as well as the viral load for positive pools from 5.79 to 3.99 log(10) copies per ml serum. Despite this, feed conversion ratio for the two groups were not significantly...... different with an average of 2.75 and 2.76 feeding units/kg gain for vaccinated and control pigs, respectively (p = 0.598). The proportion of pigs treated by injection with an antimicrobial was lower in the vaccinated group (4.4%) compared to the non-vaccinated group (5.6%), but the difference...

  4. Infection, excretion and seroconversion dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pigs from post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected farms in Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Sibila, M.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal case-control studies were performed in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected farms from Denmark and Spain using similar designs. Fourteen independent batches of 100-154 pigs per batch were monitored from birth to PMWS outbreak occurrence. Pigs displaying PMWS......-like signs and matched healthy cohorts were euthanized during the clinical outbreak. PMWS was diagnosed according to internationally accepted criteria and pigs were classified as: (i) PMWS cases, (ii) wasted non-PMWS cases and (iii) healthy pigs. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) quantitative PCR (q...

  5. Quill mites in Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Cassius Catão Gomes; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Rezende, Leandro do Carmo; Teixeira, Cristina Mara; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    The primary and secondary feathers of 170 Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes) were examined in order to identify feather quill mite fauna. Birds were held captive in two locations in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), and two in the state of Espirito Santo (ES). The quills were cut longitudinally and were examined under optical microscopy. The genus of quill mites most frequently found was Paralgopsis (Astigmata: Pyrogliphidae), followed by Cystoidosoma (Astigmata: Syringobiidae). Astigmata: Syringophilidae mites were sporadically observed. After analyzing the data using logistic regression models, it was determined that there was higher infestation risk for psittacines in ES state, as compared with those in MG, and a significant increase in risk depending on the psittacine host species. However, the location of captivity did not have a significant effect. Lesions were observed in infested feathers. Cystoidosoma sp. and Paralgopsis sp. were always observed together, with parts of Paralgopsis found inside Cystoidosoma sp., suggesting thanatochresis or predation.

  6. Circovirus inclusion bodies in intestinal muscle cells of a canary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampin, T; Manarolla, G; Pisoni, G; Recordati, C; Sironi, G

    2006-08-01

    Multiple cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in the intestinal smooth muscle cells of an adult canary from an aviary with a history of high mortality (50%) both in adult and young birds. Grossly, a mild enteritis was the only lesion appreciable. Smears of the proventricular contents contained a few megabacteria (Macrorhabdus ornithogaster). The intestinal inclusions were found in very high numbers in all parts of the tract examined. They appeared round to oval, amphophilic and hyaline in sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and magenta with Feulgen stain. Inclusions of the same type were occasionally detectable in the wall of a few splenic and pancreatic arteries. No inclusions or lesions were seen in the other organs examined. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestinal wall revealed circovirus-like particles either in paracrystalline arrays or loose arrangements, mostly within the cytoplasm of the intestinal muscule cells. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequence analysis confirmed infection with canary circovirus.

  7. Experimental reproduction of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated enteritis in pigs infected with PCV2 alone or concurrently with Lawsonia intracellularis or Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T; Madson, D M; Roof, M; Layton, S M; Ramamoorthy, S; Meng, X J; Halbur, P G

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus (PCV)-associated disease (PCVAD) has emerged to become one of the most economically important pig diseases globally. One of the less commonly recognized clinical manifestations of PCVAD is PCV2 type 2 (PCV2)-associated enteritis in growing pigs; however, experimental confirmation of the ability of PCV2 alone or PCV2 coinfection with other agent(s) to induce enteritis is lacking. In this study, 120 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pigs were divided randomly into six groups: controls (negative control pigs), PCV2 (inoculated with PCV2), LAW (inoculated with Lawsonia intracellularis), SALM (inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium), PCV2-LAW (concurrently inoculated with PCV2 and Lawsonia intracellularis) and PCV2-SALM (concurrently inoculated with PCV2 and Salmonella typhimurium). One half of the pigs in each group were subject to necropsy examination 14 days postinoculation (dpi) and the remaining pigs were examined at 28 dpi. The average daily weight gain was not different (P>0.05) between groups. Individual pigs inoculated orally with PCV2 regardless of coinfection status (2/10 PCV2, 1/10 PCV2-LAW, 3/10 PCV2-SALM) developed PCVAD with diarrhoea and reduced weight gain or weight loss between 14 and 28 dpi. Those pigs had characteristic microscopic lesions in lymphoid and enteric tissues associated with abundant PCV2 antigen. Enteric lesions were characterized by necrosuppurative and proliferative enteritis with crypt elongation and epithelial hyperplasia in LAW and PCV2-LAW pigs by 14 dpi, ulcerative and necrosuppurative colitis in SALM and PCV2-SALM pigs by 14 dpi, and lymphohistiocytic enteritis with depletion of Peyer's patches in PCV2, PCV2-SALM and PCV2-LAW pigs by 28 dpi. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report documenting that under experimental conditions, PCV2 can induce enteritis independently from other enteric pathogens and that oral challenge is a potentially important route and perhaps the natural route of PCV2 transmission in

  8. A novel psittacine adenovirus identified during an outbreak of avian chlamydiosis and human psittacosis: zoonosis associated with virus-bacterium coinfection in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin K W To

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila psittaci is found worldwide, but is particularly common among psittacine birds in tropical and subtropical regions. While investigating a human psittacosis outbreak that was associated with avian chlamydiosis in Hong Kong, we identified a novel adenovirus in epidemiologically linked Mealy Parrots, which was not present in healthy birds unrelated to the outbreak or in other animals. The novel adenovirus (tentatively named Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 was most closely related to Duck adenovirus A in the Atadenovirus genus. Sequencing showed that the Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 genome consists of 31,735 nucleotides. Comparative genome analysis showed that the Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 genome contains 23 open reading frames (ORFs with sequence similarity to known adenoviral genes, and six additional ORFs at the 3' end of the genome. Similar to Duck adenovirus A, the novel adenovirus lacks LH1, LH2 and LH3, which distinguishes it from other viruses in the Atadenovirus genus. Notably, fiber-2 protein, which is present in Aviadenovirus but not Atadenovirus, is also present in Psittacine adenovirus HKU1. Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 had pairwise amino acid sequence identities of 50.3-54.0% for the DNA polymerase, 64.6-70.7% for the penton protein, and 66.1-74.0% for the hexon protein with other Atadenovirus. The C. psittaci bacterial load was positively correlated with adenovirus viral load in the lung. Immunostaining for fiber protein expression was positive in lung and liver tissue cells of affected parrots, confirming active viral replication. No other viruses were found. This is the first documentation of an adenovirus-C. psittaci co-infection in an avian species that was associated with a human outbreak of psittacosis. Viral-bacterial co-infection often increases disease severity in both humans and animals. The role of viral-bacterial co-infection in animal-to-human transmission of infectious agents has not received sufficient attention

  9. Infecção por C. psittaci: uma revisão com ênfase em psitacídeos C. psittaci infection: a review with emphasis in psittacines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Maftoum Proença

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A clamidiose ou ornitose é uma doença infecciosa, causada pela bactéria Chlamydophila psittaci, que acomete aves e mamíferos. Trata-se de uma das principais zoonoses de origem aviária. A transmissão ocorre principalmente por inalação de secreções contaminadas. Os sinais clínicos mais comuns incluem alterações no sistema gastrointestinal, respiratório e ocular, porém é possível encontrar aves infectadas sem sinais aparentes, dificultando a identificação da doença. O diagnóstico definitivo em aves vivas pode ser difícil, devido às características da infecção pela bactéria. Há duas principais abordagens para o diagnóstico, a primeira envolve a detecção direta da bactéria e a segunda implica a detecção de anticorpos anti-Chlamydophila sp. O tratamento é longo e envolve o uso de tetraciclinas, quinolonas ou macrolídeos, durante 21-45 dias, dependendo da espécie e do fármaco de escolha. Atualmente, o Brasil não dispõe de medidas padronizadas que visam a guiar o clínico na identificação, manejo e tratamento para a doença. Tais medidas tornam-se necessárias, bem como a pesquisa de novos métodos diagnósticos e auxiliares para a doença.Chlamydiosis or ornitosis is an infectious disease which affects birds and mammals caused by the bacteria Chlamydophila psittaci. It is one of the most important avian zoonosis. The transmission occurs through inhalation of infected secretions. The most common clinical signs include problems in the gastrointestinal, respiratory and ocular tracts. However, it is possible to find infected birds with no clinical signs, which hinders the diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis in live birds can be difficult, because of the bacteria's infection characteristic. There are two main approaches to the diagnosis, the first one involves the direct detection of the bacteria, the second one involves the detection of antibodies anti-Chlamydophila sp. The treatment is long and includes the use of

  10. First detection of circovirus-like sequences in amphibians and novel putative circoviruses in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Zoltán László; Pénzes, Judit J; Tóth, Róza P; Benkő, Mária

    2014-03-01

    The negative samples of a collection, established originally for seeking new adeno- and herpesviruses in lower vertebrates, were screened for the pres-ence of circoviruses by a consensus nested PCR targeting the gene coding for the replication-associated protein. Six fish samples representing five species, namely asp (Aspius aspius), roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis), as well as three frog samples were found positive for circoviral DNA. Sequence analysis of the amplicons indicated the presence of three novel putative circo-like viruses and a circovirus in Hungarian fishes and one novel circovirus in a common toad (Bufo bufo), and another one in a dead and an alive specimen of green tree frog (Litoria caerulea), respectively. In phylogeny reconstruction, the putative bream circovirus clustered together with circoviruses discovered in other cyprinid fishes recently. Three other piscine circoviral sequences appeared closest to sequences derived from different environmental samples. Surprisingly, the nucleotide sequence derived from two fish samples (a bream and a monkey goby) proved to be from porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), almost identical to a sequence detected in Sweden previously. This is the first report on the detection of PCV2 in fish and circoviral DNA in amphibian hosts.

  11. Comparison of two quantitative PCR techniques for porcine circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) nucleic acid in field samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Sibila, M.

    Porcine circovirus type 2 /PCV2) is considered the essential infectious agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a global swine disease of devastating economic and animal welfare impact. Most pigs become infected with PCV2 during their life, but only a proportion of them develop......2 used routinely in two laboratoires located in Denmark (lab 1) and Spain (lab 2), respectively....

  12. Cytokine and C-reactive protein profiles induced by porcine circovirus type 2 experimental infection in 3-week-old piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, L.S.; McCullough, K.; Vincent, I.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum profiles of cytokines at a protein level and C-reactive protein (CRP) during the development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in experimentally inoculated pigs. Levels of serum IFN-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and CRP were examined...... not display overt clinical signs of PMWS and were considered as subclinically infected. A bioassay was used to detect IL-6 and ELISAs were used to detect IFN-a, IL-10, and CRIP. There were no significant differences in cytokine or CRP expression from 0 to 7 d.p.i. between the PMWS...

  13. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  14. The emergence of a new strain of porcine circovirus-2 in Ontario and Quebec swine and its association with severe porcine circovirus associated disease--2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Susy; Cai, Hugh Y; DeLay, Josepha; Youssef, Sameh A; McEwen, Beverly J; Gagnon, Carl A; Tremblay, Donald; Hazlett, Murray; Lusis, Peter; Fairles, Jim; Alexander, Hazel S; van Dreumel, Tony

    2008-04-01

    In the late fall of 2004 more severe lesions of porcine circovirus-2 associated disease (PCVAD) than usual occurred during an outbreak of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) infection in Ontario nursery and grower/finisher pigs. The lesions were of unprecedented severity and included diffuse bronchointerstitial pneumonia, granulomatous enteritis, vasculitis, interstitial nephritis, and new lesions of splenic infarction. Some affected herds had up to 50% mortality. The outbreak correlated with the sudden emergence of a variant PCV-2, with PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) type 321. Phylogenetic comparison of ORF2 sequences and full genome sequences showed the new variant to be different from the previously dominant RFLP type 422 viruses, and similar to viruses that had occurred in France and other European and Asian countries. A subsequent retrospective study showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of histological lesions in lymph node, spleen, lung, small intestine, colon and kidney, for pigs spontaneously infected with RFLP type 321, compared with the older RFLP type 422 strain. Viral burden, based on IHC staining in lymph node, also showed a statistically significant increase in pigs infected with the newer variant RFLP type 321, compared with the older RFLP type 422 strain. This enhanced virulence in pigs infected with PCV-2 RFLP type 321 strain may be related to the genetic differences in this new strain of PCV-2. This virus is now the dominant strain of PCV-2 virus found in Ontario and Quebec swine.

  15. The emergence of a new strain of porcine circovirus-2 in Ontario and Quebec swine and its association with severe porcine circovirus associated disease — 2004–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Susy; Cai, Hugh Y.; DeLay, Josepha; A.Youssef, Sameh; McEwen, Beverly J.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Tremblay, Donald; Hazlett, Murray; Lusis, Peter; Fairles, Jim; Alexander, Hazel S.; van Dreumel, Tony

    2008-01-01

    In the late fall of 2004 more severe lesions of porcine circovirus-2 associated disease (PCVAD) than usual occurred during an outbreak of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) infection in Ontario nursery and grower/finisher pigs. The lesions were of unprecedented severity and included diffuse bronchointerstitial pneumonia, granulomatous enteritis, vasculitis, interstitial nephritis, and new lesions of splenic infarction. Some affected herds had up to 50% mortality. The outbreak correlated with the sudden emergence of a variant PCV-2, with PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) type 321. Phylogenetic comparison of ORF2 sequences and full genome sequences showed the new variant to be different from the previously dominant RFLP type 422 viruses, and similar to viruses that had occurred in France and other European and Asian countries. A subsequent retrospective study showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of histological lesions in lymph node, spleen, lung, small intestine, colon and kidney, for pigs spontaneously infected with RFLP type 321, compared with the older RFLP type 422 strain. Viral burden, based on IHC staining in lymph node, also showed a statistically significant increase in pigs infected with the newer variant RFLP type 321, compared with the older RFLP type 422 strain. This enhanced virulence in pigs infected with PCV-2 RFLP type 321 strain may be related to the genetic differences in this new strain of PCV-2. This virus is now the dominant strain of PCV-2 virus found in Ontario and Quebec swine. PMID:18505190

  16. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both poor and good correlation of total protein concentrations in various avian species using refractometry and biuret methodologies. The purpose of the current study was to compare these 2 techniques of total protein determination using plasma samples from several psittacine species and to determine the effect of cholesterol and other solutes on refractometry results. Total protein concentration in heparinized plasma samples without visible lipemia was analyzed by refractometry and an automated biuret method on a dry reagent analyzer (Ortho 250). Cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid concentrations were measured using the same analyzer. Results were compared using Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman bias plots, and Spearman's rank correlation. Correlation coefficients (r) for total protein results by refractometry and biuret methods were 0.49 in African grey parrots (n=28), 0.77 in Amazon parrots (20), 0.57 in cockatiels (20), 0.73 in cockatoos (36), 0.86 in conures (20), and 0.93 in macaws (38) (PMethod and species-specific reference intervals should be used in the interpretation of total protein values.

  17. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae.

  18. Genetic Characterization of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 from Pigs with Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A–1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A–2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms from 2003 to 2008, from animals with confirmatory diagnosis of PCVAD. Since results showed an identity of 99.8% among them, they were grouped within a common cluster 1A-B. This preliminary study suggests a stable circulation of PCV-2b among the Argentinean pig population. PMID:23738099

  19. Genetic characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 from pigs with porcine circovirus associated diseases in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A-1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A-2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms from 2003 to 2008, from animals with confirmatory diagnosis of PCVAD. Since results showed an identity of 99.8% among them, they were grouped within a common cluster 1A-B. This preliminary study suggests a stable circulation of PCV-2b among the Argentinean pig population.

  20. Experimental inoculation of porcine circoviruses type 1 (PCV1) and type 2 (PCV2) in rabbits and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Josefina; Balasch, Monica; Segalés, Joaquim; Calsamiglia, Maria; Rodríguez-Arrioja, Gabriela M; Plana-Durán, Juan; Domingo, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the susceptibility of rabbits and mice experimentally inoculated with porcine circoviruses type 1 (PCV1) and type 2 (PCV2) to infection and development of disease and/or lesions. Forty six New Zealand rabbits and 50 ICR-CDI mice were both divided into two groups comprising PCVI and PCV2 inoculated animals, and a third group inoculated with non-infected cell culture medium. Rabbits were inoculated intranasally while mice were inoculated intraperitoneally. Clinical signs and body weights were recorded at the start of the experiment and at necropsy. Animals were bled, euthanised and necropsied at days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14 and 20 post-inoculation and samples were collected for histopathological, serological, in situ hybridisation and PCR analysis. No clinical signs or gross and microscopic lesions compatible with PCV2 infections such as those seen in pigs were observed. No presence of PCV2 nucleic acid was detected in rabbits and mice by in situ hybridisation. Only one mouse inoculated with PCV1 seroconverted on day 20 P1. PCV1 and PCV2 genome was detected in serum by PCR in mice inoculated with each porcine circovirus, while rabbits were negative for both viral types. These studies indicated that porcine circoviruses did not cause any disease or microscopic lesions in inoculated rabbits and mice during the experimental period. However, intraperitoneally inoculated mice might have harboured PCV2 in circulation without evidence of viral replication.

  1. Prevalence of Taxa of Pasteurellaceae Among Populations of Healthy Captive Psittacine Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, M.; Xin, Di; Bertelsen, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Sixty-two strains of Pasteurellaceae-like bacteria were isolated from the tracheas of 87 clinically healthy psittacine birds in two Danish zoos. The isolates were identified by a combination of rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization time of flight. Tw...

  2. Ubiquiter circovirus sequences raise challenges in laboratory diagnosis: the case of honey bee and bee mite, reptiles, and free living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Ihász, Katalin; Lengyel, György; Farkas, Szilvia L; Dán, Ádám; Paulus, Petra; Bányai, Krisztián; Fehér, Enikő

    2015-03-01

    Circoviruses of pigs and birds are established pathogens, however, the exact role of other, recently described circoviruses and circovirus-like viruses remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was the detection of circoviruses in neglected host species, including honey bees, exotic reptiles and free-living amoebae by widely used broad-spectrum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays specific for the replication initiation protein coding gene of these viruses. The majority of sequences obtained from honey bees were highly similar to canine and porcine circoviruses, or, were distantly related to dragonfly cycloviruses. Other rep sequences detected in some honey bees, reptiles and amoebae showed similarities to various rep sequences deposited in the GenBank. Back-to-back PCR primers designed for the amplification of whole viral genomes failed to work that suggested the existence of integrated rep-like elements in many samples. Rolling circle amplification and exonuclease treatment confirmed the absence of small circular DNA genomes in the specimens analysed. In case of honey bees Varroa mite DNA contamination might be a source of the identified endogenous rep-like elements. The reptile and amoebae rep-like sequences were nearly identical with each other and with sequences detected in chimpanzee feces raising the possibility that detection of novel or unusual rep-like elements in some host species might originate from the microbial community of the host. Our results indicate that attention is needed when broad-spectrum rep gene specific polymerase chain reaction is chosen for laboratory diagnosis of circovirus infections.

  3. [Prevalence of Dog circovirus in healthy and diarrhoeic dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Michaela; Gruber, Achim D; Müller, Elisabeth

    2017-04-19

    In 2012, a Dog circovirus (DogCV) was discovered in the USA, which was followed by further descriptions of the virus in the USA, Italy and Germany. The present study is the first to examine the prevalence of DogCV in faeces of dogs from Germany and other European countries. Faecal samples from 184 dogs with diarrhoea and from 82 clinically healthy dogs (control group) were analysed for the presence of DogCV by PCR. Furthermore, the detection of parvovirus, coronavirus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium was performed in all samples. In the group of dogs with diarrhoea the prevalence of DogCV was 20.1% (37/184), in the healthy control group it was 7.3% (6/82). Therefore, the virus could be detected significantly more frequently in dogs with diarrhoea. The detection frequency of DogCV is comparable with those of the other tested pathogens. In approximately 50% of the DogCV-positive dogs, infections with other enteropathogenic organisms were diagnosed. The role of co-infection in the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, but there appears to be an association between co-infection and disease severity. Evidence of DogCV in clinically healthy dogs appears important for the epidemiology and raises questions about its pathogenicity. Further studies are needed to clarify questions regarding the pathogenesis, causal relevance and possible interference by other diarrhoeal pathogens. Nevertheless, the results of this study are an important indication that DogCV should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhoea.

  4. Evidence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus spillover into wild critically endangered Orange-bellied Parrots (Neophema chrysogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andrew; Patterson, Edward I; Baker, Barry G B; Holdsworth, Mark; Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed A; Raidal, Shane R

    2014-04-01

    We report the recent emergence of a novel beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) genotype in the last remaining wild population of the critically endangered Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster). This virus poses a significant threat to the recovery of the species and potentially its survival in the wild. We used PCR to detect BFDV in the blood of three psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD)-affected wild Orange-bellied Parrot fledglings captured as founders for an existing captive breeding recovery program. Complete BFDV genome sequence data from one of these birds demonstrating a 1,993-nucleotide-long read encompass the entire circular genome. Maximum-likelihood (ML) and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis supported the solitary position of this viral isolate in a genetically isolated branch of BFDV. On Rep gene sequencing, a homologous genotype was present in a second wild orange-bellied parrot and the third bird was infected with a distantly related genotype. These viruses have newly appeared in a population that has been intensively monitored for BFDV for the last 13 yr. The detection of two distinct lineages of BFDV in the remnant wild population of Orange-bellied Parrots, consisting of fewer than 50 birds, suggests a role for other parrot species as a reservoir for infection by spillover into this critically endangered species. The potential for such a scenario to contribute to the extinction of a remnant wild animal population is supported by epidemiologic theory.

  5. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications.

  6. Contamination by Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in sunflower seeds used in psittacine bird food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Machado Conceição

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Widely distributed in food for psittacine birds due its low price, high palatability, and cultural reasons, the Helianthus annuus, called sunflower, is proving important in clinical influenza as a result of excess calories and high incidence of contamination by some fungi, particularly Aspergillus, specifically A. flavus and A. fumigatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination by Aspergillus spp sunflower seeds for feeding psittacine birds, sold in Aracaju, Sergipe state. The tests were performed in the Laboratory of Microbiology of the Dr. Vicente Borreli Veterinary Hospital in Pio Décimo College. We evaluated four samples of sunflower seeds, soldin a municipal market and in three different supermarkets in bulk and under three bottled trademarks, processed according to Forsythe (2002. Our survey revealed a high development of A. flavus and A. fumigatus sunflower seeds. This contamination may be related to several factors such as inadequate harvest stages of drying, processing and storage of grain. Furthermore, it is important to highlight the need of a better grain storage, with controlled temperature and humidity, to reduce the possibility of contamination by Aspergillus spp. that causes injury in the feeding of psittacine birds and other animal species.

  7. Analysis of exhaled breath condensate in a mixed population of psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldenauer, Ulrike; Simova-Curd, Stefka; Nitzl, Dagmar; Bogdanova, Anna; Zollinger, Eveline; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2010-09-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and the measurement of inflammatory markers contained therein (eg, hydrogen peroxide [H2O2], leukotriene B4 [LTB4], and pH) have been reported to be noninvasive tools for the investigation of respiratory disease in various species. In this study, the EBC of clinically healthy psittacine birds (n = 15) and psittacine birds with respiratory tract disease (n = 19) was examined, and inflammatory markers contained in the EBC were analyzed and compared. Awake birds were placed in an acrylic container from which the outflow passed through a condensation system that collected the EBC. All samples were analyzed for pH, H2O2, and LTB4. The mean values for each of these components, as well as the mean volume of the total EBC, measured from the apparently healthy birds did not differ significantly from those measured in birds with signs of respiratory tract disease. However, LTB4 in the EBC of diseased birds was higher than that of the apparently healthy birds and showed a trend toward significance. The study demonstrated the establishment of a standardized method for collecting and analyzing EBC in psittacine birds and a measurement protocol for pH, H2O2, and LTB4.

  8. Genetic Characterization of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) in Pigs of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, V R; Loeffen, W L A; Kus, K; Stegeman, J A; Dukpa, K; Szymanek, K; Podgórska, K

    2017-04-01

    Porcine circovirus (PCV) is a small non-enveloped virus with a single-stranded circular DNA with two antigenically and genetically different species, PCV1 and PCV2. Among these two, PCV2 is responsible for multifactorial disease syndromes, the most important disease known as PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD), previously known as post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). The epidemiological situation is dynamically changing and new strains including recombinant PCV2 have emerged in Asia. In Bhutan, pigs are important livestock and play a very important role in providing meat and income for rural farmers. Although high rate of pigs seropositive against PCV2 was described in Bhutan, there was no virological evidence for PCV2 infections. This study was conducted to confirm the presence of PCV2 through detection of PCV2 DNA and molecular characterization of PCV2 strains in tissue and blood samples collected from Bhutanese pigs. Porcine circovirus type 2 genome was detected in 16 of 34 tissue samples pigs from the government farm. In 9 pigs, very high level of viral replication indicated that PCV2-SD was detected. Phylogenetic analysis performed with a set of GenBank sequences revealed that the Bhutanese PCV2 strains belonged to the PCV2b genotype and grouped with cluster 1C. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of pigeon circovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shinn Shyong; Chang, Yeng Ling; Huang, Yen Li; Liu, Hung Jen; Ke, Guan Ming; Chiou, Chwei Jang; Hsieh, Yao Ching; Chang, Tsung Chou; Cheng, Li Ting; Chuang, Kuo Pin

    2014-05-01

    There are no effective antiviral treatments for pigeon circovirus (PiCV); thus, rapid diagnosis is critical for effective control of the disease caused by this virus. The recent development of a novel LAMP technique that amplifies nucleic acids rapidly with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions has overcome some of the deficiencies of nucleic-acid-based diagnostic tests. We established a LAMP method for rapid detection of PiCV using two pairs of primers that were designed from PiCV and compared its sensitivity and specificity with that of PCR. Amplification by LAMP was optimal at 63 °C for 60 min. The detection limit was nearly 0.5 pg of PiCV DNA, making it ten times more sensitive than PCR. There was no cross-reaction with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), pigeon Trichomonas gallinae, or pigeon herpesvirus (PHV) under the same conditions. The assay also successfully detected the pathogen DNA in the tissues of infected pigeons. This is the first report indicating that LAMP is a valuable, rapid method of detecting PiCV with high sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Porcine circovirus diseases: a review of PMWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baekbo, P; Kristensen, C S; Larsen, L E

    2012-03-01

    This article is a review on post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), the first described disease among the porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome has, since its appearance in Canada in 1991, been seen in all major pig producing countries. To diagnose PMWS at herd level typical clinical appearance consisting of wasting and increased mortality must be combined with finding at autopsy of diseased pigs, where typical microscopic findings in the lymphatic tissue must be present. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome significantly increases the mortality and reduces the daily weight gain in weaner pig and/or in finishing pigs. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome can be transmitted by pig-to-pig contact and some studies point at airborne transmission as a possibility. Studies in Europe have shown several risk factors that either increase or decrease the risk for a pig herd to be affected by PMWS. At the pig level, studies have shown the importance of maternal immunity as protection for subsequent development of PMWS. To control PMWS, good production management and control of other diseases are crucial. Since 2004, commercial vaccines against Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta-analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy of the vaccines in significantly reducing mortality and increasing weight gain of the pigs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Isolation and identification of psittacid herpesvirus 1 from imported psittacines in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, R F; Parker, M E; Abrey, A N; Kaleta, E F; Prozesky, L

    1992-06-01

    Acute deaths occurred in 47 out of a total of 131 imported psittacine birds whilst in quarantine. Few and non-specific clinical signs were seen during the course of the disease outbreak, but gross pathology revealed severe hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. A herpes virus was isolated from liver and spleen material taken from 2 birds, an Amazon (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and a Yellow-collared macaw (Ara auricollis). Identification procedures included virus neutralisation tests carried out in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures. Neutralisation of the virus was obtained by antisera to Psittacid herpesvirus type 1 (HV1) but not against HV2 or HV3.

  13. Isolation, Genome Phylogenetic Analysis and In vitro Rescue of a Newly Emerging Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Zhu and Xiaofeng Ren*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is the major causative agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. Infection by PCV2 may cause heavy losses in pig industry. In this study, we report the isolation of a newly emerging PCV2 from northeastern China. The complete genome of the PCV2 isolate named PCV2-LJR contains 1766 nucleotides and was compared with reference sequences published in GenBank followed by topology analysis of the resulting phylogenetic tree. The data indicated that the prevalent PCV2 isolates in the northeastern China had close relationship, although various genotypes of PCV2 existed. In addition, by gene recombination and transfection techniques, the PCV2 infectious clone was achieved and was able to rescue virus in vitro determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR. The obtained biological materials may be used for biological characterization of PCV2.

  14. Serogroups and virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolated from psittacine birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Knöbl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli isolates from 24 sick psittacine birds were serogrouped and investigated for the presence of genes encoding the following virulence factors: attaching and effacing (eae, enteropathogenic E. coli EAF plasmid (EAF, pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap, S fimbriae (sfa, afimbrial adhesin (afa, capsule K1 (neu, curli (crl, csgA, temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh, enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin-1 (astA, heat-stable enterotoxin -1 heat labile (LT and heat stable (STa and STb enterotoxins, Shiga-like toxins (stx1 and stx2, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1, haemolysin (hly, aerobactin production (iuc and serum resistance (iss. The results showed that the isolates belonged to 12 serogroups: O7; O15; O21; O23; O54; O64; O76; O84; O88; O128; O152 and O166. The virulence genes found were: crl in all isolates, pap in 10 isolates, iss in seven isolates, csgA in five isolates, iuc and tsh in three isolates and eae in two isolates. The combination of virulence genes revealed 11 different genotypic patterns. All strains were negative for genes encoding for EAF, EAEC, K1, sfa, afa, hly, cnf, LT, STa, STb, stx1 and stx2. Our findings showed that some E. coli isolated from psittacine birds present the same virulence factors as avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC, uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC and Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC pathotypes.

  15. Detection of Circovirus in Foxes with Meningoencephalitis, United Kingdom, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexton, Steve; Wiersma, Lidewij C; Getu, Sarah; van Run, Peter R; Verjans, Georges M G M; Schipper, Debby; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; Bodewes, Rogier; Oldroyd, Lucy; Haagmans, Bart L; Koopmans, Marion M P; Smits, Saskia L

    2015-07-01

    A fox circovirus was identified in serum samples from foxes with unexplained neurologic signs by using viral metagenomics. Fox circovirus nucleic acid was localized in histological lesions of the cerebrum by in situ hybridization. Viruses from the family Circoviridae may have neurologic tropism more commonly than previously anticipated.

  16. Detection of circovirus in foxes with meningoencephalitis, United Kingdom, 2009–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bexton (Steve); L.C.M. Wiersma (Lidewij); S. Getu (Sarah); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); D. Schipper (Debby); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); R. Bodewes (Rogier); L. Oldroyd (Lucy); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); S.L. Smits (Saskia)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA fox circovirus was identified in serum samples from foxes with unexplained neurologic signs by using viral metagenomics. Fox circovirus nucleic acid was localized in histological lesions of the cerebrum by in situ hybridization. Viruses from the family Circoviridae may have neurologic

  17. Porcine circovirus (PCV) removal by Q sepharose fast flow chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Hua; Ho, Cintia; Lester, Philip; Chen, Qi; Neske, Florian; Baylis, Sally A; Blümel, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The recently discovered contamination of oral rotavirus vaccines led to exposure of millions of infants to porcine circovirus (PCV). PCV was not detected by conventional virus screening tests. Regulatory agencies expect exclusion of adventitious viruses from biological products. Therefore, methods for inactivation/removal of viruses have to be implemented as an additional safety barrier whenever feasible. However, inactivation or removal of PCV is difficult. PCV is highly resistant to widely used physicochemical inactivation procedures. Circoviruses such as PCV are the smallest viruses known and are not expected to be effectively removed by currently-used virus filters due to the small size of the circovirus particles. Anion exchange chromatography such as Q Sepharose(®) Fast Flow (QSFF) has been shown to effectively remove a range of viruses including parvoviruses. In this study, we investigated PCV1 removal by virus filtration and by QSFF chromatography. As expected, PCV1 could not be effectively removed by virus filtration. However, PCV1 could be effectively removed by QSFF as used during the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a log10 reduction value (LRV) of 4.12 was obtained. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Porcine Circovirus (PCV) Removal by Q Sepharose Fast Flow Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Hua; Ho, Cintia; Lester, Philip; Chen, Qi; Neske, Florian; Baylis, Sally A; Blümel, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The recently discovered contamination of oral rotavirus vaccines led to exposure of millions of infants to porcine circovirus (PCV). PCV was not detected by conventional virus screening tests. Regulatory agencies expect exclusion of adventitious viruses from biological products. Therefore, methods for inactivation/removal of viruses have to be implemented as an additional safety barrier whenever feasible. However, inactivation or removal of PCV is difficult. PCV is highly resistant to widely used physicochemical inactivation procedures. Circoviruses such as PCV are the smallest viruses known and are not expected to be effectively removed by currently-used virus filters due to the small size of the circovirus particles. Anion exchange chromatography such as Q Sepharose® Fast Flow (QSFF) has been shown to effectively remove a range of viruses including parvoviruses. In this study, we investigated PCV1 removal by virus filtration and by QSFF chromatography. As expected, PCV1 could not be effectively removed by virus filtration. However, PCV1 could be effectively removed by QSFF as used during the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a log10 reduction value (LRV) of 4.12 was obtained. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 29:1464–1471, 2013 PMID:24039195

  19. Ochratoxin A promotes porcine circovirus type 2 replication in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Fang; Zhang, Zheqian; Hu, Zhihua; Hesketh, John; Xue, Hongxia; Chen, Xingxiang; Hao, Shu; Huang, Yu; Cole Ezea, Patience; Parveen, Fahmida; Huang, Kehe

    2015-03-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a worldwide mycotoxin found in food and feeds, is a potent nephrotoxin in animals and humans. Porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), including porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, is a worldwide swine disease. To date, little is known concerning the relationship between OTA and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the primary causative agent of PCVAD. The effects of OTA on PCV2 replication and their mechanisms were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results in vitro showed that low doses of OTA significantly increased PCV2 DNA copies and the number of infected cells. Maximum effects were observed at 0.05 μg/ml OTA. The results in vivo showed that PCV2 replication was significantly increased in serum and tissues of pigs fed 75 μg/kg OTA compared with the control group and pigs fed 150 μg/kg OTA. In addition, low doses of OTA significantly depleted reduced glutathione and mRNA expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase; increased reactive oxygen species, oxidants, and malondialdehyde; and induced p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in PK15 cells. Adding N-acetyl-L-cysteine reversed the changes induced by OTA. Knockdown of p38 and ERK1/2 by their respective specific siRNAs or inhibition of p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by their respective inhibitors (SB203580 and U0126) eliminated the increase in PCV2 replication induced by OTA. These data indicate that low doses of OTA promoted PCV2 replication in vitro and in vivo via the oxidative stress-mediated p38/ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. This suggests that low doses of OTA are potentially harmful to animals, as they enhance virus replication, and partly explains why the morbidity and severity of PCVAD vary significantly in different pig farms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T K; Vigre, H; Svensmark, B; Bille-Hansen, V

    2006-11-01

    The presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was studied immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of intestinal tissue from 80 pigs with a clinical history suggestive of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated diarrhoea. Histopathologically, enteritis of varying intensity was diagnosed in 64 of the pigs. Of these 64 animals, 34 (18%) were infected with both PCV2 and L. intracellularis. Of the remaining 30 cases of enteritis, 23 (77%) were attributed to PCV2 infection alone. The PCV2-associated enteritis cases showed necrotizing ileitis and colitis, indistinguishable macroscopically from proliferative enteritis (PE) due to L. intracellularis. Histopathologically, L. intracellularis-positive intestines showed adenomatous proliferation of crypt enterocytes, whereas PCV2 enteritis was characterized by histiocytosis of varying intensity, with PCV2-positive cells in the submucosa, lamina propria and crypt epithelium, as well as in the lymphoid tissue of the ileum and colon. Multinucleated giant cells, however, were seen in both infections. PCV2 was about three times more likely to be detected in L. intracellularis-negative than in L. intracellularis-positive samples (P<0.001). There was no association between PCV2 and other intestinal bacterial pathogens. The study demonstrated that PCV2 enteritis should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of L. intracellularis infection in pigs aged 2-4 months with a clinical history of diarrhoea.

  1. Interaction of porcine circovirus type 2 replication with intracellular redox status in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxiang; Ren, Fei; Hesketh, John; Shi, Xiuli; Li, Junxian; Gan, Fang; Hu, Zhihua; Huang, Kehe

    2013-01-01

    Redox status influences replication of some viruses but its effect on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the primary causative agent of the emerging swine disease post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome is not known. The interaction of PCV2 replication with intracellular redox status in PK15 cells was examined in this study. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) was measured spectrophotometrically by reaction with 5, 5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid). Total superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) was assayed by inhibition of oxyamine oxidation by the xanthine oxidase system. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was assayed spectrophotometrically using the thiobarbituric acid reaction. Both quantification of PCV2 DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction and indirect immunofluorescence of PCV2-infected cells were used to evaluate the replication of PCV2. Both GSH and SOD decreased significantly at 48 hours after PCV2 infection, whereas MDA concentration increased significantly after 48 hour post-infection. Furthermore, PCV2 replication in PK15 cells was significantly impaired after the elevation of intracellular GSH through treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a precursor in GSH synthesis. In contrast, PCV2 replication in PK15 cells was enhanced after reduction of GSH levels through H2O2-mediated oxidation. In addition, NAC treatment blocked the increase of virus replication induced by H2O2. This study suggests that PCV2 infection induces oxidative stress and that intracellular redox status influences PCV2 replication in PK15 cells.

  2. A field evaluation of mortality rate and growth performance in pigs vaccinated against porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlen, Kyle P; Dritz, Steve S; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Henry, Steven C; Hesse, Richard A; Oberst, Richard; Hays, Michael; Anderson, Joseph; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2008-03-15

    To evaluate, under field conditions, the effects of a commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine on mortality rate and growth performance in a herd infected with PCV2 that had a history of porcine circovirus disease. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 485 commercial, cross-bred, growing pigs. Prior to weaning, pigs were randomly assigned within litter to a vaccination or unvaccinated control group. Pigs in the vaccination group were given a commercial PCV2 vaccine at weaning and 3 weeks later. Mortality rate was recorded, and pigs were weighed prior to vaccination, when moved from the nursery, and prior to marketing. Infection status was assessed by serologic testing and detection of viral DNA in serum. Compared with control pigs, pigs vaccinated against PCV2 had a significantly lower mortality rate during the finishing phase, significantly higher average daily gain during the finishing phase, and significantly lower likelihood of being lightweight at the time of marketing. For vaccinated pigs, overall mortality rate was reduced by 50% and average daily gain during the finishing period was increased by 9.3%. At the time of marketing, vaccinated pigs weighed an average of 8.8 kg (19.4 lb) more than control pigs, without any difference in days to marketing. Serum PCV2 antibody titers increased in control pigs, and PCV2 DNA was detected, indicating active PCV2 infection. Results suggested that vaccination against PCV2 was effective at reducing mortality rate and improving growth performance among pigs in a herd infected with PCV2.

  3. Reproduction in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) seropositive gilts inseminated with PCV2b spiked semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Giuseppe; Morandi, Federico; Panarese, Serena; Bacci, Barbara; Ferrara, Domenico; Bianco, Carlo; Fusaro, Laura; Bacci, Maria Laura; Galeati, Giovanna; Dottori, Michele; Bonilauri, Paolo; Lelli, Davide; Leotti, Giorgio; Vila, Thais; Joisel, Francois; Allan, Gordon; Benazzi, Cinzia; Ostanello, Fabio

    2012-08-31

    Since 1999, field evidence of transplacental infection by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and reproductive failure has been reported in pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological consequences of PCV2 infection in conventional PCV2-seropositive gilts by insemination with PCV2b-spiked semen. Six PCV2 seropositive gilts were inseminated with PCV2b-supplemented semen (infected) and three animals with semen and cell culture medium (controls). Only three out of the six infected animals were pregnant by ultrasonography on day 29 after insemination, while two out of the three controls were pregnant. One control gilt aborted on day 23 after insemination but not due to PVC2. Viraemia was demonstrated in four out of six infected and in one control gilt that became infected with PCV2a. Anti-PCV2 antibody titres showed dynamic variations in the infected group throughout the study. Among infected gilts, the animal with the lowest anti-PCV2 titre (1/100) at the beginning of the experiment and another that reached a similar low value during the experiment showed evident seroconversion over time and had also PCV2 positive foetuses. One placenta displayed mild focal necrosis of the chorionic epithelium positively stained by immunohistochemistry for PCV2 antigen. PCV2-seropositive gilts can be infected with PCV2 after intrauterine exposure and low maternal antibody titre may increase the probability of a foetal infection.

  4. Reproduction in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 seropositive gilts inseminated with PCV2b spiked semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarli Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1999, field evidence of transplacental infection by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and reproductive failure has been reported in pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological consequences of PCV2 infection in conventional PCV2-seropositive gilts by insemination with PCV2b-spiked semen. Results Six PCV2 seropositive gilts were inseminated with PCV2b-supplemented semen (infected and three animals with semen and cell culture medium (controls. Only three out of the six infected animals were pregnant by ultrasonography on day 29 after insemination, while two out of the three controls were pregnant. One control gilt aborted on day 23 after insemination but not due to PVC2. Viraemia was demonstrated in four out of six infected and in one control gilt that became infected with PCV2a. Anti-PCV2 antibody titres showed dynamic variations in the infected group throughout the study. Among infected gilts, the animal with the lowest anti-PCV2 titre (1/100 at the beginning of the experiment and another that reached a similar low value during the experiment showed evident seroconversion over time and had also PCV2 positive foetuses. One placenta displayed mild focal necrosis of the chorionic epithelium positively stained by immunohistochemistry for PCV2 antigen. Conclusions PCV2-seropositive gilts can be infected with PCV2 after intrauterine exposure and low maternal antibody titre may increase the probability of a foetal infection.

  5. Selected complete blood cell count and plasma protein electrophoresis parameters in pet psittacine birds evaluated for illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Jeleen A; Rosenthal, Karen L; Shofer, Frances S

    2010-06-01

    Veterinarians rely on results of both the complete blood cell count (CBC) and plasma protein electrophoresis (EPH) in conjunction with the results of the plasma biochemical analysis to evaluate the health status of avian patients. Because the CBC and protein EPH measure different aspects of the immune response to disease, both tests are recommended in avian patients to rule out infectious or inflammatory disease. To evaluate results of the CBC and protein EPH in pet psittacine birds, the records of 144 pet psittacine birds, comprising 11 genera, that were presented for suspected illness were reviewed. Results of the CBC (total white blood cell count and packed cell volume) and protein EPH (alpha, beta, and gamma globulin concentrations) from submitted blood samples from each bird were evaluated. Of the 144 birds, 63 (43.8%) had abnormal CBC results, and 25 (17.4%) had abnormal EPH measurements. Results of the CBC and protein EPH were within reference ranges in 73 birds (50.7%). Abnormal results of the CBC in conjunction with normal EPH results were present in 46 birds (31.9%), compared with 8 birds (5.6%) with normal results of the CBC and abnormal EPH results. The findings of this study could aid practitioners in evaluating psittacine patients and prioritizing the value of individual diagnostic tests.

  6. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in psittacine birds: reference values, factors of variation, and association with feather-damaging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, Claire; Bougerol, Christian; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David

    2014-03-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase is a glycoprotein enzyme used in the diagnosis of toxicosis by cholinesterase-inhibitor agents like organophosphates and carbamates. In animals, butyrylcholinesterase concentrations have been shown to vary depending on numerous factors such as age, sex, diet, and season of sampling. To establish reference values of plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in common psittacine species, plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations were measured in 1942 companion psittacine birds. The birds were classified by age, sex, season, health status, and the presence of feather-damaging behavior. A significant difference was observed among species, with eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) having the lowest and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) having the highest reference values. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations varied by age, health status, and season but not by sex. Concentrations were significantly higher during autumn and spring than during winter and summer, and significantly lower in healthy birds than in sick birds. No significant association between butyrylcholinesterase concentrations and feather-damaging behavior could be established except in lovebirds (Agapornis species). Further research is needed to better understand the effect of nutritional and hormonal factors on butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in psittacine birds and its possible effect on bird cognition.

  7. The antiviral activity of arctigenin in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wentao; Jin, Erguang; He, Qigai; Yan, Weidong; Yang, Hanchun; Gong, Shiyu; Guo, Yi; Fu, Shulin; Chen, Xiabing; Ye, Shengqiang; Qian, Yunguo

    2016-06-01

    Arctigenin (ACT) is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan extracted from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of ACT found in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that dosing of 15.6-62.5μg/mL ACT could significantly inhibit the PCV2 proliferation in PK-15 cells (P<0.01). Dosing of 62.5μg/mL ACT 0, 4 or 8h after challenge inoculation significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1MOI and 10MOI in PK-15 cells (P<0.01), and the inhibitory effect of ACT dosing 4h or 8h post-inoculation was greater than 0h after dosing (P<0.01). In vivo test with mice challenge against PCV2 infection demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of 200μg/kg ACT significantly inhibited PCV2 proliferation in the lungs, spleens and inguinal lymph nodes, with an effect similar to ribavirin, demonstrating the effectiveness of ACT as an antiviral agent against PCV2 in vitro and in vivo. This compound, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a drug for protection of pigs against the infection of PCV2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hsp70 positively regulates porcine circovirus type 2 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Zhihua; Wang, Xianwei; Li, Yufeng; Jiang, Ping

    2013-12-01

    The Hsp70 chaperone plays a central role in multiple processes within cells. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the essential causal agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has spread worldwide. But the mechanism of PCV2 replication remains poorly understood. In this study, we firstly found the positive effect of heat stress on the replication of PCV2 in the continuous porcine monocytic cell line 3D4/31. Downregulation of Hsp70 by the specific chaperone inhibitor Quercetin or RNA interference and upregulation of Hsp70 by expression from a recombinant adenovirus showed that Hsp70 enhanced PCV2 genome replication and virion production. A specific interaction between Hsp70 and PCV2 Cap was confirmed by colocalization by confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, the NF-κB pathway was activated and caspase-3 activity was reduced when Hsp70 was overexpressed in PCV2-infected 3D4/31 cells. These data suggested that Hsp70 positively regulated PCV2 replication, which being helpful for understanding the molecular mechanism of PCV2 infection. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular characterization of avian polyomavirus isolated from psittacine birds based on the whole genome sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Ohya, Kenji; Une, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto

    2009-07-02

    Seven avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were isolated from seven psittacine birds of four species. Their whole genome sequences were genetically analyzed. Comparing with the sequence of BFDV1 strain, nucleotide substitutions in the sequences of seven APV isolates were found at 63 loci and a high level of conservation of amino acid sequence in each viral protein (VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4, and t/T antigen) was predicted. An A-to-T nucleotide substitution was observed in non-control region of all seven APV sequences in comparison with BFDV1 strain. Two C-to-T nucleotide substitutions were also detected in non-coding regions of one isolate. A phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome sequences indicated that the sequences from the same species of bird were closely related. APV has been reported to have distinct tropism for cell cultures of various avian species. The present study indicated that a single amino acid substitution at position 221 in VP2 was essential for propagating in chicken embryonic fibroblast culture and this substitution was promoted by propagation on budgerigar embryonic fibroblast culture. For two isolates, three serial amino acids appeared to be deleted in VP4. However, this deletion had little effect on virus propagation.

  10. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from passerine and psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Y M; Cunha, M P V; Oliveira, M G X; Oliveira, M C V; Philadelpho, N; Romero, D C; Milanelo, L; Guimarães, M B; Ferreira, A J P; Moreno, A M; Sá, L R M; Knöbl, T

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered one of the most important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens. The contact between humans and birds poses health risks to both. The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance and virulence of K. pneumoniae isolates from psittacines and passerines, seized from illegal trade in Brazil. We analysed 32 strains isolated from birds of the orders Psittaciformes and Passeriformes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for virulence factor genes. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by disk diffusion assay and PCR. The results indicated that fimH (100%), uge (96.8%), kfu (81.2%) and irp-2 (68.7%) were the most common virulence genes, followed by kpn (46.8%), K2 (43.7%), mrkD (34.3%) and iroN (15.6%). The combination of virulence genes resulted in a great diversity of genotypes and the heterogeneity of the strains is also confirmed in the analysis by amplified fragment length polymorphism. The susceptibility profiles of the K. pneumoniae showed 25% of multiple antibiotic resistance strains. We identified seven strains that presented non-extended spectrum beta lactamase blaSHV variants SHV-1 and SHV-11 and one strain positive to the blaTEM-1 gene. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was present in 10 strains (10/32). The data obtained in this study reveal the pathogenic potential of this pathogen and highlight the need for surveillance and monitoring.

  11. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xuepeng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 is a serious problem to the swine industry and can lead to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. Syndrome associated with PCV2 is known as porcine circovirus closely associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. The capsid (Cap protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs in vitro, it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli,(E.coli , because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. Results In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO. The recombinant Cap was purified using Ni2+ affinity resins, whereas the tag was used to remove the SUMO protease. Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. Conclusion we have, for the first time, utilized the SUMO fusion motif to successfully express the entire authentic Cap protein of PCV2 in E. coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection.

  12. Virucidal efficacy of nine commercial disinfectants against porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hélène; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Maris, Pierre

    2008-09-01

    A number of commercially available disinfectants are commonly used on pig breeding farms and are authorised by the French Agricultural Ministry. However, the efficacy of these disinfectants is unknown with regard to the emergent porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). The virucidal efficacy of nine disinfectants was evaluated by testing a suspension of PCV2 isolated in France. The assays were performed at 20 degrees C and the efficacy determined after 30 min contact time between virus and disinfectant. After this time, the mixture was passed through a detoxification column and then diluted to remove compounds toxic to the virus and the porcine kidney cell line. The filtrate was serially diluted and inoculated onto cell culture. The infectivity of PCV2 was determined by an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. No reduction in PCV2 titre was demonstrated with iodine and phenolic products. Significant PCV2 titre reductions (1.61 log(10)) were noted for the seven other products. For five disinfectants, namely a product composed of potassium monopersulfate, two products comprising a quaternary ammonium with one or three aldehyde(s), sodium hypochlorite, and sodium hydroxide, the concentration that significantly reduced the PCV2 titre was equal or 1.5-4 times lower than the authorised use concentration. Only two disinfectants, one composed of potassium monopersulfate, the other containing peracetic acid with hydrogen peroxide, reduced the PCV2 titre with a product concentration at best equal or two times higher than the authorised use concentration.

  13. Genetic characterization of Porcine Circovirus 2 found in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 is the primary etiological agent associated with a group of complex multi-factorial diseases classified as Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases (PCVAD). Sporadic cases reported in Malaysia in 2007 caused major economic losses to the 2.2 billion Malaysian ringgit (MYR) (approximately 0.7 billion US dollar) swine industry. The objective of the present study was to determine the association between the presence of PCV2 and occurrences of PCVAD. Results This study showed that 37 out of 42 farms sampled were positive for PCV2 using PCR screening. Thirteen whole genome of PCV2 isolates from pigs with typical PCVAD symptoms were successfully sequenced. These isolates shared 98.3-99.2% similarities with sequences of isolates from the Netherlands. All thirteen isolates fell into the same clade as PCV2b isolates from other countries. Amino acid sequence analysis of the putative capsid protein (ORF2) of the PCV2 revealed that there are three clusters found in Malaysia, namely cluster 1C and 1A/1B. Of interest, three of the isolates (isolates Mal 005, Mal 006 and Mal 010) had a proline substitution for arginine or isoleucine encoded at nt. position 88-89. Eight of the isolates had mutations at the C terminus of the putative capsid protein suggestive of higher pathogenicity which may account for the high reports of PCVAD clinical symptoms in 2007. Conclusion Phylogenetic study suggests that there may be a link between movements of animals by import of breeders into the country being the route of entry of the virus. While it is not possible to eradicate the virus from commercial pigs, the swine industry in Malaysia can be safeguarded by control measures implemented throughout the country. These measures should include improved biosecurity, disease surveillance; vaccination as well as enforcement of regulations formulated to control and prevent the spread of this disease on a national scale. PMID:21914166

  14. Characterization of a New Disease Syndrome Associated with Porcine Circovirus Type 2 in Previously Vaccinated Herds▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cino-Ozuna, Ada G.; Henry, Steven; Hesse, Richard; Nietfeld, Jerome C.; Bai, Jianfa; Scott, H. Morgan; Rowland, Raymond R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) encompasses a group of wasting syndromes linked to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). This paper describes a new PCV2 disease syndrome, called acute pulmonary edema (APE), which, unlike other PCVAD syndromes, has a peracute onset and is associated with herds vaccinated for PCV2. PMID:21346043

  15. A novel subunit vaccine co-expressing GM-CSF and PCV2b Cap protein enhances protective immunity against porcine circovirus type 2 in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Qian, Ping; Peng, Bo; Shi, Lin; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2015-05-15

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes porcine circovirus-associated disease. Capsid (Cap) protein of PCV2 is the principal immunogenic protein that induces neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity. GM-CSF is an immune adjuvant that enhances responses to vaccines. In this study, recombinant baculoviruses Ac-Cap and Ac-Cap-GM-CSF expressing the Cap protein alone and co-expressing the Cap protein and porcine GM-CSF, respectively, were constructed successfully. The target proteins were analyzed by western blotting and IFA. Further, these proteins were confirmed by electron microscopy, which showed that Cap proteins could self-assemble into virus-like particles having diameters of 17-25nm. Animal experiments showed that pigs immunized with Cap-GM-CSF subunit vaccine showed significantly higher levels of PCV2-specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies than pigs immunized with the Cap subunit vaccine and a commercial vaccine (Ingelvac CircoFLEX; PGM-CSF subunit vaccine showed significantly higher average daily weight gain after wild-type PCV2 challenge than pigs receiving the other three vaccines (PGM-CSF was a powerful immunoadjuvant for PCV2 subunit vaccines because it enhanced humoral immune response and improved immune protection against PCV2 infection in pigs. Thus, the novel Cap-GM-CSF subunit vaccine has the potential to be used as an effective and safe vaccine candidate against PCV2 infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MYCOBACTERIOSIS IN CAPTIVE PSITTACINES: A BRIEF REVIEW AND CASE SERIES IN COMMON COMPANION SPECIES (ECLECTUS RORATUS, AMAZONA ORATRIX, AND PIONITES MELANOCEPHALA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna Elizabeth; Higbie, Christine T; Nevarez, Javier G; Rademacher, Nathalie T; Tully, Thomas N

    2017-09-01

    In 2015, three psittacines were presented within 30 days, each with differing clinical signs and patient histories. A 13-yr-old male eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) was presented for weakness, depression, and acute anorexia. On presentation it was determined to have a heart murmur, severely elevated white blood cell count (93.9 103/μl) with a left shift (2.8 103/μl bands), and anemia (30%). Severe hepatomegaly was noted on radiographs, ultrasonography, and computed tomography. A cytological sample of the liver obtained through a fine needle aspirate revealed intracellular acid-fast bacilli identified as Mycobacterium avium. A 20-yr-old female double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona oratrix) was presented for a 1-mo history of lethargy and weight loss despite a good appetite. The parrot's total white blood cell count was 16.8 103/μl and the PCV was 35%. Following its death, a necropsy revealed a generalized granulomatous condition that involved the small intestines, lungs, liver, spleen, and medullary cavities of the long bones, with intracellular acid-fast bacilli identified as Mycobacterium genavense. The third case, an 18-mo-old female black-headed caique (Pionites melanocephala), was presented with a 1-day history of lethargy and depression. On presentation, the caique had a heart murmur, distended coelom, palpable thickening of the coelomic organs, and increased lung sounds. Following the caique's death, a complete necropsy revealed mycobacteriosis of the liver, spleen, small intestines, pericardial fat, and bone marrow. The infection was identified as Mycobacterium genavense. The importance of advances in Mycobacterium spp. identification, continued presence of this organism in captive avian populations, difficulty in obtaining a definitive antemortem diagnosis, and conflicting recommendations regarding treatment are thought-provoking areas of focus in this case series.

  17. Research of immune response in unvaccinated piglets against porcine circovirus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevančević Ognjen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of pigs caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is present throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine, based on the follow-up of the class IgG titers in piglets and fattening pigs, the duration of colostral immunity against infections in pigs caused by PCV2. The study included 28 piglets, whose titer was determined by using indirect ELISA test in intervals up to 110 days of age. The observed average values of IgG in piglets aged 21 days (8.47 log2 and 35 days (6.69 log2 in our surveys indicate very high titers of maternal antibodies, and that the piglets at this age are, to some extent, protected from infection caused by PCV2. Absence of the specific anti PCV2 antibodies was determined in 14.29% (21 days old and 15.38% (35 days old piglets at this age. The average titer of antibodies, specific for PCV2, in blood serum of piglets on the 50th day decreased to 3.74 log2, what indicates that in the majority of piglets (61.54% catabolism of colostral antibodies occurred. On the 80th day of the piglets life there were no seropositive specimens, which unambiguously indicates that in this age, there was a complete catabolism of colostral antibodies and the disappearance of passive immunity. In all the 110 days’ old fattening pigs, an average antibody titer recorded a sharp rise (12.78 log2. Possible reasons for this sudden increase in PCV2 antibody titers in the blood serum of fattening pigs is is a widespread presence of this infection in our region, as well as the fact that there exists a part of pigs population which is not immune to PCV2 infection. The results of this research are important for choosing the optimal moment for vaccination, considering that high titers of colostral antibodies of class G on the 21st and 35th day of piglets’ life have been proven. This data points out to a possible interference with vaccine immunogens in the case of vaccination in this particular age.

  18. Fast diagnosis and quantification for porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Gan-Nan; Hwang, Jyi-Faa; Chen, Jing-Tsang; Tsen, Hau-Yang; Wang, Jyh-Jye

    2010-04-01

    The postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, caused by the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), is a major disease that poses a significant threat to the global swine industry. The purpose of this study was to establish a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the quantification of PCV-2 and to enable the rapid differentiation of porcine circoviruses type 1 and 2 (PCV-1 and PCV-2). Such a method would significantly speed up the process of clinical diagnosis, and could also be used to study the pathogenic mechanisms of diseases associated with PCV-2. Multiplex real-time PCR, together with LightCycler PCR data analysis software, was used for the quantification of PCV-2, and for the rapid differentiation of PCV-1 and PCV-2. A 263-bp DNA fragment was amplified from the 3' end of the open reading frame-2 of PCV-2 by nested PCR, and its DNA sequence was verified as having 100% identity with a PCV-2 standard (NCBI accession number: AF055394). The 263-bp DNA fragment was cloned into the pGEM-T easy vector, and the recombinant plasmid was serially diluted and quantified using real-time PCR. A standard curve was then constructed for quantification of the PCV-2 levels in field samples. The differentiation of PCV-1 and PCV-2 was carried out by analyzing the melting temperatures of the genotype-specific PCR products. To quantify the PCV-2 levels in field samples, a standard curve (1 x 10(2) -1 x 10(9) copies/microL) was constructed. PCV-2 concentrations as low as 1 x 10(2) copies/microL could be detected in specimens taken from the lymph nodes or infected tissues in samples of PCV-2-infected pigs. The diagnosis of PCV-1 and PCV-2 infections and the quantification of the viral load in the field samples could be completed within 45 minutes after extracting the viral DNA using a commercial extraction kit. This study demonstrate that real-time PCR is a clinically feasible method for the accurate quantification of PCV-2, and for the rapid differentiation of PCV-1 and

  19. Genetic Characterization of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) in Pigs of Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monger, V.R.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Kus, K.; Stegeman, J.A.; Dukpa, K.; Szymanek, K.; Podgórska, K.

    2017-01-01

    Porcine circovirus (PCV) is a small non-enveloped virus with a single-stranded circular DNA with two antigenically and genetically different species, PCV1 and PCV2. Among these two, PCV2 is responsible for multifactorial disease syndromes, the most important disease known as PCV2-systemic disease

  20. Isolation and characterisation of circoviruses from pigs with wasting syndromes in Spain, Denmark and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G.M.; Mc Neilly, F.; Meehan, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    A porcine circovirus (PCV) was isolated from tissues of pigs with wasting syndromes from Spain, Denmark and N. Ireland. The antigenic profiles of these viruses were determined by indirect immunofluorescence assays using polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) prepared against...

  1. Selenium blocks porcine circovirus type 2 replication promotion induced by oxidative stress by improving GPx1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxiang; Ren, Fei; Hesketh, John; Shi, Xiuli; Li, Junxian; Gan, Fang; Huang, Kehe

    2012-08-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is recognized as a key infectious agent in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), but not all pigs infected with PCV2 will develop PMWS. The aim of this work was to explore the relationships among PCV2 infection, oxidative stress, and selenium in a PK-15 cell culture model of PCV2 infection. The results showed that oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2) treatment increased PCV2 replication as measured by PCV2 DNA copies and the number of infected cells. Furthermore, PCV2 replication was inhibited by selenomethionine (SeMet) at a high concentration (6μM) and the increase in PCV2 replication by oxidative stress was blocked by SeMet at physiological concentrations (2 or 4μM). PCV2 infection caused a decrease in glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) activity but an increase in GPx1 mRNA levels, suggesting that GPx1 may represent an important defense mechanism during PCV2 infection. SeMet did not significantly block the promotion of PCV2 replication in GPx1-knockdown cells. This observation correlates with the observed influence of SeMet on GPx1 mRNA and activity in GPx1-knockdown cells, indicating that GPx1 plays a key role in blocking the promotion of PCV2 replication. We conclude that differences in morbidity and severity of PMWS observed on different pig farms may be related to variations in oxidative stress and that selenium has a potential role in the control of PCV2 infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Detection of psittacid herpesvirus 1 in Amazon parrots with cloacal papilloma (internal papillomatosis of parrots, IPP) in an aviary of different psittacine species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Marko; Kothe, Ruth; Rautenschlein, Silke; Kummerfeld, Norbert

    2008-12-01

    Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva;Amazona ochrocephala, n=6) from an aviary with different psittacine species (n=100) were submitted to the Clinic for Pet Animals, Reptiles, Pet- and Wild birds with the clinical picture ofa cloacal prolaps. The cloacal mucosa showed papillomas, and internal papillomatosis of parrots (IPP) was suspected. Hepatomegaly was detected in the radiographs of the clinically diseased amazon parrots, indicating the involvement of the liver in the disease process. The cloacal area was enlarged and showed higher densities in the radiographic picture. One of the amazons had an increased level of bile acids in the plasma supporting the suspicion of the involvement of the liver. Macroscopical and histological investigation of amazons with cloacal prolaps revealed a papillomic adenoma of the cloacal mucosa accompanied by varying degrees of bile duct carcinomas in the liver and adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. Herpesvirus genome was detected by nested PCR in cloacal swabs, liver, and cloacal tissue samples. Sequencing of part of the herpesvirus DNA-polymerase gene indicated 95% homology of the detected herpesviruses with the Psittacid Herpesvirus (PsHV) 1. No cytopathic herpesvirus was recovered from cloacal swabs and liver samples after up to four passages in chicken embryofibroblast cultures. Cloacal and choanal swabs, which were taken from the remaining 47 healthy amazon parrots and 5 Green-winged Macaws (Ara chloroptera) of the aviary, were negative for herpesvirus in the nested PCR. Only birds with cloacal papillomas and the Green-winged Macaws were tested positive for herpesvirus DNA in the nested PCR. We may speculate that there is correlation between the infection with PsHV-1 and the development of cloacal adenomas, adenocarcinomas in the pancreas and carcinomas of the bile ducts. Our results indicate that there may be a higher susceptibility in certain amazon species, while other species may not get infected even if housed in close

  3. Immunity Elicited by an Experimental Vaccine Based on Recombinant Flagellin-Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Cap Fusion Protein in Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhu

    Full Text Available In a recent study, we reported that a recombinant protein from fusion expression of flagellin to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap induced robust humoral and cell-mediated immunity that afforded full protection for PCV2 infection using BALB/c mice. Here, we further evaluated the immunogenicity and protection of the recombinant protein using specific pathogen free (SPF pigs. Twenty-five 3-week-old piglets without passively acquired immunity were divided into 5 groups. All piglets except negative controls were challenged with a virulent PCV2 at 21 days after booster vaccination and necropsied at 21 days post-challenge. Vaccination of piglets with the recombinant protein without adjuvant induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses as observed by high levels of PCV2-specific IgG antibodies and neutralizing antibodies, as well as frequencies of PCV2-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells that conferred good protection against PCV2 challenge, with significant reduced PCV2 viremia, mild lesions, low PCV2 antigen-positive cells, as well as improved body weight gain, comparable to piglets vaccinated with a commercial PCV2 subunit vaccine. These results further demonstrated that the recombinant flagellin-Cap fusion protein is capable of inducing solid protective humoral and cellular immunity when administered to pigs, thereby becoming an effective PCV2 vaccine candidate for control of PCV2 infection.

  4. In Vitro Coinfection and Replication of Classical Swine Fever Virus and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 in PK15 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Zhou

    Full Text Available Increasing clinical lines of evidence have shown the coinfection/superinfection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Here, we investigated whether PCV2 and CSFV could infect the same cell productively by constructing an in vitro coinfection model. Our results indicated that PCV2-free PK15 cells but not ST cells were more sensitive to PCV2, and the PK15 cell line could stably harbor replicating CSFV (PK15-CSFV cells with a high infection rate. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis showed that PCV2 and CSFV colocalized in the same PK15-CSFV cell, and the CSFV E2 protein translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in PK15-CSFV cells infected with PCV2. Moreover, PCV2-CSFV dual-positive cells increased gradually in PK15-CSFV cells in a PCV2 dose-dependent manner. In PK15-CSFV cells, PCV2 replicated well, and the production of PCV2 progeny was not influenced by CSFV infection. However, CSFV reproduction decreased in a PCV2 dose-dependent manner. In addition, cellular apoptosis was not strengthened in PK15-CSFV cells infected with PCV2 in comparison with PCV2-infected PK15 cells. Moreover, using this coinfection model we further demonstrated PCV2-induced apoptosis might contribute to the impairment of CSFV HCLV strain replication in coinfected cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the coinfection/superinfection of PCV2 and CSFV within the same cell, providing an in vitro model to facilitate further investigation of the underlying mechanism of CSFV and PCV2 coinfection.

  5. Discovery and complete genome sequence of a novel circovirus-like virus in the endangered rowi kiwi, Apteryx rowi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel J; Hall, Richard J; Wang, Jing; Moore, Nicole E; Park, Duckchul; McInnes, Kate; Gartrell, Brett D; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2016-10-01

    Circoviruses are circular, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA viruses around 2000 nucleotides (nt) in length and include the pathogenic species, Porcine circovirus 1 and Beak and feather disease virus, capable of causing significant morbidity and mortality. This group of viruses may be robust to degradation by external environments, and avian circoviruses are known to move between closely related hosts. Using a de novo metagenomic approach, followed by confirmatory PCR, we identify for the first time a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA virus in New Zealand kiwi, Apteryx spp., derived from faecal matter of the rowi kiwi (A. rowi) showing signs of verminous dermatitis. The entire 2085 nt genome was cloned and sequenced and contains both capsid and replicase genes, as well as a conserved 9 nt motif. Phylogenetic analyses place it within Circoviridae, adjacent to other environmental CRESS-DNA viruses, and most closely related to badger circovirus-like virus (Meles meles circovirus-like virus). As the rowi is the most critically endangered kiwi, it is vital to understand the role of rowi kiwi circovirus-like virus as a possible pathogen and also any potential cross-species transmission.

  6. A proposal on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) genotype definition and their relation with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Roma, L; Crisci, E; Sibila, M; López-Soria, S; Nofrarias, M; Cortey, M; Fraile, L; Olvera, A; Segalés, J

    2008-04-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the essential infectious agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Despite first sequencing studies did not find any association between PCV2 sequences and PMWS occurrence, recent works have suggested the opposite. In the present study, 87 open reading frame 2 (ORF2) sequences obtained from pigs with different clinical conditions and coming from farms with different PMWS status were analyzed. Results further confirmed the existence of two genogroups and the definition of two PCV2 genotypes (1 and 2) is proposed. All sequences included in genotype 1 came from pigs from PMWS affected farms, while all sequences obtained from non-PMWS affected farms corresponded to genotype 2. Moreover, infection of single pigs from PMWS affected farms harbouring both genotypes is described. Present results suggest that PCV2 genotype 1 may potentially be more pathogenic than PCV2 genotype 2.

  7. Purification of recombinant virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein using ion-exchange monolith chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveckas, Mindaugas; Snipaitis, Simas; Pesliakas, Henrikas; Nainys, Juozas; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2015-06-01

    Diseases associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection are having a severe economic impact on swine-producing countries. The PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein expressed in eukaryotic systems self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) which can serve as antigens for diagnostics or/and as vaccine candidates. In this work, conventional adsorbents as well as a monolithic support with large pore sizes were examined for the chromatographic purification of PCV2 Cap VLPs from clarified yeast lysate. Q Sepharose XL was used for the initial separation of VLPs from residual host nucleic acids and some host cell proteins. For the further purification of PCV2 Cap VLPs, SP Sepharose XL, Heparin Sepharose CL-6B and CIMmultus SO3 monolith were tested. VLPs were not retained on SP Sepharose XL. The purity of VLPs after chromatography on Heparin Sepharose CL-6B was only 4-7% and the recovery of VLPs was 5-7%. Using ion-exchange chromatography on the CIMmultus SO3 monolith, PCV2 Cap VLPs with the purity of about 40% were obtained. The recovery of VLPs after chromatography on the CIMmultus SO3 monolith was 15-18%. The self-assembly of purified PCV2 Cap protein into VLPs was confirmed by electron microscopy. Two-step chromatographic purification procedure of PCV2 Cap VLPs from yeast lysate was developed using Q Sepharose XL and cation-exchange CIMmultus SO3 monolith. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  9. Persistence, Prevalence, and Load of Circoviruses in Marine and Lacustrine Amphipods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistolas, K. S.; Jackson, E.; Hewson, I.

    2016-02-01

    Benthic amphipods serve as keystone species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, mediating functional and structural diversity in profundal communities by contributing to net detritivory, herbivory, and sediment bioturbation. Long-term, lake wide annual monitoring programs depict progressive and severe (up to 90%) declines in populations of the dominant amphipod, Diporeia spp. between 1997-2015. The causative factors implicated in Diporeia decline remain unknown. However, previous metaviromic studies identified a well-represented CRESS-DNA virus associated with Diporeia from four of the five Great Lakes, excluding Lake Superior. Prevalence, load, and persistence of this single putative circovirus (LM29173) largely coincide with the severity of Diporeia decline in independent populations. This study builds upon assessments of circoviral prevalence and load from 2013, and identifies LM29173 as a persistent constituent of the Diporeia nanobiome over a multi-year sampling period. Furthermore, comparative analysis of Diporeia metaviromes from independent sampling sites in lakes with varying benthic profiles reveal several distinct patterns of viral consortia. Phylogenetic comparison of conserved replication initiator protein-like sequence elements places LM29173 in the context of circoviruses from similar lacustrine and marine microcrustacean hosts. While it is unclear if circoviruses are directly deleterious to amphipod hosts, it is apparent that CRESS-DNA sequence elements sharing similar features to LM29173 are ubiquitous in amphipod-associated metaviromes.

  10. Phylodynamic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2: Methodological approach and datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Franzo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, PCV2 has emerged as one of the most economically relevant diseases for the swine industry. Despite the introduction of vaccines effective in controlling clinical syndromes, PCV2 spread was not prevented and some potential evidences of vaccine immuno escape have recently been reported (“Complete genome sequence of a novel porcine circovirus type 2b variant present in cases of vaccine failures in the United States” (Xiao and Halbur, 2012 [1], “Genetic and antigenic characterization of a newly emerging porcine circovirus type 2b mutant first isolated in cases of vaccine failure in Korea” (Seo et al., 2014 [2]. In this article, we used a collection of PCV2 full genomes, provided in the present manuscript, and several phylogentic, phylodynamic and bioinformatic methods to investigate different aspects of PCV2 epidemiology, history and evolution (more thoroughly described in “PHYLODYNAMIC ANALYSIS of PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE 2 REVEALS GLOBAL WAVES of EMERGING GENOTYPES and the CIRCULATION of RECOMBINANT FORMS” [3]. The methodological approaches used to consistently detect recombiantion events and estimate population dymanics and spreading patterns of rapidly evolving ssDNA viruses are herein reported. Programs used are described and original scripts have been provided. Ensembled databases used are also made available. These consist of a broad collection of complete genome sequences (i.e. 843 sequences; 63 complete genomes of PCV2a, 310 of PCV2b, 4 of PCV2c, 217 of PCV2d, 64 of CRF01, 140 of CRF02 and 45 of CRF03., divided in differnt ORF (i.e. ORF1, ORF2 and intergenic regions, of PCV2 genotypes and major Circulating Recombinat Forms (CRF properly annotated with respective collection data and country. Globally, all of these data can be used as a starting point for further studies and for classification purpose.

  11. Induction of mucosal immunity by intranasal immunization with recombinant adenovirus expressing major epitopes of Porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-feng; Guo, Quan-hai; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Jun; Chang, Hong-tao; Wang, Xin-wei; Yang, Xia; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2013-07-15

    Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is primarily transmitted through mucosa, thus the mucosal immunity may constitute an essential feature of vaccination strategies against PCV-2 infection. Mucosal immunity elicited by recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus expressing the major epitopes of PCV-2 capsid protein (rAd/Cap/518) via intranasal (i.n.), intramuscular (i.m.) or oral routes in mice were evaluated. Immunization with rAd/Cap/518 via i.n. route induced higher titers of IgA in saliva, bronchoalveolar and intestinal lavage fluid compared with those immunized via i.m. route. The proportions of CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells were significantly increased in mice immunized with rAd/Cap/518 via i.n. route compared with the control group. Higher levels of IFN-γ were detected in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of mice immunized with rAd/Cap/518 via i.n. route compared with other groups, yet IL-4 was not detected in any group. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed viral DNA loads in the i.m. or i.n. immunization group was lower than that seen in the rAd immunization. These results indicate that i.n. administration of rAd/Cap/518 can elicit humoral and Th1-type cellular protective immunity in both systemic and mucosal immune compartments in mice, representing a promising mucosal vaccine candidate against PCV-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic characterization of a circovirus associated with fatal hemorrhagic enteritis in dog, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Decaro

    Full Text Available Dog circovirus (DogCV was identified in an outbreak of enteritis in pups in Italy. The disease was observed in 6 young dachshunds pups of a litter from a breeding kennel and caused the death of 2 dogs. Upon full-genome analysis, the virus detected in one of the dead pups (strain Bari/411-13 was closely related to DogCVs that have been recently isolated in the USA. The present study, if corroborated by further reports, could represent a useful contribution to the knowledge of the pathogenic potential of DogCV and its association with enteritis in dogs.

  13. Impact of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on boar semen quality and quantity using two different vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspari, K; Henning, H; Schreiber, F; Maass, P; Gössl, R; Schaller, C; Waberski, D

    2014-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2) is widespread in domestic pig populations. It can be shed with boar semen, but the role boars have in epidemiology is still unclear. Vaccinating boars against PCV2 can reduce disease and virus load in semen, but may have unwanted side effects, that is, impairment of

  14. Development of Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus virus type II (PCV2 is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (PDNS, and necrotizing pneumonia. Rapid diagnosis tool for detection of PCV2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (PCV2 real-time RPA assay and RPA combined with lateral flow dipstick (PCV2 RPA LFD assay were developed targeting the PCV2 ORF2 gene. The results showed that the sensitivity of the PCV2 real-time RPA assay was 102 copies per reaction within 20 min at 37°C and the PCV2 RPA LFD assay had a detection limit of 102 copies per reaction in less than 20 min at 37°C. Both assays were highly specific for PCV2, with no cross-reactions with porcine circovirus virus type 1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and classical swine fever virus. Therefore, the RPA assays provide a novel alternative for simple, sensitive, and specific identification of PCV2.

  15. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Features of cell degeneration and death in hepatic failure and systemic lymphoid depletion characteristic of porcine circovirus-2-associated postweaning multisystemic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, S; Ellis, J; McNeilly, F; Meehan, B; Oglesbee, M; Alldinger, S; Allan, G

    2004-09-01

    Tissue section replicates from lymphoid tissues and livers of gnotobiotic swine were examined by immunohistochemistry for the colocalization of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) nucleocapsid and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated incorporation of biotinylated nucleotides (UTP) onto the 3'-exposed hydroxyl groups (nick end labeling) nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (TUNEL), a marker for apoptosis. Single- and dually stained replicates from uninfected controls, subclinically affected PCV-2-infected gnotobiotic pigs, PCV-2-infected piglets immunosuppressed with cyclosporine (Cys), and PCV-2-infected piglets with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were evaluated. Thymuses were used as positive controls for apoptosis absent PCV-2, tissue sections from dogs given hyperthermic stress were examined as positive controls for induced TUNEL. Tissues from heat-stressed dogs contained TUNEL-positive cell nuclei in both lymphoid tissues and liver, TUNEL was greatest shortly after the delivery of the hyperthermic insult. In uninfected control and subclinically affected PCV-2-infected gnotobiotic pigs, rare hepatocytes and lymphoid cells were TUNEL positive, the frequency of these was similar to that seen in uninfected controls. In PMWS-affected and Cys-treated PCV-2 piglets, the only consistent strongly positive TUNEL signal was contained within the cytoplasm of virus-positive phagocytic mononuclear cells. In phagocytes, some PCV-2 inclusions were TUNEL positive. Collectively, these data indicate that apoptosis is not the primary mechanism of lymphoid depletion and hepatocyte loss in PMWS. Apoptosis associated with systemic viral diseases may be attributable to pyrexia rather than direct or indirect effects of viruses on target cells.

  17. Porcine circovirus type 2 protective epitope densely carried by chimeric papaya ringspot virus-like particles expressed in Escherichia coli as a cost-effective vaccine manufacture alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Brenda Eugenia; Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Jimenez-García, Mónica Noemí; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel

    2017-05-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) still represents a major problem to the swine industry worldwide, causing high mortality rates in infected animals. Virus-like particles (VLPs) have gained attention for vaccine development, serving both as scaffolds for epitope expression and immune response enhancers. The commercial subunit vaccines against PCV2 consist of VLPs formed by the self-assembly of PCV2 capsid protein (CP) expressed in the baculovirus vector system. In this work, a PCV2 protective epitope was inserted into three different regions of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) CP, namely, the N- and C-termini and a predicted antigenic region located near the N-terminus. Wild-type and chimeric CPs were modeled in silico, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and visualized by transmission electron microscopy. This is the first report that shows the formation of chimeric VLPs using PRSV as epitope-presentation scaffold. Moreover, it was found that PCV2 epitope localization strongly influences VLP length. Also, the estimated yields of the chimeric VLPs at a small-scale level ranged between 65 and 80 mg/L of culture medium. Finally, the three chimeric VLPs induced high levels of immunoglobulin G against the PCV2 epitope in immunized BALB/c mice, suggesting that these chimeric VLPs can be used for swine immunoprophylaxis against PCV2. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Quantitative proteomics by 2-DE, 16O/18O labelling and linear ion trap mass spectrometry analysis of lymph nodes from piglets inoculated by porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Boo, María; Núnez, Estefania; Jorge, Inmaculada; Navarro, Pedro; Fernandes, Lana T; Segalés, Joaquim; Garrido, Juan J; Vázquez, Jesús; Moreno, Angela

    2011-09-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been identified as the essential causal agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. However, little is known regarding the mechanism(s) underlying the pathogenesis of PCV2-induced disease and the interaction of the virus with the host immune system. Here, we present a proteomics study on inguinal lymph nodes of piglets inoculated with PCV2, in order to better understand the pathogenesis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and the pathways might be affected after infection. We used two proteomics strategies, 2-DE and 1-DE followed by (16)O/(18)O peptide labelling and peptide identification and quantification by MS. More than 100 proteins were found to be differentially regulated and the results obtained by the two strategies were fairly concordant but also complementary, the (18)O labelling approach being a more robust alternative. Analysis of these proteins by systems biology tools revealed the implication of acute phase response and NrF2-mediated oxidative stress, suggesting a putative role for these pathways in the pig immune response. Besides, CD81 was found to be up-regulated, suggesting a possible role in the internalization of the virus. The use of proteomics technologies together with biology analysis systems opens up the way to gain more exhaustive and systematic knowledge of virus-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The protective immune response against Pseudorabies virus induced by DNA vaccination is impaired if the plasmid harbors a functional Porcine circovirus type 2 rep and origin of replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurez, Florence; Grasland, Béatrice; Béven, Véronique; Cariolet, Roland; Keranflec'h, André; Henry, Aurélie; Jestin, André; Dory, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    A plasmid rendered replicative in mammalian cells by inserting the Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) origin of replication and replicase gene (Ori-rep) has been previously constructed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the replication capacity of this plasmid could be advantageously used to improve the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccination. In this case we used the porcine Pseudorabies virus (PrV) DNA vaccination model. The replicative capacity of the DNA vaccine did not improve the protective immunity against PrV in pigs, but on the contrary the presence of the PCV2 Ori-rep sequence was harmful in the induction of this immunity compared to an equivalent but non-replicative DNA vaccine. In addition, the distribution and the persistence of the replicative and non-replicative plasmids inside the body were the same. This is the first study showing an in vivo deleterious effect of the replicative active PCV2 Ori-rep on the natural and specific protection against PrV infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of two functional nuclear localization signals in the capsid protein of duck circovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Qi-Wang; Zou, Jin-Feng; Wang, Xin [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Sun, Ya-Ni [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Shanxi, Yangling 712100 (China); Gao, Ji-Ming; Xie, Zhi-Jing [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Wang, Yu [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Taishan Medical College, Shandong, Taian 271000 (China); Zhu, Yan-Li [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Jiang, Shi-Jin, E-mail: sjjiang@sdau.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China)

    2013-02-05

    The capsid protein (CP) of duck circovirus (DuCV) is the major immunogenic protein and has a high proportion of arginine residues concentrated at the N terminus of the protein, which inhibits efficient mRNA translation in prokaryotic expression systems. In this study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of DuCV CP expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in Sf9 cells and the DNA binding activities of the truncated recombinant DuCV CPs. The results showed that two independent bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated at N-terminal 1-17 and 18-36 amino acid residue of the CP. Moreover, two expression level regulatory signals (ELRSs) and two DNA binding signals (DBSs) were also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and overlapped with the two NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome.

  1. Associação entre otites bacterianas e infecção pelo circovírus suíno tipo 2 (PCV2 em suínos Association between bacterial otitis and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 infection in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Asanome

    2008-10-01

    signs and pathological findings compatible with the disease, and through detection of viral antigens in tissues by immunohistochemistry. From 242 pigs with PMWS, 57 (23.5% showed purulent lesions in the middle ear. Among 119 pigs with attrition, only 1 (0.7% presented the lesion. In 24 control pigs, middle ear lesions were not detected. The most frequently isolated agents from the lesions were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (43%, á-hemolytic Streptococci (37.2% and Pasteurella multocida (27.9 % out of 86 materials. The frequent occurrence of purulent lesions in the middle ear of PMWS affected pigs suggests that PCV2 infection may increase the susceptibility to bacterial otitis. The low occurrence of this disease in piglets with attrition suggests that otitis does not represent a significant cause for depressed growth in pigs from growing and finishing age. The isolation of A. pyogenes, á-hemolytic Streptococci and P. multocida from most of the lesions emphasizes the importance of these organisms as causal agents of otitis media in swine.

  2. The porcine circovirus type 1 capsid gene promoter improves antigen expression and immunogenicity in a HIV-1 plasmid vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Marieta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the promising avenues for development of vaccines against Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and other human pathogens is the use of plasmid-based DNA vaccines. However, relatively large doses of plasmid must be injected for a relatively weak response. We investigated whether genome elements from Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1, an apathogenic small ssDNA-containing virus, had useful expression-enhancing properties that could allow dose-sparing in a plasmid vaccine. Results The linearised PCV-1 genome inserted 5' of the CMV promoter in the well-characterised HIV-1 plasmid vaccine pTHgrttnC increased expression of the polyantigen up to 2-fold, and elicited 3-fold higher CTL responses in mice at 10-fold lower doses than unmodified pTHgrttnC. The PCV-1 capsid gene promoter (Pcap alone was equally effective. Enhancing activity was traced to a putative composite host transcription factor binding site and a "Conserved Late Element" transcription-enhancing sequence previously unidentified in circoviruses. Conclusions We identified a novel PCV-1 genome-derived enhancer sequence that significantly increased antigen expression from plasmids in in vitro assays, and improved immunogenicity in mice of the HIV-1 subtype C vaccine plasmid, pTHgrttnC. This should allow significant dose sparing of, or increased responses to, this and other plasmid-based vaccines. We also report investigations of the potential of other circovirus-derived sequences to be similarly used.

  3. Porcine circovirus type 1 was undetected in vaccine but could be cultured in the cell substrate of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingchuan; Liu, Yan; Du, Jialiang; Liu, Yueyue; Zhang, Lili; Guo, Tai

    2018-01-01

    In 2010, Rotarix was found to be contaminated with infectious porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1). In China, the Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine is the only vaccine used to prevent rotavirus disease. From 2006 to September 2014, more than 54 million doses of LLR vaccines have been lot released. It is a safety issue whether PCV1 is present in the LLR vaccine. Although the cell substrate of LLR, bovine kidney (BK), is different from that of Rotarix, we have investigated the cell's permissivity for PCV1 by both infectivity and full-length PCR analysis. We have assessed the LLR using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. A total of 171 random batches of LLR final products over a period of 5 years were tested, and no PCV1 was detected (0/171). Infectivity studies showed that two strains of PCV1, the PCV1-prototype, which was derived from PK-15 cells, and the mutant, PCV1-GSK, which was isolated from Rotarix, were capable of replicating in BK cells over a wide m.o.i. ranging from 10 to 0.01. After culture for 6 days, copies of PCV1-prototype DNA were higher than those of PCV1-GSK on average. The genome of the virus was detected at 6 days post-infection. In summary, the LLR vaccine is free of PCV1. Nevertheless, because PCV1 can replicate in the BK cell substrate, manufacturers need to be vigilant in monitoring for this adventitious agent.

  4. Genetic characterisation of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains from feral pigs in the Brazilian Pantanal: An opportunity to reconstruct the history of PCV2 evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Cortey, Martí; de Castro, Alessandra Marnie Martins Gomes; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabo, Matias Pablo Juan; Drigo, Michele; Segalés, Joaquim; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José

    2015-07-09

    Since its discovery, Porcine circovirus type 2 has emerged as one of the most relevant swine infectious diseases, causing relevant economic losses for the pig industry. While four genotypes were identified, only three (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d) are currently circulating and display a worldwide distribution. Another genotype, PCV2c, has been described only once in Danish archive samples collected between 1980 and 1990. In addition to commercial pigs, PCV2 has been demonstrated to infect wild boars and other wild species, which can potentially serve as a reservoir for domestic populations. In this study, eight sequences obtained from feral pigs in the Pantanal region (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil) were compared with reference sequences and other Brazilian sequences, and the results revealed remarkable genetic diversity, with all four genotypes currently recognised being detected (PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCV2d). This finding represents a remarkable discovery, as it is the first detection of PCV2c since 1990 and the first-ever detection of PCV2c in live animals. The peculiar population history and ecological scenario of feral pigs in the Pantanal coupled with the complex, and still only partially known relationship of feral pigs with other PCV2 susceptible species (i.e., domestic pigs, wild boars and peccaries), open exciting questions concerning PCV2 origin and evolution. Overall, the results of the present study led us to form the following hypothesis: the PCV2 strains found in feral pigs may be the last descent of the strains that circulated among European pigs in the past, or they may have infected these feral pigs more recently through a bridge species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses of porcine circovirus type 2 among pig farms in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, T M L; Nguyen, B H; Nguyen, V G; Dang, H A; Mai, T N; Tran, T H G; Ngo, M H; Le, V T; Vu, T N; Ta, T K C; Vo, V H; Kim, H K; Park, B K

    2014-12-01

    This study demonstrated the prevalence of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) among pig farms in Vietnam. Analyses of the genome, capsid protein and phylogeny classified all 30 Vietnamese PCV2 strains as the PCV2b genotype, belonging to the clusters of 1A, 1B, 1C and recombinant forms. Each viral genome was 1767 nucleotides long and shared 96.0-100% nucleotide sequence identity. The amino acid substitutions in the capsid protein of the Vietnamese PCV2 strains were in immunodominant regions, and the majority of strains (24/30) contained a lysine extension at the C-terminus. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis revealed epidemic links of the PCV2 recombinant cluster within and among countries, which supports a circulating recombinant form of PCV2. Further analysis by the Jameson-Wolf antigenic index indicated antigenic alterations at important sites in the capsid protein (sites 131-133) among the recombinant cluster and the other clusters of PCV2b. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Nuclear localization signal regulates porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein nuclear export through phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiang; Hou, Shaohua; Chen, Qing; Jia, Hong; Xin, Ting; Jiang, Yitong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hongfei

    2018-02-15

    The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes the major Capsid (Cap) protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particle (VLP) of similar morphology to the PCV2 virion and accumulates in the nucleus through the N-terminal arginine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, PCV2 Cap protein and its derivates were expressed via the baculovirus expression system, and the cellular localization of the recombinant proteins were investigated using anti-Cap mAb by imaging flow cytometry. Analysis of subcellular localization of Cap protein and its variants demonstrated that NLS mediated Cap protein nuclear export as well as nuclear import, and a phosphorylation site (S17) was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the NLS domain to regulate Cap protein nuclear export. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating the PCV2 Cap protein nuclear export was also demonstrated in PK15 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the influence of Rep and Rep' protein on Cap protein subcellular localization was investigated in PK15 cells. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating Cap protein nuclear export provides more detailed knowledge of the PCV2 viral life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Principais processos neoplásicos encontrados em psitacídeos mantidos em cativeiro Main neoplasic processes in psittacines birds kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Neri Godoy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo anatomopatológico envolvendo 130 psitacídeos oriundos de centros de triagens, zoológicos e criadouros, visando a determinação da causa de morte destes animais, revelou a presença de neoplasias em sete animais, totalizando 5,4% dos casos. Os processos neoplasicos foram caracterizados como colangiocarcinoma, colangioma, linfoma, hemangiossarcoma e carcinoma renal primário, sendo o colangiocarcinoma o mais freqüentemente encontrado, presente em três animais. Este trabalho descreve estas neoplasias, levando em consideração os aspectos macro e microscópicos, meios de diagnósticos e espécies acometidas.An anatomopathologic study of 130 captivy psittacines from zoos, breeders and rehabilitation centers showed the presence of neoplastic disease in seven birds, totalizing 5.4% of the cases. The neoplasms were identified like cholangiocarcinoma, cholangioma, lymphoma, haemangiosarcoma and renal cell carcinoma. The cholangiocarcinoma was the tumor most commonly observed. it was present in birds. This study describes the macro and microscopic findings of these tumors; also reports diagnostic methods employed to identify these neoplasms.

  8. Field efficacy study of a novel ready-to-use vaccine against mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus type 2 in a Greek farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, Eleni D; Tassis, Panagiotis D; Koulialis, Dimitrios; Papatsiros, Vassileios G; Nell, Tom; Brellou, Georgia; Tsakmakidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, under field conditions, of a novel ready-to use Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M hyo) and Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) combination vaccine given to piglets as one vaccination (1-shot) at 3 weeks of age. The study was carried out according to a controlled, randomised, and blinded design in a Greek pig herd with clinical M. hyo and subclinical PCV2 infection. Moreover, based on serology at the time of vaccination, the average PCV2 titre was 9.15 log 2 and represented the level of maternally derived antibodies (MDA). In total 602 healthy suckling piglets, originating from 4 weekly farrowing batches were allocated randomly, within litters, to one of two groups. The pigs in one group were vaccinated with the test product and the other pigs were injected with saline. Vaccination significantly reduced lesions of craneo-ventral pulmonary consolidation in vaccinated group [expressed as lung lesion score (LLS)] (Mixed model ANOVA: p  < 0.0001). The mean LLS was 17.1 in the controls and 10.6 in the treatment group, respectively. The average daily weight gain (ADWG) during the finishing (54 g better in the treatment group) and whole study period (34 g better in vaccinated animals) was significantly greater in vaccinated than control pigs. The vaccinated pigs had a significant reduction of PCV2 viraemia when compared with the controls. The test product was considered effective in the face of average MDA, based on significantly reduced severity of LLS and PCV2 viral load, as well as improved ADWG in vaccinated versus control pigs.

  9. High yield production of pigeon circovirus capsid protein in the E. coli by evaluating the key parameters needed for protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Guan-Hua; Lin, Yen-Chang; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chen, Hsi-Jien; Chang, Wen-Te; Tzen, Jason T C; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2014-05-22

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is considered to be a viral agent central to the development of young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS). The Cap protein, a structural protein encoded by the cap (or C1) gene of PiCV, has been shown to be responsible for not only capsid assembly, but also has been used as antigen for detecting antibody when the host is infected with PiCV. The antigenic characteristics of the Cap protein potentially may allow the development of a detection kit that could be applied to control PiCV infection. However, poor expression and poor protein solubility have hampered the production of recombinant Cap protein in the bacteria. This study was undertaken to develop the optimal expression of recombinant full-length Cap protein of PiCV using an E. coli expression system. The PiCV cap gene was cloned and fused with different fusion partners including a His-tag, a GST-tag (glutathioine-S-transferase tag) and a Trx-His-tag (thioredoxin-His tag). The resulting constructs were then expressed after transformation into a number of different E. coli strains; these then had their protein expression evaluated. The expression of the recombinant Cap protein in E. coli was significantly increased when Cap protein was fused with either a GST-tag or a Trx-His tag rather than a His-tag. After various rare amino acid codons presented in the Cap protein were optimized to give the sequence rCapopt, the expression level of the GST-rCapopt in E. coli BL21(DE3) was further increased to a significant degree. The highest protein expression level of GST-rCapopt obtained was 394.27 ± 26.1 mg/L per liter using the E. coli strain BL21(DE3)-pLysS. Moreover, approximately 74.5% of the expressed GST-rCapopt was in soluble form, which is higher than the soluble Trx-His-rCapopt expressed using the BL21(DE3)-pLysS strain. After purification using a GST affinity column combined with ion-exchange chromatography, the purified recombinant GST-rCapopt protein was found to have good antigenic

  10. Excessive porcine circovirus type 2 antibody titres may trigger the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Jong, M.F.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2004-01-01

    In a case-control study, the role of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and putative co-factors in the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) were investigated. Pigs with and without PDNS were examined for macroscopic lesions and histopathology. In addition, organs and tissues

  11. Rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2 using a TaqMan-based real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chunling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and the associated disease postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS have caused heavy losses in global agriculture in recent decades. Rapid detection of PCV2 is very important for the effective prophylaxis and treatment of PMWS. To establish a sensitive, specific assay for the detection and quantitation of PCV2, we designed and synthesized specific primers and a probe in the open reading frame 2. The assay had a wide dynamic range with excellent linearity and reliable reproducibility, and detected between 102 and 1010 copies of the genomic DNA per reaction. The coefficient of variation for Ct values varied from 0.59% to 1.05% in the same assay and from 1.9% to 4.2% in 10 different assays. The assay did not cross-react with porcine circovirus type 1, porcine reproductive and respiratory, porcine epidemic diarrhea, transmissible gastroenteritis of pigs and rotavirus. The limits of detection and quantitation were 10 and 100 copies, respectively. Using the established real-time PCR system, 39 of the 40 samples we tested were detected as positive.

  12. Full-Genome Sequence of Porcine Circovirus type 3 recovered from serum of sows with stillbirths in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochetto, C; Lima, D A; Varela, A P M; Loiko, M R; Paim, W P; Scheffer, C M; Herpich, J I; Cerva, C; Schmitd, C; Cibulski, S P; Santos, A C; Mayer, F Q; Roehe, P M

    2018-02-01

    Two full-genome sequences of porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) are reported. The genomes were recovered from pooled serum samples from sows who had just delivered litters with variable numbers of stillbirths. The two circular genomes (PCV3-BR/RS/6 and PCV3-BR/RS/8) are 2,000 nucleotides long and contain two open reading frames (ORFs) oriented in opposite directions that encode the putative capsid (Cap) and replicase (Rep) proteins. The intergenic region contains a stem-loop motif, as reported for other circoviruses. Rolling circle replication motifs and putative helicase domains were identified in the Rep coding region. The degree of overall nucleotide similarity between the genomes reported here and those available at GenBank was higher than 97%. No PCV3 sequence was detected in pooled serum samples from sows which had no stillbirths on the same farms. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the association between PCV3 and the occurrence of stillbirths. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Porcine circovirus type 2 increases interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10 production via the MyD88-NF-kappa B signaling pathway in porcine alveolar macrophagesin vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyuan; Zhang, Shuxia; Zhang, Yaqun; Chen, Mengmeng; Lv, Yingjun

    2017-06-30

    Porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) represent the first line of defense in the porcine lung after infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) via the respiratory tract. However, PCV2 infection impairs the microbicidal capability of PAMs and alters cytokine production and/or secretion. At present, the reason for the imbalance of cytokines has not been fully elucidated, and the regulatory mechanisms involved are unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression levels and regulation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-10 in PAMs following incubation with PCV2 in vitro. Levels of IL-1β and IL-10 increased in PAM supernatants, and the distribution of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65staining in nucleus, expression of MyD88 and p-IκB in cytoplasm, and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB increased after incubation with PCV2, while p65 expression in PAM cytoplasm decreased. However, when PAMs were co-incubated with PCV2 and small interfering RNA targeting MyD88, those effects were reversed. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2, -3, -4, -7, -8, and -9 increased when PAMs were incubated with PCV2. These results show that PCV2 induces increased IL-1β and IL-10 production in PAMs, and these changes in expression are related to the TLR-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  14. Impact of maternally derived immunity on piglets' immune response and protection against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) after vaccination against PCV2 at different age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Paolo; Saleri, Roberta; Ferrarini, Giulia; De Angelis, Elena; Cavalli, Valeria; Benetti, Michele; Ferrari, Luca; Canelli, Elena; Bonilauri, Paolo; Arioli, Elena; Caleffi, Antonio; Nathues, Heiko; Borghetti, Paolo

    2016-05-11

    This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical protection, the level of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) viremia and the immune response (antibodies and IFN-γ secreting cells (SC)) in piglets derived from PCV2 vaccinated sows and themselves vaccinated against PCV2 at different age, namely at 4, 6 and 8 weeks. The cohort study has been carried out over three subsequent production cycles (replicates). At the start/enrolment, 46 gilts were considered at first mating, bled and vaccinated. At the first, second and third farrowing, dams were bled and re-vaccinated at the subsequent mating after weaning piglets. Overall 400 piglets at each farrowing (first, second and third) were randomly allocated in three different groups (100 piglets/group) based on the timing of vaccination (4, 6 or 8 weeks of age). A fourth group was kept non-vaccinated (controls). Piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly with one dose (2 mL) of a commercial PCV2a-based subunit vaccine (Porcilis® PCV). Twenty animals per group were bled at weaning and from vaccination to slaughter every 4 weeks for the detection of PCV2 viremia, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Clinical signs and individual treatments (morbidity), mortality, and body weight of all piglets were recorded. All vaccination schemes (4, 6 and 8 weeks of age) were able to induce an antibody response and IFN-γ SC. The highest clinical and virological protection sustained by immune reactivity was observed in pigs vaccinated at 6 weeks of age. Overall, repeated PCV2 vaccination in sows at mating and the subsequent higher levels of maternally derived antibodies did not significantly interfere with the induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in their piglets after vaccination. The combination of vaccination in sows at mating and in piglets at 6 weeks of age was more effective for controlling PCV2 natural infection, than other vaccination schemas, thus sustaining that some interference of MDA with the induction of an

  15. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD in Ontario (Canada swine herds: Part I. Exploratory spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Beth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The systemic form of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD, also known as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS was initially detected in the early 1990s. Starting in 2004, the Canadian swine industry experienced considerable losses due to PCVAD, concurrent with a shift in genotype of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2. Objectives of the current study were to explore spatial characteristics of self-reported PCVAD distribution in Ontario between 2004 and 2008, and to investigate the existence and nature of local spread. Results The study included 278 swine herds from a large disease-monitoring project that included porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus-positive herds identified by the diagnostic laboratory, and PRRS virus-negative herds directly from the target population. Herds were included if they had growing pigs present on-site and available geographical coordinates for the sampling site. Furthermore, herds were defined as PCVAD-positive if a producer reported an outbreak of circovirus associated disease, or as PCVAD-negative if no outbreak was noted. Spatial trend was investigated using generalized additive models and time to PCVAD outbreak in a herd using Cox's proportional hazard model; spatial and spatio-temporal clustering was explored using K-functions; and location of most likely spatial and spatio-temporal clusters was investigated using scan statistics. Over the study period, the risk of reporting a PCVAD-positive herd tended to be higher in the eastern part of the province after adjustment for herd PRRS status (P = 0.05. This was partly confirmed for spread (Partial P P = 0.06 existence of spatio-temporal clustering of PCVAD and detection of a spatio-temporal cluster (P = 0.04. Conclusions In Ontario, PCVAD has shown a general trend, spreading from east-to-west. We interpret the existence of spatio-temporal clustering as evidence of spatio-temporal aggregation of PCVAD

  16. Secreted Expression of the Cap Gene of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 in Classical Swine Fever Virus C-Strain: Potential of C-Strain Used as a Vaccine Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingkai Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bivalent vaccines based on live attenuated viruses expressing a heterologous protein are an attractive strategy to address co-infections with various pathogens in the field. Considering the excellent efficacy and safety of the lapinized live attenuated vaccine C-strain (HCLV strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV, we proposed that C-strain has the potential as a viral vector for developing bivalent vaccines. To this end, we generated three recombinant viruses based on C-strain, one expressing the capsid (Cap gene of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 with the nuclear localization signal (NLS (rHCLV-2ACap, and the other two expressing the PCV2 Cap gene without the NLS yet containing the signal peptide of the prolactin gene (rHCLV-pspCap or that of the ubiquitin-specific peptidase gene (rHCLV-uspCap. All the recombinant viruses exhibited phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus and produced high-level anti-CSFV neutralizing antibodies (NAbs in rabbits. Interestingly, rHCLV-uspCap and rHCLV-pspCap, but not rHCLV-2ACap, elicited detectable anti-Cap and -PCV2 NAbs in rabbits. Taken together, our data demonstrate that C-strain can be used as a viral vector to develop bivalent vaccines.

  17. Validation and aplication of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2 in swine sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Villadiego Marmolejo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirosis is an infectious-contagious syndrome caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2 found mainly in recently weaned piglets causing dermatitis, neurological and reproductive disorders, pneumonia and encephalitis. The objectives of the present study were to validate a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique to detect PCV-2 in swine serum and to apply the validated technique in swine serum samples to detect PCV-2. After the application of two different PCRs, 100% of the surveyed animals were negative to PCV-2; furthermore, the PCR targeted to a region between ORFs 1 and 2 of the virus was found more sensitive when compared to another PCR targeted to the capsid protein gene. As a conclusion, PCR is a valid technique to detect PCV-2 in swine serum and the surveyed population was free of the virus.

  18. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    whether BMPs maintain their osteoinductive capability in infected human wounds. The authors are aware of only one series describing the use of BMP in an...et al. Osteogenic protein-1 induces bone formation in the presence of bacterial infection in a rat intramuscular osteoinduction model. J Orthop Trauma

  19. Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the neonatal period to school age.' In Saudi Arabia, the rate of 5.3 per cent was reported' while in Nigeria,. Okafor et a1,7 found the prevalence rate .... the multiplication of the organisms in the urine, resulting in lalse diagnosis of urinary tract infection. This over-diagnosis ofl ITI may account for the high prevalence rate ...

  20. The nuclear localization signal sequence of porcine circovirus type 2 ORF2 enhances intracellular delivery of plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsu-Chung Gabriel; Chiou, Siao-Ting; Zheng, Jin-Yi; Yang, Shu-Hsiang; Lai, Shiow-Suey; Kuo, Tsun-Yung

    2011-05-01

    The phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane is a natural barrier that prevents large molecules from entering the cell. Cationic liposomes are commonly used for transfection of plasmid DNA but they have high cost and toxicity. Many reports have shown that cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) are able to translocate across the cell membrane efficiently. The VP22 peptide of herpes simplex virus (HSV) was synthesized as a CPP. Two fusion protein candidates, containing binding/condensing protein (VP22-TmHU) and porcine circovirus type 2 nuclear localization signal (VP22-TmHU-PCV2.NLS), were constructed and expressed in E. coli in an attempt to improve delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA). Firstly, as shown by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), VP22-TmHU (VT) and VP22-TmHU-PCV2.NLS (VTN) were able to bind to pDNA (pEGFP-N1) effectively. Secondly, intracellular transport of pEGFP-N1 was observed by fluorescence microscopy and quantified by flow cytometry after transfection. VTN was successful in delivering pEGFP-N1 intracellularly but VT was not. Thirdly, two protein candidates were combined with Lipofectamine, and both VT and VTN enhanced the transfection rate to 65%, compared to 25% with Lipofectamine alone. Lastly, mice were injected intramuscularly with PBS, pcDNA3-ORF2, pcDNA3-ORF2 plus Lipofectamine, pcDNA3-ORF2 plus VT, pcDNA3-ORF2 plus VT plus Lipofectamine, pcDNA3-ORF2 plus VTN, and pcDNA3-ORF2 plus VTN plus Lipofectamine. The highest level of antibodies raised against PCV2 ORF2 Cap protein was detected with pcDNA3-ORF2 plus VTN. Contrary to the in vitro results, VTN delivered pDNA effectively in vivo without Lipofectamine. In summary, the nuclear localization signal sequence of porcine circovirus type 2 ORF2 can enhance intracellular delivery of pDNA.

  1. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    lost by diuresis in early convalescence (1). Severe retention of body water, especially during central nervous system infection, has now been widely...adrenocortical production of glucocorticoid and ketosteroid hormones often declines into a subnormal range. The labile pool of body nitrogen is...may not become apparent until early convalescence when postfebrile diuresis causes excessive fluid to be excreted. (3) Protein requirements ’- Despite

  2. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS.

  3. Impact of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on boar semen quality and quantity using two different vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, K; Henning, H; Schreiber, F; Maass, P; Gössl, R; Schaller, C; Waberski, D

    2014-09-01

    Porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2) is widespread in domestic pig populations. It can be shed with boar semen, but the role boars have in epidemiology is still unclear. Vaccinating boars against PCV2 can reduce disease and virus load in semen, but may have unwanted side effects, that is, impairment of spermatogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect and impact of two different PCV2 vaccines on boar semen quality and quantity. Healthy normospermic Large White boars in three groups of 12 each were vaccinated with either Circovac, Ingelvac CircoFLEX, or received NaCl. Eight ejaculates were collected starting 1 week after vaccination and assessed for quantitative traits. In general, sperm quantity and quality parameters did not change due to the vaccination (P > 0.05). Only DNA integrity between the Circovac and control group was P animal, a clear relation between vaccination, fever period, and impaired sperm quality could be observed. The results indicate that both vaccines did not have a major impact on sperm quality or quantity. Therefore, vaccination of boars against PCV2 seems to be feasible. However, one boar treated with the oil-based vaccine showed a temporarily impaired semen quality after elevated body temperature after vaccination. Thus, possible systemic reactions and the subsequent impact on sperm quality should be taken into account when choosing a PCV2 vaccine for boars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Virus-Like Particles of Chimeric Recombinant Porcine Circovirus Type 2 as Antigen Vehicle Carrying Foreign Epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs of chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 were generated by replacing the nuclear localization signal (NLS; at 1–39 aa of PCV2 capsid protein (Cap with classical swine fever virus (CSFV T-cell epitope (1446–1460 aa, CSFV B-cell epitope (693–716 aa and CSFV T-cell epitope conjugated with B-cell epitope. The recombinant proteins were expressed using the baculovirus expression system and detected by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The abilities to form PCV2 VLPs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogenicities of the three recombinant proteins were evaluated in mice. Our Results indicated that Cap protein NLS deletion or substitution with CSFV epitopes did not affect the VLPs assembly. Three chimeric Cap proteins could form VLPs and induce efficient humoral and cellular immunity against PCV2 and CSFV in mice. Results show that PCV2 VLPs can be used as an efficient antigen carrier for delivery of foreign epitopes, and a potential novel vaccine.

  5. Effect of vaccination against sub-clinical Porcine Circovirus type 2 infection in a high-health finishing pig herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John

    2017-01-01

    different with an average of 2.75 and 2.76 feeding units/kg gain for vaccinated and control pigs, respectively (p = 0.598). The proportion of pigs treated by injection with an antimicrobial was lower in the vaccinated group (4.4%) compared to the non-vaccinated group (5.6%), but the difference...

  6. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Vigre, Håkan; Svensmark, B.

    2006-01-01

    intensity was diagnosed in 64 of the pigs. Of these 64 animals, 34 (18%) were infected with both PCV2 and L. intracellularis. Of the remaining 30 cases of enteritis, 23 (77%) were attributed to PCV2 infection alone. The PCV2-associated enteritis cases showed necrotizing ileitis and colitis.......001). There was no association between PCV2 and other intestinal bacterial pathogens. The Study demonstrated that PCV2 enteritis should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of L. intracellularis infection in pigs aged 2-4 months with a clinical history of diarrhoea. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Eucaryotic expression of the nucleocapsid protein gene of porcine circovirus type 2 and use of the protein in an indirect immunofluorescence assay for serological diagnosis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sébastien; Kheyar, Ali; Gagnon, Carl A; Charbonneau, Benoît; Dea, Serge

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using a recombinant porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) nucleocapsid protein for the serological detection of PCV2-specific antibodies in pig sera. The viral nucleocapsid protein encoded by the PCV2 ORF2 gene has recently been identified as the most immunoreactive viral protein that carries type-specific antigenic determinants. The ORF2 sequence of the IAF-2897 strain of PCV2 has been cloned into a pCEP5 eucaryotic expression vector under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter, downstream of a polyhistidine sequence tag. The recombinant plasmid was used in transfection experiments with human epithelial kidney 293 cells that were further tested, and positive expression of the viral nucleocapsid protein was confirmed by IFA and Western blotting. Strong, specific fluorescence was observed in the nuclei of transfected cells. Test specificity to PCV2 was verified with several related infectious agents. Sensitivity was compared to that of standard IFA using PCV2-infected cells by evaluating the reactivities of 44 field serum samples from pigs on farms with a porcine population suffering from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. The recombinant nucleocapsid-based test was able to detect 15 more positive-testing pigs than the PCV2-based IFA. Therefore, the relative sensitivity of the latter test was estimated at only 57.1% compared to that of the recombinant nucleocapsid-based test. The recombinant fusion protein has been purified by affinity chromatography and is being used to develop further sensitive serological tests.

  8. Enhancing mucosal immunity in mice by recombinant adenovirus expressing major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein delivered with cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hong-tao; He, Xiu-yuan; Liu, Yu-feng; Chen, Lu; Guo, Quan-hai; Yu, Qiu-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yang, Xia; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant replication-defective adenovirus expressing the major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) capsid protein (rAd/Cap/518) was previously constructed and shown to induce mucosal immunity in mice following intranasal delivery. In the present study, immune responses induced by intranasal immunization with a combination of rAd/Cap/518 and cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) were evaluated in mice. The levels of PCV-2-specific IgG in serum and IgA in saliva...

  9. Vaccine discontinuation and switching following regulatory interventions in response to rotavirus vaccine contamination with porcine circovirus DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, David D; Turnbull, Bruce R; Seeger, John D

    2012-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration temporarily suspended monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) use following discovery of contamination with porcine circovirus fragments and subsequently announced similar contamination of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) but recommended continued use of the product. We assessed the utilization of these vaccines in relation to the announcements. Using claims submitted to a commercial health insurer for administration of RV1 and RV5, we estimated the number of administrations of the vaccines and the extent of switching between RV1 and RV5. Procedure codes on submitted claims identified vaccine administrations among infants ≤ 1 year old through 16 June 2010. Among infants who received a first dose of vaccine before the corresponding announcement, and whose second dose was anticipated following the announcement, we estimated the number who received no second dose of rotavirus vaccine. There were 31 178 RV1 initiators and 514 357 RV5 initiators. We observed a 93% reduction in RV1 doses in the month following the recommended suspension of use, coupled with extensive switching to RV5 (90% of subsequent doses) and a reduction in second RV1 doses (from 35.5% incomplete to 40.9%). There was a 15% increase in number of RV5 administrations following announcement of its contamination, with little switching to RV1 but with a possible decrease in completion. Recommended suspension of RV1 use led to a substantial decrease in use and extensive switching to RV5. The announcement that RV5 was similarly contaminated, but without a corresponding recommendation to suspend use, had little effect on use. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Isolation of porcine circovirus-like viruses from pigs with a wasting disease in the USA and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G M; McNeilly, F; Kennedy, S; Daft, B; Clarke, E G; Ellis, J A; Haines, D M; Meehan, B M; Adair, B M

    1998-01-01

    Samples of lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, and lymph node from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome from California (USA) and samples of mesenteric lymph nodes from similarly diseased pigs from Brittany (France) were examined by light microscopy, in situ hybridization (ISH), and/or virus isolation. Whole genomic probes for porcine circovirus (PCV) and chicken anemia virus (CAV) were used for ISH. Tissue homogenate supernatants were inoculated onto PK/15 cells for virus isolation, and the presence of viral antigen and viral particles was verified by indirect immunofluorescence, ISH, and electron microscopy. Histologic examination of lung from pigs from California revealed interstitial pneumonia, alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, and basophilic nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions in mononuclear cell infiltrates and various pulmonary epithelial cells. Granulomatous lymphadenitis with syncytial cells typified the lesions seen in the pigs from France. PCV-like nucleic acid was detected by ISH in lung, pancreas, lymph node, kidney, and liver in pigs from California. Positive signal was also obtained in lymph node sections from pigs from France. Probes for CAV were consistently negative. PK/15 cell cultures inoculated with lung preparations from diseased California pigs and mesenteric lymph node preparations from pigs from France had positive fluorescence by indirect staining for PCV using pooled polyclonal pig sera and hyperimmune rabbit serum and had variable staining with a panel of 7 monoclonal antibodies specific for cell culture contaminant PCV. PCV-like nucleic acid was also detected by ISH in cell cultures. Cytopathic effect was not observed. Electron microscopic examination of inoculated cell cultures revealed 17-nm viral particles morphologically consistent with PCV. No other virus particles were observed. Although genomic analysis for the definitive identification of these viral isolates remains to be done, the evidence provided strongly

  11. A novel porcine circovirus-like agent P1 is associated with wasting syndromes in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Wen

    Full Text Available A novel porcine pathogen tentatively named P1, which was obtained from the sera of the pigs exhibiting clinical signs of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS experimentally caused the classical clinic signs and pathologic lesions of the disease in pigs by direct in vivo injection with P1 DNA plasmids. Twenty colostrum-fed (CF pigs that were free of PCV2 and P1 at 1 month of age were randomly designated equally to two groups. Group 1 pigs were each injected with 400 µg of the cloned P1 plasmid DNA into the superficial inguinal lymph nodes and Group 2 were injected with same amount of the empty pSK vector DNA and served as controls. Viremias were positively detected in 8 of 10 P1 infected pigs from 14-21 days post-inoculation (dpi. The 8 infected animals showed pallor of skin and diarrhea. Gross lesions in the pigs euthanized on 35 dpi were similarly characterized by encephalemia, haemorrhage of the bladder mucosa, haemorrhage of the superficial inguinal lymph nodes, lung atrophy and haemorrhage. Histopathological lesions were arteriectasis and telangiectasia of the cavitas subarachnoidealis, interstitial pneumonia, mild atrophy of the cardiac muscle cells, histiocytic hyperplasia of the follicles in the tonsils, and haemorrhage of the inguinal lymph nodes. P1 DNA and antigens were confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry in the tissues and organs of the infected pigs, including the pancreas, bladders, testicles/ovaries, brains, lungs and liver. There were no obvious clinical signs and pathological lesions in the control pigs. This study demonstrated that P1 infection is one of the important pathologic agents on pig farms.

  12. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD in Ontario (Canada swine herds: Part II. Matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Beth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD was associated with high mortality in swine populations worldwide. Studies performed in different regions identified spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal trends as factors contributing to patterns of the disease spread. Patterns consistent with spatial trend and spatio-temporal clustering were already identified in this dataset. On the basis of these results, we have further investigated the nature of local spread in this report. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for incidence cases of reported PCVAD. Results A time-matched case-control study was used as a study design approach, and conditional logistic regression as the analytical method. The main exposure of interest was local spread, which was defined as an unidentified mechanism of PCVAD spread between premises located within 3 kilometers of the Euclidean distance. Various modifications of variables indicative of local spread were also evaluated. The dataset contained 278 swine herds from Ontario originally sampled either from diagnostic laboratory submissions or directly from the target population. A PCVAD case was defined on the basis of the producer's recall. Existence of apparent local spread over the entire study period was confirmed (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83, and was further identified to be time-varying in nature - herds experiencing outbreaks in the later part of the epidemic were more likely than control herds to be exposed to neighboring herds experiencing recent PCVAD outbreaks. More importantly, the pattern of local spread was driven by concurrent occurrence of PCVAD on premises under the same ownership (OREXACTwithin ownership = 25.6, 95% CI: 3.4, +inf; OREXACToutside ownership = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.45, 3.3. Other significant factors included PRRSv status of a herd (OREXACT = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.9, after adjusting for geographical location by including the binary

  13. Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2 in Mosquitoes from Pig Farms by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Yang, Lidan Hou, Jing Ye, Qigai He and Shengbo Cao*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate, whether mosquitoes could be potential vectors that maintain or transmit PCV2, 59 mosquito samples were collected from suspicious PCV2-infected pig farms in Hubei and Anhui province, China. Total DNA from these mosquitoes was extracted and then tested for presence of PCV2 nucleic acid by PCR. Four (6.78% samples showed the positive result. Subsequently, the positive PCR product was cloned into pEASY-T1 vector and sequenced. Sequence analysis displayed that homology between the PCR products and PCV2 strains were more than 94%. These results demonstrate that PCV2 nucleic acid exists in these mosquitoes, which suggests that mosquitoes could serve as mechanical transmission vectors of PCV2.

  14. Morphologic studies of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring porcine circovirus type 2 diseases in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif

    ) and experimental models of PCVDs are reviewed. In chapter 3, the results achieved by the research are presented as four manuscripts (I-IV): Manuscript I is focussed on the presence of PCV2 and viral replication, in the bone marrow and thymus of experimentally infected pigs and pigs naturally affected...... by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). By in situ hybridization (ISH) virus and viral replication was detected, mainly in histiocyte-like cells, in both organs of the PMWSaffected pigs. However, there was no evidence that bone marrow or thymus is especially important in regard of PCV2 replication....... In manuscript II the occurrence and tissue distribution of PCV2 is examined, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of lungs, kidneys, lymph nodes and spleen from slaughtered Danish finishing pigs with or without bronchopneumonia. Detection of PCV2 could not be related to lesions or PCVD. The virus was mainly detected...

  15. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep׳ proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Andrew K

    2015-07-01

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep׳, in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replication) and generates the single-stranded circular (ssc) genome from the displaced DNA strand. In the process, a minus-genome primer (MGP) necessary for complementary-strand synthesis, from ssc to ccc, is synthesized. Rep׳ cleaves the growing nascent-strand to regenerate the parent ccc molecule. In the process, a Rep׳-DNA hybrid containing the right palindromic sequence (at the origin of DNA replication) is generated. Analysis of the virus particle showed that it is composed of four components: ssc, MGP, capsid protein and a novel Rep-related protein (designated Protein-3). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. You can pool faecal samples from individual pigs to test for Porcine Circovirus Type 2 and Lawsonia intracellularis using real-time PCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holyoake, Patricia K.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    Introduction Real-time PCR tests have been developed to detect and quantify Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Lawsonia intracellularis in pigs’ faeces. Pooling of individual faecal samples is often used to reduce the costs of diagnostic testing. The objective of this study was to evaluate any...... change in the test sensitivity of PCV2 and L. intracellularis real-time PCR when individual faecal samples were pooled. Materials and Methods Forty eight faecal samples were collected from the rectum of individual pigs (>10 weeks) from four farms. Faecal samples were classified as diarrhoea +/- based...... on subjective assessment of consistency. Three individual samples were combined to make 16 pooled samples (8 diarrhoea; 8 non-diarrhoea). Individual and pooled samples were tested using real-time PCR tests specific for PCV2 and L. intracellularis. A positive result in any of the three individual samples...

  17. Induction of humoral immune response in piglets after perinatal or post-weaning immunization against porcine circovirus type-2 or keyhole limpet hemocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jessica; McCorkell, Robert; Muench, Greg; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Schaetzl, Hermann M; Solis, Cristina; Nourozieh, Narges; Waeckerlin, Regula; Eschbaumer, Michael; Horsman, Shawn; Czub, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2) vaccination is efficacious when administered in the first week of life. Three groups of pigs were vaccinated with Circumvent either early (at the end of week 1), late (at the end of week 4), or not at all. All 3 groups were later challenged intranasally with PCV2 (at the end of week 5). Two other groups were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as a novel antigen at the end of either week 1 or week 4. Weight, PCV2 genome copy number in serum and saliva, anti-KLH antibody titer, and serum PCV2-neutralizing antibodies were measured weekly. Early PCV2 vaccination or KLH antigen exposure resulted in earlier humoral responses that were slower to develop than in older piglets, yet converged with the responses to later vaccination within 5 wk. Both groups of vaccinated piglets had periods of higher PCV2-neutralizing antibody titers and lower viral levels shortly after weaning and PCV2 challenge, thus supporting the recent labelling of 1 Canadian PCV2 vaccine for use in week 1 and suggesting that early PCV2 vaccination can reduce piglet handling without compromising vaccine efficacy.

  18. Enhanced porcine circovirus Cap protein production by Pichia pastoris with a fuzzy logic DO control based methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue; Li, Chunhua; Ni, Jianping; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-05-10

    Porcine circovirus Cap protein production by P. pastoris with strong AOX promoter suffered with the problems with traditional pure methanol induction: (1) inefficient methanol metabolism; (2) extensive oxygen supply load; (3) difficulty in stable DO control; (4) low protein titer. In this study, based on the difference of DO change patterns in response to methanol and sorbitol additions, a novel fuzzy control system was proposed to automatically regulate the co-feeding rates of methanol and sorbitol for efficient Cap protein induction. With aid of the proposed control system when setting DO control level at 10%, overall fermentation performance was significantly improved: (1) DO could be stably controlled under mild aeration condition; (2) methanol consumption rate could be restricted at moderate level and the major enzymes involved with methanol metabolism were largely activated; (3) Cap protein concentration reached a highest level of 198mg/L, which was about 64% increase over the best one using the pure methanol induction strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine.

  20. Prevalence of porcine circovirus-2 DNA-positive ovarian and uterine tissues in gilts culled due to reproductive disturbance in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearodwong, Pachara; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Teankum, Komkrich; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Tummaruk, Padet

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) DNA-positive ovarian and uterine tissues in gilts culled due to reproductive disturbance in Thailand. Tissues (70 ovaries and 102 uteri) and serum (n = 102) samples from 102 gilts were included. PCV-2 DNA was detected by using polymerase chain reactions. The localisation of PCV-2 antigen was determined by immunohistochemistry, and PCV-2 antibody was evaluated by ELISA. PCV-2 DNA was detected in 30.0 % (21/70) of the ovaries and in 45.1 % (46/102) of the uteri. Age did not influence the frequency of PCV-2 DNA detection in these reproductive organs of gilts (P > 0.05). The prevalence of PCV-2 DNA-positive uterine tissue in gilts culled due to non-reproductive problems (20.0 %) was lower than gilts culled due to abortion (85.0 %), abnormal vaginal discharge (47.5 %) and anoestrus (53.5 %) (P gilts with high antibody titres (23.0 %) was lower than in gilts with low antibody titres (57.6 %) and seronegative gilts (64.5 %) (P gilts.

  1. Effect of sow vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) on virological profiles in herds with or without PCV2 systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Dewulf, Jeroen; Meyns, Tom; Del-Pozo-Sacristán, Rubén; Andreoni, Christine; Goubier, Anne; Chapat, Ludivine; Charreyre, Catherine; Joisel, François; Maes, Dominiek

    2016-06-01

    We investigated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) virological profiles in herds affected (PCVAD-AH, n = 5) or non-affected (PCVAD-NAH, n = 4) by PCV2-associated diseases (PCVAD), before and after 1 y of PCV2 gilt and sow vaccination. Fresh feces from the floor (5 pens/age/farm) and 5 blood samples (1/pen) were collected at 3, 9, 15, 21 wk. Individual feces and blood samples were collected from 5 gilts and 15 sows. Sampling was repeated 1 y after vaccination. Quantitative PCR on feces, PCV2 antibodies in blood serum and cell-mediated immunity were investigated. Before vaccination, pigs of PCVAD-AH had higher viral load in feces (9 and 15 wk), lower IgG and higher IgM (3 wk) and lower lymphocyte counts (9 and 15 wk) suggesting immunosuppression. Vaccination reduced viral load in growers, increased IgG (3 wk) suggesting improved maternal immunity, reduced IgM (3 wk), increased total antibody titers in sows and increased CD79a cells in the pigs.

  2. Generation and immunogenicity of porcine circovirus type 2 chimeric virus-like particles displaying porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 epitope B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gaowei; Wang, Naidong; Yu, Wanting; Wang, Zhanfeng; Zou, Yawen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Aibing; Deng, Zhibang; Yang, Yi

    2016-04-07

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be used as transfer vehicles carrying foreign proteins or antigen epitopes to produce chimeric VLPs for bivalent or multivalent vaccines. Based on the crystal structure of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein (Cap), in addition to alignment of the Cap sequences collected from various isolates of PCV2 and PCV1, we predicted that Loop CD of the PCV2 Cap should tolerate insertion of foreign epitopes, and furthermore that such an insertion could be presented on the surface of PCV2 VLPs. To validate this, the GP5 epitope B of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was inserted into Loop CD of the PCV2 Cap. The 3D structure of the recombinant PCV2 Cap (rCap) was simulated by homology modeling; it appeared that the GP5 epitope B was folded as a relatively independent unit, separated from the PCV2 Cap backbone. Furthermore, based on transmission electron microscopy, the purified PCV2 rCap self-assembled into chimeric VLPs which entered PK-15 cells. In addition, PCV2 chimeric VLPs induced strong humoral (neutralizing antibodies against PCV2 and PRRSV) and cellular immune responses in mice. We concluded that the identified insertion site in the PCV2 Cap had great potential to develop PCV2 VLPs-based bivalent or multivalent vaccines; furthermore, it would also facilitate development of a nano-device to present a functional peptide on the surface of the VLPs that could be used for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancing mucosal immunity in mice by recombinant adenovirus expressing major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein delivered with cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Tao; He, Xiu-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Chen, Lu; Guo, Quan-Hai; Yu, Qiu-Ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yang, Xia; Wang, Chuan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant replication-defective adenovirus expressing the major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) capsid protein (rAd/Cap/518) was previously constructed and shown to induce mucosal immunity in mice following intranasal delivery. In the present study, immune responses induced by intranasal immunization with a combination of rAd/Cap/518 and cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) were evaluated in mice. The levels of PCV-2-specific IgG in serum and IgA in saliva, lung, and intestinal fluids were significantly higher in the group immunized with rAd/Cap/518 and CpG ODN than animals immunized with rAd/Cap/518 alone. The frequencies of IL-2-secreting CD4⁺ T cells and IFN-γ-producing CD8⁺ T cells were significantly higher in the combined immunization group than mice immunized with rAd/Cap/518 alone. The frequencies of CD3⁺, CD3⁺CD4⁺CD8⁻, and CD3⁺CD4⁻CD8⁺ T cells in the combined immunization group were similar to that treated with CpG ODN alone, but significantly higher than mice that did not receive CpG ODN. PCV-2 load after challenge in the combined immunization group was significantly lower than that in the phosphate-buffered saline placebo group and approximately 7-fold lower in the group treated with CpG ODN alone. These results indicate that rAd/Cap/518 combined with CpG ODN can enhance systemic and local mucosal immunity in mice, and represent a promising synergetic mucosal vaccine against PCV-2.

  4. Detecção de fatores de virulência de Escherichia coli e análise de Salmonella spp. em psitacídeos Detection of virulence factors in Escherichia coli and analysis of Salmonella spp. in psittacines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora M. de O. Corrêa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A flora entérica dos psitacídeos é composta principalmente por bactérias Gram positivas. Bactérias Gram negativas, como Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp., apresentam elevado potencial patogênico, sendo consideradas indicativo de problemas de manejo, que poderão culminar em manifestação de doenças em decorrência de fatores estressantes, dietas deficientes e superlotação, combinados com alta carga bacteriana no ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli e os fatores de virulência dos genes iss e iutA dos isolados de E. coli. Analisou-se um total de 44 amostras provenientes de psitacídeos criados em cativeiro, sendo estas 15 fragmentos de órgãos de aves submetidas a exame de necropsia e também 29 amostras de swabs de cloaca e inglúvio de papagaios-charão (Amazona pretrei criados em cativeiro. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para Salmonella spp. Nas amostras de E. coli detectou-se ambos os fatores de virulência pesquisados.The enteric flora of psittacines is mainly composed of Gram positive bacteria. Gram negative bacteria, like Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., have a high pathogenic potential and can be considerate as an indicative of management problems that may culminate in disease manifestation due to stress factors, poor diets and overcrowding, in combination with a high bacterial load on the environment. The objective of this study was evaluated the presence of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and the virulence genes iss and iutA from E. coli isolates. Forty-four samples were analyzed from psittacines living in captivity, which fifteen samples were from organs fragments of necropsied birds, and twenty-nine were from cloacal and crop swabs of red-spectacled parrots (Amazona pretrei keeping in captivity. No samples were positive for Salmonella spp. In the samples in which E. coli was detected, both virulence factors (genes iss and iutA were present.

  5. Occurrence of swine salmonellosis in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs concurrently infected with porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Satoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kinoshita, Tomohide; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Ito, Noriko; Nakane, Takashi

    2006-04-01

    Fourteen diseased pigs from four farms in which there had been an outbreak of salmonellosis were investigated. Granulomatous inflammation with depletion of lymphocytes was observed in the swollen lymph nodes in these pigs. Antigens to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were immunolabeled in the lesions along with detection of viral DNA as PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, antigens to porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were immunodetected in the lungs and Salmonella Choleraesuis was isolated from the affected pigs. The nine salmonellosis affected pigs, five (55.6%) with salmonellosis and PMWS concurrently infected with PRRSV were much higher than those infected with salmonellosis and PMWS (22.2%) or with salmonellosis and PPPRV (22.2%).

  6. Filarial nematode infection in eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Li; Tsai, Shinn-Shyong; Thongchan, Duangsuda; Khatri-Chhetri, Rupak; Wu, Hung-Yi

    2017-04-01

    A total of 166 psittacines belonging to 22 species were received by the Animal Hospital of National Pingtung University of Science & Technology (NPUST) from 2013 to 2015. Only eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) were identified as hosts for microfilariae. All eclectus parrots were adult birds and had been kept in Taiwan for more than three years. The relevance of filariae to eclectus parrots is evident as indicated by the 35.7% (5/14) infection rate. At necropsy, adult filarial nematodes 57-75 mm in length and 0.4-0.7 mm in width were found in the hepatic veins. The microfilariae were 170-230 μm in length. Histopathological examination confirmed that eggs and larvae were observed in the ovaries and uteri of female filariae. These nematodes were closely related to an unidentified Filaria sp. (KJ612514.1) as indicated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from 18S ribosomal DNA gene (18S rDNA), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene, and internal transcribed spacers 1-5.8S ribosomal DNA gene (ITS 1-5.8S rDNA). However, structurally the filarial nematodes were similar to that of the Pelecitus sp. Eclectus parrot species are important pet birds and are highly traded, resulting in high uncertainty of the origin of the parasite infection. This study is the first of its kind to report the presence and potential impact of filarial nematode infection on eclectus parrots, suggesting parasite inspection prior to the international trade of these pet birds.

  7. A Case Report of Avian Polyomavirus Infection in a Blue Fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva Associated with Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Azevedo Philadelpho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Blue Fronted Amazon parrot (A. aestiva presenting with emesis, apathy, undigested seed in feces, and severe anemia was treated for approximately 2 months. Upon radiographic examination, an enlarged kidney was the only alteration. PCR for avian Bornavirus, Circovirus, and Polyomavirus was performed for the feces and blood. The results were positive for APV in both samples and negative for the other viruses. After 6 months, the feces from the same animal were negative for APV. Because the animal was positive for APV in both the feces and the blood, it is likely that these clinical symptoms were due to Polyomavirus infection. Severe anemia is an unusual clinical sign of Polyomavirus, and this study aims to identify novel differential diagnostic criteria for the disease.

  8. Discrepancy in the diagnosis of avian Borna disease virus infection of Psittaciformes by protein analysis of feather calami and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of plasma antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Josephine M; de Kloet, Siwo R

    2015-03-01

    The present study compares diagnosis of avian Borna disease virus (ABV) infection of psittacine birds by Western blot of bornaviral proteins in dried feather stems with the detection of anti-bornaviral protein antibodies to bornaviral proteins in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The detection of ABV proteins P40 and P24 in feather calami by Western blotting was possible even after storage of the dried feathers for several years at ambient temperature. Serological identification of anti-bornaviral antibodies may fail (e.g., in young birds, hatched from infected parents), whereas bornaviral P40 and P24 proteins were detected in feather stems. This failure can last at least 10 months after the birds are hatched. In some older birds (>5 years), ABV protein was only detectable in the brain, but not in some peripheral tissues, suggesting that the immune system had succeeded in removing the infecting ABV from tissues outside the brain. These results show that a combination of feather stem analysis for the presence of bornaviral proteins by Western blot combined with serological detection of anti-bornaviral antibodies by ELISA is the most reliable procedure for the detection of a bornaviral infection. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. No clear effect of initiating vaccination against common endemic infections on the amounts of prescribed antimicrobials for Danish weaner and finishing pigs during 2007-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Amanda Brinch; de Knegt, Leonardo Victor; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2017-01-01

    herds and for finishers in receiving herds were extracted from the VetStat database for a period of 12 months before and 6–18 months after the first purchase of vaccine, or random date and quantified as average animal daily doses (ADDs) per 100 animals per day. The herd-level difference between ADD......It is often stated that vaccines may help reduce antimicrobial use in swine production. However, limited evidence is available outside clinical trials. We studied the change in amounts of antimicrobials prescribed for weaners and finishers in herds following initiation of vaccination against five...... common endemic infections: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, porcine circovirus type II, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Lawsonia intracellularis. Comparison was made to the change after a randomly selected date in herds not vaccinating against each...

  10. A novel, highly divergent ssDNA virus identified in Brazil infecting apple, pear and grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Marcos Fernando; da Silva, José Cleydson Ferreira; Fajardo, Thor Vinícius Martins; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2015-12-02

    Fruit trees of temperate and tropical climates are of great economical importance worldwide and several viruses have been reported affecting their productivity and longevity. Fruit trees of different Brazilian regions displaying virus-like symptoms were evaluated for infection by circular DNA viruses. Seventy-four fruit trees were sampled and a novel, highly divergent, monopartite circular ssDNA virus was cloned from apple, pear and grapevine trees. Forty-five complete viral genomes were sequenced, with a size of approx. 3.4 kb and organized into five ORFs. Deduced amino acid sequences showed identities in the range of 38% with unclassified circular ssDNA viruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites (putative Replication-associated protein, Rep), and begomo-, curto- and mastreviruses (putative coat protein, CP, and movement protein, MP). A large intergenic region contains a short palindromic sequence capable of forming a hairpin-like structure with the loop sequence TAGTATTAC, identical to the conserved nonanucleotide of circoviruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites. Recombination events were not detected and phylogenetic analysis showed a relationship with circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. PCR confirmed the presence of this novel ssDNA virus in field plants. Infectivity tests using the cloned viral genome confirmed its ability to infect apple and pear tree seedlings, but not Nicotiana benthamiana. The name "Temperate fruit decay-associated virus" (TFDaV) is proposed for this novel virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staph is short for Staphylococcus, a type of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including Skin infections Pneumonia ...

  12. Use of PCR-based assays for the detection of the adventitious agent porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in vaccines, and for confirming the identity of cell substrates and viruses used in vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Beach, Nathan M; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Hegde, Nagendra R

    2012-01-01

    Safety and quality are important issues for vaccines. Whereas reversion to virulence poses a safety risk with live attenuated vaccines, the potential for the presence of adventitious agents is also an issue of vaccine quality. The recent detection or porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in human vaccines has further highlighted the importance of quality control in vaccine production. The purpose of this study was to use a novel conventional PCR to detect PCV1, and subsequently screen materials used in the manufacture of vaccines at Bharat Biotech International Limited, India. The genome or gene fragments of PCV1 were not detected in any of the vaccines and materials tested, including the live attenuated rotavirus vaccine candidate ROTAVAC(®). Further, the identity of the cells and the viruses used as starting materials in the manufacture of these vaccines was confirmed by species-specific PCR or virus-specific RT-PCR, and no cross-contamination was detected in any case. The methods can be applied for regular in-house quality control screening of raw materials and seeds/banks, as well as formulated vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of husbandry and control measures on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) dynamics within a farrow-to-finish pig farm: a modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraud, M; Rose, N; Grasland, B; Pierre, J S; Jestin, A; Madec, F

    2009-11-01

    We assessed, using a modelling approach, the influence of several management practices within a farrow-to-finish farm on the age of PCV-2 infection. The impact of PCV-2 vaccination with different vaccination schemes on infection dynamics, was also tested. A stochastic individual-based model describing the population dynamics in a typical French farrow-to-finish pig farm was built and coupled with an epidemiological model of PCV-2 infection. The parameters of the infectious model were mainly obtained from previous transmission experiments. Results were subjected to a survival analysis of time-to-infection. For each comparison, the reference situation was no vaccination followed by random mixing of piglets after birth and after weaning. The risk of early infection was significantly reduced when mixing of piglets was reduced at different stages (avoiding cross-fostering and grouping piglets by litters in small pens after weaning, hazard ratio (HR)=0.52 [0.46; 0.59]). Sow-targeted vaccination delayed the infectious process until the waning of passive immunity and piglet-targeted vaccination considerably decreased the force of infection leading to a dramatic decrease of the total number of infections (HR=0.44 [0.37; 0.54]). The effect was even more pronounced when strict management measures were applied (HR=0.24 [0.19; 0.31]). Changing from a low (3%) prevalence of PCV-2-infected semen to a higher one (18%) significantly increased the risk of early infections (HR=1.36 [1.2; 1.53]), whereas reducing replacement rate or changing sow housing from individual crates to group housing had a limited impact on PCV-2 dynamics.

  14. Ear necrosis syndrome in weaning pigs associated with PCV2 infection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Papatsiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Porcine necrotic ear syndrome (PNES in pigs has been reported as an increasing health problem in many countries with intensive pig farming. The etiology of this disease is complex and the presumed triggering factors can be divided into infectious and non-infectious agents. The present report describes a case of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, infection associated with lesions of PNES at the weaning stage of a farrow-to-finish pig farm. Approximately 35% of weaners (1-3 weeks after weaning presented clinical symptoms similar to Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS. About 2-3 weeks after weaning the first lesions of PNES occurred in approximately 20% of pigs, resulting in a significant health problem characterized by poor growth or severe wasting and finally mortality up to 15% in some batches. Moreover, approximately 5% of survived weaners, during growing / finishing stage, presented poor growth and secondary co-infections that lead to death. The present study based on the clinical signs, serological and pathological examinations, indicates that weaners suffered by sub-acute PCV2 infection resulting in PMWS associated with PNES. The lesions of PNES were initially observed at the same period (4-8 weeks of age with the higher seroprevalence of PCV2 infection. Metaphylaxis of this case included intramuscular injection of florfenicol for the treatment and control of skin lesions and respiratory signs. Moreover, piglets were vaccinated against PCV2. In conclusion, sub-acute PCV2 infection could be included in triggering factors PNES in weaners. The mass vaccination against PCV2 of infected piglets might be effective in reduction of clinical signs and losses of PNES in cases of PCV2 infection associated with PNES.

  15. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  16. Pneumococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for many cases of Brain and spinal cord infection (meningitis) Lung infection (pneumonia) Infection of the bloodstream (bacteremia) Joint infection ( ... other illnesses or health conditions such as HIV infection, certain cancers (eg, leukemia, ... or kidney disease. Last Updated 11/21/2015 ...

  17. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell–core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Long; Li, Xuepu; Shao, Kang; Ye, Shiyi; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Chenjun; Han, Heyou, E-mail: hyhan@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2015-08-05

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL{sup −1} with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. - Highlights: • A versatile ELISA-based immunoassay for PCV2 antibody was developed. • Enzyme and CdSe QDs modified SiO{sub 2} particles were used to improve sensitivity. • The simultaneous three ELISA-based techniques enhanced the detection reliability. • The biosensors strategy could provide a new avenue to ELISA-based sensors.

  18. Perfil sorológico para circovírus suíno tipo 2 em granjas comerciais de suínos no Brasil Serological profiles to porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de imunoperoxidase em monocamada de células (IPMC para demonstração de anticorpos contra o circovírus suíno tipo 2 (CVS2 foi empregada para a investigação sorológica em oito granjas de suínos destinadas à produção comercial. Das 240 amostras de soros testadas, 229 (95,4% foram reagentes com títulos que variaram de 20 até 10.240. Títulos de anticorpos foram detectados nas faixas etárias de duas a três semanas até animais acima de 24 semanas e encontrados em granjas com e sem a síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento (SMD. A média dos títulos de anticorpos revelou diferenças estatísticas (PThe immunoperoxidase in monolayer cells (IPMC technique for the demonstration of antibodies against type 2 porcine circovirus (PCV2 was used for the serological investigation in eight industrial swine farms. Out of the 240 tested sera, 229 (95,4% were reactive with titers which varied from 20 up to 10.240. Titers of antibodies were detected in pigs from two to three weeks of age up to above 24 weeks of age, and were observed in farms with and without clinical signs indicative of the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. Analysing the mean titers, statistical differences (P<0.05 were evidentiated in two age intervals, of 11 to 13 and 14 to 22 weeks of age. The results indicate the importance of determining the serological profiles of commercial swine herds, in order to enable the implantation of effective hygiene and vaccination protocols for PCV2 prevention.

  19. Experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs in Sweden and Denmark with a Swedish isolate of porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasslung, F.; Wallgren, P.; Hansen, Anne-Sofie Ladekjær

    2005-01-01

    and histological lesions consistent with PMWS. All pigs inoculated with PPV, alone or in combination with PCV2, displayed interleukin-10 responses in serum while only pigs infected with PPV in combination with PCV2 showed interferon-a in serum on repeated occasions. Thus, the pathogenicity of S-PCV2 was confirmed...

  20. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... with any of the following roundworms: Necator americanus Ancylostoma ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma braziliense The first 2 ...

  1. Occurrence of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Common and Noninvasive Diagnostic Sampling from Parrots and Racing Pigeons in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovč, Alenka; Jereb, Gregor; Krapež, Uroš; Gregurić-Gračner, Gordana; Pintarič, Štefan; Slavec, Brigita; Knific, Renata Lindtner; Kastelic, Marjan; Kvapil, Pavel; Mićunović, Jasna; Vadnjal, Stanka; Ocepek, Matjaž; Zadravec, Marko; Zorman-Rojs, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Airborne pathogens can cause infections within parrot (Psittaciformes) and pigeon (Columbiformes) holdings and, in the case of zoonoses, can even spread to humans. Air sampling is a useful, noninvasive method which can enhance the common sampling methods for detection of microorganisms in bird flocks. In this study, fecal and air samples were taken from four parrot holdings. Additionally, cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs as well as air samples were taken from 15 racing pigeon holdings. Parrots were examined for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), proventricular dilatation disease virus (PDDV), adenoviruses (AdVs), avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), Chlamydia psittaci (CP), and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). MAC and AdVs were detected in three parrot holdings, CP was detected in two parrot holdings, and PBFDV and PDDV were each detected in one parrot holding. Pigeons were examined for the pigeon circovirus (PiCV), AdVs, and CP; PiCV and AdVs were detected in all investigated pigeon holdings and CP was detected in five pigeon holdings.

  2. Plumage disorders in psittacine birds - part 1: feather abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.; Schoemaker, N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plumage disorders in parrots represent one of the more common, but also one of the more challenging and frustrating problems that veterinarians dealing with parrots in their daily practice face on a day-to-day basis. Various types of plumage disorders may be identified, including stress marks,

  3. Plumage disorders in psittacine birds - part 2: feather damaging behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.; Schoemaker, N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plumage disorders in parrots represent one of the more common, but also one of the more challenging and frustrating problems that veterinarians dealing with parrots in their daily practice face on a day-to-day basis. This second part of the review will deal with diseases causing lack of feather

  4. Novel borna virus in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Shivaprasad, H L; Williams, Brent L; Quan, Phenix Lan; Hornig, Mady; Street, Craig; Palacios, Gustavo; Hutchison, Stephen K; Franca, Monique; Egholm, Michael; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian

    2008-12-01

    Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds.

  5. A field efficacy and safety trial in the Netherlands in pigs vaccinated at 3 weeks of age with a ready-to-use porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae combined vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk Kaalberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory diseases impair the health and welfare of growing pigs and impacts farmers’ gains worldwide. Their control through a preventative medical approach has to be tailored according to the pathogens identified at farm level. In the Netherlands, several studies have emphasized the prominent role of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Porcine Circovirus type 2 and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in such respiratory conditions. Further to the arrival on the Dutch market of the first commercially available bivalent vaccine against PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae, Porcilis® PCV M. Hyo, a trial was designed to evaluate its safety and efficacy under local field conditions. Material and methods In a conventional farrow-to-finish 170-sow farm with a history of respiratory diseases and demonstrated circulation of both M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2, 812 piglets were randomised and included at weaning in either of the three following groups: PCVM (vaccinated with Porcilis® PCV M. Hyo, FLEX (vaccinated with CircoFLEX® and MycoFLEX® or NC (negative control, injected with placebo. Piglets were vaccinated at 3 weeks of age (day 0 and a subset was bled and weighed at regular intervals up to slaughter. Lung slaughter checks were only performed on 64% of the pigs included on day 0. Results and implication No side effect of injection was observed in any of the three groups. Average daily weight gain was improved in both vaccinated groups as compared to the NC group, over the finishing period as well as from wean-to-finish. The PCVM group had a significantly lower PCV2 viremia area under the curve than the two other groups, and a significant reduction in the severity of the pneumonia-like lesions was observed at slaughter in the pigs of the PCVM group. A conservative estimate of the economic benefit of that vaccine was 2.84 € per finisher. This trial confirms that the vaccine is efficacious against the health and growth effects of

  6. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis), and a number of skin infections (eg, impetigo, pimples, boils). Staphylococcus aureus also causes toxin-related ... cases clear up in 7 to 10 days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in ...

  7. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... reactive arthritis or Guillain-Barre syndrome. To prevent Campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  8. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all children in the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  9. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Staph Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Staph Infections What's in ... en español Infecciones por estafilococo What Is a Staph Infection? Staph is the shortened name for Staphylococcus ( ...

  10. Dynamics of serum antibodies to and load of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 in pigs in three finishing herds, affected or not by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Anne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite that PMWS commonly affects pigs aged eight to sixteen weeks; most studies of PMWS have been conducted during the period before transfer to finishing herds. This study focused on PCV2 load and antibody dynamics in finishing herds with different PMWS status. Methods Sequentially collected blood samples from 40 pigs in each of two Swedish (A and B and one Norwegian (C finishing herds were analysed for serum PCV2-load and -antibodies and saliva cortisol. The two Swedish herds differed in PMWS status, despite receiving animals from the same sow pool (multi-site production. However, the PMWS-deemed herd (A had previously also received pigs from the spot market. ResultsThe initial serum PCV2 load was similar in the two Swedish herds. In herd A, it peaked after two weeks in the finishing herd and a high number of the pigs had serum PCV2 levels above 107 per ml. The antibody titres increased continually with exception for the pigs that developed PMWS, that had initially low and then declining antibody levels. Pigs in the healthy herd B also expressed high titres of antibodies to PCV2 on arrival but remained at that level throughout the study whereas the viral load steadily decreased. No PCV2 antibodies and only low amounts of PCV2 DNA were detected in serum collected during the first five weeks in the PMWS-free herd C. Thereafter a peak in serum PCV2 load accompanied by an antibody response was recorded. PCV2 from the two Swedish herds grouped into genotype PCV2b whereas the Norwegian isolate grouped into PCV2a. Cortisol levels were lower in herd C than in herds A and B. Conclusions The most obvious difference between the Swedish finishing herds and the Norwegian herd was the time of infection with PCV2 in relation to the time of allocation, as well as the genotype of PCV2. Clinical PMWS was preceded by low levels of serum antibodies and a high load of PCV2 but did not develop in all such animals. It is notable that herd A

  11. Dynamics of serum antibodies to and load of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pigs in three finishing herds, affected or not by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Inger M; Fossum, Caroline; Lium, Bjørn; Blomqvist, Gunilla; Merlot, Elodie; Jørgensen, Anne; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Rimstad, Espen; Jonassen, Christine M; Wallgren, Per

    2010-03-19

    Despite that PMWS commonly affects pigs aged eight to sixteen weeks; most studies of PMWS have been conducted during the period before transfer to finishing herds. This study focused on PCV2 load and antibody dynamics in finishing herds with different PMWS status. Sequentially collected blood samples from 40 pigs in each of two Swedish (A and B) and one Norwegian (C) finishing herds were analysed for serum PCV2-load and -antibodies and saliva cortisol. The two Swedish herds differed in PMWS status, despite receiving animals from the same sow pool (multi-site production). However, the PMWS-deemed herd (A) had previously also received pigs from the spot market. The initial serum PCV2 load was similar in the two Swedish herds. In herd A, it peaked after two weeks in the finishing herd and a high number of the pigs had serum PCV2 levels above 107 per ml. The antibody titres increased continually with exception for the pigs that developed PMWS, that had initially low and then declining antibody levels. Pigs in the healthy herd B also expressed high titres of antibodies to PCV2 on arrival but remained at that level throughout the study whereas the viral load steadily decreased. No PCV2 antibodies and only low amounts of PCV2 DNA were detected in serum collected during the first five weeks in the PMWS-free herd C. Thereafter a peak in serum PCV2 load accompanied by an antibody response was recorded. PCV2 from the two Swedish herds grouped into genotype PCV2b whereas the Norwegian isolate grouped into PCV2a. Cortisol levels were lower in herd C than in herds A and B. The most obvious difference between the Swedish finishing herds and the Norwegian herd was the time of infection with PCV2 in relation to the time of allocation, as well as the genotype of PCV2. Clinical PMWS was preceded by low levels of serum antibodies and a high load of PCV2 but did not develop in all such animals. It is notable that herd A became affected by PMWS after errors in management routine

  12. [Nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Graf, Jürgen; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated for the year 2006 that around 500,000 to 600,000 nosocomial infections occurred in Germany and that among these 10,000 to 15,000 patients died of the infection. Nosocomial infections in general lengthen the duration of hospitalisation by on average 4 days - with associated extra costs of 4000 to 20,000 Euro per case. About a third of all infections acquired in hospital are considered to be avoidable. However, the classification of an infection as nosocomial does not automatically mean that a causal relationship exists between a medical intervention and the occurrence of the infection. Also a nosocomial infection is not a synonym for medical or nursing errors. The first epidemiological report of the EU emphasises the health-political and health-economical significance of nosocomial infections and classifies the increasing number of infections acquired in hospitals as a most important danger - even higher than the threats of pandemic influenza and HIV. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  13. Streptococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test during ... or already have health problems. Strep B can cause urinary tract infections, blood ... and pneumonia in adults. Antibiotics are used to treat strep ...

  14. Nail infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, K T; Bonar, P L

    1989-04-01

    Nail infections are and will continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to all foot physicians. Attention to basic concepts of accurate detailed history and physical examination will aid in the determination of the etiology of these infections. Following basic guidelines of incision and drainage, gram stain, soaks, and antibiotics will be the cornerstone of initial treatment of pyogenic infections. Upon resolution of the acute infection a permanent treatment plan can be constituted based on the etiology. Nail infections of mycotic nature require an understanding by both patient and doctor as to the difficulty and resistance to treatment of this problem. It is the authors' opinion that aggressive persistent treatment will provide the best long-term result when dealing with mycotic infections. This may require nail removal, local and systemic treatment as well as change in shoe environment. As we have seen and is stated throughout this text, the nail and its pathologic processes can be a mirror of systemic disease. Many times a dystrophic infected nail may be the initial clinical presentation of a much more involved disease process. It is the responsibility and duty of all foot physicians to have a total understanding of knowledge of normal and pathologic process that affect the nail plates, nail bed, and surrounding nail proper. I hope this article will stimulate the foot physician to approach the disease of the nail with a high index of suspicion and respect.

  15. Tapeworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tapeworm (Taenia solium) is greater in areas of Latin America, China, sub-Saharan Africa or Southeast Asia where ... as well as seizures, meningitis, hydrocephalus or dementia. Death can occur in severe cases of infection. Organ ...

  16. Norovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you experience severe vomiting, bloody stools, abdominal pain or dehydration. Causes Noroviruses are highly contagious and are shed in the feces of infected humans and animals. Methods of transmission include: Eating contaminated food Drinking ...

  17. MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Runny nose MRSA infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  18. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and vomiting Pinworm infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  20. Norovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get it if you touch a contaminated surface. Norovirus can be serious, especially for young children and older adults. The most common symptoms of norovirus infection are Diarrhea Nausea and vomiting Stomach pain ...

  1. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... on the face and neck, sometimes after a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction ...

  2. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your hands before touching other people and before handling food. (Anyone with a diarrhea should not prepare food ... should be kept away from other kids. Proper handling, storage, and preparation of food can also help prevent Shigella infections. Cold foods ...

  3. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection of the paronychium (pay-roh-NIK-ee-um), which is the area around the fingernail ( ... term?) for single-character wildcard matching. For example, pa?ent would give you results for parent, patent, ...

  4. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the most common Campylobacter species associated with diarrhea . Common ways that a child can get the ... and Symptoms Illness caused by Campylobacter infections includes diarrhea, stomach pain, and fever. Blood may be present ...

  5. Porcine Circovirus Diseases: A review of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekbo, P.; Kristensen, C. S.; Larsen, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta‐analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy...

  6. Beak and feather disease virus: correlation between viral load and clinical signs in wild Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). This study assessed viral load using qPCR in a wild Cape parrot population affected by PBFD and compared it to overall physical condition based on clinical signs attributable to PBFD. A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. This is the first assessment of BFDV viral load in a wild psittacine population.

  7. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  8. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  9. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contact with fecal matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread the bacteria to people. ... preparing food. Clean and disinfect toilets after the person with diarrhea uses them. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands ...

  10. Fusarium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Maged; Anagnostou, Theodora; Desalermos, Athanasios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Carneiro, Herman A.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Coleman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested. PMID:24145697

  11. Chlamydia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have a partner who has a sexually transmitted disease. Pregnant women should get a test when they go to ... partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted disease Men who have ... of chlamydia? In women, an untreated infection can spread to your uterus ...

  12. Protozoan Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    respond poorly to antimicrobial therapy. Organisms closely related to Leishmania include Trypanosoma cruzi , which causes American trypanosomiasis...1978). Trypanosoma cruzi also does not 22. Protozoan Infections 689 inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, but escapes from the parasitophorous vacuole to...y from solution. Approximately one-third of antileishmanial activity remains, however, when lymphokine preparations are treated with anti -IFN (Nacy et

  13. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  14. Infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory T cell proliferative responses and IFN-γ productivity sustain long-lasting efficacy of a Cap-based PCV2 vaccine upon PCV2 natural infection and associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Borghetti, Paolo; De Angelis, Elena; Martelli, Paolo

    2014-04-16

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination represents an important measure to cope with PCV2 infection; however, data regarding the modulation of the immune cell compartment are still limited, especially under field conditions. This study is aimed at investigating the features of the cellular immune response in conventional piglets induced by vaccination using a capsid (Cap) protein-based PCV2 vaccine compared to unvaccinated animals when exposed to PCV2 natural infection. Immune reactivity was evaluated by quantifying peripheral cell subsets involved in the anti-viral response and characterizing the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secreting cell (SC) responsiveness both in vivo and upon in vitro whole PCV2 recall. The vaccination triggered an early and intense IFN-γ secreting cell response and induced the activation of peripheral lymphocytes. The early increase of IFN-γ SC frequencies resulted in a remarkable and transient tendency to increased IFN-γ productivity in vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated animals, soon before the onset of infection occurred 15-16 weeks post-vaccination, the recalled PCV2-specific immune response was characterized by moderate PCV2-specific IFN-γ secreting cell frequencies and augmented productivity together with reactive CD4+CD8+ memory T cells. Conversely, upon infection, unvaccinated animals showed very high frequencies of IFN-γ secreting cells and a tendency to lower productivity, which paralleled with effector CD4-CD8+ cytotoxic cell responsiveness. The study shows that PCV2 vaccination induces a long-lasting immunity sustained by memory T cells and IFN-γ secreting cells that potentially played a role in preventing the onset of infection; the extent and duration of this reactivity can be an important feature for evaluating the protective immunity induced by vaccination.

  16. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...

  17. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal discharge with a cottage cheese appearance Complicated yeast infection You might have a complicated yeast infection ... have an uncomplicated or a complicated infection. Uncomplicated yeast infection For mild to moderate symptoms and infrequent ...

  18. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  19. Escherichia coli Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvana, Sejal; Krilov, Leonard R

    2015-04-01

    Virulent strains of Escherichia coli are responsible for most diarrheal infections, meningitis, septicemia, and urinary tract infections in children worldwide. Clinicians must learn to recognize, treat, and prevent these infections. After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the epidemiology of E coli infections. 2. Recognize the clinical features of E coli infections, including the O157: H7 strain. 3. Appropriately treat children with various types of E coli infections. 4. Understand ways to prevent E coli infections.

  20. Monkeypoxvirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, S R

    2000-04-01

    During and after the smallpox eradication campaign, human cases of monkeypox appeared in West and Central Africa, as isolated cases or as small epidemics. Since inter-human transmission has never or only very exceptionally been documented, monkeypox does not represent a serious threat to humans. The virus reservoir is among tree squirrels living in the tropical rain forests of Africa and humans are infected by hunting, killing and skinning these animals. However, the modernization of society lessens human contact with the virus reservoir. Since the eradication of smallpox, stocks of variola virus have been maintained; whether these stocks should now be destroyed is a political question, which is seriously compromised by mistrust between countries.

  1. Arenavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.

  2. Hantavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  3. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections Print A ... Last? Can Salmonella Infections Be Prevented? What Is Salmonella ? Salmonella is a kind of bacteria , with many ...

  4. Metabolic Imaging of Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawal, Ismaheel; Zeevaart, JanRijn; Ebenhan, Thomas; Ankrah, Alfred; Vorster, Mariza; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Govender, Thavendran; Sathekge, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic imaging has come to occupy a prominent place in the diagnosis and management of microbial infection. Molecular probes available for infection imaging have undergone a rapid evolution starting with nonspecific agents that accumulate similarly in infection, sterile inflammation, and

  5. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria infection Overview Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is most commonly contracted by eating improperly ...

  6. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...

  7. Infections and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  8. Group B Strep Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org editorial staff Home Diseases and Conditions Group B Strep Infection Condition Group B Strep Infection Share Print Group B Strep Infection Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. ...

  9. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of swine with spontaneous influenza A infection in Brazil, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane T.N. Watanabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza (SI is caused by the type A swine influenza virus (SIV. It is a highly contagious disease with a rapid course and recovery. The major clinical signs and symptoms are cough, fever, anorexia and poor performance. The disease has been associated with other co-infections in many countries, but not in Brazil, where, however, the first outbreak has been reported in 2011. The main aim of this study was to characterize the histological features in association with the immunohistochemical (IHC results for influenza A (IA, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in lung samples from 60 pigs submitted to Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS, Brazil, during 2009-2010. All of these lung samples had changes characterized by interstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis, never observed previously in the evaluation of swine lungs in our laboratory routine. Pigs in this study had showed clinical signs of a respiratory infection. Swine samples originated from Rio Grande do Sul 31 (52%, Santa Catarina 14 (23%, Paraná 11 (18%, and Mato Grosso do Sul 4 (7%. Positive anti-IA IHC labelling was observed in 45% of the cases, which were associated with necrotizing bronchiolitis, atelectasis, purulent bronchopneumonia and hyperemia. Moreover, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar and bronchiolar polyp-like structures, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT hyperplasia and pleuritis were the significant features in negative anti-IA IHC, which were also associated with chronic lesions. There were only two cases with positive anti-PCV2 IHC and none to PRRSV. Therefore, SIV was the predominant infectious agent in the lung samples studied. The viral antigen is often absent due to the rapid progress of SI, which may explain the negative IHC results for IA (55%; therefore, IHC should be performed at the beginning of the disease. This study

  10. Beak and feather disease virus haemagglutinating activity using erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kondiah

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD is a common viral disease of wild and captive psittacine birds characterized by symmetric feather loss and beak deformities. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV, is a small, circular single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the genus Circovirus. BFDV can be detected by PCR or the use of haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI assays that detect antigen and antibodies respectively. Erythrocytes from a limited number of psittacine species of Australian origin can be used in these tests. In South Africa, the high cost of these birds makes them difficult to obtain for experimental purposes. Investigation into the use of erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots yielded positive results showing the haemagglutinating activity of their erythrocytes with purified BFDV obtained from confirmed clinical cases of the disease. The HA activity was further confirmed by the demonstration of HI using BFDV antiserum from three different African Grey parrots previously exposed to the virus and not showing clinical signs of the disease.

  11. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  12. Shewanella putrefaciens infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Constant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes infection in humans. In the last few decades a growing number of cases have been described. The following report outlines the case of a 40-year-old immunocompetent white man with S. putrefaciens infective endocarditis. This is the first known case of infective endocarditis due to an apparently monomicrobial S. putrefaciens infection, and the second known case of S. putrefaciens-related infective endocarditis worldwide.

  13. Postoperative pelvic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Constance; Faro, Sebastian

    2008-12-01

    Infectious morbidity affecting the postoperative course has long been a concern for obstetricians and gynecologists. The incidence of postoperative infections approaches 38%. The third most common nosocomial infection is surgical site infection. The realm of postoperative infections includes obstetric and gynecologic sources. An understanding of the basic fundamentals of the vaginal flora and addressing host and surgical risk factors can aid in prevention of postoperative infections, which result in significant morbidity and mortality.

  14. Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3) harvested from the Faeces of Naturally Infected Swayne's Hartebeest ( Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei ) at Senkele Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary, Ethiopia.

  15. Learn About Cronobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Learn About Cronobacter Infection Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... but infections in young infants can be deadly. Learn what steps you can take to protect your ...

  16. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001041.htm Salivary gland infections To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). ...

  17. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  18. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux ( ...

  19. Staph infections - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000449.htm Staph infections - hospital To use the sharing features on ... can also spread from one person to another. Staph Infections in the Hospital Staph germs are mostly ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections ... begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, ...

  1. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yeast Infections Print A A A en español Infecciones vaginales por hongos What Are Vaginal Yeast Infections? ... keep the amount in a person's body under control. But yeast in the vagina can sometimes "overgrow" ...

  2. Clostridium difficile infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geller, Stephen A; Campos, Fernando P. F. de

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element...

  3. Infection and esophageal cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al‐Haddad, Sahar; El‐Zimaity, Hala; Hafezi‐Bakhtiari, Sara; Rajendra, Shanmugarajah; Streutker, Catherine J; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on infection and cancer, and includes commentaries on the influence of bacterial infections on mucin expression and cancer risk...

  4. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body When you hear ... of Chlamydia bacteria. Another species, called Chlamydia (or Chlamydophila ) pneumoniae, causes respiratory illnesses. These lung infections are spread ...

  5. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lakes can lead to an infection and chronic diarrhea. Infants in childcare settings can become infected with ... than 2 weeks, however, are a sign of chronic diarrhea. Call your doctor if you think that you ...

  6. Diabetic foot infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bader, MS

    2008-01-01

    .... Diabetic foot infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci, are the most common pathogens in previously untreated mild and moderate infection...

  7. Breast infection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most breast infections occur in breastfeeding women when bacteria enters the breast through cracks in the nipple. In severe infections, abscesses may occur. Antibiotics may be indicated for treatment.

  8. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening infection. How Is Listeriosis Treated? Healthy kids, teens, and adults with a Listeria infection typically don' ... November 2017 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Staying Healthy During Pregnancy Why Is Hand Washing ...

  9. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  10. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Chapter 3 - Influenza HIV Infection Philip J. Peters, John T. Brooks INFECTIOUS AGENT ... skin (see Chapter 8, Health Care Workers ). EPIDEMIOLOGY HIV infection occurs worldwide. As of the end of 2014, ...

  11. Yeast Infection during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK? What's the best way to treat a yeast infection during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. You can safely treat a yeast infection during pregnancy with various over-the-counter ...

  12. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  13. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  14. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organ space SSI. • Infection occurs within 30 days if no implant, or within a year if implant and the infection seems to be related to the operation and infection occurs in any anatomical site ... Diagnosis of an organ/space SSI made by the surgeon or ..... selected projects ”enlist the best academic researchers and industry to.

  15. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F

    1993-08-01

    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  16. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Old traumatic wounds with retained devitalized tissue and those that involve existing clinical infection or perforated viscera. This definition suggests that the organisms that caused the post-operative infection had been present at the start of the procedure. * Garner JS and Simmons. Table II: National nosocomial Infections ...

  17. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with En...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  18. Diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated.

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Sports 5 Ideas for Eco-Friendly Celebrations Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Urinary Tract Infections Print ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  20. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by ... common bacterial infections? If so, these recurrent infections may be a sign of an immunodeficiency disorder. The ...

  1. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more......Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence...... of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...

  2. Reduction of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 viremia by a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immunity after experimental PCV2 challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hwi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to elucidate the humoral and cellular immune response mechanisms by which a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine reduces the PCV2 viremia. Forty PCV2 seronegative 3-week-old pigs were randomly divided into the following four groups: vaccinated challenged (T01, vaccinated non-challenged (T02, non-vaccinated challenged (T03, and non-vaccinated non-challenged (T04 animals. The pigs in groups T01 and T02 were immunized with a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine (Fostera™ PCV; Pfizer Animal Health administered as a 2.0 ml dose at 21 days of age. At 35 days of age (0 days post-challenge, the pigs in groups T01 and T03 were inoculated intranasally with 2 ml each of PCV2b. Results A reduction of PCV2 viremia coincided with the appearance of both PCV2-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA and interferon-γ-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SCs in the vaccinated animals. However, the presence of anti-PCV2 IgG antibodies did not correlate with the reduction of PCV2 viremia. Lymphocyte subset analysis indicated that the numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ cells increased in vaccinated animals but the numbers of CD4+ cells decreased transiently in non-vaccinated animals. The observation of a delayed type hypersensitivity response in only the vaccinated animals also supports a CD4+ cell-associated protective cellular immune response induced by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine. Conclusions The induction of PCV2-specific NA and IFN-γ-SCs, and CD4+ cells by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine is the important protective immune response leading to reduction of the PCV2 viremia and control of the PCV2 infection. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of protective humoral and cellular immunity induced by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine and its effect on reduction of PCV2 viremia by vaccination.

  3. [Deep neck infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible.

  4. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  5. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  6. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    D'Oronzio, U; Arlettaz, R.; Hagmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical details of 50 infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified in a prospective study are reported. The mean birthweight, gestational age, and head circumference of children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection were not significantly different from those of controls. Three (6%) had symptoms at birth--two neurological and one pneumonitis. In the first four months of life transient hepatosplenomegaly occurred in two infected children and six suffered interstitial pneum...

  7. Infections in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Sampathkumar, Priya

    2017-12-01

    Neurointensive care (NICU) patients experience complex infectious disease challenges. Central nervous system (CNS) infections are difficult to diagnose and treat, and post-neurosurgical patients are vulnerable to a unique set of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) in addition to those typical of critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to summarize the approach to suspected infection in the NICU and discuss management of several infectious syndromes in the NICU setting.

  8. [Infection and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatz, A; Boecker, M; Schuppe, H-C; Diemer, Th; Wagenlehner, F

    2016-07-01

    Infections in the urogenital tract are accepted causes of male infertility. Epidemiologic data indicate 6-10 % of all males undergoing andrological work-up for infertility having an infectious etiology. This review gives a comprehensive overview on the most important urogenital tract infections (prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis, male accessory gland infection-MAGI) and the impact on fertility. In males suffering infertility, evidence is also presented regarding an infectious etiology.

  9. Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element in the challenging battle against hospital-acquired infections. This Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming colonizes the intestinal tract after antibiotics have altered the normal intestinal flora.

  10. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  11. Listeria Placental Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Véázquez-Boland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection. Pregnant women are at risk of contracting listeriosis, which can potentially lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and congenital neonatal infections. While other systemic bacterial infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes at comparable frequencies, L. monocytogenes has particular notoriety because fetal complications largely occur in the absence of overt illness in the mother, delaying medical intervention. Here, we briefly review the pathophysiology and mechanisms of maternofetal listeriosis, discussed in light of a recent mBio report on Listeria transplacental infection in a nonhuman primate model.

  12. HIV infections in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Olszewska, Ewa; Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection may produce no clinical symptoms for 10 years on average. However, after many years of infection most people develop symptoms that indicate progression of the disease. There are no regular characteristic symptoms or early stage, and no logical sequence of AIDS indicator disorders has been observed. People who are not aware of the infection are referred to physicians of various specializations, including otolaryngologists. It is on their knowledge about HIV infections, among other factors, that early diagnosis of the disease depends. Appropriate and quick introduction of anti-retroviral drugs may let a person with HIV live decades longer. PMID:22367140

  13. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more...... frequently than the others. We discuss the symptoms and diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess and suggest a proposal for prophylactic and diagnostic guidelines for epidural catheter-related infections. Comment in: J Hosp Infect. 1997 Mar;35(3):245....

  14. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  15. Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.A.; Novak, Z.; Pati, S.; Boppana, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is recognized as the most common congenital viral infection in humans and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. This recognition of the clinical importance of invasive CMV disease in the setting of immunodeficiency and in children with congenital CMV infection has led to the development of new diagnostic procedures for the rapid identification of immunocompromised individuals with CMV disease, as well as fetuses and infants with congenital infection. Diagnosis of acute maternal CMV infection by the presence of IgM and low IgG avidity requires confirmation of fetal infection which is typically performed by CMV PCR of the amniotic fluid. Viral culture of the urine and saliva obtained within the first two weeks of life continue to be the gold standard for diagnosis of congenitally infected infants. PCR assays of dried blood spots from infants have not been shown to have sufficient sensitivity for the identification of most infants with congenital CMV infection. However, saliva PCR assays are currently being assessed as a useful screening method for congenital CMV infection. In the immunocompromised host, newer rapid diagnostic assays such as pp65 antigenemia and real-time CMV PCR of blood or plasma have allowed for preemptive treatment reducing morbidity and mortality. However, lack of standardized real-time PCR protocols hinders the comparison of the data across different centers and the development of uniform guidelines for the management of invasive CMV infections in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:21827433

  16. Neonatal rotavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffejee, I E

    1991-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) infections in newborns differ from those in older infants; the majority of RV infections that occur in neonates are mild or asymptomatic. Generally, fewer than one-third of RV-infected neonates have diarrhea, although rates have reached 77% in some hospital nursery populations. Cases with severe diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, bowel perforation, and death have been reported, but such cases are very rare. Infection usually occurs during the first week of life and generally invokes a mucosal antibody response without a concomitant serologic antibody response. Neonatal RV infections appear to incite an immune response that affords significant protection against severe RV-associated diarrhea, although not necessarily against a symptomatic RV infection later in life. Strains that cause neonatal infections differ from those that infect older infants; the outer-capsid protein VP4 is highly conserved in "nursery" RV strains, a property that probably plays a key role in their attenuated virulence. Immaturity of proteolytic enzymes in the neonatal gut and presence of secretory anti-RV IgA and trypsin inhibitors in breast milk are other factors that could account for the asymptomatic nature of RV infections in newborns. Natural "nursery" strains of RV are currently being evaluated as vaccine candidates.

  17. Epidemiology of anaerobic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatko, S I

    1983-01-01

    The clinical importance of the anaerobic organisms, especially the toxicogenic Clostridia and some of the nonsporulating anaerobes, has been recognized for some time. Only within the last 20 years, however, owing to improved methodology, have gram-negative anaerobic bacilli, anaerobic cocci, and streptococci been commonly recognized and encountered in clinical infections. Today, anaerobic organisms are common isolates from infections involving intra-abdominal sites, the female genital tract, soft tissue, and oral areas and from major infections involving the lung, brain, and head and neck. Most of these infections are polymicrobial--involving both anaerobic and facultative or aerobic organisms. In some instances, it is difficult to ascertain what role is played by what organisms. No doubt, synergism is present in many cases. Because anaerobes are prevalent normal flora of the body, almost all anaerobic infections are of endogenous origin. Many of these anaerobes are opportunists; given the appropriate set of conditions, they will penetrate tissue and cause infection. Many have been associated with wound infection subsequent to bowel surgery or trauma, tubo-ovarian abscess, perirectal abscess, subphrenic abscess, postabortal sepsis, appendicitis, and many other infectious conditions. This article reviews the distribution of anaerobes in infected hospitalized patients and their relation to infection over a 5-year period.

  18. Niche restriction and conservatism in a neotropical psittacine: the case of the Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas H.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Dinsmore, Stephen J.; Llerandi-Roman, I. C.

    2014-01-01

    The factors which govern species‘ distribution and abundance are myriad, and together constitute the ecological niche of a given species. Because abiotic factors are arguably the most profound of the factors influencing niche boundaries and thus, species distributions, substantial changes in either climatic or habitat-related parameters can be expected to produce interrelated and profound niche shifts. Habitat loss and degradation can also effectively induce a de facto climate change by forcing populations to relocate to environmentally suboptimal habitats. Populations experiencing niche shifts due to range restrictions and geographic isolation become subject to a suite of factors that may act synergistically to amplify deleterious ecological effects of habitat loss. These factors tend to exert a greater influence on populations of rare or endemic species with inherently restricted ranges. The Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata) is an example of a tropical, insular, endemic and critically-endangered species that has suffered from extensive habitat loss and degradation over the past century, resulting in a single relict wild population restricted for more than 70 years to the montane rainforest of the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico. In this chapter, we examine the current ecological situation of this geographically and demographically isolated parrot population by reviewing the history of landscape-level changes in and around the Luquillo Mountains, and concurrent biotic and abiotic limiting factors in relation to both historical population trajectory and current prognosis for species recovery. We used a decade (2000-2009) of empirical data on parrot fledgling survival together with long-term climatological data to model effects of local climate on fledgling survival and gain insights into its influence on population growth. We also modeled hypothetical survival of parrot fledglings in the lowlands surrounding the Luquillo Mountains, areas currently deforested but previously occupied by parrots, to illustrate both quantitative and qualitative losses of reproductive habitat for the species. We illustrate and systematically discuss how progressive and sustained changes in landscape composition and associated limiting factors have effectively shifted and restricted the ecological niche of this species, and how this complex suite of ecological processes affects the Puerto Rican parrot in the Luquillo Mountains. Our niche restriction hypothesis is supported by the demographic response of Puerto Rican parrots recently (2006-2009) reintroduced in the lower elevation karst forest of northwestern Puerto Rico. Based on our findings, we present conservation strategies aimed at promoting the recovery of the species both in the Luquillo Mountains and elsewhere in Puerto Rico. Finally, we address the relevance of our findings to conservation of other endangered species, particularly those threatened by both habitat loss and climate change. 

  19. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of infection-causing bacteria than the previous vaccine, the PCV7. If your child already has begun PCV7 vaccination, consult your physician ... infections than children who aren’t vaccinated. The vaccine is strongly ... and can help keep your child from catching a cold or the flu. Avoid ...

  20. E. Coli Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out if you have E. coli in your intestines. The culture has to be taken in the first 48 hours after the bloody diarrhea starts. PreventionHow can I keep from getting E. coli infection?You can help prevent this infection by handling ...

  1. Imaging spinal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Jay; Gibbs, Wende N.

    2016-01-01

    Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral ...

  2. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Complications of untreated/improperly treated sexually transmitted infections include male and female infertility, abortions, ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, lower abdominal pain and cervical cancer2. Sexually transmitted infections rank among the five top diseases for which Nigerians seek medical attention, and the major ...

  3. Surgical wound infection - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007645.htm Surgical wound infection - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... the organ and space where you had surgery Treatment Antibiotics are used to treat most wound infections. Sometimes, you also may need surgery to ...

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... younger than 5 years, they are a leading cause of pneumonia in school-aged children and young adults. Community- ... be given for more serious symptoms associated with pneumonia and ear infections. What Is the Prognosis? This infection often causes wheezing in children with asthma or reactive airways. ...

  5. Urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2013-07-01

    The urinary tract is a common source for life-threatening infections. Most patients with sepsis or septic shock from a urinary source have complicated urinary tract infection. This article explains the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. Effective management, appropriate collection of microbiology specimens, prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy, source control, and supportive therapy are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Nidal A; Bakri, Faris G

    2006-05-01

    Diabetic foot infection DFI is simply defined as suspected or documented infection of the tissues that comprise the foot of a diabetic patient. Diabetic foot infection is often caused by introduction of an infection into the otherwise sterile soft tissues of the foot through a minor skin break down. Diabetic foot infection may be mild usually restricted to the uppermost layers of the skin, moderate extending down to the soft tissues of the foot or severe infection associated with systemic toxicity or metabolic instability. The paper reviews the types of DFI, pathophysiology, microbiology of DFI, relevant anatomy of the foot, clinical evaluation, measures of severity of DFI, the role of radiological investigations, and the role of early surgical intervention in the prevention of progressive foot infection and limb salvage. It is concluded that the diagnosis of DFI should be suspected at an early stage based on the presence of local signs of inflammation with or without systemic signs of toxicity or metabolic instability. Optimal treatment of DFI requires a multimodality approach directed at controlling hyperglycemia, administration of systemic antibiotics, and local wound management to prevent the spread and dissemination of infection.

  7. Pulmonary infections after tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauser Jabeen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Limited diagnostic and therapeutic capacities compounded by nonavailability of essential antimicrobials in most high-TB-burden countries pose great challenges to physicians involved in the management of these infections. These infections affect the overall outcome and lead to high cost for public health systems.

  8. HIV infection in Bophuthatswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sera was Western blot analysis positive. The over- all prevalence of mv infection in this study was. 2/1553 participants (0,13%). These results dem.on- strate not only that mv infection and the potential for its transmission are present in the Republic of. Bophuthatswana but that they call for energetic and well-targeted control ...

  9. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious extra...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  10. [Infection by human cytomegalovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu Gámez, Sara; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Navarro Marí, José María

    2014-02-01

    Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus infection is very high worldwide. Following primary infection, the virus remains latent, being able to cause recurrences either by reinfection with a new strain or by reactivation of the replication of the latent virus. The most severe disease is seen in congenital infection and in immunosuppressed patients, in whom the virus act as an opportunistic pathogen. Serological techniques are the methods of choice in primary infection and to determine the immune status against CMV in organ donor and receptor. Although well-standardized studies are lacking, the recent commercial availability of methods that measure cellular immune response are promising to predict the risk of CMV disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Molecular assays, that have gradually been substituting viral culture and/or antigen detection, are the most widely used methods for the diagnosis and control of CMV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Genitourinary infection in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Julka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to increase the risk of infection and the commonest amongst them are the ones involving the genitourinary tract. The infections in a diabetic patient are unique in that they are recurrent, more severe, requiring hospitalization, and also have higher mortality than nondiabetics. Some infections are exclusively found in diabetics like the emphysematous pyelonephritis while others have their natural history complicated due to hyperglycemia. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may lead to albuminuria and urinary tract infection and may need to be treated in diabetics. Not just this certain organisms have a predilection for the genitourinary tract of the diabetic patient. All of the above makes the diabetic patient vulnerable to infections and therefore early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory.

  12. Infection control in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S R

    1991-08-01

    The risk of transmission of infection within the dental workplace is low, but recent data have indicated that human immunodeficiency virus transmission between dentist and patient can occur, and that while nosocomial transmission of hepatitis B virus is now less likely, a small but significant number of staff may be at risk of hepatitis C virus and varicella zoster virus infection during dental treatment. Despite these continued risks, shortcomings remain in cross-infection control in the dental workplace. Dental clinicians still fail to take adequate steps to minimize nosocomial infection, inconsistently using appropriate methods of sterilization and not providing ancillary staff with suitable protective clothing. Similarly, although vaccinated against hepatitis B virus, a substantial number of clinicians are reluctant to treat hepatitis B virus- or human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Cross-infection control procedures continue to be modified. Of importance, it has been confirmed that protective rubber gloves cannot be reused, as micropunctures develop during rewashing. Sharps injuries are common in dental practice, but there are still no effective measures to prevent postinjury human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus infection. Instrument sterilization is generally safe and effective, but the contamination of dental unit water supplies remains to be overcome, and while impressions can be placed in disinfectants for up to 1 hour without significant dimensional change, it is not known if infectious agents within the impression material are inactivated by this procedure.

  13. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  14. Zebrafish and Streptococcal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralahti, A; Rämet, M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcal bacteria are a versatile group of gram-positive bacteria capable of infecting several host organisms, including humans and fish. Streptococcal species are common colonizers of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, but they also cause some of the most common life-threatening, invasive infections in humans and aquaculture. With its unique characteristics and efficient tools for genetic and imaging applications, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful vertebrate model for infectious diseases. Several zebrafish models introduced so far have shown that zebrafish are suitable models for both zoonotic and human-specific infections. Recently, several zebrafish models mimicking human streptococcal infections have also been developed. These models show great potential in providing novel information about the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses associated with human streptococcal infections. Here, we review the zebrafish infection models for the most relevant streptococcal species: the human-specific Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the zoonotic Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae. The recent success and the future potential of these models for the study of host-pathogen interactions in streptococcal infections are also discussed. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  15. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  16. Hajj-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon-Rousseau, A; Piednoir, E; Cattoir, V; de La Blanchardière, A

    2016-10-01

    The Hajj is the largest annual mass gathering event in the world, thus favoring the transmission of various infections: 183 different nationalities, high temperatures, coincidence with the start of the flu season in the Northern hemisphere, a long barefoot walk, tent-type accommodation, communal toilet facilities, absence of food control, and sharing of razors. Infections are the first cause of hospital admission, which often occurs in the home country of pilgrims. Literature review on PubMed from 1952 to November 2015 on the epidemiology and prevention of infections contracted during the Hajj, using the keywords "Hajj" and "infections". Respiratory tract infections, ENT infections, influenza, pyogenic pneumonia, whooping cough, and tuberculosis are most frequently observed during the Hajj. Outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis have been reported in pilgrims and their contacts. Waterborne infections such as gastroenteritis and hepatitis A are common, despite the improvement of health conditions. Pyoderma and furuncles are also frequently observed. Recently, dengue fever, Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever, and Rift Valley fever have emerged but no case of MERS-coronavirus, appeared in Saudi Arabia in 2012, have yet been observed during the 2012-2014 Hajj. Prevention is based on compulsory meningococcal vaccination, vaccination against seasonal influenza and pneumococcal infections for pilgrims at high risk of contracting the infection, and on vaccination against hepatitis A. Updating immunization for diphtheria/tetanus/poliomyelitis/pertussis and measles/mumps is also crucial and pilgrims must comply with hygiene precautions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. O’Connell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years, likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID, resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days. However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal.

  18. No Clear Effect of Initiating Vaccination against Common Endemic Infections on the Amounts of Prescribed Antimicrobials for Danish Weaner and Finishing Pigs during 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Amanda Brinch; de Knegt, Leonardo Víctor; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Alban, Lis

    2016-01-01

    It is often stated that vaccines may help reduce antimicrobial use in swine production. However, limited evidence is available outside clinical trials. We studied the change in amounts of antimicrobials prescribed for weaners and finishers in herds following initiation of vaccination against five common endemic infections: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, porcine circovirus type II, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Lawsonia intracellularis. Comparison was made to the change after a randomly selected date in herds not vaccinating against each of the infections. Danish sow herds initiating vaccination during 2007-2013 were included (69-334 herds, depending on the analysis). Danish sow herds with no use of the vaccine in question were included as non-exposed herds (130-570 herds, depending on the analysis). Antimicrobial prescriptions for weaners in sow herds and for finishers in receiving herds were extracted from the VetStat database for a period of 12 months before and 6-18 months after the first purchase of vaccine, or random date and quantified as average animal daily doses (ADDs) per 100 animals per day. The herd-level difference between ADD in the period after and before vaccination was the outcome in linear regression models for weaner pigs, and linear mixed-effects models for finishing pigs, taking into account sow herds delivering pigs to two or more finisher herds. Three plausible risk factors (Baseline ADD, purchase of specific vaccine, purchase of other vaccines) and five confounders (herd size, export and herd health status, year and season) were initially considered in all 10 models. The main significant effect in all models was the Baseline ADD; the higher the Baseline ADD was for weaner and finishing pigs, the larger the decrease in ADD was following vaccination (or random date for non-vaccinating herds). Regardless of vaccination status, almost equal proportions of herds experienced a decrease and

  19. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge on epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and prophylaxis of this diseases.

  20. Superficial Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Pujalte, George G A; Reese, Stephanie T

    2015-12-01

    Superficial fungal infections grow in dark and moist areas and invade various parts of the body. These infections are easily treatable in immunocompetent individuals. In immunosuppressed individuals, the presentation can be quite severe, requiring use of more potent antifungal agents. The treatment for these conditions consists of topical antifungal agents, creams, and oral systemic medications. The use of prednisone can alter the appearance of superficial fungal infections, making them difficult to diagnose. It is important for primary care providers to become adept at understanding the epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis techniques, and treatment options available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  2. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    .... The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies...

  3. Super-infections and relapses occur in chronic norovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julianne R; Roy, Sunando; Tutill, Helena; Williams, Rachel; Breuer, Judith

    2017-11-01

    Norovirus causes chronic infections in immunocompromised patients with considerable associated morbidity. It is not known whether chronic infections involve super- or re-infections or relapses. To retrospectively investigate whether longitudinal sampling in chronically infected patients demonstrates persistent infection with the same virus, or super- or re-infection. Norovirus full genomes were generated from 86 longitudinal samples from 25 paediatric patients. Consensus sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis and genotyping. Super-infections occurred in 17% of chronically infected patients who were continuously PCR positive; including two with mixed norovirus infections. The median duration of infection was 107days longer in those with super-infections; however this was not statistically significant. A third of patients with interrupted norovirus shedding continued to be infected with the same virus despite up to 2 months of PCR negative stools, classified as a relapse. The majority (67%) of patients with interrupted shedding were re-infected with a different genotype. Chronically infected patients who are continuously PCR positive are most likely to remain infected with the same virus; however super-infections do occur leading to mixed infection. Patients with interrupted shedding are likely to represent re-infection with a different genotype, however relapsing infections also occur. Our findings have implications for infection control as immunosuppressed patients remain susceptible to new norovirus infections despite current or recent infection and may continue to be infectious after norovirus is undetectable in stool. The relevance to children without co-morbidities remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Listeria Placental Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Boland, José A; Krypotou, Emilia; Scortti, Mariela

    2017-06-27

    The Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection. Pregnant women are at risk of contracting listeriosis, which can potentially lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and congenital neonatal infections. While other systemic bacterial infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes at comparable frequencies, L. monocytogenes has particular notoriety because fetal complications largely occur in the absence of overt illness in the mother, delaying medical intervention. Here, we briefly review the pathophysiology and mechanisms of maternofetal listeriosis, discussed in light of a recent mBio report on Listeria transplacental infection in a nonhuman primate model. Copyright © 2017 Vázquez-Boland et al.

  5. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  6. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  7. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  8. SIDA et Infections Opportunistes

    OpenAIRE

    GHAFFOUR, Mohammed El-Amine; GHOMARI, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Le sida ou syndrome d'immunodépression acquise, révélé en 1983, est la conséquence grave de l'infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (HIV), responsable d'une diminution de l'immunité cellulaire qui est source d'infections opportunistes. L'amélioration des fonctions immunitaires sous multi thérapie antirétrovirale a permis de réduire de façon importante la prévalence de ces infections. L'infection par le VIII réalise actuellement une pandémie, dont la transmission ...

  9. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  10. Neuroinvasive flavivirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic"

  11. Urticaria and infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedi Bettina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Urticaria is a group of diseases that share a distinct skin reaction pattern. Triggering of urticaria by infections has been discussed for many years but the exact role and pathogenesis of mast cell activation by infectious processes is unclear. In spontaneous acute urticaria there is no doubt for a causal relationship to infections and all chronic urticaria must have started as acute. Whereas in physical or distinct urticaria subtypes the evidence for infections is sparse, remission of annoying spontaneous chronic urticaria has been reported after successful treatment of persistent infections. Current summarizing available studies that evaluated the course of the chronic urticaria after proven Helicobacter eradication demonstrate a statistically significant benefit compared to untreated patients or Helicobacter-negative controls without urticaria (p

  12. Infection and Atherosclerosis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease hallmarked by chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the vasculature. Although lipid modification and deposition are thought to be a major source of the continuous inflammatory stimulus, a large body of evidence suggests that infectious agents may contribute to atherosclerotic processes. This could occur by either direct effects through infection of vascular cells and/or through indirect effects by induction of cytokine and acute phase reactant proteins by infection at other sites. Multiple bacterial and viral pathogens have been associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, identification of the infectious agent in human atherosclerotic tissue, and experimental studies demonstrating an acceleration of atherosclerosis following infection in animal models of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on those infectious agents for which biological plausibility has been demonstrated in animal models and on the challenges of proving a role of infection in human atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26004263

  13. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  14. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Video) Skin Cancer Additional Content Medical News Necrotizing Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...

  16. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swelling and tenderness of the testicles Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. The symptoms of chlamydia infection may be similar to symptoms of gonorrhea, but they continue even after treatment for gonorrhea ...

  17. Prevent Infections in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles 10 Tips for Preventing Infections Before and During Pregnancy Language: ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  18. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. (2013). Sexually transmitted infections among U.S. women and men: Prevalence and incidence estimates, 2008 . Sexually Transmitted Diseases; 40(3): 187–193. Centers for Disease Control ...

  19. Immunity Against Klebsiella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Rukavina

    2005-01-01

    different plasma concentrations for all cytokines. The greatest difference was detected 24 hours after infection, with a higher production in the unprotected group. We concluded that a reduced cytokine production is partially responsible for the survival of protected animals.

  20. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by A haemolyticum and one associated with a streptococcal organism. Antibacterials, typically erythromycin, can be used to treat this infection. The symptoms quickly clear up when taking these medicines, although the disease is likely to get better on its own ...

  1. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  2. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  3. Coxsackievirus Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a serious infection, including myocarditis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis (an inflammation of the brain and meninges). In ... feel more comfortable. Because antibiotics only work against bacteria, they can't be used to fight a ...

  4. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  5. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  6. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  7. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wash your hands. This is the simplest and best way to prevent most kinds of infection. Wash your ... supply is likely to be unsafe, drink and brush your teeth with bottled water that you open yourself. Don' ...

  8. An Infected Mediastinal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Lawson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a 43-year-old patient who had a mediastinal mass that became infected after a transbronchial needle aspirate biopsy. A paraspinal, extrapleural window with a saline-lidocaine mixture was created that allowed the placement of a percutaneous drainage catheter into the infected lesion. This procedure resulted in an excellent clinical outcome, and obviated the need for a thoracotomy and more invasive surgical management.

  9. Immunomodulation of Helicobacter Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Croitoru

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori leads to a chronic infection in humans that is associated with gastric inflammation and a vigorous immune response. Despite the humoral and cellular responses that can be detected in both human and animal models of helicobacter infection, the immune response fails to eliminate the organism. Eradication failure may be due to the niche in which H pylori confines itself, well away from direct contact with elements of the immune system. Alternatively, the general tendency of t...

  10. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Agnese Latino; Daniela De Maria; Andrea Caneparo; Claudia Rosso; Gianfranco De Intinis; Anna Maria Calì; Pierangelo Clerici; Marco Cusini; Ivano Dal Conte; Tiziano Maggino; Enrico Magliano; Alfonso Panuccio; Roberto Pozzoli; Mario Rassu; Barbara Suligoi

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more c...

  11. Clostridium difficile infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, WK; Lyras, D.; Lacy, DB; Wilcox, MH; Kuijper, EJ

    2016-01-01

    Infection of the colon with the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile is potentially life threatening, especially in elderly people and in patients who have dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following antimicrobial drug exposure. C. difficile is the leading cause of health-care-associated infective diarrhoea. The life cycle of C. difficile is influenced by antimicrobial agents, the host immune system, and the host microbiota and its associated metabolites. The primary mediators of infla...

  12. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  13. Metabolic Effects of Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    about the tions of glucagon, insulin, glucocorticoids , cate- mechanisms that regulate the rates of lipid re- cholamines, and growth hormone increase...from an acute period of fever may be followed energy-generating responses during infection. In by diuresis in early convalescence, contrast, several...common in infections of the central nervous sys- The adrenal glucocorticoid hormones serve a tern and may occur during severe generalized central but

  14. Parasitic lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi

    2009-05-01

    Global climate change and population explosion leading to changes in natural ecosystem and travel across the continents have resulted in an increase in the transmission of parasites to human beings. This review focuses on recent advancements in parasitic lung infections. Invasive parasitic diseases including lung infections are increasingly being reported in patients with immunodeficiency syndromes. A recombinant kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania donovani has been validated with ELISA using urine samples for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Pyruvate kinase deficiency has been shown to provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection. Intravenous artesunate is an alternative drug for the treatment of severe malaria. The best way to protect from malaria is the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets. Biennial treatment with praziquantel has been found to be cost-effective treatment for control of infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Pulmonary paragonimiasis can be diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary nodules. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection can mimic accelerated idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Migratory nodular shadows with halos are important chest computed tomographic findings in human toxocariasis. Patients with immunodeficiency syndromes (HIV infection, organ transplantation and immunosuppressive drugs, including corticosteroids) should be evaluated for early detection of parasitic lung infections.

  15. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Nosocomial infections: surgical site infection in UCH Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HAI was 3.0%, Surgical Site Infection was the second most prevalent HAI. Surgical Site Infection was responsible for 27.9% of the nosocomial infections recorded. The ratio of Gram Positive to Gram Negative organisms was 1:2.3. Bacterial agents of Surgical Site Infection were Staphylococcus aureus ...

  17. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  18. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  19. Transgenerational effect of infection in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, R; Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A

    2015-03-01

    Transgenerational effects of infection have a huge potential to influence the prevalence and intensity of infections in vectors and, by extension, disease epidemiology. These transgenerational effects may increase the fitness of offspring through the transfer of protective immune factors. Alternatively, however, infected mothers may transfer the costs of infection to their offspring. Although transgenerational immune protection has been described in a dozen invertebrate species, we still lack a complete picture of the incidence and importance of transgenerational effects of infection in most invertebrate groups. The existence of transgenerational infection effects in mosquito vectors is of particular interest because of their potential for influencing parasite prevalence and intensity and, by extension, disease transmission. Here we present what we believe to be the first study on transgenerational infection effects in a mosquito vector infected with malaria parasites. The aim of this experiment was to quantify both the benefits and the costs of having an infected mother. We find no evidence of transgenerational protection in response to a Plasmodium infection. Having an infected mother does, however, entail considerable fecundity costs for the offspring: fecundity loss is three times higher in infected offspring issued from infected mothers than in infected offspring issued from uninfected mothers. We discuss the implications of our results and we call for more studies looking at transgenerational effects of infection in disease vectors. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Infected nonunion of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Madhav Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced

  1. Infected nonunion of tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Milind Madhav

    2017-01-01

    Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced membrane technique is an

  2. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs. PMID:21314912

  3. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  4. Urticaria and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence.

  5. Immunomodulation of Helicobacter Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Croitoru

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori leads to a chronic infection in humans that is associated with gastric inflammation and a vigorous immune response. Despite the humoral and cellular responses that can be detected in both human and animal models of helicobacter infection, the immune response fails to eliminate the organism. Eradication failure may be due to the niche in which H pylori confines itself, well away from direct contact with elements of the immune system. Alternatively, the general tendency of the intestinal immune response to down- regulate reactivity to noninvasive luminal bacteria also may contribute to the failure to eliminate helicobacter infection. Results of vaccine studies in mouse models indicate that modulating the helper T cell response from a T helper cell type 1 to a T helper cell type 2 response likely is required for the prevention and elimination of helicobacter infection. Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune response controls bacterial infections will allow for the design of novel strategies of immune modulation and the development of vaccines for both the treatment and prevention of H pylori.

  6. [Infection control in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeyuki

    2010-01-01

    Infection control committee as the central decision-making and infection control team (ICT) for carrying out all aspects of infection control are important for hospital infection control. Standard precautions are used for all patients and apply to all body fluids except for sweat, whether or not they contain visible blood. Transmission-based precautions involve airborne, droplet, contact vector-borne and common vehicle precautions. Airborne precautions are for tuberculosis, varicella and measles. Small particles (precautions are for influenza, rubella, pertussis, and so on. Transmission via large droplet (transmissions are for blood-borne pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C virus and HIV, bacterial infections via percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure, and so on. Vaccinations for measles, rubella, varicella, mumps, influenza and hepatitis B virus to health-care workers are important. Influenza virus is mainly transmitted via droplet and contact, but also via airborne transmission in the aerosol-generating procedures such as intubation and suctioning. WHO declared a public health emergency in April 2009. A novel influenza has spread rapidly across the globe, and it will be necessary to prepare for the outbreak in this autumn and winter.

  7. Infection control for norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, L.; Park, G. W.; Vega, E.; Hall, A.; Parashar, U.; Vinjé, J.; Lopman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are notoriously difficult to prevent and control, owing to their low infectious dose, high shedding titre, and environmental stability. The virus can spread through multiple transmission routes, of which person-to-person and foodborne are the most important. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have helped to establish norovirus as the most common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis and the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. In this article, we review the epidemiology and virology of noroviruses, and prevention and control guidelines, with a focus on the principles of disinfection and decontamination. Outbreak management relies on sound infection control principles, including hand hygiene, limiting exposure to infectious individuals, and thorough environmental decontamination. Ideally, all infection control recommendations would rely on empirical evidence, but a number of challenges, including the inability to culture noroviruses in the laboratory and the challenges of outbreak management in complex environments, has made it difficult to garner clear evidence of efficacy in certain areas of infection control. New experimental data on cultivable surrogates for human norovirus and on environmental survivability and relative resistance to commonly used disinfectants are providing new insights for further refinining disinfection practices. Finally, clinical trials are underway to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines, which may shift the current infection control principles to more targeted interventions. PMID:24813073

  8. [Atherosclerosis and infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, K

    2006-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is guided by chronicle inflammation process. In the last decades of the 20th century, studies considering infection another possible risk factor of atherosclerosis development were written. Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromas gingivalis, some viruses but most frequently Chlamydia pneumonie are infection agens mentioned in these studies. Some of them emphasize also combined infections caused by more pathogenic factors having influence on vascular inflammation. Serological, epidemiological, histological and imunological studies show the pathogenic influence of acute or chronic infections. Many studies selected makrolid antibiotics as treatment in patients with ischaemic heart disease. However, existing experience with antibiotics did not bring clear results. These studies have mentioned the fact antibiotics have not been indicated as treatment in patients with acute or chronic vascular system infliction by atherosclerosis. Since the experimental and clinical research of influence of inflammations on the development of atherosclerosis moved forward a lot, no exact evidence of this complicated pathogenic mechanism was given. It will obviously take some time to confirm whether the relation between infections and artherosclerosis is causal, i.e. initiating the pathogenic process, accelerating it or keeping it alive.

  9. The Biophysics of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes involved in infection has grown enormously in the past decade due in part to emerging methods of biophysics. This new insight has been enabled through advances in interdisciplinary experimental technologies and theoretical methods at the cutting-edge interface of the life and physical sciences. For example, this has involved several state-of-the-art biophysical tools used in conjunction with molecular and cell biology approaches, which enable investigation of infection in living cells. There are also new, emerging interfacial science tools which enable significant improvements to the resolution of quantitative measurements both in space and time. These include single-molecule biophysics methods and super-resolution microscopy approaches. These new technological tools in particular have underpinned much new understanding of dynamic processes of infection at a molecular length scale. Also, there are many valuable advances made recently in theoretical approaches of biophysics which enable advances in predictive modelling to generate new understanding of infection. Here, I discuss these advances, and take stock on our knowledge of the biophysics of infection and discuss where future advances may lead.

  10. Surgical infection in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakins, J L

    1996-12-01

    The earliest images of medicine and surgery in Western art are from the late Middle Ages. Although often attractive, at that time they were illustrative and mirrored the text on how to diagnose or treat a specific condition. These drawings in medieval manuscripts represent management of abscesses, perianal infection and fistulas, amputation, and wound dressings. With the Renaissance, art in all its forms flourished, and surgeons were represented at work draining carbuncles, infected bursae, and mastoiditis; managing ulcers, scrofula, and skin infections; and performing amputations. Specific diagnosis can be made, such as streptococcal infection in the discarded leg of the miraculous transplantation performed by Saints Cosmas and Damian and in the works of Rembrandt van Rijn and Frederic Bazille. Evocations of cytokine activity are evident in works by Albrecht Dürer, Edvard Munch, and James Tissot. The iconography of society's view of a surgeon is apparent and often not complimentary. The surgeon's art is a visual art. Astute observation leads to early diagnosis and better results in surgical infection and the septic state. Learning to see what we look at enhances our appreciation of the world around us but, quite specifically, makes us better clinicians.

  11. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  12. Enterococcal infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karina M

    2006-07-01

    From relative obscurity, enterococci have become a leading cause of nosocomial infection. This has been attributed, in part, to the growth in susceptible host populations, increased use of intravascular devices, prolonged hospital stay, and widespread antibiotics use. Furthermore, the facility with which enterococci acquire resistance characteristics coupled with their capacity to survive in the environment renders them uniquely suited as nosocomial opportunists and have resulted in global dissemination of resistant strains. Debate continues as to whether most serious infections arise from a person's indigenous flora or dissemination of virulent clones. Enterococci are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. Classically associated with endocarditis and wound and urinary tract infections, increasingly they are a cause of nosocomial bacteremia. The rise in incidence of serious enterococcal infection has been particularly evident in neonatal, paediatric intensive care, and haematology/oncology units. Spread of resistant phenotypes has posed a difficult therapeutic challenge. We have been rescued, albeit perhaps only temporarily, by the addition of newer agents, such as linezolid, to the therapeutic armamentarium. However, there is no room for complacency. Linezolid resistance already has been reported. Efforts must continue to focus on prevention of the emergence and dissemination of resistance through policies of rational antibiotic use, infection control and education.

  13. Orthopaedic biofilm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoodley, Paul; Ehrlich, Garth D; Sedghizadeh, Parish P; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Baratz, Mark E; Altman, Daniel T; Sotereanos, Nicholas G; Costerton, John William; Demeo, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    A recent paradigm shift in microbiology affects orthopaedic surgery and most other medical and dental disciplines because more than 65% of bacterial infections treated by clinicians in the developed world are now known to be caused by organisms growing in biofilms. These slime-enclosed communities of bacteria are inherently resistant to host defenses and to conventional antibacterial therapy, and these device-related and other chronic bacterial infections are unaffected by the vaccines and antibiotics that have virtually eliminated acute infections caused by planktonic (floating) bacteria. We examine the lessons that can be learned, within this biofilm paradigm, by the study of problems (e.g. non-culturability) shared by all biofilm infections and by the study of new therapeutic options aimed specifically at sessile bacteria in biofilms. Orthopaedic surgery has deduced some of the therapeutic strategies based on assiduous attention to patient outcomes, but much can still be learned by attention to modern research in related disciplines in medicine and dentistry. These perceptions will lead to practical improvements in the detection, management, and treatment of infections in orthopaedic surgery.

  14. Epidemiology of coronavirus respiratory infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, D; Flowers, D; Clarke, J R; Valman, H B; MacNaughton, M R

    1983-01-01

    Human coronaviruses were found by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in upper respiratory tract secretions taken during 30% of 108 acute respiratory infections experienced by 30 children under age 6 years with recurrent respiratory infections (index group), and during 29% of 51 acute infections experienced by their siblings. Lower respiratory tract infection--predominantly wheezy bronchitis--occurred in 30% of the index children's coronavirus positive infections but in none of their siblings' ...

  15. Thrombocytopenia and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Acquired thrombocytopenia recognizes a myriad of causes. Among these, infectious diseases play a relevant role since a low platelet count is commonplace along with other abnormal laboratory data. Areas covered: This narrative review, after a brief presentation of the possible pathogenic mechanisms, is focused on the most prevalent infections associated with thrombocytopenia, namely those attributable to hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Helicobacter pylori. Expert commentary: An underlying HCV or HIV infection should always be suspected in patients at risk who present with isolated thrombocytopenia. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori is advisable in infected patients with secondary immune thrombocytopenia, because this will increase the platelet count in a substantial number of cases, thus avoiding more aggressive and prolonged treatments.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  17. Infections after keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Chodosh, James

    2016-07-01

    The purpose is to provide an overview of the recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of microbial keratitis and endophthalmitis after keratoprosthesis implantation. The addition of vancomycin daily to a fluoroquinolone in the postoperative management of keratoprosthesis patients successfully reduced the number of cases of bacterial keratitis and endophthalmitis with an increased number of fungal infections now documented both in the United States and abroad. Compliance with the regimen of a fluoroquinolone and vancomycin daily for life after keratoprosthesis implantation should be stressed with the patient. Further research is needed to investigate whether intermittent use of 5% povidone-iodine and frequent replacement of the bandage contact lens could reduce fungal infection after keratoprosthesis surgery. Future advancements in the Boston keratoprosthesis design and/or postoperative management are needed to further reduce infection after keratoprosthesis placement.

  18. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  19. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  20. Immunopathology of Brucella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pablo C; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the protean nature of the disease, inflammation is a hallmark of brucellosis and affected tissues usually exhibit inflammatory infiltrates. As Brucella lacks exotoxins, exoproteases or cytolysins, pathological findings in brucellosis probably arise from inflammation-driven processes. The cellular and molecular bases of immunopathological phenomena probably involved in Brucella pathogenesis have been unraveled in the last few years. Brucella-infected osteoblasts, either alone or in synergy with infected macrophages, produce cytokines, chemokines and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs), and similar phenomena are mounted by fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The released cytokines promote the secretion of MMPs and induce osteoclastogenesis. Altogether, these phenomena may contribute to the bone loss and cartilage degradation usually observed in brucellar arthritis and osteomyelitis. Proinflammatory cytokines may be also involved in the pathogenesis of neurobrucellosis. B. abortus and its lipoproteins elicit an inflammatory response in the CNS of mice, leading to astrogliosis, a characteristic feature of neurobrucellosis. Heat-killed bacteria (HKBA) and the L-Omp19 lipoprotein elicit astrocyte apoptosis and proliferation (two features of astrogliosis), and apoptosis depends on TNF-α signaling. Brucella also infects and replicates in human endothelial cells, inducing the production of chemokines and IL-6, and an increased expression of adhesion molecules. The sustained inflammatory process derived from the longlasting infection of the endothelium may be important for the development of endocarditis. Therefore, while Brucella induces a low grade inflammation as compared to other pathogens, its prolonged intracellular persistence in infected tissues supports a long-lasting inflammatory response that mediates different pathways of tissue damage. In this context, approaches to avoid the invasion of host cells or limit the intracellular survival of the bacterium may be

  1. Genital infections mycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.

  2. [Listeria monocytogenes infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Léna; Chuard, Christian

    2017-10-11

    Listeria monocytogenes infections are caused by food ingestion. They are not only transmitted by animal products, but also by secondarily contaminated fruits and vegetables. They preferentially affect pregnant women, patients of extreme ages and the immu-nocompromised, and manifest as a gastroenteritis, bacteremia, meningo-encephalitis or maternal-fetal infection. Diagnosis is achieved by culture of usually sterile sites. The preferred treatment is amoxicillin with or without gentamicin. For patients at risk, prevention is based on avoiding at-risk food or cooking it when possible.

  3. Imaging spinal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.

  4. Dipylidium caninum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child. PMID:22674592

  5. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  6. CNS infections in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Søborg, Bolette; Andersson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    ), but equally high among Inuits in Greenland and Denmark (38.2 and 35.4, respectively). Mortality from CNS infections was 2 fold higher among Inuits (10.5%) than among non-Inuits (4.8%) with a fivefold higher case fatality rate in Inuit toddlers. CONCLUSION: Overall, Inuits living in Greenland and Denmark...... suffer from twice the rate of CNS infections compared with non-Inuits, and Inuit toddlers carried the highest risk of mortality. Further studies regarding risk factors such as genetic susceptibility, life style and socioeconomic factors are warranted....

  7. Atypical bacterial infections explained by a concomitant virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, R; Hall, C B; Menegus, M A

    1985-09-01

    Because both viral and bacterial infections are common during early childhood, dual infections are not unexpected. However, the clinical manifestation of such combined infections may be, difficult to interpret, and they are often misdiagnosed as "atypical bacterial infection." Five patients with concomitant viral-bacterial infections are described. In all five cases, virus detection enabled the physicians to better understand an otherwise puzzling clinical presentation. In view of the recent progress in rapid viral diagnoses and the potential of antiviral drugs, the possibility of dual infection should be investigated more often.

  8. Mycoplasma genitalium Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-08

    Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.  Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2018.

  9. Vitamin C and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-01-01

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further. PMID:28353648

  10. Infections after refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Zeeshan; Farooq, Asim V; Huang, Andrew J W

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the review is to provide a summary of the recent literature concerning infections after refractive surgery pertinent to each procedure category. New data from a large retrospective study suggest that the incidence of post-laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis infectious keratitis is declining. Additionally, recent case studies have reported viral, fungal, and Acanthamoeba pathogens. Corneal collagen cross-linking is emerging as an alternative therapeutic option for early stage post-LASIK infectious keratitis. Postoperative bandage contact lens used in patients undergoing surface ablation procedures may confer a higher risk of infection because of greater colonization rates in those individuals, such as healthcare providers, with relatively high risk of exposure to potential pathogens. In the setting of post-penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism, femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy procedures pose a risk of infectious keratitis and even endophthalmitis. Lastly, recent case reports of endophthalmitis after refractive lens procedures highlight the importance of postoperative monitoring for this sight threatening, albeit rare, complication. The risks and management of infections after surgical refractive procedures vary widely depending on the specific technique employed. As technology and treatment options continue to evolve with further research, we anticipate continued success in the management of postoperative infections after refractive surgery.

  11. Schmallenberg virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernike, K.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Beer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects

  12. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  13. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, TS; van der Graaf, WTA; Tappero, JW; Asiedu, K

    1999-01-01

    After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli-ulcer disease (caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans) is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent people. Countries in which the disease is endemic have been identified, predominantly in areas of tropical rain forest; the

  14. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  16. (HLB) infected citrus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... sinuous rod like structures, 0.15 - 0.25 µm in diameter. They can be observed by electron microscopy in the sieve tubes of infected trees (Moll and Martin, 1973). The aim of this study was to detect and identify Candidatus. Liberibacter asiaticus using PCR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and to ...

  17. Biophysics of biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathogenesis of Rhinovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Turner, Ronald B.; Braciale, Thomas; Heymann, Peter W.; Borish, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Summary Since its discovery in 1956, rhinovirus (RV) has been recognized as the most important virus producing the common cold syndrome. Despite its ubiquity, little is known concerning the pathogenesis of RV infections, and some of the research in this area has led to contradictions regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of RV-induced illness. In this article, we discuss the pathogenesis of this virus as it relates to RV-induced illness in the upper and lower airway, an issue of considerable interest in view of the minimal cytopathology associated with RV infection. We endeavor to explain why many infected individuals exhibit minimal symptoms or remain asymptomatic, while others, especially those with asthma, may have severe, even life-threatening, complications (sequelae). Finally, we discuss the immune responses to RV in the normal and asthmatic host focusing on RV infection and epithelial barrier integrity and maintenance as well as the impact of the innate and adaptive immune responses to RV on epithelial function. PMID:22542099

  19. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know - 한국어 (Korean) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Salmonella Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones por salmonela: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español ( ...

  20. Haemophilus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Haemophilus Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones por Haemophilus: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español ( ...

  1. Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Bacterial Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones bacterianas: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ...

  2. Wound Infections PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-25

    This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster.  Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/25/2017.

  3. Candida infective endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente; Claramonte, Xavier; Armero, Yolanda; Sidani, Nisreen; Kanj-Sharara, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Raglio, Annibale; Goglio, Antonio; Gnecchi, Fabrizio; Suter, Fredy; Valsecchi, Grazia; Rizzi, Marco; Ravasio, Veronica; Hoen, Bruno; Chirouze, Catherine; Leroy, Joel; Plesiat, Patrick; Bernard, Yvette; Casey, Anna; Lambert, Peter; Watkin, Richard; Elliot, Tom; Patel, Mukesh; Dismukes, William; Pan, Angelo; Caros, Giampiero; Tribouilloy, Amel Brahim Mathiron Christophe; Goissen, Thomas; Delahaye, Armelle; Delahaye, Francois; Vandenesch, Francois; Vizzotti, Carla; Nacinovich, Francisco M.; Marin, Marcelo; Trivi, Marcelo; Lombardero, Martin; Cortes, Claudia; Casabe, Jose Horacio; Altclas, Javier; Kogan, Silvia; Clara, Liliana; Sanchez, Marisa; Commerford, Anita; Hansa, Cass; Deetlefs, Eduan; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Commerford, Patrick; Wray, Dannah; Steed, Lisa L.; Cantey, Robert; Morris, Arthur; Holland, David; Murdoch, David; Graham, Katherine; Read, Kerry; Raymond, Nigel; Bridgman, Paul; Troughton, Richard; Lang, Selwyn; Chambers, Stephen; Kotsanas, Despina; Korman, Tony M.; Peterson, Gail; Purcell, Jon; Southern, Paul M.; Shah, Manisha; Bedimo, Roger; Reddy, Arjun; Levine, Donald; Dhar, Gaurav; Hanlon-Feeney, Alanna; Hannan, Margaret; Kelly, Sinead; Wang, Andrew; Cabell, Christopher; Woods, Christopher; Sexton, Daniel J.; Benjamin, Danny; Corey, G. Ralph; McDonald, Jay R.; Federspiel, Jeff; Engemann, John J.; Barth Reller, L.; Drew, Laura; Caram, L. B.; Stryjewski, Martin; Morpeth, Susan; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Fowler, Vance; Chu, Vivian; Mazaheri, Bahram; Neuerburg, Carl; Naber, Christoph; Athan, Eugene; Henry, Margaret; Harris, Owen; Alestig, Eric; Olaison, Lars; Wikstrom, Lotta; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Francis, Johnson; Venugopal, K.; Nair, Lathi; Thomas, Vinod; Chaiworramukkun, Jaruwan; Pachirat, Orathai; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Suwanich, Tewan; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Premru, Manica Muella; Logar, Mateja; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Orezzi, Christina; Klein, John; Bouza, Emilio; Moreno, Mar; Rodriguez-Creixems, Marta; Marin, Mercedes; Fernandez, Miguel; Munoz, Patricia; Fernandez, Rocio; Ramallo, Victor; Raoult, Didier; Thuny, Franck; Habib, Gilbert; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chipigina, Natalia; Kirill, Ozerecky; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Kulichenko, Vadim P.; Butkevich, O. M.; Lion, Christine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Alla, Francois; Coyard, Helene; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Larussi, Diana; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Francoise Tripodi, Marie; Utili, Riccardo; Sampath Kumar, A.; Sharma, Gautam; Dickerman, Stuart A.; Street, Alan; Eisen, Damon Peter; McBryde, Emma Sue; Grigg, Leeanne; Abrutyn, Elias; Michelet, Christian; Tattevin, Pierre; Yves Donnio, Pierre; Fortes, Claudio Querido; Edathodu, Jameela; Al-Hegelan, Mashael; Font, Bernat; Raimon Guma, Joan; Cereceda, M.; Oyonarte, Miguel J.; Mella, Rodrigo Montagna; Garcia, Patricia; Braun Jones, Sandra; Isabel de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Ley Woon, Lok; Lum, Luh-Nah; Tan, Ru-San; Rees, David; Kornecny, Pam; Lawrence, Richard; Dever, Robyn; Post, Jeffey; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzzane; Harkness, John; Fenely, Michael; Rubinstein, Ethan; Strahilewitz, Jacob; Ionac, Adina; Mornos, Cristian; Dragulescu, Stefan; Forno, Davide; Cecchi, Enrico; de Rosa, Francesco; Imazio, Massimo; Trinchero, Rita; Wiesbauer, Franz; Gattringer, Rainer; Deans, Greg; Andrasevic, Arjana Tambic; Barsic, Bruno; Klinar, Igor; Vincelj, Josip; Bukovski, Suzana; Krajinovic, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716

  4. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has far reaching implications on patient morbidity and ... was complicated by a SSI had a 2-11% higher risk of death. In those patients who died, 75% was directly .... genital and uninfected urinary tract is not entered. In addition, clean wounds are primarily closed ...

  5. Oral fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common oral fungal infection diagnosed in humans. Candidiasis may result from immune system dysfunction or as a result of local or systemic medical treatment. Because oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection, topical treatment methods are the first line of therapy, especially for the pseudomembranous and erythematous variants. Patients with dental prostheses should also be advised to disinfect the prosthesis routinely during the candidal treatment period, because the prosthesis may serve as a source of reinfection. Additionally, patients should be advised that oral hygiene aids, such as toothbrushes and denture brushes, may also be contaminated and should be discarded or disinfected. A disinfecting solution of equal parts of hydrogen peroxide and water may be used. Likewise, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution may be used asa disinfecting solution for dental prostheses and oral hygiene aids. Occasionally the clinician encounters a more resistant form of oral candidiasis such as the hyperplastic variant or a variant that does not respond to topical therapy. Appropriate systemic therapy should be employed for the treatment of these infections. Additionally, a biopsy should be undertaken in individuals with the hyperplastic variant of Candida because there is some degree of risk for malignant transformation. Deep fungal infections should be managed in association with appropriate medical specialists to rule out other systemic involvement. The dental health care provider plays an important part in the diagnosis and management of fungal disease, and therefore clinicians should be aware of the presenting signs and symptoms or oral fungal disease.

  6. Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected person’s herpes sore or fluid from a herpes sore. Having genital herpes during pregnancy can cause serious health problems for ... pass herpes to your baby if you have genital herpes sores and blisters (called an outbreak) for the ...

  7. Repeated Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... he/she have ear tubes?What are the dangers of my child’s repeated infections?Should my child ... affect you or your baby through your breast milk.December 2017December 2017familydoctor.org editorial staffHip Problems in ...

  8. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    of the respondents or other identifying information were not included in the questionnaires. The knowledge section had 7 sexually transmitted infection symptoms for grading knowledge, namely lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, penile discharge, itching of the vagina, burning pain on urination, genital ulcers/sores ...

  9. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  10. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toilet training or spend time in a child care center. People who live or work with small children also are at higher risk of developing giardia infection. People without access to safe drinking water. Giardiasis is rampant wherever sanitation is inadequate or ...

  11. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  12. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  13. Parasite infections revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Scharsack, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Studying parasites helps reveal basic mechanisms in immunology. For long this has been recognized for studies on the immune system of mice and man. But it is not true for immunological studies on fish. To support this argument we discuss selected examples of parasite infections not only in

  14. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  15. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED...... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...... and 39 pocket infections) were recorded during the study period. Median follow-up time was 26 (IQR 9-41) months, 30 day and 12 month mortality were 4% and 14%, respectively. There was no long-term difference in mortality between patients with pocket vs. systemic infection (p = 0.48). During follow...

  16. Emmonsia helica Infection in HIV-Infected Man, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.

  17. EBV Chronic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eligio, Pizzigallo; Delia, Racciatti; Valeria, Gorgoretti

    2010-01-01

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpes viruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS) aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA), really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.). However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious). Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse. Thanks to both

  18. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  19. Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... this page: About CDC.gov . Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients Patients and Caregivers Prepare: Watch Out for Fever ...

  20. Side Effects: Infection and Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection, which is a type of UTI. You may also hear a bladder infection called cystitis (say: ... harmful bacteria keep spreading. From the bladder, they may head into one of the ureters and climb ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else ... it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that you might have a bladder infection, so ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / ...

  5. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research HIV Infection and Cancer Risk On This Page Do people ... being linked to an increased risk of cancer, HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of dying ...

  6. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  7. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... 16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America ...

  8. SIV Infection Facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Xian, Qiao-Yang; Rao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yong; Huang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Xin; Bao, Rong; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jin-Biao; Tang, Zhi-Jiao; Guo, De-yin; Qin, Chuan; Li, Jie-Liang; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Thus, it is necessary to understand the pathogenetic interactions between M.tb and HIV infection. In this study, we examined M.tb and/or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Chinese rhesus macaques. While there was little evidence that M.tb enhanced SIV infection of macaques, SIV could facilitate M.tb infection as demonstrated by X-rays, pathological and microbiological findings. Chest X-rays showed that co-infected animals had disseminated lesions in both left and right lungs, while M.tb mono-infected animals displayed the lesions only in right lungs. Necropsy of co-infected animals revealed a disseminated M.tb infection not only in the lungs but also in the extrapulmonary organs including spleen, pancreas, liver, kidney, and heart. The bacterial counts in the lungs, the bronchial lymph nodes, and the extrapulmonary organs of co-infected animals were significantly higher than those of M.tb mono-infected animals. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that two of three co-infected animals had lower levels of M.tb specific IFN-γ and IL-22 in PBMCs than M.tb mono-infected animals. These findings suggest that Chinese rhesus macaque is a suitable and alternative non-human primate model for SIV/M.tb coinfection studies. The impairment of the specific anti-TB immunity is likely to be a contributor of SIV-mediated enhancement M.tb infection. PMID:28133458

  9. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  10. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.

  11. Infection imaging in nuclear medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Regardless of advances in medicine, infection continues to play a major role in patients' morbidity and mortality. Nuclear medicine techniques have an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of harbouring infection. Many different agents may be used in an attempt to image infection. ere are ...

  12. [Opportunistic infections and sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilloux, Y; Bernard, C; Lortholary, O; Kerever, S; Lelièvre, L; Gerfaud-Valentin, M; Broussolle, C; Valeyre, D; Sève, P

    2017-05-01

    Opportunistic infections (OI) are uncommon in sarcoidosis (1 to 10%) and mostly occur in patients with previously diagnosed disease or can rarely be the presenting manifestation. The most common OIs are, in descending order: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and mycobacterial infections. Treatment with corticosteroids is the most frequent risk factor for OI occurrence during sarcoidosis but immunosuppressive drugs and therapy with anti-TNFα are also risk factors. Overall, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome are identical to that occur in other conditions complicated with the occurrence of OIs. However, some atypical presentations of OIs can mimic sarcoidosis exacerbation and misdiagnosis may lead clinicians to increase immunosuppression, causing worsening of the OI. The meticulous collection of patient's history along with factors differentiating OI from sarcoidosis exacerbation is key factor to optimally manage these patients. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144

  14. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodd Roger Y

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens.

  15. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  16. Esophageal infections: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niraj C; Caicedo, Ricardo A

    2015-10-01

    Infectious esophagitis generally occurs in patients with impaired immunity. Although methods to suppress the immune system evolve, the potential infectious consequences are poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to review the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious esophagitis. Minimal pediatric data, including a few case reports and series, involve infectious esophagitis. Esophageal infections are usually caused by the following microbes, in order starting with the most common: Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. Uncommon risk factors in these and other reports include epidural triamcinolone and oral budesonide in addition to more common risk factors such as HIV infection, chemotherapeutic agents, and transplant immunosuppressive medications. Rare reports involve immunocompetent patients and treatment of these patients is controversial. Understanding of infectious esophagitis is growing, and risk factors, diagnosis, and treatments are evolving.

  17. Varicella infection modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  18. Third molar infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease often associated with the eruption of a third molar. It can be either acute (serous and suppurative) or chronic. Pain is usually the predominant symptom in acute stages, whereas chronic forms of the disease may display very few symptoms. Both present exudate. The infection is multimicrobial, predominantly caused strictly by betalactamase-producing anaerobeic microorganisms. Treatment measures are symptomatic, antimicrobial and surgical. Antimicrobial treatment is indicated for preoperative prophylaxis when there is a high risk of postoperative infection and, during the acute stages of suppurative pericoronitis when surgery must be postponed. First-line treatment in this case consists of amoxicillin with associated clavulanic acid. Although surgical treatment of pericoronitis presenting at the third molar is indicated as a Grade C recommendation for extraction, it is the most common indication for extraction of a retained third molar, owing to the improved quality of life it can offer the patient.

  19. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  20. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  1. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  2. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  3. Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control

  4. Hyperbilirubinemia and Neonatal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholmali Maamouri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a relatively common disorder among infants in Iran. Bacterial infection and jaundice may be associated with higher morbidity. Previous studies have reported that jaundice may be one of the signs of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate, presentation time, severity of jaundice, signs and complications of infection within neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.   Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted between 2003 and 2011, at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad- Iran. We prospectively evaluated 1763 jaundiced newborns. We Finally found 434 neonates who were categorized into two groups.131 neonates as case group (Blood or/and Urine culture positive or sign of pneumonia and 303 neonates with idiopathic jaundice as control group. Demographic data including prenatal, intrapartum, postnatal events and risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Biochemical markers including bilirubin level, urine and blood cultures were determined at the request of the clinicians.   Results: Jaundice presentation time, age on admission, serum bilirubin value and hospitalization period were reported significantly higher among case group in comparison with control group (p

  5. Vaccines against mucosal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Jan; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2012-06-01

    There remains a great need to develop vaccines against many of the pathogens that infect mucosal tissues or have a mucosal port of entry. Parenteral vaccination may protect in some instances, but usually a mucosal vaccination route is necessary. Mucosal vaccines also have logistic advantages over injectable vaccines by being easier to administer, having less risk of transmitting infections and potentially being easier to manufacture. Still, however, only relatively few vaccines for human use are available: oral vaccines against cholera, typhoid, polio, and rotavirus, and a nasal vaccine against influenza. For polio, typhoid and influenza, in which the pathogens reach the blood stream, there is also an injectable vaccine alternative. A problem with available oral live vaccines is their reduced immunogenicity when used in developing countries; for instance, the efficacy of rotavirus vaccines correlates closely with the national per capita income. Research is needed to define the impact of factors such as malnutrition, aberrant intestinal microflora, concomitant infections, and preexisting immunity as well as of host genetic factors on the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  7. IL-17 and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y; Puel, A

    2014-10-01

    IL-17 immunity has been shown to be essential for mucocutaneous protection against Candida albicans in mice and humans. However, mice with defective IL-17 immunity display broader susceptibility, as they are also prone to infections with diverse infectious agents at various sites. Humans with genetic defects affecting their IL-17 immunity usually suffer from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC): recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and mucosae with C. albicans, with or without other clinical signs. Most patients with autosomal dominant (AD) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) due to STAT3 deficiency or AD STAT1 gain-of-function display impaired IL-17-producing T-cell development, and CMC is one of their principal clinical manifestations. Similarly, patients with autosomal recessive (AR) autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by AIRE deficiency have high levels of neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F and/or IL-22 and present CMC as their only infectious disease. Finally, CMC is the main clinical phenotype observed in patients with inborn errors specifically affecting IL-17 immunity. Indeed, patients with AD IL-17F deficiency or AR IL-17RA or ACT1 deficiency display CMC and, to a lesser extent, superficial staphylococcal diseases. Candida infection was recently reported in psoriasis patients treated with anti-IL-17A antibodies. Careful monitoring for CMC is thus important during anti-IL-17 treatment.

  8. Predisposing factors endorsing Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Fatima, Zeeshan; Hameed, Saif

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which is involved in infections ranging from superficial, mucosal to systemic candidiasis. It is the fourth most leading cause of death in nosocomial infections. Candidal infections are increasing at an alarming rate due to poor clinical management in hospital settings, more use of antibiotics, increased drug resistance, immunosuppression and host-pathogen related factors. There are various predisposing factors which can be immunologic or non-immunologic in origin that make a person susceptible to such infections. This review article establishes the need to understand the various predisposing factors leading to Candidal infections and discusses them on a common platform.

  9. Latest opportunistic infection prevention guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, R

    1998-01-01

    Although people with HIV are living longer than ever before, they continue to suffer from infections that are associated with low T4-cell counts. The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) have updated the guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections, including their positions on when prophylaxis is indicated. Summaries are given for preventing the following infections: cytomegalovirus (CMV), cryptosporidiosis, fungal infections, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes-related infections, mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), streptococcal pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis.

  10. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  11. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. Yeast Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaginal yeast infection (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Yeast Infections updates ... gram stain Thrush Vaginal yeast infection Related Health Topics Fungal Infections Vaginitis National Institutes of Health The ...

  13. Infection Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections when visiting (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Staph infections - hospital (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic ... precautions Personal protective equipment Preventing infections when visiting Staph infections - hospital Related Health Topics Hepatitis HIV/AIDS ...

  14. Cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute periodontal infection in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C L; Winkler, J R; Heinic, G S; Daniels, T E; Yee, K; Greenspan, D

    1993-04-01

    During childhood, many people acquire primary infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), one of the herpes viruses. If they later become immunosuppressed, such as occurs with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, CMV is likely to become reactivated. Severe disease caused by CMV is life-threatening in the HIV-infected population. CMV retinitis, gastritis, colitis, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis have all been reported, but oral lesions due to infection with CMV are rarely reported. We report a case of oral CMV infection which at first was clinically indistinguishable from HIV-associated periodontal disease.

  15. [Rotavirus: an ubiquitous infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaiche, M; Viala, J; Degas, V; Cézard, J-P

    2007-10-01

    Rotavirus is the most frequent virus found in childhood gastroenteritis. A rotavirus viremia is observed in 19 to 63 % of cases, for three days at the beginning of infection. Then, rotavirus can reach several organs as liver (hepatitis in 1/3 of case), nervous central system (2 % of encephalitis could be linked to rotavirus), or more infrequently mesenteric lymph nodes, lung or heart. However, the link between rotavirus and systemic manifestations has not been well established. Further studies are necessary to confirm the role of rotavirus in these organ's lesions.

  16. les infections toxoplasmique

    OpenAIRE

    Laîssouf, Sihem; MERAH, Fatima; Lahssaini, Nour El Houda

    2012-01-01

    La toxoplasmose est une maladie cosmopolite due à un parasite protozoaire intracellulaire obligatoire opportuniste, Toxoplasma gondii. Pour étudier ce parasite nous proposerons un plan de travail qui comporte une aperçu théorique sur l'épidémiologie analytique, la clinique, essentiellement le diagnostic biologique et enfin on abord le traitement et la prophylaxie. En général, l'homme s'infectant le plus souvent par ingestion de viande contaminée par la forme kystique, forme ...

  17. Schistosomiasis and associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambertucci JR

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In hospital-based series viral hepatitis B has been frequently described in association with schistosomiasis whilst in field-based studies the association has not been confirmed. The association between schistosomiasis and Salmonella bacteraemia has been well documented. More recently, acute schistosomiasis has been shown to be a facilitating factor in the genesis of pyogenic liver abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus. New evidences indicate an interaction between the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and schistosomiasis. In this paper, data on the association of schistosomiasis with other infections are updated.

  18. Paediatric respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Everard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual “home”.

  19. Paediatric respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual "home". Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  20. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  1. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619

  2. Immunology of pediatric HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicole H; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2013-07-01

    Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV's perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Viral Infection Model with a Nonlinear Infection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto JuanJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A viral infection model with a nonlinear infection rate is constructed based on empirical evidences. Qualitative analysis shows that there is a degenerate singular infection equilibrium. Furthermore, bifurcation of cusp-type with codimension two (i.e., Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation is confirmed under appropriate conditions. As a result, the rich dynamical behaviors indicate that the model can display an Allee effect and fluctuation effect, which are important for making strategies for controlling the invasion of virus.

  4. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleyman, Geehan; Alangaden, George J

    2016-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Submasseteric Infection: A Rare, Deep Space Cheek Infection Causing Trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H; Bahadori, Robert S; Willis, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Submasseteric space infections are rare at any age but particularly so in primary school children. The origin of the infection is usually odontogenic, from pericoronitis in a third molar. Submasseteric inflammation is a deep facial space inflammation, often progressing to mature abscess, and usually misdiagnosed as staphylococcal or streptococcal lymphadenitis or pyogenic parotitis. The hallmark of a masticatory space infection is trismus. The cardinal signs of this infection include a firm mass in the body of the masseter muscle with overlying cellulitis with trismus.

  6. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms).

  7. Opportunistic Infections in Patients with HTLV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an acquired immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is primarily responsible for opportunistic infections in infected patients. However, opportunistic infections also occur in individuals with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection. Here, we report opportunistic infections in two Japanese HTLV-1-seropositive patients. The first patient was a 67-year-old male, who had cytomegalovirus infection associated with esophagogastritis and terminal ileitis. The patient was HTLV-1-positive and was diagnosed with smoldering adult T cell leukemia (ATL. High levels of serum soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R; 4,304 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (75.5% in peripheral blood were also detected. The second patient was a 78-year-old female, a known asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier, who presented with persistent herpes zoster, followed by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Disease progression of smoldering ATL along opportunistic infections was observed with very high levels of serum sIL-2R (14,058 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (87.2% in peripheral blood. In patients with suspected opportunistic infections, both HTLV-1 and HIV should be considered. In HTLV-1-positive patients, an increase in the CD4+CD25+ T cell subset may have its value as a prognostic marker.

  8. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting Persistent Human Papillomavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Srinidhi; You, Jianxin

    2017-08-18

    While the majority of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient and cleared within a couple of years following exposure, 10-20% of infections persist latently, leading to disease progression and, ultimately, various forms of invasive cancer. Despite the clinical efficiency of recently developed multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines, these preventive measures are not effective against pre-existing infection. Additionally, considering that the burden associated with HPV is greatest in regions with limited access to preventative vaccination, the development of effective therapies targeting persistent infection remains imperative. This review discusses not only the mechanisms underlying persistent HPV infection, but also the promise of immunomodulatory therapeutic vaccines and small-molecular inhibitors, which aim to augment the host immune response against the viral infection as well as obstruct critical viral-host interactions.

  10. Catheter associated urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributab...

  11. Infection Control in Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Saiman, Lisa; Siegel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been a greater interest in infection control in cystic fibrosis (CF) as patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens has been increasingly demonstrated in this unique patient population. The CF Foundation sponsored a consensus conference to craft recommendations for infection control practices for CF care providers. This review provides a summary of the literature addressing infection control in CF. Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sta...

  12. Opportunistic infections following renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infection is common following renal transplantation. Prompt diagnosis and management can be life saving. Four different types of opportunistic respiratory infections diagnosed at our center during the period of January 1998 to December 2000 are discussed. Of the four cases one had Aspergillus, second had Sporothrix, third had Nocardia and fourth case Actinomyces species. Microbiologist has an important role to play by being aware of such opportunistic infections and helping the clinician to make early aetiological diagnosis.

  13. Pulmonary infections in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, M Kyle; Hosey, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    Despite their general high level of health, athletes are not free from the threat of developing pulmonary infection. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are important given the effects of pulmonary infection upon athletic performance and time away from training. This article reviews common etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia and a more in-depth discussion of mycoplasma pneumonie and influenza. Current treatment guidelines, acute bronchitis, fungal pulmonary infection, and return to play principles also are discussed.

  14. [Listeria monocytogenes in human infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołakowska, Agnieszka; Madajczak, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    The Listeria genus is distinguished into six species from which just one--Listeria monocytogenes is pathogenic for humans. The main route of acquisition of Listeria is through the ingestion of contaminated food products. An important element of the L. monocytogenes pathogenesis infection is affiliation with high-risk group of immunocompromised patients, infants or pregnant women, who infected by this microorganism can lead to miscarriage. Listeriosis can appear in the form of sepsis, infection of the nervous system or local abscesses. Another form of listeriosis is gastrointestinal tract infection--noticed in case of food poisoning outbreak.

  15. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.

  17. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Ivan

    2015-09-15

    Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated (necrotizing or nonnecrotizing), or as suppurative or nonsuppurative. Most community-acquired infections are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Simple infections are usually monomicrobial and present with localized clinical findings. In contrast, complicated infections can be mono- or polymicrobial and may present with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation. Laboratory testing may be required to confirm an uncertain diagnosis, evaluate for deep infections or sepsis, determine the need for inpatient care, and evaluate and treat comorbidities. Initial antimicrobial choice is empiric, and in simple infections should cover Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Patients with complicated infections, including suspected necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene, require empiric polymicrobial antibiotic coverage, inpatient treatment, and surgical consultation for debridement. Superficial and small abscesses respond well to drainage and seldom require antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients require early treatment and antimicrobial coverage for possible atypical organisms.

  18. Catheter associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation.

  19. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Prophylaxis of vertical HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Pniewska, Anna; Pilarczyk, Malgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Domagalski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection, early identification of HBV DNA level in HBV-infected mothers, maternal treatment with class B according to FDA antivirals and passive/active anti-HBV immunoprophylaxis to newborns of HBV-positive mothers are crucial strategies for reducing vertical HBV transmission rates. Consideration of caesarean section in order to reduce the risk of vertical HBV transmission should be recommend in HBV infected pregnant women with high viral load despite antiviral therapy or when the therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy is not available.

  1. Neurological Manifestations of Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hong Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take......A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  3. HIV and co-infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christina C; Crane, Megan; Zhou, JingLing; Mina, Michael; Post, Jeffrey J; Cameron, Barbara A; Lloyd, Andrew R; Jaworowski, Anthony; French, Martyn A; Lewin, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite significant reductions in morbidity and mortality secondary to availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection still accounts for 1.5 million deaths annually. The majority of deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa where rates of opportunistic co-infections are disproportionately high. In this review, we discuss the immunopathogenesis of five common infections that cause significant morbidity in HIV-infected patients globally. These include co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Plasmodium falciparum. Specifically, we review the natural history of each co-infection in the setting of HIV, the specific immune defects induced by HIV, the effects of cART on the immune response to the co-infection, the pathogenesis of immune restoration disease (IRD) associated with each infection, and advances in the areas of prevention of each co-infection via vaccination. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and gaps for future research. PMID:23772618

  4. Catheter associated urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

  5. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  6. Murine model of rotavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, N; Franco, M A; Greenberg, H B

    1997-01-01

    The murine model of homologous rotavirus infection has been used to study the determinants of protection. The local IgA immune response appears to be the critical factor in generating protective immunity after natural infection. A series of knockout mice were used to evaluate the contribution of T cells and B cells to immunity and resolution from primary infection. Both arms of immune system played a role in the resolution of primary infection but antibody was much more important for prevention of reinfection.

  7. NATURAL HISTORY OF HIV-INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH THE ROUTE OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Denisenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural history of HIV infection in 91 vertically HIV infected patients and in 101 parenterally HIV infected children were investigated. High relative incidence rates regardless of the route of HIV transmission have demonstrated HIV-related symptoms — generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, underweight, anemia, prolonged unmotivated fever, and opportunistic infections — bacterial infections, candidiasis, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus infection. Vertically HIV infected children had higher relative incidence rates of HIV-related symptoms, opportunistic infections and generalized forms of opportunistic infections.

  8. (Penicillium) marneffei infection in a returning HIV-infected traveller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of disseminated fatal Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in an HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment- experienced South African woman who had travelled to mainland China. The 37-year-old woman was admitted to a private hospital in fulminant septic shock and died within 12 h of admission.

  9. [Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juliano Novaes; Ochiai, Marcelo Eidi; Oliveira, Múcio T; Morgado, Paulo; Munhoz, Robinson; Andretto, Fernanda E; Mansur, Alfredo José; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2005-07-01

    The HACEK microorganisms (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) account for 3% of the cases of endocarditis. They have the following similar clinical and microbiological properties: are Gram-negative bacilli, more easily isolated in aerobic media; their cultures require prolonged incubation time for growing (mean, 3.3 days); and may be considered part of normal flora of upper respiratory tract and oropharynx. The following characteristics have been identified in endocarditis caused by the HACEK microorganisms: insidious clinical findings; difficult diagnosis due to the fastidious nature of the microorganisms; and negative cultures. The Eikenella corrodens endocarditis was first described in 1972. That microorganism continues to be a rare etiological agent. We report the case of a female patient with native valve, who had Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis.

  10. Streptococcus suis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  11. Zika virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Scholler, Amalie Skak; Buus, Soren

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has drawn worldwide attention due to its association to neurologic complications, particularly severe congenital malformations. While ZIKV can replicate efficiently and cause disease in human hosts, it fails to replicate to substantial titers...... mice by introducing the virus directly in the brain via intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation. In this way, the antigen is precisely placed at the site of interest, evading the first line of defense, and thus rendering the mice susceptible to infection. We found that, while intravenous (i.v.) inoculation...... of two different strains of WT mice with low doses of ZIKV does not result in viremia, it is nevertheless able to induce both cell-mediated and humoral immunity as well as clinical protection against subsequent i.c challenge with lethal doses of the virus. In order to determine the contribution of key...

  12. [Vasculitis and viral infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Aguilar, N E; Guido Bayardo, R; Vargas Camaño, M E; Compañ González, D; Miranda Feria, A J

    1997-01-01

    Viruses have been implicated in vasculitis. To determine activity of viral infection associated with vasculitis. 17 patients with vasculitis had been in immunological and antiviral antibodies evaluation. Twenty five healthy controls sex and age matched with hematic biometry (BH) and AA. All subjects were negative to HIV and HBV. Viral activity was demonstrated in eight patients; vascular purpura (5), Takayasu disease (1), polyarteritis nodosa (1), erythema nodosum (1). None subject of control group had IgM activity. Antibodies response of IgG in patients were of lesser intensity than in control group. 14 abnormalities in BH were found in patients and 4 in control group. Immune response in patients, measured by lymphocyte subpopulations and circulating immune complexes was abnormal. In conclusion 47% showed viral activity, but the dominant feature was abnormal immune response in 82%.

  13. Bacteriophages Infecting Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Brüggemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs. Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.

  14. Dental biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    species at a site will build up and may eventually cause development of disease. Depending on local ecological factors, the composition of the dental biofilm may vary considerably. With access to excess carbohydrates, the dental biofilm will be dominated by mainly gram-positive carbohydrate...... and cause gingival inflammation and breakdown of supporting periodontal fibers and bone and ultimately tooth loss, i.e., gingivitis, chronic or aggressive periodontitis, and around dental implants, peri-implantitis. Furthermore, bacteria from the dental biofilm may spread to other parts of the body...... by bacteremia and cause systemic disease. Basically, prevention and treatment of dental biofilm infections are achieved by regular personal and professional removal of the dental biofilm....

  15. [Oral viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Edward I. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Dombrovski, Andrew K. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Swarbrick, Crystall M.D. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Raidal, Shane R. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Forwood, Jade K., E-mail: jforwood@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface.

  17. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M B; Skrede, S; Bruun, T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...... these to patient-important outcomes. With this protocol and statistical analysis plan we describe the methods used to obtain data and the details of the planned analyses. METHODS: The INFECT study is a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study. Patients with NSTIs are enrolled in five Scandinavian...... will be the largest prospective study in patients with NSTIs to date and will provide important data for clinicians, researchers and policy makers on the characteristics and outcomes of these patients....

  18. Nocardia veterana: disseminated infection with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisnel, Elodie; Roseau, Jean-Baptiste; Landais, Cécile; Rodriguez-Nava, Veronica; Bussy, Emmanuel; Gaillard, Tiphaine

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are a group of aerobic actinomycetes widely distributed in soil, and associated with severe opportunistic infections, essentially pulmonary infections. We report the first case of disseminated infection associated with urinary tract infection caused by Nocardia veterana. The diagnosis was difficult; despite the presence of pulmonary nodules, the lung biopsies remained negative while only one aerobic blood culture and the urine culture were positive for N. veterana, identified after a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Few cases of clinical importance due to N. veterana have been published since its characterization. The bacteriological diagnosis of nocardiosis can be difficult to establish because of the delayed growth and the specific techniques that are required. This case illustrates the necessity of performing specific investigations in immunocompromised patients who present with infectious disease because the severity of this infection requires early diagnosis and quick initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Contraception and HIV / STD infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, G; Murrieta, S

    1994-01-01

    Copper-releasing IUDs cause severe dermatitis (e.g., urticarial eruptions and eczema) in copper-sensitive women. Such exposure of subcutaneous areas is a cofactor for HIV infection. The excessive menstrual bleeding that accompanies IUD use and absorption of virions and infected cells in the semen of HIV-infected males by IUD tails facilitates HIV infection. IUD tails have the highest concentration of HIV in infected women. HIV causes cervicitis in HIV-infected women. The cross reactivity between pelvic inflammatory disease (not rare among copper-IUD users) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increases the risk of HIV infection. Having multiple sex partners is a risk factor of HIV/STD infections. IUDs, diaphragms, latex condoms, and spermicides may cause an allergic reaction in men and women. Condoms made of lamb cecum are an option to men who are allergic to latex. The single greatest factor for HIV infections in Africa is chancroid. The sudden increase of syphilis in the US parallels the sudden increase in HIV transmission. Physicians need to consider the following before treating pregnant STD patients with an antibiotic: possible risk to fetus, altered kinetics and etiology of the STDs, and choice, dose, route, and duration of antibiotic treatment. Family planning services should focus on HIV-infected women, so they can avoid pregnancy. Many public health and family planning clinics offer counseling and HIV-antibody testing. Human semen has various subpopulations of leukocytes. Leukocytes that have enveloped sperm can take sperm antigens to the lymphatic system. The great individual variation in frequency of CD4+ lymphoid cells and monocytes/ macrophages is clinically important in infectivity of semen in HIV-positive men. T4+ lymphocytes are in the semen of fertile and infertile men. HIV carriers should wear condoms. Partial inactivation of HIV after 10 minutes in the condom at 37 degrees Celsius occurs, but inactivation varies by trademark.

  20. INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    v brucei infection where for example tant components of extra-cellular the parasite infectivity potential and toxicological effects have been sues in animal. They are ... homeostasis (1,2, 3). With a unique ability to main- tain the cellular contents and ions stable concentrations, Trypano- soma b. brucei, to which humans.

  1. Infections associated with body modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Sai-Yin Wong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.

  2. Renal infarct following varicella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal infarction usually occurs against a background of heart disease or a thromboembolic tendency and rarely is associated with infections. Here we present a case of a young boy who reported with painless gross hematuria following primary Varicella infection and was found to have an isolated renal infarct.

  3. THE HAEMATOLOGY OF HIV INFECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBVl-associated. However, in HIV, approximately half the patients are EBV-negative, indicating other mechanisms of lymphoma genesis.' This may be related to cytokine deregulation and infection of stromal cellslMVECs by HIV. Infected MVECs sustain lymphoma cells in culture better than uninfected ...

  4. Bacterial Infections Complicating Tongue Piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine HY Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig’s angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk.

  5. Extracranial head and neck infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworsky, Denise; Reynolds, Steven; Chow, Anthony W

    2013-07-01

    This article outlines infections in the submandibular, lateral pharyngeal, retropharyngeal, danger, and prevertebral spaces, in conjunction with infections of the sinuses and mediastinum. By understanding the anatomy and pathophysiology, the reader will gain insight into the rationale for various therapeutic options. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skating Living With Stepparents Be a Green Kid Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  7. Ethical issues and HIV infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    his job if he is found to be HIV-infected. He also refuses to share the diagnosis of pneumocystis or the possibility of HIV infection with his wife. What are the doctor's responsibilities to the patient's wife and employer? Comment. The dilemma arises because of a conflict of duties which the medical practitioner experiences.

  8. Infection strategies of Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, van J.A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a ubiquitous filamentous fungal pathogen of a wide range of plant species. The fungus is able to infect all aerial parts of its host plants to a certain extent. Infection may cause enormous damage both during plant growth and in the post-harvest phase (during cold storage or

  9. Viral Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Li (Juan)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMuch of liver pathology is related to infection with HBV and HCV and it is important to define factors associated with clinical behavior of disease following infection with these viruses. Thus in this thesis I first focus on the natural history of chronic viral diseases associated

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection. A...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that cause UTIs normally live in your intestines. Each time ... bladder. If the bacteria go there, they can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of ...

  12. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-06-01

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  13. [Multiple myeloma in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanera, M; Menicagli, V

    1990-10-01

    The Authors describe a case of multiple myeloma in a patient with HIV infection: this is an exceptional observation in young people and in HIV seropositive patients. The marked proliferation of lymphocyte B polyclones, typically found in the advanced stages of HIV infection, could be a determining factor in the appearance of a malignant clone, causing the onset of multiple myeloma.

  14. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  15. SIV Infection of Lung Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Kang, Guobin; Duan, Lijie; Lu, Wuxun; Katze, Michael G; Lewis, Mark G; Haase, Ashley T; Li, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 depletes CD4+ T cells in the blood, lymphatic tissues, gut and lungs. Here we investigated the relationship between depletion and infection of CD4+ T cells in the lung parenchyma. The lungs of 38 Indian rhesus macaques in early to later stages of SIVmac251 infection were examined, and the numbers of CD4+ T cells and macrophages plus the frequency of SIV RNA+ cells were quantified. We showed that SIV infected macrophages in the lung parenchyma, but only in small numbers except in the setting of interstitial inflammation where large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages were detected. However, even in this setting, the number of macrophages was not decreased. By contrast, there were few infected CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma, but CD4+ T cells were nonetheless depleted by unknown mechanisms. The CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma were depleted even though they were not productively infected, whereas SIV can infect large numbers of macrophages in the setting of interstitial inflammation without depleting them. These observations point to the need for future investigations into mechanisms of CD4+ T cell depletion at this mucosal site, and into mechanisms by which macrophage populations are maintained despite high levels of infection. The large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages in lungs in the setting of interstitial inflammation indicates that lung macrophages can be an important source for SIV persistent infection.

  16. Infections and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skare, Thelma Larocca; Dagostini, Jéssica Scherer; Zanardi, Patricia Imai; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence of infections in a population of systemic lupus erythematosus individuals and the characteristics of infections regarding original site, as well as to study the possible associations between infections and treatment. An analytical retrospective study using data from medical charts of systemic lupus erythematosus patients from a single university hospital. A total of 144 patients followed up for five years were included. Data collected comprised age of patients and age at onset of lupus, sex and ethnicity, disease duration before the study period, medications, cumulative dose of prednisone, occurrence of infections and their original site. The most frequent infections were urinary tract infections (correlated to use of prednisone - p<0.0001 and cyclophosphamide - p=0.045), upper airways infections (correlated to use of prednisone - p=0.0004, mycophenolate mofetil - p=0.0005, and cyclosporine - p=0.025), and pneumonia (associated to prednisone - p=0.017). Prednisone was the drug more often associated with presence of infections, pointing to the need for a more judicious management of this drug.

  17. SIV Infection of Lung Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available HIV-1 depletes CD4+ T cells in the blood, lymphatic tissues, gut and lungs. Here we investigated the relationship between depletion and infection of CD4+ T cells in the lung parenchyma. The lungs of 38 Indian rhesus macaques in early to later stages of SIVmac251 infection were examined, and the numbers of CD4+ T cells and macrophages plus the frequency of SIV RNA+ cells were quantified. We showed that SIV infected macrophages in the lung parenchyma, but only in small numbers except in the setting of interstitial inflammation where large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages were detected. However, even in this setting, the number of macrophages was not decreased. By contrast, there were few infected CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma, but CD4+ T cells were nonetheless depleted by unknown mechanisms. The CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma were depleted even though they were not productively infected, whereas SIV can infect large numbers of macrophages in the setting of interstitial inflammation without depleting them. These observations point to the need for future investigations into mechanisms of CD4+ T cell depletion at this mucosal site, and into mechanisms by which macrophage populations are maintained despite high levels of infection. The large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages in lungs in the setting of interstitial inflammation indicates that lung macrophages can be an important source for SIV persistent infection.

  18. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People with HIV/AIDS are ... such as the flu. You can help prevent infections by taking your HIV/AIDS medicines. Other things that can help include ...

  19. Sexually transmitted infections: challenges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unemo, Magnus; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Hocking, Jane S.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Francis, Suzanna C.; Mabey, David; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Hoornenborg, Elske; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Philip, Susan S.; Low, Nicola; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2017-01-01

    WHO estimated that nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of four curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Despite their high global incidence, STIs remain a neglected area of research. In this Commission, we have

  20. Serological markers in HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, J. M.; Goudsmit, J.; de Wolf, F.; Coutinho, R. A.; van der Noordaa, J.

    1988-01-01

    HIV antigenaemia can be detected at or possibly before the onset of clinical symptoms of primary HIV infection. Approximately one week after the onset of HIV antigenaemia, a primary anti-HIV IgM response may occur. A week later, generally within 3 to 6 weeks after infection, anti-HIV IgG can be