Sample records for psii donor side

  1. Stoichiometric relationship between the (Mn){sub 4}-cluster and PSII Ca{sup 2+} necessary for O{sub 2}-evolution. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report focuses on the following research accomplishments: Stoichiometric relationship between the (Mn){sub 4}-cluster and PSII Ca{sup 2+} necessary for O{sub 2}-evolution; Photodamage of Mn-depleted PSII membranes: Sites and mechanisms of photoinactivation of primary reactions; The photoassembly of the PSII (Mn){sub 4}cluster is modulated by Ca{sup 2+} and DCIP; The natural product sorgoleone inhibits electron transfer at the Q{sub A}/Q{sub B} site of PSII; and Photodamages of Ca{sup 2+}-depleted PSII membranes: Sites and mechanisms of inactivation of donor side reactions.

  2. Common side reactions of the glycosyl donor in chemical glycosylation. (United States)

    Christensen, Helle M; Oscarson, Stefan; Jensen, Henrik H


    Chemical glycosylation is central to carbohydrate chemistry and is generally recognised as a challenging reaction. This review describes the most reoccurring side reactions of glycosyl donors in glycosylation and how scientists have attempted to explain their observations and in some cases succeeded in solving a particular encountered problem. The topics covered are donor hydrolysis, elimination to form glycals, intermolecular aglycon transfer of thioglycosides and glycosyl imidate rearrangement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo assessment of effect of phytotoxin tenuazonic acid on PSII reaction centers. (United States)

    Chen, Shiguo; Strasser, Reto Jörg; Qiang, Sheng


    Tenuazonic acid (TeA), a phytotoxin produced by the fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from diseased croftonweed (Ageratina adenophora), exhibits a strong inhibition in photosystem II (PSII) activity. In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence transients of the host plant croftonweed, show that the dominant effect of TeA is not on the primary photochemical reaction but on the biochemical reaction after QA. The most important action site of TeA is the QB site on the PSII electron-acceptor side, blocking electron transport beyond QA(-) by occupying the QB site in the D1 protein. However, TeA does not affect the antenna pigments, the energy transfer from antenna pigment molecules to reaction centers (RCs), and the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) at the donor side of PSII. TeA severely inactivated PSII RCs. The fraction of non-QA reducing centers and non-QB reducing centers show a time- and concentration-dependent linear increase. Conversely, the amount of active QA or QB reducing centers declined sharply in a linear way. The fraction of non-QB reducing centers calculated from data of fluorescence transients is close to the number of PSII RCs with their QB site filled by TeA. An increase of the step-J level (VJ) in the OJIP fluorescence transients attributed to QA(-) accumulation due to TeA bound to the QB site is a typical characteristic response of the plants leaf with respect to TeA penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Selection of the donor nerve for end-to-side neurorrhaphy. (United States)

    Papalia, Igor; Cardaci, Aurelio; d'Alcontres, Francesco Stagno; Lee, Jennifer M; Tos, Pierluigi; Geuna, Stefano


    The authors of other studies have reported that the selection of an agonistic donor nerve is required for recovering voluntary motor control after end-to-side nerve repair. In this experimental investigation, the authors' goal was to verify this assumption by performing end-to-side neurorrhaphy of the rat median nerve on its antagonistic radial nerve. The left median nerve in 10 adult female rats was repaired by end-to-side neurorrhaphy after epineuriotomy on the radial nerve at the middle of the brachium. The time course of median nerve functional recovery was then assessed using the grasping test until postoperative Week 30. Before removing the nerve, the surgical site was carefully explored to exclude contamination by the proximal nerve stump, and the functional anatomy of median and radial nerves was assessed by electrical stimulation. Repaired nerves were then processed for resin embedding, and semithin sections were obtained for nerve fiber histomorphometry by using the dissector method. Repaired median nerves were repopulated by nerve fibers regenerating from the radial donor nerve as previously shown. Moreover, voluntary motor control of the flexor muscles innervated by the median nerve was progressively recovered beginning in postoperative Week 10 and reaching 42% of normal by Week 30. Contrary to previously reported data, recovery of voluntary motor function after end-to-side nerve repair can also be expected when an antagonistic nerve is used as a donor nerve.

  5. Side-by-Side Comparison of Hydroperoxide and Corresponding Alcohol as Hydrogen-Bond Donors. (United States)

    Møller, Kristian H; Tram, Camilla Mia; Kjaergaard, Henrik G


    Hydroperoxides are formed in significant amounts in the atmosphere by oxidation of volatile organic compounds and are key in aerosol formation. In a room-temperature experiment, we detected the formation of bimolecular complexes of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) and the corresponding alcohol tert-butanol (t-BuOH), with dimethyl ether (DME) as the hydrogen-bond acceptor. Using a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations, we compare the strength of the OH-O hydrogen bond and the total strength of complexation. We find that, both in terms of observed red shifts and determined equilibrium constants, t-BuOOH is a significantly better hydrogen-bond donor than t-BuOH, a result that is backed by a number of calculated parameters and can be explained by a weaker OH bond in the hydroperoxide. On the basis of combined experimental and theoretical results, we find that the hydroperoxide complex is stabilized by ∼4 kJ/mol (Gibbs free energy) more than the alcohol complex. Measured red shifts show the same trend in hydrogen-bond strength with trimethylamine (N acceptor atom) and dimethyl sulfide (S acceptor atom) as the hydrogen-bond acceptors.

  6. Comparative Multi-Donor Study of IFNγ Secretion and Expression by Human PBMCs Using ELISPOT Side-by-Side with ELISA and Flow Cytometry Assays. (United States)

    Hagen, Jodi; Zimmerman, Ryan; Goetz, Christine; Bonnevier, Jody; Houchins, Jeffrey P; Reagan, Kevin; Kalyuzhny, Alexander E


    ELISPOT, ELISA and flow cytometry techniques are often used to study the function of immune system cells. It is tempting to speculate that these assays can be used interchangeably, providing similar information about the cytokine secreting activity of cells: the higher the number of cytokine-positive cells measured by flow cytometry, the higher the number of cytokine-secreting cells expected to be detected by ELISPOT and the larger the amount of secreted cytokine expected to be measured by ELISA. We have analyzed the expression level and secretion capacity of IFNγ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from five healthy donors and stimulated by calcium ionomycin mixed with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in a non-specific manner in side-by-side testing using ELISPOT, ELISA and flow cytometry assays. In our study, we observed a general correlation in donors' ranking between ELISPOT and flow cytometry; ELISA values did not correlate with either ELISPOT or flow cytometry. However, a detailed donor-to-donor comparison between ELISPOT and flow cytometry revealed significant discrepancies: donors who have similar numbers of IFNγ-positive cells measured by flow cytometry show 2-3-fold differences in the number of spot-forming cells (SFCs) measured by ELISPOT; and donors who have the same number of SFCs measured by ELISPOT show 30% differences in the number of IFNγ-positive cells measured by flow cytometry. Significant discrepancies between donors were also found when comparing ELISA and ELISPOT techniques: donors who secreted the same amount of IFNγ measured by ELISA show six-fold differences in the number of SFCs measured by ELISPOT; and donors who have 5-7-times less secreted IFNγ measured by ELISA show a two-fold increase in the number of SFCs measured by ELISPOT compared to donors who show a more profound secretion of IFNγ measured by ELISA. The results of our study suggest that there can be a lack of correlation between IFNγ values measured by

  7. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells from Male Donors Do Not Contribute to the Endometrial Side Population of the Recipient (United States)

    Cervelló, Irene; Gil-Sanchis, Claudia; Mas, Aymara; Faus, Amparo; Sanz, Jaime; Moscardó, Federico; Higueras, Gema; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos


    Accumulated evidence demonstrates the existence of bone marrow-derived cells origin in the endometria of women undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In these reports, cells of a bone marrow (BM) origin are able to differentiate into endometrial cells, although their contribution to endometrial regeneration is not yet clear. We have previously demonstrated the functional relevance of side population (SP) cells as the endogenous source of somatic stem cells (SSC) in the human endometrium. The present work aims to understand the presence and contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to the endometrium and the endometrial SP population of women who received BMT from male donors. Five female recipients with spontaneous or induced menstruations were selected and their endometrium was examined for the contribution of XY donor-derived cells using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), telomapping and SP method investigation. We confirm the presence of XY donor-derived cells in the recipient endometrium ranging from 1.7% to 2.62%. We also identify 0.45–0.85% of the donor-derived cells in the epithelial compartment displaying CD9 marker, and 1.0–1.83% of the Vimentin-positive XY donor-derived cells in the stromal compartment. Although the percentage of endometrial SP cells decreased, possibly being due to chemotherapy applied to these patients, they were not formed by XY donor-derived cells, donor BM cells were not associated with the stem cell (SC) niches assessed by telomapping technique, and engraftment percentages were very low with no correlation between time from transplant and engraftment efficiency, suggesting random terminal differentiation. In conclusion, XY donor-derived cells of a BM origin may be considered a limited exogenous source of transdifferentiated endometrial cells rather than a cyclic source of BM donor-derived stem cells. PMID:22276168

  8. Bone marrow-derived cells from male donors do not contribute to the endometrial side population of the recipient.

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    Irene Cervelló

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidence demonstrates the existence of bone marrow-derived cells origin in the endometria of women undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT. In these reports, cells of a bone marrow (BM origin are able to differentiate into endometrial cells, although their contribution to endometrial regeneration is not yet clear. We have previously demonstrated the functional relevance of side population (SP cells as the endogenous source of somatic stem cells (SSC in the human endometrium. The present work aims to understand the presence and contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to the endometrium and the endometrial SP population of women who received BMT from male donors. Five female recipients with spontaneous or induced menstruations were selected and their endometrium was examined for the contribution of XY donor-derived cells using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, telomapping and SP method investigation. We confirm the presence of XY donor-derived cells in the recipient endometrium ranging from 1.7% to 2.62%. We also identify 0.45-0.85% of the donor-derived cells in the epithelial compartment displaying CD9 marker, and 1.0-1.83% of the Vimentin-positive XY donor-derived cells in the stromal compartment. Although the percentage of endometrial SP cells decreased, possibly being due to chemotherapy applied to these patients, they were not formed by XY donor-derived cells, donor BM cells were not associated with the stem cell (SC niches assessed by telomapping technique, and engraftment percentages were very low with no correlation between time from transplant and engraftment efficiency, suggesting random terminal differentiation. In conclusion, XY donor-derived cells of a BM origin may be considered a limited exogenous source of transdifferentiated endometrial cells rather than a cyclic source of BM donor-derived stem cells.

  9. Enhancing the Performance of Polymer Solar Cells by Using Donor Polymers Carrying Discretely Distributed Side Chains. (United States)

    Gong, Xue; Li, Guangwu; Wu, Yang; Zhang, Jicheng; Feng, Shiyu; Liu, Yahui; Li, Cuihong; Ma, Wei; Bo, Zhishan


    Conjugated polymers with three components, P1-1 and P1-2, were prepared by one-pot Stille polymerization. The two-component polymer P1-0 is only composed of a 5-fluoro-6-alkyloxybenzothiadiazole (AFBT) acceptor unit and a thiophene donor unit, while the three-component polymers P1-1 and P1-2 contain 10% and 20% 5,6-difluorobenzothiadiazole (DFBT), respectively, as the third component. The incorporation of the third component, 5,6-difluorobenzothiadiazole, makes the side chains discretely distributed in the polymer backbones, which can enhance the π-π stacking of polymers in film, markedly increase the hole mobility of active layers, and improve the power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices. Influence of the third component on the morphology of active layer was also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. P1-1/PC71BM-based PSCs gave a high PCE up to 7.25%, whereas similarly fabricated devices for P1-0/PC71BM only showed a PCE of 3.46%. The PCE of P1-1/PC71BM-based device was further enhanced to 8.79% after the use of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as the solvent additive. Most importantly, after the incorporation of 10% 5,6-difluorobenzothiadiazole unit, P1-1 exhibited a marked tolerance to the blend film thickness. Devices with a thickness of 265 nm still showed a PCE above 8%, indicating that P1-1 is promising for future applications.

  10. Applying Thienyl Side Chains and Different π-Bridge to Aromatic Side-Chain Substituted Indacenodithiophene-Based Small Molecule Donors for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells. (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Liu, Kai-Kai; Liu, Sha; Liu, Feng; Wu, Hong-Bin; Cao, Yong; Russell, Thomas P


    A pair of linear tetrafluorinated small molecular donors, named as ThIDTTh4F and ThIDTSe4F, which are with tetrathienyl-substituted IDT as electron-rich central core, electron-deficient difluorobenzothiadiazole as acceptor units, and donor end-capping groups, but having differences in the π-bridge (thiophene and selenophene), were successfully synthesized and evaluated as donor materials in organic solar cells. Such π-bridge and core units in these small molecules play a decisive role in the formation of the nanoscale separation of the blend films, which were systematically investigated through absorption spectra, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction pattern, transmission electron microscopy images, resonant soft X-ray scattering profiles, and charge mobility measurement. The ThIDTSe4F (with selenophene π-bridge)-based device exhibited superior performance than devices based on ThIDTh4F (with thiophene π-bridge) after post annealing treatment owing to optimized film morphology and improved charge transport. Power conversion efficiency of 7.31% and fill factor of ∼0.70 were obtained by using a blend of ThIDTSe4F and PC71BM with thermal annealing and solvent vapor annealing treatments, which is the highest PCE from aromatic side-chain substituted IDT-based small molecular solar cells. The scope of this study is to reveal the structure-property relationship of the aromatic side-chain substituted IDT-based donor materials as a function of π-bridge and the post annealing conditions.

  11. A biomimetic approach to artificial photosynthesis: Ru(II)-polypyridine photo-sensitisers linked to tyrosine and manganese electron donors (United States)

    Hammarström, Leif; Sun, Licheng; Åkermark, Björn; Styring, Stenbjörn


    The paper describes recent advances towards the construction of functional mimics of the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II (PSII) that are coupled to photoinduced charge separation. Some key principles of PSII and artificial systems for light-induced charge accumulation are discussed. Systems are described where biomimetic electron donors - manganese complexes and tyrosine - have been linked to a Ru(II)-polypyridine photosensitiser. Oxidation of the donors by intramolecular electron transfer from the photo-oxidised Ru(III) complex has been studied using optical flash photolysis and EPR experiments. A step-wise electron transfer Mn 2(III,III)→tyrosine→Ru(III) has been demonstrated, in analogy to the reaction on the donor side of PSII. Electron transfer from the tyrosine to Ru(III) was coupled to tyrosine deprotonation. This resulted in a large reorganisation energy and thus a slow reaction rate, unless the tyrosine was hydrogen bonded or already deprotonated. A comparison with analogous reactions in PSII is made. Finally, light-induced oxidation of a manganese dimer linked to a Ru(II)-photosensitiser has been observed. Preliminary results suggest the possibility of photo-oxidising manganese dimers in several steps, which is an important advancement towards water oxidation.

  12. Anatomic basis for an algorithmic approach for free fibula flap donor side selection in composite oro-mandibular defects

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    Mohit Sharma


    Full Text Available Introduction: Head and neck oncological resections may result in composite oro-mandibular defects involving the oral mucosa (lining, mandibular bone and the skin (cover. Reconstructive options for such defects have evolved over a period. Free fibula flap reconstruction is currently accepted the world over as the gold standard for oro-mandibular defect reconstruction. Existing literature provides conflicting views about the use of a particular side and orientation of the fibula flap for achieving the optimal outcome. The purpose of this study is to confirm anatomically the effect of bone, soft tissue and vessel orientation on the ease of doing reconstruction. Materials and Methods: This is a cadaveric study. A mandibular model with a defect was used. This was pre plated to maintain continuity. Composite fibula flaps of the same dimension were harvested from both legs of a fresh cadaver. The harvested flaps were used to reconstruct the mandibular defect in different orientations and the best configuration for each reconstructive requirement was assessed. Results: Keeping the peroneal surface for plating, that is, facing outwards, four different configurations of the fibula flap are possible for a given mandibular defect. With a posterior vascular pedicle ipsilateral fibula is suitable for skin cover and contralateral for mucosal lining and the reverse for an anteriorly placed pedicle. Conclusion: The algorithm based selection of appropriate sided fibula flap facilitates complex mandibular reconstruction by placing the right kind of tissue at the right place and helps in reducing the donor site morbidity by allowing the surgeon to harvest only the required amount of skin.

  13. Isolation of novel PSII-LHCII megacomplexes from pea plants characterized by a combination of proteomics and electron microscopy. (United States)

    Albanese, Pascal; Nield, Jon; Tabares, Jose Alejandro Muñoz; Chiodoni, Angelica; Manfredi, Marcello; Gosetti, Fabio; Marengo, Emilio; Saracco, Guido; Barber, James; Pagliano, Cristina


    In higher plants, photosystem II (PSII) is a multi-subunit pigment-protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, where it is present mostly in dimeric form within the grana. Its light-harvesting antenna system, LHCII, is composed of trimeric and monomeric complexes, which can associate in variable number with the dimeric PSII core complex in order to form different types of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. Moreover, PSII-LHCII supercomplexes can laterally associate within the thylakoid membrane plane, thus forming higher molecular mass complexes, termed PSII-LHCII megacomplexes (Boekema et al. 1999a, in Biochemistry 38:2233-2239; Boekema et al. 1999b, in Eur J Biochem 266:444-452). In this study, pure PSII-LHCII megacomplexes were directly isolated from stacked pea thylakoid membranes by a rapid single-step solubilization, using the detergent n-dodecyl-α-D-maltoside, followed by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The megacomplexes were subjected to biochemical and structural analyses. Transmission electron microscopy on negatively stained samples, followed by single-particle analyses, revealed a novel form of PSII-LHCII megacomplexes, as compared to previous studies (Boekema et al.1999a, in Biochemistry 38:2233-2239; Boekema et al. 1999b, in Eur J Biochem 266:444-452), consisting of two PSII-LHCII supercomplexes sitting side-by-side in the membrane plane, sandwiched together with a second copy. This second copy of the megacomplex is most likely derived from the opposite membrane of a granal stack. Two predominant forms of intact sandwiched megacomplexes were observed and termed, according to (Dekker and Boekema 2005 Biochim Biophys Acta 1706:12-39), as (C2S2)4 and (C2S2 + C2S2M2)2 megacomplexes. By applying a gel-based proteomic approach, the protein composition of the isolated megacomplexes was fully characterized. In summary, the new structural forms of isolated megacomplexes and the related modeling performed provide novel insights into

  14. Analysis of Photosystem I Donor and Acceptor Sides with a New Type of Online-Deconvoluting Kinetic LED-Array Spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Klughammer, Christof


    The newly developed Dual/KLAS-NIR spectrophotometer, technical details of which were reported very recently, is used in measuring redox changes of P700, plastocyanin (PC) and ferredoxin (Fd) in intact leaves of Hedera helix, Taxus baccata and Brassica napus An overview of various light-/dark-induced changes of deconvoluted P700+, PC+ and Fd- signals is presented demonstrating the wealth of novel information and the consistency of the obtained results. Fd- changes are particularly large after dark adaptation. PC oxidation precedes P700 oxidation during dark-light induction and in steady-state light response curves. Fd reoxidation during induction correlates with the secondary decline of simultaneously measured fluorescence yield, both of which are eliminated by removal of O2 By determination of 100% redox changes, relative contents of PC/P700 and Fd/P700 can be assessed, which show considerable variations between different leaves, with a trend to higher values in sun leaves. Based on deconvoluted P700+ signals, the complementary quantum yields of PSI, Y(I) (photochemical energy use), Y(ND) (non-photochemical loss due to oxidized primary donor) and Y(NA) (non-photochemical loss due to reduced acceptor) are determined as a function of light intensity and compared with the corresponding complementary quantum yields of PSII, Y(II) (photochemical energy use), Y(NPQ) (regulated non-photochemical loss) and Y(NO) (non-regulated non-photochemical loss). The ratio Y(I)/Y(II) increases with increasing intensities. In the low intensity range, a two-step increase of PC+ is indicative of heterogeneous PC pools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  15. Localization of cyanobacterial photosystem II donor-side subunits by electron microscopy and the supramolecular organization of photosystem II in the thylakoid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, Helena; Rögner, Matthias; Breemen, Jan F.L. van; Boekema, Egbert J.


    A large set of electron microscopy projections of photosystem II (PSII) dimers isolated from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus was characterized by single particle image analysis. In addition to previously published maps at lower resolution [Boekema, E.J., Hankamer, B., Bald, D., Kruip, J.,

  16. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

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    Haibing He


    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  17. The leadership challenges of Paul's collection for the saints in Jerusalem: Part I: Overcoming the obstacles on the side of the Gentile Christian donors

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    Christoph W. Stenschke


    Full Text Available In addition to many other activities, the Apostle Paul was involved in a large-scale fund raising project. Following a charge he once had received in Jerusalem to remember the poor (Gl 2:10, Paul tried to convince the predominantly Gentile Christian churches which he had founded to contribute to a collection for the impoverished Jewish Christians of Jerusalem. For the potential donors it was far from obvious that they should be involved in benefaction for people far away and unable to reciprocate to their would-be �patrons�, to name but one obstacle. Whilst Paul is best known as theologian, missionary and pastor, his collection project also indicates his determination and skills as an early Christian leader. In this quest, Paul combined a broad salvation historical perspective, skilful persuasion and rhetoric, the notions of honour and shame, exemplary transparency and other aspects. This article describes what obstacles Paul had to overcome on the side of the Gentile Christian donors, how he did so and how he proceeded in preparing and organising the actual collection, the transport of the funds to Jerusalem and its presentation in Jerusalem. In closing, the article suggests applications for today�s Christian leaders.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article indicates that already in early Christianity Christian leadership involved the use of several skills and was controversial. Far from being able to simply demand a certain course of action, early Christian leaders such as Paul had to convince others to lead by their own example and had to be involved themselves in what they demanded of others. This challenges some contemporary notions of Christian leadership. Following the portrayal of Paul�s leadership as it emerges from his collection project will lead to more effective Christian leadership.

  18. Being a Living Donor: Risks (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... for blood transfusions Medication side effects Abdominal hernia Death Potential long-term organ specific donor complications blank - ...

  19. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

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    Gupta Nitin


    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  20. Lead induced changes in phosphorylation of PSII proteins in low light grown pea plants. (United States)

    Wioleta, Wasilewska; Anna, Drożak; Ilona, Bacławska; Kamila, Kąkol; Elżbieta, Romanowska


    Light-intensity and redox-state induced thylakoid proteins phosphorylation involved in structural changes and in regulation of protein turnover. The presence of heavy metal ions triggers a wide range of cellular responses including changes in plant growth and photosynthesis. Plants have evolved a number of mechanisms to protect photosynthetic apparatus. We have characterized the effect of lead on PSII protein phosphorylation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown in low light conditions. Pb ions affected only slightly photochemical efficiency of PSII and had no effect on organization of thylakoid complexes. Lead activated strongly phosphorylation of PSII core D1 protein and dephosphorylation of this protein did not proceed in far red light. D1 protein was also not degraded in this conditions. However, phosphorylation of LHCII proteins was not affected by lead. These results indicate that Pb(2+) stimulate the phosphorylation of PSII core proteins and by disturbing the disassembly of supercomplexes play a role in PSII repair mechanism. LHCII phosphorylation could control the distribution of energy between the photosystems in low light conditions. This demonstrates that plants may respond to heavy metals by induction different pathways responsible for protein protection under stress conditions.

  1. Chloroplast movement provides photoprotection to plants by redistributing PSII damage within leaves. (United States)

    Davis, Phillip A; Hangarter, Roger P


    Plants use light to fix carbon through the process of photosynthesis but light also causes photoinhibition, by damaging photosystem II (PSII). Plants can usually adjust their rate of PSII repair to equal the rate of damage, but under stress conditions or supersaturating light-intensities damage may exceed the rate of repair. Light-induced chloroplast movements are one of the many mechanisms plants have evolved to minimize photoinhibition. We found that chloroplast movements achieve a measure of photoprotection to PSII by altering the distribution of photoinhibition through depth in leaves. When chloroplasts are in the low-light accumulation arrangement a greater proportion of PSII damage occurs near the illuminated surface than for leaves where the chloroplasts are in the high-light avoidance arrangement. According to our findings chloroplast movements can increase the overall efficiency of leaf photosynthesis in at least two ways. The movements alter light profiles within leaves to maximize photosynthetic output and at the same time redistribute PSII damage throughout the leaf to reduce the amount of inhibition received by individual chloroplasts and prevent a decrease in photosynthetic potential.

  2. Light dependence of quantum yields for PSII charge separation and oxygen evolution in eucaryotic algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flameling, I.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.


    Quantum yields of photosystem II (PSII) charge separation (Phi(P)) and oxygen production (Phi(O2)) were determined by simultaneous measurements of oxygen production and variable fluorescence in four different aquatic microalgae representing three different taxonomic groups: the freshwater alga

  3. Oxyradicals and PSII activity in maize leaves in the absence of UV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... oxyradicals invoked higher activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and peroxidase under ambient UV, they also imposed limitation on the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII. Exclusion of UV components (UV-B 280–315 nm; UV-A 315–400 nm) translated to enhanced photosynthesis, growth and biomass.

  4. Overexpressed Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Act Synergistically to Protect the Repair of PSII during Photoinhibition in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. (United States)

    Sae-Tang, Penporn; Hihara, Yukako; Yumoto, Isao; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka


    The repair of PSII under strong light is particularly sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and these ROS are efficiently scavenged by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In the present study, we generated transformants of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 that overexpressed an iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803; a highly active catalase (VktA) from Vibrio rumoiensis; and both enzymes together. Then we examined the sensitivity of PSII to photoinhibition in the three strains. In cells that overexpressed either Fe-SOD or VktA, PSII was more tolerant to strong light than it was in wild-type cells. Moreover, in cells that overexpressed both Fe-SOD and VktA, PSII was even more tolerant to strong light. However, the rate of photodamage to PSII, as monitored in the presence of chloramphenicol, was similar in all three transformant strains and in wild-type cells, suggesting that the overexpression of these ROS-scavenging enzymes might not protect PSII from photodamage but might protect the repair of PSII. Under strong light, intracellular levels of ROS fell significantly, and the synthesis de novo of proteins that are required for the repair of PSII, such as the D1 protein, was enhanced. Our observations suggest that overexpressed Fe-SOD and VktA might act synergistically to alleviate the photoinhibition of PSII by reducing intracellular levels of ROS, with resultant protection of the repair of PSII from oxidative inhibition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  5. Assessing the additive risks of PSII herbicide exposure to the Great Barrier Reef. (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen E; Schaffelke, Britta; Shaw, Melanie; Bainbridge, Zoë T; Rohde, Ken W; Kennedy, Karen; Davis, Aaron M; Masters, Bronwyn L; Devlin, Michelle J; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon E


    Herbicide residues have been measured in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon at concentrations which have the potential to harm marine plant communities. Monitoring on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon following wet season discharge show that 80% of the time when herbicides are detected, more than one are present. These herbicides have been shown to act in an additive manner with regards to photosystem-II inhibition. In this study, the area of the Great Barrier Reef considered to be at risk from herbicides is compared when exposures are considered for each herbicide individually and also for herbicide mixtures. Two normalisation indices for herbicide mixtures were calculated based on current guidelines and PSII inhibition thresholds. The results show that the area of risk for most regions is greatly increased under the proposed additive PSII inhibition threshold and that the resilience of this important ecosystem could be reduced by exposure to these herbicides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deletion of CGLD1 Impairs PSII and Increases Singlet Oxygen Tolerance of Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiale Xing


    Full Text Available The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a key model organism for studying photosynthesis and oxidative stress in unicellular eukaryotes. Using a forward genetics approach, we have identified and characterized a mutant x32, which lacks a predicted protein named CGLD1 (Conserved in Green Lineage and Diatom 1 in GreenCut2, under normal and stress conditions. We show that loss of CGLD1 resulted in minimal photoautotrophic growth and PSII activity in the organism. We observed reduced amount of PSII complex and core subunits in the x32 mutant based on blue-native (BN/PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Moreover, x32 exhibited increased sensitivity to high-light stress and altered tolerance to different reactive oxygenic species (ROS stress treatments, i.e., decreased resistance to H2O2/or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH and increased tolerance to neutral red (NR and rose bengal (RB that induce the formation of singlet oxygen, respectively. Further analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR indicated that the increased singlet-oxygen tolerance of x32 was largely correlated with up-regulated gene expression of glutathione-S-transferases (GST. The phenotypical and physiological implications revealed from our experiments highlight the important roles of CGLD1 in maintaining structure and function of PSII as well as in protection of Chlamydomonas under photo-oxidative stress conditions.

  7. Deceased donor uterine transplantation. (United States)

    Flyckt, Rebecca; Kotlyar, Alexander; Arian, Sara; Eghtesad, Bijan; Falcone, Tommaso; Tzakis, Andreas


    To share our experience in performing the first-ever deceased-donor uterine transplant in the United States. This video uses an animation and footage from a uterine transplantation procedure to review the steps and techniques involved in performing a uterine transplant. Academic, multisite medical center. A reproductive-age patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Transplantation of a viable uterus from a deceased donor. Assessment of posttransplantation uterine graft viability. This video article describes the essential steps in the uterine transplant process, including selecting an appropriate donor with no history of infertility or uterine malformations. Furthermore, a deceased donor should exhibit brain death but not cardiac death. We also review our inclusion criteria for suitable recipients. In this video we outline the key steps in a uterine transplantation procedure and demonstrate footage from an actual transplant procedure. These steps include establishing bilateral end-to-side vascular anastomoses between the donor uterine artery and vein and the recipient's external iliac vessels. Once this has been completed and reperfusion noted of the donor uterus, connection to the recipient vaginal cuff is then performed. Uterine transplantation, although currently experimental, has gained the potential to become the first true treatment for uterine factor infertility. This procedure can become a promising option for the approximately 1.5 million women worldwide for whom pregnancy is not possible because of the absence of the uterus or presence of a nonfunctional uterus. Deceased donor uterine transplantation will further serve to broaden accessibility for this procedure. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Donor Tag Game (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Donor Tag Game Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... of Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Make a ...

  9. Solar UV-B effects on PSII performance in Betula nana are influenced by PAR level and reduced by EDU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge


    The long-term and diurnal responses of photosystem II (PSII) performance to near-ambient UV-B radiation were investigated in High Arctic Betula nana. We conducted an UV exclusion experiment with five replicated blocks consisting of open control (no filter), photosynthetic active radiation and UV...... the effects of UV-B. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction curves were used for analysis of OJIP test parameters. Near-ambient UV-B radiation reduced across season maximum quantum yield (TRo /ABS = Fv /Fm ), approximated number of active PSII reaction center (RC/ABS) and the performance index (PIABS ), despite...... in reduced UV-B compared to near-ambient UV-B. This demonstrates current solar UV-B to reduce the PSII performance both on a daily as well as a seasonal basis in this High Arctic species....

  10. Antagonism between elevated CO2, nighttime warming, and summer drought reduces the robustness of PSII performance to freezing events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Ro-Poulsen, Helge


    out in the CLIMAITE multifactor experiment, which includes the combined impact of elevated CO2 (free air carbon enrichment; CO2), warming (passive nighttime warming; T) and summer drought (rain-excluding curtains; D) in a temperate heath ecosystem. PSII performance was probed by the effective quantum...... in the wavy hair-grass, Deschampsia flexuosa, and in the evergreen dwarf shrub common heather, Calluna vulgaris, and following freezing events the PItotal and Fv′/Fm′ were reduced even more. Contrary to expected, indirect effects of the previous summer drought reduced PSII performance before freezing events......, particularly in Calluna. In combinations with elevated CO2 interactive effects with drought, D×CO2 and warming, T×D×CO2, were negatively skewed and caused the reduction of PSII performance in both species after occurrence of freezing events. Neither passive nighttime warming nor elevated CO2 as single factors...

  11. Variations in morphology and PSII photosynthetic capabilities during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). (United States)

    Xie, Xiujun; Wang, Guangce; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; Xu, Pu; Zhu, Jianyi


    Red algae are primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes, whose spores are ideal subjects for studies of photosynthesis and development. Although the development of red alga spores has received considerable research attention, few studies have focused on the detailed morphological and photosynthetic changes that occur during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Herein, we documented these changes in this species of red algae. In the tetraspores, we observed two types of division, cruciate and zonate, and both could develop into multicellular bodies (disks). During the first 84 hours, tetraspores divided several times, but the diameter of the disks changed very little; thereafter, the diameter increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis of histological sections revealed that the natural shape of the disk remains tapered over time, and the erect frond grows from the central protrusion of the disk. Cultivation of tissue from excised disks demonstrated that the central protrusion of the disk is essential for initiation of the erect frond. Photosynthetic (i.e., PSII) activities were measured using chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. The results indicated that freshly released tetraspores retained limited PSII photosynthetic capabilities; when the tetraspores attached to a substrate, those capabilities increased significantly. In the disk, the PSII activity of both marginal and central cells was similar, although some degree of morphological polarity was present; the PSII photosynthetic capabilities in young germling exhibited an apico-basal gradient. Attachment of tetraspores to a substrate significantly enhanced their PSII photosynthetic capabilities, and triggered further development. The central protrusion of the disk is the growth point, may have transfer of nutritive material with the marginal cells. Within the young germling, the hetero-distribution of PSII

  12. Variations in morphology and PSII photosynthetic capabilities during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red algae are primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes, whose spores are ideal subjects for studies of photosynthesis and development. Although the development of red alga spores has received considerable research attention, few studies have focused on the detailed morphological and photosynthetic changes that occur during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta. Herein, we documented these changes in this species of red algae. Results In the tetraspores, we observed two types of division, cruciate and zonate, and both could develop into multicellular bodies (disks. During the first 84 hours, tetraspores divided several times, but the diameter of the disks changed very little; thereafter, the diameter increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis of histological sections revealed that the natural shape of the disk remains tapered over time, and the erect frond grows from the central protrusion of the disk. Cultivation of tissue from excised disks demonstrated that the central protrusion of the disk is essential for initiation of the erect frond. Photosynthetic (i.e., PSII activities were measured using chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. The results indicated that freshly released tetraspores retained limited PSII photosynthetic capabilities; when the tetraspores attached to a substrate, those capabilities increased significantly. In the disk, the PSII activity of both marginal and central cells was similar, although some degree of morphological polarity was present; the PSII photosynthetic capabilities in young germling exhibited an apico-basal gradient. Conclusions Attachment of tetraspores to a substrate significantly enhanced their PSII photosynthetic capabilities, and triggered further development. The central protrusion of the disk is the growth point, may have transfer of nutritive material with the marginal cells. Within

  13. Structure of PSI, PSII and antennae complexes from yellow-green alga Xanthonema debile. (United States)

    Gardian, Zdenko; Tichý, Josef; Vácha, František


    Photosynthetic carbon fixation by Chromophytes is one of the significant components of a carbon cycle on the Earth. Their photosynthetic apparatus is different in pigment composition from that of green plants and algae. In this work we report structural maps of photosystem I, photosystem II and light harvesting antenna complexes isolated from a soil chromophytic alga Xanthonema debile (class Xanthophyceae). Electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations followed by single particle analysis revealed that the overall structure of Xanthophytes' PSI and PSII complexes is similar to that known from higher plants or algae. Averaged top-view projections of Xanthophytes' light harvesting antenna complexes (XLH) showed two groups of particles. Smaller ones that correspond to a trimeric form of XLH, bigger particles resemble higher oligomeric form of XLH.

  14. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.


    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination...... was characterized by simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and the PSII performance through the growing season was investigated with fluorescence measurements. Leaf harvest towards the end of the growing season was done to determine the specific leaf area and the content of carbon......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...

  15. Effect of leaf dehydration duration and dehydration degree on PSII photochemical activity of papaya leaves. (United States)

    Liu, Meijun; Zhang, Zishan; Gao, Huiyuan; Yang, Cheng; Fan, Xingli; Cheng, Dandan


    Although the effect of dehydration on photosynthetic apparatus has been widely studied, the respective effect of dehydration duration and dehydration degree was neglected. This study showed that, when leaves dehydrated in air, the PSII activities of leaves decreased with the decline of leaf relative water content (RWC). Unexpectedly, when leaves dehydrated to same RWC, the decreases in Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm were lower in leaves dehydrating at 43 °C than those at 25 °C. However, to reach the same RWC, leaves dehydrating at 43 °C experienced 1/6 of the dehydration duration for leaves dehydrating at 25 °C. To distinguish the respective effect of dehydration degree and dehydration duration on photosynthetic apparatus, we studied the PSII activities of leaves treated with different concentration of PEG solutions. Increasing dehydration degree aggravated the decline of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in leaves with the same dehydration duration, while prolonging the dehydration duration also exacerbated the decline of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in leaves with identical dehydration degree. With the same dehydration degree and duration, high temperature enhanced the decrease of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in the leaves. When leaves dehydrated in air, the effect of high temperature was underestimated due to reduction of dehydration duration. The results demonstrated that, dehydration degree and duration both play important roles in damage to photosynthetic apparatus. We suggest that, under combined stresses, the effects of dehydration degree and duration on plants should be considered comprehensively, otherwise, partial or incorrect results may be obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Side Effects (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  17. Proteomic characterization and three-dimensional electron microscopy study of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes from higher plants. (United States)

    Pagliano, Cristina; Nield, Jon; Marsano, Francesco; Pape, Tillmann; Barera, Simone; Saracco, Guido; Barber, James


    In higher plants a variable number of peripheral LHCII trimers can strongly (S), moderately (M) or loosely (L) associate with the dimeric PSII core (C2) complex via monomeric Lhcb proteins to form PSII-LHCII supercomplexes with different structural organizations. By solubilizing isolated stacked pea thylakoid membranes either with the α or β isomeric forms of the detergent n-dodecyl-D-maltoside, followed by sucrose density ultracentrifugation, we previously showed that PSII-LHCII supercomplexes of types C2S2M2 and C2S2, respectively, can be isolated [S. Barera et al., Phil. Trans. R Soc. B 67 (2012) 3389-3399]. Here we analysed their protein composition by applying extensive bottom-up and top-down mass spectrometry on the two forms of the isolated supercomplexes. In this way, we revealed the presence of the antenna proteins Lhcb3 and Lhcb6 and of the extrinsic polypeptides PsbP, PsbQ and PsbR exclusively in the C2S2M2 supercomplex. Other proteins of the PSII core complex, common to the C2S2M2 and C2S2 supercomplexes, including the low molecular mass subunits, were also detected and characterized. To complement the proteomic study with structural information, we performed negative stain transmission electron microscopy and single particle analysis on the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes isolated from pea thylakoid membranes solubilized with n-dodecyl-α-D-maltoside. We observed the C2S2M2 supercomplex in its intact form as the largest PSII complex in our preparations. Its dataset was further analysed in silico, together with that of the second largest identified sub-population, corresponding to its C2S2 subcomplex. In this way, we calculated 3D electron density maps for the C2S2M2 and C2S2 supercomplexes, approaching respectively 30 and 28Å resolution, extended by molecular modelling towards the atomic level. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. Copyright © 2013. Published by

  18. Protein-ligand interfaces are polarized: discovery of a strong trend for intermolecular hydrogen bonds to favor donors on the protein side with implications for predicting and designing ligand complexes. (United States)

    Raschka, Sebastian; Wolf, Alex J; Bemister-Buffington, Joseph; Kuhn, Leslie A


    Understanding how proteins encode ligand specificity is fascinating and similar in importance to deciphering the genetic code. For protein-ligand recognition, the combination of an almost infinite variety of interfacial shapes and patterns of chemical groups makes the problem especially challenging. Here we analyze data across non-homologous proteins in complex with small biological ligands to address observations made in our inhibitor discovery projects: that proteins favor donating H-bonds to ligands and avoid using groups with both H-bond donor and acceptor capacity. The resulting clear and significant chemical group matching preferences elucidate the code for protein-native ligand binding, similar to the dominant patterns found in nucleic acid base-pairing. On average, 90% of the keto and carboxylate oxygens occurring in the biological ligands formed direct H-bonds to the protein. A two-fold preference was found for protein atoms to act as H-bond donors and ligand atoms to act as acceptors, and 76% of all intermolecular H-bonds involved an amine donor. Together, the tight chemical and geometric constraints associated with satisfying donor groups generate a hydrogen-bonding lock that can be matched only by ligands bearing the right acceptor-rich key. Measuring an index of H-bond preference based on the observed chemical trends proved sufficient to predict other protein-ligand complexes and can be used to guide molecular design. The resulting Hbind and Protein Recognition Index software packages are being made available for rigorously defining intermolecular H-bonds and measuring the extent to which H-bonding patterns in a given complex match the preference key.

  19. Temperature-sensitive PSII: a novel approach for sustained photosynthetic hydrogen production. (United States)

    Bayro-Kaiser, Vinzenz; Nelson, Nathan


    The need for energy and the associated burden are ever growing. It is crucial to develop new technologies for generating clean and efficient energy for society to avoid upcoming energetic and environmental crises. Sunlight is the most abundant source of energy on the planet. Consequently, it has captured our interest. Certain microalgae possess the ability to capture solar energy and transfer it to the energy carrier, H2. H2 is a valuable fuel, because its combustion produces only one by-product: water. However, the establishment of an efficient biophotolytic H2 production system is hindered by three main obstacles: (1) the hydrogen-evolving enzyme, [FeFe]-hydrogenase, is highly sensitive to oxygen; (2) energy conversion efficiencies are not economically viable; and (3) hydrogen-producing organisms are sensitive to stressful conditions in large-scale production systems. This study aimed to circumvent the oxygen sensitivity of this process with a cyclic hydrogen production system. This approach required a mutant that responded to high temperatures by reducing oxygen evolution. To that end, we randomly mutagenized the green microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to generate mutants that exhibited temperature-sensitive photoautotrophic growth. The selected mutants were further characterized by their ability to evolve oxygen and hydrogen at 25 and 37 °C. We identified four candidate mutants for this project. We characterized these mutants with PSII fluorescence, P700 absorbance, and immunoblotting analyses. Finally, we demonstrated that these mutants could function in a prototype hydrogen-producing bioreactor. These mutant microalgae represent a novel approach for sustained hydrogen production.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Perlin


    Full Text Available We modified the method of retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrectomy and evaluated results of first 10 pro- cedures. We performed four left- and six right-sided donor nephrectomy. There were no conversions to open or hand-assisted surgery. All organs have been successfully transplanted. Retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrec- tomy is safe and feasible. The method has three main advantages over conventional laparoscopic nephrectomy: the absence of contact with bowel, spleen, liver and other intra-abdominal structures, more comfortable access to the renal artery, absence of intraperitoneal pressure elevation. 

  1. Altered gene expression by sedaxane increases PSII efficiency, photosynthesis and growth and improves tolerance to drought in wheat seedlings. (United States)

    Ajigboye, Olubukola O; Lu, Chungui; Murchie, Erik H; Schlatter, Christian; Swart, Gina; Ray, Rumiana V


    Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides have been shown to increase PSII efficiency and photosynthesis under drought stress in the absence of disease to enhance the biomass and yield of winter wheat. However, the molecular mechanism of improved photosynthetic efficiency observed in SDHI-treated wheat has not been previously elucidated. Here we used a combination of chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange and gene expression analysis, to aid our understanding of the basis of the physiological responses of wheat seedlings under drought conditions to sedaxane, a novel SDHI seed treatment. We show that sedaxane increased the efficiency of PSII photochemistry, reduced non-photochemical quenching and improved the photosynthesis and biomass in wheat correlating with systemic changes in the expression of genes involved in defense, chlorophyll synthesis and cell wall modification. We applied a coexpression network-based approach using differentially expressed genes of leaves, roots and pregerminated seeds from our wheat array datasets to identify the most important hub genes, with top ranked correlation (higher gene association value and z-score) involved in cell wall expansion and strengthening, wax and pigment biosynthesis and defense. The results indicate that sedaxane confers tolerant responses of wheat plants grown under drought conditions by redirecting metabolites from defense/stress responses towards growth and adaptive development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of herbicide effects on pigment composition and PSII photochemistry in Helianthus annuus by Raman spectroscopy and chlorophyll a fluorescence (United States)

    Vítek, Petr; Novotná, Kateřina; Hodaňová, Petra; Rapantová, Barbora; Klem, Karel


    The effects of herbicides from three mode-of-action groups - inhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (carfentrazone-ethyl), inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis (mesotrione, clomazone, and diflufenican), and inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (amidosulfuron) - were studied in sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus). Raman spectroscopy, chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) imaging, and UV screening of ChlF were combined to evaluate changes in pigment composition, photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, and non-photochemical quenching in plant leaves 6 d after herbicide application. The Raman signals of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophyll were evaluated and differences in their intensity ratios were observed. Strongly augmented relative content of phenolic compounds was observed in the case of amidosulfuron-treated plants, with a simultaneous decrease in the chlorophyll/carotenoid intensity ratio. The results were confirmed by in vivo measurement of flavonols using UV screening of ChlF. Herbicides from the group of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors significantly decreased both the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII and non-photochemical quenching as determined by ChlF. Resonance Raman imaging (mapping) data with high resolution (150,000-200,000 spectra) are presented, showing the distribution of carotenoids in H. annuus leaves treated by two of the herbicides acting as inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis (clomazone or diflufenican). Clear signs were observed that the treatment induced carotenoid depletion within sunflower leaves. The depletion spatial pattern registered differed depending on the type of herbicide applied.

  3. Dithienosilolothiophene: A New Polyfused Donor for Organic Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Schroeder, Bob C.


    We report the synthesis of a novel pentacyclic donor moiety, dithienosilolothiophene, and its incorporation into low bandgap semiconducting polymers. The unique geometry of this new donor allowed attaching four solubilizing side chains on the same side of the fused ring system, thus ensuring sufficient solubility when incorporated into conjugated polymers while simultaneously reducing the steric hindrance between adjacent polymer chains. The optoelectronic properties of three new polymers comprising the novel pentacyclic donor were investigated and compared to structurally similar thieno[3,2-b]thienobis(silolothiophene) polymers. Organic solar cells were fabricated in order to evaluate the new materials’ potential as donor polymers in bulk heterojunction solar cells and gain further insight into how the single-sided side-chain arrangement affects the active layer blend morphology.

  4. Cyclic electron flow may provide some protection against PSII photoinhibition in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under heat stress. (United States)

    Essemine, Jemaa; Xiao, Yi; Qu, Mingnan; Mi, Hualing; Zhu, Xin-Guang


    Previously we have shown that a quick down-regulation in PSI activity compares to that of PSII following short-term heat stress for two rice groups including C4023 and Q4149, studied herein. These accessions were identified to have different natural capacities in driving cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI; i.e., low CEF (lcef) and high CEF (hcef) for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these two lines have different mechanisms of protecting photosystem II from photodamage under heat stress. We observed a stepwise alteration in the shape of Chl a fluorescence induction (OJIP) with increasing temperature treatment. The effect of 44°C treatment on the damping in Chl a fluorescence was more pronounced in C4023 than in Q4149. Likewise, we noted a disruption in the I-step, a decline in the Fv due to a strong damping in the Fm, and a slight increase in the F0. Normalized data demonstrated that the I-step seems more susceptible to 44°C in C4023 than in Q4149. We also measured the redox states of plastocyanin (PC) and P700 by monitoring the transmission changes at 820nm (I820), and observed a disturbance in the oxidation/reduction kinetics of PC and P700. The decline in the amplitude of their oxidation was shown to be about 29% and 13% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The electropotential component (Δφ) of ms-DLE appeared more sensitive to temperature stress than the chemical component (ΔpH), and the impact of heat was more evident and drastic in C4023 than in Q4149. Under heat stress, we noticed a concomitant decline in the primary photochemistry of PSII as well as in both the membrane energization process and the lumen protonation for both accessions, and it is evident that heat affects these parameters more in C4023 than in Q4149. All these data suggest that higher CET can confer higher photoprotection to PSII in rice lines, which can be a desirable trait during rice breeding, especially in the context of a "warming

  5. Lung donor selection criteria. (United States)

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor


    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant.

  6. Dealing with Donor Anger. (United States)

    McNamee, Mike


    Techniques that reduce donors' resistance to college fund-raising requests, either direct mail or telephone solicitations, are offered. These include: respecting the prospects' concerns about privacy; offering nonintrusive giving options; honesty and clarity of communication; reinforcing donor sense of control; connecting with prospects'…

  7. Merging Structural Information from X-ray Crystallography, Quantum Chemistry, and EXAFS Spectra: The Oxygen-Evolving Complex in PSII. (United States)

    Chernev, Petko; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Rossini, Emanuele; Galstyan, Artur; Dau, Holger; Knapp, Ernst-Walter


    Structural data of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II (PSII) determined by X-ray crystallography, quantum chemistry (QC), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses are presently inconsistent. Therefore, a detailed study of what information can be gained about the OEC through a comparison of QC and crystallographic structure information combined with the information from range-extended EXAFS spectra was undertaken. An analysis for determining the precision of the atomic coordinates of the OEC by QC is carried out. OEC model structures based on crystallographic data that are obtained by QC from different research groups are compared with one another and with structures obtained by high-resolution crystallography. The theory of EXAFS spectra is summarized, and the application of EXAFS spectra to the experimental determination of the structure of the OEC is detailed. We discriminate three types of parameters entering the formula for the EXAFS spectrum: (1) model-independent, predefined, and fixed; (2) model-dependent that can be computed or adjusted; and (3) model-dependent that must be adjusted. The information content of EXAFS spectra is estimated and is related to the precision of atomic coordinates and resolution power to discriminate different atom-pair distances of the OEC. It is demonstrated how a precise adjustment of atomic coordinates can yield a nearly perfect representation of the experimental OEC EXAFS spectrum, but at the expense of overfitting and losing the knowledge of the initial OEC model structure. Introducing a novel type of penalty function, it is shown that moderate adjustment of atomic coordinates to the EXAFS spectrum limited by constraints avoids overfitting and can be used to validate different OEC model structures. This technique is used to identify the OEC model structures whose computed OEC EXAFS spectra agree best with the measured spectrum. In this way, the most likely S-state and protonation pattern

  8. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  9. Meet the donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olejaz, Maria; Hoeyer, Klaus


    For centuries, gross anatomy teaching and anatomical dissection have been fundamental elements in the training of medical doctors and surgeons across the world. Anatomy education and research rely on a stable and reliable supply of bodies in order to take place. Based on qualitative in-depth inte......For centuries, gross anatomy teaching and anatomical dissection have been fundamental elements in the training of medical doctors and surgeons across the world. Anatomy education and research rely on a stable and reliable supply of bodies in order to take place. Based on qualitative in......-depth interviews with 13 whole body donors in Denmark, this article explores what donors think about donation and thus offers a supplement to previous primarily quantitative work on donor motivation. The article presents how interviewed donors relate to three topics: their body, their social relations...

  10. Left versus right deceased donor renal allograft outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J


    It has been suggested that the left kidney is easier to transplant than the right kidney because of the longer length of the left renal vein, facilitating the formation of the venous anastomosis. There are conflicting reports of differing renal allograft outcomes based on the side of donor kidney transplanted (left or right).We sought to determine the effect of side of donor kidney on early and late allograft outcome in our renal transplant population. We performed a retrospective analysis of transplanted left-right deceased donor kidney pairs in Ireland between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. We used a time to death-censored graft failure approach for long-term allograft survival and also examined serum creatinine at different time points post-transplantation. All outcomes were included from day of transplant onwards. A total of 646 transplants were performed from 323 donors. The incidence of delayed graft function was 16.1% in both groups and there was no significant difference in acute rejection episodes or serum creatinine from 1 month to 8 years post-transplantation.There were 47 death-censored allograft failures in the left-sided group compared to 57 in the right-sided group (P = 0.24). These observations show no difference in renal transplant outcome between the recipients of left- and right-sided deceased donor kidneys.

  11. [Vascular anatomy of donor and recipient in living kidney transplantation]. (United States)

    Zhang, Jiqing; Zhang, Xiaodong


    To review the vascular anatomy of the donor and the recipient for the living kidney transplantation. The recent literature about the vessels of donor and recipient in clinical applications was extensively reviewed. The pertinent vascular anatomy of the donor and recipient was essential for the screening of the proper candidates, surgical planning and long-term outcome. Early branching and accessory renal artery of the donor were particularly important to deciding the side of nephrectomy, surgical technique and anastomosing pattern, and their injuries were the most frequent factor of the conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery. With increase of laparoscopic nephrectomy in donors, accurate venous anatomy was paid more and more attention to because venous bleeding could also lead to conversion to open nephrectomy. Multidetector CT (MDCT) could supplant the conventional excretory urography and renal catheter angiography and could accurately depict the donors' vessels, vascular variations. In addition, MDCT can excellently evaluate the status of donor kidney, collecting system and other pertinent anatomy details. Accurate master of related vascular anatomy can facilitate operation plan and success of operation and can contribute to the rapid development of living donor kidney transplantation. MDCT has become the choice of preoperative one-stop image assessment for living renal donors.

  12. Relationships between PSII-independent hydrogen bioproduction and starch metabolism as evidenced from isolation of starch catabolism mutants in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochois, Vincent; Constans, Laure; Beyly, Audrey; Soliveres, Melanie; Peltier, Gilles; Cournac, Laurent [CEA, DSV, IBEB, Laboratoire de Bioenergetique et Biotechnologie des Bacteries and Microalgues, Saint Paul Lez Durance, F-13108 (France); CNRS, UMR Biologie Vegetale and Microbiologie Environnementales, Saint Paul lez Durance, F-13108 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite, Saint Paul lez Durance, F-13108 (France); Dauvillee, David; Ball, Steven [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, UGSF, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8576, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)


    Sulfur deprivation, which is considered as an efficient way to trigger long-term hydrogen photoproduction in unicellular green algae has two major effects: a decrease in PSII which allows anaerobiosis to be reached and carbohydrate (starch) storage. Starch metabolism has been proposed as one of the major factors of hydrogen production, particularly during the PSII-independent (or indirect) pathway. While starch biosynthesis has been characterized in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, little remains known concerning starch degradation. In order to gain a better understanding of starch catabolism pathways and identify those steps likely to limit the starch-dependent hydrogen production, we have designed a genetic screening procedure aimed at isolating mutants of the green alga C. reinhardtii affected in starch mobilization. Using two different screening protocols, the first one based on aerobic starch degradation in the dark and the second one on anaerobic starch degradation in the light, eighteen mutants were isolated among a library of 15,000 insertion mutants, eight (std1-8) with the first screen and ten (sda1-10) with the second. Most of the mutant strains isolated in this study showed a reduction or a delay in the PSII-independent hydrogen production. Further characterization of these mutants should allow the identification of molecular determinants of starch-dependent hydrogen production and supply targets for future biotechnological improvements. (author)

  13. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F


    with only few complications. The long-term outcome for kidney donors is good without increase in mortality or risk for development of hypertension and renal failure; proteinuria may be seen. Living kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment of end-stage renal disease with better graft survival than...

  14. National Marrow Donor Program (United States)


    replacement business analyst to continue working on business and system requirements for HapLogic Phase III ! 100f2l National Marrow Donor Program® NOOOO...NOOOO 14-1 0-1-0204 IID.I. Task 3: Expand Immuno - biology Research QUARTER PROGRESS REPORT Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response


    CERN Multimedia


    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Multimedia


    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Document Server


    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Document Server


    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Document Server


    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  20. Side-by-Side Comparison of Hydroperoxide and Corresponding Alcohol as Hydrogen-Bond Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian Holten; Tram, Camilla Mia; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum


    results, we find that the hydroperoxide complex is stabilized by ∼4 kJ/mol (Gibbs free energy) more than the alcohol complex. Measured red shifts show the same trend in hydrogen-bond strength with trimethylamine (N acceptor atom) and dimethyl sulfide (S acceptor atom) as the hydrogen-bond acceptors....

  1. Nitric oxide donors for the treatment of preterm labour. (United States)

    Duckitt, K; Thornton, S


    A number of tocolytics have been advocated for the treatment of threatened preterm labour in order to delay delivery. The rationale is that a delay in delivery may be associated with improved neonatal morbidity or mortality. Nitric oxide donors, such as nitroglycerin, have been used to relax the uterus. This review addresses their efficacy, side effects and influence on neonatal outcome. To determine whether nitric oxide donors administered in threatened preterm labour are associated with a delay in delivery, adverse side effects or improved neonatal outcome. A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (March 2002) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2002) was undertaken. Randomised controlled trials of nitric oxide donors administered for tocolysis. Trial quality assessment and data extraction were done independently by two reviewers. Five randomised controlled trials (466 women) were included. Nitroglycerine was the NO donor used in all these trials. Nitric oxide donors did not delay delivery nor improve neonatal outcome when compared with placebo, no treatment or alternative tocolytics such as ritodrine, albuterol and magnesium sulphate. There was, however, a reduction in number of deliveries less than 37 weeks when compared with alternative tocolytics but the numbers of deliveries before 32 and 34 weeks were not influenced. Side effects (other than headache) were reduced in women who received nitric oxide donors rather than other tocolytics. However, women were significantly more likely to experience headache when NO donors had been used. There is currently insufficient evidence to support the routine administration of nitric oxide donors in the treatment of threatened preterm labour.

  2. National Marrow Donor Program (United States)


    radiological exposure event. Period 8 Activity: • Attended a meeting with the EBMT Nuclear Accident Committee Ulm, Germany from June 30 to July 1st... nuclear Safety, Bonn o Cullen Case United States National Marrow Donor Program, Minneapolis, Minnesota o Nelson Chao... radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses o Dieter Graessle, Dipl.- Math. Oec. Germany Radiation Medicine Research Group, Ulm

  3. Digital subtraction angiography in 105 living renal transplant donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Ho Jong; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, So Sun; Huh, Jin Do; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duck [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to analyze the number and length of the renal arteries and to evaluate abnormalities of the renal parenchyma and vessel, digital subtraction angiogram images of 105 potential renal donors (45 men and 60 women aged 17-66 years) were studied retrospectively. For the entire series, 31 donors had multiple renal arteries on one side (15 on the left, 11 on the right) and 5 donors on the both sides. 89 donors were family related either parents or siblings of recipients. The estimation of the length of the renal artery was based on the mean height of the second lumbar vertebral body (L2). The right renal artery is significant longer than on the left and measured more than the height of L2 vertebral body in 84 cases on the right and 60 cases on the left. Twenty two donors underwent right nephrectomy due to presence of multiple renal arteries on the left (N=14), proximal bifurcation of left main renal artery (N=3), and young females in reproductive age (N=5). Unexpected abnormalities found with angiogram were seen in 7 cases and they include renal artery stenosis (N=2), renal cysts (N=4) and focal infarction (N=1). In cases of the renal cysts and focal infarction, there were no serious complications related to the abnormalities. It is conclude that intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography is safe and efficient method to image renal anatomy of the potential renal donors.

  4. Analysis of electron donors in photosystems in oxygenic photosynthesis by photo-CIDNP MAS NMR. (United States)

    Najdanova, M; Janssen, G J; de Groot, H J M; Matysik, J; Alia, A


    Both photosystem I and photosystem II are considerably similar in molecular architecture but they operate at very different electrochemical potentials. The origin of the different redox properties of these RCs is not yet clear. In recent years, insight was gained into the electronic structure of photosynthetic cofactors through the application of photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) with magic-angle spinning NMR (MAS NMR). Non-Boltzmann populated nuclear spin states of the radical pair lead to strongly enhanced signal intensities that allow one to observe the solid-state photo-CIDNP effect from both photosystem I and II from isolated reaction center of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza) and from the intact cells of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis by (13)C and (15)N MAS NMR. This review provides an overview on the photo-CIDNP MAS NMR studies performed on PSI and PSII that provide important ingredients toward reconstruction of the electronic structures of the donors in PSI and PSII. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. C lostridium difficile surface proteins are anchored to the cell wall using CWB2 motifs that recognise the anionic polymer PSII (United States)

    Willing, Stephanie E.; Candela, Thomas; Shaw, Helen Alexandra; Seager, Zoe; Mesnage, Stéphane; Fagan, Robert P.


    Summary Gram‐positive surface proteins can be covalently or non‐covalently anchored to the cell wall and can impart important properties on the bacterium in respect of cell envelope organisation and interaction with the environment. We describe here a mechanism of protein anchoring involving tandem CWB2 motifs found in a large number of cell wall proteins in the Firmicutes. In the Clostridium difficile cell wall protein family, we show the three tandem repeats of the CWB2 motif are essential for correct anchoring to the cell wall. CWB2 repeats are non‐identical and cannot substitute for each other, as shown by the secretion into the culture supernatant of proteins containing variations in the patterns of repeats. A conserved Ile Leu Leu sequence within the CWB2 repeats is essential for correct anchoring, although a preceding proline residue is dispensable. We propose a likely genetic locus encoding synthesis of the anionic polymer PSII and, using RNA knock‐down of key genes, reveal subtle effects on cell wall composition. We show that the anionic polymer PSII binds two cell wall proteins, SlpA and Cwp2, and these interactions require the CWB2 repeats, defining a new mechanism of protein anchoring in Gram‐positive bacteria. PMID:25649385

  6. Donor attention to reading materials. (United States)

    O'Brien, S F; Osmond, L; Choquet, K; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M


    Mandatory predonation reading materials inform donors about risk factors for transmissible disease, possible complications of donation and changes to the donation process. We aimed to assess the attention to predonation reading materials and factors which may affect attention. A national survey in 2008 of 18,108 blood donors asked about self-assessed attention to reading the materials. In face-to-face interviews, 441 donors completed additional questions about reading the materials and a literacy test. Qualitative interviews of 27 donors assessed their approach to reading. In the national survey, most of the first-time donors said they read all or most of the materials (90.9% first-time vs. 57.6% repeat donors, P reading them carefully (P read materials carefully, skimmed or did not read, most knew that donors are informed of positive transmissible disease test results (97.1%, 95.5, 98.0 P > 0.05), but fewer recalled seeing the definition of sex (77.2%, 56.9, 24.2 P read materials carefully, skimmed or did not read were compared (P > 0.05). Qualitative interviews showed that donors are reluctant to read any more than necessary and decide based on perceived importance or relevance. Attention to predonation reading materials tends to be better among first-time donors. The effectiveness is limited by low motivation to read, especially for repeat donors, as well as poor literacy. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. [Haemovigilance donors: methods and results]. (United States)

    Rebibo, Danielle; Danic, Bruno


    There is no official definition of haemovigilance donors. However, it concerns the observation and management of Serious Adverse Events observed in blood donors (SAEDs), Post Donation Informations (PDI), and donor epidemiologic survey. The French Decree of 1 February 2006 imposes the declaration of the SAEDs. In 2006, 196 SAEDs were notified for 2599978 donations (7.5/100,000 donations). The incidence of the SAEDs was of 7/100,000 whole blood donations and 10.7/100,000 aphaeresis donations. Donors that are more susceptible to present a SAED are: women, women under 30, repeat donor and aphaeresis donor. For 2/3 of donors having presented a SAED, a medical consultation was prescribed and 1/3 was hospitalized. Vasovagal reaction is the most frequent category. Seven thousand three hundred and sixty one PDI were notified in 2005. The risks of infection represented the principal cause (mainly ENT). Concerning donor epidemiologic survey, the viral residual risk clearly decreased since 1992 and for the period of 2003-2005 it 1/2600000 for HIV, 1/6500000 for HCV and 1/1000000 for HBV. The first national data already give useful information. This information will permit a better care of blood donors and of blood component recipients as well.

  8. Death by side rail. (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Whitbread, Luana


    This study determined the prevalence of side rail use in chronic care units and the reduction of side rail use following education. An audit conducted in 2005 and repeated in 2007 looked at the number of side rails that were used and the reasons for this use. An educational presentation titled "Death by Side Rail" was provided for nurses and healthcare aides. Side rail use decreased by 60% from a prevalence of 90% of the population with side rails up on their beds. The primary reason for side rail use by nurses was determined to be "habit." Nurses no longer put up side rails out of habit, and they now assess the situation prior to the consideration of side rail use.

  9. Which Donor for Uterus Transplants: Brain-Dead Donor or Living Donor? A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Lavoué, Vincent; Vigneau, Cécile; Duros, Solène; Boudjema, Karim; Levêque, Jean; Piver, Pascal; Aubard, Yves; Gauthier, Tristan


    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and compare the pros and cons of using living donors or brain-dead donors in uterus transplantation programs, 2 years after the first worldwide live birth after uterus transplantation. The Medline database and the Central Cochrane Library were used to locate uterine transplantation studies carried out in human or nonhuman primates. All types of articles (case reports, original studies, meta-analyses, reviews) in English or French were considered for inclusion. Overall, 92 articles were screened and 44 were retained for review. Proof of concept for human uterine transplantation was demonstrated in 2014 with a living donor. Compared with a brain-dead donor strategy, a living donor strategy offers greater possibilities for planning surgery and also decreases cold ischemia time, potentially translating into a higher success rate. However, this approach poses ethical problems, given that the donor is exposed to surgery risks but does not derive any direct benefit. A brain-dead donor strategy is more acceptable from an ethical viewpoint, but its feasibility is currently unproven, potentially owing to a lack of compatible donors, and is associated with a longer cold ischemia time and a potentially higher rejection rate. The systematic review demonstrates that uterine transplantation is a major surgical innovation for the treatment of absolute uterine factor infertility. Living and brain-dead donor strategies are not mutually exclusive and, in view of the current scarcity of uterine grafts and the anticipated future rise in demand, both will probably be necessary.

  10. Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization from healthy donors. (United States)

    Ozkan, Melda Comert; Sahin, Fahri; Saydam, Guray


    Most frequently used graft of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for allogeneic transplantation is peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) that are collected after mobilization with frequently granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Administration of the optimal dose of G-CSF while preserving the donor health is one of the most important points for sufficient PBSC mobilization and harvest. We hereby tried to summarize characteristic features, potential side effects and main topics in peripheral blood stem cell mobilization from healthy donors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Urinary biomarkers after donor nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendijk-van den Akker, Judith M; Warlé, Michiel C; van Zuilen, Arjan D.; Kloke, Heinrich J; Wever, Kim E; d'Ancona, Frank C H; Ӧzdemir, Denise M D; Wetzels, Jack F M; Hoitsma, Andries J


    As the beginning of living-donor kidney transplantation, physicians have expressed concern about the possibility that unilateral nephrectomy can be harmful to a healthy individual. To investigate whether the elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy causes early

  12. Influence of temperature on properties of nitrogen plasma source ion implantation (N-PSII) of Ti6A14V alloy

    CERN Document Server

    Geng Man; Zhao Qing


    Specimens of Ti6Al4V alloy were implanted with nitrogen plasma source ion implantation (N-PSII) at temperatures between 100 degree C and 600 degree C to a ion dose of 4 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to determine the nitrogen concentration depth profiles. Microhardness measurements and pin-on-disk wear test were performed to evaluate the improvements of the surface modification. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to determine the phases presented in the surface modified layer. The thickness of implanted layer increased by about an order of magnitude when the temperature was elevated from 100 degree C to 600 degree C. Higher surface hardness and wear resistance was also obtained at higher temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed distinct microstructural changes and the presence of titanium nitrides in the implanted surface

  13. Estimating chlorophyll content and photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements at different growing stages of attached leaves. (United States)

    Tubuxin, Bayaer; Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran, Parinaz; Ginnan, Yusaku; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji


    This paper illustrates the possibility of measuring chlorophyll (Chl) content and Chl fluorescence parameters by the solar-induced Chl fluorescence (SIF) method using the Fraunhofer line depth (FLD) principle, and compares the results with the standard measurement methods. A high-spectral resolution HR2000+ and an ordinary USB4000 spectrometer were used to measure leaf reflectance under solar and artificial light, respectively, to estimate Chl fluorescence. Using leaves of Capsicum annuum cv. 'Sven' (paprika), the relationships between the Chl content and the steady-state Chl fluorescence near oxygen absorption bands of O2B (686nm) and O2A (760nm), measured under artificial and solar light at different growing stages of leaves, were evaluated. The Chl fluorescence yields of ΦF 686nm/ΦF 760nm ratios obtained from both methods correlated well with the Chl content (steady-state solar light: R(2) = 0.73; artificial light: R(2) = 0.94). The SIF method was less accurate for Chl content estimation when Chl content was high. The steady-state solar-induced Chl fluorescence yield ratio correlated very well with the artificial-light-induced one (R(2) = 0.84). A new methodology is then presented to estimate photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) from the SIF measurements, which was verified against the standard Chl fluorescence measurement method (pulse-amplitude modulated method). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.74) between the ΦPSII of the two methods shows that photosynthesis process parameters can be successfully estimated using the presented methodology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Voluntary whole-blood donors, and compensated platelet donors and plasma donors: motivation to donate, altruism and aggression. (United States)

    Trimmel, Michael; Lattacher, Helene; Janda, Monika


    To establish if voluntary whole-blood donors and compensated platelet donors and plasma donors may differ in their motivation to donate, altruism, aggression and autoaggression. Whole-blood (n=51), platelet (n=52) and plasma donors (n=48) completed a battery of validated questionnaires while waiting to donate. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of variance and t-tests were performed to detect differences between groups as noted. Altruism (mean=40.2) was slightly higher in whole-blood donors than in platelet (mean=38.3) and plasma donors (mean=39.1) (p=0.07). Blood donors (mean=2.8) scored lower in the spontaneous aggression measure than platelet (mean=4.1) and plasma donors (mean=4.4) (p=0.01). Plasma donors (mean=4.9) had higher auto-aggression than whole-blood donors and platelet donors (mean for both groups=3.4) (p=0.01). Differences between the three groups were mediated by sociodemographic variables (MANCOVA). Whole-blood donors donated to help others, platelet and plasma donors mostly to receive the compensation. However, those platelet and plasma donors, who would continue to donate without compensation were similar in altruism and aggression to whole-blood donors. While most platelet donors and plasma donors were motivated by the compensation, those who stated that they would continue to donate without compensation had altruism and aggression scores similar to voluntary whole-blood donors.

  15. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F


    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  16. [Long live the kidney donor]. (United States)

    de Fijter, Johan W; Meinders, Arend E


    Kidney transplantation offers longer life expectancy and improves quality of life in selected patients with end-stage renal failure. The availability of living donors is critical, particularly to meet the increasing demand and potentially pre-emptive transplantation. In addition, living donor transplantation is associated with better outcomes on comparison with dialysis or transplants from deceased donors. The major disadvantage of living donation is that complications may occur both directly perioperatively and in the long-term. Two recent studies confirmed that the risk of renal failure among selected living donors is extremely low. This implies that there is no need to alter the existing positive attitude towards living donation. Finding a comparable long-term control group with relevant genetic and non-genetic risk factors remains a challenge to studies looking at long-term effects.

  17. Iron deficiency among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A. S.; Pedersen, O. B.; Magnussen, K.


    and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark......, is that routine ferritin measurements and iron supplementation are feasible and effective ways of reducing the proportion of donors with low haemoglobin levels....

  18. Arabidopsis plants lacking PsbQ and PsbR subunits of the oxygen-evolving complex show altered PSII super-complex organization and short-term adaptive mechanisms. (United States)

    Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Suorsa, Marjaana; Rossi, Fabio; Pavesi, Andrea; Kater, Martin M; Antonacci, Alessia; Tadini, Luca; Pribil, Mathias; Schneider, Anja; Wanner, Gerhard; Leister, Dario; Aro, Eva-Mari; Barbato, Roberto; Pesaresi, Paolo


    The oxygen-evolving complex of eukaryotic photosystem II (PSII) consists of four extrinsic subunits, PsbO (33 kDa), PsbP (23 kDa), PsbQ (17 kDa) and PsbR (10 kDa), encoded by seven nuclear genes, PsbO1 (At5g66570), PsbO2 (At3g50820), PsbP1 (At1g06680), PsbP2 (At2g30790), PsbQ1 (At4g21280), PsbQ2 (At4g05180) and PsbR (At1g79040). Using Arabidopsis insertion mutant lines, we show that PsbP1, but not PsbP2, is essential for photoautotrophic growth, whereas plants lacking both forms of PsbQ and/or PsbR show normal growth rates. Complete elimination of PsbQ has a minor effect on PSII function, but plants lacking PsbR or both PsbR and PsbQ are characterized by more pronounced defects in PSII activity. Gene expression and immunoblot analyses indicate that accumulation of each of these proteins is highly dependent on the presence of the others, and is controlled at the post-transcriptional level, whereas PsbO stability appears to be less sensitive to depletion of other subunits of the oxygen-evolving complex. In addition, comparison of levels of the PSII super-complex in wild-type and mutant leaves reveals the importance of the individual subunits of the oxygen-evolving complex for the supramolecular organization of PSII and their influence on the rate of state transitions. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hardwood siding performance. (United States)

    Glenn A. Cooper


    A 6-year exposure test of three styles of siding made from nine hardwoods and given three treatments showed that full-length yellow-poplar vertical tongue-and-groove siding dip-treated in a water-repellent preservative performed best.

  20. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard


    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  1. Quality of life of liver donors following donor hepatectomy. (United States)

    Chandran, Biju; Bharathan, Viju Kumar; Shaji Mathew, Johns; Amma, Binoj Sivasankara Pillai Thankamony; Gopalakrishnan, Unnikrishnan; Balakrishnan, Dinesh; Menon, Ramachandran Narayana; Dhar, Puneet; Vayoth, Sudheer Othiyil; Surendran, Sudhindran


    Although morbidity following living liver donation is well characterized, there is sparse data regarding health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of donors. HRQOL of 200 consecutive live liver donors from 2011-2014 performed at an Indian center were prospectively collected using the SF-36 version 2, 1 year after surgery. The effect of donor demographics, operative details, post-operative complications (Clavien-Dindo and 50-50 criteria), and recipient mortality on the quality-of-life (QOL) scoring was analyzed. Among 200 donors (female/male=141:59), 77 (38.5%) had complications (14.5%, 16.5%, 4.5%, and 3.5%, Clavien-Dindo grades I-IV, respectively). The physical composite score (PCS) of donors 1 year after surgery was less than ideal (48.75±9.5) while the mental composite score (MCS) was good (53.37±6.16). Recipient death was the only factor that showed a statistically significant correlation with both PCS (prepent the decision to donate.

  2. Philanthropic Motivations of Community College Donors (United States)

    Carter, Linnie S.; Duggan, Molly H.


    This descriptive study surveyed current, lapsed, and major gift donors to explore the impact of college communications on donors' decisions to contribute to the college, the likelihood of donor financial support for various college projects, and the philanthropic motivation profiles of the donors of a midsized, multicampus community college in…

  3. Kidney transplant outcomes from older deceased donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Jager, Kitty J; Caskey, Fergus


    As the median age of deceased kidney donors rises, updated knowledge of transplant outcomes from older deceased donors in differing donor-recipient age groups is required. Using ERA-EDTA Registry data we determined survival outcomes of kidney allografts donated from the same older deceased donor ...

  4. [Kidney transplantation from living donors]. (United States)

    Laca, L; Grandtnerová, B; Lacková, E


    From Jan. 1, 1994 till August 31, 1999 in the Transplantation Centre of the F. D. Roosevelt Hospital and Policlinic 202 transplantations of the kidneys were made, incl. 11 from live donors. The survival of patients and renal grafts in our group is 100%, i.e. all transplanted kidneys are so far functional. In transplantations of kidneys from dead donors the one-year survival of grafts was 85% and the 5-year survival only 70%. During removal of kidneys from live donors we had only one minor complication--a surface infection of the surgical wound. The authors describe their own experience with assessing the indication criteria, criteria for selection of the most suitable donor-recipient pair. Consistently with work of authors from abroad, they consider transplantations of the kidneys from live donors as one of the best alternatives how to increase the number and quality of renal transplantations and to prevent thus an increase of the number of patients on the waiting list.

  5. Healthy donor effect: its magnitude in health research among blood donors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsma, F.; Veldhuizen, I.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Kort, W. de; Vegt, F. de


    BACKGROUND: The healthy donor effect has been mentioned as a methodologic problem in blood donor health research. The aim of this study was to investigate different elements of the healthy donor effect. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: First, recent donors (<4 years registered as a donor) were compared

  6. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications]. (United States)

    Karam, Georges


    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications.

  7. Side Effects: Pain (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  8. Side Effects: Appetite Loss (United States)

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  9. Side Effects: Diarrhea (United States)

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  10. Side Effects: Fatigue (United States)

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  11. Side Effects: Sleep Problems (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  12. Side Effects: Anemia (United States)

    Anemia is a side effect of cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can make women and men feel fatigued, dizzy, and short of breath. Learn how to manage fatigue caused by anemia during cancer treatment.

  13. Side Effects of Chemotherapy (United States)

    ... Many vs Cancer Contact Us Side Effects of Chemotherapy Each of the chemotherapy drugs available today works in a slightly different ... few rules of thumb when it comes to chemotherapy that should always be kept in mind. Ignore ...

  14. The use of neoplastic donors to increase the donor pool. (United States)

    Fiaschetti, P; Pretagostini, R; Stabile, D; Peritore, D; Oliveti, A; Gabbrielli, F; Cenci, S; Ricci, A; Vespasiano, F; Grigioni, W F


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the experience of the Centre-Sud Transplant Organization (OCST) area using cadaveric donor with neoplastic diseases to evaluate the possibility of transmission to recipients. From January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2010, the neoplastic risk has been reported to be 5.4% (377/4654 referred donors). In 2003, the number of donors with a tumor and their mean age were respectively: 60 (10.3%) and 59.6 ± 19.9; 2004: 33 (5.2%) and 61.4 ± 15.9; 2005: 32 (6%) and 62.8 ± 15.5; 2006: 46 (7%) and 60.7 ± 19.1; 2007: 51 (7%) and 58.9 ± 16; in 2008: 58 (7%) and 59.7 ± 19.6; 2009: 47 (7%) and 57 ± 26; 2010: 49 (7%) and 64 ± 16. The organ most affected by tumor has been the central nervous system (18%). The tumor was diagnosed before in 325 (86%) cases, versus during organ retrieval in 48 (12.7%) donor operations but before, which four cases (1%) occured after transplantation. According to the histological types and grades, 28 evaluated donors (8.2%) were suitable for transplantation. The histological types were: thyroid carcinoma (n = 3); prostate carcinoma (n = 8), renal clear cell carcinoma (n = 7), oncocytoma (n = 1), meningiomas (n = 2), dermofibrosarcoma (n = 1); verrucous carcinoma of the vulva (n = 1), colon adenocarcinoma (n = 1), grade II astrocytoma (n = 1), adrenal gland tumor (n = 1), gastric GIST (n = 1), oligodendroglioma (n = 1). Forty-five organs were retrieved (22 livers, 19 kidneys, 3 hearts, and 1 pancreas) and transplanted into 44 recipients with 1 liver-kidney combined transplantation. Four recipients died due to causes not related to the tumor. No donor-transmitted tumor was detected among the recipients. Donation is absolutely not indicated in cases of tumors with high metastatic potential and high grades. Performing an accurate evaluation of the donor, taking into account the histological grade, currently can allow, organ retrieval and transplantation with an acceptable risk. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier

  15. Correlated behavior of the EPR signal of cytochrome b-559 heme Fe(III) ligated by OH- and the multiline signal of the Mn cluster in PS-II membrane fragments. (United States)

    Fiege, R; Shuvalov, V A


    EPR signals of Cyt b-559 heme Fe(III) ligated by OH- and the multiline signal of the Mn cluster in PS-II membrane fragments have been investigated. In 2,3-dicyano-5,6-dichloro-p-benzoquinone-oxidized PS-II membrane fragments the light-induced decrease of the EPR signal of the heme Fe(III)-OH- is accompanied by the appearance of the EPR multiline signal of the Mn cluster. Addition of F- ions, which act as a stronger ligand for heme Fe(III) than OH-, decreases to the same extent the dark- and light-induced signal of the heme Fe(III)-OH- and the light-induced multiline signal of the Mn cluster. These results are discussed in terms of the light-induced formation of a bound OH' radical shared between the Cyt b-559 heme Fe and the Mn cluster as a first step of water oxidation.

  16. Improved UV-B screening capacity does not prevent negative effects of ambient UV irradiance on PSII performance in High Arctic plants. Results from a six year UV exclusion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.


    Long-term responses of ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum in a High Arctic heath ecosystem in Zackenberg, northeast Greenland. Over a period of six years, UV exclusion was conducted in the growing season by means of filters: 60% UV......-B reduction, 90% UV-B + UV-A reduction, UV transparent filter control, and an open control without filter. Plant responses were evaluated using specific leaf area, leaf content of UV-B absorbing compounds and PSII performance parameters derived from chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction curves. Based...... increased TRo/ABS = FV/FM and REo/ETo. These results demonstrate the current level of ambient UV-B to decrease PSII performance significantly in these High Arctic plants. It appears that the two plant species both have improved their UV-screening capacity, but through different strategies, although this did...

  17. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect]. (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro


    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  18. Liver transplant using octogenarian donors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferla, Fabio; De Carlis, Riccardo; Mariani, Anna; De Carlis, Luciano


    ... that liver transplantations (LTs) from octogenarian donors increased constantly between 2001 (3.5%) and 2010 (16.1%); this result is consistent with data from Spain and from the European Liver Transplant Registry. In our series (1571 liver transplants performed between December 1985 and December 2015), the first LT with an octogenarian do...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Mironkov


    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate opportunities, prospects and safety of using heart transplants from aged donors who are at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis.Materials and methods. Over the period from March 1987 to May 2014450 heart transplantations (HTx were performed in V.I.Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artifi cial Organs. During the fi rst month after HTx coronarography was made to 152 (37,8% recipients inorder to exclude/confi rm donor-transmitted coronary atherosclerosis (DTCA and to identify tactics of treatment. Coronary atherosclerosis was detected among 16 patients (3,6% of total number of HTx, 15 (93,8% men and 1 (6,2% women. Mean age of recipients with DTCA at the moment of HTx was 48,3 ± 13,1 years.Results. Hemodynamically relevant coronary atherosclerosis was not detected and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI was not made in the group of patients with the mean age of 42,24 ± 8,91 years. Using heart transplants from aged donors is connected with increasing risk of DTCA among the recipients. DTCA-dependent PCI is not connected with coronary mortality. Actuarial survival rate of patients who underwent PCI is comparable with the same one in the total population of HTx recipients and is equal to 87,5% at 5 years and less.Conclusion. Hearts from aged donors (older than 50 years may be used for HTx with suffi cient level of safety. Due to high level of DTCA using of hearts from such donors is preferable for completing urgent HTx to recipients 1А–В UNOS.

  20. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors. (United States)

    Visser, M; Mochtar, M H; de Melker, A A; van der Veen, F; Repping, S; Gerrits, T


    What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counselling at the time that donor-offspring actually sought contact. Most studies on sperm donors are on anonymous donors and focus on recruitment, financial compensation, anonymity and motivations. There is limited knowledge on the value that identifiable sperm donors place on psychosocial counselling and what their needs are in this respect. We performed a qualitative study from March until June 2014 with 25 identifiable sperm donors, who were or had been a donor at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam any time between 1989 and 2014. We held semi-structured in-depth interviews with identifiable sperm donors with an average age of 44 years. The interviews were fully transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. Twelve out of 15 donors (former donors ITALIC! n = 8, active donors ITALIC! n = 7) who had received a counselling session during their intake procedure found it important that they had been able to talk about issues such as the emotional consequences of donation, disclosure to their own children, family and friends, future contact with donor-offspring and rules and regulations. Of the 10 former donors who had received no counselling session, 8 had regretted the lack of intensive counselling. In the years following their donation, most donors simply wanted to know how many offspring had been born using their sperm and had no need for further counselling. Nevertheless, they frequently mentioned that they were concerned about the well-being of 'their' offspring. In addition, they would value the availability of psychosocial counselling in the event that donor-offspring actually sought contact. A limitation of our study is its

  1. Forskningens personlige side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn


    Artiklen omhandler den ontologiske vending inden for universitetspædagogisk forskning, og redegør for hvorfor en mere personlig og eksistentiel side ved forskningen må medtænkes i universitetspædagogikken og -vejledningen. Udgivelsesdato: 24.11.08......Artiklen omhandler den ontologiske vending inden for universitetspædagogisk forskning, og redegør for hvorfor en mere personlig og eksistentiel side ved forskningen må medtænkes i universitetspædagogikken og -vejledningen. Udgivelsesdato: 24.11.08...

  2. Associations of health status with subsequent blood donor behavior-An alternative perspective on the Healthy Donor Effect from Donor InSight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, Katja; Zalpuri, Saurabh; Prinsze, Femmeke J.; Merz, Eva-Maria; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.


    In donor health research, the 'Healthy Donor Effect' (HDE) often biases study results and hampers their interpretation. This refers to the fact that donors are a selected 'healthier' subset of a population due to both donor selection procedures and self-selection. Donors with long versus short donor

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... free Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  6. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a ...

  7. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Mochtar, M.H.; de Melker, A.A.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.; Gerrits, T.


    STUDY QUESTION: What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial

  8. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? ... 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? ... 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of ...

  11. [Collection of hematopoietic progenitor cells from healthy donors]. (United States)

    Bojanić, Ines; Cepulić, Branka Golubić; Mazić, Sanja


    for apheresis may be accomplished by use of apheresis needle in antecubital vein. Placement of a double-lumen central apheresis catheter is rarely required in healthy donors. Citrate is the most commonly used anticoagulant for apheresis. One to three leukapheresis procedures are required to collect adequate graft. There is an interindividual variation in progenitor cell mobilization among healthy donors, with a subset of donors that do not exhibit effective CD34+ cell mobilization. Donor age and G-CSF schedule are the factors that significantly affect PBPC mobilization and collection in healthy donors. Procedures for mobilization and collection of PBPC from healthy donors are generally well tolerated. Common adverse reactions of G-CSF application include bone pain, myalgia, headache and fatigue. Beside these mild side effects, moderate to life-threatening complications are sporadically observed. Spontaneous splenic rupture, acute lung injury, acute iritis, severe pyogenic infections, and anaphylactoid reactions were reported in healthy donors after G-CSF administration. Adverse effects of apheresis for PBPC collection are the same as for other apheresis procedure and include complications related to venous access and citrate toxicity. Leukapheresis typically results in a lower platelet count, an effect that is exacerbated by the use of G-CSF, which has been documented to cause mild, reversible thrombocytopenia. Fewer side effects were noted in pediatric donors compared to adult donors. PBPC collection in pediatric donors is safe and desired PBPC yields are easily achieved. Theoretical concerns exist about the potentially increasing long-term risk of leukemia after G-CSF administration in healthy donors. Recently, a report of AML developing in a 62-year-old female donor 14 months after G-CSF-primed PBPC donation has been published. Whether G-CSF therapy contributed to the development of this cancer is unknown, but future studies should carefully follow the donors and

  12. Tele-recruitment for Donor Retention


    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, A.


    Blood transfusion services are the integral part of health care system and these services have safe blood transfusion as the major goal. Voluntary blood donation is the key to safe blood and this safety is further enhanced when the voluntary blood donors become repeat/regular donors. Retention of donors is therefore a very crucial strategy to ensure enhanced blood safety. Tele-recruitment is an effective medium of recruiting and more importantly retaining donors via means of telephone/Short M...

  13. Durability of hardboard siding (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Charles Carll


    In response to concerns about hardboard siding failures, a study was performed to assess if performance in a current hardboard industry quality assurance test procedure correlated with in-service performance and how well this performance might be predicted by use of alternative or additional test procedures. A variety of laboratory tests were performed on a large...

  14. Four Sided Seal Tester (United States)


    The Center for Advanced Food Technology School of Enviromental and Biological Sciences New Brunswick, NJ 08903 FTR 216 Defense Logistics Agency...specification for four sided seal tester as function of confinement plate distance” The following modifications were issued :  Jul 18, 2007 0013/01

  15. Blood donor: nursing care plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zapata Sampedro


    Full Text Available The standardized nursing care plan can be used as a means through which the nurse will assess and identify the particular needs of the blood donor.To draw up the care plan, we have conducted the evaluation on the basis of the Marjory Gordon’s functional health patterns.The more prevailing diagnosis according to the NANDA taxonomy have been identified, results have been established according to the NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification taxonomy, and nursing interventions have been suggested according to the NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification taxonomy. Also, certain potential complications, which are infrequent, must be observed and controlled in the blood donation process. Our main aim with this article has been to offer to professionals resources that grant to the caring activity scientific rigor, professional recognition and an unique and valid tool to evaluate the assistance with the best levels of quality for the blood donor.

  16. Cancer in the organ donor


    DETRY, Olivier


    Organ Donation and Cancer Pr Olivier Detry, Dpt of Abdominal Surgery and Transplantation, University of Liege The risk of transmission of cancer with the transplanted organ has been known since the pioneering years of solid organ transplantation, and is enhanced by immunosuppression and particularly the calcineurin inhibitors. Therefore, classically, potential organ donors with past history of cancer are excluded from donation, with the exception of low-grade malignant tumours of the...

  17. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Veena


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert′s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert′s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

  18. Mental health status after living donor hepatectomy. (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Han; Lin, Ping-Yi; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Huang, Mei-Feng; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Hsieh, Chia-En; Hsu, Ya-Lan; Chen, Yao-Li


    Donor safety and preservation of donor health after living liver donation are of paramount importance. In addition, the preoperative mental state of a donor is an important factor in determining the psychological impact of donor hepatectomy. Thus, we aimed to explore the mental health status of living liver donors after hepatectomy. We enrolled 60 donors who were scheduled to undergo living donor hepatectomy during the period January 2014 to March 2015 at a single medical center. Mental health status was measured before and 3 months after surgery using 3 self-report questionnaires, namely the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess depressive symptoms, the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire to measure quality of life, and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) to screen for minor psychiatric disorders. A comparison of the pre- and postdonation CES-D scores revealed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms after surgery (P = .031). There were significant improvements in the physical health domain (P = .031), the psychological health domain (P = .005), the social relationships domain (P = .005), and the environmental health domain (P = .010) of the WHOQOL-BREF. There were no significant changes in CHQ scores after donor hepatectomy (P = .136). All donors reported that they would donate again if required. Approximately one-third (33.3%) of donors experienced more pain than they had anticipated in the immediate postoperative period, and 20.0% of donors had complications after donor hepatectomy. Donor mental health status tended to improve as donors regained physical function during the 1st 3 months of recovery. Long-term monitoring of living donors' mental health is needed to minimize the adverse psychological outcomes of living liver donation.

  19. [Analysis of influence factors on G-CSF-mobilized hematopoietic stem cells of 191 healthy donors in a mono center]. (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yuan, Lei; Li, Hong-Hua; Zhao, Yu; Huang, Wen-Rong; Bo, Jian; Wang, Shu-Hong; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Dou, Li-Ping; Wang, Quan-Shun; Yu, Li; Jing, Yu


    This study was aimed to investigate the factors influencing mobilization efficiency of peripheral hematopoietic stem cells with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and their impact on healthy donors. 181 donors were mobilized subcutaneously with G-CSF at 5 - 10 µg/(kg·d), and 10 donors were mobilized with G-CSF at 3.3 - 4.9 µg/(kg·d), once 12 h, for 4 - 5 d. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (MNC) and CD34(+) cell counts were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mobilization-related side effects were also monitored. The results showed that white blood cell counts increased by 6 times averaged after mobilization (P donors were superior to female ones in cell harvest (P Donor body weight played positive role in cell yield, while impact of age on harvest was not remarkable. Neither MNC nor CD34(+) cell count showed a linear relationship with G-CSF dose. Only slight side effects were observed on the donors in this study. It is concluded that mobilization with G-CSF is sufficient in healthy donors without remarkable side effects.

  20. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa. (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto


    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. "Batavia" (green) and cv. "Lollo Rossa" (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m(-2) s(-1) for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  1. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoharis eOuzounis


    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. ’Batavia’ (green and cv. ‘Lollo Rossa’ (red] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T lamps yielding 90 (±10 µmol m-2 s-1 for up to 20 hr, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED light treatments were Control (no blue addition, 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 µmol m-2 s-1 from 06:00 to 08:00, 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 µmol m-2 s-1 from 21:00 to 08:00, 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 µmol m-2 s-1 from 17:00 to 19:00, and (1B 17-19 Blue at 45 µmol m-2 s-1from 17:00 to 19:00. Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  2. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto


    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. “Batavia” (green) and cv. “Lollo Rossa” (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m−2 s−1 for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent. PMID:25767473

  3. Working the Dark Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    A few days after the terror attacks of 9/11, then Vice President Dick Cheney appeared on television with a call for “working the dark side.” While still unclear what this expression entailed at the time, Cheney's comment appears in retrospect to almost have been prophetic for the years to come...... – years where parts of the U.S. Army and intelligence community set up a rampant torture regime all across the world. Yet, the connection between a so-called “dark side,” “working” this “dark side,” and the torture that followed is not a given, but, instead, a consequence of a set of very specific legal......, political, and personal choices in the early years after 9/11. This dissertation is an investigation into how the notion of a “dark side” took form, and of how and why the specific make-up of this“dark side” ended up creating a torture regime which already today seems almost unreal. The dissertation's first...

  4. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches (United States)

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V.; Giani, Anette S.; Hofmann, Jan A.; Schmidt, Alexander H.


    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors.

  5. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar I. Mitre


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  6. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  7. Family donor care management: principles and recommendations. (United States)

    van Walraven, S M; Nicoloso-de Faveri, G; Axdorph-Nygell, U A I; Douglas, K W; Jones, D A; Lee, S J; Pulsipher, M; Ritchie, L; Halter, J; Shaw, B E


    The World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) is an international organization fostering collaboration in clinical transplantation and promoting the interests of unrelated stem cell donors. The WMDA has developed standards for the recruitment, counseling, work-up and subsequent donations to protect the interests of donors. Although the care of family donors has been carefully considered and managed in transplant centers (TCs) internationally over numerous years (and increasingly TCs are facing accreditation programs, which address this issue) there is currently a lack of standardized guidelines for the management of family donors. The underlying principles of family donor care are in many ways identical to those concerning unrelated donors, although key ethical considerations differ. Although the WMDA is primarily involved in the field of unrelated donors, we believe that it is important to collaborate with those involved with family donors, to standardize the care. This document hopes to encourage increased collaboration between those caring for related and unrelated donors, and build on the extensive work, which has already been undertaken in this field to homogenize care. We recognize that there will be financial, regulatory and logistic differences in different countries and that the manner in which these principles are achieved may vary.

  8. Living kidney donors: current state of affairs. (United States)

    Davis, Connie L


    Living kidney donation continues as the cornerstone of transplantation. In order to determine with ever-renewing assurance that living donation is safe for the donor, we need to periodically review the literature, review the United Network for Organ Sharing database for donor characteristics that may put them in danger, and scour databases for donors starting dialysis and/or listed for transplant. Additionally, we must encourage financing studies that follow large diverse cohorts of donors over their entire lifetimes in order to detect key characteristics that influence outcomes. Currently, it can be stated that living donation is, on the whole, safe, with few perioperative deaths, complications, or long-term medical issues. Additionally, the living donor reflects the demographics of the general population including increased rates of obesity with some donors having hypertension and low-grade proteinuria. In the long run, death rates (for the white donor) are no different than for the general population, whereas end-stage renal disease rates are slightly increased over the general population, ranging from 0.1% to 1.1%. The higher risk is especially notable in the black donor. Preeclampsia in female donors may also be marginally greater than in those with 2 kidneys. Thus, the new health age brings a rejuvenated responsibility of the medical community and those in governance to design systems that allow more complete and continued follow-up of the living kidney donor, especially those of color.

  9. Effects of acute O3 stress on PSII and PSI photochemistry of sensitive and resistant snap bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), probed by prompt chlorophyll "a" fluorescence and 820 nm modulated reflectance. (United States)

    Salvatori, Elisabetta; Fusaro, Lina; Strasser, Reto J; Bussotti, Filippo; Manes, Fausto


    The response of PSII and PSI photochemistry to acute ozone (O3) stress was tested in a "model plant system", namely the O3 sensitive (S156) and O3 resistant (R123) genotype pairs of Phaseolus vulgaris L., during a phenological phase of higher O3 sensitivity (pod formation). The modulation of the photosynthetic activity during O3 stress was analysed by measuring gas exchanges, Prompt Fluorescence (PF, JIP-test) and 820 nm Modulated Reflectance (MR), a novel techniques which specifically detects the changes in the redox state of P700 and plastocyanin. The results showed that, coherently with genotypic-specific O3 sensitivity, the response of the two snap bean genotypes differed for the intensity and time of onset of the considered physiological changes. In fact, despite leaf injury and gas exchanges reduction appeared concurrently in both genotypes, S156 showed a PSII down regulation already after the first day of fumigation (DOF), and an enhancement of Cyclic Electron Flow of PSI after the second DOF, whereas R123 showed only slight adjustments until the third DOF, when the activity of both photosystems was down-regulated. Despite these differences, it is possible to distinguish in both genotypes an early O3 response of the photochemical apparatus, involving PSII only, and a following response, in which PSI activity and content are also modulated. The measurement of the MR signal, performed simultaneously with the PF measurements and the JIP-test analysis, has allowed a better understanding of the role that PSI plays in the O3 stress response of the S156/R123 model plant system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bascuñán-Godoy Luisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT. Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses. Results The same reduction (25% in maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm was observed in both cold-acclimated (CA and non-acclimated (NA plants under PhT. A full recovery was observed in CA plants of both ecotypes under dark conditions, but CA Antarctic plants recover faster than the Andean ecotype. Under PhT, CA plants maintain their quantum yield of PSII, while NA plants reduced it strongly (50% and 73% for Andean and Antarctic plants respectively. Cold acclimation induced the maintenance of PsaA and Cyt b6/f and reduced a 41% the excitation pressure in Antarctic plants, exhibiting the lowest level under PhT. xCold acclimation decreased significantly NPQs in both ecotypes, and reduced chlorophylls and D1 degradation in Andean plants under PhT. NA and CA plants were able to fully restore their normal photosynthesis, while CA Antarctic plants reached 50% higher photosynthetic rates after recovery, which was associated to electron fluxes maintenance under photoinhibitory conditions. Conclusions Cold acclimation has a greater importance on the recovery process than on limiting photodamage. Cold acclimation determined the

  11. Moon - Western Near Side (United States)


    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khubutiya


    Full Text Available The appropriate evaluation and the development of special measures to protect donor lungs are important factors for successful lung transplantation. Aim. To develop and determine the effectiveness of the protocol of morpho- functional assessment of potential lung donor. Methods and results. During the period from May, 2011 to May, 2012, 37 donors with diagnoses of brain death were surveyed. 5 bilateral lung transplantations were performed only in 2 cases donors have been evaluated as «ideal». In the majority of recipients early postoperative period was evaluated as satisfactory. Conclusion. Designed multivariate algorithm of donor with brain death assess- ment, effectively implemented through the selection of donors for lung transplantation with satisfactory results in the early postoperative period. However, compliance with ideal criteria will not allow to effectively provide care for patients with terminal lung disease under conditions of continuous growth of «waiting list». 

  13. Donor risk factors for graft failure in the cornea donor study. (United States)

    Sugar, Joel; Montoya, Monty; Dontchev, Mariya; Tanner, Jean Paul; Beck, Roy; Gal, Robin; Gallagher, Shawn; Gaster, Ronald; Heck, Ellen; Holland, Edward J; Kollman, Craig; Malling, Jackie; Mannis, Mark J; Woody, Jason


    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between donor factors and 5-year corneal graft survival in the Cornea Donor Study. Donor corneas met criteria established by the Eye Bank Association of America, had an endothelial cell density of 2300 to 3300/mm, and were determined to be of good to excellent quality by the eye banks. Donor corneas were assigned using a random approach and surgeons were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and postoperative care were performed according to the surgeons' usual routines and subjects were followed for 5 years. Donor and donor cornea factors were evaluated for their association with graft failure, which was defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque to compromise vision for a minimum of 3 consecutive months. Graft failure was not significantly associated with the type of tissue retrieval (enucleation versus in situ), processing factors, timing of use of the cornea, or characteristics of the donor or the donor cornea. Adjusting for donor age did not affect the results. Donor and donor cornea characteristics do not impact graft survival rates for corneas comparable in quality to those used in this study.

  14. Night Side Jovian Aurora (United States)


    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home

  15. Psychiatric approach to the living kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Correia


    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is considered the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Living donor transplantation has increased because of the shortage, the needs of cadaver donors.Based on existing literature the authors address ethical issues and major psychiatric aspects involved in the evaluation of living donor kidney transplant, and the interference of this procedure on quality of life for donors, and their contraindications. The authors further describe the evaluation procedures used in the Hospital S. João, as well as data related to the 32 patients evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry since 2004.

  16. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  17. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  18. BLOODR: blood donor and requester mobile application. (United States)

    Tatikonda, Vamsi Krishna; El-Ocla, Hosam


    With rapid increase in the usage of social networks sites across the world, there is also a steady increase in blood donation requests as being noticed in the number of posts on these sites such as Facebook and twitter seeking blood donors. Finding blood donor is a challenging issue in almost every country. There are some blood donor finder applications in the market such as Blood app by Red Cross and Blood Donor Finder application by Neologix. However, more reliable applications that meet the needs of users are prompted. Several software technologies including languages and framework are used to develop our blood-donor web application known as BLOODR application. These technologies comprise Ruby programming language (simply known as Ruby) along with JavaScript and PostgreSQL for database are used. Ruby on Rails (simply known as Rails) is an open source Web framework that makes it possible to quickly and easily create data-based web applications. We show screenshots for the BLOODR application for different types of users including requester, donor, and administrator. Various features of the application are described and their needs of use are analyzed. If a patient needs a blood at a clinic, blood donors in vicinity can be contacted through using a clinic management service provided in this application. Registered donors will get notification for the blood requests only if their blood group is compatible with the requested blood type and in the same city/region. Then matching blood donors can go to the requesting clinic and donate. BLOODR application provides a reliable platform to connect local blood donors with patients. BLOODR creates a communication channel through authenticated clinics whenever a patient needs blood donation. It is a useful tool to find compatible blood donors who can receive blood request posts in their local area. Clinics can use this web application to maintain the blood donation activity. Future improvement of the BLOODR is explained.

  19. Perylene-Diimide Based Donor-Acceptor-Donor Type Small-Molecule Acceptors for Solution-Processable Organic Solar Cells (United States)

    Ganesamoorthy, Ramasamy; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan; Sakthivel, Pachagounder


    Development of nonfullerene acceptors plays an important role in the commercial availability of plastic solar cells. We report herein synthesis of bay-substituted donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D)-type perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecules (SM-1 to SM-4) by Suzuki coupling method and their use as acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ-OSCs) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer donor. We varied the number of electron-rich thiophene units and the solubilizing side chains and also evaluated the optical and electrochemical properties of the small molecules. The synthesized small molecules were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-MS). The small molecules showed extensive and strong absorption in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region up to 750 nm, with bandgap (E_{{g}}^{{opt}} ) reduced below polymer donor showed maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.19% with V oc of 0.30 V, J sc of 1.72 mA cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 37%. The PCE decreased with the number of thiophene units. The PCE of SM-2 was lower than that of SM-1. This difference in PCE can be explained by the higher aggregation tendency of the bithiophene compared with the thiophene unit. Introduction of the solubilizing group in the bay position increased the aggregation property, leading to much lower PCE than for the small molecules without solubilizing group.

  20. Perylene-Diimide Based Donor-Acceptor-Donor Type Small-Molecule Acceptors for Solution-Processable Organic Solar Cells (United States)

    Ganesamoorthy, Ramasamy; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan; Sakthivel, Pachagounder


    Development of nonfullerene acceptors plays an important role in the commercial availability of plastic solar cells. We report herein synthesis of bay-substituted donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D)-type perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecules (SM-1 to SM-4) by Suzuki coupling method and their use as acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ-OSCs) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer donor. We varied the number of electron-rich thiophene units and the solubilizing side chains and also evaluated the optical and electrochemical properties of the small molecules. The synthesized small molecules were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-MS). The small molecules showed extensive and strong absorption in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region up to 750 nm, with bandgap (E_{{g}}^{{opt}} ) reduced below energy levels of small molecules SM-1 to SM-4 were suitable for use as electron-accepting materials. The small molecules showed good thermal stability up to 300°C. BHJ-OSCs with SM-1 and P3HT polymer donor showed maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.19% with V oc of 0.30 V, J sc of 1.72 mA cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 37%. The PCE decreased with the number of thiophene units. The PCE of SM-2 was lower than that of SM-1. This difference in PCE can be explained by the higher aggregation tendency of the bithiophene compared with the thiophene unit. Introduction of the solubilizing group in the bay position increased the aggregation property, leading to much lower PCE than for the small molecules without solubilizing group.

  1. Travel behavior and deferral of Dutch blood donors : Consequences for donor availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout-Krikke, Ryanne W.; Oei, Welling; Habets, Karin; Pasker-De Jong, Pieternel C M


    Background Donors returning from areas with outbreaks of infectious diseases may donate infectious blood back home. Geographic donor deferral is an effective measure to ensure the blood safety, but donor deferral may pose a threat for the blood supply especially after holiday seasons. Insight into

  2. FORUM Paediatric living donor liver transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the definitive treatment for children with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). The greatest limitation for LT is scarcity of deceased donor organs. This is particularly critical for smaller children (weighing <10 kg). Living donor liver transplantation. (LDLT) has emerged over the last 2 decades as a viable ...

  3. Factors Influencing Donor Partnership Effectiveness | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Nov 3, 2010 ... This paper, published in the peer-reviewed journal of philanthropy The Foundation Review, discusses the development and use of this new tool as well as various aspects of internal and inter-institutional communication as it pertains to donor collaboration. Download the PDF : Factors Influencing Donor ...

  4. Normothermic machine perfusion for donor liver preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, H.


    Currently, liver transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage liver failure. Unfortunately, a sever shortage of donor organs causes significant mortality amongst patients awaiting transplantation. The donor organ shortage could be alleviated by using organs that are normally not accepted for

  5. Tele-recruitment for Donor Retention. (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, A


    Blood transfusion services are the integral part of health care system and these services have safe blood transfusion as the major goal. Voluntary blood donation is the key to safe blood and this safety is further enhanced when the voluntary blood donors become repeat/regular donors. Retention of donors is therefore a very crucial strategy to ensure enhanced blood safety. Tele-recruitment is an effective medium of recruiting and more importantly retaining donors via means of telephone/Short Message Service. This study was carried out at a standalone blood bank during the period from January to December 2011 with objectives of donor retention, relationship management with the support of personnel with good communication skills, Donor data base, Integrated software and communication facility. For Initial 4 months there was no tele-recruiter, then for 2 months two tele-recruiter and for next 6 months three tele-recruiter were dedicated. Only impact of tele-recruitment on in-house donation was taken into consideration. 2,091 donors were recruited through tele-recruitment in this eight-month period. This was 63 % of in-house donations and 13 % of total donations. In other words out of every five in-house donations, three donations were from people contacted through tele-recruitment. Repeat voluntary blood donation is the safest donation. Tele-recruitment does this by converting 'first-time' donors into repeat/regular donors. Simple intervention like reminder calls on telephone can be highly effective tool to retain donors. Tele-recruitment helped the blood center establish relationships with individual donors, and, maybe, even the society at large. Tele-recruitment is a very low-cost model which can be easily replicated in all kind of blood banks, be it standalone, or a hospital based. Even the blood centers which are largely dependent on replacement donors can possibly have good results and convert replacement donors into repeat/regular voluntary blood donors.

  6. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M


    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev


    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  8. Donor Conception and "Passing," or; Why Australian Parents of Donor-Conceived Children Want Donors Who Look Like Them. (United States)

    Wong, Karen-Anne


    This article explores the processes through which Australian recipients select unknown donors for use in assisted reproductive technologies and speculates on how those processes may affect the future life of the donor-conceived person. I will suggest that trust is an integral part of the exchange between donors, recipients, and gamete agencies in donor conception and heavily informs concepts of relatedness, race, ethnicity, kinship, class, and visibility. The decision to be transparent (or not) about a child's genetic parentage affects recipient parents' choices of donor, about who is allowed to "know" children's genetic backgrounds, and how important it is to be able to "pass" as an unassisted conception. In this way, recipients must trust the process, institutions, and individuals involved in their treatment, as well as place trust in the future they imagine for their child. The current market for donor gametes reproduces normative conceptions of the nuclear family, kinship, and relatedness by facilitating "matching" donors to recipients by phenotype and cultural affinities. Recipient parents who choose not to prioritize "matching," and actively disclose the process of children's conceptions, may embark on a project of queering heteronormative family structures and place great trust in both their own children and changing social attitudes to reduce stigma and generate acceptance for non-traditional families.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In a case-control study, the relevance of donor parameters used for donor selection on final transplant outcome was studied. Two matched groups of 17 donors were created: one group of 'ideal' donors and a control group not meeting the criteria for 'ideal' donors. Recipients of livers from both

  10. Higher organ donation consent rates by relatives of potential uncontrolled donors versus potential controlled donors after death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, J.; Mook, W.N. van; Willems, M.E.; Heurn, L.W. van


    BACKGROUND: Refusal to consent to organ donation is an important cause of the persisting gap between the number of potential organ donors and effectuated donors. In the Netherlands, organ donors include both uncontrolled donors: donors who die unexpectedly after cardiac death (DCD), after failed

  11. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A.J.


    transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different...

  12. Swedish sperm donors are driven by altruism, but shortage of sperm donors leads to reproductive travelling. (United States)

    Ekerhovd, Erling; Faurskov, Anders; Werner, Charlotte


    Swedish legislation requires that sperm donors are identifiable to offspring. In Denmark sperm donors remain anonymous. The aim of this study was to examine sperm donation in Sweden by identifying socio-demographic backgrounds, motivations and attitudes among donors and to describe options and plans of sperm recipients. Furthermore, the willingness of Swedish health care providers to assist in treatment abroad, where sperm from an anonymous donor were to be used, was assessed. The extent of travelling to Denmark for reproductive purposes was also examined. Thirty Swedish sperm donors completed a questionnaire and were interviewed about their backgrounds, motivations and attitudes. Thirty couples where the infertility workup had shown azoospermia were interviewed about their options for achieving parenthood. The willingness to assist in fertility treatment abroad and the extent of reproductive cross border travelling were assessed by interviewing health care providers and by contacting Danish clinics. Almost all donors were Caucasian. The main motivation for sperm donors was to help others. Owing to shortage of sperm donors many Caucasian recipients intended to have treatment abroad. For most non-Caucasian recipients sperm from a donor of appropriate ethnicity were not available in Sweden. Whether the sperm donor was anonymous or identifiable was not of major importance to most sperm recipients. Health care providers expressed unanimous willingness to assist in treatment with sperm from an anonymous donor. Our inquiry indicated that more than 250 Swedish sperm recipients travel to Denmark annually. Identifiable sperm donors are driven by altruistic motives, but shortage of sperm donors leads to reproductive travelling. Recruitment strategies to increase the number of sperm donors in Sweden are therefore warranted.

  13. Three sided complex adaptative systems

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hulst, R


    We introduce two three sided adaptative systems as toy models to mimic the exchange of commodities between buyers and sellers. These models are simple extensions of the minority game, exhibiting similar behaviour as well as some new features. The main difference between our two models is that in the first the three sides are equivalent while in the second, one choice appears as a compromise between the two other sides. Both models are investigated numerically and compared with the original minority game.

  14. Side to Side Probe Position improves Accuracy of Pulse Oximeter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternate fingers were painted with red, blue, purple, brown and black nail colours (experimental). The corresponding finger on the other hand served as control. SpO2 readings were obtained in the top to bottom and side to side probe positions. Results: In the top to bottom position, SpO2 values were recorded for all fingers ...

  15. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars


    policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients......The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...

  16. Human decellularized bone scaffolds from aged donors show improved osteoinductive capacity compared to young donor bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Smith

    Full Text Available To improve the safe use of allograft bone, decellularization techniques may be utilized to produce acellular scaffolds. Such scaffolds should retain their innate biological and biomechanical capacity and support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. However, as allograft bone is derived from a wide age-range, this study aimed to determine whether donor age impacts on the ability an osteoinductive, acellular scaffold produced from human bone to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSC. BM-MSCs from young and old donors were seeded on acellular bone cubes from young and old donors undergoing osteoarthritis related hip surgery. All combinations resulted in increased osteogenic gene expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzyme activity, however BM-MSCs cultured on old donor bone displayed the largest increases. BM-MSCs cultured in old donor bone conditioned media also displayed higher osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity than those exposed to young donor bone conditioned media. ELISA and Luminex analysis of conditioned media demonstrated similar levels of bioactive factors between age groups; however, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1 concentration was significantly higher in young donor samples. Additionally, structural analysis of old donor bone indicated an increased porosity compared to young donor bone. These results demonstrate the ability of a decellularized scaffold produced from young and old donors to support osteogenic differentiation of cells from young and old donors. Significantly, the older donor bone produced greater osteogenic differentiation which may be related to reduced IGFBP1 bioavailability and increased porosity, potentially explaining the excellent clinical results seen with the use of allograft from aged donors.

  17. Durability of Hardboard Lap Siding (United States)

    Charles Carll; Charles R. Boardman; Steve P. Verrill


    This paper describes a study that was undertaken to evaluate the degree of correlation between in-service performance of hardboard siding and its performance in the industry standard test procedure for “weatherability of substrate.” The study included 13 different hardboard sidings: 6 noncommercial boards and 7 commercial products. All manufacturing plants operating in...

  18. HIV Medicines and Side Effects (United States)

    ... Medicines HIV and Immunizations What is a Drug Interaction? Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects ... a life-threatening condition. Any swelling of the face, eyes, lips, throat, or ... effect that requires immediate medical attention. People with HIV ...

  19. Comparing Demand Side Management approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria


    Due to increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect, a more efficient energy supply is desirable, preferably based on renewable sources. To cope with the decrease of flexibility due to the introduction of renewables in production side of the supply chain, a more flexible consumer side is

  20. Donor acceptor complexes of noble gases. (United States)

    Mück, Leonie Anna; Timoshkin, Alexey Y; von Hopffgarten, Moritz; Frenking, Gernot


    Donor-acceptor (DA) complexes of noble gases (Ng) of the general type A noble gas, a lone pair of the donor molecule and a vacant orbital of the acceptor molecule. Detailed bonding analysis of the model compounds F(3)Al-Ng-NH(3) reveals that Ng-ammonia interaction is repulsive due to Pauli repulsion. Bonding interaction between Ng and N is mostly electrostatic. In contrast, strong orbital interactions are responsible for the attractive interactions between Ng and AlF(3). Due to the repulsive interactions with the donor molecule and a sizable reorganization energy of the acceptor molecule, optimization attempts of the A noble gases. These are the first examples of the thermodynamically stable Ar and Kr compounds. Application of the push-pull cryptand ligands featuring multiple (two and three) donor-acceptor induced chemical bonds is expected to yield stable complexes with virtually any electron-rich element in the periodic table.


    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.


    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

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  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2:30. credihealth 146 views 2:30 Pain Control: Support for ... Jeff, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 29,377 ...

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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  6. Thermodynamic and Spectrophotometric Studies of Electron Donor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The stoichiometry of the complex was 2:1 ... and for assay of active pharmaceutical ingredient. (API) content to ensure efficacy and safety of the ..... alternative assay technique for cephalexin by charge transfer interaction of the donor: ...

  7. The dead donor rule: a defense. (United States)

    Birch, Samuel C M


    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the "dead donor rule," the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are not addressed.) The claim that the dead donor rule lacks a cogent ethical rationale will be shown to be an expression of the contemporary rejection of the moral significance of the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die. The moral significance of this traditional distinction, and the associated norm that doctors should not kill their patients, will be defended, and this critique of it shown to be unsuccessful.

  8. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Loading... Close Yeah, keep it Undo Close This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue Watch Queue Queue Remove ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from ...

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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  11. Psychiatric history in living kidney donor candidates. (United States)

    Nishimura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Ishigooka, Jun


    To critically discuss recent studies of living kidney donor candidates with a past or current psychiatric history and to offer guidance for the psychosocial evaluation of such donors. A global consensus has been developed that active, significant mental illness and substance abuse are absolute contraindications to organ donation due to diminished ability to make a well informed, rational decision about donation or to maintain health status after donation. However, to date, there has been little information published on the suitability for donation and the long-term psychosocial and medical outcomes after donation in donors with mental health issues, especially relatively milder psychiatric disorders, or past significant psychiatric history. To resolve the ethical dilemma of whether living donor candidates with mental health issues should be allowed to donate as is their right or be considered a vulnerable group in need of protection, we need more information. Information should include careful evaluation, possible intervention and follow-up to optimize donation.

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... employee, Serena Marshall, as she takes you through her blood stem cell donation experience at the National ... 31,594 views 10:58 AML Survivor meets her German stem cell donor for the first time ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells that have ... 11 12 videos Play all exercise cassie shipman Leukemia Survivor Meets Bone Marrow Donor - Duration: 4:47. ...

  14. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the use of BMT and PBSCT, see If you are ... registry of volunteers willing to be donors at . Category Science & Technology License Standard ...

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My Personal Experience in Donating Bone Marrow/Stem cells. Be a Donor, Fight Leukemia- Bradford Pine - Duration: 2:59. Bradford Pine 36,968 views ... Loading... Loading... About Press Copyright Creators ...

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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  17. Alginate dressing as a donor site haemostat.


    Groves, A. R.; Lawrence, J. C.


    An alginate fibre dressing has been used to reduce blood loss from skin graft donor sites. Significant haemostasis has been achieved in the immediate post surgery phase and no adverse reactions observed.

  18. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy increases the supply of living donor kidneys: a center-specific microeconomic analysis. (United States)

    Kuo, P C; Johnson, L B


    A tenet of microeconomics is that new technology will shift the supply curve to the right. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is a new technique for removal of living donor kidneys. Centers performing this procedure have noted an increased number of patients presenting for donor evaluation. This has not been previously studied. The records of all LDN performed from May 1998 to February 1999 were reviewed. The following variables were examined: sex, age, related vs. unrelated donation, estimated blood loss, i.v. analgesia, length of stay, and time out of work. Donors undergoing traditional open donor nephrectomy during January 1997 to May 1998 served as the control group. A composite cost index was constructed. LDN significantly decreased length of stay, pain, and time out of work; the supply function shifted to the right. Telephone interviews revealed that 47% donated solely because of the LDN procedure. LDN increases the supply of living donor kidneys.

  19. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy


    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  20. Nitric oxide donors for treating preterm labour. (United States)

    Duckitt, Kirsten; Thornton, Steve; O'Donovan, Oliver P; Dowswell, Therese


    A number of tocolytics have been advocated for the treatment of threatened preterm labour in order to delay birth. The rationale is that a delay in birth may be associated with improved neonatal morbidity or mortality. Nitric oxide donors, such as nitroglycerin, have been used to relax the uterus. This review addresses their efficacy, adverse effects and influence on neonatal outcome. To determine whether nitric oxide donors administered in threatened preterm labour are associated with a delay in birth, adverse effects or improved neonatal outcome. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 December 2013). Randomised controlled trials of nitric oxide donors administered for tocolysis. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Twelve trials, including a total of 1227 women at risk of preterm labour, contributed data to this updated review. The methodological quality of trials was mixed; trials comparing nitric oxide donors with other types of tocolytics were not blinded and this may have had an impact on findings.Three studies compared nitric oxide donors (glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)) with placebo. There was no significant evidence that nitric oxide donors prolonged pregnancy beyond 48 hours (average risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 1.90, two studies, 186 women), and although for most adverse effects there was no significant difference between groups, women in the active treatment group in one study were at higher risk of experiencing a headache. For infant outcomes there was no significant evidence that nitric oxide donors reduced the risk of neonatal death or serious morbidity (stillbirth RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.59, one study, 153 infants; neonatal death RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.06 to 2.89, two studies, 186 infants). One study, using a composite outcome, reported a reduced risk of serious adverse outcomes for infants in the GTN group which approached statistical significance (RR

  1. Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahida Vilsu


    Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ≤10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, χ2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood

  2. Blood donation mobile applications: are donors ready? (United States)

    Yuan, Shan; Chang, Shelley; Uyeno, Kasie; Almquist, Gay; Wang, Shirong


    The rapid rise of mobile communication technologies has the potential to dramatically change and improve blood donor recruitment and retention efforts. E-mail invitations were sent to blood donors in a large metropolitan area to participate in a Web-based survey designed to gauge their readiness and interest level for a blood donation mobile application ("app"). A total of 982 ethnically diverse respondents of various age groups and prior donation experiences were surveyed. Among the respondents, 87.3% had ready access to smart phones. E-mail was chosen by 62.1% as the currently preferred method when contacted by the blood center, followed by texting (10.1%). App features desired by most respondents were the abilities to request appointments 24/7 (76.8%) and to receive appointment confirmations quickly (81.3%). Many were concerned about receiving too many alerts or messages (64.1%) or insufficient protection for personal information (53.5%). Overall, 67.7% of respondents indicated that they were likely to use a blood donation mobile app. Likelihood was not significantly different by sex or ethnicity, and the impact of education level was limited. Donors who currently made donation appointments via telephone or a website were equally likely to use such an app. However, donors older than 45 years were less likely than younger donors (p = 0.001), and donors with more than five lifetime donations were more likely than less frequent donors to use such an app (p = 0.02). In a metropolitan area, donors are very receptive to using a mobile app to manage their donations. © 2015 AABB.

  3. Mucormycosis at pectoralis major myocutaneous flap donor site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiya Hemant


    Full Text Available Background: Advanced carcinomas involving the head and neck present a major therapeutic challenge because of their poor prognosis particularly in old age irrespective of the treatment modality used. Materials and Methods: A 71-year-old patient presented with right-sided buccal mucosal carcinoma involving the mandible. Composite resection with removal of mandible and radical neck dissection was done. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC with deltopectoral flap was done to cover the defect. On the 14th day mucormycosis was noted on pectoralis major myocutaneous flap donor site. Radical debridement and appropriate antibiotic and antifungal treatment was started. The patient was put on life support system. Results: Despite aggressive treatment the patient died. Conclusion: This case reaffirms the views that radical surgical procedure should be carried out with caution in old patients with preexisting diseases as the chances of life-threatening complications are very high in these patients. Mucormycosis at pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC donor site is probably being reported for the first time.

  4. Techniques for siding manual phalanges. (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M


    Identifying the anatomical origin of skeletal elements is a basic and important part of a forensic anthropological investigation, but techniques for determining the side and ray of the phalanges are conspicuously scarce in the physical anthropology literature. Features of particular phalanges are important to aspects of archaeological and paleoanthropological studies, as well as for identification and trauma analysis in forensic cases. Correct siding of phalanges may therefore be quite critical in certain contexts. This study evaluates several siding techniques previously developed and/or described in a recent study by Case and Heilman (2000). Unlike in their study where observers were provided all phalange positional information except for side, observations in this study were undertaken with no positional information provided thus making the examinations more similar to those performed in a forensic context. Tests of phalange siding techniques were carried out on two skeletal samples: the Terry Collection at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History where the ray and side of phalanges are documented and phalange collections are often complete, and the Bass Collection at the University of Tennessee where phalange positional information is undocumented and where phalange collections are seldom complete. The features described by Case and Heilman were found to work quite well. In the documented (Terry) sample, there was a high rate of correct siding, up to 100% for several phalanges. In the undocumented (Bass) sample, the features could be used to side the phalanges to a reasonable degree of certainty, and certainty increased when both sides of a particular phalange were present. Finally, several other useful siding and ray identification features were identified.

  5. Highly crystalline and low bandgap donor polymers for efficient polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Dai, Liming [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Choi, Hyosung; Kim, Jin Young [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Bailey, Chris; Durstock, Michael [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, RXBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)


    A highly crystalline and low bandgap donor polymer, EI-PFDTBT, is developed by inserting ethylene bridging units to ensure a coplanar configuration between the side chains and the main chain. Polymer solar cells based on the EI-PFDTBT and PC{sub 71}BM blends spincoated at elevated temperatures exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 5.1%. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Twelve-year survival of the first living-donor pediatric lung transplantation in Brazil. (United States)

    Machuca, Tiago Noguchi; Sidney Filho, Luzielio Alves; Schio, Sadi Marcelo; Camargo, Spencer Marcantonio; Felicetti, José Carlos; Camargo, José Jesus Peixoto


    To report the long-term follow-up of the first living-donor lobar lung transplantation performed in Latin America. The patient was a 12-year-old boy with post-infectious obliterative bronchiolitis with end-stage pulmonary disease. He was on continuous oxygen support, presenting with dyspnea even during minimal activity. He underwent bilateral lobar lung transplantation with living donors. The procedure was performed with the left and right lower lobes of two different related donors. In the second side cardiopulmonary bypass was required. The transplant was uneventful, and the patient was extubated after 14 hours and discharged with 44 days, after resolution of infectious, immunological and drug-related complications. After 12 years of follow-up, he presents with adequate lung function and has resumed his habitual activities. Living-donor lobar lung transplantation is a complex procedure feasible for the treatment of selected pediatric end-stage pulmonary disease. This particular population might benefit from this approach since the availability of pediatric donors is very scarce and the clinical course of pediatric advanced pulmonary disease may be unpredictable.

  7. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs. (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios


    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  8. Impact of the Cornea Donor Study (CDS) on Acceptance of Corneas from Older Donors (United States)

    Sugar, Alan; Montoya, Monty M.; Beck, Roy; Cowden, John W.; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L.; Kollman, Craig; Malling, Jackie; Mannis, Mark J.; Tennant, Bradley


    Purpose Evaluate retrospectively whether findings from the Cornea Donor Study (CDS) led to changes in the transplantation of corneas from older donors. Methods United States eye banks provided complete data on donor age and placement (domestic or international) for 86,273 corneas from 1998 to 2009. The data were analyzed by 3 time periods: preceding CDS (1998–1999), during CDS (2000–2007) and after publication of CDS 5 year results (2008–2009), and separately for corneas placed within vs. outside the United States. Results For corneal tissues transplanted in the United States, the percentage of donors ≥66 years old increased from 19% before CDS to 21% during CDS and 25% after CDS (pcorneas distributed outside the United States with the percentage of donors ≥66 years old decreasing from 56% to 42% to 34%, respectively. Donor age trends over time varied by eye bank. Conclusions There was a modest overall increase in the donor age of corneas transplanted in the United States from 1998 to 2009, but the retrospective nature of the study limits our ability to attribute this change to the CDS. The modest increases in the donor age of corneas transplanted is a positive finding, but wider acceptance of older corneal donor tissue should be encouraged based on the five-year evidence generated by the CDS. PMID:22262218

  9. Impact of the cornea donor study on acceptance of corneas from older donors. (United States)

    Sugar, Alan; Montoya, Monty M; Beck, Roy; Cowden, John W; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Malling, Jackie; Mannis, Mark J; Tennant, Bradley


    To evaluate retrospectively whether the findings from the Cornea Donor Study (CDS) led to changes in the transplantation of corneas from older donors. Eye banks in United States provided complete data on donor age and placement (domestic or international) for 86,273 corneas from 1998 to 2009. The data were analyzed by 3 periods, preceding CDS (1998-1999), during CDS (2000-2007), and after publication of CDS 5-year results (2008-2009), and separately for corneas placed within versus outside the United States. For corneal tissues transplanted in the United States, the percentage of donors who were 66 years or older increased from 19% before CDS to 21% during CDS and 25% after CDS (Pcorneas distributed outside the United States, with the percentage of donors 66 years and older decreasing from 56% to 42% to 34%, respectively. Donor age trends over time varied by eye bank. There was a modest overall increase in the donor age of corneas transplanted in the United States from 1998 to 2009, but the retrospective nature of the study limits our ability to attribute this change to the CDS. The modest increases in the donor age of corneas transplanted is a positive finding, but wider acceptance of older corneal donor tissue should be encouraged based on the 5-year evidence generated by the CDS.

  10. [Hemi-hypoglossal-facial intratemporal side to side anastomosis]. (United States)

    Lassaletta, Luis; González, Teresa; Casas, Pablo; Roda, José María; Moraleda, Susana; Gavilán, Javier


    Conventional hypoglossal-facial anastomosis and the interposition jump graft variation are the most popular techniques for facial nerve reconstruction resulting from proximal facial nerve injury. We present a modification of this technique, the hemi-hypoglossal facial intratemporal side to side anastomosis, which overcomes many of the failings of previous techniques. The method involves mobilization of the intratemporal facial nerve, which is anastomosed to a partially incised hypoglossal nerve. It is especially indicated in patients with multiple cranial nerve palsies.

  11. The DarkSide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, Ivone Freire Da Mota; Alexander, Thomas R.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, Henning O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, Bianca; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, Severino; Cadeddu, Matteo; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, Macro; Catalanotti, Sergio; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, Sandro; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, Mario; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, Giuseppe; Edkins, E.; Empl, Anton; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A.; Granato, Francesco; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Hungerford, Edward; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, Alexander; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y. Q.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, Alissa; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, James; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, Marco; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, Andrew; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Savarese, Claudio; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Singh, Parth; Skorokhvatov, Mikhail; Smirnov, Oleg; Sotnikov, Albert; Stanford, Chris; Suvorov, Yura; Tartaglia, Roberto; Tatarowicz, John; Testera, Gemma; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, Eugenii; Vishneva, Alina; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, Masayuki; Walker, Susan E.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, James; Wojcik, M.; Xiang, Xin; Xu, Jingke; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zec, Adam; Zhong, W. L.; Zhu, Chengliang; Zuzel, G.


    DarkSide is a graded experimental project based on radiopure argon, and is now, and will be, used in direct dark matter searches. The present DarkSide-50 detector, operating at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, is a dual-phase, 50 kg, liquid argon time-projection-chamber surrounded by an active liquid scintillator veto. It is designed to be background free in 3 years of operation. DS-50 performances, when filled with atmospheric argon, are reported. However DS-50 filled with underground argon, shows impressive reduction of the 39Ar isotope. The application of this powerful technology in a future generation of the DarkSide program is discussed.

  12. Retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrectomy: Review of the first 50 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Changing from an open to a laparoscopic live renal donor programme poses challenges and may affect donor and graft outcomes. Objectives. To evaluate donor safety and graft outcomes for the first 50 retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrectomies performed at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

  13. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, was carried out between December, 2003 and April, 2004. A total of 500 blood samples were collected from blood donors consisting of 262 commercial donors and 238 relation-donors, using ...

  14. Sperm donor anonymity and compensation: an experiment with American sperm donors. (United States)

    Cohen, Glenn; Coan, Travis; Ottey, Michelle; Boyd, Christina


    Most sperm donation that occurs in the USA proceeds through anonymous donation. While some clinics make the identity of the sperm donor available to a donor-conceived child at age 18 as part of 'open identification' or 'identity release programs,' no US law requires clinics to do so, and the majority of individuals do not use these programs. By contrast, in many parts of the world, there have been significant legislative initiatives requiring that sperm donor identities be made available to children after a certain age (typically when the child turns 18). One major concern with prohibiting anonymous sperm donation has been that the number of willing sperm donors will decrease leading to shortages, as have been experienced in some of the countries that have prohibited sperm donor anonymity. One possible solution, suggested by prior work, would be to pay current anonymous sperm donors more per donation to continue to donate when their anonymity is removed. Using a unique sample of current anonymous and open identity sperm donors from a large sperm bank in the USA, we test that approach. As far as we know, this is the first attempt to examine what would happen if the USA adopted a prohibition on anonymous sperm donation that used the most ecologically valid population, current sperm donors. We find that 29% of current anonymous sperm donors in the sample would refuse to donate if the law changed such that they were required to put their names in a registry available to donor-conceived children at age 18. When we look at the remaining sperm donors who would be willing to participate, we find that they would demand an additional $60 per donation (using our preferred specification). We also discuss the ramifications for the industry.

  15. The willed body donor interview project: medical student and donor expectations. (United States)

    Bohl, Michael; Holman, Alexis; Mueller, Dean A; Gruppen, Larry D; Hildebrandt, Sabine


    The Anatomical Donations Program at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has begun a multiphase project wherein interviews of donors will be recorded and later shown to medical students who participate in the anatomical dissection course. The first phase of this project included surveys of both current UMMS medical students and donors concerning their perceptions of such a program. A five-question survey administered via Qualtrics software was electronically mailed to all current medical students at UMMS, and a survey was mailed to registered and potential donors requesting information from the UMMS on anatomical donations. A total of 224 medical student responses (response rate 33%) and 54 donor responses (response rate 27%) were received. Seventy-four percent of students and 81% of donors reported they would participate in this program if it existed. Students and donors supported the implementation of this program for varying reasons, though many felt strongly they would not want to participate in a donor interview program. These qualitative results support those of previous studies that show a majority of students desire a closer personal relationship with the donor, and these are the first results to be reported on donor perceptions of a donor interview program. Although many students and donors are in favor of instituting this program, others feel strongly that such an experience could be traumatic. The causes of these differing reactions need to be further explored, and the opinions of those who object to this study will be respected by maintaining voluntary participation in future phases of this study. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Feasibility and safety of setting up a donor breastmilk bank in a neonatal prem unit in a resource limited setting: An observational, longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Nadia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The beneficial effects of human milk on decreasing rates of paediatric infections such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC and sepsis have been clearly demonstrated. Donor breastmilk has been encouraged as the milk of choice when a mother's own breastmilk is not available. The objectives of this study were to assess feasibility of providing donor breastmilk to infants in a resource limited Neonatal Prem Unit (NPU. In addition we sought to determine whether donor breastmilk could be safely pasteurized and administered to infants without any adverse events. Methods Low birth weight infants Results 191 infants met the inclusion criteria of whom 96 received their mother's own breastmilk. Of the 95 infants who were potentially eligible to receive donor milk, only 40 did in fact receive donor milk. There was no evidence of bacterial contamination in the samples analyzed, and no evidence of adverse events from feeding with donor breastmilk. Conclusion It is feasible to supply donor breastmilk to infants in an NPU in a resource limited setting, however staff needs to be sensitized to the importance of donor breastmilk to improve uptake rates. Secondly we showed that it is possible to supply donor breastmilk according to established guidelines with no adverse events therefore making it possible to prevent NEC and other side effects often associated with formula feeding of premature infants.

  17. Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting (United States)

    Types of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment include: anticipatory, acute, and delayed. Controlling these side effects will help to prevent serious problems such as malnutrition and dehydration in people with cancer.

  18. Coping – Late Side Effects (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  19. Side Effects: Infection and Neutropenia (United States)

    Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.

  20. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia) (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds ...

  2. Wood siding : installing, finishing, maintaining (United States)

    W.C. Feist; A.E. Oviatt


    Wood siding is put on houses for many good reasons. One reason is that it will keep the bright new “face” of any home attractive for many years to come. In fact, given reasonable care, wood siding will retain its beauty for centuries, as has been amply proved by its performance on houses that date back to early colonial times. It also has great versatility; and the...

  3. The blood donor identity survey: a multidimensional measure of blood donor motivations. (United States)

    France, Christopher R; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; France, Janis L; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Shaz, Beth H


    Evidence indicates that donor identity is an important predictor of donation behavior; however, prior studies have relied on diverse, unidimensional measures with limited psychometric support. The goals of this study were to examine the application of self-determination theory to blood donor motivations and to develop and validate a related multidimensional measure of donor identity. Items were developed and administered electronically to a sample of New York Blood Center (NYBC) donors (n=582) and then to a sample of Ohio University students (n=1005). Following initial confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the NYBC sample to identify key items related to self-determination theory's six motivational factors, a revised survey was administered to the university sample to reexamine model fit and to assess survey reliability and validity. Consistent with self-determination theory, for both samples CFAs indicated that the best fit to the data was provided by a six-motivational-factor model, including amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic regulation. The Blood Donor Identity Survey provides a psychometrically sound, multidimensional measure of donor motivations (ranging from unmotivated to donate to increasing levels of autonomous motivation to donate) that is suitable for nondonors as well as donors with varying levels of experience. Future research is needed to examine longitudinal changes in donor identity and its relationship to actual donation behavior. © 2014 AABB.

  4. Donor-transmitted, donor-derived, and de novo cancer after liver transplant. (United States)

    Chapman, Jeremy R; Lynch, Stephen V


    Cancer is the third most common cause of death (after cardiovascular disease and infection) for patients who have a functioning kidney allograft. Kidney and liver transplant recipients have similar cancer risks because of immunosuppression but different risks because of differences in primary diseases that cause renal and hepatic failure and the inherent behavior of cancers in the liver. There are 4 types of cancer that may develop in liver allograft recipients: (1) recurrent cancer, (2) donor-transmitted cancer, (3) donor-derived cancer, and (4) de novo cancer. Identification of potential donor cancer transmission may occur at postmortem examination of a deceased donor or when a probable donor-transmitted cancer is identified in another recipient. Donor-transmitted cancer after liver transplant is rare in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Aging of the donor pool may increase the risk of subclinical cancer in donors. Liver transplant recipients have a greater risk of de novo cancer than the general population, and risk factors for de novo cancer in liver transplant recipients include primary sclerosing cholangitis, alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and increased age. Liver transplant recipients may benefit from cancer screening because they have a high risk, are clearly identifiable, and are under continuous medical supervision.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Objective: To determine a safe maximum number of artificial insemination (donor insemination [DI]) children per anonymous sperm donor. Design: Multiparameter calculation model of contribution of DI to inbreeding. Setting: Data of the collaborative DI centers and demographic population data of The

  6. Does size matter? Kidney transplant donor size determines kidney function among living donors (United States)

    Narasimhamurthy, Meenakshi; Smith, Lachlan M.; Machan, Jason T.; Reinert, Steven E.; Gohh, Reginald Y.; Dworkin, Lance D.; Merhi, Basma; Patel, Nikunjkumar; Beland, Michael D.


    Background Kidney donor outcomes are gaining attention, particularly as donor eligibility criteria continue to expand. Kidney size, a useful predictor of recipient kidney function, also likely correlates with donor outcomes. Although donor evaluation includes donor kidney size measurements, the association between kidney size and outcomes are poorly defined. Methods We examined the relationship between kidney size (body surface area-adjusted total volume, cortical volume and length) and renal outcomes (post-operative recovery and longer-term kidney function) among 85 kidney donors using general linear models and time-to-chronic kidney disease data. Results Donors with the largest adjusted cortical volume were more likely to achieve an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 over a median 24-month follow-up than those with smaller cortical volumes (P kidney donors were more likely to achieve an eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with renal recovery over a shorter duration due to higher pre-donation and initial post-nephrectomy eGFRs. PMID:28638611

  7. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking. (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter


    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  8. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues... (United States)


    ... Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products for Infection With... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and... ``Guidance for Industry: Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and...

  9. [Is syphilis test necessary in blood donors?]. (United States)

    Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso; Ambriz-Fernández, Raúl


    A syphilis test is performed in blood donors because the national transfusion law makes it mandatory, nevertheless the blood has not been found as an important vehicle of transmission for Treponema pallidum infection. Our objective was to know the prevalence of syphilis in blood donors. we reviewed tests from blood donors of the "Banco Central de Sangre del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI" in two periods, the first from July 2001 to April 2003, and the second from March 2005 to June 2006. Both groups went through screening tests, such as VDRL or USR. and a second test for confirmation, FTA-ABS for the first group and TPHA for the second group. in the first group 111 030 blood donors were included. In this group the positive results from VDRL or USR tests were 471 (0.42 %). One hundred and ninety six were confirmed (0.17 %) with FTA-ABS. In the second group results from 80 578 blood donors were included; the positive results from VDRL or USR tests were 279 (0.34 %). In this group, only 0.08 % were confirmed for a syphilis infection.

  10. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads


    BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... and Transfusion database (SCANDAT), we assessed the association between annual number of donations in 5-year windows and donor mortality by means of Poisson regression analysis. The analyses included adjustment for demographic characteristics and for an internal healthy donor effect, estimated among elderly...... donation (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8%-20.4%). After additional adjustment for the internal healthy donor effect, each additional annual donation was associated with a 7.5% decreased mortality risk 7.5% (95% CI, 5.7%-9.4%). CONCLUSION: We observed an inverse relationship between donation frequency...

  11. Ex-vivo partial nephrectomy after living donor nephrectomy: Surgical technique for expanding kidney donor pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A Nyame


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation has profound improvements in mortality, morbidity, and overall quality of life compared to renal replacement therapy. This report aims to illustrate the use of ex-vivo partial nephrectomy in a patient with a renal angiomyolipoma prior to living donor transplantation. The surgical outcomes of the donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation are reported with 2 years of follow-up. Both the donor and recipient are healthy and without any significant comorbidities. In conclusion, urologic techniques such as partial nephrectomy can be used to expand the living donor pool in carefully selected and well informed transplant recipients. Our experience demonstrated a safe and positive outcome for both the recipient and donor, and is consistent with other reported outcomes in the literature.

  12. The Moon's near side megabasin and far side bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles


    Since Luna and Lunar Orbiter photographed the far side of the Moon, the mysterious dichotomy between the face of the Moon as we see it from Earth and the side of the Moon that is hidden has puzzled lunar scientists. As we learned more from the Apollo sample return missions and later robotic satellites, the puzzle literally deepened, showing asymmetry of the crust and mantle, all the way to the core of the Moon. This book summarizes the author’s successful search for an ancient impact feature, the Near Side Megabasin of the Moon and the extensions to impact theory needed to find it. The implications of this ancient event are developed to answer many of the questions about the history of the Moon.

  13. Blood Donor Deferrals by Expert System (United States)

    Sorace, James M.; Berman, Jules J.; Brown, Lawrence A.; Moore, G. William


    Blood collection facilities have recently witnessed a substantial increase in the number of different tests used to detect infectious disease in donor populations. These facilities are also experiencing an increasingly stringent regulatory effort on the part of the Food and Drug Administration to determine the validity of the software used to handle this information. This report describes a precedence-based inference program (PRELOG) and a modular expert system used to determine a donor's suitability for continued donations (donor deferrals), and whether the donated unit can be released for transfusion. PRELOG accepts ternary logic input, in which test results are allowed to be positive, negative, or undetermined; and allows one to assign precedence values to the logic rules. These features enable programs to be written in a shorter, more error-resistant manner. A comparison between PRELOG and PROLOG is included, and the utility of this approach in producing and validating blood bank software is discussed.

  14. Brushless machine having ferromagnetic side plates and side magnets (United States)

    Hsu, John S


    An apparatus is provided having a cylindrical stator and a rotor that is spaced from a stator to define an annular primary air gap that receives AC flux from the stator. The rotor has a plurality of longitudinal pole portions disposed parallel to the axis of rotation and alternating in polarity around a circumference of the rotor. Each longitudinal pole portion includes portions of permanent magnet (PM) material and at least one of the longitudinal pole portions has a first end and an opposing second end and a side magnet is disposed adjacent the first end and a side pole is disposed adjacent the second end.

  15. Compensatory Hypertrophy After Living Donor Nephrectomy. (United States)

    Chen, K W; Wu, M W F; Chen, Z; Tai, B C; Goh, Y S B; Lata, R; Vathsala, A; Tiong, H Y


    Previous studies have shown that kidney volume enhances the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in kidney donors. This study aimed to describe the phenomenon of compensatory hypertrophy after donor nephrectomy as measured on computerized tomographic (CT) scans. An institutional Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB)-approved study involved approaching kidney donors to have a follow up CT scan from 6 months to 1 year after surgery; 29 patients participated; 55% were female. Clinical chart review was performed, and the patient's remaining kidney volume was measured before and after surgery based on CT scans. eGFR was determined with the use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Mean parenchymal volume of the remaining kidney for this population (mean age, 44.3 ± 8.5 y) was 204.7 ± 82.5 cc before surgery and 250.5 ± 113.3 cc after donor nephrectomy. Compensatory hypertrophy occurred in 79.3% of patients (n = 23). Mean increase in remaining kidney volume was 22.4 ± 23.2% after donor nephrectomy in healthy individuals. Over a median follow-up of 52.9 ± 19.8 months, mean eGFR was 68.9 ± 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), with 24.1% of patients (n = 7) in chronic kidney disease grade 3. Absolute and relative change in kidney volume was not associated with sex, race, surgical approach, or background of hypertension (P = NS). There was a trend of decreased hypertrophy with increasing age (P = .5; Spearman correlation, -0.12). In healthy kidney donors, compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney occurs in 79.3% of the patients, with an average increment of about 22.4%. Older patients may have a blunted compensatory hypertrophy response after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elderly donors double kidney transplantation (DKT)


    Méndez-Chacón, Pedro; Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Servicio Nefrología. Servicio de Patología. Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Lima, Perú; Vidalón, Armando; Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Servicio Nefrología. Servicio de Patología. Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Lima, Perú; Medina, Mario; Servicio Nefrología. Servicio de Patología. Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Lima, Perú; Camacho, Miguel; Servicio Nefrología. Servicio de Patología. Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Lima, Perú; Somocurcio, José; Servicio Nefrología. Servicio de Patología. Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Lima, Perú


    Objective: To use both kidneys of an elderly donor in the same receptor and remark the importance of kidney histology as selector method. Materials and Methods: We evaluate the selection and surveillance of 11 patients who received double kidney of cadaver elderly donors. The ten donors’ mean serum creatinine was 1,3 mg/dL, and the mean age was 63 years old (range 56 to 73 years), the receptor’s mean age 53 years. Both kidneys were examined by frozen wedge biopsy. Quantification of damaged ti...

  17. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S


    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...... for the prediction of Hb. RESULTS: The strongest predictors of Hb and risk of low Hb were low ferritin (iron supplementation (yes/no). No dietary factors were found to be consistently significant in multivariable models predicting Hb levels, risk of having low Hb, or risk of a decrease...

  18. Far Side of the Moon (United States)


    This image of the moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on Dec. 8 at 7 p.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft passed the Earth and was able to view the lunar surface from a vantage point not possible from the Earth. On the right-hand side of the image is seen the dark maria of Oceanus Procellarum, also visible from the Earth. The dark spots in the center are Mare Orientale, on the western limb of the nearside of the moon, a region barely visible from the Earth. This region and the bright far side highlands on the left have not been seen previously by a camera system such as the one on the Galileo spacecraft, which provides multispectral images of the lunar limb and far side which have not previously been obtained. Comparison of such images to those of the near-side areas from which Apollo astronauts have returned samples will help us understand the spectral properties and composition of the lunar far side.

  19. Multidetector row computed tomography evaluation of the micropig kidney as a potential renal donor. (United States)

    Yoon, Woong; Lee, Min Young; Ryu, Jung Min; Moon, Yong Ju; Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Jae Hong; Yun, Seung Pil; Jang, Min Woo; Park, Sung Su; Han, Ho Jae


    Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) provides anatomical information about the kidney and other internal organs. Presently, the suitability of 64-channel MDCT to assess the kidney of healthy micropigs was evaluated. Morphological evaluations of the kidney and the major renal vessels of six healthy micropigs were carried out using MDCT, recording kidney volume and the diameter and length of renal arteries and veins. The mean diameters and lengths of the renal artery were 0.44 +/- 0.05 and 4.51 +/- 0.55 cm on the right side and 0.46 +/- 0.06 and 3.36 +/- 0.27 cm on the left side, respectively. The mean diameters and lengths of the renal vein were 1.44 +/- 0.52 and 4.22 +/- 1.29 cm on the right side and 1.38 +/- 0.17 and 5.15 +/- 0.87 cm on the left side, respectively. The mean volume of the right kidney was 79.3 +/- 14.5 mL and of the left kidney was 78.0 +/- 13.9 mL. The data presented in this study suggest that the MDCT offers a noninvasive, rapid, and accurate method for the evaluation of the renal anatomy in living kidney donors. It also provides sufficient information about extra-renal anatomy important for donor surgery and determination of organ suitability.

  20. Nitric Oxide Donor-Based Cancer Therapy: Advances and Prospects. (United States)

    Huang, Zhangjian; Fu, Junjie; Zhang, Yihua


    The increasing understanding of the role of nitric oxide (NO) in cancer biology has generated significant progress in the use of NO donor-based therapy to fight cancer. These advances strongly suggest the potential adoption of NO donor-based therapy in clinical practice, and this has been supported by several clinical studies in the past decade. In this review, we first highlight several types of important NO donors, including recently developed NO donors bearing a dinitroazetidine skeleton, represented by RRx-001, with potential utility in cancer therapy. Special emphasis is then given to the combination of NO donor(s) with other therapies to achieve synergy and to the hybridization of NO donor(s) with an anticancer drug/agent/fragment to enhance the activity or specificity or to reduce toxicity. In addition, we briefly describe inducible NO synthase gene therapy and nanotechnology, which have recently entered the field of NO donor therapy.

  1. Decision Making in Kidney Paired Donation Programs with Altruistic Donors. (United States)

    Li, Yijiang; Song, Peter X-K; Leichtman, Alan B; Rees, Michael A; Kalbfleisch, John D


    In recent years, kidney paired donation (KPD) has been extended to include living non-directed or altruistic donors, in which an altruistic donor donates to the candidate of an incompatible donor-candidate pair with the understanding that the donor in that pair will further donate to the candidate of a second pair, and so on; such a process continues and thus forms an altruistic donor-initiated chain. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy to sequentially allocate the altruistic donor (or bridge donor) so as to maximize the expected utility; analogous to the way a computer plays chess, the idea is to evaluate different allocations for each altruistic donor (or bridge donor) by looking several moves ahead in a derived look-ahead search tree. Simulation studies are provided to illustrate and evaluate our proposed method.

  2. Decision Making in Kidney Paired Donation Programs with Altruistic Donors* (United States)

    Li, Yijiang; Song, Peter X.-K.; Leichtman, Alan B.; Rees, Michael A.; Kalbfleisch, John D.


    In recent years, kidney paired donation (KPD) has been extended to include living non-directed or altruistic donors, in which an altruistic donor donates to the candidate of an incompatible donor-candidate pair with the understanding that the donor in that pair will further donate to the candidate of a second pair, and so on; such a process continues and thus forms an altruistic donor-initiated chain. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy to sequentially allocate the altruistic donor (or bridge donor) so as to maximize the expected utility; analogous to the way a computer plays chess, the idea is to evaluate different allocations for each altruistic donor (or bridge donor) by looking several moves ahead in a derived look-ahead search tree. Simulation studies are provided to illustrate and evaluate our proposed method. PMID:25309603

  3. Tissue banking: relationship with blood donor and organ donor card status. (United States)

    McKenzie, Kenneth D; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E; Sheehan, John D


    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours-donating blood and carrying an organ donor card-and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above.

  4. Peer-to-peer milk donors' and recipients' experiences and perceptions of donor milk banks. (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D


    To explore the intersection of peer-to-peer milk sharing and donor milk banks. A descriptive survey design containing closed and open-ended questions was used to examine women's perceptions of peer-to-peer milk sharing and milk banking. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. Participants were recruited via the Facebook sites of two online milk-sharing networks (Human Milk 4 Human Babies and Eats on Feet). Ninety-eight milk donors and 41 milk recipients who had donated or received breast milk in an arrangement that was facilitated via the Internet. One half of donor recipients could not donate to a milk bank because there were no banks local to them or they did not qualify as donors. Other respondents did not donate to a milk bank because they viewed the process as difficult, had philosophical objections to milk banking, or had a philosophical attraction to peer sharing. Most donor respondents felt it was important to know the circumstances of their milk recipients. No recipient respondents had obtained milk from a milk bank; it was recognized that they would not qualify for banked milk or that banked milk was cost prohibitive. Peer-to-peer milk donors and recipients may differ from milk bank donors and recipients in significant ways. Cooperation between milk banks and peer sharing networks could benefit both groups. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Social identity performance : Extending the strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Olivier; Spears, Russell; Reicher, Stephen

    This article extends the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) by considering the various ways in which relations of visibility to an audience can affect the public expression of identity-relevant norms (identity performance). It is suggested that social identity performance can

  6. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I


    be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations......The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects......, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could...

  7. Frequency and risk factors for donor reactions in an anonymous blood donor survey. (United States)

    Goldman, Mindy; Osmond, Lori; Yi, Qi-Long; Cameron-Choi, Keltie; O'Brien, Sheila F


    Adverse donor reactions can result in injury and decrease the likelihood of donor return. Reaction reports captured in the blood center's database provide an incomplete picture of reaction rates and risk factors. We performed an anonymous survey, mailed to 40,000 donors in 2008, including questions about symptoms, height, weight, sex, and donation status. Reaction rates were compared to those recorded in our database. Possible risk factors were assessed for various reactions. The response rate was 45.5%. A total of 32% of first-time and 14% of repeat donors reported having any adverse symptom, most frequently bruising (84.9 per 1000 donors) or feeling faint or weak (66.2 per 1000). Faint reactions were two to eight times higher than reported in our database, although direct comparison was difficult. Younger age, female sex, and first-time donation status were risk factors for systemic and arm symptoms. In females, low estimated blood volume (EBV) was a risk factor for systemic symptoms. Only 51% of donors who consulted an outside physician also called Canadian Blood Services. A total of 10% of first-time donors with reactions found adverse effects information inadequate. This study allowed us to collect more information about adverse reactions, including minor symptoms and delayed reactions. Based on our findings of the risk factors and frequency of adverse reactions, we are implementing more stringent EBV criteria for younger donors and providing more detailed information to donors about possible adverse effects and their management. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. The Dark Side of Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanlon, Gerard; Dunne, Stephen; Johnsen, Christian Garmann


    Towards the end of 2015, the ephemera collective organised, chaired and participated within two separate Q+A panels celebrating the launch of Gerard Hanlon’s The dark side of management: A secret history of management theory. The events took place in The University of Leicester’s School of Manage......Towards the end of 2015, the ephemera collective organised, chaired and participated within two separate Q+A panels celebrating the launch of Gerard Hanlon’s The dark side of management: A secret history of management theory. The events took place in The University of Leicester’s School...

  9. Dark Side of the Universe

    CERN Document Server


    The Dark Side of the Universe (DSU) workshops bring together a wide range of theorists and experimentalists to discuss current ideas on models of the dark side, and relate them to current and future experiments. This year's DSU will take place in the colorful Norwegian city of Bergen. Topics include dark matter, dark energy, cosmology, and physics beyond the standard model. One of the goals of the workshop is to expose in particular students and young researchers to the fascinating topics of dark matter and dark energy, and to provide them with the opportunity to meet some of the best researchers in these areas .

  10. Opioid complications and side effects. (United States)

    Benyamin, Ramsin; Trescot, Andrea M; Datta, Sukdeb; Buenaventura, Ricardo; Adlaka, Rajive; Sehgal, Nalini; Glaser, Scott E; Vallejo, Ricardo


    Medications which bind to opioid receptors are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of multiple and diverse chronic painful conditions. Their use for acute pain or terminal pain is well accepted. Their role in the long-term treatment of chronic noncancer pain is, however, controversial for many reasons. One of the primary reasons is the well-known phenomenon of psychological addiction that can occur with the use of these medications. Abuse and diversion of these medications is a growing problem as the availability of these medications increases and this public health issue confounds their clinical utility. Also, the extent of their efficacy in the treatment of pain when utilized on a chronic basis has not been definitively proven. Lastly, the role of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain is also influenced by the fact that these potent analgesics are associated with a significant number of side effects and complications. It is these phenomena that are the focus of this review. Common side effects of opioid administration include sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, physical dependence, tolerance, and respiratory depression. Physical dependence and addiction are clinical concerns that may prevent proper prescribing and in turn inadequate pain management. Less common side effects may include delayed gastric emptying, hyperalgesia, immunologic and hormonal dysfunction, muscle rigidity, and myoclonus. The most common side effects of opioid usage are constipation (which has a very high incidence) and nausea. These 2 side effects can be difficult to manage and frequently tolerance to them does not develop; this is especially true for constipation. They may be severe enough to require opioid discontinuation, and contribute to under-dosing and inadequate analgesia. Several clinical trials are underway to identify adjunct therapies that may mitigate these side effects. Switching opioids and/or routes of administration may also provide benefits

  11. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA. (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D


    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  12. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail:; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)


    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  13. Donor vigilance: what are we doing about it? (United States)

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; de Kort, Wim L A M


    Donor vigilance is the systematic monitoring of adverse reactions and incidents in blood donor care with a view to improving quality and safety for blood donors. Standard international definitions are available for surveillance purposes. In recent years advances have been made in determining risk factors for vasovagal and other adverse reactions to blood donation as well as in evaluating preventive measures. Blood establishments should record all adverse reactions in blood donors. Besides its use for individual donor care, this information can be reviewed within and between organisations to guide policy decisions and research for improving donor care. Copyright © 2011 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Benzyne arylation of oxathiane glycosyl donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Fascione


    Full Text Available The arylation of bicyclic oxathiane glycosyl donors has been achieved using benzyne generated in situ from 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT and lead tetraacetate. Following sulfur arylation, glycosylation of acetate ions proceeded with high levels of stereoselectivity to afford α-glycosyl acetates in a ‘one-pot’ reaction, even in the presence of alternative acceptor alcohols.

  15. prevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies in blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2009 ... 86 (Supplement) December 2009. PREVALENCE OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ANTIBODIES IN BLOOD DONORS AT THE NATIONAL BLOOD. TRANSFUSION CENTRE, NAIROBI. D. G. Njeru, MBChB, MMed (Path), Dip. Forensic Med (SA), Registrar, Department of Human Pathology, W. O. Mwanda,. MBChB ...

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 29,949 ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign ...

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... DOUBLE STEMCELL (Hindi) 09039139777 - Duration: 4:26. Pharma Science 116,753 views 4:26 Stem Cell Basics - ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 38,921 views 49:19 Myelodysplastic Syndrome | Dr. ...

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells that have ... 3:35. hemaquebec1998 8,944 views 3:35 Leukemia Survivor Meets Bone Marrow Donor - Duration: 4:47. ...

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 7,934 views 32:25 Stem Cell Basics - How Blood is Made. - Duration: 10:58. Vernon Louw ... 19. Children's Health 40,015 views 49:19 How to become a potential blood stem cell donor ...

  1. [The blood donors' haemovigilance in France]. (United States)

    Ounnoughene, N; Sandid, I; Carlier, M; Joussemet, M; Ferry, N


    This work aim to present the descriptive analysis of serious adverse reactions in donors (dSAR's), which were notified in 2010 and 2011 in the French national haemovigilance database "e-FIT" (Internet secured haemovigilance reporting system). Some data, which are necessary for this analysis, also come from the regional haemovigilance coordinators' reports (RHC). The other parts of haemovigilance in the context of donation, without donors adverse reactions, such as post-donation information (PDI), adverse events occurred in the blood collection steps of the transfusion chain and epidemiology are not subject to this work analysis. This work shows that the quality of the data gradually improved since the setting up of the notification system of dSAR's. These data are particularly rich in learning lessons, but are still improving. It allows us to confirm that donor's safety, blood components quality, while preserving the blood components self-sufficiency in France, remains a priority. For these reasons, it is important to continue this haemovigilance awareness and to implement necessary actions that would be required for the protection of the donor's health and comfort during donation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Evaluation of homocysteine in blood bank donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Rosa


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the use of plasma homocysteine levelsin blood bank donors as a risk marker for the development ofcardiovascular diseases in healthy individuals. Methods: Thirtynineblood donors were evaluated and a correlation was establishedbetween the plasma homocysteine levels and the different ageand gender groups. Results: The values of homocysteine levelswere found to be within the normal range, as expected for a healthypopulation. Only three male donors, aged between 40 and 60years, presented hyperhomocysteinemia within the risk rangefor developing cardiovascular disease. Comparing females andmales with regard to homocysteine levels, the values presentedstatistically significant differences, however of little relevance.Variance analysis did not show significant differences betweenthe considered age groups, regardless of gender, but there was aclear increase in homocysteine concentration in males betweenthe 5th and 6th decades of life. Conclusions: It was not possible tosuggest the use of plasma homocysteine levels as an early markerfor the development of cardiovascular diseases in healthy bloodbank donors, but one can speculate about a critical homocysteinelevel to be defined as a cutoff point, above which there wouldbe an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 3, 2005 ... blood transfusion states that a donor's blood pressure, .... Differences between Nairobi and Kisumu obtained with independent samples t-test. ns, not significant (p>0.05). Table 2. Statistical analysis and comparisons of leukocyte and platelet parameters for 1394 donated units from two regional blood banks ...

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... A 60 Minutes investigation - Duration: 16:11. CBS News 361,590 views 16:11 Pain Control: Support ...

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former NCI employee, Serena Marshall, as she takes you through her ...

  6. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donors at . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ... YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to add this ...

  7. Research Award: Donor Partnership Division | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Sep 7, 2016 ... Deadline: September 7, 2016 Please note that all applications must be submitted online. ... the production of information related to donor partnerships, participating in partnership development, monitoring and evaluation, communication and learning activities, and preparing internal and external reports.

  8. Organ Donor Recognition: Practical and Ethical Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick)


    textabstractThe brain dead patient is the ideal multiorgan donor. Conditions that can lead to the state of brain death are limited. A subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury precede in 83% of the cases the state of brain death. Because of better prevention and

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her German stem cell donor for the first time in Germany. #priceless - Duration: 1:04. Jacque Brohawn ... Bone Marrow Transplant Patient Information: Chapter 3 - What Are Stem Cells - Duration: 3:58. HenryFordTV 20,159 ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video will automatically play next. Up next Stem cell donation: Step by step - Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 8,779 views 3:35 My Friend the Stem Cell Donor - Duration: 4:41. Annabelle Monks 6,482 ...

  11. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors]. (United States)

    Gota, F


    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  12. Europium(III) DOTA-derivatives having ketone donor pendant arms display dramatically slower water exchange (United States)

    Green, Kayla N.; Viswanathan, Subha; Rojas-Quijano, Federico A.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Sherry, A. Dean


    A series of new 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-derivatives having a combination of amide and ketone donor groups as side-arms were prepared and their complexes with europium(III) studied in detail by high resolution NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shift of the Eu3+-bound water resonance, the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) characteristics of the complexes, and the bound water residence lifetimes (τm) were found to vary dramatically with the chemical structure of the side-arms. Substitution of ketone oxygen donor atoms for amide oxygen donor atoms resulted in an increase in residence water lifetimes (τm) and a decrease in chemical shift of the Eu3+-bound water molecule (Δω). These experimental results along with density functional theory (DFT) calculations demonstrate that introduction of weakly donating oxygen atoms in these complexes results in a much weaker ligand field, more positive charge on the Eu3+ ion and an increased water residence lifetime as expected for a dissociative mechanism. These results provide new insights into the design of paramagnetic CEST agents with even slower water exchange kinetics that will make them more efficient for in vivo imaging applications. PMID:21306137

  13. Protocol for a national blood transfusion data warehouse from donor to recipient. (United States)

    van Hoeven, Loan R; Hooftman, Babette H; Janssen, Mart P; de Bruijne, Martine C; de Vooght, Karen M K; Kemper, Peter; Koopman, Maria M W


    Blood transfusion has health-related, economical and safety implications. In order to optimise the transfusion chain, comprehensive research data are needed. The Dutch Transfusion Data warehouse (DTD) project aims to establish a data warehouse where data from donors and transfusion recipients are linked. This paper describes the design of the data warehouse, challenges and illustrative applications. Quantitative data on blood donors (eg, age, blood group, antibodies) and products (type of product, processing, storage time) are obtained from the national blood bank. These are linked to data on the transfusion recipients (eg, transfusions administered, patient diagnosis, surgical procedures, laboratory parameters), which are extracted from hospital electronic health records. Expected scientific contributions are illustrated for 4 applications: determine risk factors, predict blood use, benchmark blood use and optimise process efficiency. For each application, examples of research questions are given and analyses planned. The DTD project aims to build a national, continuously updated transfusion data warehouse. These data have a wide range of applications, on the donor/production side, recipient studies on blood usage and benchmarking and donor-recipient studies, which ultimately can contribute to the efficiency and safety of blood transfusion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  14. Identifying Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.


    Abstract: We review the burgeoning literature on two-sided markets focusing on the different definitions that have been proposed. In particular, we show that the well-known definition given by Evans is a particular case of the more general definition proposed by Rochet and Tirole. We then identify

  15. Insidious Side Effects of Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissonova, Karina


    to the design of technical artefacts. I argue that technical artefacts are designed as sustainable based on the extent side effects are addressed with the design. I present necessary and sufficient conditions in the presence of which the design of technical artefacts falls under the concept of sustainability...

  16. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  17. Finasteride and sexual side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore


    Full Text Available Finasteride, a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, widely used in the medical management of male pattern hairloss, has been reported to cause sexual side effects. This article critically examines the evidence available and makes recommendations as to how a physician should counsel a patient while prescribing the drug.

  18. The DarkSide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi B.


    Full Text Available DarkSide-50 at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a liquid argon TPC. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. The detector performances and the results of the first physics run are presented in this proceeding.

  19. Intensification of donor interviewing procedures: a feasibility study. (United States)

    van Rhenen, D J; Molijn, M H; Gorgels, J; van der Linden, J M; Ko, L K


    To determine the feasibility and acceptability for the blood donor of an intensified blood donor interviewing procedure on high-risk factors for infectious diseases. To answer the question whether an intensified blood donor interviewing procedure would lead to an unacceptable loss of blood donors. Feasibility study. Red Cross Bloodbank Rotterdam. DONORS: Study group of 240 first-time donors. Intensified donor interviewing techniques by direct questioning and workload assessment. Intensified interviewing was welcomed by 88-91% of first-time donors and rejected by 2-5%. On the question whether the intensified interviewing procedure should be the standard approach of the blood bank the answer was positive in 76-82% of first-time donors and negative in 11-14%. No blood donors indicated that this would be a reason to withdraw from blood donation. The workload for the blood bank physician increased by approximately 30%. The approach of intensified donor interviewing techniques in first-time donors is acceptable both to the donors and the blood bank workload.

  20. Seropositive abdominal and thoracic donor organs are largely underutilized. (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Pietroski, R E; Hagan, M; Eisenbrey, A B; Fontana, R J


    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and utilization of anti-hepatitis B core protein(+) and anti-hepatitis C virus(+) organ donor referrals in a large organ procurement organization. Between 1995 and 2006, 3,134 deceased organ donor referrals were tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV using commercial assays. The prevalence of anti-HCV(+) organ donor referrals significantly increased from 3.4% in 1994-1996 to 8.1% in 2003-2005 (P < .001), whereas the prevalence of anti-HBc(+) organ donor referrals remained unchanged at 3%-4% (P = .20). The 112 anti-HBc(+) (3.5%) and 173 anti-HCV(+) (5.5%) organ donor referrals were significantly older and more likely to be noncaucasian than seronegative organ donor referrals (P < .02). The procurement and utilization rates of seropositive thoracic and abdominal donor organs were significantly lower compared with seronegative organ donors (P < .0001). However, liver utilization rates significantly increased from anti-HBc(+) donors over time (21% vs 46%; P = .026), whereas utilization of anti-HCV(+) liver donors remained unchanged over time (5% vs 18%; P = .303). In summary, the proportion of anti-HCV(+) organ donor referrals has significantly increased and the proportion of anti-HBc(+) organ donor referrals has remained stable. Both thoracic and abdominal organs from seropositive donors are largely underutilized. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recruitment of Live Donors by Candidates for Kidney Transplantation (United States)

    Reese, Peter P.; Shea, Judy A.; Berns, Jeffrey S.; Simon, Maureen K.; Joffe, Marshall M.; Bloom, Roy D.; Feldman, Harold I.


    Background: Little is known about efforts that renal transplant candidates make to recruit live donors. It was hypothesized that preference for live donor kidney transplantation and greater knowledge about live donor transplantation are associated with candidates’ initiating conversations about donation with potential donors. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A cross-sectional study of renal transplant candidates was performed at initial transplant evaluation. Candidates completed a questionnaire that specified whether they had initiated conversations about donation with any potential donors. The questionnaire also measured preference for live donor transplantation, knowledge about transplantation, concern about donor harm, willingness to ask for help in coping with kidney disease, and social support. Results: Ninety-six candidates participated. Forty-nine (51%) reported initiating a conversation with at least one potential donor. In multivariable logistic regression, domains associated with initiating a conversation included: preference for live donor transplantation, willingness to ask for help, and female gender. Older age was associated with a lower odds of initiating a conversation. Knowledge, concern about donor harm, social support, and ethnicity were not associated with initiating a conversation with a donor. Conclusions: Attempts at donor recruitment by kidney transplant candidates are common. These findings suggest that interventions that influence preferences about transplantation and willingness to ask others for help are logical targets to enhance access to live donor transplantation. PMID:18385392

  2. ِAnalysis of donor motivations in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham eAbdeldayem


    Full Text Available Objectives: The introduction of the living donor liver transplantation (LDLT in Egypt as in elsewhere, has raised important psychological conflicts and ethical questions. The objective of this study was to get better understanding of the potential donors’ motives towards LDLT.Methods:This study was conducted on consecutive 193 living –liver donors who underwent partial hepatectomy as donors for LDLT during the period between April 2003 and January 2013, at the National Liver Institute Menoufeyia University, Egypt. Potential donors were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively through a screening questionnaire and interviews as regard their demographic data, relationship to the potential recipient and motives towards proceeding to surgery. They were assured that the information shared between them and the transplant centre is confidential. Results.The donors’ mean age was 25.53± 6.39 years with a range of 18-45 years. Males represented 64.7 % and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n_62, were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n_43, daughters: n_19 while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n_21, fathers: n_8. Brothers and sisters represent 16.5 % (brothers: n_22, sisters: n_10. Nephews & nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%. Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins & one uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%. Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations.Conclusions. Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is

  3. Toxic effects of amoxicillin on the photosystem II of Synechocystis sp. characterized by a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Xiangliang [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumuqi, 830011 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Deng Chunnuan [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130012 (China); Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Zhang Daoyong [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumuqi, 830011 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China)], E-mail:; Wang Jianlong [Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Mu Guijin [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumuqi, 830011 (China); Chen Ying [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)


    Amoxicillin is one of the widely used antibiotics of environmental concern. This study shows that amoxicillin has toxic effects on the photosynthesis of Synechocystis sp. Its inhibitory effects on photosystem II (PSII) of Synechocystis sp. were investigated by using a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests. The inhibitory effects of amoxicillin on PSII activity of Synechocystis sp. are concentration-dependent. Amoxicillin exposure leads to slowing down of electron transport on both donor side and acceptor side and causes accumulation of P680{sup +}. Q{sub A}{sup -} reoxidation test revealed that amoxicillin hinders electron transfer from Q{sub A}{sup -} to Q{sub B}/Q{sub B}{sup -} and more Q{sub A}{sup -} is oxidized through S{sub 2}(Q{sub A}Q{sub B}){sup -} charge recombination. Analysis of PSII heterogeneity demonstrated that an exposure to amoxicillin increases the proportion of inactive PSII (PSII{sub X}) centers and the proportion of PSII centers with small antenna (PSII{beta}). These changes finally result in deterioration of full photosynthesis performance.

  4. How to reverse first time donors to become regular donors? A questionnaire survey in Estonia. (United States)

    Veerus, P; Kullaste, R; Pungas, K; Aavik, T; Lang, K


    Donating blood in Estonia is non-remunerated and voluntary. Estonian Blood Service system has four independent regional blood centres that are responsible for blood collection, processing, screening and distribution of blood components to hospitals for clinical use. This research was carried out as a questionnaire survey. A questionnaire was developed to study lapsing first time donors' (FTD) blood donation experience, intention and willingness to donate again. A thousand five hundred and forty-six questionnaires were posted to donors who had one successful donation in 2010 and who had not returned to second donation till the year 2012. For data analysis routine statistical methods were used. To evaluate the most appropriate number of classes, based on previous experience and future expectations, latent class analysis was used. There were 453 respondents (29.3%). For the majority of aspects of blood donation experience the emotions were positive. Results of the study suggested that blood collection agencies should intervene to bolster donors' attitudes, perceived control, and identity as a donor during this crucial post-first donation period. First blood donation seems to have been a positive experience. Reasons leading to stopping blood donation should be studied further. Establishing a donor registry for Estonia would be essential to keep track of donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Side Population Cells Derived from Adult Human Liver Generate Hepatocyte-like Cells In Vitro


    HUSSAIN, SUNNY ZAHEED; Strom, Stephen C.; Kirby, Martha R.; Burns, Sean; Langemeijer, Saskia; Ueda, Takahiro; HSIEH, MATTHEW; Tisdale, John F.


    We sought to determine whether hepatic side population (SP) cells derived from adult human liver possess the potential of a novel candidate hepatic stem cell. Human cadaveric donor liver was subjected to collagenase perfusion and hepatocytes were separated from nonparenchymal cells by differential centrifugation. SP cells were isolated from the nonparenchymal portion after Hoechst 33342 staining. Since CD45 is a panleukocyte antigen, CD45-negative SP cells were separated from the vast majorit...

  6. Computer Algorithms in the Search for Unrelated Stem Cell Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Steiner


    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a “donor search process” by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU. Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; Rosman, C; Kooi, K; Wubbels, GH; Bleichrodt, RP


    Objective: To determine if bacterial translocation and endotoxin absorption occur in organ donors with an anatomically intact gastrointestinal tract. Design: Case series. Setting: Intensive care units in general and university hospitals. Patients: Twenty-one (multiple) organ donors. Intervention:

  8. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness. (United States)

    Mohr, Sebastian


    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  9. Anaesthesia and peri-operative care for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.R.A.M. Mertens Zur Borg (Ingrid)


    textabstractA successful renal transplant for patients with kidney failure reduces mortality rate when compared to patients who continue dialysis. Organ donation from living donors has significant better results over organ donation from deceased donors. Traditionally the surgical

  10. Easy come, easy go. Retention of blood donors. (United States)

    van Dongen, A


    Retention of blood donors has benefits over recruitment of new blood donors. Retention is defined as preventing donors from lapsing and eventually becoming inactive. This review paper discusses literature on the importance of efforts to retain donors, specifically new donors, since lapsing is most common before the fifth donation. Studies have found that intention to donate, attitudes towards blood donation and self-efficacy (does one feel capable of donating blood) are predictors of blood donation. Feelings of 'warm glow' predict donation behaviour better than altruism. The existing literature further suggests that first time donors can be retained by paying extra attention to adverse events (vasovagal reactions and fatigue). These events could be reduced by drinking water and muscle tension exercises. Feelings of anxiety (in regular donors) and stress can further prevent donors from returning. Planning donations amongst busy lives can help retention, and suggestions are given on which interventions might be helpful. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Blood donor to inactive donor transition in the Basel region between 1996 and 2011: a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Volken, T; Buser, A; Holbro, A; Bart, T; Infanti, L


    For the prevention of blood shortages, it is essential for blood banks to design and implement donor recruitment and donor retention strategies that take into account the determinants of donor return. We studied the behaviour of first-time blood donors in the region of Basel, Switzerland, between 1996 and 2011 and described factors associated with transition from active to inactive donor in two successive first-time donor cohorts (1996-2002, 2003-2008). The risk of becoming an inactive donor was associated with being younger and female, not being a 0-negative donor and living in an urban area. Over time, hazards of becoming an inactive donor were converging for individuals living in non-urban and urban areas as were those of younger and older donors. After their first donation, 73.6% and 67.5% of males in the 1996-2002 and 2003-2008 cohorts, respectively, donated at least once in the following 24 months. The proportion of returning female donors was 71.8% and 65.4%, respectively. The increased volatility of first-time blood donors suggests that marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing return rates should be reinforced, especially for younger and female blood donors. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Brush Polymer of Donor-Accepter Dyads via Adduct Formation between Lewis Base Polymer Donor and All Carbon Lewis Acid Acceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang


    Full Text Available A synthetic method that taps into the facile Lewis base (LB→Lewis acid (LA adduct forming reaction between the semiconducting polymeric LB and all carbon LA C60 for the construction of covalently linked donor-acceptor dyads and brush polymer of dyads is reported. The polymeric LB is built on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT macromers containing either an alkyl or vinyl imidazolium end group that can be readily converted into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC LB site, while the brush polymer architecture is conveniently constructed via radical polymerization of the macromer P3HT with the vinyl imidazolium chain end. Simply mixing of such donor polymeric LB with C60 rapidly creates linked P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads in which C60 is covalently linked to the NHC junction connecting the vinyl polymer main chain and the brush P3HT side chains. Thermal behaviors, electronic absorption and emission properties of the resulting P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads have been investigated. The results show that a change of the topology of the P3HT-C60 dyad from linear to brush architecture enhances the crystallinity and Tm of the P3HT domain and, along with other findings, they indicate that the brush polymer architecture of donor-acceptor domains provides a promising approach to improve performances of polymer-based solar cells.

  13. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik


    -response comparisons within a cohort of Swedish and Danish blood donors. METHODS: We used a nested case-control study design, in which case patients were defined as all donors who were diagnosed with a malignancy between their first recorded blood donation and study termination (n = 10866). Control subjects (n...... = 107140) were individually matched on sex, age, and county of residence. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated relative risks of cancer according to number of blood donations made or estimated iron loss 3-12 years before a case patient was diagnosed with cancer. All statistical tests were...... two-sided. RESULTS: No clear association was observed between number of donations and risk of cancer overall. However, between the lowest ( 90th percentile, > 2.7 g) categories of estimated iron loss, there was a trend (P(trend)

  14. Imaging in Lung Transplantation: Surgical Considerations of Donor and Recipient. (United States)

    Backhus, Leah M; Mulligan, Michael S; Ha, Richard; Shriki, Jabi E; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H


    Modifications in recipient and donor criteria and innovations in donor management hold promise for increasing rates of lung transplantation, yet availability of donors remains a limiting resource. Imaging is critical in the work-up of donor and recipient including identification of conditions that may portend to poor posttransplant outcomes or necessitate modifications in surgical technique. This article describes the radiologic principles that guide selection of patients and surgical procedures in lung transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Kidney Exchange with Good Samaritan Donors: A Characterization


    Tayfun Sönmez; M. Utku Ünver


    We analyze mechanisms to kidney exchange with good samaritan donors where exchange is feasible not only among donor-patient pairs but also among such pairs and non-directed alturistic donors. We show that you request my donor-I get your turn mechanism (Abdulkadiroglu and Sonmez [1999]) is the only mechanism that is Pareto efficient, individually rational, strategy-proof, weakly neutral and consistent.

  16. Two-sided Facility Location


    Alijani, Reza; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gollapudi, Sreenivas; Kollias, Kostas; Munagala, Kamesh


    Recent years have witnessed the rise of many successful e-commerce marketplace platforms like the Amazon marketplace, AirBnB, Uber/Lyft, and Upwork, where a central platform mediates economic transactions between buyers and sellers. Motivated by these platforms, we formulate a set of facility location problems that we term Two-sided Facility location. In our model, agents arrive at nodes in an underlying metric space, where the metric distance between any buyer and seller captures the quality...

  17. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... donor reactions. If a donor has a fatal reaction which, in any way, may be associated with...

  18. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection and scheduling of the injection of the...

  19. Quality of life of elderly live kidney donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, K.W.; Dols, L.F.; Weimar, W.; Dooper, I.; Ijzermans, J.N.M.; Kok, N.F.


    BACKGROUND: Expanding the use of elderly live donors may help meet the demand for kidney transplants. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the surgical procedure on the quality of life (QOL) of elderly donors compared with younger donors. METHODS: Alongside three prospective studies

  20. Exploring the Mental Health of Living Kidney Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Timmerman (Lotte)


    markdownabstractAbstract Living donor kidney transplantation is the best option for extending and improving the lives of patients with end-stage renal disease. The benefits for the donor are less straightforward: a donor is a healthy person who undergoes a surgery in the first place for the

  1. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.


    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  2. Donors and archives a guidebook for successful programs

    CERN Document Server

    Purcell, Aaron D


    Donors and Archives: A Guidebook for Successful Programs highlights the importance of development and fundraising for archives, while focusing on the donor and potential donor. Their interest, their support, their enthusiasm, and their stuff are vital to the success of archival programs.

  3. Radiologic evaluation for volume and weight of remnant lung in living lung donors. (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Chen, Fengshi; Yoshino, Ichiro; Iwata, Takekazu; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Bando, Toru; Date, Hiroshi


    Living-lung donors lose pulmonary function of a right or left lower lobe in exchange for a noble donation; however, Chen and colleagues reported postoperative pulmonary function of the donors was significantly better than the estimated values. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the improvement of postoperative pulmonary function is associated with hypertrophic phenomena of remnant lung. A total of 35 patients who underwent a right or left lower lobectomy for living-donor lobar lung transplantation in Kyoto University Hospital from 2008 to 2011 were evaluated by means of spirometry (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide), and computed tomography scans both before and 1 year after the surgery. Postoperative predictions of pulmonary function and radiologic parameters were made based on the number of resected segments. The average radiologic density of the lung was determined as follows: (mean computed tomography number + 1000)/1000, and weight of the lung was calculated as follows: lung volume (mL) × average radiologic lung density (g/mL). The radiologic analysis was performed on both the surgical and contralateral sides. Postoperative forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide were significantly higher than estimated values by 17.3% ± 10.2% (P lung volume and weight of the surgical side were significantly higher than estimated values by 54.4% ± 30.4% (P lung volume was significantly higher than the estimated value by 12.6% ± 15.3% (P lung may be recognized in living lung donors. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the stability of Boston type I keratoprosthesis-donor cornea interface using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Garcia, Julian P S; Ritterband, David C; Buxton, Douglas F; De la Cruz, Jose


    To evaluate the anatomic stability of an implanted Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro)-donor cornea interface and assess the presence or absence of a potential space (gap) between the KPro front plate and donor cornea using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). The presence of a gap would raise concerns of a possible pathway for the exchange of extraocular fluid with the anterior chamber. Fifteen eyes implanted with a Boston type I KPro were studied by the noncontact technique of AS-OCT (AC Cornea OCT prototype; OTI, Canada). All the KPro devices had been implanted at least 4 weeks before the study (mean: 7 months, range: 1-22 months). Eight eyes had aphakic Kpros, and the other 7 had pseudophakic implants. Anesthetized eyes were imaged before and during pressure application using sterile cotton-tip applicators. Pressure was applied for 10 seconds on the nasal or temporal side of the eye. Images were analyzed for any possible changes in the KPro-donor cornea interface during the application of pressure. Of 15 eyes, 10 had the threaded front plate model with a T-shaped silhouette and corrugated sides, whereas 5 had the threadless type with a T-shaped silhouette and smooth sides on cross-sectional optical coherence tomography. Of the 15 eyes, 2 revealed a gap between the front plate and the surface of the donor cornea. The rest revealed no gaps. With pressure, none of the eyes, including the 2 with gaps, demonstrated any change in the KPro-donor cornea interface during dynamic imaging (eg, gaping or evidence of fluid escape along the KPro-donor cornea borders). In all eyes, the position of the titanium locking ring was visible and verified to be in an adequate position. The implanted KPro-donor cornea interface seems to be stable dynamically using AS-OCT. A gap that has been documented with this imaging tool showed neither gaping nor escape of anterior chamber fluid during dynamic cross-sectional imaging. Further studies will be needed to assess

  5. South Korea as an emerging donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin


    like the objective of ODA, positioning of Korea's ODA as an emerging donor and the nature of aid to North Korea. We also argue that a shift of ODA policy is required to promote reform, based on a thorough reflection on the role of ODA in the alleviation of poverty and promoting sustainable development......South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea......'s ODA policy, along with its growth in quantity, is at a crossroads for the enhancement of its quality. Discussions and debates are going on regarding the reforms in Korea's ODA activities, and this paper examines key issues raised. It first reviews the past and present of Korea's ODA, and identifies...

  6. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.


    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

  7. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  8. [Ethics and kidney transplants with living donors]. (United States)

    Mamzer Bruneel, Marie-France


    The ethical debate surrounding transplant practices questions our societies. International recommendations set out numerous precautions which must be taken to ensure that donors act with their free will. While in most countries, including France, organ donation is a voluntary and non-commercial act, a black market exists in the world resulting in the trafficking of organs and tragic transplant tourism. Copyright © 2016. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. External validation of the Donor Risk Index and the Eurotransplant Donor Risk Index on the French liver transplantation registry. (United States)

    Winter, Audrey; Féray, Cyrille; Audureau, Etienne; Écochard, René; Jacquelinet, Christian; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Duvoux, Christophe; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Landais, Paul


    A major limitation to liver transplantation is organ shortage leading to the use of non-optimal liver grafts. The Donor Risk Index has been validated and recommended to select donors/organs. The Eurotransplant Donor Risk Index was derived from the Donor Risk Index. The objective of our study was to perform an external validation of both Donor Risk Index and Eurotransplant-Donor Risk Index against the French liver transplantation Cristal registry according to recommendations of the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis. Liver transplantations performed in France between 2009 and 2013 were used to perform the validation study for the Donor Risk Index and the Eurotransplant-Donor Risk Index respectively. We applied on the French data the models used to construct the Donor Risk Index and the Eurotransplant-Donor Risk Index respectively. Neither the Donor Risk Index nor the Eurotransplant-Donor Risk Index were validated against this dataset. Discrimination and calibration of these scores were not preserved according to our data. Important donor and candidates differences between our dataset and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network or the Eurotransplant datasets may explain why the Donor Risk Index and the Eurotransplant-Donor Risk Index appeared unadapted to the French transplant registry. Neither of these risk indexes were suitable to optimize the French liver allocation system. Thus, our next step will be to propose a general adaptive model for a Donor Risk Index. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Higher organ donation consent rates by relatives of potential uncontrolled donors versus potential controlled donors after death. (United States)

    Wind, Jentina; van Mook, Walther N K A; Willems, Monique E C; van Heurn, L W Ernest


    Refusal to consent to organ donation is an important cause of the persisting gap between the number of potential organ donors and effectuated donors. In the Netherlands, organ donors include both uncontrolled donors: donors who die unexpectedly after cardiac death (DCD), after failed resuscitation and donors in whom death can be expected and donors after brain death, and controlled DCD donors: those who die after the withdrawal of treatment. Different donor type implies a different setting in which relatives are requested to consent to organ donation. It is unknown whether the setting influences the eventual decision for donation or not. Therefore, we compared the consent rate in potential donors who died unexpectedly (UD group) and in whom death was expected. A total of 523 potential organ donors between 2003 and 2011 in the 715-bed Maastricht University Medical Centre, the Netherlands were included. Both the patients' registration in the national donor register (DR) and the relatives' refusal rate in the two groups were retrospectively assessed using data from the donation application database. There were 109 unexpected and 414 expected potential donors The potential donors in the UD group were younger (mean age 52 versus 55 years, P = 0.032) and more often male (68 versus 52%, P = 0.003). There were no significant differences in registration in the DR between the groups. The relatives' consent rate in non-registered potential donors, or those who mandated the relatives for that decision, was higher in the UD group (53 versus 29%, P organ donation. The relatives of potential donors who died unexpectedly consented more often to donation than those in whom death was expected.

  11. Cardiovascular and demographic characteristics in whole blood and plasma donors: results from the Donor InSight study. (United States)

    Atsma, Femke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; de Vegt, Femmie; Doggen, Carine; de Kort, Wim


    Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a reference group. The Donor InSight study provided information on donors. Extensive information has been gathered by a self-administered questionnaire addressing various topics, like demographics, lifestyle, and health. Aggregated donor responses were compared with general population summary data. The study population consisted of 15,076 donors. The median age was 46.3 years and 47.3% were men. Donors were more likely to be highly educated (34.6%), married (71.7%), and of Dutch origin (97.4%), when compared to the general population. Donors were less often smokers (donors, 17.1%; general population, 31.8%), more often moderate drinkers (donors, 82.8%; general population, 74.7%), and physically more active (donors, 2.0 hr/week; general population, 1.0 hr/week). Male donors were more often moderately overweight (47.7%) than men from the general population (39.9%). In donors, 0.9% reported to have Type 2 diabetes versus 1.9% in the general population. In donors, 3.4% reported high cholesterol versus 4.6% in the general population. The study provided important knowledge about demographic distributions and cardiovascular risk factors within donors. A proper understanding of demographic characteristics of donors will help us to focus recruitment and retention strategies. The reported beneficial cardiovascular profile suggests a need for further research on the role of blood donation in cardiovascular risk reduction. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Donor safety in living donor liver transplantation: The Korean organ transplantation registry study. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Geun; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Chu, Chong Woo; Kim, Bong-Wan; Choi, Dong Lak; You, Young Kyoung; Kim, Dong-Sik; Nah, Yang Won; Kang, Koo Jeong; Choi, In Soek; Yu, Hee Chul; Hong, Geun; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Shin; Kim, Myoung Soo


    Major concerns about donor safety cause controversy and limit the use of living donor liver transplantation to overcome organ shortages. The Korean Organ Transplantation Registry established a nationwide organ transplantation registration system in 2014. We reviewed the prospectively collected data of all 832 living liver donors who underwent procedures between April 2014 and December 2015. We allocated the donors to a left lobe group (n = 59) and a right lobe group (n = 773) and analyzed the relations between graft types and remaining liver volumes and complications (graded using the Clavien 5-tier grading system). The median follow-up was 19 months (range, 10-31 months). During the study period, 553 men and 279 women donated livers, and there were no deaths after living liver donation. The overall, biliary, and major complication (grade ≥ III) rates were 9.3%, 1.7%, and 1.9%, respectively. The graft types and remaining liver volume were associated with significantly different overall, biliary, and major complication rates. Of the 16 patients with major complications, 9 (56.3%) involved biliary complications (2 biliary strictures [12.5%] and 7 bile leakages [43.8%]). Among the 832 donors, the mean aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and total bilirubin levels were 23.9 ± 8.1 IU/L, 20.9 ± 11.3 IU/L, and 0.8 ± 0.4 mg/dL, respectively, 6 months after liver donation. In conclusion, biliary complications were the most common types of major morbidity in living liver donors. Donor hepatectomy can be performed successfully with minimal and easily controlled complications. Our study shows that prospective, nationwide cohort data provide an important means of investigating the safety in living liver donation. Liver Transplantation 23 999-1006 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. The effect of World Blood Donor Day on digital information seeking and donor recruitment. (United States)

    Kranenburg, Floris J; Kreuger, Aukje L; Arbous, M Sesmu; Laeijendecker, Daphne; van Kraaij, Marian G J


    The purpose of World Blood Donor Day (WBDD) is to raise awareness for the importance of blood donation. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of WBDD on digital information seeking and donor recruitment. Google Trends data were used to quantify seeking behavior on "blood donation" and "blood donor." Differences in relative search volume (RSV) between the 3 weeks surrounding WBDD and the rest of the year were calculated. Second, mean differences in RSV were compared to assess the additional effect of hosting using translated search terms. Third, we compared the period around WBDD with the control period regarding page views of the Sanquin website and Facebook likes and number of newly registered donors in 2016. The mean RSV for "blood donation" in the period of interest was 78.6, compared to 72.1 in the control period (difference, 6.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-11.8). For "blood donor" this was 78.9 compared to 65.9 (difference, 12.9; 95% CI, 8.1-17.8). We found no additional effect of hosting. In the period of interest, the website of Sanquin was visited 6862 times a day and 4293 times in the control period (difference, 2569; 95% CI, 1687-3451). In June 2016, 54.6% (95% CI, 53.0-56.2) more new donors were registered compared to the control period. An international campaign like WBDD raises the awareness of blood donation and is effective in convincing people to register as blood donors. © 2017 AABB.

  14. Factors predicting the usefulness of deceased donors. (United States)

    Hwang, H P; Yang, J D; Yu, H C; Cho, B H; Kwon, K S; Park, S K; Lee, S


    Preoperative management for deceased donation is important. Deceased donation can failed for several reasons. We analyzed the clinical data of deceased donation after consent for cadaveric donation to evaluate the reasons of failure of organ procurement. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 112 deceased donors in a single institution between January 1998 and September 2012. There were no organs from cardiac death donors. Of 112 deceased donors, 51 (45.5%) were traumatic brain deaths and 33 (29.5%), nontraumatic brain hemorrhages. The overall mean age was 37.2 (±16.6) years with 35 (30.7%) of female gender. There were 15 (13.3%) donation failures for all organs. Significant factors for failure were histories of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio [OR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.58; P = .005), cardiac arrest (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.006-0.14; P donation was associated with cardiac arrest while awaiting organ procurement and the presence of an history of cardiopulmonary resuscitation or presence of acute renal failure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Higher refusal rates for organ donation among older potential donors in the Netherlands: impact of the donor register and relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leiden, H.A. van; Jansen, N.E.; Haase-Kromwijk, B.J.; Hoitsma, A.J.


    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs is considerably reduced by relatives refusing donation after death. There is no previous large-scale evaluation of the influence of the Donor Register (DR) consultation and the potential donor's age on this refusal in The Netherlands. METHODS: This study

  16. Structured near-infrared Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectra of the Mn4CaO5 cluster of PSII in T. vulcanus are dominated by Mn(IV) d-d 'spin-flip' transitions. (United States)

    Morton, Jennifer; Chrysina, Maria; Craig, Vincent S J; Akita, Fusamichi; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cox, Nicholas; Shen, Jian-Ren; Krausz, Elmars


    Photosystem II passes through four metastable S-states in catalysing light-driven water oxidation. Variable temperature variable field (VTVH) Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectra in PSII of Thermosynochococcus (T.) vulcanus for each S-state are reported. These spectra, along with assignments, provide a new window into the electronic and magnetic structure of Mn4CaO5. VTVH MCD spectra taken in the S2 state provide a clear g=2, S=1/2 paramagnetic characteristic, which is entirely consistent with that known by EPR. The three features, seen as positive (+) at 749nm, negative (-) at 773nm and (+) at 808nm are assigned as 4A→2E spin-flips within the d3 configuration of the Mn(IV) centres present. This assignment is supported by comparison(s) to spin-flips seen in a range of Mn(IV) materials. S3 exhibits a more intense (-) MCD peak at 764nm and has a stronger MCD saturation characteristic. This S3 MCD saturation behaviour can be accurately modelled using parameters taken directly from analyses of EPR spectra. We see no evidence for Mn(III) d-d absorption in the near-IR of any S-state. We suggest that Mn(IV)-based absorption may be responsible for the well-known near-IR induced changes induced in S2 EPR spectra of T. vulcanus and not Mn(III)-based, as has been commonly assumed. Through an analysis of the nephelauxetic effect, the excitation energy of S-state dependent spin-flips seen may help identify coordination characteristics and changes at each Mn(IV). A prospectus as to what more detailed S-state dependent MCD studies promise to achieve is outlined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the shedding of vortices and flow interference between two circular cylinders in a side-by-side arrangement. Simulations are carried out using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code FLUENT-6.2. The flow field around the cylinders is modeled in two-dimensions with the axis of the cylinder perpendicular to the direction of flow. The cylinder is modeled as a circle and a square flow domain is created around the cylinder. The calculations are carried out on a quadrilateral mesh. The simulations are performed for a Reynolds number of 200. The mesh is finer close to the cylinder wall in order to have a better description of the boundary layer. Contours of vorticity, variation of lift and drag coefficients, force time histories are presented. A mean repulsive lift force exists between the cylinders and the lift force steadily decreases with increasing length to diameter ratio. For length to diameter ratio ≤ 2.0, flopping phenomenon is observed whereas for length to diameter ratio > 2.0, the lift fluctuation is synchronized and is in anti-phase. The results of the present work show that the drag coefficient is slightly higher for length to diameter ratio of 2.0. Beyond this ratio, the drag coefficient on either cylinder falls. For length to diameter ratio of 3.0 and 4.0, the power spectrum estimation of the lift coefficient shows a very distinctive peak at Strouhal number of 0.21.

  18. Flapping propulsion with side-by-side pitching foils (United States)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco


    Fish schools are one of the most common types of collective behaviour observed in nature. One of the reasons why fish swim in groups, is to reduce the cost of transport of the school. In this work we explore the propulsive performance of two foils flapping in a symmetric configuration, i.e. with an out-of-phase flapping motion. Direct thrust measurements and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) allowed a detailed examination of the forces and the wake generated by the system, for different kinematics (swept angles and frequencies) and shaft separations. For certain specific cases, volumetric PIV shows major differences on how the different structures in the wake of the system evolve, depending on the imposed kinematics and the side-by-side separation between the foils. Results obtained will be compared against data produced with isolated flapping foils with similar imposed kinematics, with the aim to better understand the interactions between both and the performance of the system as a whole. The author would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y competitividad (MINECO) through Grant DPI2015-71645-P.

  19. Accepting Hearts From Hepatitis C-Positive Donor: Can We Expand the Donor Pool? (United States)

    Grinstein, Jonathan; Lourenco, Laura M; Te, Helen S; Renz, John F; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Uriel, Nir


    Until recently, transplantation from hepatitis C-positive donors was relatively contraindicated as eradication of active hepatitis C previously required an interferon-based regimen that has been associated with rejection in solid organ transplantation. New interferon-free treatment regimens for hepatitis C have fewer adverse events and higher cure rates than interferon-based regimens. Interferon-free regimens have been shown to be safe in the liver transplantation literature, but little is known about the safety and efficacy of treatment in heart transplantation. Here we report a case of successful eradication of hepatitis C with a non-interferon-based regimen using ledipasvir-sofosbuvir following combined orthotopic heart and liver transplantation. Based on the prevalence of hepatitis C in the general population, inclusion of hepatitis C-positive donors for heart transplantation can expand this component of the donor pool 3- to 6-fold. In carefully selected patients and recipients, inclusion of hepatitis C-positive donors may allow for expansion of the donor pool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The donor advocacy team: a risk management program for living organ, tissue, and cell transplant donors. (United States)

    Eguchi, Susumu; Soyama, Akihiko; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Kurihara, Shintaro; Hidaka, Masaaki; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Hara, Takanobu; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kanetaka, Kengo; Takatsuki, Mistuhisa


    Although the incidence of living donor death is low in Japan, statistics show one living liver donor death in more than 7000 living liver transplants. Thus, medical transplant personnel must recognize that the death of a living organ or tissue transplant donor can occur and develop an appropriate risk management program. We describe how Nagasaki University Hospital established and implemented a Donor Advocacy Team (DAT) program: a risk management program for initiation in the event of serious, persistent, or fatal impairment of an organ, tissue, or cell transplantation from a living donor. The purposes of the DAT program are as follows: 1. To disclose official information without delay. 2. To provide physical and psychological care to the patient experiencing impairment and their family. 3. To provide psychological care to the medical staff in charge of the transplant. 4. To standardize the responses of the diagnosis and treatment department staff and other hospital staff. 5. To minimize the damage that the whole medical transplantation system may suffer and leverage the occurrence for improvement. To address (1) and (5), actions, such as reporting and responses to the government, mass media, transplant-related societies, and organ transplant networks, have been established to ensure implementation.

  1. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors. (United States)

    Müller, Carlheinz R


    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web.

  2. Contralateral pneumothorax during retroperitoneal laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: A case report. (United States)

    Matsushita, Yuto; Miyake, Hideaki; Motoyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Nagata, Masao; Otsuka, Atsushi; Furuse, Hiroshi; Ozono, Seiichiro


    This report presents a case of a 46-year-old woman in whom contralateral pneumothorax occurred during retroperitoneal laparoscopic donor nephrectomy without any evidence of diaphragmatic injuries. After the start of carbon dioxide-induced pneumoperitoneum, the patient's end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure and heart rate suddenly increased. The surgery was then paused, and a chest X-ray revealed a right pneumothorax accompanied by pneumomediastinum. After a thoracostomy tube was inserted, these symptoms immediately improved. After conversion to an open procedure, the surgery was completed. The thoracostomy tube was removed the next day, and the patient was discharged without any complications. As the pneumothorax occurred on the opposite side to the operative field and there was no evidence of diaphragmatic injury, it is suspected to have been caused by a pneumomediastinum-induced rupture of the barrier between the mediastinum and pleural space. This may have occurred due to the insufflated carbon dioxide gas passing directly into the mediastinum and then the pleural space. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. The Other Side of Complexity


    Campbell, Catherine Anne


    ABSTRACT OF THESISThe Other Side of ComplexitybyCatherine Anne CampbellMaster of Fine Arts in Theatre and Dance (Acting)University of California, San Diego, 2011Professor Kyle Donnelly, Chair A recurring note that I have received during my time here has been, "Learn to be more simple." What does this mean? I would ask myself. It seemed that the simpler I would try to be, the more boring I would feel. It is no secret that I like to work hard, even incessantly. When I approach a role, I atta...

  4. The other Side of Objectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter


    Artiklen følger en korrespondance mellem forfatteren og Alexandra Schüssler under sidstnævntes etablering af udstillingen "Villa Sovietica" på Musée d'ethnographie de Genève. Ved at følge AS' overvejelser om den udstilling, hun er ved at etablere fokuserer artiklen på, hvordan etnografiske museer...... har forholdt sig til objektivitet, og overvejer om man vil kunne nå over på den anden side af objektiviteten - til en installation af genstande, der kan orkestrere sansede relationer mellem mennesker og ting, snarere end tingene som dokumenter for forgangne verdener....

  5. The other side of Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    IdeaSquare at CERN


    On October 25, 2017, more than 150 people explored the IdeaSquare innovation space at CERN to attend “ The Other Side of Innovation” and discover what the space has to offer and how to get involved. Located in a technical hall at CERN next to the Globe of Science and Innovation, it offers ad-hoc meeting space and rapid prototyping facilities for innovation-related projects. Guests visited its electric and machine shops, learnt the basics of 3D printing, robotics programming and human-centered design processes, talked to resident researchers about their current projects and listened to guests speakers.

  6. Pressure-dependent shallow donor binding energy in InGaN/GaN square QWWs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Haddou El, E-mail: [LPS, Faculty of Sciences, Dhar EL Mehrez, B.P. 1796 Atlas Fez (Morocco); Specials Mathematics, CPGE Kenitra, Street Chakib Arsalane, Kenitra (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar; Zorkani, Izeddine [LPS, Faculty of Sciences, Dhar EL Mehrez, B.P. 1796 Atlas Fez (Morocco)


    Using a variational approach, we perform a theoretical study of hydrostatic pressure effect on the ground-state of axial hydrogenic shallow-donor impurity binding energy in InGaN/GaN square quantum well wire (SQWWs) as a function of the side length within the effective-mass scheme and finite potential barrier. The pressure dependence of wire length, effective mass, dielectric constant and potential barrier are taken into account. Numerical results show that: (i) the binding energy is strongly affected by the wire length and the external applied pressure and (ii) its maximum moves to the narrow wire in particular for height pressure.

  7. Retro-Aortic Inverted Left Renal Vein: A Rare Anomaly Found in a Renal Donor


    Sabouri, Sofia; Hosseini, Ashrafsadat; Shivaei, Seyedeh Shirin


    Awareness of the renal vascular anatomy including variants of the renal vein is important for abdominal and renal surgeries, such as renal transplantation. The complex embryological development of the renal vein results in the following variations: additional renal veins on the left side, circum-aortic renal collar and retro-aortic renal veins. In this report, we present a case of a 35-year-old renal donor who had a rare renal vein anomaly that had been shown by computed tomography (CT) angio...

  8. Short-term side effects and attitudes towards second donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahnke, Simon; Larfors, Gunnar; Axdorph-Nygell, Ulla


    The Nordic Register of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Donors (NRHSD) has registered related and unrelated donors from 10 transplant centres in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark since 1998. We present a prospective, observational study of 1,957 donors, focusing mainly on the differences between relate...... are reported. Interestingly, related donors express more hesitancy towards donating again when asked 1 month after donation....

  9. AIEE Active Donor-Acceptor-Donor-Based Hexaphenylbenzene Probe for Recognition of Aliphatic and Aromatic Amines. (United States)

    Pramanik, Subhamay; Deol, Harnimarta; Bhalla, Vandana; Kumar, Manoj


    In the present investigation, an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) active donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) system 5 having fumaronitrile as the acceptor and hexaphenylbenzene (HPB) as the donor moieties joined through rotatable phenyl rings has been designed and synthesized that is highly emissive in the solid state and exhibits stimuli-responsive reversible piezochromic behavior upon grinding and heating. Because of its AIEE characteristics, HPB derivative 5 undergoes aggregation to form fluorescent aggregates in mixed aqueous media that exhibit ratiometric fluorescence response toward aliphatic amines (primary/secondary/tertiary) and turn-off response toward aromatic amines and hence differentiates between them. Further, the solution-coated portable paper strips of derivative 5 showed pronounced and sensitive response toward aromatic and aliphatic amines with a detection limit in the range of picogram and nanogram level, respectively.

  10. Microwave assisted synthesis of bithiophene based donor-acceptor-donor oligomers and their optoelectronic performances (United States)

    Bathula, Chinna; Buruga, Kezia; Lee, Sang Kyu; Khazi, Imtiyaz Ahmed M.; Kang, Youngjong


    In this article we present the synthesis of two novel bithiophene based symmetrical π conjugated oligomers with donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) structures by microwave assisted PdCl2(dppf) catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. These molecules contain electron rich bithiophene as a donor, dithienothiadiazole[3,4-c]pyridine and phthalic anhydride units as acceptors. The shorter reaction time, excellent yields and easy product isolation are the advantages of this method. The photophysical prerequisites for electronic application such as strong and broad optical absorption, thermal stability, and compatible energy levels were determined for synthesized oligomers. Optical band gap for the oligomers is found to be 1.72-1.90 eV. The results demonstrated the novel oligomers to be promising candidates in organic optoelectronic applications.

  11. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Andrew


    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  12. Side-by side intercomparison between two TCCON instruments (United States)

    Feist, Dietrich G.; Griffith, David W. T.; Velazco, Voltaire A.; Deutscher, Nicholas M.


    The Total Carbon Colummn Observing Network (TCCON) observes column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, and other trace gases at more than 20 stations worldwide. These measurements are the calibration basis for all current and many future satellite greenhouse-gas-observing missions. TCCON's goal is to provide the most precise and accurate data with uncertainties better than 0.25%. Especially inter-station biases in the network are critical and should be reduced to a minimum. TCCON uses Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) which are comparatively large and expensive instruments that are not easily moved around. In the network, the typical distance between TCCON stations is hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Therefore, opportunities to directly compare the performance of TCCON instruments are very rare. In 2010, the TCCON instrument from the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) in Jena, Germany, was set up close to a TCCON instrument at the University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia, for six months. This was part of a test campaign before the final deployment of the MPI-BGC instrument to Ascension Island. Due to problems with the acquisition and processing of TCCON data at the time, the results of the intercomparison were inconclusive at first. Spectroscopic artifacts known as ghosts affected TCCON data until 2011. The ghosts created relatively large biases between individual instruments that were in the range of TCCON's precision and accuracy goals. The ghost problem was fixed by a hardware upgrade for all TCCON instruments in 2011 but still remained in older data. Only with the latest TCCON processing software GGG2014, the ghosts could finally be removed from the pre-2011 TCCON data. Therefore, a detailed side-by-side intercomparison between the two TCCON instruments at Wollongong in 2010 has now become possible.

  13. Why search for a sperm donor online? The experiences of women searching for and contacting sperm donors on the internet. (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Freeman, Tabitha; Tranfield, Erika; Golombok, Susan


    Whilst studies have examined the experiences of women who use clinic donors, to date there has been limited research investigating women's motivations and experiences of searching for a sperm donor online. A total of 429 women looking for a sperm donor on Pride Angel (a website that facilitates contact between donors and recipients) completed an online survey. Fifty-eight percent (249) saw advantages of obtaining donated sperm online with the most common advantage reported as being able to connect with and meet the donor (n = 50 (24%)). A third (n = 157 (37%)) of the participants gave disadvantages, the most common reported was encountering 'dishonest donors' (n = 63 (40%)). Most recipients (n = 181 (61%)) wanted the donor to be 'just a donor' (i.e. to provide sperm and have no further contact). Whilst it was important for recipients to know the identity of the donor, some did not see this as important for the child and thus the level of information that parents have about the donor, and that which the child has, can differ. Finding a donor online blurs the distinction between categories of 'anonymous', 'known' and 'identity release' donations. Whilst the survey had a large sample size, the representativeness of the sample is not known.

  14. Loss of volunteer blood donors because of unconfirmed enzyme immunoassay screening results. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. (United States)

    Ownby, H E; Korelitz, J J; Busch, M P; Williams, A E; Kleinman, S H; Gilcher, R O; Nourjah, P


    Blood donors who test repeatably reactive on enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and are not confirmed as positive are a continuing problem for blood banks. Units are discarded and donors are deferred, in spite of multiple studies indicating that such donors are very rarely infected with the transmissible agents. Few data are available, however, with which to evaluate whether the discarded units are more likely to come from particular demographic subgroups. The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study database of over 2 million allogeneic whole-blood donations collected in the years 1991 through 1993 was utilized. The prevalence of false-positive and indeterminate test results within demographic subgroups was computed for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and human T-lymphotropic virus (anti-HIV, anti-HCV, anti-HTLV, respectively) and hepatitis B surface antigen (false-positive only) as the proportion of donations that were repeatably reactive on EIA but negative or indeterminate on the confirmatory or supplemental test. Several demographic groups with increased prevalence of false-positive and indeterminate anti-HIV results were the same females, younger age groups, blacks, and first-time donors. Likewise, many of the demographic subgroups with increased prevalence of false-positive and indeterminate anti-HCV results were similar: older age groups, non-whites, lower education levels, first-time donors, donors making directed donations, and donors who had received transfusions. For anti-HTLV, by contrast, the oldest group had the highest prevalence of false-positive results but the lowest prevalence of indeterminate results: blacks had the lowest prevalence of false positive results but the highest prevalence of indeterminate results. If units that test repeatably reactive on EIA but that are not confirmed as positive are almost always from individuals not infected with the virus in question, then these results indicate that there may be sex-, race

  15. Donor Safety and Recipient Liver Function After Right-Lobe Liver Transplantation From Living Donors With Gilbert Syndrome. (United States)

    Kang, W H; Hwang, S; Song, G W; Jung, D H; Kim, K H; Park, G C; Ha, T Y; Ahn, C S; Moon, D B; Yoon, Y I; Shin, M H; Kim, W J; Kim, S H; Lee, S G


    Donor safety is the most important aspect in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Gilbert syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition that is a common cause of isolated unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, and its prevalence is not negligibly low in the general population. This study intended to assess donor safety and recipient liver function after LDLT with the use of right liver grafts from living donors with Gilbert syndrome. Among 2,140 right liver transplantations performed from January 2002 to December 20113 at our institution, we identified 12 living donors (0.6%) who showed a preoperative serum total bilirubin level of ≥2 mg/dL. These donors were clinically diagnosed with Gilbert syndrome. The clinical outcomes of these donors and their recipients were analyzed retrospectively. The mean donor age was 24.6 ± 7.1 years, and 11 donors were male. All subjects met the preoperative evaluation conditions for right liver donation except for the level of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. The mean serum total bilirubin level of the donors was 2.23 ± 0.20 mg/dL before and 1.79 ± 0.61 mg/dL 1 year after right liver donation. The preoperative donor direct bilirubin level was 0.43 ± 0.19 mg/dL. The preoperative indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes was 8.2 ± 2.8%. All donors and recipients recovered uneventfully and were alive at the time of writing. The recipient serum total bilirubin level was 1.29 ± 0.47 mg/dL 1 year after LDLT. We suggest that LDLT with living donors with Gilbert syndrome can be safely performed, but that a meticulous preoperative evaluation is vital to maximize donor safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.


    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex...... is obtained for mass ratios up to 0.426. The interparticle distances are up to 50 times larger than the corresponding exciton radius. The oscillator strengths are about 104 times greater than those of free excitons, while the exchange corrections for the complex are comparable to those of free excitions...

  17. Communicating identifiability risks to biobank donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, T. J.; Gjerris, Mickey; Waldemar, Gunhild


    can track individuals across multiple databases. This article focuses on the communication of identifiability risks in the process of obtaining consent for donation and research. Most ethical discussions of identifiability risks have focused on the severity of the risk and how it might be mitigated......, and what precisely is at stake in pervasive data sharing. However, there has been little discussion of whether and how to communicate the risk to potential donors. We review the ethical arguments behind favoring different types of risk communication in the consent process, and outline how identifiability...... concerns can be incorporated into either a detailed or a simplified method of communicating risks during the consent process....

  18. Structures of Thermal Double Donors in Silicon


    Pesola, M.; Joo Lee, Young; von Boehm, J.; Kaukonen, M.; Nieminen, Risto M.


    Accurate total-energy calculations are used to study the structures and formation energies of oxygen chains as models for thermal double donors (TDD's) in Si. We find that the first three TDD's (TDD0–TDD2) consist of one four-member ring, with one or two adjacent interstitial O atoms. These metastable TDD's form bistable negative-U systems with the corresponding stable, electrically inactive staggered structures. The TDD3-TDD7 structures are found to consist of four-member rings with adjacent...

  19. A comparison of donor and control group quality of life. (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Abdul Talib Abdul Mutalib, Muzalwana; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun


    Informed consent of prospective donors should include information about the quality of life (QoL) of existing donors, especially those within the relevant country. This study aimed to provide information on Malaysian organ donors' QoL relative to a control group. Using a shorter version of the SF-36, QoL of 80 donors from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Malaysia was surveyed and compared to QoL of 80 selected healthy individuals. ANOVA and General Linear Model (GLM) procedure were each applied for the QoL comparison, which was based on gender and age. Donors recorded a better QoL relative to the control group. Comparison across gender revealed that differences are more obvious for males than females. Donor/control comparison across age groups reveals that donors aged 56 and above reported significantly better QoL in most domains relative to other age groups. Information on donor QoL should be made available to the public to present a comprehensive picture of the consequences of organ donation. Nonetheless, we also argue that, despite the merits of organ donation, caution is required before concluding that donors have better QoL because the present research outcomes may reflect a self-selection bias in which respondents only included donors engaging in regular follow-ups.

  20. Liver transplantation in children using organs from young paediatric donors. (United States)

    Herden, Uta; Ganschow, Rainer; Briem-Richter, Andrea; Helmke, Knut; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz


    Nowadays, most paediatric liver transplant recipients receive a split or other technical variant graft from adult deceased or live donors, because of a lack of available age- and size matched paediatric donors. Few data are available, especially for liver grafts obtained from very young children (transplantations between 1989 and 2009. Recipients were divided into five groups (1-5) depending on donor age (transplantations from deceased donors were performed; 1- and 5-year graft survival rates were 75%, 80%, 78%, 81%, 74% and 75%, 64%, 70%, 67%, 46%, and 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 88%, 91%, 90%, 89%, 78% and 88%, 84%, 84%, 83%, 63% for groups 1-5, respectively, without significant difference. Eight children received organs from donors younger than 1 year and 45 children received organs from donors between 1 and 6 years of age. Overall, vascular complications occurred in 13.2% of patients receiving organs from donors younger than 6 years. Analysis of our data revealed that the usage of liver grafts from donors younger than 6 years is a safe procedure. The outcome was comparable with grafts from older donors with excellent graft and patient survival, even for donors younger than 1 year. © 2011 The Authors. Transplant International © 2011 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  1. Brain-Dead Donors on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (United States)

    Bronchard, Régis; Durand, Louise; Legeai, Camille; Cohen, Johana; Guerrini, Patrice; Bastien, Olivier


    To describe donors after brain death with ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to analyze the outcome of organs transplanted from these donors. Retrospective analysis of the national information system run by the French Biomedicine Agency (CRISTAL database). National registry data of all donors after brain death in France and their organ recipients between 2007 and 2013. Donors after brain death and their organ recipients. None. During the study period, there were 22,270 brain-dead patients diagnosed in France, of whom 161 with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Among these patients, 64 donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and 10,805 donors without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation had at least one organ retrieved. Donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were significantly younger and had more severe intensive care medical conditions (hemodynamic, biological, renal, and liver insults) than donors without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. One hundred nine kidneys, 37 livers, seven hearts, and one lung were successfully transplanted from donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. We found no significant difference in 1-year kidney graft survival (p = 0.24) and function between recipients from donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (92.7% [85.9-96.3%]) and matching recipients from donors without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (95.4% [93.0-97.0%]). We also found no significant difference in 1-year liver recipient survival (p = 0.91): 86.5% (70.5-94.1) from donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation versus 80.7% (79.8-81.6) from donors without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Brain-dead patients with ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have more severe medical conditions than those without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. However, kidney graft survival and function were no different than usual. Brain-dead patients with ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are suitable for organ procurement.

  2. Spare quinones in the QB cavity of crystallized photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus. (United States)

    Krivanek, Roland; Kern, Jan; Zouni, Athina; Dau, Holger; Haumann, Michael


    The recent crystallographic structure at 3.0 A resolution of PSII from Thermosynechococcus elongatus has revealed a cavity in the protein which connects the membrane phase to the binding pocket of the secondary plastoquinone Q(B). The cavity may serve as a quinone diffusion pathway. By fluorescence methods, electron transfer at the donor and acceptor sides was investigated in the same membrane-free PSII core particle preparation from T. elongatus prior to and after crystallization; PSII membrane fragments from spinach were studied as a reference. The data suggest selective enrichment of those PSII centers in the crystal that are intact with respect to O(2) evolution at the manganese-calcium complex of water oxidation and with respect to the integrity of the quinone binding site. One and more functional quinone molecules (per PSII monomer) besides of Q(A) and Q(B) were found in the crystallized PSII. We propose that the extra quinones are located in the Q(B) cavity and serve as a PSII intrinsic pool of electron acceptors.

  3. The dark side of technology

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Peter


    Technological progress comes with a dark side where good ideas and intentions produce undesirable results (extreme downsides include atomic and biological weapons). The many and various unexpected outcomes of technology span humorous to bizarre, to situations that threaten human survival. Development can be positive for some, but negative and isolating for others (e.g. older or poorer people). Progress is often transient, as faster electronics and computers dramatically shorten retention time of data, knowledge, and information loss (e.g. even photos may be unreadable within a generation). Progress and globalization are also destroying past languages and cultures. Advances cut across all areas of science and life, and the scope is vast from biology, medicine, agriculture, transport, electronics, computers, long-range communications, to a global economy. Reliance on technology causes unexpected technology-driven vulnerability to natural events (e.g. intense sunspot activity) that could annihilate advanced soci...

  4. The Simulation of DFIG Grid Side Converter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LU Yan-Ling; LU Jian-qiang; BAO Jie


    Firstly,DFIG basic structure of grid side converter was analyzed according to basic principles of voltage converter, and a mathematical model of grid side converter was established in the three-phase...

  5. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Cedrún, José; Mora, María J; Otero, Xosé L; Santana-Penín, Urbano


    .... This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side) and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder...

  6. Impact of Donor Age, Gender and Handling Time on the DNA Concentration Left on Different Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Gršković


    Full Text Available Background: We analyzed the correlation between several factors (donor age and gender, and handling time and trace DNA concentration that participants left on different surfaces (paper, plastic, plastic coated metal while holding items in their hands or rubbing them with their fingers, their palms, and the side of the palm of the dominant hand. Material and Methods: Sixty participants took part in the study. Items were swabbed with a moistened cotton swab. DNA was isolated using the Chelex procedure and quantified by real-time PCR. Results: We found that DNA concentration transferred to an item was independent of the handling time. On the contrary, it was dependent on the item’s texture; the greatest concentration was left on plastic coated metal (PCM and the least on paper. The greatest concentration of trace DNA was left by participants from 35 to 44 years of age. Results of the study showed that men deposit a higher DNA concentration than do women. Conclusion: Item texture, donor age, and gender influence trace DNA concentration. Further investigations are necessary to fully understand the process of DNA transfer from donors to handled items.

  7. Variation in semen parameters derived from computer-aided semen analysis, within donors and between donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijchman, JG; De Wolf, BTHM; Graaff, R; Arts, EGJM


    The development of computer-aided semen analysis (CASA) has made it possible to study sperm motility characteristics objectively and longitudinally. In this 2-year study of 8 sperm donors, we used CASA to measure 7 semen parameters (concentration, percentage of motile spermatozoa, curvilinear

  8. Similar liver transplantation survival with selected cardiac death donors and brain death donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Farid, W.; Ringers, J.; Porte, R. J.; Metselaar, H. J.; Baranski, A. G.; Kazemier, G.; van den Bere, A. P.; van Hoek, B.

    Background: The outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with controlled graft donation after cardiac death (DCD) is usually inferior to that with graft donation after brain death (DBD). This study compared outcomes from OLT with DBD versus controlled DCD donors with predefined restrictive

  9. Syntheses of donor-acceptor-functionalized dihydroazulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Jevric, Martyn; Bond, Andrew


    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has been of interest for use in molecular electronics and advanced materials. The switching between the two isomers has previously been found to depend strongly on the presence of donor and acceptor groups. The fine-tuning of opt......The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has been of interest for use in molecular electronics and advanced materials. The switching between the two isomers has previously been found to depend strongly on the presence of donor and acceptor groups. The fine......-tuning of optical and switching properties relies on ready access to new derivatives via efficient synthetic protocols. The central DHA core is conveniently prepared in a four-step synthesis starting from acetophenone and tropylium substrates. Here, the outcome of this reaction as a function of the nature...... of the substituent group on the phenyl unit of acetophenone is investigated in detail. A wide variety of functional groups (nitro, cyano, halo, alkyl, amido, and thioether) was tolerated, and the route provided access to a large selection of substituted DHA derivatives (position 2 of DHA). These compounds were...

  10. Blood donors' helping behavior is driven by warm glow: more evidence for the blood donor benevolence hypothesis. (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Taylor, Michael; Keatley, David; Flynn, Niall; Lawrence, Claire


    The benevolence hypothesis (both donor and recipient gain) suggests that blood donors, compared to non-blood donors have a general altruistic motivational preference based on warm glow (i.e., "I donate because it makes me feel good"). With objective behavioral economics tests of altruism and warm-glow giving, this paper offers the first direct experimental test of this hypothesis. The prediction that blood donors will be motivated in general by warm glow was compared to predictions from other theoretical models: strong reciprocity and empathy. Four experiments and one prospective study examined blood donors' and nondonors' motivations for general charitable giving and blood donation. Variants of the dictator game (DG; a charity DG [CDG] and a warm-glow version of a CDG) were used to provide objective measures of altruism. Blood donors gave less than nondonors on the CDG, but gave more on the warm-glow version. Blood donors' actual donations (in the CDGs and blood donation) were associated with feelings of warm glow. There was no evidence that blood donors were motivated by strong reciprocity or empathic concerns. This paper offers objective behavioral evidence that blood donors' charitable giving and blood donation, compared to non-blood donors, is more strongly motivated by warm glow. This provides additional support for the benevolence hypothesis of blood donation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. 49 CFR 238.217 - Side structure. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side structure. 238.217 Section 238.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.217 Side structure. Each passenger car shall comply with the following: (a) Side posts and...

  12. Retrospective review of serological testing of potential human milk donors. (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald S; Xiong, Sean C; Sakamoto, Pauline


    To estimate the prevalence of positive serology among potential donors to a human milk bank. Retrospective review of our experience with donor serological testing at our milk bank over a 6-year interval. Not-for-profit, regional human milk bank. Volunteer, unpaid potential donors of human milk. Serological testing for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2). Results of serological screening tests performed on potential donors. Of 1091 potential donors, 3.3% were positive on screening serology, including 6 syphilis, 17 hepatitis B, 3 hepatitis C, 6 HTLV and 4 HIV. There is a significant incidence of positive serology among women interested in donating human milk. This implies that there may be significant risk associated with peer-to-peer distribution of human milk from unscreened donors.

  13. Approach to the Pretransplant Evaluation of the Living Kidney Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Sachdeva


    Full Text Available Evaluation of the potential kidney donor is a complex activity that differs substantially from other types of preoperative assessments. The well being of the donor, who derives no medical benefit from this surgery, must be assured in both the short term and long term, and the potential adverse consequences to the recipient must be determined as well. The criteria that must be met for a person to donate a kidney are rigorous and include medical, social, psychosocial, ethical, and legal issues. Donor evaluation can be divided into assessments to protect the health and safety of the donor and assessments to protect the health and safety of the recipient. This article provides an approach to evaluating a donor, focusing on the complex issues that an evaluator is faced with. A careful assessment of risks and benefits to both the donor and recipient can lead to favorable outcomes.

  14. How to kill gamete donation: retrospective legislation and donor anonymity. (United States)

    Pennings, Guido


    Victoria (Australia) is considering retrospective legislation on the abolition of gamete donor anonymity. Retrospective legislation evokes many negative emotions mainly because it is considered unfair. It also makes it impossible for citizens to organize their life with reasonable certainty of the consequences. Introduction of this law for donor anonymity is defended by the right of the child to know its genetic origins. Against this law, people appeal to the right to privacy and confidentiality of the donor. This paper analyses the arguments for and against a retrospective law on donor anonymity by looking at the conditions that should be respected when two principles (the donor's right to privacy and the child's right to genetic information) have to be balanced. It is concluded that the justification for introducing retrospective law is lacking: the conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, retroactive laws in the context of gamete donation may jeopardize the whole practice by destroying the trust of candidate donors and recipients in the government.

  15. Improving Photoconductance of Fluorinated Donors with Fluorinated Acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Logan E.; Larson, Bryon; Oosterhout, Stefan; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw; Olson, Dana C.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Braunecker, Wade A.


    This work investigates the influence of fluorination of both donor and acceptor materials on the generation of free charge carriers in small molecule donor/fullerene acceptor BHJ OPV active layers. A fluorinated and non-fluorinated small molecule analogue were synthesized and their optoelectronic properties characterized. The intrinsic photoconductance of blends of these small molecule donors was investigated using time-resolved microwave conductivity. Blends of the two donor molecules with a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene (PC70BM) as well as a fluorinated fullerene (C60(CF3)2-1) were investigated using 5% and 50% fullerene loading. We demonstrate for the first time that photoconductance in a 50:50 donor:acceptor BHJ blend using a fluorinated fullerene can actually be improved relative to a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene by fluorinating the donor molecule as well.

  16. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Guleria


    Full Text Available Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excellent alternative, has no learning curve and is ideally suited for donors in India who have a low BMI. The procedure is also relatively inexpensive. We are in need of a donor registry rather than reports from single institutions to fully evaluate the risks and benefits of both procedures.

  17. The live donor assessment tool: a psychosocial assessment tool for live organ donors. (United States)

    Iacoviello, Brian M; Shenoy, Akhil; Braoude, Jenna; Jennings, Tiane; Vaidya, Swapna; Brouwer, Julianna; Haydel, Brandy; Arroyo, Hansel; Thakur, Devendra; Leinwand, Joseph; Rudow, Dianne LaPointe


    Psychosocial evaluation is an important part of the live organ donor evaluation process, yet it is not standardized across institutions, and although tools exist for the psychosocial evaluation of organ recipients, none exist to assess donors. We set out to develop a semistructured psychosocial evaluation tool (the Live Donor Assessment Tool, LDAT) to assess potential live organ donors and to conduct preliminary analyses of the tool's reliability and validity. Review of the literature on the psychosocial variables associated with treatment adherence, quality of life, live organ donation outcome, and resilience, as well as review of the procedures for psychosocial evaluation at our center and other centers around the country, identified 9 domains to address; these domains were distilled into several items each, in collaboration with colleagues at transplant centers across the country, for a total of 29 items. Four raters were trained to use the LDAT, and they retrospectively scored 99 psychosocial evaluations conducted on live organ donor candidates. Reliability of the LDAT was assessed by calculating the internal consistency of the items in the scale and interrater reliability between raters; validity was estimated by comparing LDAT scores between those with a "positive" evaluation outcome and "negative" outcome. The LDAT was found to have good internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, and showed signs of validity: LDAT scores differentiated the positive vs. negative outcome groups. The LDAT demonstrated good reliability and validity, but future research on the LDAT and the ability to implement the LDAT prospectively is warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support of donor abdominal organs in non-heart-beating donors. (United States)

    Ko, W J; Chen, Y S; Tsai, P R; Lee, P H


    Both family consent and legal consent were required for organ/tissue donation from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) in Taiwan. A district attorney had to come to the bedside to confirm the donor's asystole, confirm the family consent, and complete some legal documents before a legal consent was issued for organ donation. The resultant warm ischemic time would be unpredictably long and in fact precluded the organ donation from NHBD in Taiwan. We developed a method of using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to maintain NHBD for a longer time and prevent warm ischemic injury of the donor abdominal organs. After ventilator disconnection in NHBD, phentolamine and heparin were injected and mannitol infusion was given. After the donor's asystole was confirmed by the electrocardiogram (EKG) strip recording, the ECMO support was set up through the right femoral veno-arterial route, an occlusion balloon catheter was inserted through the left femoral artery to occlude the thoracic aorta, and bilateral femoral arteries were ligated. Usually, the ECMO could begin within 10 min after the donor's asystole. The ECMO, combined with a cooler, provided cold oxygenated blood to the abdominal visceral organs, and prevented their warm ischemic injuries. Under the ECMO support (range: 45-70 min), eight renal grafts were procured from 4 NHBD. With the exception of the first two renal grafts with delayed function, all others had immediate function postoperatively and dialysis was no longer needed. In conclusion, by our ECMO technique, NHBD could be maintained for a longer time and the renal grafts had better immediate postoperative function than those reported by other methods.

  19. Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University. (United States)

    Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N


    Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward an optimal global stem cell donor recruitment strategy. (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander H; Sauter, Jürgen; Pingel, Julia; Ehninger, Gerhard


    Population-specific matching probabilities (MP) are a key parameter to assess the benefits of unrelated stem cell donor registries and the need for further donor recruitment efforts. In this study, we describe a general framework for MP estimations of specific and mixed patient populations under consideration of international stem cell donor exchange. Calculations were based on population-specific 4-locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1) high-resolution haplotype frequencies (HF) of up to 21 populations. In various scenarios, we calculated several quantities of high practical relevance, including the maximal MP that can be reached by recruiting a fixed number of donors, the corresponding optimal composition by population of new registrants, and the minimal number of donors who need to be recruited to reach a defined MP. Starting at current donor numbers, the largest MP increases due to n = 500,000 additional same-population donors were observed for patients from Bosnia-Herzegovina (+0.25), Greece (+0.21) and Romania (+0.20). Especially small MP increases occurred for European Americans (+0.004), Germans (+0.01) and Hispanic Americans (+0.01). Due to the large Chinese population, the optimal distribution of n = 5,000,000 new donors worldwide included 3.9 million Chinese donors. As a general result of our calculations, we observed a need for same-population donor recruitment in order to increase population-specific MP efficiently. This result was robust despite limitations of our input data, including the use of HF derived from relatively small samples ranging from n = 1028 (Bosnia-Herzegovina) to n = 33,083 (Turkey) individuals. National strategies that neglect domestic donor recruitment should therefore be critically re-assessed, especially if only few donors have been recruited so far.

  1. Toward an optimal global stem cell donor recruitment strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H Schmidt

    Full Text Available Population-specific matching probabilities (MP are a key parameter to assess the benefits of unrelated stem cell donor registries and the need for further donor recruitment efforts. In this study, we describe a general framework for MP estimations of specific and mixed patient populations under consideration of international stem cell donor exchange. Calculations were based on population-specific 4-locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 high-resolution haplotype frequencies (HF of up to 21 populations. In various scenarios, we calculated several quantities of high practical relevance, including the maximal MP that can be reached by recruiting a fixed number of donors, the corresponding optimal composition by population of new registrants, and the minimal number of donors who need to be recruited to reach a defined MP. Starting at current donor numbers, the largest MP increases due to n = 500,000 additional same-population donors were observed for patients from Bosnia-Herzegovina (+0.25, Greece (+0.21 and Romania (+0.20. Especially small MP increases occurred for European Americans (+0.004, Germans (+0.01 and Hispanic Americans (+0.01. Due to the large Chinese population, the optimal distribution of n = 5,000,000 new donors worldwide included 3.9 million Chinese donors. As a general result of our calculations, we observed a need for same-population donor recruitment in order to increase population-specific MP efficiently. This result was robust despite limitations of our input data, including the use of HF derived from relatively small samples ranging from n = 1028 (Bosnia-Herzegovina to n = 33,083 (Turkey individuals. National strategies that neglect domestic donor recruitment should therefore be critically re-assessed, especially if only few donors have been recruited so far.

  2. Hepatitis B Viral Markers in Surface Antigen Negative Blood Donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The majority of the donors (55.8%) were in the age bracket 21–30 years. Most of the donors (55.9%) were unmarried. The majority had not received blood transfusion ((98.6%) nor received hepatitis B virus vaccine (95.2%) in the past. Of the 495 screened blood donors,. 457 were negative to HBsAg, HIV, HCV and syphilis).

  3. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam


    Full Text Available Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%. The main reasons were intercurrent illness (n=182 (15.6%, skin ulcers (n=170 (14.6%, and risk behaviour (n=127 (10.9%. In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation.

  4. Integrating Donor Conception into Identity Development: Adolescents in Fatherless Families


    Slutsky, Jenna; Jadva, Vasanti; Freeman, Tabitha; Persaud, Sherina; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard; Kramer, Wendy; Golombok, Susan


    Objective To study the processes by which donor-conceived children incorporate donor conception into their subjective sense of identity. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Family homes. Patient(s) Nineteen donor-conceived adolescents. Intervention(s) Administration of an interview and questionnaire. Main Outcome Measure(s) The mother-child relationship was assessed through the Friends and Family Interview, a semistructured interview designed to assess adolescents' security of attachment in terms...

  5. HIV Prevalence and Demographic Risk Factors in Blood Donors.


    Zachariah, R.; Harries, A. D.; Nkhoma, W; Arendt, V; Spielmann, M P; Buhendwa, L.; Chingi, C; Mossong, J


    OBJECTIVES: To estimate HIV prevalence in various blood donor populations, to identity sociodemographic risk factors associated with prevalent HIV and to assess the feasibility of offering routine voluntary counselling services to blood donors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Thyolo district, Malawi. METHODS: Data analysis involving blood donors who underwent voluntary counselling and HIV testing between January 1998 and July 2000. RESULTS: Crude HIV prevalence was 22%, while the age ...

  6. Factors Affecting Changes in the Glomerular Filtration Rate after Unilateral Nephrectomy in Living Kidney Donors and Patients with Renal Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Ok; Chae, Sun Young; Back, Sora; Moon, Dae Hyuk [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We evaluated the factors affecting changes in the postoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after unilateral nephrectomy in living kidney donors and patients with renal disease. We studied 141 subjects who underwent living donor nephrectomy for renal transplantation (n=75) or unilateral nephrectomy for renal diseases (n=66). The GFR of the individual kidney was determined by Tc-99m DTPA scintigraphy before and after nephrectomy. By performing multiple linear regression analysis, we evaluated the factors that are thought to affect changes in GFR, such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), preoperative GFR, preoperative creatinine level, operated side, presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), presence of hypertension (HTN), and duration of follow-up. In both the donor nephrectomy and the disease nephrectomy groups, GFR increased significantly after nephrectomy (46.9{+-}8.4 to 58.1{+-}12.5 vs. 43.0{+-}9.6 to 48.6{+-}12.8 ml/min, p<0.05). In the donor nephrectomy group, age was significantly associated with change in GFR ({beta}=-0.3, P<0.005). In the disease nephrectomy group, HTN, preoperative creatinine level, and age were significantly associated with change in GFR ({beta}=-6.2, p<0.005; {beta}=-10.9, p<0.01; {beta}=-0.2, p<0.01, respectively). This compensatory change in GFR was not significantly related to sex, duration of follow-up, or operated side in either group. The compensatory change in the GFR of the remaining kidney declined with increasing age in both living kidney donors and patients with renal disease.

  7. A Case Report of Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia after Living Donor Liver Transplantation. (United States)

    Arai, Keisuke; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Fukumoto, Takumi; Kido, Masahiro; Takebe, Atsushi; Tanaka, Motofumi; Kinoshita, Hisoka; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Toyama, Hirochika; Asari, Sadaki; Goto, Tadahiro; Ku, Yonson


    There are few descriptions of severe thrombocytopenia during the early postoperative period after liver transplantation, and these have not been fully documented in the literature. Here, we report a case of drug-induced thrombocytopenia requiring transfusion of blood products after living donor liver transplantation. We determined that this was not caused by the interferon-free anti-viral therapy but by tacrolimus A 61-year-old woman with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome underwent living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft from her son. After transplantation, immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and steroid. Seven weeks after transplantation, interferon-free therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir was started. Thirteen days thereafter, hepatitis C virus tested negative. However, the platelet count had begun to gradually decrease just before starting anti-viral therapy. Daclatasvir and asunaprevir were stopped because this was suspected to be a side-effect of these drugs, but the patient nonetheless went on to develop severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count 17,000/μL), which needed transfusions. Now suspecting tacrolimus as the inducer of this side effect, we changed to cyclosporin, after which the platelet count gradually recovered. Viral markers were still not detectable up to 2 months after discontinuation of the antiviral drugs. We conclude that when severe thrombocytopenia occurs, possible drug-induced thrombocytopenia as well as other disorders must be investigated.

  8. Quality of life of elderly live kidney donors. (United States)

    Klop, Karel W J; Dols, Leonienke F C; Weimar, Willem; Dooper, Ine M; IJzermans, Jan N M; Kok, Niels F M


    Expanding the use of elderly live donors may help meet the demand for kidney transplants. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the surgical procedure on the quality of life (QOL) of elderly donors compared with younger donors. Alongside three prospective studies (two randomized) running between May 2001 and October 2010, we asked 501 live donors to fill out the Short Form-36 questionnaire preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. We defined live donors 60 years or older as elderly. Between-group analyses regarding QOL were adjusted for baseline values and gender. One hundred thirty-five donors were older and 366 donors were younger than 60 years. The response rate was high, with 87% at 12 months postoperatively. Elderly donors less often scored as American Society of Anaesthesiology classification 1 (60% vs. 81%; Pvitality" (5 points; P=0.008). At 3 months, "bodily pain" (3 points, P=0.04) and "role physical" (8 points, P=0.02) were still in favor of the older group. At 6 and 12 months, "physical function" was in favor of the younger group (3 and 5 points, respectively; P=0.04 and P<0.001). This study demonstrates that elderly donors recover relatively fast. The perspective of excellent postoperative QOL may help convince elderly individuals to donate.

  9. Hybrid super electron donors – preparation and reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Garnier


    Full Text Available Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature. The stronger pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene donor converts iodoarenes to aryl anions efficiently under appropriate conditions (3 equiv of donor. The presence of excess sodium hydride base has a very important and selective effect on some of these electron-transfer reactions, and a rationale for this is proposed.

  10. Transplantation With Livers From Deceased Donors Older Than 75 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Trygve; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Bennet, William


    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs limits the number of patients in need who are offered liver transplantation. Measures to expand the donor pool are crucial to prevent on-list mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of livers from deceased donors who were older than 75...... years. METHODS: Fifty-four patients who received a first liver transplant (D75 group) from 2001 to 2011 were included. Donor and recipient data were collected from the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry and medical records. The outcome was compared with a control group of 54 patients who received a liver...

  11. Distributed video coding with multiple side information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Brites, C.; Ascenso, J.


    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of some decoder side information. The quality of the side information has a major impact on the DVC rate-distortion (RD) performance in the same way...... the quality of the predictions had a major impact in predictive video coding. In this paper, a DVC solution exploiting multiple side information is proposed; the multiple side information is generated by frame interpolation and frame extrapolation targeting to improve the side information of a single...

  12. Tuning Optoelectronic Properties of Organic Semiconductors Via Donor-Acceptor Cocrystals and Interfacial Composites (United States)

    Wang, Chen

    acceptor nanofibers become the building blocks. By changing the side chains into alkyl groups, the composite forms a homogeneous film with a large donor-acceptor interface and favorable photoinduced charge transfer, leading to a high photoconductivity enhancement, which is a three order magnification of the photoconductivity of the donor and acceptor nanofibers. Furthermore, our measurement proved the D-A interface with alkyl chains interdigitating is compatible and tunable to external alkane vapors, making the composite suitable for chemiresistive sensors for alkane detection.

  13. Assessment of the Temporopolar Artery as a Donor Artery for Intracranial-Intracranial Bypass to the Middle Cerebral Artery: Anatomic Feasibility Study. (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Griswold, Dylan; Mokhtari, Pooneh; Payman, Andre; Tabani, Halima; Yousef, Sonia; Kola, Olivia; Benet, Arnau


    Intracranial-intracranial bypass is a valuable cerebral revascularization option. Despite several advantages, one of the main shortcomings of the intracranial-intracranial bypass is the possibility of ischemic complications of the donor artery. However, when sacrificed, the temporopolar artery (TPA) is not associated with major neurologic deficits. We sought to define the role of TPA as a donor for revascularization of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Pterional craniotomy was performed on 14 specimens. The TPA was released from arachnoid trabecula, and the small twigs to the temporal lobe were cut. The feasibility of side-to-side and end-to-side bypass to the farthest arterial targets on insular, opercular, and cortical MCA branches was assessed. The distance of the bypass point was measured in reference to limen insulae. A total of 15 TPAs were assessed (1 specimen had 2 TPAs). The average cisternal length of the TPA was 37.3 mm. For side-to-side bypass, the TPA was a poor candidate as an intracranial donor, except for the cortical orbitofrontal artery, which was reached in 87% of cases. However, the end-to-side bypass was successfully completed for most arteries (87%-100%) on the anterior frontal operculum and more than 50% of the cortical or opercular middle and posterior temporal arteries. There was no correlation between the TPA's cisternal length and maximum bypass reach. When of favorable diameter, the TPA is a competent donor for intracranial-intracranial bypass to MCA branches at the anterior insula, and anterior frontal and middle temporal opercula (arteries anterior to the precentral gyrus coronal plane). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interface solutions for interface side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffregen Thomas A.


    Full Text Available Human-computer interfaces often give rise to a variety of side effects, including eyestrain, headache, fatigue, and motion sickness (aka cybersickness, simulator sickness. We might hope that improvements in interface design would tend to reduce these side effects. Unfortunately, history reveals just the opposite: The incidence and severity of motion sickness (for example is positively related to the progressive sophistication of display technology and systems. In this presentation, I enquire about the future of interface technologies in relation to side effects. I review the types of side effects that occur and what is known about the causes of interface side effects. I suggest new ways of understanding relations between interface technologies and side effects, and new ways to approach the problem of interface side effects.

  15. Adoptive T-cell Immunotherapy from third-party donors: Characterization of donors and set up of a T-cell donor registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta eEiz-Vesper


    Full Text Available Infection with and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and adenovirus (ADV are frequent and severe complications in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT or solid organ transplantation (SOT. These serious adverse events are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs are often used to treat both viral infections and leukemia relapses after transplantation but are associated with potentially life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. Adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific cytotoxic effector T cells (CTLs derived from seropositive donors can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity after HSCT and organ transplantation. Therefore, it can effectively prevent the clinical manifestation of these viruses with no significant acute toxicity or increased risk of GvHD. In conditions, where patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients, allogeneic third party T-cell donors would offer an alternative option. Recent studies showed that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF mobilization, the functional activity of antiviral memory T cells is impaired for a long period. This finding suggests that even stem cell donors may not be the best source of T cells.Under these circumstances, partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA-matched virus-specific CTLs from healthy seropositive individuals may be a promising option. Therefore frequency assessments of virus-specific memory T cells in HLA-typed healthy donors as well as in HSCT/SOT donors using a high throughput T-cell assay were performed over a period of 4 years at Hannover Medical School. This chapter will address the relevance and potential of a third-party T-cell donor registry and will discuss its clinical implication for adoptive T

  16. Who requests their sperm donor's identity? The first ten years of information releases to adults with open-identity donors. (United States)

    Scheib, Joanna E; Ruby, Alice; Benward, Jean


    To report findings from 10 years of requests from adults eligible to obtain their open-identity sperm donor's information. Analysis of archived family and donor data. Semistructured interviews at information releases. Not applicable. A total of 85 DI adults requesting 43 donor identities; program data on 256 DI families. None. We identified [1] demographic predictors of requesting donor identities, [2] information release timing and length, and [3] request motives. Just >35% of eligible DI adults requested their donor's identity. Adults ranged from 18-27 years, requesting at median age 18 years. More women than men requested. Proportionally fewer adults requested when they had heterosexual-couple parents, and proportionally more when they had one rather than two parents. In interviews, the common theme was wanting to know more about the donor, especially about shared characteristics. Most adults planned to contact their donor. More than 94% of adults had donors who were open to contact; adults expressed modest expectations about this contact. In 2001, the first adults became eligible to obtain their open-identity sperm donor's information. Ten years of identity requests at one program indicates that information about one's donor is important to a significant proportion of these DI adults. Most requested their donor's identity soon after becoming eligible, suggesting some urgency to wanting the information. Interview data highlighted the role of donor information in helping adults better understand themselves and their ancestry. Findings hold important implications for practice and policy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria


    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. Methods The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Results Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Discussion Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood

  18. High Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell via Polymer Side-Chain Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yan


    An average PCE of 4.2% for all-polymer solar cells from 20 devices with an average J SC of 8.8 mA cm-2 are obtained with a donor-acceptor pair despite a low LUMO-LUMO energy offset of less than 0.1 eV. Incorporation of polystyrene side chains into the donor polymer is found to assist in reducing the phase separation domain length scale, and results in more than 20% enhancement of PCE. We observe a direct correlation between the short circuit current (J SC) and the length scale of BHJ phase separation, which is obtained by resonance soft X-ray scattering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido


    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge...... choice in preterm infant feeding and strong efforts should be made to promote lactation. When OMM is not available, DHM is the recommended alternative. When neither OMM nor DHM is available, preterm formula should be used. DHM should be provided from an established HMB, which follows specific safety...... guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research...

  20. Diaphragmatic herniation following donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation: a serious complication not given due recognition. (United States)

    Lochan, Rajiv; Saif, Rehan; Ganjoo, Naveen; Sakpal, Mallikarjun; Panackal, Charles; Raja, Kaiser; Reddy, Jayanth; Asthana, Sonal; Jacob, Mathew


    A clear appreciation of benefits and risks associated with living donor hepatectomy is important to facilitate counselling for the donor, family, and recipient in preparation for living donor liver transplant (LDLT). We report a life-threatening complication occurring in one of our live liver donors at 12 weeks following hemi-liver donation. We experienced five donor complications among our first 50 LDLT: Clavien Grade 1, n=1; Clavien grade 2, n=3; and Clavien grade 3B, n=1. The one with Clavien grade 3B had a life-threatening diaphragmatic hernia occurring 12 weeks following hepatectomy. This was promptly recognized and emergency surgery was performed. The donor is well at 1-year follow-up. Here we provide a review of reported instances of diaphragmatic hernia following donor hepatectomy with an attempt to elucidate the pathophysiology behind such occurrence. Life-threatening donor risk needs to be balanced with recipient benefit and risk on a tripartite basis during the counselling process for LDLT. With increasing use of LDLT, we need to be aware of such life-threatening complication. Preventive measures in this regard and counselling for such complication should be incorporated into routine work-up for potential live liver donor.

  1. Higher refusal rates for organ donation among older potential donors in the Netherlands: impact of the donor register and relatives. (United States)

    van Leiden, Hendrik A; Jansen, Nichon E; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; Hoitsma, Andries J


    The availability of donor organs is considerably reduced by relatives refusing donation after death. There is no previous large-scale evaluation of the influence of the Donor Register (DR) consultation and the potential donor's age on this refusal in The Netherlands. This study examines 2101 potential organ donors identified in intensive care units between 2005 and 2008 and analyzes the association of DR consultation and subsequent refusal by relatives and the relationship with the potential donor's age. Of the 1864 potential donor cases where the DR was consulted, the DR revealed no registration in 56%, 20% registration of consent, and 18% objection. In the other 6.5% of cases, where the DR indicated that relatives had to decide, the relatives' refusal rate was significantly lower than in the absence of a DR registration (46% vs. 63%). In 6% of the cases where the DR recorded donation consent, relatives still refused donation. DR registration, objection in the DR, and the relatives' refusal rate if the DR was not decisive increased with donor age. Despite the introduction of a DR, relatives still play an equally important role in the final decision for organ donation. The general public should be encouraged to register their donation preferences in the DR and also to discuss their preferences with their families. The higher refusal rate of older potential donors means that this group should receive more information about organ donation, especially because the cohort of available donors is ageing.

  2. Using the Economic Balance Model to Teach Supply-Side and Demand-Side Economics. (United States)

    Pisciotta, John


    The Economic Balance model can be used in secondary economics classes to show demand- and supply-sides of the overall economy as well as how the two sides influence each other. Demand-side approaches to recession and inflation and supply-side approaches to expansion of production capacity and inflation are discussed. (AM)

  3. Diverse mechanisms for photoprotection in photosynthesis. Dynamic regulation of photosystem II excitation in response to rapid environmental change. (United States)

    Derks, Allen; Schaven, Kristin; Bruce, Doug


    Photosystem II (PSII) of photosynthesis catalyzes one of the most challenging reactions in nature, the light driven oxidation of water and release of molecular oxygen. PSII couples the sequential four step oxidation of water and two step reduction of plastoquinone to single photon photochemistry with charge accumulation centers on both its electron donor and acceptor sides. Photon capture, excitation energy transfer, and trapping occur on a much faster time scale than the subsequent electron transfer and charge accumulation steps. A balance between excitation of PSII and the use of the absorbed energy to drive electron transport is essential. If the absorption of light energy increases and/or the sink capacity for photosynthetically derived electrons decreases, potentially deleterious side reactions may occur, including the production of reactive oxygen species. In response, a myriad of fast (second to minutes timescale) and reversible photoprotective mechanisms are observed to regulate PSII excitation when the environment changes more quickly than can be acclimated to by gene expression. This review compares the diverse photoprotective mechanisms that are used to dissipate (quench) PSII excitation within the antenna systems of higher land plants, green algae, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. The molecular bases of how PSII excitation pressure is sensed by the antenna system and how the antenna then reconfigures itself from a light harvesting to an energy dissipative mode are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Donor safety in live donor laparoscopic liver procurement: systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Bekheit, Mohamed; Khafagy, Philipe-Abrahim; Bucur, Petru; Katri, Khaled; Elgendi, Ahmed; Abdel-Salam, Wael Nabil; Vibert, Eric; El-Kayal, El-Said


    Donor safety is a major concern in live organ donation. Live donor laparoscopic liver procurement is an advanced surgical procedure that is performed in highly specialized centers. Since its first report, not much progress has been endeavored for that procedure. We planned to include all the randomized and comparative nonrandomized studies. Patients' population: live donors who are submitted to organ procurement via laparoscopy. Out of 5,636 records retrieved from the literature, only seven nonrandomized studies were included in this review, which encompassed 418 patients, 151 patients of whom underwent laparoscopic procurement. The quality scores for the included studies ranged from 66 to 76 %. The operative time was significantly shorter in the conventional open group (SD = 0.863, 95 % CI 0.107-1.819). Blood loss in the laparoscopic group was comparable with the conventional open approach (SD = -0.307, 95 % CI -0.807 to 0.192). In subgroup analysis, laparoscopy was protective against blood loss in laparoscopic parenchymal dissection (SD = -1.168, 95 % CI -1.758 to -0.577). The hospital stay was equal in both groups. Patients in laparoscopic group consumed fewer analgesics compared with conventional open group (SD = -0.33, 95 % CI -0.63 to -0.03). Analgesics use was lower in the laparoscopic group compared with the conventional approach. The rate of Clavien complications was equal in both groups (OR 0.721, 95 % CI 0.303-1.716). No difference was found between subgroup analysis based on the harvested liver lobe. Funnel plot and statistical methods used revealed low probability of publication BIAS. Live donor laparoscopic liver procurement could be as safe as the conventional open approach. Lower blood loss and lower consumtion of analgesics might be offered in the laparoscopic approach.

  5. Tissue Banking: Relationship with Blood Donor and Organ Donor Card Status


    McKenzie, Kenneth D.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E.; Sheehan, John D.


    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours—donating blood and carrying an organ donor card—and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questi...

  6. HIV prevalence and demographic risk factors in blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence in various blood donor populations, to identity sociodemographic risk factors associated with prevalent HIV and to assess the feasibility of offering routine voluntary counselling services to blood donors. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thyolo district, Malawi. Methods: Data ...

  7. Prevalence of haemolysins in blood donors in Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The presence of high titres of haemolysins (lytic antibodies) in the sera of donors could predispose to adverse blood transfusion reactions. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of haemolysins among blood donors at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State. Methodology: A ...

  8. Dengue virus exposure among blood donors in Ghana | Narkwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to limited data on dengue virus exposure among Ghanaians, we surveyed 188 healthy adult blood donors for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to the four serotypes of dengue. Five milliliters of peripheral blood from the blood donors were collected in plain tubes. Serum was then obtained and ELISA tests were ...

  9. Evaluation of the Medically Complex Living Kidney Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Caliskan


    Full Text Available Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of “Medically complex living donors” are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term “Complex living donor” is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor.

  10. Optimal screening and donor management in a public stool bank. (United States)

    Kazerouni, Abbas; Burgess, James; Burns, Laura J; Wein, Lawrence M


    Fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is being investigated as a treatment for other microbiota-associated diseases. To facilitate these activities, an international public stool bank has been created, which screens donors and processes stools in a standardized manner. The goal of this research is to use mathematical modeling and analysis to optimize screening and donor management at the stool bank. Compared to the current policy of screening active donors every 60 days before releasing their quarantined stools for sale, costs can be reduced by 10.3 % by increasing the screening frequency to every 36 days. In addition, the stool production rate varies widely across donors, and using donor-specific screening, where higher producers are screened more frequently, also reduces costs, as does introducing an interim (i.e., between consecutive regular tests) stool test for just rotavirus and C. difficile. We also derive a donor release (i.e., into the system) policy that allows the supply to approximately match an exponentially increasing deterministic demand. More frequent screening, interim screening for rotavirus and C. difficile, and donor-specific screening, where higher stool producers are screened more frequently, are all cost-reducing measures. If screening costs decrease in the future (e.g., as a result of bringing screening in house), a bottleneck for implementing some of these recommendations may be the reluctance of donors to undergo serum screening more frequently than monthly.

  11. A Study of Blood Donors in University of Maiduguri Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was set to evaluate the usefulness of serum ALT as a surrogate marker of HCV infection in blood donors. Methodology: The study was conducted at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between August 2002 to November 2002. Ninety-six healthy, volunteer, blood donors were screened for ...

  12. Effects of Donor diets, breed and increasing level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro digestibility was higher with rumen fluid from N'Dama whatever the diet of donor animals and the substrate incubated. Thus, when testing a supplementation strategy in vitro, it should be important that donor animals are fed the same components (roughage and supplement) that will be combined at different levels in ...

  13. The most altruistic living organ donor: a best friend. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Paul J


    Living organ donors are growing in number and account for a substantial proportion of organs transplanted. Types of living organ donors include family members, anonymous donors, and friends. Although familial donation is the most common form of living organ donation, anonymous donation and donation among friends are gaining popularity. Society has placed living organ donors at the top of the altruistic ladder. However, one's altruistic motives for living organ donation may be affected by the type of relationship he or she has with the organ recipient. Although family relationships are close, pressure and coercion from family members may make informed consent difficult. Anonymous donors do not have the pressure associated with a familial donation, but psychological and self-worth issues may influence their choice to donate. Friendship incorporates the close relationships associated with familial donation and the freedom associated with anonymous donation. Using Aristotle's definition of true friendship, the author argues that best friends are the only true altruistic living organ donors and therefore may be preferable to family donors or anonymous donors.

  14. Lipid peroxidation products in machine perfusion of older donor kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelschmidt, Manfred; Minor, Thomas; Gallinat, Anja; Moers, Cyril; Jochmans, Ina; Pirenne, Jacques; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Paul, Andreas; Treckmann, Juergen

    Background: Owing to the shortage of donors, organs with an increased risk potential such as grafts recovered from expanded criteria donors are increasingly being used in transplants. Machine perfusion (MP) technology offers the possibility of determining the biomarkers in the perfusion solution so

  15. Prevalence of HBsAg Among Prospective Blood Donors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBsAg) among prospective blood donors and pregnant women in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty one (361) apparently healthy prospective blood donors were recruited and screened for HBsAg using HBsAg rapid test kit.

  16. Very small pediatric donor kidney transplantation in pediatric recipients. (United States)

    Yaffe, H C; Friedmann, P; Kayler, L K


    Kidneys from very small pediatric donors (age <5 years, weight <21 kg) may be a means to increase the donor pool for pediatric recipients. Transplantation of small pediatric kidneys is more commonly performed in adult recipients due to the increased risks of technical complications, thrombosis, and early graft failure. While these risks are abrogated in adult recipients by limiting the donor weight to ≥10 kg and using the EB technique, it is unknown whether pediatric recipients achieve comparable results. US national data were assessed for all first-time, deceased-donor, kidney-only pediatric recipients, 1/1996-10/2013, who received very small pediatric donor grafts or grafts from ideal adult donors. We identified 57 pediatric EB, 110 pediatric SK, and 2350 adult transplants. The primary outcome was 3-year all-cause graft survival. Kaplan-Meier curves showed worse outcomes for pediatric grafts compared to adult ideal grafts (P=.042). On multivariate analysis, pediatric recipients of SK grafts had significantly higher HRs (aHR 2.01, 95% CI 1.34-3.00) and pediatric recipients of EB grafts had somewhat higher non-significant HRs (1.57; 95% CI 0.88-2.79) for graft survival. These results suggest cautionary use of very small pediatric donors as a source to expand the donor pool for pediatric candidates. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Strategies for an Expanded Use of Kidneys From Elderly Donors. (United States)

    Pérez-Sáez, María José; Montero, Núria; Redondo-Pachón, Dolores; Crespo, Marta; Pascual, Julio


    The old-for-old allocation policy used for kidney transplantation (KT) has confirmed the survival benefit compared to remaining listed on dialysis. Shortage of standard donors has stimulated the development of strategies aimed to expand acceptance criteria, particularly of kidneys from elderly donors. We have systematically reviewed the literature on those different strategies. In addition to the review of outcomes of expanded criteria donor or advanced age kidneys, we assessed the value of the Kidney Donor Profile Index policy, preimplantation biopsy, dual KT, machine perfusion and special immunosuppressive protocols. Survival and functional outcomes achieved with expanded criteria donor, high Kidney Donor Profile Index or advanced age kidneys are poorer than those with standard ones. Outcomes using advanced age brain-dead or cardiac-dead donor kidneys are similar. Preimplantation biopsies and related scores have been useful to predict function, but their applicability to transplant or refuse a kidney graft has probably been overestimated. Machine perfusion techniques have decreased delayed graft function and could improve graft survival. Investing 2 kidneys in 1 recipient does not make sense when a single KT would be enough, particularly in elderly recipients. Tailored immunosuppression when transplanting an old kidney may be useful, but no formal trials are available.Old donors constitute an enormous source of useful kidneys, but their retrieval in many countries is infrequent. The assumption of limited but precious functional expectancy for an old kidney and substantial reduction of discard rates should be generalized to mitigate these limitations.

  18. Systemic Fungal Infections in Donors for Corneal Transplantation. (United States)

    Pabon, Sheila; Lindquist, Thomas D; Miller, Thomas D; Jeng, Bennie H


    To determine the prevalence of postkeratoplasty fungal infection when corneal tissue from donors with a recent medical history of oral thrush or respiratory, urine, wound, sputum, bronchial, tracheal, or throat culture positive for fungus is identified before recovery and after decontamination of the corneal tissue with 5% povidone-iodine flush to the donors' eyes during recovery. This is a prospective analysis of corneas from 42 donors with a documented medical history of fungus or positive fungal culture, which were recovered between January 2010 and November 2010. Standard aseptic swab of the donors' corneas before and after application of 5% povidone-iodine solution was performed. Culture results were analyzed in relationship to the donors' medical history and potential posttransplantation infections. Eighty-four eyes from 42 patients were swabbed for cultures during the study period. Seven eyes (8.3%) were positive for fungal growth before treatment with 5% povidone-iodine, whereas there were no positive fungal cultures after treatment (P = 0.007). Fifty-four corneas from this study group were used for corneal transplantation. There were no cases of fungal infection in any postkeratoplasty eyes transplanted from this study group. In this small study, the overall prevalence of fungal infections after corneal transplantation using corneal donor tissue from donors with a fungal-positive medical history is low. Corneal fungal contamination in donors with a history of fungal infection or a positive fungal culture can be significantly reduced with a 5% povidone-iodine flush.

  19. Iron Deficiency In Frequent And First Time Female Blood Donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back ground: Blood donation has a marked influence on the body iron stores especially in female blood donors . Iron deficiency anaemia is an important limiting factor for the number of donations in female regular blood donors. Aim of the study: This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency and ...

  20. Expanding criteria for living kidney donors: what are the limits? (United States)

    Textor, Stephen; Taler, Sandra


    The need to evaluate potential living kidney donors is more pressing than ever before. Evaluating the potential medical risks to individual donors presents both medical and ethical questions related to quantitative hazards of donor nephrectomy. These include conditions commonly associated with age, such as the decline in glomerular filtration rate, the rise in arterial pressures, and weight gain. The "normal" ranges for many of these characteristics are changing as their importance as predictors of cardiovascular risk is reevaluated and the duration of exposure for a lifetime is considered. Many older donors in good health favor donating a kidney to a spouse, despite the presence of elevated blood pressure or even impaired glucose tolerance. The Mayo Kidney/Pancreas transplant program established an "extended criteria workgroup" to address these issues on an individual basis. Our program now stratifies medical criteria based upon age, allowing more liberal criteria for older donors. As a result, we accept treated hypertension in white donors, emphasizing the importance of informed consent and the need for vigilant follow-up. Our greatest concern relates to the development of obesity, particularly in younger individuals. Many of the long-term results of kidney donation are likely to hinge upon future behavior, including smoking, weight management, and medical follow-up care. Older donors are more likely to have established behavior patterns, an element that makes them better candidates in many respects. Studies to closely track the impact of donor nephrectomy in the current era with changing population demographics and expectations are essential.

  1. Optimization of IVF pregnancy outcomes with donor spermatozoa. (United States)

    Wang, Jeff G; Douglas, Nataki C; Prosser, Robert; Kort, Daniel; Choi, Janet M; Sauer, Mark V


    To identify risk factors for suboptimal IVF outcomes using insemination with donor spermatozoa and to define a lower threshold that may signal a conversion to fertilization by ICSI rather than insemination. Retrospective, age-matched, case-control study of women undergoing non-donor oocyte IVF cycles using either freshly ejaculated (N=138) or cryopreserved donor spermatozoa (N=69). Associations between method of fertilization, semen sample parameters, and pregnancy rates were analyzed. In vitro fertilization of oocytes with donor spermatozoa by insemination results in equivalent fertilization and pregnancy rates compared to those of freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from men with normal semen analyses when the post-processing motility is greater than or equal to 88%. IVF by insemination with donor spermatozoa when the post-processing motility is less than 88% is associated with a 5-fold reduction in pregnancy rates when compared to those of donor spermatozoa above this motility threshold. When the post-processing donor spermatozoa motility is low, fertilization by ICSI is associated with significantly higher pregnancy rates compared to those of insemination. While ICSI does not need to be categorically instituted when using donor spermatozoa in IVF, patients should be counseled that conversion from insemination to ICSI may be recommended based on low post-processing motility.

  2. Distribution of HIV Infections Among Blood Donors in Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five-year retrospective study on the distribution of HIV infection among blood donors was conducted at the Nigerian Christian Hospital, Onicha Ngwa. A total of 8862 prospective blood donors (comprising of 6504 males and 2358 females) were screened for HIV using the ELISA technique. Nine hundred and thirty five ...

  3. Seroprevalence of Chagas infection in the donor population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A Zaniello

    Full Text Available We retrospectively calculated the prevalence and epidemiologic characteristics of Chagas infection in the New York blood donor population over three years utilizing the New York Blood Center's database of the New York metropolitan area donor population. Seventy Trypanosoma cruzi positive donors were identified from among 876,614 donors over a 3-year period, giving an adjusted prevalence of 0.0083%, with 0.0080% in 2007, 0.0073% in 2008, and 0.0097% in 2009. When filtered only for self-described "Hispanic/Latino" donors, there were 52 Chagas positive donors in that 3-year period (among 105,122 self-described Hispanic donors with an adjusted prevalence of 0.052%, with 0.055% in 2007, 0.047% in 2008, and 0.053% in 2009. In conclusion, we found a persistent population of patients with Chagas infection in the New York metropolitan area donor population. There was geographic localization of cases which aligned with Latin American immigration clusters.

  4. Citric acid wastewater as electron donor for biological sulfate reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Garcia Encia, P.A.; Muyzer, G.


    Citrate-containing wastewater is used as electron donor for sulfate reduction in a biological treatment plant for the removal of sulfate. The pathway of citrate conversion coupled to sulfate reduction and the microorganisms involved were investigated. Citrate was not a direct electron donor for the

  5. The Prevalence of Syphilis Among Blood Donors in a Centralized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis is one of the mandatory transfusion transmissible infections to be tested for in any unit of blood for homologous transfusion. The paucity of voluntary blood donors in Nigeria has compelled health care providers to rely on paid and family replacement donors for blood. AIMS: This study was carried ...

  6. Seroprevalence of Treponema Pallidum in Donor Blood at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the Seroprevalence of Treponema pallidum in Donor blood at University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City. Materials and Method: This is a descriptive hospital based study. Donor blood supplied to the hospital blood bank was screened for syphilis. The study was conducted between February ...

  7. Prevalence of HIV positive blood donors among screened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two thousand five hundred and thirty two (2,532) males, aged 25 – 50 years potential blood donors were randomly selected from the total number of volunteer blood donors who satisfied the initial screening criteria for donating blood, and were screened for HIV using Immunocomb II (HIV 1 and 2 Bispot) and Recombigen ...

  8. Understanding Philanthropic Motivations of Northeast State Community College Donors (United States)

    Cook, Heather J.


    At Northeast State Community College (NeSCC) nearly 70% of students need some form of financial aid to attend. State support is flattening or decreasing and the gap is filled by private donors' support (Northeast State Community College, 2011). Hundreds of donors have made significant contributions to aid in the education of those in the Northeast…

  9. Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture. (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano


    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, the NO release rate is dependent on the chemical structure of the donor itself and on the chemical environment. Despite NO's powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not implemented and research remains mainly at the experimental level. Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening and increasing shelf-life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified. This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. Insights are provided into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) the potential use of donors in animal production and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. An Evaluation of a Donor Funded Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the role of donors in the establishment, implementation and sustainability of information and communication technology centres in indigenous communities. This was achieved by looking at success factors and challenges experienced at the Bhamshela donor-funded telecentre in South Africa.

  11. Malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin has not been documented. In this study, we determined the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin, as well as, the sociodemographic and other factors associated with it. Method: This was a hospital- based cross ...

  12. Donor MHC and adhesion molecules in transplant arteriosclerosis (United States)

    Shi, Chengwei; Feinberg, Mark W.; Zhang, Dorothy; Patel, Anand; Sim, Chang U.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Chapman, Susan M.; Gutierrez-Ramos, Jose-Carlos; Wagner, Denisa D.; Sibinga, Nicholas E.S.; Haber, Edgar


    Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis remains an obstacle to long-term graft survival. To determine the contribution to transplant arteriosclerosis of MHC and adhesion molecules from cells of the donor vasculature, we allografted carotid artery loops from six mutant mouse strains into immunocompetent CBA/CaJ recipients. The donor mice were deficient in either MHC I molecules or MHC II molecules, both MHC I and MHC II molecules, the adhesion molecule P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, or both P-selectin and ICAM-1. Donor arteries in which ICAM-1, MHC II, or both MHC I and MHC II were absent showed reductions in neointima formation of 52%, 33%, and 38%, respectively, due primarily to a reduction in smooth muscle cell (SMC) accumulation. In P-selectin–deficient donor arteries, neointima formation did not differ from that in controls. In donor arteries lacking both P-selectin and ICAM-1, the size of the neointima was similar to that in those lacking ICAM-1 alone. In contrast, neointima formation increased by 52% in MHC I–deficient donor arteries. The number of CD4-positive T cells increased by 2.8-fold in MHC I–deficient arteries, and that of α-actin–positive SMCs by twofold. These observations indicate that ICAM-1 and MHC II molecules expressed in the donor vessel wall may promote transplant-associated arteriosclerosis. MHC I molecules expressed in the donor may have a protective effect. PMID:10021454

  13. Hypoalbuminaemia in brain-dead donors for liver transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    We retrospectively reviewed the charts of the 37 brain-dead patients referred to the organ transplant unit at Groote. Schuur Hospital in 2001 and 2002 as potential donors for liver transplantation. All potential donors were assessed, investigated and man- aged according to standard protocols. The assessment con- sisted of ...

  14. Transfusion of the dangerous universal donor blood leading to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In a health-care setting in which group-identical donor blood is not always available for transfusion, group O whole blood, in the obsolete concept of its being a universal donor, is sometimes given to group A and B recipients without necessary precautions. Objectives: The objective is to draw attention to the ...

  15. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  16. Right-lobe liver transplant from donors with Gilbert syndrome. (United States)

    Demirbas, Tolga; Piskin, Turgut; Dayangac, Murat; Yaprak, Onur; Akyildiz, Murat; Tokat, Yaman; Yuzer, Yildiray


    Donor safety is one of the most important aspects of living-donor liver transplant. The preoperative evaluation of candidates for such transplants essentially starts with serologic and biochemical analyses. However, some potential liver donors with normal liver function test results may have isolated mild hyperbilirubinemia (serum indirect bilirubin level > 20.5 μmol/L [1.2 mg/dL]). Gilbert syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition that is a common cause of nonhemolytic unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, and its prevalence is 3% to 10% in the healthy US population. Mild hyperbilirubinemia episodes are expected in people with Gilbert syndrome when they are exposed to physical stress, such as operative intervention or low energy intake. The liver morphologic findings of these individuals are normal; however, there is a debate on the use of people with Gilbert syndrome as living-liver donors. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of right-lobe living-donor hepatectomy of liver donors with Gilbert syndrome. Between 2004 and 2010, two hundred twenty-five living-donor liver transplants using right-lobe grafts were performed in our hospital. Donors with Gilbert syndrome were defined as those whose serum bilirubin level was greater than 20.5 μmol/L (1.2 mg/dL). Six of 225 right-lobe living-donor liver transplants were performed using donors with Gilbert syndrome. The median follow-up after transplant was 34 months (range, 18 to 51 mo). One week after the operation, the median bilirubin level for right-lobe liver donors was 34.5 μmol/L (2.02 mg/dL) (range, 17.1 to 51.3 μmol/L [1 to 3 mg/dL]), and the median prothrombin time (international normalized ratio) was 1.36 (range, 1.1 to 1.7). The median bilirubin level of the donors after 6 months was 29 μmol/L (1.7 mg/dL) (range, 20.5 to 41 μmol/L [1.2 to 2.4 mg/dL]). Living-donor liver transplant from Gilbert syndrome donors can be safely performed.

  17. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H


    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  18. Using fertile couples as embryo donors: An ethical dilemma. (United States)

    Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza


    The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors.

  19. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V


    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  20. Quality of life after liver transplantation with old donor graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Nascimento Flor


    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the quality of life of liver transplant patients who received liver from donor aged ≤60 or >60 years old. Methods: a prospective study with a sample of 141 recipients from liver donors aged equal to or less than 60 years and recipients of elderly donor liver, in a reference center. Authors used a tool for identification and the Short Form-36. The Student-t and Mann-Whitney tests were applied for comparison between groups. Results: there were higher levels of quality of life with a statistically significant difference: Group A in social aspect (p=0.02 and Group B >50 months of transplantation (p=0.05 in physical component summary. Conclusion: the quality of life of liver receptors from older donor livers was similar to those who received a graft from younger donors in most dimensions. Transplanting time had a positive impact on the quality of life of elderly recipients.

  1. Prevalence of Babesia antibody in a selected blood donor population. (United States)

    Popovsky, M A; Lindberg, L E; Syrek, A L; Page, P L


    Human babesiosis, a parasitic disease transmitted by the tick, Ixodes dammini, was confined previously to limited areas of the northeastern United States. It is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of transfusion. Red cells and platelets prepared from asymptomatic donors have been implicated in transfusion-transmitted cases. More cases of babesiosis are being reported as the range of the vector expands in the United States. Blood donors from an endemic area were tested for antibody to Babesia microti during the summer. Only 3.7 percent of the 779 donors were seropositive, compared with 4.7 percent (p greater than 0.05) of donors from a nonendemic area. An epidemiologic survey of seropositive and matched seronegative controls demonstrated no significant differences that would assist in screening donors.

  2. Incidence of Herpesvirus hominis antibodies among blood donor populations. (United States)

    Roome, A P; Montefiore, D; Waller, D


    The microneutralization test was used to determine the occurrence of antibodies to Herpesvirus hominis Type 1 and Type 2 in sera from patients attending the Special Clinic, Bristol Royal Infirmary, with proven herpes genitalis, and in sera taken from blood donors in Bath, Dursley, and Bristol, as well as from donors in three different prison populations. The findings in patients with herpes genitalis indicate that the test accurately reflects the antibody response expected in relation to the type of herpes virus isolated from the lesions. The incidence of Type 2 antibodies among the blood donors ranged from 5 per cent. for donors from the Bath area up to 60 per cent. among donors from Dartmoor prison. The findings suggested that Type 2 herpes infection could spread among longterm prison populations, and it is postulated that this may be due to both homosexual contact, and also by non-sexual contact, either directly or via fomites.

  3. The significance of evalution of haematocrit in plateletpheresis donors. (United States)

    Mane, Vinayak Babasaheb; Jagtap, Pratap Eknath; Nagane, Nitin Sopan; Dhonde, Sushma Prakash; Belwalkar, Gajanan J; Mane, Vaibhav Pandurang


    The collection of platelets by apheresis is considered as a very great progress in transfusion medicine. In present era, many automated cell separation are available each model has tried to improve productivity, quality of plateletpheresis. Further various studies have been done to correlate the quality of platelet concentrates. Also, various biochemical studies have been done on plateletpheresis donors. However, safety issue with regards to post procedure levels of biochemical parameters decreased in donors undergoing plateletpheresis have been only minimally explored. Investigating Haematological and Biochemical parameters (Hematocrit value and Serum Calcium levels) pre and post in plateletpheresis donors. Sixty two healthy first time voluntary plateletpheresis donors at Apheresis unit in blood bank Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College & Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Hematocrit value of plateletpheresis donors were analysed and based on mean value 43.2% considering this as standard in the present study. We categorized plateletpheresis donors in two groups (A) these having value less than 43.2% (n = 36) and Group (B) having haematocrit more than 43.3% (n = 26). Volume of ACD required for donors from both group were noted. We observed mean of ACD infused in group A plateletpheresis donors was 347.7 ml ± 35.75 SD while group 'B' donors required mean volume ACD to be infused was 379.6 ml ± 46.24 S.D. was statistically significant (p <0.005). Plateletpheresis induces marked metabolic effects, with sustained changes in serum calcium and haematocrit after ACD infusion, the results show, before procedure (Plateletpheresis) one must consider the haematocrit value along with serum calcium levels in Plateletpheresis donor to avoid severe symptoms of hypocalcaemia.

  4. Liver transplantation with donors older than 75 years. (United States)

    Sampedro, B; Cabezas, J; Fábrega, E; Casafont, F; Pons-Romero, F


    Orthotopic liver transplantation has shown successful results over the last years. For this reason there are increased numbers of patients on waiting lists. To expand the pool of liver donors, elderly donors have been used as a strategy. We report our experience comparing donors of ≥ 75 years with younger ages for their characteristics, clinical outcomes, and survivals. From January 2001 to December 2009, we performed 174 consecutive liver transplantation from cadaveric donors in 166 patients. During this period, we used 24 liver grafts from donors ≥ 75 years. We analyzed their outcomes retrospectively, describing donors and recipient characteristics and their clinical evolution. The mean follow-up time among the entire study population was 42 ± 39 months. We observed an overall survival of 68.3% with similar incidences in both groups: 83% in the younger versus 78% in the older group at 1 year, and 69% versus 63%, at 5 years respectively. Both groups showed similar lengths of intensive care unit stay, cold and warm ischemia times, and intraoperative transfusion requirements. The older group had a total operative time than was longer and fewer hypotensive episodes than the younger group. There were no significant differences in the rates of rejection and retransplantation between the groups. The use of older donor livers was associated with a significantly higher rate of poor initial graft function (P = .027), an increased number of reinterventions (P = .013) in the older donor group, as well as more frequent vascular and biliar complications, without reaching significance. Our data suggested that donor age alone did not engendered a survival disadvantage for graft or recipient. However, careful donor selection is needed to avoid additional risk factors that can increase the morbidity or mortality of the procedure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids


    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  6. Can we improve recruitment of oocyte donors with loss of donor anonymity? A hospital-based survey. (United States)

    Brett, Sanora; Sacranie, Rosada R; Thomas, Giles E; Rajkhowa, Rima


    Loss of donor anonymity, as a result of an amendment to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990, has led to concerns regarding continued recruitment of gamete and embryo donors. This survey aims to examine the impact of loss of anonymity on willingness to donate oocytes and strategies to improve recruitment. Five hundred anonymous self-report questionnaires were randomly allocated to hospital staff between September and December 2004. To determine public awareness of gamete donation, preferred information sources for potential donors, and affect of loss of anonymity on willingness to consider gamete donation. One hundred and sixty-six responses (33%) were received. Only female respondents (n=143) were analysed. Awareness of gamete donation was high (90%), with 34% willing to consider donation. Removal of donor anonymity reduced this figure to 17%. For women under 35 years of age, the corresponding figures are 43% and 19%, respectively. Potential donors may utilize multiple sources of information prior to reaching a decision about donation. Loss of donor anonymity reduced by half those willing to consider donation in all age groups. The future of this service depends on recruitment of donors willing to be identified. Consideration of older donors may be an option if adequate counselling occurs.

  7. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies

  8. Donor Heart Utilization following Cardiopulmonary Arrest and Resuscitation: Influence of Donor Characteristics and Wait Times in Transplant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Quader


    Full Text Available Background. Procurement of hearts from cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitated (CPR donors for transplantation is suboptimal. We studied the influences of donor factors and regional wait times on CPR donor heart utilization. Methods. From UNOS database (1998 to 2012, we identified 44,744 heart donors, of which 4,964 (11% received CPR. Based on procurement of heart for transplantation, CPR donors were divided into hearts procured (HP and hearts not procured (HNP groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of heart procurement. Results. Of the 4,964 CPR donors, 1,427 (28.8% were in the HP group. Donor characteristics that favored heart procurement include younger age (25.5 ± 15 yrs versus 39 ± 18 yrs, P≤0.0001, male gender (34% versus 23%, P≤0.0001, shorter CPR duration (30 min, P≤0.0001, and head trauma (60% versus 15%. Among the 11 UNOS regions, the highest procurement was in Region 1 (37% and the lowest in Region 3 (24%. Regional transplant volumes and median waiting times did not influence heart procurement rates. Conclusions. Only 28.8% of CPR donor hearts were procured for transplantation. Factors favoring heart procurement include younger age, male gender, short CPR duration, and traumatic head injury. Heart procurement varied by region but not by transplant volumes or wait times.

  9. A pilot program to evaluate deceased donor disease transmission risk: the New York Organ Donor Network Infectious Disease Working Group. (United States)

    Pellett Madan, Rebecca; Delli Carpini, Kristin; Huprikar, Shirish; Lerner, Harvey; Patel, Gopi; Ratner, Lloyd E; Goldstein, Michael J; Herold, Betsy C


    Recent cases of donor-derived infections raise the question of how best to screen donors without excessive restriction of the donor pool. The New York Organ Donor Network (NYODN) established an Infectious Diseases Working Group (IDWG) in 2008, which established an on-call schedule of voluntary transplant infectious disease physicians to provide remote evaluations for donors at increased risk for disease transmission. Data were reviewed from 40 available IDWG evaluations from 2008 to 2011. Eighteen cases (45%) were considered to be at unacceptable risk for infection transmission. Sixteen of these cases were excluded from donation secondary to IDWG recommendation; there was limited recipient center interest in the remaining two cases. Approximately 22 (55%) cases were categorized by the IDWG as acceptable, with 14 proceeding to recovery of 49 organs. IDWG physician recommendations were conveyed to recipient centers, and screening guidelines for donors were revised based on the IDWG experiences. Establishment of a donation service area disease transmission evaluation service is a valuable program for donor screening and may promote dissemination of more detailed donor information to recipient centers.

  10. Cardiovascular and demographic characteristics in whole blood and plasma donors: Results from the Donor InSight study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsma, Femke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; de Vegt, Femmie; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; de Kort, Wim


    BACKGROUND: Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a

  11. Cardiovascular and demographic characteristics in whole blood and plasma donors: results from the Donor InSight study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsma, F.; Veldhuizen, I.; Vegt, F. de; Doggen, C.J.; Kort, W. de


    BACKGROUND: Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a

  12. Corneal donor tissue preparation for endothelial keratoplasty. (United States)

    Woodward, Maria A; Titus, Michael; Mavin, Kyle; Shtein, Roni M


    Over the past ten years, corneal transplantation surgical techniques have undergone revolutionary changes. Since its inception, traditional full thickness corneal transplantation has been the treatment to restore sight in those limited by corneal disease. Some disadvantages to this approach include a high degree of post-operative astigmatism, lack of predictable refractive outcome, and disturbance to the ocular surface. The development of Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK), transplanting only the posterior corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium, has dramatically changed treatment of corneal endothelial disease. DSEK is performed through a smaller incision; this technique avoids 'open sky' surgery with its risk of hemorrhage or expulsion, decreases the incidence of postoperative wound dehiscence, reduces unpredictable refractive outcomes, and may decrease the rate of transplant rejection. Initially, cornea donor posterior lamellar dissection for DSEK was performed manually resulting in variable graft thickness and damage to the delicate corneal endothelial tissue during tissue processing. Automated lamellar dissection (Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, DSAEK) was developed to address these issues. Automated dissection utilizes the same technology as LASIK corneal flap creation with a mechanical microkeratome blade that helps to create uniform and thin tissue grafts for DSAEK surgery with minimal corneal endothelial cell loss in tissue processing. Eye banks have been providing full thickness corneas for surgical transplantation for many years. In 2006, eye banks began to develop methodologies for supplying precut corneal tissue for endothelial keratoplasty. With the input of corneal surgeons, eye banks have developed thorough protocols to safely and effectively prepare posterior lamellar tissue for DSAEK surgery. This can be performed preoperatively at the eye bank. Research shows no significant difference in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe


    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  14. Knee donor-site morbidity after mosaicplasty - a systematic review. (United States)

    Andrade, Renato; Vasta, Sebastiano; Pereira, Rogério; Pereira, Hélder; Papalia, Rocco; Karahan, Mustafa; Oliveira, J Miguel; Reis, Rui L; Espregueira-Mendes, João


    Mosaicplasty has been associated with good short- to long-term results. Nevertheless, the osteochondral harvesting is restricted to the donor-site area available and it may lead to significant donor-site morbidity. Provide an overview of donor-site morbidity associated with harvesting of osteochondral plugs from the knee joint in mosaicplasty procedure. Comprehensive search using Pubmed, Cochrane Library, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases was carried out through 10(th) October of 2016. As inclusion criteria, all English-language studies that assessed the knee donor-site morbidity after mosaicplasty were accepted. The outcomes were the description and rate of knee donor-site morbidity, sample's and cartilage defect's characterization and mosaicplasty-related features. Correlation between mosaicplasty features and rate of morbidity was performed. The methodological and reporting quality were assessed according to Coleman's methodology score. Twenty-one studies were included, comprising a total of 1726 patients, with 1473 and 268 knee and ankle cartilage defects were included. The defect size ranged from 0.85 cm(2) to 4.9 cm(2) and most commonly 3 or less plugs (averaging 2.9 to 9.4 mm) were used. Donor-site for osteochondral harvesting included margins of the femoral trochlea (condyles), intercondylar notch, patellofemoral joint and upper tibio-fibular joint. Mean donor-site morbidity was 5.9 % and 19.6 % for knee and ankle mosaicplasty procedures, respectively. Concerning knee-to-knee mosaicplasty procedures, the most common donor-site morbidity complaints were patellofemoral disturbances (22 %) and crepitation (31 %), and in knee-to-ankle procedures there was a clear tendency for pain or instability during daily living or sports activities (44 %), followed by patellofemoral disturbances, knee stiffness and persistent pain (13 % each). There was no significant correlation between rate of donor-site morbidity and size of the defect, number and size of the

  15. Better the donor you know? A qualitative study of renal patients' views on 'altruistic' live-donor kidney transplantation. (United States)

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; de Salis, Isabel; Tomson, Charles; Owen-Smith, Amanda


    In the UK there is a short-fall between individuals requiring a renal transplant and kidneys available for transplantation. Non-directed 'altruistic' living kidney donation has emerged as a strategy for bridging this gap between supply and demand, with the number increasing each year. This study aimed to explore the views of potential recipients towards non-directed 'altruistic' live-donor kidney transplantation. Semi-structured interviews with 32 UK deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were performed. Interviews explored willingness to consider directed and non-directed live-donor kidney transplants (LDKTs). Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and transcripts were analysed using the constant comparison method described in Grounded Theory. For those not willing to accept a non-directed 'altruistic' LDKT, the following themes were identified: i) Prioritising other recipients above self; ii) Fear of acquiring an unknown donor's characteristics, and iii) Concern for the donor - unnecessary risk. For those willing to accept a non-directed 'altruistic' LDKT the following themes were identified: iv) Prioritising known above unknown persons, v) Belief that they are as deserving as other potential recipients, and vi) Advantages of a LDKT. Drawing on 'gift exchange theory', this study contributes to our understanding of the experience of the intended recipient of a gift. The anonymity of the donor-recipient appears to be seen as a benefit of non-directed 'altruistic' live-donor transplants, freeing recipients from the obligations of the gift. However, those who feel unworthy of the 'gifted transplant' are concerned about the donor and by the lack of opportunity for direct reciprocity. Highlighting the 'reciprocal benefits' reported by donors may allow individuals whose preference is a live-donor transplant to accept one if offered. These insights provide the transplant community with targets for intervention, through which the concerns of potential

  16. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, N.F.; Lind, M.Y.; Hansson, B.M.; Pilzecker, D.; Mertens zur Borg, I.R.; Knipscheer, B.C.; Hazebroek, E.J.; Dooper, I.M.; Weimar, W.; Hop, W.C.J.; Adang, E.M.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Bonjer, H.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Ijzermans, J.N.M.


    OBJECTIVES: To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. DESIGN: Single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 100 living kidney donors.

  17. 21 CFR 1271.75 - How do I screen a donor? (United States)


    ..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.75 How do I screen a donor? (a) All.... The abbreviated procedure must determine and document any changes in the donor's medical history since...

  18. 49 CFR 236.802a - Siding. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Siding. 236.802a Section 236.802a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.802a Siding. An...

  19. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M


    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the

  20. Decision making in right-sided diverticulitis (United States)

    Shyung, Li-Rung; Lin, Shee-Chan; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Kao, Chin-Roa; Chou, Sun-Yen


    AIM: To evaluate systematically our nine-year experience in treating right-sided diverticulitis of the colon, and to explore its clinical and radiological relationship. METHODS: The clinical and radiological data of 40 patients with colonic diverticulitis treated in Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, from 1993 through 2002 were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: The average age of the patients with right-sided diverticulitis was 53.1 years, which was 11.6 years younger than that of the patients with left-sided diverticulitis. The preoperative diagnosis of appendicitis was made in 8 of 13 right-sided diverticulitis patients. Nine (69%) had right lower quadrant abdominal pain for more than 48 hours, and ten patients (77%) presented with fever. CT findings suggesting acute right-sided diverticulitis including thickening of the intestinal wall and pericolonic inflammation were present in five patients. CONCLUSION: Right-sided diverticulitis is easily confused with acute appendicitis because it occurs at a somewhat younger age than that in left-sided diverticulitis. Barium enema and CT are helpful for the early diagnosis of right-sided diverticulitis. While clearly not required in the majority of patients with right lower quadrant abdominal pain, barium enema and CT may be helpful in making the decision with a clinical history or physical examinations atypical of acute appendicitis. PMID:12632528

  1. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.


    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  2. Informed consent for live liver donors: A qualitative, prospective study. (United States)

    Gordon, Elisa J; Rodde, Jillian; Skaro, Anton; Baker, Talia


    Adult-to-adult live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) poses serious health risks and no direct health benefits to donors. Ensuring live donors' autonomy through informed consent is critical. We assessed live liver donors' (LD) comprehension, information needs, risk perceptions, and demographics. Semi-structured interviews were prospectively conducted with LDs after completing donor evaluation and informed consent at our transplant center. Likert scales measured informed consent domains. Open-ended responses underwent thematic analysis. Thirty LDs participated (100% participation rate). Although 90% of LDs reported being informed about donation 'a great deal', only 66% reported understanding information about donation 'a great deal.' Many (40%) reported difficulty understanding medical terminology. Information LDs most desired to feel comfortable with their decision included: incidence and type of donor complications (67%), description of donation procedure (57%), and the process of donor preparation (43%). Most (83%) LDs rated risks to themselves as 'not at all' to 'somewhat' risky, and minimized these risks. Although LDs perceived that they were adequately informed, their actual comprehension about donation was inadequate. Findings suggest the value of informed consent for preparation for the procedure and potential periprocedural risks rather than for decision-making. More comprehensible information disclosure may optimize informed consent. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of donor milk in the neonatal intensive care unit. (United States)

    de Halleux, Virginie; Pieltain, Catherine; Senterre, Thibault; Rigo, Jacques


    Own mother's milk is the first choice in feeding preterm infants and provides multiple short- and long-term benefits. When it is unavailable, donor human milk is recommended as the first alternative. Donor milk undergoes processing (i.e. pasteurization) to reduce bacteriological and viral contaminants but influences its bioactive properties with potentially fewer benefits than raw milk. However, there is no clinical evidence of health benefit of raw compared to pasteurized human milk, and donor milk maintains documented advantages compared to formula. Nutrient content of donor and own mother's milk fails to meet the requirements of preterm infants. Adequate fortification is necessary to provide optimal growth. There are significant challenges in providing donor milk for premature infants; therefore, specific clinical guidelines for human milk banks and donor milk use in the neonatal intensive care unit should be applied and research should focus on innovative solutions to process human milk while preserving its immunological and nutritional components. In addition, milk banks are not the only instrument to collect, process and store donor milk but represent an excellent tool for breastfeeding promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Donor Cell Leukemia in Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant Patients (United States)

    Crow, Jennifer; Youens, Kenneth; Michalowski, Susan; Perrine, Gail; Emhart, Cassandra; Johnson, Felicia; Gerling, Amy; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Goodman, Barbara K.; Sebastian, Siby; Rehder, Catherine W.; Datto, Michael B.


    Donor cell neoplasms are rare complications of treatment regimens that involve stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies, myelodysplastic processes, or certain genetic or metabolic disorders. We report a case of donor cell leukemia in a pediatric patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia that manifested as recurrent AML FAB type M5 fourteen months after umbilical cord blood transplantation. Although there was some immunophenotypic drift from the patient's original AML and their posttransplant presentation, the initial pathological impression was of recurrent disease. Bone marrow engraftment analysis by multiplex PCR of short tandem repeat markers performed on the patient's diagnostic specimen showed complete engraftment by donor cells, with a loss of heterozygosity in the donor alleles on chromosome 7. This led to the reinterpretation of this patient's disease as donor-derived leukemia. This interpretation was supported by a routine karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showing loss of chromosome 7 and a male (donor) chromosome complement in this female patient. Also noted was a loss of the patient's presenting chromosomal abnormality, t(11;19)(q23;p13). This case highlights the need for close coordination between all aspects of clinical testing for the transplant patient, including molecular engraftment studies, when distinguishing the very common complication of recurrent disease from the exceedingly rare complication of donor cell leukemia. PMID:20431036

  5. Alternative donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies. (United States)

    Alfraih, Feras; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Kassim, Adetola A


    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a curative therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies, mainly severe sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia (TM). However, the applicability of HSCT has been limited mainly by donor availability, with a less than 25%-30% of eligible patients having human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors. Previous outcomes using alternate donor options have been markedly inferior due to increased regimen-related toxicity, transplant-related mortality, graft failure, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Advances in transplant technology, including high-resolution HLA typing, improved GVHD prophylactic approaches with tolerance induction, and better supportive care over the last decade, are addressing these historical challenges, resulting in increasing donor options. Herein, we review alternate donor HSCT approaches for severe SCD and TM using unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, or related haploidentical donors. Though this is an emerging field, early results are promising and in selected patients, this may be the preferred option to mitigate against the age-related morbidity and early mortality associated with these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of donor factors on corneal organ culture contamination. (United States)

    Gruenert, Anja K; Rosenbaum, Katja; Geerling, Gerd; Fuchsluger, Thomas A


    To evaluate the contamination rate and the corresponding spectrum of microbes and to identify donor risk factors for corneal organ culture contaminations. A total of 3306 organ-cultured donor corneas were included in the study. We performed a retrospective database analysis to evaluate donor factors such as gender, age, death-to-explantation interval (DEI), procurement site and cause of death and to determine their influence on donor cornea contaminations. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each factor. The overall contamination rate was 7.8% (n = 259). Younger donor age (OR: 2.2, p = 0.003, chi-squared test), a DEI of more than 24 hr (OR: 1.6, p cultured cornea based on specific donor factors. However, donors with risk factors should not be generally excluded from cornea donation. Further studies including antibiograms might clarify whether a change in the antibiotic composition of the culture medium would be useful to deal with the increasing number of multi-resistant microbes. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Transport Measurements on Si Nanostructures with Counted Sb Donors (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Bielejec, Edward; Garratt, Elias; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael


    Donor based spin qubits are a promising platform for quantum computing. Single qubits using timed implant of donors have been demonstrated.1 Extending this to multiple qubits requires precise control over the placement and number of donors. Such control can be achieved by using a combination of low-energy heavy-ion implants (to reduce depth straggle), electron-beam lithography (to define position), focused ion beam (to localize implants to one lithographic site) and counting the number of implants with a single ion detector.2 We report transport measurements on MOS quantum dots implanted with 5, 10 and 20 Sb donors using the approach described above. A donor charge transition is identified by a charge offset in the transport characteristics. Correlation between the number of donors and the charge offsets is studied. These results are necessary first steps towards fabricating donor nanostructures for two qubit interactions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1J. J. Pla et al., Nature 496, 334 (2013) 2J. A. Seamons et al., APL 93, 043124 (2008).

  8. Improvements in kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death. (United States)

    Hoogland, E R Pieter; Snoeijs, Maarten G J; Habets, Margot A W; Brandsma, D Steven; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Christiaans, Maarten H L; van Heurn, L W Ernest


    To reduce the growing waiting list for kidney transplantation, we explored the limits of kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death by liberally accepting marginal donor kidneys for transplantation. As the percentage of primary non-function (PNF) increased, we evaluated our transplantation program and implemented changes to reduce the high percentage of PNF in 2005, followed by a second evaluation over the period 2006-2009. Recipients of a kidney from a donor after cardiac death between 1998 and 2005 were analyzed, with PNF as outcome measure. During the period 2002-2005, the percentage of PNF increased and crossed the upper control limits of 12% which was considered as unacceptably high. After implementation of changes, this percentage was reduced to 5%, without changing the number of kidney transplantations from donors after cardiac death. Continuous monitoring of the quality of care is essential as the boundaries of organ donation and transplantation are sought. Meticulous donor, preservation, and recipient management make extension of the donor potential possible, with good results for the individual recipient. Liberal use of kidneys from donors after cardiac death may contribute to a reduction in the waiting list for kidney transplantation and dialysis associated mortality. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Lourençon


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. RESULTS: Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates.

  10. Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation. (United States)

    Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James


    Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission must be balanced against the risks of death awaiting a new graft and strict adherence to current guidelines may result increased patient death. Organs from selected patients, even with high-grade central nervous system (CNS) malignancy and after a shunt, can, in some circumstances, be considered. Of potential donors with non-CNS cancers, whether organs may be safely used again depends on the nature of the cancer, the treatment and interval. Data are scarce about the most appropriate treatment when donor transmitted cancer is diagnosed: sometimes substitution of agents and reduction of the immunosuppressive load may be adequate and the impact of graft removal should be considered but not always indicated. Liver allograft recipients are at increased risk of some de novo cancers, especially those grafted for alcohol-related liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection. The risk of lymphoproliferative disease and cancers of the skin, upper airway and bowel are increased but not breast. Recipients should be advised to avoid risk behavior and monitored appropriately.

  11. Excess Ca(2+) does not alleviate but increases the toxicity of Hg(2+) to photosystem II in Synechocystis sp. (Cyanophyta). (United States)

    Zhang, Daoyong; Deng, Chunnuan; Pan, Xiangliang


    This study demonstrated that excess Ca(2+) increased the toxicity of Hg(2+) to PSII of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. using fast rise chlorophyll fluorescence test. Excess Ca(2+) increased the inhibitory effect of Hg(2+) on O2 evolution. Exposure to Hg(2+) caused increase in functional antenna size (ABS/RC), trapping rate of reaction center (TR0/RC), dissipated energy flux per reaction center (DI0/RC) and maximum quantum yield of non-photochemical deexcitation ( [Formula: see text] ), indicating that some reaction centers were transformed to dissipation sinks under Hg(2+) stress. Hg(2+) stress slowed down electron transport on both donor side and acceptor side and caused accumulation of P680(+). Excess Ca(2+) intensified all the Hg(2+) toxic effects on PSII function and led to dysfunction of PSII. The number of reaction centers that were transformed into dissipation sinks increased with increasing Ca(2+) concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of donor cardiac arrest on heart transplantation. (United States)

    Southerland, Kevin W; Castleberry, Anthony W; Williams, Judson B; Daneshmand, Mani A; Ali, Ayyaz A; Milano, Carmelo A


    Cardiac transplantation is an effective therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure, but it is still hindered by the lack of donor organs. A history of donor cardiac arrest raises trepidation regarding the possibility of poor post-transplant outcomes. The impact of donor cardiac arrest following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation on heart transplant outcomes is unknown. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the impact of donor cardiac arrest on orthotropic heart transplantation using the United Network for Organ Sharing database. We performed a secondary longitudinal analysis of all cardiac transplants performed between April 1994 and December 2011 through the United Network for Organ Sharing registry. Multiorgan transplants, repeat transplants, and pediatric recipients were excluded. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier methods as well as multivariate adjusted logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 19,980 patients were analyzed. In 856 cases, the donors had histories of cardiac arrest, and in the remaining 19,124 cases, there was no history of donor cardiac arrest. The unadjusted 1-, 5-, and 10-year actuarial survival rates between the arrest and the nonarrest groups were not significantly different. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated no difference in survival in the donor arrest group at 30 days, 1 year, or 3 years. Furthermore, the adjusted Cox proportional hazard model for cumulative survival also showed no survival difference between the 2 groups. If standard recipient and donor transplantation criteria are met, a history of donor cardiac arrest should not prohibit the potential consideration of an organ for transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood donor selection in European Union directives: room for improvement. (United States)

    De Kort, Wim; Mayr, Wolfgang; Jungbauer, Christof; Vuk, Tomislav; Kullaste, Riin; Seifried, Erhard; Grazzini, Giuliano; De Wit, Jeroen; Folléa, Gilles


    Transfusion-transmissible infections have made both blood bankers and health authorities overly cautious. The general public expects and hence reinforces this policy. To obtain a high level of blood product safety, blood and plasma donors have to meet increasingly stringent eligibility criteria; however, it is not known whether this policy translates into improved outcomes for patients. There is a risk that the management of donors does not match the ambition of greater safety for patients. European directives related to the collection process and donor selection will probably be reconsidered in the next few years. The development of European directives on donor selection and their basis in the literature were reviewed with an emphasis on the background and considerations for eligibility criteria to be included in the directives. The precautionary principle appears to be the predominant reason behind the set of eligibility criteria. However, the formal eligibility criteria, put into force in 2004, do not balance with the developments of the past decade in laboratory tests and measures that have substantially reduced actual infection risks. In no cases were the effects of eligibility criteria on the donor pool and donor well-being quantified. Regional differences in the epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections were not taken into consideration either. First, the Authors promote the collection of epidemiological data on the incidence and prevalence of conditions in the general population and in blood and plasma donors which could pose a risk for transfused patients, in order to use these data as a basis for decision-making in donor-selection policies. Second, the Authors suggest including allowance for differential deferral criteria throughout Europe, based on factual risk levels. There should be an accepted balance between donor and patient welfare, and also between risk to transfusion safety and risk of compromising the blood supply.

  14. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi


    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  15. Organ transplantation from deceased donors with cancer: is it safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalesnik MA


    Full Text Available Michael A Nalesnik1, Michael G Ison21Division of Transplantation and Hepatic Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburg, PA, USA; 2Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Organ Transplantation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The availability of donor organs continues to be insufficient to meet the needs of patients actively waiting for transplant. Consequently, there is continuing pressure to increase the donor organ pool while simultaneously assuring safety for the recipient population. The complication of donor malignancy transmission has been documented almost from the beginning of transplantation, and continues to be a concern today. The anecdotal nature of case reports and compiled series ensures that clinical decisions related to organ use from donors with malignancy will of necessity continue to be made on the basis of low-level evidence. Despite this limitation, the literature indicates that not all donor neoplasms have the same risk for transmission to the recipient, and it is necessary to consider the specific malignancy affecting the donor, as well as the condition of the recipient, before a decision is made to transplant or discard a given organ. Published cases suggest that certain forms of neoplasia, such as melanoma, choriocarcinoma, sarcoma, small cell carcinoma, or metastatic carcinomas serve as strong contraindications to organ donation. In contrast, considerable experience exists to suggest that certain tumors of the central nervous system, small subclinical prostate carcinomas, or small renal cell carcinomas resected prior to transplant, among other tumors, should not in themselves disqualify an individual from donating organs in the appropriate circumstance. This review presents the case for considering organ transplantation in the setting of certain donor malignancies and discusses factors to be weighed in such decisions. Additionally

  16. How membrane permeation is affected by donor delivery solvent. (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Elliott, Russell P


    We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the rate and extent of membrane permeation is affected by switching the donor delivery solvent from water to squalane for different permeants and membranes. In a model based on rate-limiting membrane diffusion, we derive explicit equations showing how the permeation extent and rate depend mainly on the membrane-donor and membrane-receiver partition coefficients of the permeant. Permeation results for systems containing all combinations of hydrophilic or hydrophobic donor solvents (aqueous solution or squalane), permeants (caffeine or testosterone) and polymer membranes (cellulose or polydimethylsiloxane) have been measured using a cell with stirred donor and re-circulating receiver compartments and continuous monitoring of the permeant concentration in the receiver phase. Relevant partition coefficients are also determined. Quantitative comparison of model and experimental results for the widely-differing permeation systems successfully enables the systematic elucidation of all possible donor solvent effects in membrane permeation. For the experimental conditions used here, most of the permeation systems are in agreement with the model, demonstrating that the model assumptions are valid. In these cases, the dominant donor solvent effects arise from changes in the relative affinities of the permeant for the donor and receiver solvents and the membrane and are quantitatively predicted using the separately measured partition coefficients. We also show how additional donor solvent effects can arise when switching the donor solvent causes one or more of the model assumptions to be invalid. These effects include a change in rate-limiting step, permeant solution non-ideality and others.

  17. International variation in volunteer whole blood donor eligibility criteria. (United States)

    Karp, Julie K; King, Karen E


    This study assesses international variation in volunteer whole blood donor eligibility criteria. In February 2008, Web sites of major blood collection organizations in 17 countries were queried for the volume of whole blood donations and six donor eligibility criteria: allowed donation frequency, donor age, hemoglobin (Hb), weight, and deferrals for tattoo and pregnancy/breast-feeding. The allowed frequency of whole blood donation ranged from 56 to 120 days, some with sex- and age-specific limitations. While blood collection agencies in three countries did not have an upper age limit for donation, the remainder mandated donor retirement at ages from 60 to 81 years. The minimum Hb level was 11.5 to 12.5 g/dL for women and 12.5 to 13.5 g/dL for men. Blood collection organizations in only three countries required a minimum donor weight of less than 50 kg. Tattoo and pregnancy deferrals ranged from 4 to 12 months and 6 weeks to 12 months, respectively. The volume of whole blood donations ranged from 300 to 500 mL. The percentage of total blood volume donated, the absolute grams of Hb expected to be restored per deferral period and per day of donor deferral, and the concentration of Hb expected to be restored per deferral period were calculated. International volunteer whole blood donor eligibility criteria demonstrate marked variation. These differences likely cause international variation in the prevalence of adverse donor reactions and iron deficiency anemia. The reasons underlying these dissimilarities are unclear, but may include varying cultural influences and average donor body habitus.

  18. Blood-borne viral infections among blood, organ and tissue donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutiya


    Full Text Available The article presents an actual information on the detection rate of blood-borne viral infections (BBVI among blood donors, potential organ and tissue donors in Russia and other countries. The causes of differences in BBVI prevalence between blood donors and potential organ and tissue donors have been analyzed. The BBVI prevalence among potential organ donors was proved to be much higher than among blood donors due to their medical-and-social characteristics.

  19. Myrsinoic A acid and its derivative: in vitro inhibitors of photosynthesis; Acido myrsinoico A e derivado: inibidores da fotossintese in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Marcela Carmen de M.; Oliveira, Gracielle S. de; Menezes, Antonio Carlos S. [Universidade Estadual de Goias, Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Veiga, Thiago A.M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra


    Myrsinoic A acid, isolated from Myrsine cuneifolia and its hydrogenated derivative had their effect on photosynthesis tested. The compounds inhibited the electron flow (basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled) from water to methyl viologen; therefore, they act as Hill reaction inhibitors in spinach thylakoids. They inhibited partial reactions of PSII electron flow from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, from water to sodium silicomolybdate, and partially electron flow from diphenylcarbazide to 2,6-dichloroindophenol. Their inhibition sites were at the donor and acceptor sides of PSII, between P{sub 680} and Q{sub A}. Chlorophyll {alpha} fluorescence measurements confirmed the behavior of the compounds (pool of quinones). (author)

  20. Ácido myrsinoico a e derivado: inibidores da fotossíntese in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carmen de M. Burger


    Full Text Available Myrsinoic A acid, isolated from Myrsine cuneifolia and its hydrogenated derivative had their effect on photosynthesis tested. The compounds inhibited the electron flow (basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled from water to methylviologen; therefore, they act as Hill reaction inhibitors in spinach thylakoids. They inhibited partial reactions of PSII electron flow from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, from water to sodium silicomolybdate, and partially electron flow from diphenylcarbazide to 2,6-dichloroindophenol. Their inhibition sites were at the donor and acceptor sides of PSII, between P680 and Q A. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements confirmed the behavior of the compounds (pool of quinones.

  1. `Giant' nanocrystal quantum dots (gNQDs) as FRET donors (United States)

    Chern, Margaret; Nguyen, Thuy; Dennis, Allison


    High-quality core/shell CdSe/xCdS quantum dots (QDs) ranging from 3 to 20 nm in diameter were synthesized for use as Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) donors. gNQDs are carefully characterized for size, emission, absorption, QY, and brightness in both organic and aqueous solution. FRET has been verified in optimally designed systems that use short capping ligands and donor-acceptor pairs that have well-matched emission and absorption spectra. The interplay between shell thickness, donor-acceptor distance, and particle brightness is systematically analyzed to optimize our biosensor design.

  2. Contact between deceased donors' families and organ recipients. (United States)

    Azuri, Pazit; Tabak, Nili; Kreitler, Shulamit


    The benefits and disadvantages of posttransplant contact between a donor family and the organ recipient are disputed. In this study far more contacters reported benefits rather than disadvantages and noncontacters reported the opposite. The dissatisfaction of noncontacters with no contact was high: no less than 60% wanted some form of contact in the future. The authors conclude that contact has more benefits for the donor family than disadvantages, evidenced by families' desire to maintain contact with the organ recipient. Both donor families and organ recipients need the transplant coordinator's initiative and guidance on this issue.

  3. Donor Funding for Newborn Survival: An Analysis of Donor-Reported Data, 2002–2010 (United States)

    Pitt, Catherine; Lawn, Joy E.; Ranganathan, Meghna; Mills, Anne; Hanson, Kara


    Background Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of global under-five deaths and is decreasing more slowly than maternal or child mortality. Donor funding has increased for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH), but no analysis to date has disaggregated aid for newborns. We evaluated if and how aid flows for newborn care can be tracked, examined changes in the last decade, and considered methodological implications for tracking funding for specific population groups or diseases. Methods and Findings We critically reviewed and categorised previous analyses of aid to specific populations, diseases, or types of activities. We then developed and refined key terms related to newborn survival in seven languages and searched titles and descriptions of donor disbursement records in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Creditor Reporting System database, 2002–2010. We compared results with the Countdown to 2015 database of aid for MNCH (2003–2008) and the search strategy used by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Prior to 2005, key terms related to newborns were rare in disbursement records but their frequency increased markedly thereafter. Only two mentions were found of “stillbirth” and only nine references were found to “fetus” in any spelling variant or language. The total value of non-research disbursements mentioning any newborn search terms rose from US$38.4 million in 2002 to US$717.1 million in 2010 (constant 2010 US$). The value of non-research projects exclusively benefitting newborns fluctuated somewhat but remained low, at US$5.7 million in 2010. The United States and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) provided the largest value of non-research funding mentioning and exclusively benefitting newborns, respectively. Conclusions Donor attention to newborn survival has increased since 2002, but it appears unlikely that donor aid is commensurate with the 3.0 million newborn deaths and 2.7 million

  4. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin P Ghonge


    Full Text Available As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know.

  5. Targeted bone marrow radioablation with 153Samarium-lexidronam promotes allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism and donor-specific immunologic hyporesponsiveness. (United States)

    Inverardi, Luca; Linetsky, Elina; Pileggi, Antonello; Molano, R Damaris; Serafini, Aldo; Paganelli, Giovanni; Ricordi, Camillo


    Transplantation tolerance, defined as acceptance of a graft by an otherwise fully immunocompetent host, has been an elusive goal. Although robust tolerance has been achieved by the induction of stable hematopoietic chimerism after bone marrow transplantation, lethal or sublethal radiation conditioning used to induce long-term chimerism precludes its clinical use. We studied whether targeted delivery of radiation to bone marrow could allow for bone marrow cell (BMC) engraftment, chimerism, and donor-specific tolerance in the absence of the side effects associated with external irradiation. We administered a radioactive bone-seeking compound (Samarium-Lexidronam, Quadramet, Berlex Laboratories, Wayne, NJ) together with transient T-cell costimulatory blockade to recipient mice. Allogeneic BMCs were given 7 or 14 days after preconditioning. Costimulatory blockade was obtained by the use of an anti-CD154 antibody for 4 weeks. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. Mice then received donor-specific and third-party skin grafts. Graft survival was analyzed with mechanisms of donor-specific hyporesponsiveness. High levels of stable chimerism across an allogeneic barrier were achieved in mice by a single administration of Samarium-Lexidronam, transient T-cell costimulatory blockade, and BMC transplantation. A large percentage of chimeric animals retained donor-derived skin grafts for more than 120 days without requiring additional immunosuppression, suggesting that harsh cytotoxic preconditioning is not necessary to achieve stable chimerism and donor specific hyporesponsiveness. Analysis of the T-cell repertoire in chimeras indicates T-cell deletional mechanisms. These data broaden the potential use of BMC transplantation for tolerance induction and argue for its potential in treating autoimmune diseases.

  6. HLA polymorphism in Sudanese renal donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer M Dafalla


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to provide a database for renal transplantation in Sudan and to determine the HLA antigens and haplotype frequencies (HFs in the study subjects. HLA typing was performed using the complement-dependant lymphocytotoxicity test in 250 unrelated healthy individuals selected as donors in the Sudanese Renal Transplantation Program. Considerable polymorphism was observed at each locus; A2 (0.28, A30 (0.12, A3 (0.09, A24 (0.09, A1 (0.09, and A68 (0.06 were the most frequent antigens in the A locus, while B51 (0.092, B41 (0.081, B39 (0.078, B57 (0.060, B35 (0.068, B 50 (0.053 and B 52 (0.051 were the most common B locus antigens. DR13 (0.444 and DR15 (0.160 showed the highest antigen frequencies (AFs in the DR locus. In the DQ locus, DQ1 showed the highest gene frequency (0.498, while DQ2 and DQ3 AFs were (0.185 and (0.238, respectively. The most common HLA-A and -B haplotypes in positive linkage disequilibrium were A24, B38; A1, B7; and A3, B52. The common HLA-A and -B HFs in positive linkage disequilibrium in the main three tribe-stocks of the study subjects (Gaalia, Nile Nubian and Johyna were A24, B38 for Gaalia; A24, B38 and A2, B7 for Johyna; and A2, B64 and A3, B53 for Nile Nubian. These results suggest that both class I and class II polymorphisms of the study subjects depict considerable heterogeneity, which reflects recent admixture of this group with neighboring Arabs and African populations.

  7. Value for Money in Donor HIV Funding. (United States)

    Linnemayr, Sebastian; Ryan, Gery W; Liu, Jenny; Palar, Kartika


    Countries with the highest burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease are heavily reliant on donor funding from such sources as the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria for their HIV programs. In recent years, commitments from these organizations have flattened while demand for HIV/AIDS care continues to rise. To meet the continued need for more HIV services in developing countries, existing resources need to be better leveraged, i.e., to provide improved value for the money. This article examines options for improving value for money in HIV funding by using a case study that focuses on the two largest funders, PEPFAR and the Global Fund, with funding for antiretroviral therapy (ART) as its leading example. The authors' assessment of available input and output data suggests that current spending allocations across direct and indirect services are not based on increasing value for money. The authors recommend that expenditure data for PEPFAR be made available to the public in a transparent fashion on an annual basis in a usable format and that the Global Fund make its data accessible for each program funded. They find that program output indicators to track indirect services are incomplete and need to be further developed. The trade-off between providing current services and providing future ones needs to be stated clearly, and funding decisions made accordingly. Finally, given projections that funding for HIV will likely not increase, particularly for low-income countries facing the highest HIV burden, an explicit emphasis on improving value for money by finding ways to better leverage existing monies is imperative.

  8. Footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguiar, Marco; Goncalves, Bruno; Botelho, Goreti; Lemmink, Koen; Sampaio, Jaime


    The aim of this study was to compare footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games. Ten young professional players (age=18.0 +/- 0.67years) participated in 3 bouts of each small-sided games for 6min with 1min of active rest between bouts. Positional data were

  9. Direct cord implantation in brachial plexus avulsions: revised technique using a single stage combined anterior (first posterior (second approach and end-to-side side-to-side grafting neurorrhaphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Meguid Amr MS


    exposure to the brachial plexus and to the cervical cord, the single stage combined anterior (first and posterior (second approach might stimulate brachial plexus surgeons to go more for direct cord implantation. In this study, it allowed for placing side grafts along an extensive donor recipient area by end-to-side, side-to-side grafting neurorrhaphy and thus improved results. Level of evidence Level IV, prospective case series.

  10. Effect of Donor-Recipient Age Match in Expanded Criteria Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation. (United States)

    Ko, K; Kim, Y H; Kim, M H; Jun, K W; Hwang, J K; Kim, S D; Park, S C; Kim, J I; Moon, I S


    Our objective was to investigate the effects of age on patient and graft survival in expanded criteria donor (ECD) renal transplantation. Between February 2000 and December 2015, we analyzed 405 deceased donor renal transplants, including 128 grafts (31.9%) from ECDs. Based on recipient age and ECD criteria classification, the recipients were divided into four groups: Group I, non-ECD to recipient age age ≥50 years; Group III, ECD to recipient age age ≥50 years. Among the four groups, there were significant differences in baseline characteristics (age, body mass index [BMI], cause of end-stage renal disease [ESRD], number of kidney transplantations, and use of induction agent). The mean modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) level at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years after transplantation was significantly lower in patients with ECDs but MDRD GFR level at 7, 9, and 10 years did not differ significantly (P = .183, .041, and .388, respectively). There were no significant differences in graft survival (P = .400) and patient survival (P = .147). Our result shows that, regardless of recipient age, kidney transplants donated by deceased ECDs have similar graft and patient survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metal derivatives of heterocyclic-2-thiones: Variable donor ability, C ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thiones: Variable donor ability,. C–S rupture and new structural motifs. TARLOK S LOBANA. ∗ and RAZIA SULTANA. Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005, India e-mail: Abstract.

  12. Combined cell index in assessing blood donor iron stores. (United States)

    Vuk, T; Bingulac-Popović, J; Očić, T; Mayer, L J; Milošević, M; Jukić, I


    The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of using combined cell index (CCI) in the assessment of iron stores in blood donors. This index is calculated by the formula: red blood cell distribution width (RDW) × 104 × mean corpuscular volume (MCV)-1 × mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH)-1 . Ferritin measurement is a reliable method for estimating iron stores in blood donors. The sensitivity of red blood cell (RBC) parameters of complete blood count in detecting non-anaemic iron deficiency is significantly lower. Consequently, there were several attempts to increase the detection sensitivity by combining these parameters in different indices. This study included 1084 male and 792 female whole blood donors accepted for blood donation. For six RBC parameters with the highest level of correlation relative to ferritin [Hgb, MCV, MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), RDW and CCI], diagnostic efficacy in the detection of iron depletion (ferritin stores in blood donors. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. Implementation of a mandatory donor RHD screening in Switzerland. (United States)

    Crottet, Sofia Lejon; Henny, Christine; Meyer, Stefan; Still, Franziska; Stolz, Martin; Gottschalk, Jochen; Neuenschwander, Kathrin; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri; Gowland, Peter; Frey, Beat M; Fontana, Stefano; Hustinx, Hein; Niederhauser, Christoph; Gassner, Christoph


    Starting in 2013, blood donors must be tested at least using: (1) one monoclonal anti-D and one anti-CDE (alternatively full RhCcEe phenotyping), and (2) all RhD negative donors must be tested for RHD exons 5 and 10 plus one further exonic, or intronic RHD specificity, according to the guidelines of the Blood Transfusion Service of the Swiss Red Cross (BTS SRC). In 2012 an adequate stock of RHD screened donors was built. Of all 25,370 RhD negative Swiss donors tested in 2012, 20,015 tested at BTS Berne and 5355 at BTS Zürich, showed 120 (0.47%) RHD positivity. Thirty-seven (0.15%) had to be redefined as RhD positive. Routine molecular RHD screening is reliable, rapid and cost-effective and provides safer RBC units in Switzerland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) (United States)


    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  15. Monospecific nematode infections of donor calves with Cooperia punctata. (United States)

    Leland, S E


    During a 25 year period, 48 calves from three states were raised helminth-free from birth and inoculated with Cooperia punctata. These calves served sequentially as donors of the parasite. The following aspects of the monospecific infection were of value in successful donor management and contributed to understanding the host-parasite relationship. Calves with no previous experience with C. punctata were the best hosts for establishing initial infections. Male Holstein calves were satisfactory donors of the parasite. Inoculation of calves 6-24 weeks of age with 10,000-11,200 infective third-stage larvae (L3) over a 2 day period produced the desired donors. Occasional over-feeding of calves appeared to reduce the patent period. Superimposed infection was more likely when calves were still patent from previous infection, whereas reinfection was less likely after patency of the earlier infection had ended. Strong immunity eventually developed following oral administration of L3.

  16. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna


    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors...... in Denmark in 2010. METHODS: The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once...... in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women...

  17. Detection of occult disease in tissue donors by routine autopsy. (United States)

    Otero, J; Fresno, M F; Escudero, D; Seco, M; González, M; Peces, R


    The transmission of infectious and neoplastic diseases is a potential risk of tissue allografting. In this study, we analyzed the occurrence of occult disease in tissue donors as detected by standard screening and autopsy. Whereas 18% of the potential donors initially evaluated were eliminated on the basis of their medical and social histories, laboratory screening and autopsy revealed that an additional 9% of tissue donors had undetected, transmissible disease that prohibited tissue donation. This report emphasizes once again the risk of occult disease being transplanted with grafts and the need for autopsy to reduce the likelihood of this occurring. If donor selection, appropriate screening tests, and autopsy are carefully carried out, the risk of transmitting diseases from tissue allografts can be kept to a minimum.

  18. Are Doctors Discarding Donor Kidneys That Could Save Lives? (United States)

    ... Are Doctors Discarding Donor Kidneys That Could Save Lives? Study found suboptimal organs prolonged lives and were ... Formica said. Lower the bar to save more lives? "People don't realize if I turn down ...

  19. Current status of adult living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Wentao


    Full Text Available With the establishment of reasonable selection criteria and continuous technical refinement, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT has been widely performed in the world. Right-lobe LDLT has become the conventional procedure performed at many centers. In recent years, due to the considerations of donor safety, other graft types have become important choices for adult-adult LDLT, especially left-lobe LDLT, and good outcome has been achieved. Although the minimally invasive technique has certain technical and safety issues, it will play an important role in donor hepatectomy due to its unique advantages. At present, the research data for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are controversial, but LDLT can be applied in the treatment for these patients. The therapeutic regimens for LDLT should be selected on the basis of the individualized principle and comprehensive analysis of donor safety, surgical risk, and the recipient’s survival.

  20. Antagonistic Donor Density Effect Conserved in Multiple Enterococcal Conjugative Plasmids (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; O'Brien, Sofie; Frank, Kristi L.; Dunny, Gary M.


    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecalis, a common causative agent of hospital-acquired infections, is resistant to many known antibiotics. Its ability to acquire and transfer resistance genes and virulence determinants through conjugative plasmids poses a serious concern for public health. In some cases, induction of transfer of E. faecalis plasmids results from peptide pheromones produced by plasmid-free recipient cells, which are sensed by the plasmid-bearing donor cells. These plasmids generally encode an inhibitory peptide that competes with the pheromone and suppresses self-induction of donors. We recently demonstrated that the inhibitor peptide encoded on plasmid pCF10 is part of a unique quorum-sensing system in which it functions as a “self-sensing signal,” reducing the response to the pheromone in a density-dependent fashion. Based on the similarities between regulatory features controlling conjugation in pAD1 and pAM373 and those controlling conjugation in pCF10, we hypothesized that these plasmids are likely to exhibit similar quorum-sensing behaviors. Experimental findings indicate that for both pAD1 and pAM373, high donor densities indeed resulted in decreased induction of the conjugation operon and reduced conjugation frequencies. This effect was restored by the addition of exogenous inhibitor, confirming that the inhibitor serves as an indicator for donor density. Donor density also affects cross-species conjugative plasmid transfer. Based on our experimental results, we propose models for induction and shutdown of the conjugation operon in pAD1 and pAM373. IMPORTANCE Enterococcus faecalis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Its ability to transfer antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants by sharing its genetic material with other bacteria through direct cell-cell contact via conjugation poses a serious threat. Two antagonistic signaling peptides control the transfer of plasmids pAD1 and pAM373: a peptide pheromone produced by

  1. The healthy donor effect impacts self-reported physical and mental health - results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Skytthe, A; Erikstrup, C


    AIMS: This study aimed at quantifying the healthy donor effect by comparing self-perceived mental and physical health between blood donors and non-donors. BACKGROUND: In theory, the selection process known as the healthy donor effect should result in better self-perceived, health-related quality...... of life in donors than in non-donors. METHODS: The Short Form-12 data from the Danish Twin Registry (DTR) was compared with the data from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS). Data on age, sex and smoking status were included in the analyses. The multivariable linear regression analysis was stratified...... by sex and age group intervals. Outcome variables were the mental component score (MCS) and the physical component score (PCS). RESULTS: A total of 28 982 and 36 913 participants from the DTR and the DBDS, respectively, were included in this study. Younger donors had higher MCS than non-donors, whereas...

  2. Donor Support to Political Parties: Status and Principles


    Amundsen, Inge


    Political parties are indispensable for the functioning of liberal democracies. However, the political parties of many transitional and developing countries are not functioning well. This fact has led to increasing donor support to political parties. However, due to the political sensitivity of the issue, donors are not supporting political parties directly. There are two indirect methods for party support. One is support for broadening democracy, assuming that this will also strengthen polit...

  3. Red Blood Cell Membranes in Donors of Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz


    Full Text Available The paper describes an electroporation technique in order to evaluate its action on a biological membrane in donors of different age groups. It is shown that the older the donor is, the higher the rate of hemolysis is. Thus, owing to its simplicity, the electroporation technique may be clinically tested to diagnose the status of red blood cell membranes in subjects from different age groups for further studies.

  4. Attitudes towards organ donor advocacy among Swedish intensive care nurses. (United States)

    Forsberg, Anna; Lennerling, Annette; Fridh, Isabell; Rizell, Magnus; Lovén, Charlotte; Flodén, Anne


    To explore the attitudes of Swedish intensive care nurses towards organ donor advocacy. The concept of organ donor advocacy is critical to nurses who care for potential donors in order to facilitate organ donation (OD). A retrospective cross-sectional study was employed. Inclusion criteria in this survey were to be a registered nurse and to work in a Swedish intensive care unit (ICU). Participants were identified by the Swedish association of health professionals. A number of 502 Swedish ICU nurses answered the 32-item questionnaire Attitudes Towards Organ Donor Advocacy Scale (ATODAS), covering the five dimensions of organ donor advocacy: attitudes towards championing organ donation at a structural hospital level, or at a political and research level, attitudes towards actively and personally safeguarding the will and wishes of the potential organ donor, or by using a more professional approach and finally to safeguard the will and wishes of the relatives. Data were analysed with the SPSS version 18·0 and the results were assessed by using Student's t-test and post hoc test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), χ(2) , Pearson's correlation and regression analysis. The most favoured advocacy action was safeguarding the POD's will and wishes by a professional approach, closely followed by actively and personally safeguarding the POD's will and wishes. Nurses at local hospitals reported a more positive attitude towards organ donor advocacy overall compared with nurses at larger regional or university hospitals. Important factors leading to positive attitudes were seniority, working experience, participating in conversations with relatives, caring for brain-dead persons and private experiences from OD or organ transplantation. Intensive and critical care nurses with short working experience in university hospitals showed the least positive attitude towards organ donor advocacy. This is problematic because many ODs and all transplantations are performed in university

  5. Macronutrient analysis of a nationwide sample of donor breast milk. (United States)

    Wojcik, Katherine Y; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Montoya, Armando; Medo, Elena T


    Banked donor milk may be a reasonable substitute for mother's milk for human infants. No data on the macronutrient composition of banked donor milk have been reported. This study determined the composition of donated milk from a large number of banked donor milk samples and compared it to the reported values for macronutrients in mature breast milk. During a 9-month sampling period (May 2006 through February 2007) from a nationwide milk bank network, 415 sequential samples from 273 unique donors were analyzed for fat, protein, and lactose content, as well as energy density. Descriptive statistics were computed, including mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, and range. Percentiles were determined from the empirical distribution of the data. A ninety-five percent confidence interval was computed using standard, large sample (Gaussian) methods. Banked donor milk mean values (in weight/volume) were found to be 1.16%+/-0.25% for protein, 3.22%+/-1.00% for fat, 7.80%+/-0.88% for lactose, and mean total energy was 65+/-11 kcal/dL. Banked donor milk macronutrient content was found to differ from the values reported in the literature for mature human milk. Unformulated banked donor milk alone, similar to mother's milk alone, does not have sufficient macronutrient content or energy density to sustain a very-low-birth-weight preterm infant. Fortification could make up for these shortcomings, perhaps making formulated banked donor milk a better choice for preterm infants than bovine-based formulas when mother's milk is unavailable.

  6. Belgian modified classification of Maastricht for donors after circulatory death


    Evrard, Patrick; Belgian Working Group on DCD National Protocol; Lois, Fernande; Darius, Tom; De Pauw, Luc; Hantson, Philippe; Jacquemin, Dominique; Schamps, Geneviève; Van Deynse, Dominique; Rondelet, Benoît; Verschuren, Franck


    BACKGROUND: "Non-heart-beating donors," or, in a more recent and international definition, "donors after circulatory death," are a potential and additional group of deceased persons who are able to add organs to the pool. METHODS: A new classification is proposed on the basis of the result of a consensus of experts issued from all Belgian transplant centers. RESULTS: The first level of definition is simple and based on whether the situation is uncontrolled (categories I and II) or contr...

  7. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor. (United States)

    Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Valdez-Martínez, Edith; Bedolla, Miguel


    In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end - stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long - term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor's nor the recipient's long term health is usually considered.Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico if the donor bases the decision to

  8. Increasing Organ Donor Registration in a Primary Care Clinic. (United States)

    Natt, Navneet; Klar, Erin; Cheung, Ingrid; Matharu, Pavan; Bordman, Risa


    Only 30% of Ontarians are registered organ donors in spite of the vast unmet need for organ donations in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) initiative was to increase the number of registered organ donors in a primary care practice by providing an educational fact sheet and registration form to patients in the clinic's waiting room. Three Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were conducted. In the first PDSA cycle, we created an information sheet to explain the need for organ donors and the registration process. Nine patients were surveyed regarding the clarity of the information sheet, which resulted in subsequent modification of the information sheet prior to the second PDSA cycle. For the second cycle, the revised information sheet was attached to a donor registration form and distributed to 30 patients in the primary care practice over a two-week period. 23 forms were returned, in which 4 patients were already registered organ donors and 5 patients completed registration forms. In the third PDSA cycle, a more compelling graphic was used on the pamphlet. Similarly, 30 forms were distributed; 23 forms were returned, with 6 newly completed registration forms. Overall, the project increased the donor registration rate from 10.0% to 28.3%. The process allowed patients to become more knowledgeable about organ donation need and aware of the Trillium Gift of Life website. We believe that providing patients with an information pamphlet and registration form in the clinic waiting room enhanced their awareness of organ donation and facilitated registration without delay. This QI initiative represents an effective and practical study to increase donor knowledge and provide opportunities for interested individuals to become registered organ donors.

  9. The impact of donor myelofibrosis on outcome of renal transplantation


    Tahawar Rana; Josef Taylor; Alireza Hamidian Jahromi; Jacob A Akoh


    In donors known to have medical conditions associated with kidney damage, caution is exercised when accepting donor kidneys. Myelofibrosis can affect kidney function in a variety of ways, but is not generally considered a contraindication to donation. We present the case of a 27-year-old woman with known myelofibrosis who died from an upper gastrointestinal bleed. After cardiac death, both the kidneys were donated. The first recipient was a 34-year-old lady with focal segmental glomerular scl...

  10. investigation on the model of living-donor liver transplantation


    Nolting, Sabine Edith


    Liver transplantation is a common therapy of end stage liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate metabolic pathways on the model of living-donor liver transplantation. Donors and recipients of liver transplantation underwent an insulin modified intravenous glucose tolerance test (ivGTT) at four points in time.121 With the minimal model technique insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness and ß-cell secretion have been calculated.15 Fasting glucose, insulin, c-peptid, proinsul...

  11. Organ utilization from increased infectious risk donors: An observational study. (United States)

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Humar, Atul; Payne, Clare; Kumar, Deepali


    Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database. Only consented donors were included. Donors were categorized as IRDs according to Health Canada/Canadian Standards Association (CSA) criteria. A total of 494 potential donors were identified, of which 92 (18.6%) were IRDs. Of these, at least one organ was transplanted from 76 (82.6%). Risk factors for IRDs included injection drug user (IDU) (12%), men having sex with men (MSM) (7%), commercial sex worker (CSW) (4%), and incarceration (24%). Fifty-nine percent (253/429) of IRD organs were utilized. The most frequently used organ was kidney, followed by liver. Median number of organs recovered per IRD was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5). Nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed in 18.5% (17/92) of IRDs. Reasons for NAT were IDU (n = 2), MSM (n = 2), CSW (n = 2), and previous incarceration (n = 7). Organ utilization from donors that had NAT was similar to donors who did not (94% vs 80%, P = .29). Follow-up NAT was done in infectious risk from such organs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Identifying electron transfer coordinates in donor-bridge-acceptor systems using mode projection analysis (United States)

    Yang, Xunmo; Keane, Theo; Delor, Milan; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Weinstein, Julia; Bittner, Eric R.


    We report upon an analysis of the vibrational modes that couple and drive the state-to-state electronic transfer branching ratios in a model donor-bridge-acceptor system consisting of a phenothiazine-based donor linked to a naphthalene-monoimide acceptor via a platinum-acetylide bridging unit. Our analysis is based upon an iterative Lanczos search algorithm that finds superpositions of vibronic modes that optimize the electron/nuclear coupling using input from excited-state quantum chemical methods. Our results indicate that the electron transfer reaction coordinates between a triplet charge-transfer state and lower lying charge-separated and localized excitonic states are dominated by asymmetric and symmetric modes of the acetylene groups on either side of the central atom in this system. In particular, we find that while a nearly symmetric mode couples both the charge-separation and charge-recombination transitions more or less equally, the coupling along an asymmetric mode is far greater suggesting that IR excitation of the acetylene modes preferentially enhances charge-recombination transition relative to charge-separation.

  13. Impact of the Crystallite Orientation Distribution on Exciton Transport in Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymers. (United States)

    Ayzner, Alexander L; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony; DeLongchamp, Dean; Nardes, Alexandre; Benight, Stephanie; Kopidakis, Nikos; Toney, Michael F; Bao, Zhenan


    Conjugated polymers are widely used materials in organic photovoltaic devices. Owing to their extended electronic wave functions, they often form semicrystalline thin films. In this work, we aim to understand whether distribution of crystallographic orientations affects exciton diffusion using a low-band-gap polymer backbone motif that is representative of the donor/acceptor copolymer class. Using the fact that the polymer side chain can tune the dominant crystallographic orientation in the thin film, we have measured the quenching of polymer photoluminescence, and thus the extent of exciton dissociation, as a function of crystal orientation with respect to a quenching substrate. We find that the crystallite orientation distribution has little effect on the average exciton diffusion length. We suggest several possibilities for the lack of correlation between crystallographic texture and exciton transport in semicrystalline conjugated polymer films.

  14. Evaluation of Wound Healing Efficacy of an Antimicrobial Spray Dressing at Skin Donor Sites. (United States)

    Dai, Lien-Guo; Fu, Keng-Yen; Hsieh, Pai-Shan; Hung, Yu-Min; Wang, Yi-Wen; Hsia, Li-Chaun; Chang, Shun-Cheng; Wang, Chih-Hsin; Teng, Shou-Cheng; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo; Dai, Niann-Tzyy


    Autologous skin transplantation is a common treatment for patients with full-thickness burns. Postoperative wound care is essential for skin graft donor and recipient sites, but traditional wound dressings such as cotton and gauze do not form an effective barrier to bacteria, and patients can feel uncomfortable when replacing dressings. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of an antimicrobial spray dressing (JUC Spray Dressing, NMS Technologies Co Ltd, Nanjing, China), with respect to its antimicrobial efficiency and the degree of pain experienced by patients. The authors found the antimicrobial spray can reduce pain during the recovery period, while providing equivalent antibacterial protection to the control treatment (AQUACEL Hydrofiber Wound Dressing, ConvaTec, Bridgewater, NJ) based on skin culture tests. The spray did not adversely affect the wound site recovery. No significant side effects were present during the treatment period. This antimicrobial spray could potentially be used in wound dressing applications.

  15. Why should we respect the privacy of donors of biological material? (United States)

    Tännsjö, Torbjörn


    Why should we respect the privacy of donors of biological material? The question is answered in the present article in general philosophical terms from the point of view of an ethics of honour, a libertarian theory of rights, a view of respect for privacy based on the idea that autonomy is of value in itself, and utilitarianism respectively. For different reasons the ethics of honour and the idea of the value of autonomy are set to one side. It surfaces that the moral rights theory and utilitarianism present conflicting answers to the question. The main thrust of the argument is that there is no way of finding an overlapping consensus, so politicians have to take decisions that are bound to be controversial in that they can be questioned on reasonable philosophical grounds.

  16. Linear Rashba Model of a Hydrogenic Donor Impurity in GaAs/GaAlAs Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shu-Shen


    Full Text Available Abstract The Rashba spin-orbit splitting of a hydrogenic donor impurity in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells is investigated theoretically in the framework of effective-mass envelope function theory. The Rashba effect near the interface between GaAs and GaAlAs is assumed to be a linear relation with the distance from the quantum well side. We find that the splitting energy of the excited state is larger and less dependent on the position of the impurity than that of the ground state. Our results are useful for the application of Rashba spin-orbit coupling to photoelectric devices.

  17. Assessment of dysplastic hematopoiesis: lessons from healthy bone marrow donors. (United States)

    Parmentier, Stefani; Schetelig, Johannes; Lorenz, Kerstin; Kramer, Michael; Ireland, Robin; Schuler, Ulrich; Ordemann, Rainer; Rall, Gabi; Schaich, Markus; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ehninger, Gerhard; Kroschinsky, Frank


    According to WHO 2008 guidelines, the required percentage of cells manifesting dysplasia in the bone marrow to qualify as significant is 10% or over in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages, but this threshold is controversial. No 'normal' values have been established. Therefore, we investigated dyshematopoiesis in bone marrow aspirate squash preparations of 120 healthy bone marrow donors. Bone marrow squash slides of 120 healthy unrelated bone marrow donors were examined independently by 4 experienced morphologists. Samples were taken from the first aspiration during the harvest. Bone marrow preparation and assessment were performed according to WHO recommendations and ICSH guidelines. More than 10% dysmyelopoiesis could be detected in 46% of bone marrow aspirate squash preparations with 26% in 2 or more cell lineages and 7% in 3 cell lineages in healthy bone marrow donors. Donors under the age of 30 years exhibited more dysgranulopoietic changes and dysmegakaryopoietic changes (Pdonors. Female donors showed more dysgranulopoietic changes than male donors (P = 0.025). The concordance rate between the 4 investigators was modest in dysgranulopoiesis but poor in dyserythropoiesis and dysmegakaryopoiesis. The poor reliability of the 10% cut off was partly related to the proximity of the current criteria to the observed cut-off mean values of the normal population. These findings question the current WHO threshold of the 10% or over necessary for the percentage of cells manifesting dysplasia to be considered significant, and suggest that either a higher threshold would be more appropriate or different thresholds should be set for each lineage.

  18. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Howe Sim


    Full Text Available The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation and decreasing transplantation rates. Even if Canada were able to increase its organ donor rate to that of Spain (40 to 50/million, where organ donation is governed by ‘presumed consent’ legislation, this would not alleviate the problem of donor shortage. Interest in xenotransplantation stems from the need to overcome this increasingly severe shortage of human organs. Indeed, some argue that xenotransplantation is the only potential way of addressing this shortage. As immunological barriers to xenotransplantation are better understood, those hurdles are being addressed through genetic engineering of donor animals and the development of new drug therapies. However, before xenotransplantation can be fully implemented, both the scientific/medical communities and the general public must seriously consider and attempt to resolve the many complex ethical, social and economic issues that it presents.

  19. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon. (United States)

    Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S


    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  20. Restless legs syndrome, pica, and iron status in blood donors. (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan R; Kleinman, Steven; Wright, David J; Glynn, Simone A; Rye, David B; Kiss, Joseph E; Mast, Alan E; Cable, Ritchard G


    The association of blood donation-related iron deficiency with pica or restless legs syndrome (RLS) remains poorly elucidated. This study evaluated the prevalence of RLS and pica in blood donors completing the REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study. RISE enrolled 2425 blood donors in a prospective cohort study; 1334 donors provided blood samples to characterize iron status and answered a questionnaire inquiring into symptoms of RLS and pica at a final visit after 15 to 24 months of follow-up. Associations between both conditions and iron status were evaluated. There were 9 and 20% of donors reporting symptoms of probable or probable/possible RLS, respectively. Iron depletion and donation intensity were not predictive of RLS. Pica was reported by 65 donors (5.5%), half of whom reported daily cravings. Prevalence of pica increased with degree of iron depletion in women (2% in iron-replete females, 13% in those with ferritin pica coexpressed in eight individuals, but no more frequently than expected by chance. RLS and pica have been associated with iron deficiency in nondonor populations. This study indicates a potentially high prevalence of RLS in frequent blood donors but shows no association with iron status or donation intensity. Low iron stores were associated with higher prevalence of pica, but only in females. Furthermore, the results are incompatible with RLS and pica sharing a common pathophysiology. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Life insurance for living kidney donors: a Canadian undercover investigation. (United States)

    Yang, R C; Young, A; Nevis, I F P; Lee, D; Jain, A K; Dominic, A; Pullenayegum, E; Klarenbach, S; Garg, A X


    Some living kidney donors encounter difficulties obtaining life insurance, despite previous surveys of insurance companies reporting otherwise. To better understand the effect of donation on insurability, we contacted offices of life insurance companies in five major cities in Canada to obtain $100 000 of life insurance (20-year term) for 40 fictitious living kidney donors and 40 paired controls. These profiles were matched on age, gender, family history of kidney disease and presence of hypertension. The companies were blinded to data collection. The study protocol was reviewed by the Office of Research Ethics. The main study outcomes were the annual premium quoted and total time spent on the phone with the insurance agent. All donor and control profiles received a quote, with no significant difference in the premium quoted (medians $190 vs. $209, p = 0.89). More time was spent on the phone for donor compared to control profiles, but the absolute difference was small (medians 9.5 vs. 7.0 min, p = 0.046). Age, gender, family history of kidney disease and new-onset hypertension had no further effect on donor insurability in regression analysis. We found no evidence that kidney donors were disadvantaged in the first step of applying for life insurance. The effect donation has on subsequent phases of insurance underwriting remains to be studied.

  2. Few electron quantum dot coupling to donor implanted electron spins (United States)

    Rudolph, Martin; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Neilson, Erik; Gamble, John; Muller, Richard; Jacobson, Toby; Ten-Eyck, Greg; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm


    Donor-based Si qubits are receiving increased interest because of recent demonstrations of high fidelity electron or nuclear spin qubits and their coupling. Quantum dot (QD) mediated interactions between donors are of interest for future coupling of two donors. We present experiment and modeling of a polysilicon/Si MOS QD, charge-sensed by a neighboring many electron QD, capable of coupling to one or two donor implanted electron spins (D) while tuned to the few electron regime. The unique design employs two neighboring gated wire FETs and self-aligned implants, which supports many configurations of implanted donors. We can access the (0,1) ⇔(1,0) transition between the D and QD, as well as the resonance condition between the few electron QD and two donors ((0,N,1) ⇔(0,N +1,0) ⇔(1,N,0)). We characterize capacitances and tunnel rate behavior combined with semi-classical and full configuration interaction simulations to study the energy landscape and kinetics of D-QD transitions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: meeting the challenge of consumerism? (United States)

    Siddins, Mark; Hart, Gabrielle; He, Bulang; Kanchanabat, Burapa; Mohan Rao, M


    Despite the increasing adoption of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, no study has examined donor perceptions following this procedure. In particular, it has been tacitly assumed that a less invasive procedure might in itself provide a more satisfactory donor experience. The present study reviews the experience of donors undergoing laparoscopic nephrectomy, and examines the extent to which contemporary management practice addresses issues relevant to consumerism. Forty-two donors participated in a structured telephone interview, and 33 (79%) returned a written questionnaire. Coming through the survey was a strong sense of commitment to donation, and most respondents were satisfied with the experience. The main criticisms related to hotel services, the duration of the preoperative investigations, the perceived quality of nursing care on the general wards, medical communication and the duration of postoperative follow up. The self-reported time to meet recovery goals was extremely broad. Considering the nature of criticisms offered by the respondents, it is concluded that the expectations of donors as health-care consumers will only be met through modification of existing protocols.

  4. Political commitment for vulnerable populations during donor transition. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Whiteside, Alan; Bennett, Sara


    The responsibilities for the programmatic, technical and financial support of health programmes are increasingly being passed from external donors to governments. Programmes for family planning, human immunodeficiency virus, immunization, malaria and tuberculosis have already faced such donor transition, which is a difficult and often political process. Wherever programmes and services aimed at vulnerable populations are primarily supported by donors, the post-transition future is uncertain. Overreliance on donor support is often a reflection of limited domestic political commitment. Limited commitment, which is frequently expressed as the persecution of vulnerable groups, poses a risk to individuals as well as to the effectiveness and sustainability of health programmes. We argue that, for reasons linked to human rights, the social contract and the cost-effectiveness of health promotion, prevention and treatment programmes, it is critical that governments sustain health services for vulnerable populations during and after donor transition. Although civil society organizations could help by engaging with government stakeholders, pushing to change social norms and supporting mechanisms that demand accountability, they may be constrained by economic, political and social factors. Vulnerable populations need to be actively involved in the planning and implementation of donor transition - to ensure that their voice and needs are taken into account and to establish a platform that improves visibility and accountability. As transitions spread across all aspects of global health, transparent conversations about the building and sustainment of political commitment for health services for vulnerable populations become a critical human rights issue.

  5. Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. Information Sheet (United States)

    Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bismarck, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Bismarck, North Dakota.

  6. How Do I Manage Side Effects? (United States)

    ... to watch a recording on demand. Watch webinar Key Points Side effects from treatment are very common. ... litter boxes) Use a soft toothbrush Use an electric shaver instead of a razor Gastrointestinal Issues Might ...

  7. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect (United States)

    ... Navigating Cancer Care > Side Effects > Lymphedema Request Permissions Lymphedema Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... years after cancer treatment has ended. Symptoms of lymphedema People with lymphedema in their arm or leg ...

  8. Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Problems (United States)

    Cancer treatments may cause dental, mouth, and throat side effects such as changes in taste (dysgeusia), dry mouth (xerostomia), infections, mouth sores, pain or swelling in your mouth (oral mucositis), sensitivity to foods, and swallowing problems.

  9. Side Effects - Memory or Concentration Problems (United States)

    Cancer treatments, such as chemo, may cause difficulty thinking, concentrating, or other cognitive problems. Learn about steps people with cancer can take to manage these side effects. See a list of helpful questions for families to ask the doctor.

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor will work to find out what is causing these problems. They may be caused by ...

  11. Surgeons Warn of Trampolines' Down Side (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167494.html Surgeons Warn of Trampolines' Down Side Very young children should stay off, ... 2017 SATURDAY, July 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A trampoline may have your kids jumping for joy, but ...

  12. Side- ja turvanguamet / Indrek Süld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süld, Indrek


    Ilmunud ka: 2003 : annual report : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 34-35; 2003 : godovoi ottshjot : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 34-35. Ülevaade AS-i Eesti Raudtee side- ja turvanguameti tegevusest 2003. aastal. Skeem

  13. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia) (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  14. Side Effects of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsun eRiaz


    Full Text Available Limited therapeutic options are available for hepatic malignancies. Image guided targeted therapies have established their role in management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. Radioembolization with yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres is safe and efficacious for treatment of hepatic malignancies. The tumoricidal effect of radioembolization is predominantly due to radioactivity and not ischemia. This article will present a comprehensive review of the side effects that have been associated with radioembolization using 90Y microspheres. Some of the described side effects are associated with all transarterial procedures. Side effects specific to radioembolization will also be discussed in detail. Methods to decrease the incidence of these potential side effects will also be discussed.

  15. Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstructionin right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstructionin right crossed fused ectopia with extrarenal calycesmasquerading as massive retroperitoneal urinoma in acase of blunt trauma abdomen: A diagnostic enigma andnovel approach of management.

  16. Study Highlights the Beauty Industry's Ugly Side (United States)

    ... html Study Highlights the Beauty Industry's Ugly Side Cosmetics, personal care products get little regulatory scrutiny To ... found that's not always the case. And, because cosmetics are woefully underregulated in the United States, and ...

  17. [Repair of deep wound on thumb using island flap from dorsoulnar side of thumb]. (United States)

    Zhu Haitao; Cao, Yujue; Wan, Lin; Jiang, Jiulong


    To study the effect of island flap from dorsoulnar side of thumb in repairing deep wound on thumb. Twenty-two patients with deep wound on thumb were hospitalized from May 2007 to December 2013. The wounds ranged from 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm to 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm in area. Island flap of dorsoulnar thumb was used to repair these defects, with flap area ranging from 2.1 cm x 1.6 cm to 4.1 cm x 2.6 cm. All the donor sites were closed by transplantation of full-thickness skin from upper medial arm. All flaps survived with good blood supply. All deep wounds of thumb were closed. Skin grafts of donor sites all survived. Patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months. The texture, color, and shape of all flaps were satisfactory, and functions of injured thumbs recovered well. Transplantation of island flap from dorsoulnar side of thumb can be performed easily with high survival rate and satisfactory configuration, and it is suitable for repairing deep wound of thumb.

  18. Controlling Side Chain Density of Electron Donating Polymers for Improving VOC in Polymer Solar Cells (United States)

    Kim, B. J.; Kim, K. H.; Cho, C. H.; Kang, H.; Yoon, S. C.


    The ability to tune the LUMO/HOMO levels of electroactive materials in active layer of polymer solar cells is critical in controlling their optical and electrochemical properties because the HOMO and LUMO offsets between the polymer donor and the electron acceptor strongly affect charge separation and the open circuit voltage (VOC) of a solar cell. Here, we developed two series of electroactive materials for improving VOC in polymer solar cells. First, we enable facile control over the number of solubilizing groups ultimately tethered to the fullerene by tuning the molar ratio between reactants from 1:1 to 1:3, thus producing o-xylenyl C60 mono-, bis-, and tris-adducts (OXCMA, OXCBA, and OXCTA) as electron acceptors with different LUMO levels. As the number of solubilizing groups increased, VOC values of the P3HT-based BHJ solar cells increased from 0.63, 0.83, to 0.98 V. Second, we present a series of novel poly[3-(4-n-octyl)phenylthiophene] (POPT) derivatives (POPT, POPTT, and POTQT) as electron donors with different side-chain density. As a result of lower HOMO levels by decrease in the side-chain density of the polymers, the devices consisting of POPT, POPTT, and POPQT with PCBM showed increased VOC values of 0.58, 0.63, and 0.75 V, respectively.

  19. [Anatomy character of renal artery and treatment of living-donor renal transplantation]. (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Fei, Ji-guang; Chen, Li-zhong; Wang, Chang-xi; Deng, Su-xiong; Qiu, Jiang; Li, Jun; Chen, Guo-dong; Huang, Gang


    To study the anatomy characters of renal artery and the treatment of multiple arteries in living donor renal grafts. Records of 142 living donors were analyzed in our center. We analyzed the anatomic structure of renal arteries by DSA and CTA pre-transplantation. Thirty-one kidneys with multiple arteries were transplanted after reconstruction. Then clinical effects were compared between multiple-renal-arteries group (n=31) and single-renal-artery group (n=111). The incidence of multiple renal artery was 30.99%, and there was no difference between both sides (left kidney 22.54%, right kidney 22.13%). If the multiple artery occurred in left or right kidney, the incidence of the multiple artery occurred in the other side was 56.25% and 60.00%, respectively. The diameter of left main renal artery was more magnanimous (P=0.001) and the first branch was more closed to abdominal aorta (P=0.004). Operation time and warm/cool ischemia time were longer in the multiple-renal-arteries group. However, estimated blood loss, delayed graft function, acute rejection and flow rate of arcuate artery were similar in both groups, the same as serum creatinine and serum creatinine clearance rate on day 7, 1 month and 3 month post-operation. It was shown by repeated measures ANOVA that graft with multiple arteries didn't affect the tendency of renal function at early time post-operation. Comprehending the character of renal artery and accurate treatment of multiple artery anastomosis are critical for the effect of the living kidney transplantation.

  20. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.