WorldWideScience

Sample records for psf stability afforded

  1. Affordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This entry presents the concept of affordances as part of an ecological approach to understanding how agents interact with objects in their environment. It examines some of the central developments of the concept, from J. J. Gibson’s original definition within psychology and Donald Norman’s design...

  2. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Market Stabilization. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-18

    This rule finalizes changes that will help stabilize the individual and small group markets and affirm the traditional role of State regulators. This final rule amends standards relating to special enrollment periods, guaranteed availability, and the timing of the annual open enrollment period in the individual market for the 2018 plan year; standards related to network adequacy and essential community providers for qualified health plans; and the rules around actuarial value requirements.

  3. Software (Re-)Engineering with PSF

    OpenAIRE

    Diertens, Bob

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the usefulness of PSF in software engineering and reengineering. PSF is based on ACP (Algebra of Communicating Processes) and as some architectural description languages are based on process algebra, we investigate whether PSF can be used at the software architecture level, but we also use PSF at lower abstract levels. As a case study we reengineer the compiler from the Toolkit of PSF.

  4. Preparation and characterization of phosphorylated Zr-doped hybrid silica/PSF composite membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuqing, E-mail: zhangyuqing@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, AIBN and School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Jin Zhenhua; Shan Xing [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Sunarso, Jaka [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, AIBN and School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Cui Ping [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Polysulfone (PSF) membranes are broadly applied in many fields owing to good physicochemical stability, resistance to oxidation and chlorine. But when treated with wastewater containing oil, PSF membranes are easy to be contaminated for its hydrophobicity, which can result in the declining of flux and lifespan of the membrane and limit their application in large scale. To enhance the capability of PSF membrane in the above circumstances, phosphorylated Zr-doped hybrid silica particles (SZP particles) were firstly prepared. SZP particles have various point defects inside their structure and lots of hydroxide radicals on their surface. SZP particles were added to the porous matrix of PSF to prepare a novel composite membrane (SZP/PSF) through a phase inversion process. Finally, the optimum preparation conditions of SZP/PSF composite membranes were determined. The optimum conditions are: the mass ratio of PSF, PEG400 and SZP is 12:10:10; ultrasound 10 min inside each 30 min; the pre-evaporating time is 10 s. Optimized SZP/PSF composite membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and ultrafiltration experiment. The results indicate that SZP particles can be uniformly dispersed in SZP/PSF composite membranes with excellent hydrophilic property, antifouling capability and tensile strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that the optimized SZP/PSF composite membrane is desirable in the treatment of wastewater containing oil and wastewater.

  5. 78 FR 65045 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...). Specifically, this final rule outlines financial integrity and oversight standards with respect to Affordable...). This final rule sets forth oversight and financial integrity standards with respect to Exchanges... Affordable Care Act, provides the Secretary with the authority to oversee financial integrity, compliance...

  6. 78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148) and the Health Care and Education... to undertake certain recordkeeping and self-auditing activities to ensure compliance with Federal requirements, such as those governing eligibility determinations for advance payments of the premium tax [[Page...

  7. Modeling and Correcting the Time-Dependent ACS PSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Albert, Justin; Taylor, James E.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Leauthaud, Alexie

    2006-01-01

    The ability to accurately measure the shapes of faint objects in images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) depends upon detailed knowledge of the Point Spread Function (PSF). We show that thermal fluctuations cause the PSF of the ACS Wide Field Camera (WFC) to vary over time. We describe a modified version of the TinyTim PSF modeling software to create artificial grids of stars across the ACS field of view at a range of telescope focus values. These models closely resemble the stars in real ACS images. Using 10 bright stars in a real image, we have been able to measure HST s apparent focus at the time of the exposure. TinyTim can then be used to model the PSF at any position on the ACS field of view. This obviates the need for images of dense stellar fields at different focus values, or interpolation between the few observed stars. We show that residual differences between our TinyTim models and real data are likely due to the effects of Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) degradation. Furthermore, we discuss stochastic noise that is added to the shape of point sources when distortion is removed, and we present MultiDrizzle parameters that are optimal for weak lensing science. Specifically, we find that reducing the MultiDrizzle output pixel scale and choosing a Gaussian kernel significantly stabilizes the resulting PSF after image combination, while still eliminating cosmic rays/bad pixels, and correcting the large geometric distortion in the ACS. We discuss future plans, which include more detailed study of the effects of CTE degradation on object shapes and releasing our TinyTim models to the astronomical community.

  8. Snm1B interacts with PSF2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R Stringer

    Full Text Available The protein Snm1B plays a key role in interstrand crosslink (ICL repair. In a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified the protein PSF2 to bind Snm1B. PSF2 is a member of the GINS complex involved in replication initiation and elongation, and is known to play a role in ICL repair. Snm1B was shown to bind PSF2 in human cells through two regions, strongly to a 144 amino acid N-terminal region and weakly to a second smaller 37 amino acid C-terminal region. Ectopic expression of PSF2 increased the amount of Mus81, a protein component of the endonucleolytic complex involved in ICL repair, co-immunoprecipitating with Snm1B. Moreover, deleting the N-terminal, but not C-terminal region of Snm1B reduced the amount of co-immunoprecipitated Mus81. Conversely, the telomere-binding protein TRF2 competed with PSF2 for binding to the C-terminus of Snm1B, and deletion of this region, but not the N-terminal region, reduced Snm1B chromatin association. We speculate that the N-terminal region of Snm1B forms a complex containing PSF2 and Mus81, while the C-terminal region is important for PSF2-mediated chromatin association.

  9. FRIDA integral field spectroscopy PSF quality simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Salvador

    2014-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a cryogenic and diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. This instrument will be installed at Nasmyth B station, behind the GTC Adaptive Optics system (GTCAO). FRIDA will provide the IFS mode using a 30 slices Integral Field Unit (IFU). This IFU design is based on University of Florida FISICA where the mirror block arrays are diamond turned on monolithic metal blocks. FRIDA IFU is conformed mainly by 2 mirror blocks with 30 spherical mirrors each. The image slicing is performed by a block of 30 cylindrical mirrors each of 400 μm width. It also has a Schwarzschild relay based on two off axis spherical mirrors that adapts the GTCAO corrected PSF to the slicer mirrors dimensions. To readapt the sliced PSF to the spectrograph input numerical aperture the IFU has an afocal system of two parabolic off axis mirrors. The AO PSF is bigger than the slice mirror dimensions and this produces diffraction effects. These diffraction effects combined with the intrinsic IFU and spectrograph aberrations produce the final instrumental PSF of the IFS mode. In order to evaluate the instrumental PSF quality of the FRIDA IFS, modeling simulations were performed by the ZEMAX Physical Optics Propagation (POP) module. In this work the simulations are described and the PSF quality and uniformity on a reconstructed IFS image is evaluated. It is shown the PSF quality of the IFS mode including the instrument manufacturing tolerances fulfills the specifications.

  10. The affordances of broken affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Martin Gielsgaard; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2015-01-01

    We consider the use of physical and virtual objects having one or more affordances associated to simple interactions with them. Based on Kaptelinin and Nardi’s notion of instrumental affordance, we investigate what it means to break an affordance, and the two ensuing questions we deem most...... important: how users may (i) achieve their goals in the presence of such broken affordances, and may (ii) repurpose or otherwise interact with artefacts with broken affordances. We argue that (A) thorough analyses of breakdowns of affordances and their associated signifiers and feedbacks have implication...... for design, particularly so for virtual artefacts, and that (B) there is a largely unexplored design space for designing, and redesigning objects with broken affordances, rather than broken or decayed objects....

  11. Affordances revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Nina Bonderup

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a renewed look at the concept of "affordance." It points out that the concept is being used within the CSCL community in ways which signify an underlying disagreement concerning the exact ontological nature and epistemological status of an "affordance." Such disagreement, it is...

  12. A Study of PSF Models for ACS/WFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S. L.; Anderson, J.

    2017-10-01

    This study compares PSFs generated with Tiny Tim against an empirically-derived, effective PSF (Anderson & King, 2006) for the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel imaging. We manipulate the Tiny Tim PSF FITS files into a format that can be utilized by the effective PSF FORTRAN photometry code. Then we perform PSF photometry on globular cluster NGC 6397 and analyze the photometry and astrometry results. We measure a value of 0.227 ± 0.032 for a quality-of-fit metric of the Tiny Tim PSF and a corresponding 0.117 ± 0.021 for the effective PSFs, an improvement of a factor of approximately two. We find that the effective PSF models outperform the Tiny Tim PSFs in every measurement of stellar sources in this field.

  13. Generalized PSF modeling for optimized quantitation in PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafinia, Saeed; Mohy-ud-Din, Hassan; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Jha, Abhinav K.; Casey, Michael E.; Kadrmas, Dan J.; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-06-01

    Point-spread function (PSF) modeling offers the ability to account for resolution degrading phenomena within the PET image generation framework. PSF modeling improves resolution and enhances contrast, but at the same time significantly alters image noise properties and induces edge overshoot effect. Thus, studying the effect of PSF modeling on quantitation task performance can be very important. Frameworks explored in the past involved a dichotomy of PSF versus no-PSF modeling. By contrast, the present work focuses on quantitative performance evaluation of standard uptake value (SUV) PET images, while incorporating a wide spectrum of PSF models, including those that under- and over-estimate the true PSF, for the potential of enhanced quantitation of SUVs. The developed framework first analytically models the true PSF, considering a range of resolution degradation phenomena (including photon non-collinearity, inter-crystal penetration and scattering) as present in data acquisitions with modern commercial PET systems. In the context of oncologic liver FDG PET imaging, we generated 200 noisy datasets per image-set (with clinically realistic noise levels) using an XCAT anthropomorphic phantom with liver tumours of varying sizes. These were subsequently reconstructed using the OS-EM algorithm with varying PSF modelled kernels. We focused on quantitation of both SUVmean and SUVmax, including assessment of contrast recovery coefficients, as well as noise-bias characteristics (including both image roughness and coefficient of-variability), for different tumours/iterations/PSF kernels. It was observed that overestimated PSF yielded more accurate contrast recovery for a range of tumours, and typically improved quantitative performance. For a clinically reasonable number of iterations, edge enhancement due to PSF modeling (especially due to over-estimated PSF) was in fact seen to lower SUVmean bias in small tumours. Overall, the results indicate that exactly matched PSF

  14. Generalized PSF modeling for optimized quantitation in PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafinia, Saeed; Mohy-Ud-Din, Hassan; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Jha, Abhinav K; Casey, Michael E; Kadrmas, Dan J; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-06-21

    Point-spread function (PSF) modeling offers the ability to account for resolution degrading phenomena within the PET image generation framework. PSF modeling improves resolution and enhances contrast, but at the same time significantly alters image noise properties and induces edge overshoot effect. Thus, studying the effect of PSF modeling on quantitation task performance can be very important. Frameworks explored in the past involved a dichotomy of PSF versus no-PSF modeling. By contrast, the present work focuses on quantitative performance evaluation of standard uptake value (SUV) PET images, while incorporating a wide spectrum of PSF models, including those that under- and over-estimate the true PSF, for the potential of enhanced quantitation of SUVs. The developed framework first analytically models the true PSF, considering a range of resolution degradation phenomena (including photon non-collinearity, inter-crystal penetration and scattering) as present in data acquisitions with modern commercial PET systems. In the context of oncologic liver FDG PET imaging, we generated 200 noisy datasets per image-set (with clinically realistic noise levels) using an XCAT anthropomorphic phantom with liver tumours of varying sizes. These were subsequently reconstructed using the OS-EM algorithm with varying PSF modelled kernels. We focused on quantitation of both SUVmean and SUVmax, including assessment of contrast recovery coefficients, as well as noise-bias characteristics (including both image roughness and coefficient of-variability), for different tumours/iterations/PSF kernels. It was observed that overestimated PSF yielded more accurate contrast recovery for a range of tumours, and typically improved quantitative performance. For a clinically reasonable number of iterations, edge enhancement due to PSF modeling (especially due to over-estimated PSF) was in fact seen to lower SUVmean bias in small tumours. Overall, the results indicate that exactly matched PSF

  15. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  16. A novel SURE-based criterion for parametric PSF estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Blu, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    We propose an unbiased estimate of a filtered version of the mean squared error--the blur-SURE (Stein's unbiased risk estimate)--as a novel criterion for estimating an unknown point spread function (PSF) from the degraded image only. The PSF is obtained by minimizing this new objective functional over a family of Wiener processings. Based on this estimated blur kernel, we then perform nonblind deconvolution using our recently developed algorithm. The SURE-based framework is exemplified with a number of parametric PSF, involving a scaling factor that controls the blur size. A typical example of such parametrization is the Gaussian kernel. The experimental results demonstrate that minimizing the blur-SURE yields highly accurate estimates of the PSF parameters, which also result in a restoration quality that is very similar to the one obtained with the exact PSF, when plugged into our recent multi-Wiener SURE-LET deconvolution algorithm. The highly competitive results obtained outline the great potential of developing more powerful blind deconvolution algorithms based on SURE-like estimates.

  17. Relative benefit of TLIF versus PSF stratified by diagnostic indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Roger Kirk; Carreon, Leah Y; Djurasovic, Mladen; Glassman, Steven D

    2014-05-01

    Case-matched retrospective. The purpose of this study is to compare 2-year health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes of patients who underwent 1-level or 2-level posterolateral spine fusion (PSF) versus transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis, disk pathology, and postdecompression instability. The optimal surgical technique for patients with spondylolisthesis or other degenerative conditions has not been defined. Historically, PSF was the most common procedure, whereas in recent years TLIF has gained popularity. Although theoretical advantages for TLIF have been outlined, evidence for improved outcomes with the addition of interbody support is limited. Patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, with disk pathology and or postdecompression instability who underwent 1-level or 2-level TLIF and completed 2 years postoperative HRQOL measures were identified from a prospective database. These patients were then propensity-matched to a cohort of PSF patients based on age, number of surgical levels, body mass index, sex, smoking status, workers' compensation status, and preoperative outcome measures including the Oswestry Disability Index, SF-36 Physical Component Summary score, SF-36 Mental Composite Summary score, and back and leg pain scores. This produced 63 matched pairs with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 46 with disk pathology and 32 with postdecompression instability. All patients in both groups for each cohort reported statistically significant improvement in HRQOL scores at 2 years postoperatively compared with baseline. Improvements in the Oswestry Disability Index, SF-36 Physical Component Summary score, and back and leg pain scores within the spondylolisthesis and disk pathology subgroups were similar between patients who had a TLIF compared with those who had a PSF. The postdecompression instability subgroup was the only subgroup in which TLIF outperformed PSF for every outcome measure. Clinical outcome was not

  18. Hacking RNA: Hakai promotes tumorigenesis by enhancing the RNA-binding function of PSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Angélica; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Gorospe, Myriam

    2009-11-15

    Hakai, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for the E-cadherin complex, plays a crucial role in lowering cell-cell contacts in epithelial cells, a hallmark feature of tumor progression. Recently, Hakai was also found to interact with PSF (PTB-associated splicing factor). While PSF can function as a DNA-binding protein with a tumor suppressive function, its association with Hakai promotes PSF's RNA-binding ability and post-transcriptional influence on target mRNAs. Hakai overexpression enhanced the binding of PSF to mRNAs encoding cancer-related proteins, while knockdown of Hakai reduced the RNA-binding ability of PSF. Furthermore, the knockdown of PSF suppressed Hakai-induced cell proliferation. Thus, Hakai can affect the oncogenic phenotype both by altering E-cadherin-based intercellular adhesions and by increasing PSF's ability to bind RNAs that promote cancer-related gene expression.

  19. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  20. Historicizing affordance theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....

  1. Image PSF-matching and subtraction: a powerful astronomical technique and its application to industrial imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Raymond F.; O'Tuairisg, Seathrun; Shearer, Andrew; Golden, Aaron

    2003-03-01

    There is a family of difficult image-processing scenarios which involve seeking out and quantifying minute changes within a sequence of near-identical images. Traditionally these have been dealt with by carefully registering the images in terms of position, orientiation and intensity, and subtracting them from some template image. However, for critical measurements, this approach breaks down if the point-spread-functions (PSFs) vary even slightly from image to image. Subtraction of registered images whose PSFs are not matched leads to considerable residual structure, which may be mistakenly interpreted as real features rather than processing artefacts. In astronomy, software known as ISIS has been developed to fully PSF-match image sequences and to facilitate their analysis. We show here the tremendous improvement in detection rates and measurement accuracy which ISIS has afforded in our program for the study of rare variable stars in dense, globular star clusters. We discuss the genesis from this work of our new program to use ISIS to search for extra-solar planets in transit across the face of stars in such clusters. Finally we illustrate an application of ISIS in the industrial imaging sector, showing how it can be used to detect minute faults in images of products.

  2. Preparation, characterization and gas permeation study of PSf/MgO nanocomposite membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Momeni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite membranes composed of polymer and inorganic nanoparticles are a novel method to enhance gas separation performance. In this study, membranes were fabricated from polysulfone (PSf containing magnesium oxide (MgO nanoparticles and gas permeation properties of the resulting membranes were investigated. Membranes were prepared by solution blending and phase inversion methods. Morphology of the membranes, void formations, MgO distribution and aggregates were observed by SEM analysis. Furthermore, thermal stability, residual solvent in the membrane film and structural ruination of membranes were analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The effects of MgO nanoparticles on the glass transition temperature (Tg of the prepared nanocomposites were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The Tg of nanocomposite membranes increased with MgO loading. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra of nanocomposite membranes were analyzed to identify the variations of the bonds. The results obtained from gas permeation experiments with a constant pressure setup showed that adding MgO nanoparticles to the polymeric membrane structure increased the permeability of the membranes. At 30 wt% MgO loading, the CO2 permeability was enhanced from 25.75×10-16 to 47.12×10-16 mol.m/(m².s.Pa and the CO2/CH4 selectivity decreased from 30.84 to 25.65 when compared with pure PSf. For H2, the permeability was enhanced from 44.05×10-16 to 67.3×10-16 mol.m/(m².s.Pa, whereas the H2/N2 selectivity decreased from 47.11 to 33.58.

  3. Fast computation of far-field pulse-echo PSF of arbitrary arrays for large sparse 2-D ultrasound array design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Chi, Cheng

    2017-10-10

    Large wideband two-dimensional (2-D) arrays are essential for high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging. Since the tremendous element number of a full sampled large 2-D array is not affordable in any practical 3-D ultrasound imaging system, it is necessary to reduce the element number through sparse 2-D array design. Sparse array design requires that both the positions and weights of the array elements should be arbitrarily alterable. Hence a proper evaluation tool that can deal with arbitrary array is integral to optimizing the array structure and apodization function. It is known that pulse-echo point spread function (PSF) has been a common tool used to evaluate the performance of wideband arrays in ultrasound imaging all along, which also plays an important role in wideband ultrasound simulations. However, so far the conventional ultrasound simulation tools can only calculate pulse-echo PSF of arbitrary wideband arrays in the time domain because of the existence of nonuniform nodes in the spatial impulse response expressions, which obstructs their application of FFT to do fast computation of the time-domain convolutions. As a result, ultra-high time consumption of pulse-echo PSF computation of a large arbitrary wideband array hampers it to be taken as the evaluation tool by any stochastic optimization methods which need massive iterations in designing large sparse 2-D arrays. This paper aims to make available the pulse-echo PSF tool in designing large sparse 2-D arrays by proposing a fast computation method of far-field pulse-echo PSFs of arbitrary wideband arrays. In the paper, fast computation of wideband spatial impulse responses of a 2-D array is first realized in frequency domain by employing the nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT), under the point source assumption in far-field. On the basis of that, fast computation of time-domain convolutions is made possible by using FFT. In addition, a short inverse FFT (IFFT) is applied in

  4. Springer's Buys at Afford-able Price

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Springer's Buys at Affordable Price. B Sury. Book Review Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 91-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/01/0091-0092. Author Affiliations. B Sury ...

  5. In-flight PSF calibration of the NuSTAR hard X-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Hongjun; Madsen, Kristin K.; Westergaard, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of the point spread function (PSF) calibration of the hard X-ray optics of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Immediately post-launch, NuSTAR has observed bright point sources such as Cyg X-1, Vela X-1, and Her X-1 for the PSF calibration. We use the point source...

  6. Photometric techniques, performance and PSF characterization of GeMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Paolo; McConnachie, Alan W.; Stetson, Peter B.; Andersen, David R.; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Massari, Davide

    2016-07-01

    GeMS is the multi-conjugate adaptive optics instrument at the Gemini South telescope in Chile, the first facility-class MCAO system and the first to use laser guide stars. During its science verification period we have observed the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 and here we discuss the optimization of the analysis techniques that we adopt to extract science-ready photometric measurements. We use the large number of stars in the field of view to determine with high accuracy the PSF model for the profile fitting photometry. Understanding the correct techniques not only has proven useful with GeMS data but will be valuable on the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes, where MCAO will be a central technology.

  7. Inviting affordances and agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; Araujo, Duarte; de Poel, Harjo J.

    Recently several authors have suggested that affordances are not mere possibilities for action but can also invite behavior. This reconceptualization of affordances asks for a reconsideratioh of the ecological approach to agency. After a portrayal of the role of agency in ecological psychology, we

  8. Affordance in Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Chisalita, Cristina; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Rizzo, Antonio; Grote, Gudela; Wong, William

    2006-01-01

    The concept of affordance has different interpretations in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). However, its treatment has been merely as a one-to-one relationship between a user and a technology. We believe that a broader view of affordances is needed which encompasses social and cultural

  9. Analysis of Operators Comments on the PSF Questionnaire of the Task Complexity Experiment 2003/2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralba, B.; Martinez-Arias, R.

    2007-07-01

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods usually take into account the effect of Performance Shaping Factors (PSF). Therefore, the adequate treatment of PSFs in HRA of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models has a crucial importance. There is an important need for collecting PSF data based on simulator experiments. During the task complexity experiment 2003-2004, carried out in the BWR simulator of Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB), there was a data collection on PSF by means of a PSF Questionnaire. Seven crews (composed of shift supervisor, reactor operator and turbine operator) from Swedish Nuclear Power Plants participated in the experiment. The PSF Questionnaire collected data on the factors: procedures, training and experience, indications, controls, team management, team communication, individual work practice, available time for the tasks, number of tasks or information load, masking and seriousness. The main statistical significant results are presented on Performance Shaping Factors data collection and analysis of the task complexity experiment 2003/2004 (HWR-810). The analysis of the comments about PSFs, which were provided by operators on the PSF Questionnaire, is described. It has been summarised the comments provided for each PSF on the scenarios, using a content analysis technique. (Author)

  10. Characterization and complete genome sequence of the Shigella bacteriophage pSf-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jin Woo; Kim, Ji Hyung; Shin, Sang Phil; Han, Jee Eun; Chai, Ji Young; Park, Se Chang

    2013-12-01

    Shigellosis is a global health problem, and Shigella flexneri is the major cause of this disease. In this study, we isolated a virulent Siphoviridae bacteriophage (phage), pSf-1, that infects S. flexneri. This phage was isolated from the Han River in Korea and was found to infect S. flexneri, Shigella boydii, and Shigella sonnei. One-step growth analysis revealed that this phage has a short latent period (10 min) and a large burst size (86.86 PFU/cell), indicating that pSf-1 has good host infectivity and effective lytic activity. The double-stranded DNA genome of pSf-1 is composed of 51,821 bp with a G + C content of 44.02%. The genome encodes 94 putative ORFs, 71 putative promoters, and 60 transcriptional terminator regions. Genome sequence analysis of pSf-1 and comparative analysis with the homologous Shigella phage Shfl1 revealed that there is a high degree of similarity between pSf-1 and Shfl1 in 54 of the 94 ORFs of pSf-1. The results of this investigation indicate that pSf-1 is a novel Shigella phage and that this phage might have potential uses against shigellosis. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Murine hematopoietic stem cell dormancy controlled by induction of a novel short form of PSF1 by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yinglu; Gong, Zhi-Yuan [Department of Signal Transduction, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takakura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ntakaku@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Signal Transduction, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science Technology Agency, CREST, K' s Gobancho, 7, Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2015-06-10

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can survive long-term in a state of dormancy. Little is known about how histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect HSC kinetics. Here, we use trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to enforce histone acetylation and show that this suppresses cell cycle entry by dormant HSCs. Previously, we found that haploinsufficiency of PSF1, a DNA replication factor, led to attenuation of the bone marrow (BM) HSC pool size and lack of acute proliferation after 5-FU ablation. Because PSF1 protein is present in CD34{sup +} transiently amplifying HSCs but not in CD34{sup −} long-term reconstituting-HSCs which are resting in a dormant state, we analyzed the relationship between dormancy and PSF1 expression, and how a histone deacetylase inhibitor affects this. We found that CD34{sup +} HSCs produce long functional PSF1 (PSF1a) but CD34{sup −} HSCs produce a shorter possibly non-functional PSF1 (PSF1b, c, dominantly PSF1c). Using PSF1a-overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells in which the endogenous PSF1 promoter is suppressed, we found that TSA treatment promotes production of the shorter form of PSF1 possibly by inducing recruitment of E2F family factors upstream of the PSF1 transcription start site. Our data document one mechanism by which histone deacetylase inhibitors affect the dormancy of HSCs by regulating the DNA replication factor PSF1. - Highlights: • Hematopoetic stem cell dormancy is controlled by histone deacetylation inhibitors. • Dormancy of HSCs is associated with a shorter form of non-functional PSF1. • Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress PSF1 promoter activity.

  12. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  13. Tratamiento formal de imágenes astronómicas con PSF espacialmente variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B. O.; Domínguez, M. J.; Lares, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present a python implementation of a method for PSF determination in the context of optimal subtraction of astronomical images. We introduce an expansion of the spatially variant point spread function (PSF) in terms of the Karhunen Loève basis. The advantage of this approach is that the basis is able to naturally adapt to the data, instead of imposing a fixed ad-hoc analytic form. Simulated image reconstruction was analyzed, by using the measured PSF, with good agreement in terms of sky background level between the reconstructed and original images. The technique is simple enough to be implemented on more sophisticated image subtraction methods, since it improves its results without extra computational cost in a spatially variant PSF environment.

  14. Implementation and Application of PSF-Based EPI Distortion Correction to High Field Animal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the functionality and performance of a PSF-based geometric distortion correction for high-field functional animal EPI. The EPI method was extended to measure the PSF and a postprocessing chain was implemented in Matlab for offline distortion correction. The correction procedure was applied to phantom and in vivo imaging of mice and rats at 9.4T using different SE-EPI and DWI-EPI protocols. Results show the significant improvement in image quality for single- and multishot EPI. Using a reduced FOV in the PSF encoding direction clearly reduced the acquisition time for PSF data by an acceleration factor of 2 or 4, without affecting the correction quality.

  15. Collaborative Affordances of Medical Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Houben, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of Collaborative Affordances to describe physical and digital properties (i.e., affordances) of an artifact, which affords coordination and collaboration in work. Collaborative Affordances build directly on Gibson (1977)’s affordance concept and extends the work...... by Sellen and Harper (2003) on the affordances of physical paper. Sellen and Harper describe how the physical properties of paper affords easy reading, navigation, mark-up, and writing, but focuses, we argue, mainly on individual use of paper and digital technology. As an extension to this, Collaborative...... Affordances focusses on the properties of physical and digital artifacts that affords collaborative activities. We apply the concept of Collaborative Affordances to the study of paper-based and electronic patient records in hospitals and detail how they afford collaboration through four types of Collaborative...

  16. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation for Weak Lensing in Short Exposure Imaging Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Marshall, P.J.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Kahn, S.M.; Gull, S.F.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    A main science goal for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is to measure the cosmic shear signal from weak lensing to extreme accuracy. One difficulty, however, is that with the short exposure time ({approx_equal}15 seconds) proposed, the spatial variation of the Point Spread Function (PSF) shapes may be dominated by the atmosphere, in addition to optics errors. While optics errors mainly cause the PSF to vary on angular scales similar or larger than a single CCD sensor, the atmosphere generates stochastic structures on a wide range of angular scales. It thus becomes a challenge to infer the multi-scale, complex atmospheric PSF patterns by interpolating the sparsely sampled stars in the field. In this paper we present a new method, psfent, for interpolating the PSF shape parameters, based on reconstructing underlying shape parameter maps with a multi-scale maximum entropy algorithm. We demonstrate, using images from the LSST Photon Simulator, the performance of our approach relative to a 5th-order polynomial fit (representing the current standard) and a simple boxcar smoothing technique. Quantitatively, psfent predicts more accurate PSF models in all scenarios and the residual PSF errors are spatially less correlated. This improvement in PSF interpolation leads to a factor of 3.5 lower systematic errors in the shear power spectrum on scales smaller than {approx} 13, compared to polynomial fitting. We estimate that with psfent and for stellar densities greater than {approx_equal}1/arcmin{sup 2}, the spurious shear correlation from PSF interpolation, after combining a complete 10-year dataset from LSST, is lower than the corresponding statistical uncertainties on the cosmic shear power spectrum, even under a conservative scenario.

  17. Is quality affordable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindfield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The question “Is quality affordable?” is loaded with dynamite!Can a person who lives on less than US $1 per day afford a high-quality cataract operation? If the answer is ‘No’, then do we offer that person poor or low-quality services? Do people living in poverty have a ‘right’ to high-quality eye or health care? If the answer is ‘Yes’, then at what price and who should pay? Should we ignore quality and focus on affordability? Or should we provide high-quality services in the hope that someone else will pay?These are difficult questions, which policy makers, managers, and clinicians must face and try to answer.

  18. Micromechanical analysis of constitutive properties of active piezoelectric structural fiber (PSF) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kenny; Dai, Qingli

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies showed that the active piezoelectric structural fiber (PSF) composites may achieve significant and simultaneous improvements in sensing/actuating, stiffness, fracture toughness and vibration damping. These characteristics can be very important in the application of civil, mechanical and aerospace structures. The PSF is fabricated by coating the piezoceramic onto the silicon carbide core fiber with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process to overcome the fragile nature of the monolithic piezoelectric materials. The PSF composite laminates are made of longitudinally poled PSFs that are unidirectionally deployed in the polymer binding matrix. The PSF laminate transducer has electrical inputs/outputs that are delivered through a separate etched interdigital electrode layer. This study analyzed the electromechanical properties with the generalized dilute scheme for active PSF composite laminate by considering multiinclusions. The well-known Mori-Tanaka approach was used to evaluate the concentration tensor in the multi-inclusion micromechanics model. To accurately predict the transverse properties, the extended role of mixtures were applied by considering the inclusions' geometry and shape. The micromechanical finite element modeling was also conducted with representative volume element (RVE) to compare with the micromechanics analysis on the electromechanical properties. The micromechanics analysis and finite element micromechanical modeling were conducted with varied fiber geometry dimensions and volume fractions. These comparison studies indicate the combined micromechanics models with the generalized dilute scheme can effectively predict the electro-elastic properties of multi-inclusion PSF composites.

  19. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  20. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  1. Non-parametric PSF estimation from celestial transit solar images using blind deconvolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Characterization of instrumental effects in astronomical imaging is important in order to extract accurate physical information from the observations. The measured image in a real optical instrument is usually represented by the convolution of an ideal image with a Point Spread Function (PSF. Additionally, the image acquisition process is also contaminated by other sources of noise (read-out, photon-counting. The problem of estimating both the PSF and a denoised image is called blind deconvolution and is ill-posed. Aims: We propose a blind deconvolution scheme that relies on image regularization. Contrarily to most methods presented in the literature, our method does not assume a parametric model of the PSF and can thus be applied to any telescope. Methods: Our scheme uses a wavelet analysis prior model on the image and weak assumptions on the PSF. We use observations from a celestial transit, where the occulting body can be assumed to be a black disk. These constraints allow us to retain meaningful solutions for the filter and the image, eliminating trivial, translated, and interchanged solutions. Under an additive Gaussian noise assumption, they also enforce noise canceling and avoid reconstruction artifacts by promoting the whiteness of the residual between the blurred observations and the cleaned data. Results: Our method is applied to synthetic and experimental data. The PSF is estimated for the SECCHI/EUVI instrument using the 2007 Lunar transit, and for SDO/AIA using the 2012 Venus transit. Results show that the proposed non-parametric blind deconvolution method is able to estimate the core of the PSF with a similar quality to parametric methods proposed in the literature. We also show that, if these parametric estimations are incorporated in the acquisition model, the resulting PSF outperforms both the parametric and non-parametric methods.

  2. Non-parametric PSF estimation from celestial transit solar images using blind deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Adriana; Delouille, Véronique; Jacques, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Context: Characterization of instrumental effects in astronomical imaging is important in order to extract accurate physical information from the observations. The measured image in a real optical instrument is usually represented by the convolution of an ideal image with a Point Spread Function (PSF). Additionally, the image acquisition process is also contaminated by other sources of noise (read-out, photon-counting). The problem of estimating both the PSF and a denoised image is called blind deconvolution and is ill-posed. Aims: We propose a blind deconvolution scheme that relies on image regularization. Contrarily to most methods presented in the literature, our method does not assume a parametric model of the PSF and can thus be applied to any telescope. Methods: Our scheme uses a wavelet analysis prior model on the image and weak assumptions on the PSF. We use observations from a celestial transit, where the occulting body can be assumed to be a black disk. These constraints allow us to retain meaningful solutions for the filter and the image, eliminating trivial, translated, and interchanged solutions. Under an additive Gaussian noise assumption, they also enforce noise canceling and avoid reconstruction artifacts by promoting the whiteness of the residual between the blurred observations and the cleaned data. Results: Our method is applied to synthetic and experimental data. The PSF is estimated for the SECCHI/EUVI instrument using the 2007 Lunar transit, and for SDO/AIA using the 2012 Venus transit. Results show that the proposed non-parametric blind deconvolution method is able to estimate the core of the PSF with a similar quality to parametric methods proposed in the literature. We also show that, if these parametric estimations are incorporated in the acquisition model, the resulting PSF outperforms both the parametric and non-parametric methods.

  3. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success......We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes...

  4. Acquiring Affordable Weapons Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    series of efforts are ongoing. New draft management directives have been prepared in OSD and the Services aimed at infusing affordability considera- tions...a greater emphasis on O&S costs during system development may result in somewhat increased development, acquisition and/or produccion costs. This...mod,,i’design/ series (M/D/S) equipments, such as the F-4E aircraft, the DLG ship, etc.) The first step within this milestone was to develop the

  5. PSF far wings and ``red halo" in the photometry of galaxies. One more source of errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, R.

    2002-03-01

    PSF far wings have been measured in UBVRi at the 120 cm Newtonian telescope of Observatoire de Haute Provence, during 3 observing runs in 2000-1. The choice of appropriate star fields allowed us to extend the measurements up to a radius of nearly 3 arcmin, and down to a level of about 0.5*E-6 of the central peak. It was found that these wings, farther than a radius of 15 arcsec, do not change with atmospheric seeing, but are dependent on the spectral passband and the time elapsed since the coating of the mirrors. The most prominent spectral effect is the ``red halo" occurring with thinned CCDs, but PSF wings in U, B, and R may also stand above the V light wings. All PSF wings were greatly reinforced after 10 months of mirror ageing. The consequences of the far PSF wings for galaxy surface photometry and colorimetry have been studied by convolution of models with the measured PSF. Gray models of E-type objects acquire spurious colour gradients, large enough in V-i to reverse the classically measured ones, and sufficient in U-B or U-V to significantly bias the results. The colours along the major and minor axis are unequally affected for flattened objects. Experiments with a model of the lenticular NGC 3115 show that spurious disk colours may also be introduced. It has been verified that the effects of the ``red halo" on V-i colour gradients may be corrected by convolving the frame i with the V PSF and conversely, before measuring the colour distribution. The same is true for the lesser effects in other colours. These ``corrections" are made at the expense of resolution and cause further uncertainties in the results. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence.

  6. The splicing factor proline-glutamine rich (SFPQ/PSF is involved in influenza virus transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Landeras-Bueno

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The influenza A virus RNA polymerase is a heterotrimeric complex responsible for viral genome transcription and replication in the nucleus of infected cells. We recently carried out a proteomic analysis of purified polymerase expressed in human cells and identified a number of polymerase-associated cellular proteins. Here we characterise the role of one such host factors, SFPQ/PSF, during virus infection. Down-regulation of SFPQ/PSF by silencing with two independent siRNAs reduced the virus yield by 2-5 log in low-multiplicity infections, while the replication of unrelated viruses as VSV or Adenovirus was almost unaffected. As the SFPQ/PSF protein is frequently associated to NonO/p54, we tested the potential implication of the latter in influenza virus replication. However, down-regulation of NonO/p54 by silencing with two independent siRNAs did not affect virus yields. Down-regulation of SFPQ/PSF by siRNA silencing led to a reduction and delay of influenza virus gene expression. Immunofluorescence analyses showed a good correlation between SFPQ/PSF and NP levels in infected cells. Analysis of virus RNA accumulation in silenced cells showed that production of mRNA, cRNA and vRNA is reduced by more than 5-fold but splicing is not affected. Likewise, the accumulation of viral mRNA in cicloheximide-treated cells was reduced by 3-fold. In contrast, down-regulation of SFPQ/PSF in a recombinant virus replicon system indicated that, while the accumulation of viral mRNA is reduced by 5-fold, vRNA levels are slightly increased. In vitro transcription of recombinant RNPs generated in SFPQ/PSF-silenced cells indicated a 4-5-fold reduction in polyadenylation but no alteration in cap snatching. These results indicate that SFPQ/PSF is a host factor essential for influenza virus transcription that increases the efficiency of viral mRNA polyadenylation and open the possibility to develop new antivirals targeting the accumulation of primary transcripts, a very

  7. Validation of PSF-based 3D reconstruction for myocardial blood flow measurements with Rb-82 PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Christensen, Nana Louise; Møller, Lone W.

    Aim:The use of PSF-based 3D reconstruction algorithms (PSF) is desirable in most clinical PET-exams due to their superior image quality. Rb-82 cardiac PET is inherently noisy due to short half-life and prompt gammas and would presumably benefit from PSF. However, the quantitative behavior of PSF...... is not well validated and problems with both edge-effects and unphysical contrast-recovery have been reported.1 In this study, we compare myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) obtained using GEs implementation of PSF, SharpIR, with the conventional method for reconstruction of dynamic...... images, filtered backprojection (FBP). Furthermore, since myocardial segmentation might be affected by image quality, two different approaches to segmentation implemented in standard software (Carimas (Turku PET Centre) and QPET (Cedar Sinai)) are utilized. Method:14 dynamic rest-stress Rb-82 patient...

  8. Distortion Correction in EPI Using an Extended PSF Method with a Reversed Phase Gradient Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Myung-Ho; Posnansky, Oleg; Beall, Erik B.; Lowe, Mark J.; Speck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    In echo-planar imaging (EPI), such as commonly used for functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), compressed distortion is a more difficult challenge than local stretching as spatial information can be lost in strongly compressed areas. In addition, the effects are more severe at ultra-high field (UHF) such as 7T due to increased field inhomogeneity. To resolve this problem, two EPIs with opposite phase-encoding (PE) polarity were acquired and combined after distortion correction. For distortion correction, a point spread function (PSF) mapping method was chosen due to its high correction accuracy and extended to perform distortion correction of both EPIs with opposite PE polarity thus reducing the PSF reference scan time. Because the amount of spatial information differs between the opposite PE datasets, the method was further extended to incorporate a weighted combination of the two distortion-corrected images to maximize the spatial information content of a final corrected image. The correction accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated in distortion-corrected data using both forward and reverse phase-encoded PSF reference data and compared with the reversed gradient approaches suggested previously. Further we demonstrate that the extended PSF method with an improved weighted combination can recover local distortions and spatial information loss and be applied successfully not only to spin-echo EPI, but also to gradient-echo EPIs acquired with both PE directions to perform geometrically accurate image reconstruction. PMID:25707006

  9. Spatial resolution of the HRRT PET scanner using 3D-OSEM PSF reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Sibomana, Merence; Keller, Sune Høgild

    2009-01-01

    The spatial resolution of the Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) dedicated brain PET scanner installed at Copenhagen University Hospital (Rigshospitalet) was measured using a point-source phantom with high statistics. Further, it was demonstrated how the newly developed 3D-OSEM PSF...

  10. Relative role of motion and PSF compensation in whole-body oncologic PET-MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petibon, Yoann; Syrkina, Aleksandra [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Huang, Chuan; Ouyang, Jinsong; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges, E-mail: elfakhri@pet.mgh.harvard.edu [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Reese, Timothy G. [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 Thirteenth Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory motion and partial-volume effects are the two main sources of image degradation in whole-body PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR allows measurement of respiratory motion using MRI while collecting PET events. Improved PET images may be obtained by modeling respiratory motion and point spread function (PSF) within the PET iterative reconstruction process. In this study, the authors assessed the relative impact of PSF modeling and MR-based respiratory motion correction in phantoms and patient studies using a whole-body PET-MR scanner. Methods: An asymmetric exponential PSF model accounting for radially varying and axial detector blurring effects was obtained from point source acquisitions performed in the PET-MR scanner. A dedicated MRI acquisition protocol using single-slice steady state free-precession MR acquisitions interleaved with pencil-beam navigator echoes was developed to track respiratory motion during PET-MR studies. An iterative ordinary Poisson fully 3D OSEM PET reconstruction algorithm modeling all the physical effects of the acquisition (attenuation, scatters, random events, detectors efficiencies, PSF), as well as MR-based nonrigid respiratory deformations of tissues (in both emission and attenuation maps) was developed. Phantom and{sup 18}F-FDG PET-MR patient studies were performed to evaluate the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods. Results: The phantom experiment results showed that PSF modeling significantly improved contrast recovery while limiting noise propagation in the reconstruction process. In patients with soft-tissue static lesions, PSF modeling improved lesion contrast by 19.7%–109%, enhancing the detectability and assessment of small tumor foci. In a patient study with small moving hepatic lesions, the proposed reconstruction technique improved lesion contrast by 54.4%–98.1% and reduced apparent lesion size by 21.8%–34.2%. Improvements were particularly important for the smallest lesion undergoing large motion

  11. Model-based PSF and MTF estimation and validation from skeletal clinical CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakdel, Amirreza [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada); Mainprize, James G.; Robert, Normand [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Fialkov, Jeffery [Division of Plastic Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada); Whyne, Cari M., E-mail: cari.whyne@sunnybrook.ca [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Surgery, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: A method was developed to correct for systematic errors in estimating the thickness of thin bones due to image blurring in CT images using bone interfaces to estimate the point-spread-function (PSF). This study validates the accuracy of the PSFs estimated using said method from various clinical CT images featuring cortical bones. Methods: Gaussian PSFs, characterized by a different extent in the z (scan) direction than in the x and y directions were obtained using our method from 11 clinical CT scans of a cadaveric craniofacial skeleton. These PSFs were estimated for multiple combinations of scanning parameters and reconstruction methods. The actual PSF for each scan setting was measured using the slanted-slit technique within the image slice plane and the longitudinal axis. The Gaussian PSF and the corresponding modulation transfer function (MTF) are compared against the actual PSF and MTF for validation. Results: The differences (errors) between the actual and estimated full-width half-max (FWHM) of the PSFs were 0.09 ± 0.05 and 0.14 ± 0.11 mm for the xy and z axes, respectively. The overall errors in the predicted frequencies measured at 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, and 5% MTF levels were 0.06 ± 0.07 and 0.06 ± 0.04 cycles/mm for the xy and z axes, respectively. The accuracy of the estimates was dependent on whether they were reconstructed with a standard kernel (Toshiba's FC68, mean error of 0.06 ± 0.05 mm, MTF mean error 0.02 ± 0.02 cycles/mm) or a high resolution bone kernel (Toshiba's FC81, PSF FWHM error 0.12 ± 0.03 mm, MTF mean error 0.09 ± 0.08 cycles/mm). Conclusions: The method is accurate in 3D for an image reconstructed using a standard reconstruction kernel, which conforms to the Gaussian PSF assumption but less accurate when using a high resolution bone kernel. The method is a practical and self-contained means of estimating the PSF in clinical CT images featuring cortical bones, without the need phantoms or any prior knowledge

  12. Actant affordances: a brief history of affordance theory and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affordance theory provides a useful lens to explore the action opportunities that arise between users and technology, especially in education. However developments in the theory have resulted both in confusion and misapplication, due partly to issues related to affordance theory's ontology. This paper outlines two ...

  13. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  14. Fast and accurate generation method of PSF-based system matrix for PET reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Xiao-Li; Yun, Ming-Kai; Li, Dao-Wu; Gao, Juan; Li, Mo-Han; Chai, Pei; Tang, Hao-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wei, Long

    2016-01-01

    Positional single photon incidence response (P-SPIR) theory is researched in this paper to generate more accurate PSF-contained system matrix simply and quickly. The method has been proved highly effective to improve the spatial resolution by applying to the Eplus-260 primate PET designed by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP). Simultaneously, to meet the clinical needs, GPU acceleration is put to use. Basically, P-SPIR theory takes both incidence angle and incidence position by crystal subdivision instead of only incidence angle into consideration based on Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography (GATE). The simulation conforms to the actual response distribution and can be completed rapidly within less than 1s. Furthermore,two-block penetration and normalization of the response probability are raised to fit the reality. With PSF obtained, the homogenization model is analyzed to calculate the spread distribution of bins within a few minutes for system matrix genera...

  15. PSF dedicated to estimation of displacement vectors for tissue elasticity imaging with ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebgott, Herve; Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    of the phase of the complex cross-correlation between signals extracted from the lateral direction of the ultrasound RF image. For precise displacement estimation, a linearity of the phase slope is needed as well as a high phase slope. Consequently, a particular point spread function (PSF) dedicated...... to this estimator is designed. This PSF, showing oscillations in the lateral direction, leads to synthesis of lateral RF signals. The estimation is included in a 2-D displacement vector estimation method. The improvement of this approach is evaluated quantitatively by simulation studies. A comparison with a speckle...... tracking technique is also presented. The lateral oscillations improve both the speckle tracking estimation and our 2-D estimation method. Using our dedicated images, the precision of the estimation is improved by reducing the standard deviation of the lateral displacement error by a factor of 2...

  16. THE INTEGRATION ARTICULATION BETWEEN THE EDUCATION AND HEALTH ACTIONS IN THE FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM – PSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Cavalcanti da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The article discusses the practical actions of a team of the Family Health Program-PSF in a city of the Northeastern Brazilian region and, it reveals the lack of integration/articulation of those actions with the educational dimension. The disarticulation of the team members’ knowledge of health on the theoretical, methodological and philosophical principles of PSF is pointed as one of the determinant of the little involvement of the team work with the educational area. the analysis of the collected data was accomplished through the technique of the critical Analysis of the speeches that led to the empiric category: contradiction theoretical x practice in the actions of the health teams of the Family Health Program. KEY WORDS: Health Education, Family Health Program; Public Health Nursing.

  17. Affordable Access to Space (AAS): Affordable Vehicle Avionics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA) is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center and is sponsored by Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing...

  18. Fast and accurate generation method of PSF-based system matrix for PET reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Li; Liu, Shuang-Quan; Yun, Ming-Kai; Li, Dao-Wu; Gao, Juan; Li, Mo-Han; Chai, Pei; Tang, Hao-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wei, Long

    2017-04-01

    This work investigates the positional single photon incidence response (P-SPIR) to provide an accurate point spread function (PSF)-contained system matrix and its incorporation within the image reconstruction framework. Based on the Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography (GATE) simulation, P-SPIR theory takes both incidence angle and incidence position of the gamma photon into account during crystal subdivision, instead of only taking the former into account, as in single photon incidence response (SPIR). The response distribution obtained in this fashion was validated using Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, two-block penetration and normalization of the response probability are introduced to improve the accuracy of the PSF. With the incorporation of the PSF, the homogenization model is then analyzed to calculate the spread distribution of each line-of-response (LOR). A primate PET scanner, Eplus-260, developed by the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IHEP), was employed to evaluate the proposed method. The reconstructed images indicate that the P-SPIR method can effectively mitigate the depth-of-interaction (DOI) effect, especially at the peripheral area of field-of-view (FOV). Furthermore, the method can be applied to PET scanners with any other structures and list-mode data format with high flexibility and efficiency. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81301348) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M570154)

  19. Bullying and social media affordances

    OpenAIRE

    Brailas, Alexios

    2016-01-01

    What constitutes a good and sustainabledigital living?Social media literacyCan we talk about social media intelligence?Can we talk about digital intelligence?How bullying is complicated by special social media affordances?

  20. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  1. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-blended polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane with improved stability and antimicrobial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zehai; Ye, Shuaiju; Fan, Zheng; Ren, Fanghua; Gao, Congjie [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute of Oceanic and Environmental Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science and College of Ocean, and State Key Lab Breeding Base of Green Chemical Synthesis Technology and Zhejiang Collaborative Innovation Center of Membrane Separation and Water Treatment (China); Li, Qingbiao; Li, Guoqing [Quanzhou Normal University, College of Chemistry and Life Science (China); Zhang, Guoliang, E-mail: membrane86571@163.com, E-mail: guoliangz@zjut.edu.cn [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute of Oceanic and Environmental Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science and College of Ocean, and State Key Lab Breeding Base of Green Chemical Synthesis Technology and Zhejiang Collaborative Innovation Center of Membrane Separation and Water Treatment (China)

    2015-10-15

    Polysulfone (PSF) membranes have been widely applied in water and wastewater treatment, food-processing and biomedical fields. In this study, we report the preparation of modified PSF membranes by blending PSF with Cu{sub 2}O nanowires (NWs) to improve their stability and antifouling activity. Synthesis of novel Cu{sub 2}O NWs/PSF-blended ultrafiltration membrane was achieved via phase inversion method by dispersing one-dimensional Cu{sub 2}O nanowires in PSF casting solutions. Various techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, and EDS were applied to characterize and investigate the properties of nanowires and membranes. The introduced Cu{sub 2}O nanowires can firmly be restricted into micropores of PSF membranes, and therefore, they can effectively prevent the serious leaking problem of inorganic substances in separation process. The blended PSF membranes also provided enhanced antimicrobial activity and superior permeation property compared to pure PSF membrane. The overall work can not only provide a new way for preparation of novel blended membranes with multidimensional nanomaterials, but can also be beneficial to solve the annoying problem of biofouling.

  2. Preparation of Cu2O nanowire-blended polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane with improved stability and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zehai; Ye, Shuaiju; Fan, Zheng; Ren, Fanghua; Gao, Congjie; Li, Qingbiao; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Guoliang

    2015-10-01

    Polysulfone (PSF) membranes have been widely applied in water and wastewater treatment, food-processing and biomedical fields. In this study, we report the preparation of modified PSF membranes by blending PSF with Cu2O nanowires (NWs) to improve their stability and antifouling activity. Synthesis of novel Cu2O NWs/PSF-blended ultrafiltration membrane was achieved via phase inversion method by dispersing one-dimensional Cu2O nanowires in PSF casting solutions. Various techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, and EDS were applied to characterize and investigate the properties of nanowires and membranes. The introduced Cu2O nanowires can firmly be restricted into micropores of PSF membranes, and therefore, they can effectively prevent the serious leaking problem of inorganic substances in separation process. The blended PSF membranes also provided enhanced antimicrobial activity and superior permeation property compared to pure PSF membrane. The overall work can not only provide a new way for preparation of novel blended membranes with multidimensional nanomaterials, but can also be beneficial to solve the annoying problem of biofouling.

  3. LMX1B is part of a transcriptional complex with PSPC1 and PSF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa J Hoekstra

    Full Text Available The LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lmx1b is essential for the development of the isthmic organizer and mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons. The uncoupling of Pitx3 and Th expression, in the Lmx1b null mutant, suggests that Lmx1b may act as a positional activator of the mdDA domain, eventually leading to properly differentiating mdDA neurons. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how Lmx1b functions mechanistically in this developmental process, by searching for molecular interactors of Lmx1b at the protein level. Initially, affinity-purification of LMX1B-HIS overexpressed protein in MN9D dopaminergic cells followed by mass-spectrometry analysis, resulted in the identification of PSPC1 protein as a possible binding partner of LMX1B. Subsequent immunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between LMX1B and PSPC1 in a larger protein complex also containing PSF. This complex was observed in vitro and in vivo, and we hypothesize that, via PSF and PSPC1, LMX1B may be part of the previously identified Nurr1 transcriptional complex wherein interaction with the co-repressor PSF and the transcription factor Pitx3 is needed to drive expression of Nurr1 target genes in specifying the dopaminergic phenotype. Furthermore, we identified GRLF1, DHX9, MYO1C, HSP70 and TMPO as potential LMX1B interactors. DHX9 and GRLF1 are highly expressed in the developing mdDA neuronal field, and GRLF1 and MYO1C have both been linked to neurite outgrowth. The identification of these proteins suggests that Lmx1b may act directly in the transcriptional activation of Nurr1 target genes and be involved in other processes like neurite outgrowth as well.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PSF models fits maps (Karabal+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabal, E.; Duc, P.-A.; Kuntschner, H.; Chanial, P.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Gwyn, S.

    2017-02-01

    This dataset includes the PSF models that were used to deconvolve the images and correct them from scattered light. The library includes PSFs corresponding to different full width at half maximum (FWHM) in g and r bands. They were built from stacked individual images obtained with the dithering pattern of the MATLAS large programme. Bright stars located close to the center of the stacked images were used for the modeling. The PSFs were normalized to 1, i.e. the pixel with maximum value in the image is set to 1. (2 data files).

  5. Correlating PSf Support Physicochemical Properties with the Formation of Piperazine-Based Polyamide and Evaluating the Resultant Nanofiltration Membrane Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah Belle Marie Yap Ang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane support properties influence the performance of thin-film composite nanofiltration membranes. We fabricated several polysulfone (PSf supports. The physicochemical properties of PSf were altered by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG of varying molecular weights (200–35,000 g/mol. This alteration facilitated the formation of a thin polyamide layer on the PSf surface during the interfacial polymerization reaction involving an aqueous solution of piperazine containing 4-aminobenzoic acid and an organic solution of trimesoyl chloride. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared validated the presence of PEG in the membrane support. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy illustrated that the thin-film polyamide layer morphology transformed from a rough to a smooth surface. A cross-flow filtration test indicated that a thin-film composite polyamide membrane comprising a PSf support (TFC-PEG20k with a low surface porosity, small pore size, and suitable hydrophilicity delivered the highest water flux and separation efficiency (J = 81.1 ± 6.4 L·m−2·h−1, RNa2SO4 = 91.1% ± 1.8%, and RNaCl = 35.7% ± 3.1% at 0.60 MPa. This membrane had a molecular weight cutoff of 292 g/mol and also a high rejection for negatively charged dyes. Therefore, a PSf support exhibiting suitable physicochemical properties endowed a thin-film composite polyamide membrane with high performance.

  6. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Turney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Materials and Methods Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. Results At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77% had a high PSF score (> 0.5. Of the 26 patients, 17 (65% showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42% changed from a high risk (PSF > 0.5 to a low risk (PSF 0.5 during both assessments. Conclusions The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort.

  7. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  8. Image Restoration Based on Statistic PSF Modeling for Improving the Astrometry of Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rongyu; Jia, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Space debris is a special kind of fast-moving, near-Earth objects, and it is also considered to be an interesting topic in time-domain astronomy. Optical survey is the main technique for observing space debris, which contributes much to the studies of space environment. However, due to the motion of registered objects, image degradation is critical in optical space debris observations, as it affects the efficiency of data reduction and lowers the precision of astrometry. Therefore, the image restoration in the form of deconvolution can be applied to improve the data quality and reduction accuracy. To promote the image processing and optimize the reduction, the image degradation across the field of view is modeled statistically with principal component analysis and the efficient mean point-spread function (PSF) is derived from raw images, which is further used in the image restoration. To test the efficiency and reliability, trial observations were made for both low-Earth orbital and high-Earth orbital objects. The positions of all targets were measured using our novel approach and compared with the reference positions. The performance of image restoration employing our estimated PSF was compared with several competitive approaches. The proposed image restoration outperformed the others so that the influence of image degradation was distinctly reduced, which resulted in a higher signal-to-noise ratio and more precise astrometric measurements.

  9. PSF1 (Partner of SLD Five 1) is a Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Surgery Following Preoperative Chemotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Ryu; Naito, Hisamichi; Kise, Kazuyoshi; Takara, Kazuhiro; Eino, Daisuke; Minami, Masato; Shintani, Yasushi; Funaki, Soichiro; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Kimura, Toru; Okumura, Meinoshin; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2016-11-01

    PSF1 (Partner of SLD Five 1) is an evolutionarily conserved DNA replication factor that is part of the GINS (Go, Ichi, Nii, and San) complex . The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PSF1 expression and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with surgery following preoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Sixty-nine patients with NSCLC treated with surgery following preoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy who did not achieve pathologic complete response were enrolled. The status of PSF1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and the relationship between expression of PSF1 and Ki-67 was determined, as well as correlations between PSF1 expression and prognosis. We found that 27 of 69 patients' tumors (39 %) were positive for PSF1 expression. The Ki-67 index was significantly higher in the PSF1-positive versus the PSF1-negative group (p = 0.0026). Five-year, disease-free survival of the PSF1-positive group was significantly worse (17.7 vs. 44.3 %, p = 0.0088), and the 5-year overall survival also was worse (16.6 vs. 47.2 %, p = 0.0059). Moreover, PSF1 expression was found to be a significant independent prognostic factor for shorter survival by Cox multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 2.43, 95 % confidence interval 1.27-4.60, p = 0.0076). PSF1 is a useful prognostic biomarker to stratify NSCLC patients treated with surgery following preoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.

  10. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...

  11. Affordability of Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    urgency by operational commanders and to promises by industry that “this time it’s different” for ambitious and complex new weapons concepts, that...ways to setting program affordability targets. Another related historical concept is design to cost ( DTC ), or sometimes stated more precisely as design...to unit production cost. This concept took root in DOD in the early 1970s. DTC is thus one (but as noted not the only) approach to CAIV. Like CAIV

  12. Preventive Care Benefits (Affordable Care Act)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For children Footer Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory and Policy Information For Navigators, Assisters & Partners ... gov USA.gov Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory and Policy Information For Navigators, Assisters & Partners ...

  13. Fisiognomica emozionale. Affordances, estasi, atmosfere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonino Griffero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through an atmospherological approach, primarily inspired by the so-called Aisthetik or New Aesthetics (Gernot Böhme and the New Phenomenology (Hermann Schmitz, the paper defines the atmospheric perception as a first pathemic impression and investigates the relationship between this kind of perception and the expressive qualities of the surrounding spaces. The aim is to understand atmospheres as (amodal, transmodal, sinaesthetic affordances that permeate the lived space, namely as ‘ecological’ and affective invites or meanings which are ontologically rooted in things and quasi-things.

  14. Energy efficient affordable housing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    In 1994, the Southface Energy Institute, working with support from US DOE, initiated a program to provide technical assistance to nonprofit organizations developing affordable housing in the Olympic target communities of Atlanta. The specific project goals were: Identify the barriers that nonprofit affordable housing providers face in increasing the energy and resource efficiency of affordable housing; Assist them in developing the resources to overcome these barriers; Develop specific technical materials and program models that will enable these affordable housing groups to continue to improve the energy efficiency of their programs; and, To transfer the program materials to other affordable housing providers. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas.

  15. The Affordable Housing Crisis: Residential Mobility of Poor Families and School Mobility of Poor Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    Helping poor families increase their residential stability can have direct bearing on school stability and student academic achievement. Discusses the role of housing in child and family wellbeing; residential mobility and school performance; residential mobility and housing problems; housing affordability; (federal housing policy); homeownership;…

  16. Effect of activated carbon in PSF-PEI-Ag symmetric membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Khairul Anwar Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (Psf composite membrane consist of activated carbon, polyethyleneimine and silver nitrate was prepared by phase inversion. The activated carbon (AC act as adsorbent to adsorb heavy metal present in synthetic waste water while polysulfone membrane act as support. Phase inversion was carried out on different composition of activated carbon from 0 to 0.9% while other component are remain constant. The surface morphology of composite membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM while heavy metal absorption was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. The SEM image show symmetric membrane matrix with sponge structure. The composite membrane with 0.9wt% AC has the highest water flux as well as removal of heavy metal (chromium, lead, silver and cadmium compare to composite membrane with 0.3wt% AC and 0.5wt% AC. The percentage of heavy metal reduction by composite membrane 0.9wt% AC was 35% cadmium, 19% chromium, 16% silver and 2% lead. The result indicated that the introduction of 0.9wt% AC indeed plays an important role towards enhancing the adsorption of heavy metal in water.

  17. Ser médico no PSF: formação acadêmica, perspectivas e trabalho cotidiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Jesumary Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga a formação acadêmica e a motivação de médicos do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF para atuarem na área e as vivências adquiridas. Trata-se de estudo exploratório, descritivo e qualitativo. As categorias de análise foram: carência de formação em atenção básica na escola médica e início da carreira; trabalho cotidiano do médico; visita domiciliar; relação multiprofissional na equipe; trabalho médico - realização profissional, rotatividade e falta de perspectivas; compreensão da população acerca do PSF. Os profissionais optaram pelo PSF por motivações pessoais, havendo pouco destaque e preparação para a atividade na graduação. Foi mencionada a importância dos agentes comunitários, do trabalho em grupos e das visitas domiciliares, apesar de alguns referirem impossibilidade de efetuar os dois últimos itens. Há insatisfação profissional devido a sobrecarga de trabalho, dificuldades no relacionamento multiprofissional, falta de retorno financeiro e de reconhecimento de outros profissionais e da população. Foram apontados falta de apoio e vontade política necessários ao êxito do programa. A pesquisa permitiu identificar falta de articulação entre escola médica e gestão municipal na formação de profissionais para atuação no PSF.

  18. JWST Point Spread Function Quality and Stability: Ground Testing, Integrated Modeling, and Space Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael; Van Gorkom, Kyle; Bowers, Charles W.; Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Knight, J. Scott; Lightsey, Paul; Maghami, Peiman G.; Mustelier, David; Niedner, Malcolm B.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.5 m) cryogenic segmented aperture telescope with science instruments that cover the near- and mid-infrared from 0.6-27 microns. The large aperture not only provides high photometric sensitivity, but it also enables high angular resolution across the bandpass, with a diffraction limited point spread function (PSF) at wavelengths longer than 2 microns. The JWST PSF quality and stability are intimately tied to the science capabilities as it is convolved with the astrophysical scene. However, the PSF evolves at a variety of timescales based on telescope jitter and thermal distortion as the observatory attitude is varied. We present the image quality and stability requirements, recent predictions from integrated modeling, measurements made during ground-based testing, and performance characterization activities that will be carried out as part of the commissioning process.

  19. PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF) functions as a repressor of STAT6-mediated IG{epsilon} gene transcription by recruitment of HDAC1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Lijie; Zhang, Xinyu; Fu, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of transcription requires cooperation between sequence specific transcription factors and numerous coregulatory proteins. In IL-4/IL-13 signaling several coactivators for STAT6 have been identified, but the molecular mechanisms of STAT6-mediated gene transcription are still not fully...... understood. Here we identified by proteomic approach that PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF) interacts with STAT6. In cells the interaction required IL-4 stimulation and was observed both with endogenous and ectopically expressed proteins. The ligand dependency of the interaction suggested involvement...... of phosphorylation, and IL-4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylation of PSF and STAT6. Functional analysis demonstrated that ectopic expression of PSF resulted in inhibition of STAT6-mediated gene transcriptional activation and mRNA expression of Ig heavy chain germline Ig ε, while knockdown of PSF increased...

  20. Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Friston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level.

  1. The concept of a structural affordance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Alsmith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I provide an analysis of the concept of an “affordance” that enables one to conceive of “structural affordance” as a kind of affordance relation that might hold between an agent and its body. I then review research in the science of humanoid bodily movement to indicate the empirical reality of structural affordance.

  2. 55 Actant affordances: a brief history of affordance theory and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theory's ontology. This paper outlines two competing perspectives on affordances by Gibson and Norman, before arguing that Latour's theory of 'actants' provides a ... However, while affordance theory, within the greater sociomaterial perspective, provides a ...... What are the affordances of information and communication.

  3. Rethinking Affordable Housing Delivery: An Analytical Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdullateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia currently has a housing shortage of 12 million units. Towards the year 2020, this would require an annual supply of a minimum of 2 million homes. With the current production rate, the deficits will remain over the next 100 years. The crisis will lead to poor standards of living, un-affordable rental price, high mortgage payment, abandonment, and dilapidation of the existing housing stock. Lack of affordable housing is already a source of concern among many Malaysians. The middle and lower income earners spend more than 30% of their income on rent or for mortgage payment. Housing rent or mortgage is a basic need like foods, education, clothing and health. The government has introduced various measures to address the housing deficit. Despite these measures, the housing supply and distribution gaps continue to grow. To better understand the issues, there is a need to examine how the procurement planning in the affordable housing delivery supply chain and market is formulated, explore how cost of affordable housing would be reduced, identify the user value systems in affordable housing, and identify the criteria in the current regulatory framework? For these purposes, this paper reviews the relevant literature to reach preliminary findings on the stated issues. Among the factors found accounting for housing shortages, the overwhelming factors were that of poor policies, strategies, practice, management, and finance. The findings are meaningful in framing an affordable housing delivery model. It could also be useful to stakeholders involved in affordable housing delivery in Malaysia and elsewhere.

  4. On the use of asymmetric PSF on NIR images of crowded stellar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuliana; Ferraro, Ivan; Iannicola, Giacinto; Bono, Giuseppe; Monelli, Matteo; Testa, Vincenzo; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Faccini, Marco; Gilmozzi, Roberto; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa

    2014-08-01

    We present data collected using the camera PISCES coupled with the Firt Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) mounted at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The images were collected for two different pointings by using two natural guide stars with an apparent magnitude of R ~< 13 mag. During these observations the seeing was on average ~0.9 arcsec. The AO performed very well, in fact the images display a mean FWHM of 0.05 arcsec and of 0.06 arcsec in the J- and in the Ks-band, respectively. The Strehl ratio on the quoted images reaches 13-30% (J) and 50-65% (Ks), in the off and in the central pointings respectively. On the basis of this sample we have reached a J-band limiting magnitude of ~22.5 mag and the deepest Ks-band limiting magnitude ever obtained in a crowded stellar field: Ks ~23 mag. J-band images display a complex change in the shape of the PSF when moving at larger radial distances from the natural guide star. In particular, the stellar images become more elongated in approaching the corners of the J-band images whereas the Ks-band images are more uniform. We discuss in detail the strategy used to perform accurate and deep photometry in these very challenging images. In particular we will focus our attention on the use of an updated version of ROMAFOT based on asymmetric and analytical Point Spread Functions. The quality of the photometry allowed us to properly identify a feature that clearly shows up in NIR bands: the main sequence knee (MSK). The MSK is independent of the evolutionary age, therefore the difference in magnitude with the canonical clock to constrain the cluster age, the main sequence turn off (MSTO), provides an estimate of the absolute age of the cluster. The key advantage of this new approach is that the error decreases by a factor of two when compared with the classical one. Combining ground-based Ks with space F606W photometry, we estimate the absolute age of M15 to be 13.70+/- 0.80 Gyr.

  5. Study of the point spread function (PSF) for {sup 123}I SPECT imaging using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cot, A [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sempau, J [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pareto, D [Unitat de BiofIsica i Bioenginyeria, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Bullich, S [Unitat de BiofIsica i Bioenginyeria, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); PavIa, J [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital ClInic i Provincial de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Calvino, F [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ros, D [Unitat de BiofIsica i Bioenginyeria, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-07-21

    The iterative reconstruction algorithms employed in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allow some quantitative parameters of the image to be improved. These algorithms require accurate modelling of the so-called point spread function (PSF). Nowadays, most in vivo neurotransmitter SPECT studies employ pharmaceuticals radiolabelled with {sup 123}I. In addition to an intense line at 159 keV, the decay scheme of this radioisotope includes some higher energy gammas which may have a non-negligible contribution to the PSF. The aim of this work is to study this contribution for two low-energy high-resolution collimator configurations, namely, the parallel and the fan beam. The transport of radiation through the material system is simulated with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. We have developed a main program that deals with the intricacies associated with tracking photon trajectories through the geometry of the collimator and detection systems. The simulated PSFs are partly validated with a set of experimental measurements that use the 511 keV annihilation photons emitted by a {sup 18}F source. Sensitivity and spatial resolution have been studied, showing that a significant fraction of the detection events in the energy window centred at 159 keV (up to approximately 49% for the parallel collimator) are originated by higher energy gamma rays, which contribute to the spatial profile of the PSF mostly outside the 'geometrical' region dominated by the low-energy photons. Therefore, these high-energy counts are to be considered as noise, a fact that should be taken into account when modelling PSFs for reconstruction algorithms. We also show that the fan beam collimator gives higher signal-to-noise ratios than the parallel collimator for all the source positions analysed.

  6. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... grasps. These affordances are represented probabilistically with grasp densities, which correspond to continuous density functions defined on the space of 6D gripper poses. A grasp density characterizes an object’s grasp affordance; densities are linked to visual stimuli through registration......We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...

  7. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnam, Challa [Physics Department, New Science College, Ameerpet, Hyderabad (India); Rao, Vadlamudi Lakshmana [Physics Department, New Science College, Ameerpet, Hyderabad (India); Goud, Sivagouni Lachaa [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India)

    2006-10-07

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper.

  8. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Challa; Lakshmana Rao, Vadlamudi; Lachaa Goud, Sivagouni

    2006-10-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper.

  9. Modulation of visual attention by object affordance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eGarrido-Vásquez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Some objects in our environment are strongly tied to motor actions, a phenomenon called object affordance. A cup, for example, affords us to reach out to it and grasp it by its handle. Studies indicate that merely viewing an affording object triggers motor activations in the brain. The present study investigated whether object affordance would also result in an attention bias, that is, whether observers would rather attend to graspable objects within reach compared to non-graspable but reachable objects or to graspable objects out of reach. To this end, we conducted a combined reaction time and motion tracking study with a table in a virtual three-dimensional space. Two objects were positioned on the table, one near, the other one far from the observer. In each trial, two graspable objects, two non-graspable objects, or a combination of both was presented. Participants were instructed to detect a probe appearing on one of the objects as quickly as possible. Detection times served as indirect measure of attention allocation. The motor association with the graspable object was additionally enhanced by having participants grasp a real object in some of the trials. We hypothesized that visual attention would be preferentially allocated to the near graspable object, which should be reflected in reduced reaction times in this condition. Our results confirm this assumption: probe detection was fastest at the graspable object at the near position compared to the far position or to a non-graspable object. A follow-up experiment revealed that in addition to object affordance per se, immediate graspability of an affording object may also influence this near-space advantage. Our results suggest that visuospatial attention is preferentially allocated to affording objects which are immediately graspable, and thus establish a strong link between an object’s motor affordance and visual attention.

  10. Growing community : rooftop gardens for affordable housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, K.N. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviewed the processes used in recently designed affordable housing roof garden projects in California, Montana and Georgia. Gardens create a sense of community through shared space and social interactions. As such, roof gardens can give residents of affordable housing the opportunity to experience the community-fostering benefits of gardening, with the added advantages of potentially lower energy bills and wastewater fees. The factors that should be considered in planning, design, construction and maintenance of roof gardens for affordable housing were also outlined. As places of refuge, gardens help people relax and promote healing, which is particularly important for physical, emotional, social and economic well-being. For the many residents of affordable housing who earn less than 50 per cent of the area median income, gardens offer a venue for establishing relationships with neighbours, many of whom they might otherwise never meet. They also offer a means to improved nutrition and food security, education and positive recreation for youth, and better aesthetic surroundings. While motivations for choosing green roofs varied widely across the projects, affordability was linked to 3 main areas, namely saving costs in design, construction and operations; getting the roof to generate funding; and, improving the quality of life in affordable housing. 17 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Affordance Learning Based on Subtask's Optimal Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqing Min

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Affordances define the relationships between the robot and environment, in terms of actions that the robot is able to perform. Prior work is mainly about predicting the possibility of a reactive action, and the object's affordance is invariable. However, in the domain of dynamic programming, a robot's task could often be decomposed into several subtasks, and each subtask could limit the search space. As a result, the robot only needs to replan its sub-strategy when an unexpected situation happens, and an object's affordance might change over time depending on the robot's state and current subtask. In this paper, we propose a novel affordance model linking the subtask, object, robot state and optimal action. An affordance represents the first action of the optimal strategy under the current subtask when detecting an object, and its influence is promoted from a primitive action to the subtask strategy. Furthermore, hierarchical reinforcement learning and state abstraction mechanism are introduced to learn the task graph and reduce state space. In the navigation experiment, the robot equipped with a camera could learn the objects' crucial characteristics, and gain their affordances in different subtasks.

  12. Karlsruhe Research Center, Nuclear Safety Research Project (PSF). Annual report 1994; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung. Jahrsbericht 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, R. [ed.

    1995-08-01

    The reactor safety R and D work of the Karlsruhe Research Centre (FZKA) has been part of the Nuclear Safety Research Projet (PSF) since 1990. The present annual report 1994 summarizes the R and D results. The research tasks are coordinated in agreement with internal and external working groups. The contributions to this report correspond to the status of early 1995. An abstract in English precedes each of them, whenever the respective article is written in German. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit Beginn 1990 sind die F+E-Arbeiten des Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZKA) zur Reaktorsicherheit im Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung (PSF) zusammengefasst. Der vorliegende Jahresbericht 1994 enthaelt Beitraege zu aktuellen Fragen der Sicherheit von Leichtwasserreaktoren und innovativen Systemen sowie der Umwandlung von minoren Aktiniden. Die konkreten Forschungsthemen und -vorhaben werden mit internen und externen Fachgremien laufend abgestimmt. An den beschriebenen Arbeiten sind die folgenden Institute und Abteilungen des FZKA beteiligt: Institut fuer Materialforschung IMF I, II, III; Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik INR; Institut fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik IATF; Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit IRS; Hauptabteilung Ingenieurtechnik HIT; Hauptabteilung Versuchstechnik HVT sowie vom KfK beauftragte externe Institutionen. Die einzelnen Beitraege stellen den Stand der Arbeiten zum Fruehjahr 1995 dar und sind entsprechend dem F+E-Programm 1994 numeriert. Den in deutscher Sprache verfassten Beitraege sind Kurzfassungen in englischer Sprache vorangestellt. (orig.)

  13. Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

  14. The Automaticity of Affordance of Dangerous Object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang

    2016-11-03

    Objects observation automatically elicits the activation of a reach-to-grasp response specifically directed to interact with the object, which is termed affordance. Murphy, van Velzen, and de Fockert (2012) found that only when an irrelevant object receives sufficient attention, it can potentiate an action. However, it remains unclear whether the dangerous object would afford an action when it receives insufficient attention. In this study, we manipulated the perceptual load in a letter identification task. Participants were required to identify a target letter with the right or left hand while ignoring a neutral or dangerous graspable object. The target letter was presented either on its own (low perceptual load), alongside five non-target letters (high load), or alongside eight non-target letters (super high load). Under the low perceptual load, for both neutral and dangerous object, responses were faster when the action afforded by the ignored object was congruent (vs. incongruent) with the current target response (t(27) = 4.44, p object, responses were slower when the action afforded by the ignored object was congruent (vs. incongruent) with the current target response (t(27) = 4.97, p object and dangerous object under super high perceptual load. These results suggest the affordance of dangerous object is also sensitive to the perceptual load. An irrelevant dangerous object can't potentiate an action if it receives insufficient attention.

  15. Experimental evaluation and basis function optimization of the spatially variant image-space PSF on the Ingenuity PET/MR scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-06-01

    The Ingenuity time-of-flight (TF) PET/MR is a recently developed hybrid scanner combining the molecular imaging capabilities of PET with the excellent soft tissue contrast of MRI. It is becoming common practice to characterize the system's point spread function (PSF) and understand its variation under spatial transformations to guide clinical studies and potentially use it within resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Furthermore, due to the system's utilization of overlapping and spherical symmetric Kaiser-Bessel basis functions during image reconstruction, its image space PSF and reconstructed spatial resolution could be affected by the selection of the basis function parameters. Hence, a detailed investigation into the multidimensional basis function parameter space is needed to evaluate the impact of these parameters on spatial resolution. Using an array of 12 × 7 printed point sources, along with a custom made phantom, and with the MR magnet on, the system's spatially variant image-based PSF was characterized in detail. Moreover, basis function parameters were systematically varied during reconstruction (list-mode TF OSEM) to evaluate their impact on the reconstructed resolution and the image space PSF. Following the spatial resolution optimization, phantom, and clinical studies were subsequently reconstructed using representative basis function parameters. Based on the analysis and under standard basis function parameters, the axial and tangential components of the PSF were found to be almost invariant under spatial transformations (~4 mm) while the radial component varied modestly from 4 to 6.7 mm. Using a systematic investigation into the basis function parameter space, the spatial resolution was found to degrade for basis functions with a large radius and small shape parameter. However, it was found that optimizing the spatial resolution in the reconstructed PET images, while having a good basis function superposition and keeping the image

  16. Achieving Sustainable Construction in Affordable Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcik, M.K.; Creech, D.B.; Ternes, M.P.

    1998-12-07

    An energy-efficient design and construction checklist and information sheets on energy-efficient design and construction are two products being developed. These products will help affordable housing providers take the first steps toward a whole-house approach to the design and implementation of energy-efficient construction practices. The checklist presents simple and clear guidance on energy improvements that can be readily addressed now by most affordable housing providers. The information sheets complement the checklist by providing installation instructions and material specifications that are accompanied by detailed graphics. The information sheets also identify benefits of recommended energy-efficiency measures and procedures including cost savings and impacts on health and comfort. This paper presents details on the checklist and information sheets and discusses their use in two affordable housing projects.

  17. Affordances and the musically extended mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-06

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  18. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Gjøsæter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented reality content, as well as more complex affordances rising from conventions from media content, AR and the traditional WIMP paradigm. We find that remediation of traditional newspaper content through the MAR medium can provide engaging, pleasing and exciting user experiences. However, the some of the content still suffers from being shoveled onto the MAR platform without adapting it properly. Finally, we discuss what content was most successfully mediated to the user and how the content impacts the user experience.

  19. Creating Affordable Housing through self-management:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    units have been established. The concept includes a number of approaches to reduce the rent, some are “traditional” physical-technical approaches for affordable housing, e.g. reducing production costs and limiting standards. However, a central element in the concept has been the introduction of “self......The paper presents a case on self-management in the Danish social housing sector as a way of providing affordable housing. It is based on an evaluation of a Danish concept for affordable housing, Social Housing Plus (“AlmenBolig+”). The concept was introduced in 2007, and so far app 1.400 housing...... the Social Housing Plus-concept, the preconditions for the self-management approach, and the experiences so far from the various housing estates built on the concept. This will include a discussion of the social impacts of the selfmanagement among the residents, e.g. in relation to a participation and sense...

  20. Affordances for robots: a brief survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Horton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the influence of Gibson's affordance theory on the design of robotic agents. Affordance theory (and the ecological approach to agent design in general has in many cases contributed to the development of successful robotic systems; we provide a brief survey of AI research in this area. However, there remain significant issues that complicate discussions on this topic, particularly in the exchange of ideas between researchers in artificial intelligence and ecological psychology. We identify some of these issues, specifically the lack of a generally accepted definition of "affordance" and fundamental differences in the current approaches taken in AI and ecological psychology. While we consider reconciliation between these fields to be possible and mutually beneficial, it will require some flexibility on the issue of direct perception.

  1. Affordances in a simple playscape : Are children attracted to challenging affordances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prieske, Bjorn; Withagen, Rob; Smith, Joanne; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.

    Environmental psychologists have used Gibson' concept of affordances to understand the playing behavior of children. This concept refers to the action possibilities the environment offers the animal. The present study examined whether children are attracted to challenging affordances in a simple

  2. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  3. Affordances of Ditches for Children in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; Møller, Maja Steen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to expand understanding of the affordances provided by ditches in a Danish preschool context. Affordances are defined as the meaningful action possibilities of the environment. At a forest preschool, a group of 21 children aged approximately 3to 6.5 years accompanied by two to three...... offered varied and changing action possibilities for the preschool children. The paper discusses the possible incorporation of this largely unrecognized design element by planners and managers of green spaces and playgrounds for children in preschool....

  4. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  5. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  6. The role of financial institutions towards affordable housing to urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings revealed a weak positive effect (=.312) of mortgage financing towards affordable housing and accounted for 9.7% change in affordable housing. This study also established a moderate positive effect (=.472) of housing loans towards affordable housing and accounted for 22.3% change in affordable housing.

  7. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  8. Measuring the affordability of medicines: Importance and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The issue of affordability of health care services remains high on the (health) policy agenda. Determining whether health care services are affordable is complex, however, as the concept 'affordability' is inherently normative. With a focus on measuring affordability

  9. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Affordable Care Act—“Obamacare”—is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different “metallic” insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care. PMID:24927108

  10. Towards making assisted reproductive technology affordable and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To report the importance of public-private interaction (PPI) as a strategy to make assisted reproductive technology (ART) affordable. Methods. Design: Commentary. Setting: Reproductive Medicine Unit, Tygerberg Academic Hospital. Discussion. PPI together with simplified methods of IVF such as scaling down on ...

  11. Prosocial norm violations fuel power affordance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; Homan, A.C.; Finkenauer, C.; Blaker, N.M.; Heerdink, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    The question of what makes people rise to power has long puzzled social scientists. Here we examined the novel hypothesis that power is afforded to individuals who exhibit prosocial norm violations—i.e., breaking rules for the benefit of others. Three experiments using different methods provide

  12. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Mark R; Schade, David S

    2014-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act--"Obamacare"--is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different "metallic" insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care.

  13. Neutralisation treatment of AMD at affordable cost

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-11

    Jun 11, 2012 ... Neutralisation treatment of AMD at affordable cost. JP Maree*, M Mujuru, V Bologo, N Daniels and D Mpholoane. Department of Water, Environment and Earth Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X650, Pretoria, 0001. ABSTRACT. Acid mine drainage (AMD) has for many years been a ...

  14. Limb apraxia and the 'affordance competition hypothesis'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eRounis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Limb apraxia, a disorder of higher order motor control, has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding (Leiguarda and Marsden 2000.The deficits originally described in limb apraxia (Liepmann 1908 have been classified by the nature of the errors made by the patients leading to, namely, ideational and ideomotor apraxia. The dual stream hypothesis (Goodale and Milner 1992 has been used to explain these categories: ideational apraxia is thought to relate to a deficit in the concept of a movement (coded in the ventral stream, whereas ideomotor apraxia, is thought to arise from problems in the accurate implementation of movements within the dorsal stream. One of the limitations on understanding apraxia is the failure by the clinical literature to draw on knowledge of the factors determining actions in the environment. Here we emphasize the role of affordance. There is much recent work indicating that our responses to stimuli are strongly influenced by the actions that the objects ‘afford’, based on their physical properties and the intentions of the actor (e.g, Ellis & Tucker, 1998; Humphreys et al., 2010. The concept of affordance, originally suggested by Gibson (1979 has been incorporated in a recent model of interactive behaviour that draws from findings in non-human primates, namely the ‘affordance competition hypothesis’ (Cisek 2007. This postulates that interactive behaviour arises by a process of competition between possible actions elicited by the environment. In this paper we argue that ‘affordance competition’ may play a role in apraxia. We review evidence that at least some aspects of apraxia may reflect an abnormal sensitivity to competition when multiple affordances are present (Riddoch et al., 1998 and/or a poor ability to exert cognitive control over this competition when it occurs. This framework suggests a new way of conceptualising deficits in apraxia which invites further investigations in the field.

  15. Experimental evaluation and basis function optimization of the spatially variant image-space PSF on the Ingenuity PET/MR scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Zaidi, Habib

    Purpose: The Ingenuity time-of-flight (TF) PET/MR is a recently developed hybrid scanner combining the molecular imaging capabilities of PET with the excellent soft tissue contrast of MRI. It is becoming common practice to characterize the system's point spread function (PSF) and understand its

  16. Disciplinary Affordance vs Pedagogical Affordance : Teaching the Multimodal Discourse of University Science

    OpenAIRE

    Airey, John

    2017-01-01

    Disciplinary Affordance vs Pedagogical Affordance: Teaching the Multimodal Discourse of University Science The natural sciences have been extremely successful in modeling some specific aspects of the world around us. This success is in no small part due to the creation of generally accepted, paradigmatic ways of representing the world through a range of semiotic resources. The discourse of science is of necessity multimodal (see for example Lemke, 1998) and it is therefore important for under...

  17. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of musicking grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of musical affordances and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances—via soliciting different forms of entrainment—enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I suggest that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  18. An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Christopher D.; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P.; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  19. An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Kelley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring.

  20. Affordable warmth: Housing strategies for older people

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jill; Dhesi, Surindar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud \\ud \\ud The purpose of this paper is to consolidate policy, research, evidence and good practice around strategies tackling fuel poverty and affordable warmth for older people aged over 60 to support the development of more effective services for this life course stage and to tackle physical and mental health inequalities.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud \\ud \\ud We consolidate current policy, research, evidence and examples of good practice in exploring effective ...

  1. Affordability Constraints in Major Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Lightning II, also known as the Joint Strike Fighter or JSF. The F-35 received its only affordability constraint in an ADM signed by Mr. Kendall as...planning for aircraft delivery and operations. Detailed ground 12 Frank Kendall, “F-35 Lightning II...problem can go in both directions—a plane might fly more hours than required because they have available funds or it may fly fewer hours than is

  2. Price, availability and affordability of medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlanga, Brenda S; Suleman, Fatima

    2014-06-24

    Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability. To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland. Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland. The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB) and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG) medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs). Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% - 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% - 53%). Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day's wage. Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  3. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  4. Type of Plan and Provider Network (Affordable Care Act)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to you. Footer Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory and Policy Information For Navigators, Assisters & Partners ... gov USA.gov Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory and Policy Information For Navigators, Assisters & Partners ...

  5. Experiments on affordance in the journal "ecological psychology"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trettvik, Johan

    2009-01-01

    There are two general aims: 1) to review how the concept of affordance is construed, in theory as well as in practice/experiments, and 2) to review the experiments on affordances.......There are two general aims: 1) to review how the concept of affordance is construed, in theory as well as in practice/experiments, and 2) to review the experiments on affordances....

  6. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Mhlanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability.Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland.Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland.Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker.Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage.Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  7. An activity theory approach to affordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentsen, Klaus B.; Trettvik, J.

    2002-01-01

    the notion. Specifically we will suggest the inclusion of the ecological theory of perception in the paradigm of cultural historical psychology and activity theory developed in the former Soviet Union by most notably Lev Vygotsky, S. L. Rubinshtein, A. N. Leontjev and others. It will be suggested, that much......We present an analysis of the concept of affordance as it was originally introduced by J. J. Gibson, and elaborate on this concept, acknowledging, that the general theoretical landscape in psychology is in fundamental ways different from the situation in which Gibson found himself when he crafted...

  8. Actant affordances: a brief history of affordance theory and a Latourian extension for education technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Blewett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Affordance theory provides a useful lens to explore the action opportunities that arise between users and technology, especially in education. However developments in the theory have resulted both in confusion and misapplication, due partly to issues related to affordance theory’s ontology. This paper outlines two competing perspectives on affordances by Gibson and Norman, before arguing that Latour’s theory of ‘actants’ provides a useful middle way between these competing positions. This ‘actant affordance’ provides new opportunities for undertaking educational technology research that focuses on the network of negotiations taking place between actants (student, teacher, technology, pedagogy, etc. rather than studying causality or simple binaries.

  9. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition 'to the brain,' focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude-action, value-action or knowledge-action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio-ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio-ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio-ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit between local

  10. SkZpipe: A Python3 module to produce efficiently PSF-fitting photometry with DAOPHOT, and much more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, F.

    2017-07-01

    In an era characterized by big sky surveys and the availability of large amount of photometric data, it is important for astronomers to have tools to process their data in an efficient, accurate and easy way, minimizing reduction time. We present SkZpipe, a Python3 module designed mainly to process generic data, performing point-spread function (PSF) fitting photometry with the DAOPHOT suite (Stetson 1987). The software has already demonstrated its accuracy and efficiency with the adaptation VVV-SkZ_pipeline (Mauro et al. 2013) for the "VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea" ESO survey, showing how it can replace the users, avoiding repetitive interaction in all the operations, retaining all of the benefits of the power and accuracy of the DAOPHOT suite, detaching them from the burden of data precessing. This software provides not only a pipeline, but also all the tools to run easily each atomic step of the photometric procedure, to match the results, and to retrieve information from fits headers and the internal instrumental database. We plan to add the support to other photometric softwares in the future.

  11. How to Evaluate Smart Cities’ Construction? A Comparison of Chinese Smart City Evaluation Methods Based on PSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of smart cities in the world, research relating to smart city evaluation has become a new research hotspot in academia. However, there are general problems of cognitive deprivation, lack of planning experience, and low level of coordination in smart cities construction. It is necessary for us to develop a set of scientific, reasonable, and effective evaluation index systems and evaluation models to analyze the development degree of urban wisdom. Based on the theory of the urban system, we established a comprehensive evaluation index system for urban intelligent development based on the people-oriented, city-system, and resources-flow (PSF evaluation model. According to the characteristics of the comprehensive evaluation index system of urban intelligent development, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP combined with the experts’ opinions determine the index weight of this system. We adopted the neural network model to construct the corresponding comprehensive evaluation model to characterize the non-linear characteristics of the comprehensive evaluation indexes system, thus to quantitatively quantify the comprehensive evaluation indexes of urban intelligent development. Finally, we used the AHP, AHP-BP (Back Propagation, and AHP-ELM (Extreme Learning Machine models to evaluate the intelligent development level of 151 cities in China, and compared them from the perspective of model accuracy and time cost. The final simulation results show that the AHP-ELM model is the best evaluation model.

  12. Experimental evaluation and basis function optimization of the spatially variant image-space PSF on the Ingenuity PET/MR scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A., E-mail: Fotis.Kotasidis@unige.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Ingenuity time-of-flight (TF) PET/MR is a recently developed hybrid scanner combining the molecular imaging capabilities of PET with the excellent soft tissue contrast of MRI. It is becoming common practice to characterize the system's point spread function (PSF) and understand its variation under spatial transformations to guide clinical studies and potentially use it within resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Furthermore, due to the system's utilization of overlapping and spherical symmetric Kaiser-Bessel basis functions during image reconstruction, its image space PSF and reconstructed spatial resolution could be affected by the selection of the basis function parameters. Hence, a detailed investigation into the multidimensional basis function parameter space is needed to evaluate the impact of these parameters on spatial resolution. Methods: Using an array of 12 × 7 printed point sources, along with a custom made phantom, and with the MR magnet on, the system's spatially variant image-based PSF was characterized in detail. Moreover, basis function parameters were systematically varied during reconstruction (list-mode TF OSEM) to evaluate their impact on the reconstructed resolution and the image space PSF. Following the spatial resolution optimization, phantom, and clinical studies were subsequently reconstructed using representative basis function parameters. Results: Based on the analysis and under standard basis function parameters, the axial and tangential components of the PSF were found to be almost invariant under spatial transformations (∼4 mm) while the radial component varied modestly from 4 to 6.7 mm. Using a systematic investigation into the basis function parameter space, the spatial resolution was found to degrade for basis functions with a large radius and small shape parameter. However, it was found that optimizing the spatial resolution in the reconstructed PET images, while having a good basis

  13. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-17

    "More than a million people die in car accidents each year, and most of those accidents are the result of human errorヤ Alexandru Budisteanu is 23 years old and owns a group of startups including Autonomix, an Artificial Intelligence software for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car\\'s roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount of data, Alexandru employed Artificial Intelligence algorithms to extract information from the visual data and plot a safe route for the car. Then, he built a manufacturing facility in his garage from Romania to assembly affordable VisionBot Pick and Place robots that are used to produce electronics. During this lecture, Alexandru will talk about this autonomous self-driving car prototype, for which he received the grand prize of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, and was nominated by TIME magazine as one of the worldメs most influential teens of 2013.

  14. Comparing alcohol affordability in 65 cities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Ming-Yue; Lau, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    To develop a measure of alcohol affordability (AA) and compare the AA of 65 cities worldwide. In this paper, AA is defined as the proportion of median daily income needed to buy a certain quantity of certain alcoholic beverages. The income data and the price of alcoholic beverages were drawn from the Union Bank of Switzerland survey and the Economist Intelligence Unit respectively. A large majority of cities (87.7%, n = 57) had a high level of AA. The top 20 ranking was occupied by European and American cities with Tokyo in the Western Pacific region being the exception. All cities belonging to high-income countries had high levels of AA. However, two cities with low-level AA came from low-middle-income countries instead of low-income countries. The findings have shown that alcohol consumption is highly affordable in many cities. If price policy is being considered as policy instrument of alcohol control, it is in urgent need of price adjustments. More specifically, the new emerging economies play a significant role in the world alcohol control movement because of their bright economic performance with huge population size. Further studies on AA, especially periodical monitoring and its impacts on alcohol consumption and alcohol related health problems, should be conducted so as to facilitate the formulation and evaluation price measure of alcohol control. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. High medicine prices and poor affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Guk-Hee

    2011-07-01

    In developing countries, most people who need medicines have to pay for them out of their own pockets. This review focuses on publications to explore the affordability gap of medicines and ways to close it. Cardiovascular medicines were unaffordable in low-income to middle-income countries, whereas dementia medicines were only affordable in regions of wealth. In urban Mozambique, local mark-ups are up to two-thirds of final price in private pharmacies, whereas some governments consistently paid higher prices above the international reference prices to procure a number of medicines. Generics competition from India made an originator brand manufacturer of a AIDS drug willing to supply the drug at a cheaper rate to poorer countries, whereas a Brazilian national program to produce nonprofit generics against protected patent of originator brand products to provide free AIDS drugs had cut the number of people dying by half and hospitalization by 80%, which saved about half a billion US dollars, making the program almost fund itself. Although lowering the manufacturer's price has a greater effect on the cost, policies to eliminate duties and taxes on medicines and regulate mark-ups are practical strategies to avoid excessive add-on costs.

  16. What are the affordances of information and communication technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grainne Conole

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the notion that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT have affordances that epitomize the features of our late modern age (Giddens, 1991 and explores whether these affordances (Salomon, 1993, p. 51 can be used to facilitate particular approaches to educational practice. It argues that a clear articulation of these affordances would enable us to understand how these technologies can be most effectively used to support learning and teaching. We believe that any one affordance can be considered to have both positive and negative connotations and the paper draws on social and educational theory to provide an initial taxonomy of these affordances.

  17. Social affordances and the possibility of ecological linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    This paper includes an effort to extend the notion of affordance from a philosophical point of view the importance of ecological approach for social psychology, ethics, and linguistics. Affordances are not always merely physical but also interpersonal and social. I will conceptualize affordance in general and social affordance in particular, and will elucidate the relation between intentional action and affordances, and that between affordances and free will. I will also focus on the relation between social institution and affordance. An extended theory of affordances can provide a way to analyze in concrete ways how social institution works as an implicit background of interpersonal interactions. Ecological approach considers social institution as the producer and maintainer of affordances. Social institutions construct the niches for human beings. Finally, I will argue the possibility of the ecological linguistics. Language is a social institution. The system of signs is the way to articulate and differentiate interpersonal affordances. Language acquires its meaning, i.e. communicative power in the interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interactions, in turn, develop and are elaborated through the usage of signs. Communication is seen as never aimed to transmit inner ideas to others, but to guide and adjust the behaviors of others thorough articulating the affordance of responsible-ness.

  18. Piecing Together the College Affordability Puzzle: Student Characteristics and Patterns of (Un)Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbeck, Rashida; Diamond, John; Mayer, Alexander; Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn

    2014-01-01

    The cost of attending college has risen sharply over the last 40 years. Although more credit and grant aid have been made available to students, there are still major gaps between aid and the cost of attendance for many students in the United States, all of whom are left to figure out whether they can afford the remaining costs associated with…

  19. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  20. Affordable Care Act and Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian; Nellans, Frank P; Shi, Lizheng

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential for great impact on U.S. health care, especially for chronic disease patients requiring long-term care and management. The act was designed to improve insurance coverage, health care access, and quality of care for all Americans, which will assist patients with diabetes mellitus in acquiring routine monitoring and diabetes-related complication screening for better health management and outcomes. There is great potential for patients with diabetes to benefit from the new policy mandating health insurance coverage and plan improvement, Medicaid expansion, minimum coverage guarantees, and free preventative care. However, policy variability among states and ACA implementation present challenges to people with diabetes in understanding and optimizing ACA impact. This paper aims to select the most influential components of the ACA as relates to people with diabetes and discuss how the ACA may improve health care for this vulnerable population.

  1. Visual Descriptor Learning for Predicting Grasping Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang

    2016-01-01

    -rates for predicting grasps were between 75% and 90% depending on the object class. The investigations also provided insights into the importance of selecting a proper visual feature space when utilising it for predicting affordances. As a consequence of the gained insights, a semi-local surface feature, the Sliced...... by the task of grasping unknown objects given visual sensor information. The contributions from this thesis stem from three works that all relate to the task of grasping unknown objects but with particular focus on the visual representation part of the problem. First an investigation of a visual feature space...... consisting of surface features was performed. Dimensions in the visual space were varied and the effects were evaluated with the task of grasping unknown object. The evaluation was performed using a novel probabilistic grasp prediction approach based on neighbourhood analysis. The resulting success...

  2. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  3. Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.

  4. The Demographics and Properties of Wide-Orbit, Planetary-Mass Companions from PSF Fitting of Spitzer/IRAC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel; Kraus, Adam L.

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade, a growing population of planetary-mass companions ( 100 AU) from their host stars, challenging existing models of both star and planet formation. It is unclear whether these systems represent the low-mass extreme of stellar binary formation or the high-mass and wide-orbit extreme of planet formation theories, as various proposed formation pathways inadequately explain the physical and orbital aspects of these systems. Even so, determining which scenario best reproduces the observed characteristics of the PMCs will come once a statistically robust sample of directly-imaged PMCs are found and studied.We are developing an automated pipeline to search for wide-orbit PMCs to young stars in Spitzer/IRAC images. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is the backbone of our novel point spread function (PSF) subtraction routine that efficiently creates and subtracts χ2-minimizing instrumental PSFs, simultaneously measuring astrometry and infrared photometry of these systems across the four IRAC channels (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8 μm). In this work, we present the results of a Spitzer/IRAC archival imaging study of 11 young, low-mass (0.044-0.88 M⊙ K3.5-M7.5) stars known to have faint, low-mass companions in 3 nearby star-forming regions (Chameleon, Taurus, and Upper Scorpius). We characterize the systems found to have low-mass companions with non-zero [I1] - [I4] colors, potentially signifying the presence of a circum(sub?)stellar disk. Plans for future pipeline improvements and paths forward will also be discussed. Once this computational foundation is optimized, the stage is set to quickly scour the nearby star-forming regions already imaged by Spitzer, identify potential candidates for further characterization with ground- or space-based telescopes, and increase the number of widely-separated PMCs known.

  5. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope O. Kaaronen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective

  6. What are the affordances of information and communication technologies?

    OpenAIRE

    Conole, Grainne; Dyke, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines the notion that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have affordances that epitomize the features of our late modern age (Giddens, 1991) and explores whether these affordances (Salomon, 1993, p. 51) can be used to facilitate particular approaches to educational practice. It argues that a clear articulation of these affordances would enable us to understand how these technologies can be most effectively used to support learning and teaching. We believe that any o...

  7. The Price of (Perceived Affordance: Commentary for Huron and Berec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gjerdingen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the symbolic objects in music and musical scores can permit affordances much as physical objects can. This construction of "affordance" places greater emphasis on cultural forms and human memory than the original idea proposed by James J. Gibson, and it aligns itself more closely with the refinements to "affordance" suggested by Donald Norman. For symbolic objects to permit strongly perceived affordances, it may be necessary for perceivers to have developed schematized perception in the course of over-learning culturally significant forms.

  8. Unpacking physics representations: Towards an appreciation of disciplinary affordance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fredlund, Tobias; Linder, Cedric; Airey, John; Linder, Anne

    2014-01-01

    ...; that is, their disciplinary affordances. It is argued that historically such access has become increasingly constrained for students as physics representations have been rationalized over time...

  9. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Chris; Khattab, Ahmad; Russell, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Wing, Alan

    2017-10-11

    We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects) and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  10. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL. In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  11. Income Dynamics and the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Data Source Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Study Design Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Data Collection/Extraction Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22–64 years. Principal Findings Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Conclusions Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. PMID:25327987

  12. Partnerships for affordable and equitable disaster insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, J.; Pérez-Blanco, C. D.

    2015-08-01

    Extreme events are becoming more frequent and intense, inflating the economic damages and social hardship set-off by natural catastrophes. Amidst budgetary cuts, there is a growing concern on societies' ability to design solvent disaster recovery strategies, while addressing equity and affordability concerns. The participation of private sector along with public one through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) has gained on importance as a means to address these seemingly conflicting objectives through the provision of (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance. This is the case of many OECD countries, notably some EU Member States such as the United Kingdom and Spain. The EU legislator has adapted to this new scenario and recently produced major reforms in the legislation and regulation that govern the framework in which PPPs for (catastrophic) natural hazard insurance develop. This paper has a dual objective: (1) review the complex legal background that rules the provision of insurance against natural catastrophes in the EU after these major reforms, (2) assess the implications of the reforms and offer concise Policy Guiding Principles.

  13. American surgery and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Steven C; Hoyt, David B; Hunter, John G; Joyce, Geoffrey; Hiatt, Jonathan R

    2014-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) attempts to change the way we finance and deliver health care by coordinating the delivery of primary, specialty, and hospital services in accountable care organizations. The ways in which accountable care organizations will develop and evolve is unclear; however, the effects on surgeons and their patients will be substantial. High-value care in the ACA emphasizes quality, safety, resource use and appropriateness, and the patient's experience of care. Payment will be linked to these principles. Department chairs overseeing a clinical enterprise in academic medical centers now must add financial and quality measures to the traditional missions of education, research, and clinical service. At a time when surgical training is in dramatic evolution, with work hour limitations for residents and an emphasis on quality, productivity, and increasing oversight of trainees for faculty, residency programs will need to meet the increasing demands of an aging population and newly insured patients under the ACA. The American College of Surgeons, with its century-long commitment to quality improvement, research-based standards, and performance measurement and verification, has begun its Inspiring Quality Campaign, is developing new educational tools, and is preparing proposals for payment reform based on surgeons' participation in quality programs.

  14. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Atenção em anticoncepção oferecida por equipe de PSF em São Gonçalo do Amarante – CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Mara Rocha Teles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer o perfil dos usuários de serviços de Planejamento Familiar (PF do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF e a atenção em anticoncepção dispensada é de fundamental importância para a elaboração de estratégias adequadas às necessidades da população. Objetivou-se conhecer o perfil socioeconômico e gineco-obstétrico de mulheres usuárias de um serviço de PF do PSF; identificar os Métodos Anticoncepcionais (MAC mais utilizados por essa clientela e queixas relacionadas ao uso destes; e verificar a regularidade do acompanhamento dessas usuárias. Estudo retrospectivo, documental, quantitativo, realizado em 2008, em São Gonçalo do Amarante – CE. Entre 171 prontuários do serviço de PF de duas micro-áreas do PSF Croata II, escolhidos aleatoriamente, 158 (92,4% correspondiam a usuários do gênero feminino. Os MAC mais utilizados pelas usuárias, antes e após a atenção recebida em PF, foram o Anticoncepcional Combinado Oral (ACO e o condom. As queixas mais frequentes entre as usuárias de MAC estiveram associadas ao uso de dispositivo intra-uterino e contraceptivo injetável, sendo o deslocamento e dismenorréia, respectivamente. Quanto à regularidade de acompanhamento das usuárias no serviço de PF, verificaram-se ausências de retorno e retornos repetitivos que sugerem a reorganização do protocolo de acompanhamento das mesmas pelo programa.

  16. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  17. Essential Medicines in Nigeria: Foregrounding Access to Affordable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within every functional healthcare system, access to quality and affordable essential medicine stands out as one of the building blocks. However, its significance has been underrated due to poor advocacy and research. The implication is that access to quality and affordable essential medicines remains a challenge to many ...

  18. Availability and Affordability of Antiglaucoma Drugs in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. Affordability and availability are key factors that determine access to effective treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the availability and affordability of antiglaucoma medicines in Benin City. A cross sectional survey of the major drug distribution sectors was conducted.

  19. Availability and affordability of antiglaucoma drugs in Benin city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. Affordability and availability are key factors that determine access to effective treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the availability and affordability of antiglaucoma medicines in Benin City. A cross sectional survey of the major drug distribution sectors was conducted.

  20. Five Affordances of Computational Thinking to Support Elementary Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadanidis, George

    2017-01-01

    With the increased focus on computational thinking (CT) in education, it is important to investigate the affordances that CT may offer to support teaching and learning. This paper outlines five affordances of CT that may support elementary mathematics education, whose conceptualization was refined in a year-long study involving eight Grades 3-4…

  1. Embodied perception: A proposal to reconcile affordance and spatial perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; van der Kamp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception,

  2. Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    At an altitude of about 240 miles, its orbital path carries it over 90 percent of the Earth s population. It circles the Earth in continuous free fall; its crew of six and one Robonaut pass the days, experiencing 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every 24 hours, in microgravity, an environment in which everything from bodily functions to the physical behavior of materials changes drastically from what is common on the ground. Outside its shielded confines, temperatures cycle from one extreme to the other, radiation is rampant, and atomic oxygen corrodes everything it touches. A unique feat of engineering, the International Space Station (ISS) also represents the most remarkable platform for scientific research ever devised. In 2005, anticipating the space station s potential for NASA and non-NASA scientists alike, the NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment of the ISS as a national laboratory, instructing the Agency to "increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector." With the ISS set to maintain operations through at least 2020, the station offers an unprecedented long-term access to space conditions, enabling research not previously possible. "There will be new drug discoveries, new pharmaceuticals, a better understanding of how we affect the planet and how we can maintain it," says Marybeth Edeen, the ISS National Laboratory manager, based at Johnson Space Center. The ISS, she says, represents a major example of the government s role in making such advancements possible. "The government is key in that researchers cannot afford to build the kind of infrastructure that the government can provide. But we then have to make that infrastructure available at a reasonable cost." Enter Jeff Manber, who saw in the ISS National Lab an extraordinary opportunity to advance science, education, and business in ways never before seen.

  3. Young children's tool innovation across culture: Affordance visibility matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  5. Embodied Perception: A Proposal to Reconcile Affordance and Spatial Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouwen Cañal-Bruland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception, most of the empirical work evaluating Proffitt's approach focuses on the perception of spatial properties of the environment. We propose that theoretical and empirical efforts should be directed toward an understanding of the relationship between affordance perception and spatial perception, keeping in mind that this relationship is nontrivial because affordance perception is dichotomous, whereas the perception of spatial properties is gradual. We argue that the perception of spatial properties of the environment is enslaved by affordance perception, most notably at the critical boundaries for action. To empirically scrutinize this proposition, and to solve issues raised regarding the validity of several empirical findings, we call for joint research efforts to further understanding of embodied perception.

  6. Utility payments in Ukraine: Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Rodionova, Yulia [School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, 16 Taviton street, London WC1H 0BW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: y.rodionova@ssees.ucl.ac.uk; Falcetti, Elisabetta [European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability.

  7. Utility payments in Ukraine. Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Rodionova, Yulia [School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, 16 Taviton street, London WC1H 0BW (United Kingdom); Falcetti, Elisabetta [European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability. (author)

  8. Are Americans finding affordable coverage in the health insurance marketplaces? Results from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Petra W; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    By the end of the first open enrollment period for coverage offered through the Affordable Care Act's marketplaces, increasing numbers of people said they found it easy to find a plan they could afford, according to The Commonwealth Fund's Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, April-June 2014. Adults with low or moderate incomes were more likely to say it was easy to find an affordable plan than were adults with higher incomes. Adults with low or moderate incomes who purchased a plan through the marketplaces this year have similar premium costs and deductibles as adults in the same income ranges with employer-provided coverage. A majority of adults with marketplace coverage gave high ratings to their insurance and were confident in their ability to afford the care they need when sick.

  9. The Affording Mars Workshop: Background and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    . The workshop was organized around three topical breakout sessions: 1. The ISS and the path to Mars: The critical coming decade 2. Affordability and sustainability: what does it mean and what are its implications within guidelines established at the start of the workshop? 3. Notional sequence(s) of cost-achievable missions for the 2020s to 2030s, including capability objectives at each stage and opportunities for coordinated robotic partnerships.

  10. Criteria for Affordable Housing Performance Measurement: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esruq-Labin A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A home is one of the basic human needs, thus a new concept known as Grow Home has risen. This concept was established to encourage more families to buy their own houses. The Grow Home concept is based on the notion of affordable housing. This paper aims to explore a proposal for affordable housing measurement with six assessment components. In other words, this work intends to study factors that can affect affordable housing assessment. In this paper, we investigated the 20 criteria for affordable housing assessment given by Mulliner and Maliene in their study. Then, we rearranged these criteria into five components, and added the Grow Home component. Each component has different criteria. Finally, six affordable housing measurement components are identified, namely, income ratios, loans and accommodations, facilities and services, safety and comfort, quality management, and Grow Home. These components are also considered as main factors that directly affect affordable housing. This study aspires to contribute to existing literature by proposing six assessment components as a measurement of affordable housing.

  11. Exploring Affordances of Social Media Use in Election Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    this tendency by posing two research questions: 1) what do political parties perceive as affordances of social media use in their campaign strategy? And 2) how are these affordances reflected in the political parties’ actual actions during the campaign? To address the two questions, we conducted a qualitative...... interaction and involvement is limited by their actions as most of them do not engage with the users’ posts and comments. The tensions between perceived affordances and actual use prompt further investigation of what political parties should consider when engaging in social media activities as part...

  12. Developing an Assessment Framework for Affordable and Sustainable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pullen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable housing has been subject to research, practice and policy making for some considerable time. More recently attention has been drawn to the separate problem of declining affordability in housing. This paper describes research aimed at developing an assessment framework for both affordability and sustainability as part of the effort to incorporate both of these features into new housing projects. The research has a particular focus on developments aimed at urban densification. Background literature on both affordability and sustainability is reviewed as well as emerging schemes aimed at dealing with both aspects of housing developments. Performance indicators are identified and these are incorporated in an interim assessment framework which is tested using a group of industry experts. The research has highlighted areas where further development is required to attain quantitative assessments of affordable and sustainable housing developments

  13. Alcohol Affordability and Epidemiology of Alcoholism in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Y. E. Razvodovsky

    2013-01-01

    alcohol, affordability, alcohol dependence, prevalence, Belarus. Background: Since the alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences, the consumers' response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue of alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in a population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited ef...

  14. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Y. E. Razvodovsky

    2013-01-01

    alcohol, affordability, alcohol-related mortality, Belarus. Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related pro...

  15. Collaborative Affordances of Hybrid Patient Record Technologies in Medical Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houben, Steven; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob E

    2015-01-01

    The medical record is a central artifact used to organize, communicate and coordinate information related to patient care. Despite recent deployments of electronic health records (EHR), paper medical records are still widely used because of the affordances of paper. Although a number of approaches......PR in a medical simulation. Based on these empirical studies, this paper introduces and discusses the concept of collaborative affordances, which describes a set of properties of the medical record that foster collaborative collocated work....

  16. Project Update: Increased Fuel Affordability through Deployable Refining Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Form 298 (Rev. 8- 98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 1 PROJECT UPDATE: INCREASED FUEL AFFORDABILITY THROUGH DEPLOYABLE REFINING TECHNOLOGY August...Generator fuel ~ 1-2 gph Waste extract ~ 20 gph Feed extractant ~ 20 gph Extraction fluid = denatured ( methanol or DB) ethanol / water 70 / 30...Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 August 2016 – 30 September 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Project Update: Increased Fuel Affordability through

  17. Wedges, Wages, and Productivity under the Affordable Care Act

    OpenAIRE

    Casey B. Mulligan; Trevor S. Gallen

    2013-01-01

    Our paper documents the large labor market wedges created by taxes, subsidies, and regulations included in the Affordable Care Act. The law changes terms of trade in both goods and factor markets for firms offering health insurance coverage. We use a multi-sector (intra-national) trade model to predict and quantify consequences of the Affordable Care Act for the patterns of output, labor usage, and employee compensation. We find that the law will significantly redistribute from high-wage work...

  18. Affordability Tradeoffs Under Uncertainty Using Epoch-Era Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    large numbers of eras can be constructed through combinatorics , probabilistic state transitions, and other means. Process 9 focuses on the analysis ...pmlkploba=obmloq=pbofbp= Affordability Tradeoffs Under Uncertainty Using Epoch-Era Analysis 30 September 2013 Dr. Donna H. Rhodes, Principal...AND SUBTITLE Affordability Tradeoffs Under Uncertainty Using Epoch-Era Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  19. Embodied Perception: A Proposal to Reconcile Affordance and Spatial Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Rouwen Cañal-Bruland; John van der Kamp

    2015-01-01

    Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception, most of the empirical work evaluating Proffitt's approach focuses on the perception of spatial properties of the environment. We propose that theoretical and empirical efforts should be directed towar...

  20. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. Joseph; Cooke, Doug; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing opinion that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget scenarios, with sustained international participation, and --- especially --- without requiring those first missions to achieve a burdensome number of goals. In response to this view, a group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December 2013. Participants reviewed scenarios for proposed affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" or "transition" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and usable definitions of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop. In the context of affordable early missions to Mars, we also discuss the recent report of the National Research Council on human space flight and a pair of recent scenarios that appear to promise reduced costs.

  1. Calculating the affordability of antiretrovirals in St Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddock, J R; Grignon, M

    2013-01-01

    The cost of antiretrovirals is borne by donors in many low- and middle-income countries, including St Lucia. Although donor involvement has facilitated access to antiretrovirals, donor engagement in HIV/AIDS has changed over the years. This paper assesses the affordability of antiretrovirals at the individual level if donors were no longer available to fund the cost of first and second-line antiretrovirals and a prospective third-line regimen. Various conceptions of affordability are reviewed using different assumptions of what is required to maintain a standard of living that would avoid individuals descending into poverty as a result of antiretroviral purchases. These concepts of affordability are operationalized using data from the Household Budgeting Survey conducted in St Lucia in 2005/2006. While there is a range of results for the affordability of first and second-line antiretrovirals depending on which standard of affordability is used, third-line antiretrovirals are unaffordable to more than 80% of the population across the four standards of affordability used - the national poverty line, 50% of median annual consumption, 10% of annual consumption and a proposed reasonable minimum standard.

  2. Schizophrenia: An Impairment in the Capacity to Perceive Affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Gyoon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenological psychopathologists conceptualize schizophrenia as a self-disorder involving profound distortions of selfhood. For James Gibson, “to perceive the world is to coperceive oneself.” If the sense of self is disturbed in individuals with schizophrenia, this could also lead to disturbances in these individuals’ ability to perceive affordances, environmental properties taken with reference to the perceiver’s action capabilities (e.g., a rigid surface affording ‘walk-on-able,’ chairs ‘sit-on-able,’ and so on. To test this hypothesis, three experiments investigated schizophrenia patients’ affordance perception. Participants were presented with a photo of a common object on the computer and then asked to judge its secondary affordance (a non-designed function in a two-choice reaction time task in Experiment 1 and in a yes/no task in Experiment 2. Schizophrenia participants performed less accurately and more slowly than controls. To rule out visual impairment as a contributing factor, in Experiment 3, participants identified physical properties (color, shape, material composition of the objects. Schizophrenia participants were as accurate as controls and responded faster than in the previous experiments. Results suggest that the capacity to perceive affordances is likely impaired in people with schizophrenia, although the capacity to detect the object’s physical properties is kept intact. Inability to perceive affordances, those functionally significant properties of the surrounding environment, may help explain why schizophrenia patients may appear as somewhat detached from the world.

  3. Q-3D: Imaging Spectroscopy of Quasar Hosts with JWST Analyzed with a Powerful New PSF Decomposition and Spectral Analysis Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Veilleux, Sylvain; Zakamska, Nadia; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Luetzgendorf, N.; Nesvadba, N.; Rupke, D.; Sun, A.

    2017-11-01

    In the last few years, optical and near-IR IFU observations from the ground have revolutionized extragalactic astronomy. The unprecedented infrared sensitivity, spatial resolution, and spectral coverage of the JWST IFUs will ensure high demand from the community. For a wide range of extragalactic phenomena (e.g. quasars, starbursts, supernovae, gamma ray bursts, tidal disruption events) and beyond (e.g. nebulae, debris disks around bright stars), PSF contamination will be an issue when studying the underlying extended emission. We propose to provide the community with a PSF decomposition and spectral analysis package for high dynamic range JWST IFU observations allowing the user to create science-ready maps of relevant spectral features. Luminous quasars, with their bright central source (quasar) and extended emission (host galaxy), are excellent test cases for this software. Quasars are also of high scientific interest in their own right as they are widely considered to be the main driver in regulating massive galaxy growth. JWST will revolutionize our understanding of black hole-galaxy co-evolution by allowing us to probe the stellar, gas, and dust components of nearby and distant galaxies, spatially and spectrally. We propose to use the IFU capabilities of NIRSpec and MIRI to study the impact of three carefully selected luminous quasars on their hosts. Our program will provide (1) a scientific dataset of broad interest that will serve as a pathfinder for JWST science investigations in IFU mode and (2) a powerful new data analysis tool that will enable frontier science for a wide swath of astrophysical research.

  4. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  5. The role of affordances in Libras acquisition as second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Puhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Libras is a visual-spatial language used by the Brazilian deaf community. Following the principles of spatiality and vision, the user of the sign language resorts more easily to stimuli from the environment than the user of the oral language. Thus, the hypothesis of this research is that the affordances (environmental properties that enable psychologically possible actions would be a facilitator element in the process of Libras acquisition. In this paper we use the narrative and interpretive-qualitative research to discuss the role of affordances in the listener perception, interpretation and action cycle in Libras acquisition as second language. Results show that the Libras’ iconic signs can be considered important affordances in the early stages of the acquisition. It is also observed the importance of the permanence in the niche where Libras is used for the sign language development.

  6. The Role of Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Pecher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor affordances are important for object knowledge. Semantic tasks on visual objects often show interactions with motor actions. Prior neuro-imaging studies suggested that motor affordances also play a role in visual working memory for objects. When participants remembered manipulable objects (e.g., hammer greater premotor cortex activation was observed than when they remembered non-manipulable objects (e.g., polar bear. In the present study participants held object pictures in working memory while performing concurrent tasks such as articulation of nonsense syllables and performing hand movements. Although concurrent tasks did interfere with working memory performance, in none of the experiments did we find any evidence that concurrent motor tasks affected memory differently for manipulable and non-manipulable objects. I conclude that motor affordances are not used for visual working memory.

  7. Affordances of Spreadsheets In Mathematical Investigation: Potentialities For Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Calder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article, is concerned with the ways learning is shaped when mathematics problems are investigated in spreadsheet environments. It considers how the opportunities and constraints the digital media affords influenced the decisions the students made, and the direction of their enquiry pathway. How might the learning trajectory unfold, and the learning process and mathematical understanding emerge? Will the spreadsheet, as the pedagogical medium, evoke learning in a distinctive manner? The article reports on an aspect of an ongoing study involving students as they engage mathematical investigative tasks through digital media, the spreadsheet in particular. It considers the affordances of this learning environment for primary-aged students.

  8. Affordable housing and urban regeneration in Portugal: a troubled tryst?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branco, Rosa; Alves, Sonia

    demographic trajectory over recent decades. Despite some signs of sporadic residential gentrification, the local social fabric continues to be characterized by an ageing population and weak educational and socio-economic capital. In the current phase of economic and social crisis, it is critical to consider...... whether and how the new agents of urban regeneration, in particular the Urban Rehabilitation Societies, are providing affordable housing in these areas. In this context, it makes sense to discuss the meaning of concepts and models of social and affordable housing in Portugal since they are key elements...

  9. Bootstrapping Relational Affordances of Object Pairs using Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Robots acting in everyday environments need a good knowledge of how a manipulation action can affect pairs of objects in a relationship, such as ‘inside’ or ‘behind’ or ‘on top’. These relationships afford certain means-end actions such as pulling a container to retrieve the contents, or pulling...... leverage past knowledge to accelerate current learning (which we call bootstrapping). We learn Random Forest based affordance predictors from visual inputs and demonstrate two approaches to knowledge transfer for bootstrapping. In the first approach (direct bootstrapping), the state-space for a new...

  10. Assessing Alternative Modifications to the Affordable Care Act: Impact on Individual Market Premiums and Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibner, Christine; Saltzman, Evan

    2015-03-20

    The goals of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are to enable all legal U.S. residents to have access to affordable health insurance and to prevent sicker individuals (such as those with preexisting conditions) from being priced out of the market. The ACA also instituted several policies to stabilize premiums and to encourage enrollment among healthy individuals of all ages. The law's tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies offer a "carrot" that may encourage enrollment among some young and healthy individuals who would otherwise remain uninsured, while the individual mandate acts as a "stick" by imposing penalties on individuals who choose not to enroll. In this article, the authors use the COMPARE microsimulation model, an analytic tool that uses economic theory and data to predict the effects of health policy reforms, to estimate how eliminating the ACA's individual mandate, eliminating the law's tax credits, and combined scenarios that change these and other provisions of the act might affect 2015 individual market premiums and overall insurance coverage. Underlying these estimates is a COMPARE-based analysis of how premiums and insurance coverage outcomes depend on young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage. The authors find that eliminating the ACA's tax credits and eliminating the individual mandate both increase premiums and reduce enrollment on the individual market. They also find that these key features of the ACA help to protect against adverse selection and stabilize the market by encouraging healthy people to enroll and, in the case of the tax credit, shielding subsidized enrollees from premium increases. Further, they find that individual market premiums are only modestly sensitive to young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage, and ensuring market stability does not require that young adults make up a particular share of enrollees.

  11. Passive stability and active control in a rhythmic task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Kunlin; Dijkstra, Tjeerd M. H.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    Rhythmically bouncing a ball with a racket is a task that affords passively stable solutions as demonstrated by stability analyses of a mathematical model of the task. Passive stability implies that no active control is needed as errors die out without requiring corrective actions. Empirical results

  12. 75 FR 9033 - 2010-2011 Enterprise Affordable Housing Goals; Enterprise Book-Entry Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... special affordable housing goal, as well as providing for a multifamily special affordable housing subgoal... goals include four goals for single-family, owner-occupied housing, one multifamily special affordable housing goal, and one multifamily special affordable housing subgoal.\\10\\ The single-family housing goals...

  13. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  14. Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

  15. 12 CFR 1282.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Special Affordable Housing Goal for the purchase or refinancing of existing seasoned portfolios of loans... writing. (viii) For purposes of paragraph (e)(4) of this section, if the seller did not originate the... the refinancing of an Enterprise's existing mortgages or mortgage-backed securities portfolios shall...

  16. Affordances of Learning Technologies in Higher Education Multicultural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Edilson

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of research has been conducted in higher education to investigate the affordances (action possibilities) and the influence information and communication technologies (ICT) may have on students' learning experiences and outcomes. Such studies have given rise to the implementation of a wide range of educational frameworks with a great deal…

  17. The Affordances Of Repackaged Popular Music From The Past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.R. Driessen (Simone)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis explores the affordances of repackaged popular music from the past. Particularly, how they feature in audiences’ reflections on different stages and transitions in their life course. Three case studies highlight different modes of repackaging and illustrate how

  18. Affordances and Alignments: Continuing Challenges in Advising Undergraduate Psychology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, R. Eric

    2018-01-01

    Challenges abound in providing accurate and useful information to prospective and declared psychology majors about their career options and how to make decisions that will lead to satisfying and rewarding postgraduate lives. One component of this challenge is that by majoring in psychology, career affordances (i.e., the opportunities and…

  19. The ICCE Framework: Framing Learning Experiences Afforded by Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for game-based learning frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games. These frameworks should aim to facilitate game analyses, identification of learning opportunities, and support for learner experiences. This article uses the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression…

  20. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  1. Learning Affordances of Language and Communication National Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the learning affordances of different language and communication curricula in the world. For reasons of space, only two national education systems (Finland and Singapore) and their language and communication curricula are referred to. The accounts of national education systems consist of the identification of mechanisms…

  2. 24 CFR 401.408 - Affordability and use restrictions required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affordability and use restrictions...

  3. Educational Affordances and Learning Design in Music Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lee; Leong, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Although music software has become increasingly affordable and widely adopted in today's classrooms, concerns have been raised about a lack of consideration for users' needs during the software development process. This paper examines intra- and inter-sectoral communication pertaining to software development and music education to shed light on…

  4. Determining Factors For Housing Affordability In Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result through EFA revealed house rents, housing preference, housing satisfaction, land price and government intervention as the determining factors for housing affordability. The multiple regression analysis confirmed land price, housing satisfaction and housing preference to be the most significant factors. The study ...

  5. The Messiness of Meaning Making: Examining the Affordances of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study is located in the field of New Literacy Studies and examines the affordances of a digital space in a first year academic literacy course in the Humanities. We focus on students' acquisition of academic literacy, as well as critical thinking and reflexivity around a core social science concept; identity. Here, we refer to ...

  6. Reinventing Financial Aid: Charting a New Course to College Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    In this provocative volume, two experts with very different points of view address the growing concern that student loan programs are not a sustainable solution to the problem of mounting college costs. They argue that the time has come to reform the financial aid system so that it is more effective in promoting college affordability, access, and…

  7. Availability and affordability of anticancer medicines at the Ocean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To ensure effective control of cancer, patients undergoing chemotherapy should get continuous supply of anticancer medicines. In Tanzania and other East African countries little is documented regarding the availability and affordability of anticancer medicines at the patient level. The number of anticancer ...

  8. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  9. Commitments, Expectations, Affordances and Susceptibilities: Towards Positional Agent Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Chen, Q.; Torroni, P.; Villata, S.; Hsu, J.; Omicini, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces an agent architecture centered around the notions of commitment, expectation, affordance, and susceptibility. These components are to a certain measure at the base of any agent system, however, inspired by research in explanation-based decision making, this contribution attempts

  10. Cost considerations in determining the affordability of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Affordability and value differ in patient groups with different baseline prognoses. This is illustrated below using the hazard ratio (HR) of survival rates obtained from a. Cochrane review[2] and personal communication ...

  11. Perceptions about affordability of care in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabers, A.E.M.; Jong, J.D. de

    2014-01-01

    The search to maintain a sustainable health care system often results in health care users facing increased costs. The burden of collective expenditure is shifted onto individuals, which could have an impact upon the affordability of care. One third of Dutch health care users find health care

  12. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study and Open Learning Graduates. Narayan S Punekar. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 77-78 ...

  13. Abilities and Affordances: Factors Influencing Successful Child-Tablet Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Adam K.; McEwen, Rhonda N.

    2017-01-01

    Using Luhmann's communication theory and affordance theories, we develop a framework to examine how kindergarten-grade 2 students interact with tablet computers. We assessed whether cognitive ability and device configuration influence how successfully children use tablet computers. We found that children's limited ability to direct their cognitive…

  14. Inside the Virtual Classroom: Student Perspectives on Affordances and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falloon, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates learners studying at a distance can experience perceptions of isolation and lack of "belonging" and support, which can adversely affect their learning experience and performance. Recently, the advent of affordable, accessible and reliable high-speed broadband has meant that a whole new array of digital tools to support…

  15. the role of financial institutions towards affordable housing to urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    The general objective of the study was to assess the role of financial institutions towards affordable housing to middle income earners in. Kampala City. A sample size of 113 respondents was selected using both probability and non-probability sampling methods. Data was collected and analysed using mixed methods.

  16. Affordability of cataract surgery using the Big Mac prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van C. Lansingh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The price of cataract surgery does not consider the patient's capacity to pay, based on a simple tool such as the BMcI. This suggests affordability issues, particularly when patients work for minimum wages and/or do not have access to free health care.

  17. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the enabling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The article...... draws on critical comments and extends Hutchby's concept of affordance. Even if Hutchby does not study an artefact as a micro-level phe-nomenon from an engineering perspective and only considers the consumption of an arte-fact, we use him to study the development of artefacts in NPD. Hutchby's approach......-technical aspects alike, while Sierra uses a CAD-system to support joint-development crossing organisational boundaries. The cases share features such as triadic relations; customer's problem, product designers and artefact. For example, a wheelchair is presented to Sierra, the result of NPD-activities carried out...

  18. Rhythm as an affordance for the entrainment of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Fred

    2009-01-01

    A general account of rhythm in human behaviour is provided, according to which rhythm inheres in the affordance that a signal provides for the entrainment of movement on the part of a perceiver. This generic account is supported by an explication of the central concepts of affordance and entrainment. When viewed in this light, rhythm appears as the correct explanandum to account for coordinated behaviour in a wide variety of situations, including such core senses as dance and the production of music. Speech may appear to be only marginally rhythmical under such an account, but several experimental studies reveal that speech, too, has the potential to entrain movement. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Anak dan Ruang Bermain: Telaah Terhadap Beberapa Penelitian Berbasis Affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Bobby Saragih

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s response towards something is different from adults’. If an architect designs the foot of a monument with a beautiful arch, a child will respond it as a slide. When an architect designs a water pool as an aesthetic element of a monument area, a child will respond with a different return, which is a place to shower/swim and play, not for aesthetic. What is this phenomenon? And how can we understand this well? This story reassures us that between adults and children have different concepts of a building or space. With a descriptive approach to literature review, this article examines some affordance-based studies. From the few studies presented, it appears that affordances are not enough to understand why kids play on an informal play space. Semiotic approach can help to better understand why children play in informal spaces. 

  20. FRUGAL INNOVATIONS: THE FUTURE OF AFFORDABLE HEALTH CARE

    OpenAIRE

    GEETHA MANI, KALAIVANI ANNADURAI RAJA DANASEKARAN

    2014-01-01

    Frugal innovations are cost-conscious innovations developed to meet the needs in resource-poor settings, withoutcompromising quality. While there have been various innovations in the field of health care in the past decades, there is avast difference in the distribution and utilization of these innovations between developed and developing countries. Frugalinnovations can play a potential role in bridging the gap between countries and ensure affordable health care for all.

  1. Sonic mediatization of the book: affordances of the audiobook

    OpenAIRE

    Iben Have; Birgitte Stougaard Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses cultural changes resulting from the growing number of audiobook users and changes in audiobook use emerging from digital technological developments of the past decade. The sonification of the written text is inscribed in the general transformation and mediatization of the printed book but offers radically different affordances than do visually perceived e-books. New portable digital audio media change the act of reading, moving it towards fields of practice in which rea...

  2. 2-Mercaptopropionyiglycine Affords Enhanced Radioprotection After a Liposome Encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    R.N., SHARAN; A., ALAM; SANGHAMITRA, CHAKRABORTY; JYOTI R., SAIKIA; P.N., SRIVASTAVA; lmmunology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences North-Eastern Hill University; Radiation &Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences North-Eastern Hill University; Nuclear Science Center, JNU Campus

    1995-01-01

    Use of radioprotective drugs in radiotherapy is desirable to protect normal tissues. 2-mercaptopropionyiglycine (MPG) has shown promising results in experimental radioprotection. In this report, a liposome drug delivery system for MPG has been used in Swiss albino mice exposed to 1 to 8 Gy whole body Gamma-irradiation to test whether or not this modality enhances the MPG afforded radio-protection. A statistically significant, dose dependent enhancement of protection by liposome encapsulated M...

  3. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neerav; Jha, Saurabh

    2012-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is comprehensive reform and by virtue of its comprehensiveness can be cumbersome to read and understand. This short piece is a succinct and irreverent glance at PPACA. The piece starts with a question and ends with the same question: Will PPACA break the iron triangle? Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Scheider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  5. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The arti......New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes....... The article draws on critical comments and extends Hutchby’s concept of affordance. Even if Hutchby does not study an artefact as a micro-level phe-nomenon from an engineering perspective and only considers the consumption of an arte-fact, we use him to study the development of artefacts in NPD. Hutchby...... to negotiate technical and non-technical aspects alike, while Sierra uses a CAD-system to support joint-development crossing organisational boundaries. The cases share features such as triadic relations; customer’s problem, product designers and artefact. For example, a wheelchair is presented to Sierra...

  6. Normative Interfaces: Affordances, Gender, and Race in Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Cirucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates social network site affordances and their implications for perceptions of marginalized communities. I employ Facebook as a case study and speak with young adult users to comprehend how socially marginalized groups are perceived through Facebook’s affordances. In particular, I consider: How familiar are users with Facebook’s tools and functionalities? How are issues of gender and race represented through the site’s interface? How do users conceive of gender and race? The findings suggest that gender is perceived as a more important identifier than race and that Facebook is post-racial, because of the user interface choices made. In addition, my participants view Facebook as an official social space that should include “authentic” identities; although Facebook has shaped authentic to mean accurate. I conclude that while the construction of affordances is a negotiation between user, interface, and designer, the designers have the most power because they have created the spaces in ways that will most benefit Facebook. In addition, users who are more situated in the socio-cultural majority have no desire to enact agency within Facebook’s structure because they are accustomed to forms and official documents that are well suited to fit their identification needs.

  7. The visual encoding of tool-object affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natraj, N; Pella, Y M; Borghi, A M; Wheaton, L A

    2015-12-03

    The perception of tool-object pairs involves understanding their action-relationships (affordances). Here, we sought to evaluate how an observer visually encodes tool-object affordances. Eye-movements were recorded as right-handed participants freely viewed static, right-handed, egocentric tool-object images across three contexts: correct (e.g. hammer-nail), incorrect (e.g. hammer-paper), spatial/ambiguous (e.g. hammer-wood), and three grasp-types: no hand, functional grasp-posture (grasp hammer-handle), non-functional/manipulative grasp-posture (grasp hammer-head). There were three areas of interests (AOI): the object (nail), the operant tool-end (hammer-head), the graspable tool-end (hammer-handle). Participants passively evaluated whether tool-object pairs were functionally correct/incorrect. Clustering of gaze scanpaths and AOI weightings grouped conditions into three distinct grasp-specific clusters, especially across correct and spatial tool-object contexts and to a lesser extent within the incorrect tool-object context. The grasp-specific gaze scanpath clusters were reasonably robust to the temporal order of gaze scanpaths. Gaze was therefore automatically primed to grasp-affordances though the task required evaluating tool-object context. Participants also primarily focused on the object and the operant tool-end and sparsely attended to the graspable tool-end, even in images with functional grasp-postures. In fact, in the absence of a grasp, the object was foveally weighted the most, indicative of a possible object-oriented action priming effect wherein the observer may be evaluating how the tool engages on the object. Unlike the functional grasp-posture, the manipulative grasp-posture caused the greatest disruption in the object-oriented priming effect, ostensibly as it does not afford tool-object action due to its non-functional interaction with the operant tool-end that actually engages with the object (e.g., hammer-head to nail). The enhanced attention

  8. Are Marketplace Plans Affordable? Consumer Perspectives from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March-May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Rasmussen, Petra W; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Most employers who provide health insurance to employees subsidize their premiums and provide a comprehensive benefit package. Before the Affordable Care Act, people who lacked health insurance through a job and purchased it on their own paid the full cost of their plans, which often came with skimpy benefit packages and high deductibles. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, March--May 2015, indicate that the law's tax credits have made premium costs in health plans sold through the marketplaces roughly comparable to employer plans, at least for people with low and moderate incomes. At higher incomes, the phase-out of the subsidies means that adults in marketplace plans have higher premium costs than those in employer plans. Overall, larger shares of adults in marketplace plans reported deductibles of $1,000 or more, compared with those in employer plans, though these differences were narrower among low-and moderate-income adults.

  9. Pneumatic skin flattening (PSF): a novel technology for marked pain reduction in hair removal with high energy density lasers and IPLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lask, Gary; Friedman, David; Elman, Monica; Fournier, Nathalie; Shavit, Raphi; Slatkine, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) aesthetic treatment, such as hair removal from large areas, is often very painful. The problems of pain and discomfort can be divided into two different phases: immediate acute pain and the long-term, milder, post-treatment discomfort also associated with erythema. The immediate acute pain is felt during each treatment pulse and can accumulate to an intolerable sensation after a few shots, resulting in the necessity of either using topical analgesic creams which have several limitations or else to considerably slow down the process and/or apply less efficient low-energy densities. The immediate pain is created by the stimulation of sensory nerves located near the basal layer of the epidermis and adjacent to the treated hair follicles. There is an interest in a technology which would significantly reduce acute pain and post-treatment erythema, without the necessity of lowering the energy density or speed of treatments. To examine the advantages of pneumatic skin flattening (PSF) with negative pressure: (i) for the reduction or elimination of pain, without chilling the skin, during hair removal with high energy density IPLs and pulsed lasers; (ii) for the reduction of post-treatment erythema; and (iii) for the enhancement of hair removal. We have removed hair from large areas such as legs and backs with a high-energy (42 J/cm2) pulsed diode laser and an IPL (15-20 J/cm2). Room temperature gel was applied to the skin before treatment. In all cases but one, skin was not chilled by external cooling devices. We utilized a vacuum chamber and a transparent sapphire window to generate deep negative pressure in the treatment site and flatten the skin against the window. The level of applied vacuum was in the 200-600 mmHg range. We have compared the level of pain (I-V according to a modified McGill Pain Questionnaire) and the efficacy of hair removal on a total of 40 treatment sites The results of the vacuum-assisted treatment sites were compared

  10. Can low-grade spondylolisthesis be effectively treated by either coflex interlaminar stabilization or laminectomy and posterior spinal fusion? Two-year clinical and radiographic results from the randomized, prospective, multicenter US investigational device exemption trial: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Reginald; Auerbach, Joshua D; Bae, Hyun; Errico, Thomas J

    2013-08-01

    Posterolateral spinal fusion (PSF) has long been the standard of care for degenerative spondylolisthesis, but less invasive, motion-preserving alternatives have been proposed to reduce the complications associated with fusion while still providing neural decompression and stabilization. The object of the current study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of coflex Interlaminar Stabilization compared with PSF to treat low-grade spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis. This is a prospective, randomized, multicenter FDA investigational device exemption (IDE) trial comparing coflex Interlaminar Stabilization with laminectomy and PSF. A total of 322 patients from 21 sites in the US were enrolled between 2006 and 2008 for the IDE trial. The current study evaluated only the subset of patients from this overall cohort with Grade 1 spondylolisthesis (99 in the coflex group and 51 in the fusion group). Subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive decompression and coflex interlaminar stabilization or decompression and posterolateral spinal fusion with spinal instrumentation. Data collected included perioperative outcomes, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), back and worse leg visual analog scale (VAS) scores, 12-Item Short Form Health Survey, Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ), and radiographic outcomes at a minimum of 2 years. The FDA criteria for overall device success required the following to be met: 15-point reduction in ODI, no reoperations, no major device-related complications, and no postoperative epidural injections. At a minimum of 2 years, patient follow-up was 94.9% and 94.1% in the coflex and fusion control groups, respectively. There were no group differences at baseline for any demographic, clinical, or radiographic parameter. The average age was 63 years in the coflex cohort and 65 years in the fusion cohort. Coflex subjects experienced significantly shorter operative times (p grade spondylolisthesis was effectively stabilized by coflex and led to similar

  11. 77 FR 20615 - DAU Industry Day: “Affordability, Efficiency, and the Industrial Base”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... of the Secretary DAU Industry Day: ``Affordability, Efficiency, and the Industrial Base'' AGENCY..., President of Defense Acquisition University, will host a forum with industry to discuss affordability... Industry Day: ``Affordability, Efficiency, and the Industrial Base''. DATES: Tuesday, May 1, 2012, from 8...

  12. 78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student Competition. OMB Approval Number: N/A. Type of Request: New... innovations in affordable housing design. The Competition aims to: Encourage research and innovation in... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing...

  13. On possibilities for action: The past, present and future of affordance research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Pepping

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a historical overview of the development of almost 50 years of empirical research on the affordances in the past and in the present. Defined by James Jerome Gibson in the early development of the Ecological Approach to Perception and Action as the prime of perception and action, affordances have become a rich topic of investigation in the fields of human movement science and experimental psychology. The methodological origins of the empirical research performed on affordances can be traced back to the mid 1980’s and the works of Warren (1984, 1988 and Michaels (1988. Most of the research in Ecological Psychology performed since has focused on the actualization of discretely defined actions, the perception of action boundaries, the calculation of pi-numbers, and the measurement of response times. The research efforts have resulted in advancements in the understanding of the dynamic nature of affordances, affordances in a social context and the importance of calibration for perception of affordances. Although affordances are seen as an instrumental part of the control of action most studies investigating affordances do not pay attention to the control of the action. We conclude that affordances are still primarily treated as a utility to select behaviour, which creates a conceptual barrier that hinders deeper understanding of affordances. A focus on action-boundaries has largely prevented advancement in other aspects of affordances, most notably an integrative understanding of the role of affordances in the control of action.

  14. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  15. A Bootstrap Approach to an Affordable Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential to build an affordable sustainable exploration program by adopting an approach that requires investing in technologies that can be used to build a space infrastructure from very modest initial capabilities. Human exploration has had a history of flight programs that have high development and operational costs. Since Apollo, human exploration has had very constrained budgets and they are expected be constrained in the future. Due to their high operations costs it becomes necessary to consider retiring established space facilities in order to move on to the next exploration challenge. This practice may save cost in the near term but it does so by sacrificing part of the program s future architecture. Human exploration also has a history of sacrificing fully functional flight hardware to achieve mission objectives. An affordable exploration program cannot be built when it involves billions of dollars of discarded space flight hardware, instead, the program must emphasize preserving its high value space assets and building a suitable permanent infrastructure. Further this infrastructure must reduce operational and logistics cost. The paper examines the importance of achieving a high level of logistics independence by minimizing resource consumption, minimizing the dependency on external logistics, and maximizing the utility of resources available. The approach involves the development and deployment of a core suite of technologies that have minimum initial needs yet are able expand upon initial capability in an incremental bootstrap fashion. The bootstrap approach incrementally creates an infrastructure that grows and becomes self sustaining and eventually begins producing the energy, products and consumable propellants that support human exploration. The bootstrap technologies involve new methods of delivering and manipulating energy and materials. These technologies will exploit the space environment, minimize dependencies, and

  16. Plastic modes of listening: affordance in constructed sound environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolin, Anders

    This thesis is concerned with how the ecological approach to perception with the inclusion of listening modes, informs the creation of sound art installation, or more specifically as referred to in this thesis as constructed sound environments. The basis for the thesis has been a practiced based research where the aim and purpose of the written part of this PhD project has been to critically investigate the area of sound art, in order to map various approaches towards participating in and listening to a constructed sound environment. The main areas has been the notion of affordance as coined by James J. Gibson (1986), listening modes as coined by Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and further developed by Michel Chion (1994), aural architects as coined by Blesser and Salter (2007) and the holistic approach towards understanding sound art developed by Brandon LaBelle (2006). The findings within the written part of the thesis, based on a qualitative analysis, have informed the practice that has resulted in artefacts in the form of seven constructed sound environments that also functions as case studies for further analysis. The aim of the practice has been to exemplify the methodology, strategy and progress behind the organisation and construction of sound environments The research concerns point towards the acknowledgment of affordance as the crucial factor in understanding a constructed sound environment. The affordance approach govern the idea that perceiving a sound environment is a top-down process where the autonomic quality of a constructed sound environment is based upon the perception of structures of the sound material and its relationship with speaker placement and surrounding space. This enables a researcher to side step the conflicting poles of musical/abstract and non-musical/realistic classification of sound elements and regard these poles as included, not separated elements in the analysis of a constructed sound environment.

  17. ManTech Affordability for Defense Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    ManTech Program vision is a responsive, world- class manufacturing capability to affordably and rapidly meet Warfighter needs throughout the defense...production cost savings.” Colonel James P. Ryan Director, F-35 Production 3 ManTech Improves Warfighter Protection The Problem: The current U.S. headgear ...AIR FORCE AND DEFENSE-WIDE MS&T 4 F135/F136 Engine / F-35 Lightning II T700 Engine / MH-60M Blackhawk ManTech Reduces Cost of T-Beam Stiffeners for

  18. The affordances and use of green citizen engagement web tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Hoff, Jens Villiam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse if and how three different green web applications create the basis for different levels of environmental citizen participation. This is relevant in both an e-governance context and an environmental policy context, as it is normally assumed that ICT...... that differences in affordance translates into differences in use. Theoretically, the paper departs from Contextual New Medium Theory. This theory focuses on technological practices, and demonstrates how these are created in interplay between technology, policy ideas and actor skills. Empirically, the paper...

  19. Affordances of outdoor settings for children in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; van den Bosch, Cecil Konijnendijk

    2017-01-01

    fixtures, loose objects, loose material, water, creatures and fire. Each class is specified by distinctive and attractive key activities found by observation. Examining each class indicated that important characteristics apart from availability were variation, sizes and change. The concept of affordances...... were observed during times for ‘free play’ in their usual outdoor settings: traditional playground and forest (12 visits, respectively). Modified classes of outdoor features are suggested along with new practical class names: open ground, sloping terrain, shielded places, rigid fixtures, moving...... emphasises the ongoing user–environment–activity relationship important for planning with children in mind, but clarification is needed when using the term....

  20. Learning Objects and Grasp Affordances through Autonomous Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Detry, Renaud; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We describe a system for autonomous learning of visual object representations and their grasp affordances on a robot-vision system. It segments objects by grasping and moving 3D scene features, and creates probabilistic visual representations for object detection, recognition and pose estimation...... image sequences as well as (3) a number of built-in behavioral modules on the one hand, and autonomous exploration on the other hand, the system is able to generate object and grasping knowledge through interaction with its environment....

  1. Situação do aleitamento materno em população assistida pelo programa de saúde da família-PSF Situación de la lactancia materna en populación asistida por el programa de salud de la familia - PSF Breast feeding in a population attended by the family health program - FHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima Parada

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar a prevalência dos diferentes tipos de aleitamento e sua relação com variáveis maternas no município de Conchas-SP, totalmente coberto pelo PSF. Foram obtidas informações sobre a alimentação atual das crianças menores de um ano que compareceram à primeira etapa da Campanha de Multivacinação de 2003. As associações foram submetidas ao teste do qui-quadrado, adotando-se 5% como nível de significância estatística. As prevalências do Aleitamento Materno Exclusivo (AME e do Aleitamento Materno Predominante (AMP, em menores de 4 meses de vida, foram 25,4 e 44,4%, respectivamente, e 66,7% do total de crianças menores de um ano ainda eram amamentadas. A prevalência do AME em menores de 6 meses foi heterogênea, variando de 7,4 a 41,2%, conforme a equipe do PSF de procedência das crianças. Ter passado por dificuldades no início do aleitamento associou-se a menores prevalências de AME e Aleitamento Materno (AM. Esses resultados evidenciam situação distante da recomendada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde e aquela para a qual há evidências de máximo efeito protetor à saúde infantil, reafirmam a necessidade de apoio às mães no período puerperal precoce e demonstram a importância de diagnósticos desagregados por regiões para o planejamento de ações de promoção ao AM.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia de los diferentes tipos de lactancia y su relación con variables maternas en el municipio de Conchas-SP, Brasil, totalmente cubierto por el PSF. Recopilamos informaciones sobre la alimentación actual de los niños de hasta un año de edad que participaron de la primera etapa de la Campaña de Multivacunación de 2003. Las asociaciones fueron sometidas al test del qui-cuadrado, adoptándose pThis study aimed to identify the prevalence of different types of breastfeeding and how they relate to maternal variables in the municipality of Conchas, São Paulo, Brazil

  2. Sonic mediatization of the book: affordances of the audiobook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iben Have

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses cultural changes resulting from the growing number of audiobook users and changes in audiobook use emerging from digital technological developments of the past decade. The sonification of the written text is inscribed in the general transformation and mediatization of the printed book but offers radically different affordances than do visually perceived e-books. New portable digital audio media change the act of reading, moving it towards fields of practice in which reading has not been common before: the gym, the bicycle ride, gardening, resting in the dark, etc. From being a medium typically associated with children, the visually handicapped, or the dyslexic, the audiobook has developed into a popular phenomenon, which, we argue, has as much in common with other kinds of mediated mobile listening practices, like music and radio listening, as it has with the reading of printed books. Taking an inductive approach from the micro-level of the individual’s use, the term affordances will be used as a methodological tool within the concept of mediatization.

  3. Sonic mediatization of the book: affordances of the audiobook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iben Have

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses cultural changes resulting from the growing number of audiobook users and changes in audiobook use emerging from digital technological developments of the past decade. The sonification of the written text is inscribed in the general transformation and mediatization of the printed book but offers radically different affordances than do visually perceived e-books. New portable digital audio media change the act of reading, moving it towards fields of practice in which reading has not been common before: the gym, the bicycle ride, gardening, resting in the dark, etc. From being a medium typically associated with children, the visually handicapped, or the dyslexic, the audiobook has developed into a popular phenomenon, which, we argue, has as much in common with other kinds of mediated mobile listening practices, like music and radio listening, as it has with the reading of printed books. Taking an inductive approach from the micro-level of the individual’s use, the term affordances will be used as a methodological tool within the concept of mediatization.

  4. Awareness on Sustainable Affordable Housing Among Homebuyers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Salem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns about the delivery of Sustainable Affordable Housing (SAH in Malaysia. The built environment, operation and demolishment of housing have the profound impact on our nature environment. SAH can be a solution toward sustainability development because it considered from an environmental friendly, socially enhancing, and economically benefits perfectives towards housing development. This paper aims to explore the awareness of homebuyers in Malaysia towards sustainable affordable housing. This research used the method of unstructured interview among homebuyers toward SAH in Malaysia. Based on the finding of the study, the awareness of homebuyers in SAH are relatively inadequate. Respondents are required the brief explanation on concept and elements of SAH for continue the interview. Based on Porter Five Forces Model, homebuyers’ requirements hold the bargaining power of customers to determine the features of housing provided by property provider. The knowledge of homebuyers on SAH is crucial for the sustainable development, because homebuyers are one of the key drivers for implementing the sustainable requirements in housing development.

  5. Unpacking physics representations: Towards an appreciation of disciplinary affordance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Fredlund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article problematizes the access to disciplinary knowledge that different physics representations have the possibility to provide; that is, their disciplinary affordances. It is argued that historically such access has become increasingly constrained for students as physics representations have been rationalized over time. Thus, the case is made that such rationalized representations, while powerful for communication from a disciplinary point of view, manifest as learning challenges for students. The proposal is illustrated using a vignette from a student discussion in the physics laboratory about circuit connections for an experimental investigation of the charging and discharging of a capacitor. It is concluded that in order for students to come to appreciate the disciplinary affordances of representations, more attention needs to be paid to their “unpacking.” Building on this conclusion, two questions are proposed that teachers can ask themselves in order to begin to unpack the representations that they use in their teaching. The paper ends by proposing directions for future research in this area.

  6. Cortical processing of object affordances for self and others’ action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMaranesi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of objects does not rely only on visual brain areas, but also involves cortical motor regions. In particular, different parietal and premotor areas host neurons discharging during both object observation and grasping. Most of these cells often show similar visual and motor selectivity for a specific object (or set of objects, suggesting that they might play a crucial role in representing the potential motor act afforded by the object. The existence of such a mechanism for the visuomotor transformation of object physical properties in the most appropriate motor plan for interacting with them has been convincingly demonstrated in humans as well. Interestingly, human studies have shown that visually presented objects can automatically trigger the representation of an action provided that they are located within the observer’s reaching space (peripersonal space. The affordance effect also occurs when the presented object is outside the observer’s peripersonal space, but inside the peripersonal space of an observed agent. These findings recently received direct support by single neuron studies in monkey, indicating that space-constrained processing of objects in the ventral premotor cortex might be relevant to represent objects as potential targets for one’s own or others' action.

  7. Interaction between affordance and handedness recognition: a chronometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lameira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of tools and manipulable objects activates motor-related areas in the cortex, facilitating possible actions toward them. This pattern of activity may underlie the phenomenon of object affordance. Some cortical motor neurons are also covertly activated during the recognition of body parts such as hands. One hypothesis is that different subpopulations of motor neurons in the frontal cortex are activated in each motor program; for example, canonical neurons in the premotor cortex are responsible for the affordance of visual objects, while mirror neurons support motor imagery triggered during handedness recognition. However, the question remains whether these subpopulations work independently. This hypothesis can be tested with a manual reaction time (MRT task with a priming paradigm to evaluate whether the view of a manipulable object interferes with the motor imagery of the subject's hand. The MRT provides a measure of the course of information processing in the brain and allows indirect evaluation of cognitive processes. Our results suggest that canonical and mirror neurons work together to create a motor plan involving hand movements to facilitate successful object manipulation.

  8. AFFORDABILITY OF LOW INCOME HOUSING IN PUMWANI, NAIROBI, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, in Kenya, through the National Housing Corporation (NHC, an arm of the central government that delivers affordable houses, the local government embarked on the redevelopment of Pumwani the oldest surviving affordable low income housing in Nairobi. Pumwani was started in 1923 and it targeted early African immigrants to Nairobi. Currently, the old Pumwani is home to some of the city’s poorest dwellers majorities who depend on the informal sector for an income. Redevelopment was targeted at housing all the genuine dwellers. Instead delivery ended up with house types that were at first rejected by the beneficiaries. Although the new housing was slightly of an improved physical and spatial quality it was unaffordable. Beneficiaries were required to pay an average monthly rent of US$157 for up to eighteen years towards purchase of the new house. In the beginning, some of them had declined to take position of the newly built houses. To raise the basic rent majorities of those who have since moved in have opted to rent out some of the space. To date there is still standoff with some of the houses still unoccupied. Except during the period of social survey when the beneficiaries were brought in to supply the necessary information, the entire construction process was undertaken by NHC under a turnkey project. Among other factors the construction process was at fault for it raised the costs. Also, some of the basic housing needs were not effectively looked into. There was a housing mismatch.

  9. Social Media, Privacy, and Self-Disclosure: The Turbulence Caused by Social Media’s Affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Trepte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The struggle we currently perceive in terms of social media privacy may be the result of the incompatible natures of “warm” and “cold” affordances. Whereas social media’s warm affordances reflect long-standing privacy routines and expectations, cold affordances seem to challenge and sometimes violate them. Sharing under the realm of warm affordances means sharing according to the routines and habits we know. Sharing under the realm of cold affordances means understanding social media’s terms and conditions and how they reflect on our relationships and experiences - similar to assimilating to a new culture that seems opaque and constantly in flux.

  10. Scientific secretariate climate change and the coast (named AFFORD). Final report; Wissenschaftliches Sekretariat Klimaaenderung und Kueste (AFFORD). Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebenhoeh, W.; Sterr, H.; Simmering, F.

    1998-12-31

    Scientists within the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have indicated that coastal regions will be facing increasing risks from accelerated sealevel rise, caused by climate change. The Federal Ministry of Research (BMBF) launched a research programme (termed `Climate Change and the Coast`) to deal with presumed or possible effects and risks for the German coastal zones (North Sea and Baltic Sea). The Scientific Secretariate for the programme (named AFFORD) worked out research guidelines, initiated interdisciplinary projects and case studies in order to illustrate the major impacts (stormfloods, ecosystems responses, effects on tourism etc.) and coordinated the respective project work. Furthermore, AFFORD itself undertook a study to analyze and quantify the vulnerability of the German coastal zone according to the `Common Metholodogy` as proposed by IPCC and applied in other regions world-wide. The results were used to describe problem areas and need for action in the coastal protection sector. Results of this work have been presented within international coastal research work (such as by IPCC or IGBP-LOICZ) and discussed within the framework of coastal defence policies in Germany. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach den Erkenntnissen des Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) werden Kuestengebiete zunehmend durch einen beschleunigten Meeresspiegelanstieg als Folge des Klimawandels bedroht. Fuer die deutschen Kuestenraeume an Nord- und Ostsee wurden/werden im BMBF-Verbundvorhaben `Klimaaenderungen und Kueste` (K und K) Auswirkungen und moegliche Gefaehrdungen in Norddeutschland untersucht. Das Wissenschaftliche Sekretariat K und K (AFFORD) entwickelte fuer die Gesamtfragestellung einen Forschungsleitplan, initiierte Pilotprojekte, Verbundvorhaben und Fallstudien zu den wesentlichen Impaktbereichen (z.B. Sturmflutentwicklung, Sensivititaet von Salzwiesen und Duenen, des Kuestentourismus und einzelner Modellgebiete wie Insel Sylt und Weseraestuar) und

  11. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA): Common Modular Avionics System for Nano-Launchers Offering Affordable Access to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, James

    2015-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can only be launched affordably as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box with a mass less than 0.84 kg. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with realtime GPS data. The goal of the Advanced Vehicle Avionics project is to produce and flight-verify a common suite of avionics and software that deliver affordable, capable GNC and telemetry avionics with application to multiple nano-launch vehicles at 1 the cost of current state-of-the-art avionics.

  12. Gender performativity in physics: affordances or only constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias

    2014-06-01

    In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper `"Physics and the girly girl—there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students' stories about becoming physicists. In doing so her paper focuses on how discourses of masculinity and femininity can create available and unavailable positions for the women students. In this dialogue we do a parallel reading of two of the student narratives presented by Gonsalves, using Judith Butler's (1990) concept of discursive agency as a means to more explicitly bring the affordances for women identity constitution offered by their localized physicist context to the fore, rather focusing on its, often more visible, constraints.

  13. The Affordable Care Act's insurance market regulations' effect on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Gal

    2017-09-21

    Much of the debate surrounding reform of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) revolves around its insurance market regulation. This paper studies the impact on health insurance coverage of those provisions. Using data from the American Community Survey, years 2008-2015, I focus on individuals, ages 26 to 64, who are ineligible for the subsidies or Medicaid expansions included in the ACA to isolate the effect of its market regulation. To account for time trends, I utilize a differences-in-differences approach with a control group of residents of Massachusetts who were already subject to a similarly regulated health insurance market. I find that the ACA's regulations caused an increase of 0.95 percentage points in health insurance coverage for my sample in 2014. This increase was concentrated among younger individuals, suggesting that the law's regulations ameliorated adverse selection in the individual health insurance market. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Affordances and synchronization in collective creative construction tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    What does it mean to cooperate? How do we share meanings and actions in order to reach a common goal? In this paper we explore the relation between cooperative coordination and heart rate. We argue that in cooperative contexts participants synchronize their heart rhythms according to two factors...... measurements and employ recurrence analysis techniques to quantify the mutual adaptability of heart rates among the participants in the different tasks. We show that during individual tasks individual heart rates synchronize both within and between groups (but not with controls) plausibly due...... to the affordances of the task at hand. We also show that during collective, but not individual tasks, within group synchronization grows over time. Finally, we discuss how these measures of synchronization relate to the participants’ engagement in the tasks at hand and to the end products (LEGO models...

  15. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward.

  16. The affordable care ACT on loyalty programs for federal beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Justin J; Williams, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    To discuss changes in the law that allow community pharmacy loyalty programs to include and offer incentives to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. The retailer rewards exception of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and its change to the definition of remuneration in the civil monetary penalties of the Anti-Kickback Statute now allow incentives to be earned on federal benefit tied prescription out-of-pocket costs. The criteria required to design a compliant loyalty program are discussed. Community pharmacies can now include Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries in compliant customer loyalty programs, where allowed by state law. There is a need for research directly on the influence of loyalty programs and nominal incentives on adherence.

  17. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  18. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    and the selected solution forms the basis of a new writing process. The cases also share the tension between and combination of hardness of some elements of the product and the malleability of others. Finally, the perception of an artefact is not an iso-lated and individualistic activity, but a process where human......New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the enabling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The article...... of reading and writing text in a situated context. The relational dimension is extended by employing American pragmatism. The empirical part of the arti-cle consists of four case studies of NPD in enterprises (under pseudonyms). Two cases fo-cus predominantly on technical issues of NPD, whereas two are more...

  19. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    of both proposals is discussed and the selected solution forms the basis of a new writing process. The cases also share the tension between and combination of hardness of some elements of the product and the malleability of others. Finally, the perception of an artefact is not an isolated......New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes...... as a combination of reading and writing text in a situated context. The relational dimension is extended by employing American pragmatism. The empirical part of the arti-cle consists of four case studies of NPD in enterprises (under pseudonyms). Two cases fo-cus predominantly on technical issues of NPD, whereas...

  20. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Hussain Farooqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work.

  1. Affordances in activity theory and cognitive systems engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.; Andersen, H.H.K.; Bødker, S.

    2001-01-01

    is supplemented by careful analyses of other human modalities and activities than visual perception. Within HMI two well established perspectives on HMI,Activity Theory (AT) and Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE), have discussed such analyses and design of action possibilities focusing on providing computer...... in HMI, notably those that have been putforward by Norman and Gaver, affordances are in the foreground, whereas the system or work area is in the background. AT and CSE share the view that the actors' perception of foreground and background shifts dynamically according to the actors'situational context...... in purposeful activity. AT and CSE follow the original notion by Gibson on the actor's dynamic shifting between foreground and background of the environment. Furthermore, their work- and actor-centred approach to analysis and designof information systems opens up to an extension of Gibson's original ideas...

  2. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent assessments have confirmed the results of several earlier studies that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a leading technology for human exploration of Mars. It is generally acknowledged that NTP provides the best prospects for the transportation of humans to Mars in the 2030's. Its high Isp coupled with the high thrusts achievable, allow reasonable trip times, thereby alleviating concerns about space radiation and "claustrophobia" effects. NASA has embarked on the latest phase of the development of NTP systems, and is adopting an affordable approach in response to the pressure of the times. The affordable strategy is built on maximizing the use of the large NTP technology base developed in the 1950's and 60's. The fact that the NTP engines were actually demonstrated to work as planned, is a great risk reduction feature in its development. The strategy utilizes non-nuclear testing to the fullest extent possible, and uses focused nuclear tests for the essential qualification and certification tests. The perceived cost risk of conducting the ground tests is being addressed by considering novel testing approaches. This includes the use of boreholes to contain radioactive effluents, and use of fuel with very high retention capability for fission products. The use of prototype flight tests is being considered as final steps in the development prior to undertaking human flight missions. In addition to the technical issues, plans are being prepared to address the institutional and political issues that need to be considered in this major venture. While the development and deployment of NTP system is not expected to be cheap, the value of the system will be very high, and amortized over the many missions that it enables and enhances, the imputed costs will be very reasonable. Using the approach outlined, NASA and its partners, currently the DOE, and subsequently industry, have a good chance of creating a sustained development program leading to human

  3. Conductive Cotton Filters for Affordable and Efficient Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is highly desirable to develop affordable, energy-saving, and highly-effective technologies to alleviate the current water crisis. In this work, we reported a low-cost electrochemical filtration device composing of a conductive cotton filter anode and a Ti foil cathode. The device was operated by gravity feed. The conductive cotton filter anodes were fabricated by a facile dying method to incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs as fillers. The CNTs could serve as adsorbents for pollutants adsorption, as electrocatalysts for pollutants electrooxidation, and as conductive additives to render the cotton filters highly conductive. Cellulose-based cotton could serve as low-cost support to ‘host’ these CNTs. Upon application of external potential, the developed filtration device could not only achieve physically adsorption of organic compounds, but also chemically oxide these compounds on site. Three model organic compounds were employed to evaluate the oxidative capability of the device, i.e., ferrocyanide (a model single-electron-transfer electron donor, methyl orange (MO, a common recalcitrant azo-dye found in aqueous environments, and antibiotic tetracycline (TC, a common antibiotic released from the wastewater treatment plants. The devices exhibited a maximum electrooxidation flux of 0.37 mol/h/m2 for 5.0 mmol/L ferrocyanide, of 0.26 mol/h/m2 for 0.06 mmol/L MO, and of 0.9 mol/h/m2 for 0.2 mmol/L TC under given experimental conditions. The effects of several key operational parameters (e.g., total cell potential, CNT amount, and compound concentration on the device performance were also studied. This study could shed some light on the good design of effective and affordable water purification devices for point-of-use applications.

  4. Unconscious Presentation of Object Affordances Evokes a Negative Compatibility Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Makris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available According to Gibson's (1979 theory of “affordances”, the environment is constantly bombarding the viewer with a multitude of possible actions. More recently, it has been suggested that the simple viewing of an object can automatically elicit motor plans for actions towards this object. Research has attributed this phenomenon to the existence of two different neural pathways for processing visual information from objects and implied a distinction between conscious visual perception (meditated by the ventral stream and unconscious visuomotor control (sub-served by the dorsal stream. This has proved compelling to many researchers, who have further tried to dissociate conscious visual perception from visually guided performance. In the present study, participants formed precision and power grips in response to a central colour stimulus, in order to determine whether these actions could be modulated by the prior subliminal presentation of pinch/grasp affording prime objects. All prime objects were briefly presented for 20 ms, thus making it impossible for participants to consciously identify these. A mask followed the prime's initial onset, after which the target was presented. The time between the onset of the prime and the appearance of the target was, also, varied in order to assess the time course of any priming effects obtained. The results suggest that affordances for relevant actions can also be extracted from objects whose physical properties are far from obvious, and appear inaccessible to consciousness. Furthermore, we provide evidence of a negative compatibility effect under experimental circumstances that have not been described in the literature before, and which rule out many kinds of interaction at a perceptual level.

  5. Availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; St Fort, Nazaire; Bero, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and faces numerous challenges, including inadequate medication access for its residents. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, prices, and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti and compare these findings to other countries. We conducted a cross-sectional nationwide survey in 2011 of availability and consumer prices of 60 essential medicines in Haiti using a standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International. The survey was conducted in 163 medicine outlets in four health care sectors (public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors). Medicine prices were expressed as ratios relative to the International Reference Price. Affordability was calculated by comparing the costs of treatment for common conditions with the salary of the lowest paid government worker and was compared to available data from four Latin American countries. For generic medicines, the availability in public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors was 20%, 37%, 24% and 23% of medications, respectively. Most of the available medicines were priced higher than the International Reference Price. The lowest paid government worker would need 2.5 days' wages to treat an adult respiratory infection with generic medicines from the public sector. For treatment of common conditions with originator brands (OB) purchased from a retail pharmacy, costs were between 1.4 (anaerobic bacterial infection) and 13.7 (hyperlipidemia) days' wages, respectively. Treatment of pediatric bacterial infections with the OB of ceftriaxone from a retail pharmacy would cost 24.6 days' wages. Prices in Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua were frequently lower for comparable medications. The availability of essential medicines was low and prices varied widely across all four sectors. Over 75% of Haitians live on less than US$ 2.00 /day; therefore, most medication regimens are largely unaffordable

  6. Affordance estimation for vision-based object replacement on a humanoid robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail; Wächter, Mirko; Szedmak, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of finding replacements of missing objects, involved in the execution of manipulation tasks. Our approach is based on estimating functional affordances for the unknown objects in order to propose replacements. We use a vision-based affordance estimation system...... utilizing object-wise global features and a multi-label learning method. This method also associates confidence values to the estimated affordances. We evaluate our approach on kitchen-related manipulation affordances. The evaluation also includes testing different scenarios for training the system using...... large-scale datasets. The results indicate that the system is able to successfully predict the affordances of novel objects. We also implement our system on a humanoid robot and demonstrate the affordance estimation in a real scene....

  7. Contribution of epithelial innate immunity to systemic protection afforded by prolyl hydroxylase inhibition in murine colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, Simon; Campbell, Eric L.; Baird, Alan W.; Hansbro, Philip M.; Shalwitz, Robert A.; Kotsakis, Anna; McNamee, Eoin N.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Kominsky, Douglas J.; Colgan, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) through prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibition limits mucosal damage associated with models of murine colitis. However, little is known about how PHD inhibitors (PHDi) influence systemic immune function during mucosal inflammation or the relative importance of immunological changes to mucosal protection. We hypothesized that PHDi enhances systemic innate immune responses to colitis-associated bacteremia. Mice with colitis induced by TNBS were treated with AKB-4924, a new HIF-1 isoform-predominant PHDi and clinical, immunological and biochemical endpoints were assessed. Administration of AKB-4924 led to significantly reduced weight loss and disease activity compared to vehicle controls. Treated groups were pyrexic, but did not become subsequently hypothermic. PHDi treatment augmented epithelial barrier function and led to an approximately 50-fold reduction in serum endotoxin during colitis. AKB-4924 also decreased cytokines involved in pyrogenesis and hypothermia, significantly reducing serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, while increasing IL-10. Treatment offered no protection against colitis in epithelial-specific HIF-1α deficient mice, strongly implicating epithelial HIF-1α as the tissue target for AKB-4924-mediated protection. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase with AKB-4924 enhances innate immunity and identifies the epithelium is a central site of inflammatory protection afforded by PHDi in murine colitis. PMID:23695513

  8. O Fisicalismo revisitado pela Filosofia Ecológica: as affordances sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Moroni, Juliana [UNESP; Gonzalez, Maria Eunice Quilici [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the concept of social affordance in the context of Ecological Philosophy. In particular, we analyze the hypothesis that social affordances emerge from the collective perception of information available in the environment. We analyze Schmidt’s hypothesis (2007) that the meaning of social affordances is neither exclusively in the perceiver nor only in the physical environment, but it is a constituent part of its ecological niche. The niche is characterized as...

  9. Visual stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, David

    2011-02-27

    Our vision remains stable even though the movements of our eyes, head and bodies create a motion pattern on the retina. One of the most important, yet basic, feats of the visual system is to correctly determine whether this retinal motion is owing to real movement in the world or rather our own self-movement. This problem has occupied many great thinkers, such as Descartes and Helmholtz, at least since the time of Alhazen. This theme issue brings together leading researchers from animal neurophysiology, clinical neurology, psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience to summarize the state of the art in the study of visual stability. Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding the limits of visual stability in humans and in identifying many of the brain circuits involved in maintaining a stable percept of the world. Clinical studies and new experimental methods, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, now make it possible to test the causal role of different brain regions in creating visual stability and also allow us to measure the consequences when the mechanisms of visual stability break down.

  10. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  11. Measuring the Evolutionarily Important Goals of Situations: Situational Affordances for Adaptive Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Nicolas A; Neel, Rebecca; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    .... This article introduces the Situational Affordances for Adaptive Problems (SAAP), a measure of situation characteristics that promotes or prevents the achievement of these evolutionarily important goals...

  12. Innovative Processing Methods for the Affordable Manufacture of Multifunctional High Temperature Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of using advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional high...

  13. 77 FR 70643 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... population, computed in accordance with the health plan's cost sharing, divided by the total anticipated... comprehensiveness, affordability, administrative simplicity, evidence-based practice, ethics, population health...

  14. Understanding affordances: history and contemporary development of Gibson’s central concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir G. Dotov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibson developed the affordance concept to complement his theory of direct perception that stands in sharp contrast with the prevalent inferential theories of perception. A comparison of the two approaches shows that the distinction between them also has an ontological aspect. We trace the history and newer formalizations of the notion of affordance and discuss some competing opinions on its scope. Next, empirical work on the affordance concept is reviewed in brief and the relevance of dynamical systems theory to affordance research is demonstrated. Finally, the striking but often neglected convergence of the ideas of Gibson and those of certain Continental philosophers is discussed.

  15. Diagnósticos de enfermagem de idosas carentes de um programa de saúde da família (PSF Diagnósticos de enfermería de ancianas carentes de un programa de salud de la familia (PSF Nursing diagnoses of pauper elderly women of a family health program (FHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Sanches Marin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que as mulheres idosas e pobres são propensas à maior vulnerabilidade nas condições de saúde, no presente estudo propôs-se a identificar os diagnósticos de enfermagem, segundo a taxonomia II de NANDA, sobre um grupo de idosas consideradas muito pobres. Foram selecionadas 69 idosas, a partir da aplicação do instrumento de Classificação Econômica Brasil (CCEB em 301 idosos residentes na área de abrangência de um PSF. O estado de saúde das idosas foi avaliado utilizando-se a Avaliação Geriátrica Ampla (AGA, que envolve os aspectos funcionais, emocionais, sociais e ambientais. Foram identificadas 23 categorias diagnósticas nas idosas do estudo e uma média de 7,4 diagnósticos/ idosa. Entre os diagnósticos mais freqüentes destacam-se " Mobilidade física prejudicada","Dor crônica","Manutenção do lar prejudicada". Os diagnósticos revelaram-se impor tantes na caracterização das complexas necessidades apresentadas pelas idosas e no grande avanço no direcionamento da assistência.Considerando que las mujeres ancianas pobres son propensas a mayor vulnerabilidad en las condiciones de salud, proponemos en este estudio identificar los diagnósticos de enfermería según la taxonomía II de NANDA de un grupo de ancianas consideradas muy pobres. Fueran seleccionadas 69 ancianas, a partir de la aplicación del instrumento de Clasificación Económica Brasil (CCEB en 301 ancianos residentes en el área de alcance de un PSF. El estado de salud de las ancianas fue evaluado utilizándose de la Evaluación Geriátrica Amplia (AGA que involucra los aspectos funcionales, emocionales, sociales y ambientales. Fueron encontradas 23 categorías diagnósticas en las ancianas del estudio y un promedio de 7,4 diagnósticos/anciana. Entre los diagnósticos más frecuentes se destacan: " Mobilidad física perjudicada"; "Dolor crónica"; "Manutención del hogar perjudicada". Los diagnósticos se han revelado importantes en la

  16. A implantação do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF no Estado de São Paulo (1995-2002 The implementation of the Family Health Program (PSF in the State of São Paulo (1995-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose da Silva Guedes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata a implantação do Programa de Saúde da Família no Estado de São Paulo desde seu início até o ano de 2002. São mencionados como antecedentes importantes outros programas do Ministério da Saúde, como o PIASS (1976-1979, o PACS (1991 e o Projeto do Vale do Ribeira da SES-SP (1980-1987. Destaca-se também a importância do Programa metropolitano de Saúde na década de 1980 e do Movimento Popular de Saúde na Cidade de São Paulo desde a década de 1970. São descritas as principais características do modelo, a composição inicial da equipe mínima e a incorporação de novos atores no programa. São destacados três mecanismos de ação do Governo Estadual em relação ao desenvolvimento do PSF, sendo um de apoio técnico, outro de apoio técnico e financeiro e o terceiro de contratação direta de entidades filantrópicas para a implantação do programa no Município de São Paulo. A avaliação de todas as equipes de saúde da família implantadas no Estado de São Paulo, realizada em 2002, demonstrou grande aceitação da população em relação à atenção desenvolvida e identificou os problemas nos mecanismos de contratação dos profissionais da equipe. Este artigo descreve a preparação das equipes de trabalho e o papel dos Polos de Capacitação e todo o movimento envolvendo Cosems e gestores municipais, universidades e entidades da comunidade.This article describes the development of Programa Saúde da Família (PSF - Family Health Program in the State of São Paulo since its beginning until the year 2002. The background goes back to the mid 70s, when the Ministry of Health initiated a program to establish health care in distant undeveloped rural areas of the country. Other important antecedents were a similar program conducted by the government of the State of São Paulo in "Vale do Ribeira" from 1980 to 1987, and the National Program of Community Health Agents, carried out in the 1990s. The article also

  17. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  18. Constraints on Formulary Design Under the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Martin

    2017-12-01

    I study the effect of prescription drug essential health benefits (EHB) requirements from the Affordable Care Act on prescription drug formularies of health insurance marketplace plans. The EHB regulates the number of drugs covered but leaves other dimensions (cost sharing and utilization management) of the formulary unregulated. Using data on almost all formularies in the country, I demonstrate that requiring insurers to cover one additional drug adds 0.22 drugs (3.3%) to the average formulary, mostly owing to firms increasing the number of drugs covered to comply with the EHB requirement. The EHB requirement also increases the probability that a drug is subject to utilization management and is assigned to a higher (more costly) formulary tier. My results suggest that newly covered drugs are 22.3 percentage points more likely to be subject to utilization management, compared to 36.7% for the average covered drug. Using formularies for Medicare Advantage plans, which are subject to uniform, nationwide benefit design standards, and the formulary status of newly approved drugs that do not satisfy the EHB requirement, I reject the hypotheses that consumer demand or effects on plan entry can explain my results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Priority Setting, Cost-Effectiveness, and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Govind

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) may be the most important health law statute in American history, yet much of the most prominent legal scholarship examining it has focused on the merits of the court challenges it has faced rather than delving into the details of its priority-setting provisions. In addition to providing an overview of the ACA's provisions concerning priority setting and their developing interpretations, this Article attempts to defend three substantive propositions. First, I argue that the ACA is neither uniformly hostile nor uniformly friendly to efforts to set priorities in ways that promote cost and quality. Second, I argue that the ACA does not take a single, unified approach to priority setting; rather, its guidance varies depending on the aspect of the healthcare system at issue (Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Medicare, essential health benefits) and the factors being excluded from priority setting (age, disability, life expectancy). Third, I argue that cost-effectiveness can be achieved within the ACA's constraints, but that doing so will require adopting new approaches to cost-effectiveness and priority setting. By limiting the use of standard cost-effectiveness analysis, the ACA makes the need for workable rivals to cost-effectiveness analysis a pressing practical concern rather than a mere theoretical worry.

  20. The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansions and Personal Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Kyle J; Waidmann, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    Using a novel data set from a major credit bureau, we examine the early effects of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansions on personal finance. We analyze less common events such as personal bankruptcy, and more common occurrences such as medical collection balances, and change in credit scores. We estimate triple-difference models that compare individual outcomes across counties that expanded Medicaid versus counties that did not, and across expansion counties that had more uninsured residents versus those with fewer. Results demonstrate financial improvements in states that expanded their Medicaid programs as measured by improved credit scores, reduced balances past due as a percent of total debt, reduced probability of a medical collection balance of $1,000 or more, reduced probability of having one or more recent medical bills go to collections, reduction in the probability of experiencing a new derogatory balance of any type, reduced probability of incurring a new derogatory balance equal to $1,000 or more, and a reduction in the probability of a new bankruptcy filing.

  1. The Affordable Care Act's Dependent Care Coverage and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Chandler

    2017-05-01

    In September 2010, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) enabled young adults to gain insurance coverage under their parents' policies. Assess the impact of the ACA's dependent care coverage expansion on young adult mortality rates. Using the Multiple Cause Mortality public use database for 2008-2013, the impact of the ACA is examined with a difference-in-differences analysis of monthly mortality rates using individuals aged 26-30 as a natural control group for young adults aged 19-25. The average monthly disease-related mortality rate of the 19-25 years old group fell by between 3.1% and 6.1% in the wake of the dependent care coverage expansion. Reduction in mortality was primarily in disease-related causes which are amenable to general medical care such as cardiovascular disease, while mortality due to trauma-related causes, which must be treated regardless of insurance status under preexisting laws, was unaffected. The reduction in mortality from this single provision of the ACA indicates that larger gains in preventable mortality could be made as health insurance coverage continues to expand under the ACA.

  2. Strategic options towards an affordable high-performance infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Patrick; Mizuno, Genki; Dutta, Achyut K.; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The promise of infrared (IR) imaging attaining low-cost akin to CMOS sensors success has been hampered by the inability to achieve cost advantages that are necessary for crossover from military and industrial applications into the consumer and mass-scale commercial realm despite well documented advantages. Banpil Photonics is developing affordable IR cameras by adopting new strategies to speed-up the decline of the IR camera cost curve. We present a new short-wave IR (SWIR) camera; 640x512 pixel InGaAs uncooled system that is high sensitivity low noise ( 500 frames per second (FPS)) at full resolution, and low power consumption (market adoption by not only demonstrating high-performance IR imaging capability value add demanded by military and industrial application, but also illuminates a path towards justifiable price points essential for consumer facing application industries such as automotive, medical, and security imaging adoption. Among the strategic options presented include new sensor manufacturing technologies that scale favorably towards automation, multi-focal plane array compatible readout electronics, and dense or ultra-small pixel pitch devices.

  3. Innovating affordable neonatal care equipment for use at scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashi Kumar, V; Paul, V K; Sathasivam, K

    2016-12-01

    The care of small and sick neonates requires biomedical technologies, such as devices that can keep babies warm (radiant warmers and incubators), resuscitate (self-inflating bags), track growth (weighing scales), treat jaundice (phototherapy units) and provide oxygen or respiratory support (hoods, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices and ventilators). Until the 1990s, most of these products were procured through import at a high cost and with little maintenance support. Emerging demand and an informal collaboration of neonatologists, engineers and entrepreneurs has led to the production of good quality equipment of several high-volume categories at affordable cost in India. Radiant warmers, resuscitation bags, phototherapy units, weighing scales and other devices manufactured by Indian small-scale companies have enabled an expansion of neonatal care in the country, particularly in district hospitals, medical college hospitals and subdistrict facilities in the public sector as a part of the National Rural Health Mission. Indian products have acquired international quality standards and are even exported to developed nations. This paper captures this story of innovation and entrepreneurship in neonatal care.

  4. Practical and affordable ways to cultivate leadership in your organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufin, Joyce R; Kennedy, Kathy I; Struthers, Ellen D

    2010-01-01

    Leadership can be cultivated through the intentional actions of managers and others in public health organizations. This article provides a rationale for taking innovative and proactive steps to build leadership, discusses four general strategies for doing so, and presents seven practical, creative, and affordable actions that can have a positive influence on efforts to cultivate leadership qualities in the public health workforce. Each action is illustrated with an actual contemporary example from a local public health agency. The actions include providing formal or informal coaching/mentoring opportunities; assigning staff to lead new projects or collaborations, projects outside their disciplines, projects that cause growth in their information technology capacity, or orphan or struggling projects; facilitating a book club; and institutionalizing reflection. The best way to ensure that effective leadership is available when the organization needs it is to intentionally develop it through an ongoing process. Leadership growth can be supported during the ordinary course of business in a public health organization through thoughtful challenges, sharing ideas and experiences, and especially through the example set by managers and those in positions of authority.

  5. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a concept which uses a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant to high temperatures without combustion and can achieve significantly greater specific impulse than chemical engines. NTP has been considered many times for human and cargo missions beyond low earth orbit. A lot of development and technical maturation of NTP components took place during the Rover/NERVA program of the 60's and early 70's. Other NTP programs and studies followed attempting to further mature the NTP concept and identify a champion customer willing to devote the funds and support the development schedule to a demonstration mission. Budgetary constraints require the use of an affordable development and qualification strategy that takes into account all the previous work performed on NTP to construct an existing database, and include lessons learned and past guidelines followed. Current guidelines and standards NASA uses for human rating chemical rocket engines is referenced. The long lead items for NTP development involve the fuel elements of the reactor and ground testing the engine system, subsystem, and components. Other considerations which greatly impact the development plans includes the National Space Policy, National Environmental Policy Act, Presidential Directive/National Security Council Memorandum #25 (Scientific or Technological Experiments with Possible Large-Scale Adverse Environmental Effects and Launch of Nuclear Systems into Space), and Safeguards and Security. Ground testing will utilize non-nuclear test capabilities to help down select components and subsystems before testing in a nuclear environment to save time and cost. Existing test facilities with minor modifications will be considered to the maximum extent practical. New facilities will be designed to meet minimum requirements. Engine and test facility requirements are based on the driving mission requirements with added factors of safety for better assurance and reliability

  6. 77 FR 36272 - SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) announces in this notice the release of the SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop Solar for public comment. Interested persons are encouraged to learn about the SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html.

  7. Students' Affordance of Teleologic Explanations and Anthropomorphic Language in Eliciting Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Romiro G.

    2015-01-01

    This study ascertains that the students' affordance of teleologic explanations and anthropomorphic language in eliciting concepts in Physics is influenced by their age and learning exposure and experience. Using Explicative-Reductive Method of Descriptive Research, this study focused on the determinants of students' affordance of…

  8. 77 FR 42658 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data Collection To Support Standards Related to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... their plan design must include pediatric oral services, issuers need to know if stand-alone dental plans... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 156 RIN 0938-AR36 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data Collection... Services (the Secretary). The Affordable Care Act directs that the EHB reflect the scope of benefits...

  9. 24 CFR 81.19 - Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affordability-Rent level...) Housing Goals § 81.19 Affordability—Rent level definitions—tenant income is not known. For purposes of... determined based on unit size as follows: (a) For moderate-income, maximum affordable rents to count as...

  10. 12 CFR 1282.19 - Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant... GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.19 Affordability—Rent level...) For moderate-income, maximum affordable rents to count as housing for moderate-income families shall...

  11. Defining and Measuring the Affordability of New Medicines : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonanzas, Fernando; Terkola, Robert; Overton, Paul M.; Shalet, Natalie; Postma, Maarten

    Background In many healthcare systems, affordability concerns can lead to restrictions on the use of expensive efficacious therapies. However, there does not appear to be any consensus as to the terminology used to describe affordability, or the thresholds used to determine whether new drugs are

  12. Insights into the use and affordances of social and collaborative applications for student projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola Ola Bankole

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of social and collaborative computing has the potential of assisting learning and improving the ability to work together as part of a team. Team work is a graduate attribute that students need to acquire before transitioning from university into the workplace. The aim of this exploratory research was to provide insights into the use of social and collaborative applications by Computer Science students, and the emergent affordances student project teams have created with the use of these applications. It answers the questions: What elearning platforms or applications do students use to collaborate for team projects? What technology affordance draws students to use these applications? This study adopts affordance theory as the theoretical framework. Two types of content analysis: conventional content analysis and summative content analysis were used to analyse the data. Data was gathered using a pre-designed questionnaire with the teams during the first semester of 2016. Findings show that the university’s elearning platform is utilised for some of their courses; however students seem to prefer free and open source platforms. Student project teams used applications such as WhatsApp, Telegram, Dropbox, Google Drive, Google Docs, as well as email messages, to work jointly, and were successfully able to complete their team projects. Four types of technology affordances: communicative-affordance, document share-affordance, course resource-affordance, and integrity-affordance, were identified as being relevant.

  13. Affordances shape pass kick behavior in association football : effects of distance and social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Heijmerikx, Johan; de Poel, Harjo J.

    2011-01-01

    A prerequisite for accurate passing in association football is that a player perceives the affordances, that is, the opportunities for action, of a given situation. The present study examined how affordances shape passing in association football by comparing the performance of pass-kicks in two task

  14. Affordances Perspective and Grammaticalization: Incorporation of Language, Environment and Users in the Model of Semantic Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrason, Alexander; Visser, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates that insights from the affordances perspective can contribute to developing a more comprehensive model of grammaticalization. The authors argue that the grammaticalization process is afforded differently depending on the values of three contributing parameters: the factor (schematized as a qualitative-quantitative…

  15. 29 CFR 1977.12 - Exercise of any right afforded by the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercise of any right afforded by the Act. 1977.12 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Specific Protections § 1977.12 Exercise of any right afforded by the...

  16. Educational Affordances of a Ubiquitous Learning Environment in a Natural Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Lin, Min-Sheng; Chu, Yu-Ling; Liu, Tsung-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Educational affordances are worthy of being explored because the affordances of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) provide the pedagogical effects for promoting cognitive acceleration, increasing the self-management of students, facilitating data collection, and presentation in science learning. This study aims to explore educational…

  17. 75 FR 52689 - Multifamily Housing Reform and Affordability Act: Projects Eligible for a Restructuring Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 401 RIN 2502-AI75 Multifamily Housing Reform and Affordability Act... Multifamily and Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act is eligible for restructuring. Additionally, HUD... exceeding comparable market rents; and otherwise meeting the definition of ``eligible multifamily housing...

  18. A Framework for Aligning Needs, Abilities and Affordances to Inform Design and Practice of Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Dawson, Kara; Sahay, Shilpa

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for enhancing our awareness of user-centered design in educational technology through a more explicit and systematic alignment between the needs of educational technology users (learners and educators) and the affordances provided by the technology. First, we define the term "affordance" and discuss it from…

  19. Affordance of Braille Music as a Mediational Means: Significance and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyu-Yong; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Affordance refers to the properties or designs of a thing that offer the function of the thing. This paper discusses the affordance of Braille music in terms of three notions: mediational means, mastery and appropriation, and focuses on answering the following three questions: (i) How do musicians with visual impairments (MVI) perceive Braille…

  20. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards... ] entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive this...

  1. Affordability of Private Schools: Exploration of a Conundrum and towards a Definition of "Low-Cost"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James; Longfield, David

    2016-01-01

    The affordability of private education is a contentious issue. While the extent of "low-cost" private schooling is widely accepted, there is no agreement on what "low-cost" means in this context and how this relates to affordability for poor families. This paper addresses the lacuna in the literature by defining…

  2. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    .... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review; Final Rule #0;#0... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review AGENCY: Department of Health... health insurance premiums, guaranteed availability, guaranteed renewability, single risk pools, and...

  3. In search of an adequate yet affordable tutor in online learning networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Brouns, Francis; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Sloep, P., van Rosmalen, P., Kester, L., Brouns, F. M. R., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). In search of an adequate yet affordable tutor in online learning networks. In search of an adequate yet affordable tutor in online learning networks. Presentation at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced

  4. Understanding social engagement in autism: being different in perceiving and sharing affordances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellendoorn, Annika

    2014-01-01

    In the current paper I will argue that the notion of affordances offers an alternative to theory of mind (ToM) approaches in studying social engagement in general and in explaining social engagement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically. Affordances are the possibilities for action offered

  5. Effects of Affordance Perception on the Initiation and Actualization of Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Joanne; Pepping, Gert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown information specifying some affordances may be faster or easier to perceive than others. This article investigates the effect of affordance perception on the time taken to initiate and perform an action. In particular it focuses on how action timing varies as a function of a

  6. Ecological Affordance and Anxiety in an Oral Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Levi

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the affordances (van Lier, 2000) of asynchronous computer-mediated communication (ACMC) environments help reduce foreign language anxiety (FLA). However, FLA is rarely the focus of these studies and research has not adequately addressed the relationship between FLA and the affordances that students use. This study…

  7. Affordances and Cognitive Walkthrough for Analyzing Human-Virtual Human Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Esposito, A.; Bourbakis, N.; Avouris, N.; Hatzilygeroudis, I.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the psychological notion of affordance, known from human computer interface design, can be adopted for the analysis and design of communication of a user with a Virtual Human (VH), as a novel interface. We take as starting point the original notion of affordance, used to

  8. The Role of Affordances in the Evolutionary Process Reconsidered A Niche Construction Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; van Wermeskerken, Margot

    Gibson asserted that affordances are the primary objects of perception. Although this assertion is especially attractive when considered in the context of evolutionary theory, the role that affordances play in the evolution of animals' perceptual and action systems is still unclear. Trying to

  9. Towards a Representational Model of Social Affordances from an Institutional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the connection of the concept of affordance with the concept of institution, fundamental in social sciences and in legal theory, with the purpose of delineating a working definition of social affordance. This hybrid concept enriches the representation tools to be used with

  10. The Sugar Learning Platform: Affordances for Computational Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bender

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diez años después del lanzamiento de Sugar Learning Platform , reflexionamos sobre las herramientas específicas y las affordances educativas promovidas por esta plataforma para implicar a los estudiantes en el pensamiento computacional con el objetivo general de lograr su dominio. Estas herramientas incluyen múltipl es entornos de programación multimedia, así como diversos mecanismos para la depuración, colaboración, expresión y reflexión. Nuestra selección de herramientas viene determinada por la revisión exhaustiva de la obra pionera de Seymour Papert, Marvin Minsky y Cynthia Solomon, que fueron los primeros en integrar la informática multimedia en los centros de Educación Primaria a finales de la década de los 60, con el objetivo de implicar a los estudiantes en el dominio de muchos de los conceptos heurísticos y al goritmos que se asocian con el pensamiento computacional. En el presente artículo, se analizan muchos ejemplos de cómo han utilizado estas herramientas tanto los docentes como los discentes. Además, describimos el papel que desempeña el Software de Código Abierto a la hora de vertebrar el andamiaje para una expresión personal y profunda a través de la programación y para poner de relieve la responsabilidad personal, el sentido de comunidad y las expectativas sin límite de los usuarios de Sugar que se convie rten en desarrolladores.

  11. Cancer preventive services, socioeconomic status, and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory S; Kou, Tzuyung Doug; Dor, Avi; Koroukian, Siran M; Schluchter, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Out-of-pocket expenditures are thought to be an important barrier to the receipt of cancer preventive services, especially for those of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated out-of-pocket expenditures for recommended services, including mammography and colonoscopy. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the uptake of mammography and colonoscopy among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries before and after ACA implementation. Using Medicare claims data, this study identified women who were 70 years old or older and had not undergone mammography in the previous 2 years and men and women who were 70 years old or older, were at increased risk for colorectal cancer, and had not undergone colonoscopy in the past 5 years. The receipt of procedures in the 2-year period before the ACA's implementation (2009-2010) and after its implementation (2011 to September 2012) was also identified. Multivariate generalized estimating equation models were used to determine the independent association and county-level quartile of median income and education with the receipt of testing. For mammography, a lower SES quartile was associated with less uptake, but the post-ACA disparities were smaller than those in the pre-ACA period. In addition, mammography rates increased from the pre-ACA period to the post-ACA period in all SES quartiles. For colonoscopy, in both the pre- and post-ACA periods, there was an association between uptake and educational level and, to some extent, income. However, there were no appreciable changes in colonoscopy and SES after implementation of the ACA. The removal of out-of-pocket expenditures may overcome a barrier to the receipt of recommended preventive services, but for colonoscopy, other procedural factors may remain as deterrents. Cancer 2017;123:1585-1589. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

    2004-10-15

    During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

  13. Affordable and personalized lighting using inverse modeling and virtual sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Chandrayee; Chen, Benjamin; Richards, Jacob; Dhinakaran, Aparna; Agogino, Alice; Martin, Rodney

    2014-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have great potential to enable personalized intelligent lighting systems while reducing building energy use by 50%-70%. As a result WSN systems are being increasingly integrated in state-ofart intelligent lighting systems. In the future these systems will enable participation of lighting loads as ancillary services. However, such systems can be expensive to install and lack the plug-and-play quality necessary for user-friendly commissioning. In this paper we present an integrated system of wireless sensor platforms and modeling software to enable affordable and user-friendly intelligent lighting. It requires ⇠ 60% fewer sensor deployments compared to current commercial systems. Reduction in sensor deployments has been achieved by optimally replacing the actual photo-sensors with real-time discrete predictive inverse models. Spatially sparse and clustered sub-hourly photo-sensor data captured by the WSN platforms are used to develop and validate a piece-wise linear regression of indoor light distribution. This deterministic data-driven model accounts for sky conditions and solar position. The optimal placement of photo-sensors is performed iteratively to achieve the best predictability of the light field desired for indoor lighting control. Using two weeks of daylight and artificial light training data acquired at the Sustainability Base at NASA Ames, the model was able to predict the light level at seven monitored workstations with 80%-95% accuracy. We estimate that 10% adoption of this intelligent wireless sensor system in commercial buildings could save 0.2-0.25 quads BTU of energy nationwide.

  14. Affordable Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami Nathan [Eaton Corporation

    2017-06-30

    Nearly 30% of fuel energy is not utilized and wasted in the engine exhaust. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery (WHR) systems offer a promising approach on waste energy recovery and improving the efficiency of Heavy-Duty diesel engines. Major barriers in the ORC WHR system are the system cost and controversial waste heat recovery working fluids. More than 40% of the system cost is from the additional heat exchangers (recuperator, condenser and tail pipe boiler). The secondary working fluid loop designed in ORC system is either flammable or environmentally sensitive. The Eaton team investigated a novel approach to reduce the cost of implementing ORC based WHR systems to Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines while utilizing safest working fluids. Affordable Rankine Cycle (ARC) concept aimed to define the next generation of waste energy recuperation with a cost optimized WHR system. ARC project used engine coolant as the working fluid. This approach reduced the need for a secondary working fluid circuit and subsequent complexity. A portion of the liquid phase engine coolant has been pressurized through a set of working fluid pumps and used to recover waste heat from the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust tail pipe exhaust energy. While absorbing heat, the mixture is partially vaporized but remains a wet binary mixture. The pressurized mixed-phase engine coolant mixture is then expanded through a fixed-volume ratio expander that is compatible with two-phase conditions. Heat rejection is accomplished through the engine radiator, avoiding the need for a separate condenser. The ARC system has been investigated for PACCAR’s MX-13 HD diesel engine.

  15. Tempting foods and the affordability axiom: Food cues change beliefs about the costs of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Baskett, Kaily; Bradshaw, Hannah K; Prokosch, Marjorie L; DelPriore, Danielle J; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2016-12-01

    Many consumers report that healthy eating is more expensive than unhealthy eating (the affordability axiom). We hypothesize that endorsement of this belief may be driven by the motivation to eat unhealthy foods. We tested this hypothesis in three studies. Study 1 revealed that the affordability axiom is associated with poorer eating habits and higher Body Mass Index (BMI). Study 2 found that the presence of a tasty food cue in the environment increased endorsement of affordability axiom. Study 3 found that these effects were moderated by one's food intake goals. Food cues led non-dieters to increase endorsement of the affordability axiom, but had the opposite effect among those seeking to restrict their calorie intake. The affordability axiom might persist as a means of validating unhealthy food choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop on Sustainable Initial Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. J.; Cooke, Doug; Hopkins, Joshua; Perino, Maria A.; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget assumptions and with sustained international participation. In response to this idea, a distinguished group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December, 2013. Participants reviewed and discussed scenarios for affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station over the coming decade as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and a usable definition of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop.

  17. Stability analysis of craniovertebral junction fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttlitz, Christian M; Melcher, Robert P; Kleinstueck, Frank S; Harms, Juergen; Bradford, David S; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2004-03-01

    Craniovertebral arthrodesis in the upper cervical spine is challenging because of the high degree of mobility afforded by this region. A novel method for achieving atlantoaxial fixation with use of polyaxial screws inserted bilaterally into the lateral masses of C1 and transpedicularly into C2 with longitudinal rod connection has recently been introduced. The question remains as to whether this technique provides adequate stability when extended cephalad to include the occiput. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary stability afforded by this novel construct and compare its stability with the current standard of bilateral longitudinal plates combined with C1-C2 transarticular screws. We used ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric cervical spines (C0-C4). Pure moment loads were applied to the occiput, and C4 was constrained during the testing protocol. We evaluated four conditions: (1) intact, (2) destabilized by means of complete odontoidectomy, (3) stabilization with longitudinal plates with C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation, and (4) stabilization with a posterior rod system with C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws. Rigid-body three-dimensional rotations were detected by stereophotogrammetry by means of a three-camera system with use of marker triads. The range of motion data (C0-C2) for each fixation scenario was calculated, and a statistical analysis was performed. Destabilization of the specimen significantly increased C0-C2 motion in both flexion-extension and lateral bending (p motion in the destabilized spine by over 90% for all motions tested (p < 0.05). No significant differences were detected between the two constructs in any of the three rotational planes. Both hardware systems provide equivalent construct stability in the immediate postoperative period when it is critical for the eventual success of a craniovertebral arthrodesis. On the basis of this work, we believe that the decision to use either construct should be determined by

  18. Understanding the adoption dynamics of medical innovations: affordances of the da Vinci robot in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishami, Payam; Boer, Albert; Horstman, Klasien

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the rather rapid adoption of a new surgical device - the da Vinci robot - in the Netherlands despite the high costs and its controversial clinical benefits. We used the concept 'affordances' as a conceptual-analytic tool to refer to the perceived promises, symbolic meanings, and utility values of an innovation constructed in the wider social context of use. This concept helps us empirically understand robot adoption. Data from 28 in-depth interviews with diverse purposively-sampled stakeholders, and from medical literature, policy documents, Health Technology Assessment reports, congress websites and patients' weblogs/forums between April 2009 and February 2014 were systematically analysed from the perspective of affordances. We distinguished five interrelated affordances of the robot that accounted for shaping and fulfilling its rapid adoption: 'characteristics-related' affordances such as smart nomenclature and novelty, symbolising high-tech clinical excellence; 'research-related' affordances offering medical-technical scientific excellence; 'entrepreneurship-related' affordances for performing better-than-the-competition; 'policy-related' affordances indicating the robot's liberalised provision and its reduced financial risks; and 'communication-related' affordances of the robot in shaping patients' choices and the public's expectations by resonating promising discourses while pushing uncertainties into the background. These affordances make the take-up and use of the da Vinci robot sound perfectly rational and inevitable. This Dutch case study demonstrates the fruitfulness of the affordances approach to empirically capturing the contextual dynamics of technology adoption in health care: exploring in-depth actors' interaction with the technology while considering the interpretative spaces created in situations of use. This approach can best elicit real-life value of innovations, values as defined through the eyes of (potential) users

  19. Encapsulating the delivery of affordable housing: An overview of Malaysian practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Nor Baizura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban population increases much faster than other geographical areas and this brings huge challenges to Malaysian government especially those responsible for the provision of housing. Moreover, the rise of living cost and pressure towards the current economic situation had inevitably led to huge demands for affordable housing. Thus, affordability and inaccessibility of people in owning a house has become one of the major issues in Malaysia. These issues are not only faced by the low-income group but mostly experienced by urban dwellers including the middle-income group whom are not eligible to apply for low-cost housing delivered by the government, yet cannot afford to buy a house. Hence, the Malaysian government had therefore established the Perumahan Rakyat 1 Malaysia (PR1MA as the catalyst in providing adequate, quality and affordable houses. Furthermore, the Syarikat Perumahan Negara Berhad (SPNB and the state governments also play their big role in providing affordable house at the state level. In trying to ensure smooth delivery of affordable housing, a systematic approach is required. This paper intends to examine the delivery of affordable housing in Malaysia. The objective was to assess the parties involved, and the various stages of the process. The methodology adopted for this study includes in-depth interviews with affordable housing agencies. Investigation showed that the major problem relates to a mismatch in the delivery of affordable housing. Moreover, the political and economic aspects, as well as the organization situation had also influenced the inefficiency of affordable housing delivery system. Additionally, the significant of this paper is expected to formulate an improved strategy and guidance in delivery system, thus ensuring that the method of practice is applicable throughout the country.

  20. Before Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Horst, Maja

    2013-01-01

    of the communication about innovations in information and communication technology (ICT), and to contribute to an understanding of how different visions promise particular future configurations of workflows, communication processes, politics, economic models and social relations. Hereby, the paper adds...... to the literature on the relationship between ICTs and organizing, but with a distinct focus on innovation communication and distributed innovation processes taking place before ICTs are stabilized, issues which cannot be captured by studies of diffusion and adaptation of new ICTs within single organizations....

  1. O cotidiano de trabalho do agente comunitário de saúde no PSF em Porto Alegre Daily activities by community health workers in the Family Health Program in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimare Ferraz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar o cotidiano de trabalho do agente comunitário de saúde (ACS no Programa Saúde da Família (PSF de Porto Alegre. O delineamento utilizado foi o de série de casos, sendo a população em estudo 114 ACS e 46 profissionais das equipes do PSF. As equipes que participaram dessa etapa da pesquisa foram selecionadas em uma amostragem estratificada de cerca de 50% dos serviços do PSF presentes em cada Distrito Sanitário de Porto Alegre. Para a obtenção dos dados foram utilizados questionários semi-estruturados e a técnica do grupo focal. A principal atividade do agente comunitário de saúde é a visita domiciliar, destacada por 2/3 dos profissionais. A educação em saúde é a segunda mais desenvolvida pelos agentes. Outra atividade do agente é o trabalho de apoio às equipes, auxiliando na recepção de paciente, busca de prontuários; telefonia e organização e controle do almoxarifado. Apesar de a visita domiciliar ser a principal atividade do agente comunitário, a pesquisa revela que esta não é realizada com total efetividade, uma vez que parte de seu tempo é dedicada a atividades administrativas o que descaracteriza sua função. Além disso, o horário destinado para as visitas não está adequado à realidade local. O estudo aponta estratégias para potencializar o trabalho do agente no PSF em Porto Alegre.This research aimed to study the daily work of the communitarian health agent (CHA in the Family Health Program (FHP of Porto Alegre. The outline used was the series of cases, being the population under studies composed by 114 CHAs and 46 FHP professionals of the teams. The teams that had participated in this stage of the research had been selected in a stratified sampling of about 50% of the services of the FHP in each Sanitary District of Porto Alegre. The data collecting happened through half-structuralized questionnaires and the technique of the focal group. The main activity of the

  2. Dissociating between object affordances and spatial compatibility effects using early response components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Meytal; Holmes, Nicholas P.; Schwartz, Isabella; Makin, Tamar R.

    2013-01-01

    Perception and action are tightly linked: objects may be perceived not only in terms of visual features, but also in terms of possibilities for action. Previous studies showed that when a centrally located object has a salient graspable feature (e.g., a handle), it facilitates motor responses corresponding with the feature's position. However, such so-called affordance effects have been criticized as resulting from spatial compatibility effects, due to the visual asymmetry created by the graspable feature, irrespective of any affordances. In order to dissociate between affordance and spatial compatibility effects, we asked participants to perform a simple reaction-time task to typically graspable and non-graspable objects with similar visual features (e.g., lollipop and stop sign). Responses were measured using either electromyography (EMG) on proximal arm muscles during reaching-like movements, or with finger key-presses. In both EMG and button press measurements, participants responded faster when the object was either presented in the same location as the responding hand, or was affordable, resulting in significant and independent spatial compatibility and affordance effects, but no interaction. Furthermore, while the spatial compatibility effect was present from the earliest stages of movement preparation and throughout the different stages of movement execution, the affordance effect was restricted to the early stages of movement execution. Finally, we tested a small group of unilateral arm amputees using EMG, and found residual spatial compatibility but no affordance, suggesting that spatial compatibility effects do not necessarily rely on individuals' available affordances. Our results show dissociation between affordance and spatial compatibility effects, and suggest that rather than evoking the specific motor action most suitable for interaction with the viewed object, graspable objects prompt the motor system in a general, body-part independent fashion

  3. STABILIZATION PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarsih Sunarsih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for natural syst ems used in Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP Sewon Bantul. The model is m odeling development, derived from the physical and biochemical phenomena involved in the biological treatment process. The numerical solution of the resulting on 13 simultaneous systems of nonlinear equations by the Quasi_Newton. Data validation is measured by facultative pond at the inlet and outlet of the pond to the concentration of b acteria, algae, zooplankton, organic matter, detritus, organic nitrogen, NH3, organi c phosphor, dissolved phosphorus, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, total coliform, faecal coliform and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD. A simulation model is presented to predict performance regime steady state of domestic wastewater treatment facultative stabilization pond. The high degree of significant of at least 10% indicates that the effluent parameters can be reasonably accurately predicted.

  4. Identifying Variables Influencing Tenant Affordability to Pay Rent in Ipoh City Council Public Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Nor Aini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordability reflects the challenges faced by households in balancing the real cost of housing and non housing expenditures against income limitations placed upon the household. Various methods have been introduced to measure housing affordability among households. This study was undertaken to identify the variables influencing tenant affordability to pay rent. Data was obtained through questionnaire distribution on 350 MBI public housing tenants using the strata sampling technique. This study found that only ethnic group variable significantly influenced the ability to pay rent. The study’s findings proved that different ethnic groups faced different housing costs liabilities attributable to different socioeconomic status.

  5. FCJ-178 Network Affordances: The unpredictable parameters of a Hong Kong SPEED SHOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Samson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. We expand on the notion of affordances, (Gibson, 1977; Gaver, 1996 to include ecological and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibition, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong (2013. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parametric relations (Parisi, 2013 of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experience of tension arising from the (visible symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences.

  6. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  7. Relationship between affordance and cultural conventions in the design of IVR systems for oral users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndwe, TJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available that sensitivity towards cultural conventions which subsequently bring about affordance has more credence than the objective usability measures of effectiveness and efficiency as defined by the International Standards Organization (ISO). This demonstration is done...

  8. The 'sleeper' issues before the Supreme Court as it reviews the Affordable Care Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, T R

    2012-01-01

      When the Supreme Court begins three days of oral arguments March 26 over legal challenges to the Affordable Care Act, public attention will be focused on the constitutionality of the law's mandate...

  9. Virginia Tech String Project reaches out to elementary students with affordable string instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Music at Virginia Tech announces Virginia Tech String Project--a initiative to provide affordable quality string instruction to public and private school students while training future string music educators.

  10. 77 FR 18309 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards... Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services..., 2011 rule titled Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans (``Exchange establishment...

  11. What can be done with an egg? Creativity, material objects and the theory of affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the role of material objects in the creative process and explores the potential links between creativity and the theory of affordances (Gibson, ), conceptualized from a sociocultural perspective. From this standpoint, creativity can be defined as a process...... of existing action potentials, the generation of objects with novel affordances, and the transgression of conventional procedures, all resulting in creative forms of expression. In the end, some conclusions are drawn regarding the ways in which an affordance theory of creativity can enrich our understanding...... of perceiving, exploiting, and “generating” novel affordances during socially and materially situated activities. Illustrations are offered for each of the above from a research project investigating traditional Easter egg decoration activities in rural Romania. This brief case study exemplifies the discovery...

  12. Closing the Communal Gap: The Importance of Communal Affordances in Science Career Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Thoman, Dustin B; Smith, Jessi L; Diekman, Amanda B

    2015-12-01

    To remain competitive in the global economy, the United States (and other countries) is trying to broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by graduating an additional 1 million people in STEM fields by 2018. Although communion (working with, helping, and caring for others) is a basic human need, STEM careers are often (mis)perceived as being uncommunal. Across three naturalistic studies we found greater support for the communal affordance hypothesis, that perceiving STEM careers as affording greater communion is associated with greater STEM career interest, than two alternative hypotheses derived from goal congruity theory. Importantly, these findings held regardless of major (Study 1), college enrollment (Study 2), and gender (Studies 1-3). For undergraduate research assistants, mid-semester beliefs that STEM affords communion predicted end of the semester STEM motivation (Study 3). Our data highlight the importance of educational and workplace motivational interventions targeting communal affordances beliefs about STEM.

  13. SunShot Initiative: Making Solar Energy Affordable for All Americans (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-01

    Through SunShot, DOE supports efforts by private companies, universities, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, making solar energy affordable for more American families and businesses.

  14. Are Housing Markets Decoupled? A Case Study of Residential Real Estate Affordability in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian PHILIPP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real estate arguably forms the most important asset to most households and the basis for their wealth. Around this context a model has been set up testing the relative affordability of real estate for the median household in Austria and the consequences of lower borrowing costs between 2004 and 2013 by vintage year. In this paper the hypothesis that the significant decline in base interest rates is not sufficient to offset the relative affordability loss caused by declining net household incomes and the simultaneous increase of real estate prices. To test this hypothesis a model has been set up comparing two different Housing Affordability Indices – one including and one excluding financing effects, having been compared via a multi factor model. Based on this calculation the author finds decreased base interest rates to offset relative affordability losses by only approximately 50%, verifying the hypothesis. The paper therefore argues for a potential decoupling of the residential housing market in Austria.

  15. 77 FR 16501 - Certain Preventive Services Under the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Administration approved contraceptive methods, sterilization procedures, and patient education and counseling for... education and counseling, prescription benefits and non- prescription benefits). Establishing and operating... regarding certain preventive health services under provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care...

  16. Affordable housing as a niche product: The case of the Danish “SocialHousing Plus”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    Establishing affordable housing is a growing demand in many larger cities there is however a number of challenges related to establishing affordable housing, as well as many different approaches. This paper presents a case-study of an affordable housing concept in the Danish social housing sector......, the “SocialHousing Plus” (“AlmenBolig+”) which is based on lowering production costs as well as operation costs including residential self-management, large-scale production of pre-fab housing units, low-energy solutions and other innovative approaches. The concept was developed in 2007, and has so far...... resulted in the production of more than 1.500 dwellings. The paper will discuss the results of the concept, and the various challenges related to it. Based on the theory of Technological Transition (Geels, 2002) it will discuss the options and limitations of providing affordable housing through developing...

  17. Dean C. Bennett d/b/a Affordable Tuckpointing Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean C. Bennett d/b/a Affordable Tuckpointing (the Company) is located in Arnold, Missouri. The Complaint involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in St. Louis, Missouri.

  18. 78 FR 46600 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land (N-91073) for Affordable Housing Purposes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land (N-91073) for Affordable Housing Purposes in....gov . For information on the SNPLMA Section 7b affordable housing land sale program go to: http://www... Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), may make BLM-managed public lands available for affordable...

  19. Integrating Mobile Learning in an Undergraduate Course: An Exploration of Affordances and Challenges for Learners in UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtaiwa, Fawzi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated students' perceptions towards the affordances and challenges of integrating mobile learning (m-learning) into an undergraduate course. It also examined the impact of students' gender on their perceived affordances and challenges. The relationship between students' perceived affordances and perceived challenges of m-learning…

  20. Reamer stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, W.R.

    1981-04-14

    A roller reamer-stabilizer tool includes a tubular body having threaded pin and box connectors at each end adapted to be connected in a drill string and providing a fluid passage connecting the upper part of the drill string with the lower part. Rollers having integral pins at their ends are mounted in pockets in the sides of the body. The pins are received in stepped, arcuate cross-section bearing blocks received in correlative sockets in the body at the ends of the pockets. The blocks make an interference fit with the body. Releasing bar access passages allow a releasing bar to be inserted behind each block to drive, wedge, or pry it out. Means is provided to seal and lubricate the full lengths of the pin-block interfaces. The seals are downwardly facing to avoid entrapment of foreign material. The lubrication means includes a reservoir having a flexible wall exposed to pressure outside the tool. The roller pins are locked to the bearing blocks to enable the roller-block assemblies to be handled as unitary subassemblies used to replace worn out subassemblies of existing tools. The locking means at one end includes ball bearings to take axial thrust; at the other end the locking means is releasable to enable the block at that end to shift axially relating to the roller, to accommodate manufacturing tolerances and wear and prevent preloading of the thrust bearings.

  1. The low-income single-family house and the effectiveness of architects in affecting affordability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Dulaney Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Architects are increasingly engaged in efforts to provide affordable, owner-occupied housing in the United States. Yet architects’ roles in broadly addressing affordable housing remain marginal as was anecdotally evident by the absence of architects at a recent university-sponsored affordable housing workshop. Apparently, the potential contributions of architects in “the development of innovative approaches and best practices” related to affordable, owner-occupied housing is not always valued to housing policymakers and planners such as those who organized this workshop. This paper speculatively explores the gap between the potential value of architects and their actual effectiveness at realizing widespread relevancy, innovation, and change in improving the quality and attainability of affordable, owner occupied housing and how this gap may contribute to the undervaluation and marginalization of architects’ efforts to address affordable housing needs in the United States. Case studies of several recent U.S. house design competitions exemplify these gaps. Potential strategies for closing these gaps and thus appreciating the value of architects’ efforts in this endeavor are identified.To become central in providing much-needed affordable, owner-occupied housing, architects must make the value of their potential contributions evident. This requires a clear definition of design goals, a rigorous assessment of built projects, and the thorough dissemination of findings and methodologies. Architects must engage those fields to which they have, in the U.S., long relinquished affordable, single-family housing. Architects must demonstrate that qualitative design improvements are not just possible within the frameworks and agendas of those other fields but that good design will better enable the achievement of those extra-disciplinary goals.

  2. Exploratory behaviors and recalibration: What processes are shared between functionally similar affordances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchak, John M

    2017-08-01

    Recalibration of affordance perception allows observers to adapt to changes in the body's size or abilities that alter possibilities for action. Of key interest is understanding how exploratory behaviors lead to successful recalibration. The present study was designed to test a novel hypothesis-that the same processes of exploration and recalibration should generalize between affordances that share a similar function. Most affordances for fitting the body through openings are recalibrated without feedback from practicing the action; locomotion exploration is sufficient. The present study used a different fitting task, squeezing through doorways, to determine whether locomotor experience was sufficient for recalibrating to changes in body size that altered affordances. Participants were unable to recalibrate from locomotor experience, demonstrating that exploratory behaviors do not necessarily generalize between functionally similar affordances. Participants only recalibrated following action practice or after receiving feedback about judgment accuracy, suggesting that the informational requirements of the squeezing task may differ from those of other fitting tasks. Implications for affordance theory are discussed.

  3. Understanding social engagement in autism: Being different in perceiving and sharing affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eHellendoorn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper I will argue that the notion of affordances offers an alternative to theory of mind (ToM approaches in studying social engagement in general and in explaining social engagement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD specifically. Affordances are the possibilities for action offered by the environment. In contrast to ToM approaches, the concept of affordances implies the complementarity of person and environment and rejects the dualism of mind and behaviour. In line with the Gibsonian idea that a child must eventually perceive the affordances of the environment for others as well for herself in order to become socialized, I will hypothesize that individuals with ASD often do not perceive the same affordances in the environment as other people do and have difficulties perceiving others' affordances. This can lead to a disruption of interpersonal behaviours. I will further argue that the methods for studying social engagement should be adapted if we want to take interaction into account.

  4. Remembered affordances reflect the fundamentally action-relevant, context-specific nature of visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brandon J; Riley, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    Ecological psychology suggests the environment is experienced by perceivers in terms of their ability to behave within it-or their affordances. The authors used the remembered-affordance paradigm to evaluate this claim in contrast to an additive model that combined lower-order, action-neutral, perceived properties of the perceiver and environment to compute an affordance. In 2 experiments, participants reported the boundary between actions that were or were not possible (overhead reaching in Experiments 1a and 1b, and minimum aperture pass-through-ability in Experiment 2) while using or not using an implement (a stick). They also reported the length of the implement independent of its use in any action. Reports of stick length were consistently different from action-relevant affordance reports, and the additive model was incapable of accounting for participants' affordance reports. The results are consistent with ecological psychology's claim that affordances are perceived directly and also with embodied and functional approaches to memory, which suggest that the environment is experienced in task-specific and action-relevant terms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Differential item function analysis of a scale measuring worry about affording healthcare in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Salene M W; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2016-11-01

    A measure of worry about affording health care was developed in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) to further the study of how trouble affording health care can affect health. This study examined whether the measure showed bias by gender, age, insurance type, income, and type of MS. Absence of bias would facilitate comparisons between groups in future studies. Research methods/Design: A sample of 433 people with MS completed the 5-item worry about affording health care measure. Demographic information was also collected. To test for bias, we used differential item function analysis with the graded response model of item response theory. We tested for bias from gender, age, insurance type, income, and type of MS. Differential item function analyses found no significant bias for the worry about affording health care measure when comparing the following groups: men to women; younger than 55 years old to 55 years and older; public insurance to no public insurance; lower income to higher income; and relapsing/remitting MS type to other MS types. This brief measure of worry about affording health care can be used in future studies without concern for measurement bias on the factors examined here. Future studies should examine the relationship of this worry to adherence to treatment and other factors that may be affected by worries about health care affordability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Affordability Assessment to Implement Light Rail Transit (LRT for Greater Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjang Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high population density and the increasing visitors in Yogyakarta aggravate the traffic congestion problem. BRT (Bus Rapid Transit services, Trans Jogja has not managed to solve this problem yet. Introducing Light Rail Transit (LRT has been considered as one of the solutions to restrain the congestion in Greater Yogyakarta. As the first indication that the LRT can be built in Greater Yogyakarta, the transportation affordability index was used to understand whether the LRT tariff was affordable. That tariff was calculated based on government policy in determining railway tariff. The forecasted potential passengers and LRT route have been analyzed as the previous steps to get LRT tariff. Potential passenger was forecasted from gravity mode, and the proposed LRT route was chosen using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA. The existing transportation affordability index was calculated for comparison analysis using the percentage of the expenditures for transportation made by monthly income of each household. The result showed that the LRT for Greater Yogyakarta was the most affordable transport mode compared to the Trans Jogja Bus and motorcycle. The affordability index of Tram Jogja for people having average income was 10.66% while another people with bottom quartile income was 13.56%. Keywords: Greater Yogyakarta, LRT, affordability.

  7. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Miller-Thayer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attractive alternative for low-income populations in the United States. Thus segments of the U.S. population practice transnational medical consumerism in an attempt to optimize their health by using the resources available in both countries. This practice has economic benefits for the people who access health care at an affordable rate and for the medical markets of the country providing the care. Drawing on data collected in the field in 2002, 2004, and 2005, this paper presents some of the complexities and dynamics of medical pluralism occurring at the U.S.-Mexico border.Environ 45,7 millions de personnes vivant aux Etats-Unis n’ont pas de couverture sociale et nombreux sont celles à être sous-assurées, ce qui limite considérablement leur accès aux soins. Face à ce problème, les Américains font preuve d'ingéniosité pour améliorer leur accès aux soins : ils se font soigner au-delà des frontières. Dans ce contexte, la frontière entre les Etats-Unis et le Mexique offre des opportunités uniques de soins. Le Mexique constitue en effet une alternative séduisante pour les Américains à faible revenu, car les tarifs des actes médicaux et dentaires, et des médicaments, sont nettement inférieurs à ceux en vigueur aux Etats-Unis. Ainsi, certains Américains pratiquent le consumérisme médical transnational et recourent aux ressources disponibles dans les deux pays afin d’optimiser leur santé. Cette pratique présente des avantages économiques

  8. Self-organization, free energy minimization, and optimal grip on a field of affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruineberg, Jelle; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we set out to develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for the new field of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience. This framework should be able to integrate insights from several relevant disciplines: theory on embodied cognition, ecological psychology, phenomenology, dynamical systems theory, and neurodynamics. We suggest that the main task of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience is to investigate the phenomenon of skilled intentionality from the perspective of the self-organization of the brain-body-environment system, while doing justice to the phenomenology of skilled action. In previous work, we have characterized skilled intentionality as the organism's tendency toward an optimal grip on multiple relevant affordances simultaneously. Affordances are possibilities for action provided by the environment. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of skilled intentionality and the phenomenon of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances. Second, we use Friston's work on neurodynamics, but embed a very minimal version of his Free Energy Principle in the ecological niche of the animal. Thus amended, this principle is helpful for understanding the embeddedness of neurodynamics within the dynamics of the system "brain-body-landscape of affordances." Next, we show how we can use this adjusted principle to understand the neurodynamics of selective openness to the environment: interacting action-readiness patterns at multiple timescales contribute to the organism's selective openness to relevant affordances. In the final part of the paper, we emphasize the important role of metastable dynamics in both the brain and the brain-body-environment system for adequate affordance-responsiveness. We exemplify our integrative approach by presenting research on the impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on affordance responsiveness of OCD patients.

  9. Understanding and using technological affordances: a response to Boyle and Cook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne Conole

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Our use of affordance draws on Salomon (Salomon, 1993 who takes the definition back to Gibson and Norman (Gibson, 1977; Norman, 1988. Perhaps a key difference between the use of the term affordance in design is the emphasis on intended use, whereas our approach reflects Salomon's focus on ‘possible' use. Like Gibson the approach taken in our paper is focused on the relationship between the infrastructure of information and communication technologies and people's use of those technologies. We are interested in asking questions about what uses ICT invites and facilitates, what it lends itself to and what it can do well. A potential difficulty with using a term so popular in the field of design is that ‘use' tends to be focused on how something ‘should' be used, what it is designed for. Discussion about affordance can be limited to the intended, prescribed or designed function of technology. We are also interested in exploring the creative and innovative way people respond to technologies and perhaps adapt them for use in unforeseen circumstances. An affordance of the technology does not simply refer to the intended use but also to the unintended consequences. Google's use of hyper text links to drive the indexing of web searches might be an example of an affordance that is a consequence of creative engagement with technology, the adaptation rather than a feature of the original design related to hypertext. Another example of this adaptive use of hypertext might include its use by teachers to provide a digital framework for formative assessment and support for student learning. Class room teachers were quick to adapt presentation software and hyper text to present more interactive activity lessons. Software affording transmission modes of delivery was thereby adapted to users needs and a more interactive affordance created.

  10. User-inspired design methodology using Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM for construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswari J. Uma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, design phase of construction projects is often performed with incomplete and inaccurate user preferences. This is due to inefficiencies in the methodologies used for capturing the user requirements that can subsequently lead to inconsistencies and result in non-optimised end-result. Iterations and subsequent reworks due to such design inefficiencies is one of the major reasons for unsuccessful project delivery as they impact project performance measures such as time and cost among others. The existing design theories and practice are primarily based on functional requirements. Function-based design deals with design of artifact alone, which may yield favourable or unfavourable consequences with the design artifact. However, incorporating other interactions such as interactions between user & designer is necessary for optimised end-result. Hence, the objective of this research work is to devise a systematic design methodology considering all the three interactions among users, designers and artefacts for improved design efficiency. In this study, it has been attempted to apply the theory of affordances in a case project that involves the design of an offshore facility. A step-by-step methodology for developing Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM, which integrates House of Quality (HOQ and Design Structure Matrix (DSM, is proposed that can effectively capture the user requirements. HOQ is a popular quality management tool for capturing client requirements and DSM is a matrix-based tool that can capture the interdependency among the design entities. The proposed methodology utilises the strengths of both the tools, as DSM compliments HOQ in the process. In this methodology, different affordances such as AUA (Artifact-User-Affordance, AAA (Artifact-Artifact-Affordance and DDA (Designer-Designer-Affordance are captured systematically. Affordance is considered to be user-driven in this context that is in contrast to prevailing design

  11. Developing hybrid near-space technologies for affordable access to suborbital space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badders, Brian David

    High power rockets and high altitude balloons are two near-space technologies that could be combined in order to provide access to the mesosphere and, eventually, suborbital space. This "rockoon" technology has been used by several large budget space programs before being abandoned in favor of even more expensive, albeit more accurate, ground launch systems. With the increased development of nano-satellites and atmospheric sensors, combined with rising interest in global atmospheric data, there is an increase in desire for affordable access to extreme altitudes that does not necessarily require the precision of ground launches. Development of hybrid near-space technologies for access to over 200k ft. on a small budget brings many challenges within engineering, systems integration, cost analysis, market analysis, and business planning. This research includes the design and simulation testing of all the systems needed for a safe and reusable launch system, the cost analysis for initial production, the development of a business plan, and the development of a marketing plan. This project has both engineering and scientific significance in that it can prove the space readiness of new technologies, raise their technology readiness levels (TRLs), expedite the development process, and also provide new data to the scientific community. It also has the ability to stimulate university involvement in the aerospace industry and help to inspire the next generation of workers in the space sector. Previous development of high altitude balloon/high power rocket hybrid systems have been undertaken by government funded military programs or large aerospace corporations with varying degrees of success. However, there has yet to be a successful flight with this type of system which provides access to the upper mesosphere in a university setting. This project will aim to design and analyze a viable system while testing the engineering process under challenging budgetary constraints. The

  12. Dispersal and metapopulation stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Shaopeng; Haegeman, Bart; Loreau, Michel

    2015-01-01

    .... Previous studies have shown that dispersal can stabilize local populations; however, as dispersal also tends to increase spatial synchrony, its net effect on metapopulation stability has been controversial...

  13. The Dynamic Effects of Changes in Prices and Affordability on Alcohol Consumption: An Impulse Response Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; Livingston, Michael

    2015-11-01

    To investigate how changes in alcohol price and affordability are related to aggregate level alcohol consumption in Australia to help to inform effective price and tax policy to influence consumption. Annual time series data between 1974 and 2012 on price and per-capita consumption for beer, wine and spirits and average weekly income were collected from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and impulse response analysis, the dynamic responses of alcohol consumption to changes in alcohol prices and affordability were estimated. Alcohol consumption in Australia was negatively associated with alcohol price and positively associated with the affordability of alcohol. The results of the impulse response analysis suggest that a 10% increase in the alcohol price was associated with a 2% decrease in the population-level alcohol consumption in the following year, with further, diminishing, effects up to year 8, leading to an overall 6% reduction in total consumption. In contrast, when alcohol affordability increased, per-capita alcohol consumption increased over the following 6 years. Our findings suggest that increasing alcohol prices or taxes can help to reduce alcohol consumption at the population level in Australia. However, the impact of affordability in our findings highlights that pricing policies need to consider increases in income to ensure effectiveness. Alcohol price policy should only cautiously focus on individual beverage types, because increasing the price of one beverage generally leads to an increase in consumption of substitutes. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Close interpersonal proximity modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Elizabeth J; Szpak, Ancret; Churches, Owen; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that the human brain codes manipulable objects as possibilities for action, or affordances, particularly objects close to the body. Near-body space is not only a zone for body-environment interaction but also is socially relevant, as we are driven to preserve our near-body, personal space from others. The current, novel study investigated how close proximity of a stranger modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space. Participants performed a behavioural object recognition task both alone and with a human confederate. All object images were in participants' reachable space but appeared relatively closer to the participant or the confederate. Results revealed when participants were alone, objects in both locations produced an affordance congruency effect but when the confederate was present, only objects nearer the participant elicited the effect. Findings suggest space is divided between strangers to preserve independent near-body space boundaries, and in turn this process influences motor coding for stimuli within that social space. To demonstrate that this visuomotor modulation represents a social phenomenon, rather than a general, attentional effect, two subsequent experiments employed nonhuman joint conditions. Neither a small, Japanese, waving cat statue (Experiment 2) nor a metronome (Experiment 3) modulated the affordance effect as in Experiment 1. These findings suggest a truly social explanation of the key interaction from Experiment 1. This study represents an important step toward understanding object affordance processing in real-world, social contexts and has implications broadly across fields of social action and cognition, and body space representation.

  15. Mobilidade e affordance como cerne dos Estudos Pessoa-Ambiente Mobility and affordance as the core of Person-Environment Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Günther

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de uma reflexão sobre a multiplicidade disciplinar, teórica, metodológica e terminológica e utilizando uma analogia com o modelo multivariado da correlação canônica, propõe-se o rótulo Estudos Pessoa-Ambiente para englobar as diferentes sub-áreas disciplinares e temáticas que lidam com as relações recíprocas pessoa-espaço físico. Segue uma discussão de quatro conceitos do espaço (espaço pessoal, territorialidade, apinhamento e privacidade e sua relação com mobilidade. Após algumas considerações sobre affordance sugere-se o elo mobilidade-affordance como elemento molecular da relação recíproca pessoa-espaço físico no cerne dos estudos pessoa-ambiente.Starting with a reflection on the disciplinary, theoretical, methodological and terminological multiplicity, and using the analogy of the multivariate model of the canonical correlation, the use of the label Person-Environment Studies is justified. This is followed by a discussion of four spatial concepts (personal space, territoriality, crowding and privacy and their relationship to mobility. After some comments about affordance, it is suggested that the mobility-affordance link constitutes the molecular element of the reciprocal person-physical space relationship at the core of the Person-Environment Studies.

  16. Tethered naphthalene diimide intercalators enhance DNA triplex stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianolio, D A; McLaughlin, L W

    2001-09-01

    Naphthalene diimides function as effective intercalators and when tethered to the 5'-terminus of a pyrimidine-rich oligonucleotide can contribute significantly to the overall stabilization of DNA triplexes. This stabilization can be further enhanced by alterations to the linker tethering the DNA sequence and the intercalator. Less flexible linkers, and particularly one with a phenyl ring present, appear to permit the stabilization afforded by the bound intercalator to be transferred more effectively to the three-stranded complex. The conjugate containing the phenyl linker exhibits a T(M) value that is increased by 28 degrees C relative to the unconjugated triplex. That the linker itself contributes to the observed stabilization is clear since introduction of the phenyl linker increases the observed T(M) by 11 degrees C relative to a simple flexible linker.

  17. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; health insurance market rules. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed availability, guaranteed renewability, single risk pools, and catastrophic plans, consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The final rule clarifies the approach used to enforce the applicable requirements of the Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal governmental plans. This final rule also amends the standards for health insurance issuers and states regarding reporting, utilization, and collection of data under the federal rate review program, and revises the timeline for states to propose state-specific thresholds for review and approval by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).

  18. The role of business agreements in defining textbook affordability and digital materials: A document analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Raible

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting digital materials such as eTextbooks and e-coursepacks is a potential strategy to address textbook affordability in the United States. However, university business relationships with bookstore vendors implicitly structure which instructional resources are available and in what manner. In this study, a document analysis was conducted on the bookstore contracts for the universities included in the State University System of Florida. Namely, issues of textbook affordability, digital material terminology and seller exclusivity were investigated. It was found that textbook affordability was generally conceived in terms of print rental textbooks and buyback programs, and that eTextbooks were priced higher than print textbooks (25% to 30% markup. Implications and recommendations for change are shared. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i4.284

  19. Affordance as a Key Aspect in the Creation of New learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    blended learning (BL) education? b) What are the actors’ prerequisites and reported understanding of the driving forces behind their learning activities in these different spaces? The analysis draws on a conceptual frame of complex affordance of spaces in a socio-cultural perspective, but also on spaces......This research aims to highlight how different places and spaces in undergraduate teacher education afford student learning and the development of certain types of knowledge related. The questions this article addresses are: a) What is the affordance of different learning spaces in an undergraduate....... The major findings regard the contribution of spaces to sociality, identity, and referential embodied experiences, which greatly influence student preferences and learning activity, as well as knowledge development. It is concluded that individually and socially constructed learning influence...

  20. Affordance as a Key Aspect in the Creation of New learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to highlight how different places and spaces in undergraduate teacher education afford student learning and the development of certain types of knowledge related. The questions this article addresses are: a) What is the affordance of different learning spaces in an undergraduate...... blended learning (BL) education? b) What are the actors’ prerequisites and reported understanding of the driving forces behind their learning activities in these different spaces? The analysis draws on a conceptual frame of complex affordance of spaces in a socio-cultural perspective, but also on spaces...... for both social and individual knowledge development. Through the analysis of empirical data gained from a pragmatic mixed-method approach, the role of different face-to-face and online spaces is investigated; investigations are based on the understandings of students, lecturers, and practitioners...

  1. Prepreg and Melt Infiltration Technology Developed for Affordable, Robust Manufacturing of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Petko, Jeannie F.

    2004-01-01

    Affordable fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with multifunctional properties are critically needed for high-temperature aerospace and space transportation applications. These materials have various applications in advanced high-efficiency and high-performance engines, airframe and propulsion components for next-generation launch vehicles, and components for land-based systems. A number of these applications require materials with specific functional characteristics: for example, thick component, hybrid layups for environmental durability and stress management, and self-healing and smart composite matrices. At present, with limited success and very high cost, traditional composite fabrication technologies have been utilized to manufacture some large, complex-shape components of these materials. However, many challenges still remain in developing affordable, robust, and flexible manufacturing technologies for large, complex-shape components with multifunctional properties. The prepreg and melt infiltration (PREMI) technology provides an affordable and robust manufacturing route for low-cost, large-scale production of multifunctional ceramic composite components.

  2. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  3. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Anna; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a "bodily turn" in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction-and embodied mental simulation-of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally, we

  4. Self-organization, free energy minimization, and optimal grip on a field of affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle eBruineberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we set out to develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for the new field of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience. This framework should be able to integrate insights from several relevant disciplines: theory on embodied cognition, ecological psychology, phenomenology, dynamical systems theory, and neurodynamics. We suggest that the main task of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience is to investigate the phenomenon of skilled intentionality from the perspective of the self-organization of the brain-body-environment system, while doing justice to the phenomenology of skilled action. In previous work, we have characterized skilled intentionality as the organism’s tendency towards an optimal grip on multiple relevant affordances simultaneously. Affordances are possibilities for action provided by the environment. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of skilled intentionality and the phenomenon of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances. Second, we use Friston’s work on neurodynamics, but embed a very minimal version of his Free Energy Principle in the ecological niche of the animal. Thus amended, this principle is helpful for understanding the embeddedness of neurodynamics within the dynamics of the brain-body-environment system. Next, we show how we can use this adjusted principle to understand the neurodynamics of selective openness to the environment: interacting action-readiness patterns at multiple timescales contribute to the organism’s selective openness to relevant affordances. In the final part of the paper, we emphasize the important role of metastable dynamics in both the brain and the brain-body-environment system for adequate affordance-responsiveness. We exemplify our integrative approach by presenting research on the impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on affordance responsiveness of OCD patients.

  5. Availability, Affordability, and Prices of Smoking Cessation Products in 9 Countries: Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arusyak Harutyunyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous effective medications are available for tobacco dependence treatment, and clinicians should encourage their use by all patients attempting to quit smoking. According to the FCTC Article 14 Guideline “Tobacco cessation medications should be made available to tobacco users wanting to quit and where possible be provided free or at an affordable cost”. Online survey was conducted among 9 countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Jordan, Nigeria, Spain, Turkey, Vietnam to determine availability, affordability, and prices of smoking cessation drugs in countries that are Global Bridges grantees and to make comparisons across them. Preliminary findings of the online survey will be summarized during the presentation.

  6. An Affordable Virtual Reality System for Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Bartal; Nielsen, Ronni Nedergaard; Szabo, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an affordable phantom limb pain (PLP) home treatment system using virtual reality (VR) and a motion sensor to immerse the users in a virtual environment (VE). The work is inspired by mirror therapy (MT) which is used to treat patients with PLP. This proj......This paper describes the implementation of an affordable phantom limb pain (PLP) home treatment system using virtual reality (VR) and a motion sensor to immerse the users in a virtual environment (VE). The work is inspired by mirror therapy (MT) which is used to treat patients with PLP...

  7. Refusal to enrol in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme: is affordability the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusi, Anthony; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian S; Asante, Felix A

    2015-01-17

    Access to health insurance is expected to have positive effect in improving access to healthcare and offer financial risk protection to households. Ghana began the implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2004 as a way to ensure equitable access to basic healthcare for all residents. After a decade of its implementation, national coverage is just about 34% of the national population. Affordability of the NHIS contribution is often cited by households as a major barrier to enrolment in the NHIS without any rigorous analysis of this claim. In light of the global interest in achieving universal health insurance coverage, this study seeks to examine the extent to which affordability of the NHIS contribution is a barrier to full insurance for households and a burden on their resources. The study uses data from a cross-sectional household survey involving 2,430 households from three districts in Ghana conducted between January-April, 2011. Affordability of the NHIS contribution is analysed using the household budget-based approach based on the normative definition of affordability. The burden of the NHIS contributions to households is assessed by relating the expected annual NHIS contribution to household non-food expenditure and total consumption expenditure. Households which cannot afford full insurance were identified. Results show that 66% of uninsured households and 70% of partially insured households could afford full insurance for their members. Enroling all household members in the NHIS would account for 5.9% of household non-food expenditure or 2.0% of total expenditure but higher for households in the first (11.4%) and second (7.0%) socio-economic quintiles. All the households (29%) identified as unable to afford full insurance were in the two lower socio-economic quintiles and had large household sizes. Non-financial factors relating to attributes of the insurer and health system problems also affect enrolment in the NHIS. Affordability

  8. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.

  9. Robust High Temperature Environmental Barrier Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Gas Turbine Components using Affordable Processing Approach Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to demonstrate the use of advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional thermal / environmental...

  10. High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott M; Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Aron, Adam R

    2016-05-18

    Motor affordances occur when the visual properties of an object elicit behaviorally relevant motor representations. Typically, motor affordances only produce subtle effects on response time or on motor activity indexed by neuroimaging/neuroelectrophysiology, but sometimes they can trigger action itself. This is apparent in "utilization behavior," where individuals with frontal cortex damage inappropriately grasp affording objects. This raises the possibility that, in healthy-functioning individuals, frontal cortex helps ensure that irrelevant affordance provocations remain below the threshold for actual movement. In Experiment 1, we tested this "frontal control" hypothesis by "loading" the frontal cortex with an effortful working memory (WM) task (which ostensibly consumes frontal resources) and examined whether this increased EEG measures of motor affordances to irrelevant affording objects. Under low WM load, there were typical motor affordance signatures: an event-related desynchronization in the mu frequency and an increased P300 amplitude for affording (vs nonaffording) objects over centroparietal electrodes. Contrary to our prediction, however, these affordance measures were diminished under high WM load. In Experiment 2, we tested competing mechanisms responsible for the diminished affordance in Experiment 1. We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex to measure long-interval cortical inhibition. We found greater long-interval cortical inhibition for high versus low load both before and after the affording object, suggesting that a tonic inhibition state in primary motor cortex could prevent the affordance from provoking the motor system. Overall, our results suggest that a high WM load "sets" the motor system into a suppressed state that mitigates motor affordances. Is an irrelevant motor affordance more likely to be triggered when you are under low or high cognitive load? We examined this using physiological measures

  11. A Policy Analysis of Child Care Subsidies: Increasing Quality, Access, and Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie-Dyer, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Changing family dynamics over the past four decades, including rises in the numbers of working mothers and single-parent families, have created an increased need for affordable child care. Government response to this need has involved a number of stop-and-start policy approaches, which have led to a fractured child care system that makes it…

  12. 78 FR 13327 - Request for Information Regarding an Initiative To Promote Student Loan Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... consumption, savings, homeownership, household formation, entrepreneurship, and other indicators of economic... encourage the development of more affordable loan repayment mechanisms for private student loan borrowers... economic incentive to modify the loan, as the net present value (NPV) of the restructured debt may be...

  13. Validating Affordances as an Instrument for Design and a Priori Analysis of Didactical Situations in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollervall, Håkan; Stadler, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the presented case study is to investigate how coherent analytical instruments may guide the a priori and a posteriori analyses of a didactical situation. In the a priori analysis we draw on the notion of affordances, as artefact-mediated opportunities for action, to construct hypothetical trajectories of goal-oriented actions that have…

  14. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF PROJECTS OF THE AFFORDABLE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRAVCHUNOVSKA T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. The development of inhabitant locality of Ukraine is characterized by significant differences in levels of socio and economic development. An excessive concentration of population and industry in large cities, inefficient, slow development of most medium and small cities, towns and villages, considerable territorial disproportions of economic development of the country, considerable shortcomings in the territorial organization of society are observed. At the same time the tendency of the total area of increasing of inhabitant locality. The lands are used inefficiently. Among the most common problems of inhabitant locality is the housing problem. When making a decision on the design of affordable housing construction is one of the most important stages in the development of the technique and economic substantiation of the project is determination of the advisability and effectiveness of construction. The substantiation of advisability and effectiveness of affordable housing based on the definition of technical and economic indicators of projects, one of the most important among them is the cost, in its calculation is necessary to take into account the influence of organizational and technological factors, reflecting the features of construction in condition of compacted construction. Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations on substantiation of cost construction of affordable housing in the conditions of compacted construction. Conclusion. To provide a processing and the analysis of data is necessary development of the applied software on the basis of the developed block scheme of justification of cost construction of affordable housing.

  15. Assessing Affordances of Selected Cloud Computing Tools for Language Teacher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofemile, Abdulmalik Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that hoped to understand Teacher Educators' (TE) assessment of the affordances of selected cloud computing tools ranked among the top 100 for the year 2010. Research has shown that ICT and by extension cloud computing has positive impacts on daily life and this informed the Nigerian government's policy to…

  16. Learning to Perceive the Affordance for Long-Distance Throwing: Smart Mechanism or Function Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    Bingham, Schmidt, & Rosenblum, (1989) showed that people are able to select, by hefting balls, the optimal weight for each size ball to be thrown farthest. We now investigate function learning and smart mechanisms as hypotheses about how this affordance is perceived. Twenty-four unskilled adult throwers learned to throw by practicing with a subset…

  17. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  18. Affording and Constraining Local Moral Orders in Teacher-Led Ability-Based Mathematics Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi; Shuker, Mary Jane; Higgins, Joanna; Loveridge, Judith

    2015-01-01

    How teachers position themselves and their students can influence the development of afforded or constrained local moral orders in ability-based teacher-led mathematics lessons. Local moral orders are the negotiated discursive practices and interactions of participants in the group. In this article, the developing local moral orders of 12 teachers…

  19. ICT-Based Learning Personalization Affordance in the Context of Implementation of Constructionist Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Natalija; Dagiene, Valentina; Kubilinskiene, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    How to enable students to create a personalized learning environment? What are the criteria of evaluation of the ICT-based learning process personalization affordance? These questions are answered by conducting multiple case study research of the innovative ICT-based learning process in iTEC (Innovative Technologies for Engaging Classrooms)…

  20. 77 FR 19750 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Act to increase the availability of credit for small businesses. This survey is not required by law... Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy; Small Business Lending Fund; Proposed Collection; Comment Request ACTION: Notice and request for comments...

  1. 77 FR 42831 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... for small businesses. This survey is not required by law, but the SBLF Securities Purchase Agreement... Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy; Small Business Lending Fund; Proposed Collection; Comment Request ACTION: Notice and request for comments...

  2. The Affordances of Blogs and Digital Video: New Potentials for Exploring Topics and Representing Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranker, Jason

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents examples of two ninth-grade students' literacy processes as they used blogs and digital video (amongst other media) to inquire into the subject matter of fast food. The author discusses the students' uses of these focal media through the concept of affordances, a concept that refers to the distinct…

  3. The Influence of Affordances on Learner Preferences in Mobile Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uther, Maria; Banks, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of sensory and cognitive affordances on the usability of mobile devices for multimedia language learning applications. An audio-based learning application--the "Vowel Trainer" (audio-based speech app), developed by University College London was chosen, against a comparison, text and picture-based…

  4. Informal Science Institutions and Learning to Teach: An Examination of Identity, Agency, and Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer D.; Gupta, Preeti

    2017-01-01

    Informal science education institutions play an important in the public understanding of science and, because of this are well-positioned to positively impact science teacher education. Informal science institutions (ISIs) have a range of affordances that could contribute to learner-centered science teacher identity development. This article…

  5. Fostering Health: The Affordable Care Act, Medicaid, and Youth Transitioning from Foster Care. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Simmons, Renée; Dworsky, Amy; Tongue, Denzel; Hulbutta, Marikate

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act includes language that requires states to provide Medicaid coverage to youth who were in foster care in their state before aging out of the child welfare system. However, most states have interpreted the law differently for youth who move to their state after aging out, determining that automatic Medicaid coverage is an…

  6. Digital Affordances on WeChat: Learning Chinese as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li

    2018-01-01

    Different from the traditional term language input, affordance, an ecological term, has been deployed to analyze the perceived opportunities for second language (L2) learning an environment provides to L2 learners. L2 learning occurs only when the semiotic resources in the environment resonate with the learner's capacities such as their abilities,…

  7. Using Educational Design Research Methods to Examine the Affordances of Online Games for Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrasidas, Charalambos; Solomou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the affordances and opportunities from using online games in teacher professional development. Following an educational design research approach, we developed an environment to provide opportunities for in-service teachers to engage in-game-based activities. Our work presented in this manuscript was of…

  8. Enabling Mobile Communications for the Needy: Affordability Methodology, and Approaches to Requalify Universal Service Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Francois PAU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper links communications and media usage to social and household economics boundaries. It highlights that in present day society, communications and media are a necessity, but not always affordable, and that they furthermore open up for addictive behaviors which raise additional financial and social risks. A simple and efficient methodology compatible with state-of-the-art social and communications business statistics is developed, which produces the residual communications and media affordability budget and ultimately the value-at-risk in terms of usage and tariffs. Sensitivity analysis provides precious information on bottom-up communications and media adoption on the basis of affordability. This approach differs from the regulated but often ineffective Universal service obligation, which instead of catering for individual needs mostly addresses macro-measures helping geographical access coverage (e.g. in rural areas. It is proposed to requalify the Universal service obligations on operators into concrete measures, allowing, with unchanged funding, the needy to adopt mobile services based on their affordability constraints by bridging the gap to a standard tariff. Case data are surveyed from various countries. ICT policy recommendations are made to support widespread and socially responsible communications access.

  9. The Pre-School Education Market in England from 1997: Quality, Availability, Affordability and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores changes in the pre-school education market in England since the Labour Government came into office in 1997. It focuses in particular on quality, availability and affordability and in so doing explores issues of equity. It will be argued that whilst overall levels of pre-school educational provision have increased, there are…

  10. Exaggerated object affordance and absent automatic inhibition in alien hand syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jennifer; Sumner, Petroc; Jackson, Stephen R; Bajaj, Nin; Husain, Masud

    2013-09-01

    Patients with alien hand syndrome (AHS) experience making apparently deliberate and purposeful movements with their hand against their will. However, the mechanisms contributing to these involuntary actions remain poorly understood. Here, we describe two experimental investigations in a patient with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with alien hand behaviour in her right hand. First, we show that responses with the alien hand are made significantly more quickly to images of objects which afford an action with that hand compared to objects which afford an action with the unaffected hand. This finding suggests that involuntary grasping behaviours in AHS might be due to exaggerated, automatic motor activation evoked by objects which afford actions with that limb. Second, using a backwards masked priming task, we found normal automatic inhibition of primed responses in the patient's unaffected hand, but importantly there was no evidence of such suppression in the alien limb. Taken together, these findings suggest that grasping behaviours in AHS may result from exaggerated object affordance effects, which might potentially arise from disrupted inhibition of automatically evoked responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding and using technological affordances: a commentary on Conole and Dyke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Boyle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper by Conole and Dyke sets the context by pointing to a number of problems that inhibit the widespread, effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT to support learning. They argue that this situation highlights the need to explore a theoretical basis for the use of ICT to support learning. The central argument of the paper is that the notion of affordances can make a significant contribution to this endeavour. The paper aims to articulate the potential impact of these affordances primarily through the development of a taxonomy. It draws on social constructivist theory to help understand and articulate the impact of these affordances. The concept of affordances is potentially both rich and provocative. Conole and Dyke provide a refreshing and diverse look at the theoretical basis for the use of ICT to support learning. We have structured our commentary around six questions that are provided by Conole and Dyke in their Discussion section. Whilst examining these questions we highlight various issues raised by the paper, which we believe, need further consideration and clarification.

  12. Tobacco affordability, sales and excise revenues in the 28 European Union countries in 2011-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Krasovsky

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco taxation can ensure both tobacco consumption decline and revenue increase only if taxation is a key factor of tobacco affordability reduction. Otherwise, in years of economic recession consumption declines, but revenue does not increase; while in years of economic growth revenue increases, but consumption does not decline.

  13. Songs in Our Hearts: The Affordances and Constraints of an Intergenerational Multimodal Arts Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydon, Rachel; O'Neill, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the affordances and constraints of an intergenerational multimodal arts curriculum that was designed to expand communication and identity options for children and elder participants. The authors drew on actor-network theory to conceptualize curriculum as a network effect and refer to literature on multimodal…

  14. CD-ROM Multimodal Affordances: Classroom Interaction Perspectives in the Malaysian English Literacy Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Sheena; Yaacob, Aizan

    2009-01-01

    CD-ROM affordances are explored in this article through participation in classroom interaction. CD-ROMs for shared reading of animated stories and language work were introduced to all Malaysian primary schools in 2003 for the Year 1 English Literacy Hour. We present classroom interaction extracts that show how the same CD-ROMs offer different…

  15. A Critical Review of the Literature of Social Media's Affordances in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Olivia G.

    2015-01-01

    Even though the use of social media in education is a now widely-studied topic, there still does not seem to be a consensus for what social media may afford students or how best to use them in the classroom. In this critical review of current literature, I discuss some of the most prominent qualitative studies that explore the use of social media…

  16. Developing and Implementing a Simple, Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Laboratory in Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klara, Kristina; Hou, Ning; Lawman, Allison; Wu, Liheng; Morrill, Drew; Tente, Alfred; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2014-01-01

    A simple, affordable hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell laboratory was developed through a collaborative effort between faculty and undergraduate students at Brown University. It has been incorporated into the introductory chemistry curriculum and successfully implemented in a class of over 500 students per academic year for over 3…

  17. Kite-powered design-to-robotic-production for affordable building on demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.; Schmehl, R.; Mostafavi, S.S.; Anton, A.M.; Bodea, I.S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Building technologies employed today in 2nd and 3rd world countries are imported, expensive, outdated and unsustainable. Highly developed countries, on the other hand, rapidly advance in developing affordable, numerically controlled and robotically supported material- and energy-efficient methods

  18. Family socioeconomic status and the provision of motor affordances in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Teresa C B; Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Montebelo, Maria I L; Santos, Denise C C

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. To evaluate the availability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. The sample consisted of 300 families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS) was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space), Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys). SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.

  19. Virtual team learning: The role of collaboration process and technology affordance in team decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Cordes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines two dimensions that impact virtual team decision making. One is the influence of collaboration process structure: the sequences, patterns, and routines participants use to interact and solve problems. The other is technology affordance: the strengths and weaknesses of technologies in terms of the usefulness they offer to teams when performing tasks. Some teams used a structured collaboration process with monitoring, coordination, and backup functions during a decision-making discussion. Other teams had no discussion process instructions. In addition, some teams possessed stronger technology affordance including both chat and an editable document. Other teams used chat technology alone, which offered fewer collaboration possibilities. The collaboration process and technology affordance factors were tested in an experiment in which four-person online teams worked as a personnel hiring committee. Information about four job candidates was distributed to create a hidden profile in which some information was shared across all team members, while other information was visible only to specific members. Two hundred and eight students, comprising fifty-two teams completed the study. Teams using the structured collaboration process made more accurate and higher-quality decisions. In addition, scores were higher when technology affordance included both chat and editable document tools, but this influence was not significant.

  20. Use of Welcome to Medicare Visits Among Older Adults Following the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Arpit; Lloyd, Jennifer T; Strawbridge, Larisa M; Wensky, Suzanne G

    2018-01-01

    To encourage greater utilization of preventive services among Medicare beneficiaries, the 2010 Affordable Care Act waived coinsurance for the Welcome to Medicare visit, making this benefit free starting in 2011. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the Affordable Care Act on Welcome to Medicare visit utilization. A 5% sample of newly enrolled fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries for 2005-2016 was used to estimate changes in Welcome to Medicare visit use over time. An interrupted time series model examined whether Welcome to Medicare visits increased significantly after 2011, controlling for pre-intervention trends and other autocorrelation. Annual Welcome to Medicare visit rates began at 1.4% in 2005 and increased to 12.3% by 2016. The quarterly Welcome to Medicare visit rate, which was almost 1% at baseline, was increasing by 0.06% before the 2011 Affordable Care Act provision (pAct provision, the rate increased by about 1% in the first quarter of 2011 (intercept, pAct trends of lower utilization persisted over time for non-whites and improved less quickly for men, regions other than Northeast, and beneficiaries without any supplemental insurance. The Affordable Care Act, and perhaps the removal of cost sharing, was associated with increased use of the Welcome to Medicare visit; however, even with the increased use, there is room for improvement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Affordances in Outdoor Environments and Children's Physically Active Play in Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storli, Rune; Hagen, Trond Loge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantitatively and qualitatively explore children's physically active play outdoors in a traditional playground and natural (nature) environment and discuss how these environments influence children's physical activity. Fjortoft has previously explored the relationship between environmental affordances and…

  2. The affordance of anchored discussion for the collaborative processing of academic texts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Jakko; Admiraal, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120226340; Simons, P.R.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068032994

    2006-01-01

    A system for ‘anchored discussion’ is compared with a system for traditional forum discussion (Blackboard), and their affordances for the collaborative processing of academic texts are investigated. Results show that discussion in the system for anchored discussion is directed at a processing of the

  3. Affordances of Telecollaboration Tools for English for Specific Purposes Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Pavón, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores students' perceptions of the affordances of different telecollaboration tools used in an innovation project for English for Specific Purposes online learning carried out between the University of Valencia (Spain) and Wofford College (South Carolina, United States) during the school year 2015-2016. Different tools for…

  4. Affordances for Risk-Taking and Physical Activity in Australian Early Childhood Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Motor competence and physical activity (PA) patterns are established during the early childhood years. Early childhood education (ECE) settings are an important context for children's engagement in physically active play. This paper reports the findings from an online survey examining resources, spaces and affordances for PA and risk-taking in…

  5. The Role of Business Agreements in Defining Textbook Affordability and Digital Materials: A Document Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, John; deNoyelles, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Adopting digital materials such as eTextbooks and e-coursepacks is a potential strategy to address textbook affordability in the United States. However, university business relationships with bookstore vendors implicitly structure which instructional resources are available and in what manner. In this study, a document analysis was conducted on…

  6. Affordances and Constraints of Using the Socio-Political Debate for Authentic Summative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker-Hansen, Jens; Andrée, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article reports from an empirical study on the affordances and constraints for using staged socio-political debates for authentic summative assessment of scientific literacy. The article focuses on conditions for student participation and what purposes emerge in student interaction in a socio-political debate. As part of the research project,…

  7. Direct Perception of Action-Scaled Affordances: The Shrinking Gap Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajen, Brett R.; Matthis, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of possibilities for action (i.e., affordances) that depend on one's movement capabilities, and more specifically, the passability of a shrinking gap between converging obstacles. We introduce a new optical invariant that specifies in intrinsic units the minimum locomotor speed needed to…

  8. Understanding Structures and Affordances of Extended Teams in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zahedi, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Growing popularity of Global Software Development (GSD) has resulted in an increasing number of cross-organizational teams that are formed according to Extended Team Model (ETM). There is little known about the structures (work, social, and communication) that may exist in ETM and what affordances...... into the types of structures and associated challenges for implementing ETM in GSD....

  9. Public Stories of Mathematics Educators: Challenges and Affordances of Learning Mathematics in a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truxaw, Mary P.; Rojas, Eliana D.

    2014-01-01

    In this public story, we explore challenges and affordances of learning mathematics when the learner's primary language is not the primary language of instruction. We, the authors, are Mary Truxaw, a predominantly monolingual (English, with limited Spanish) mathematics educator and Eliana Rojas, a bilingual (Spanish and English)…

  10. 76 FR 51201 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions in the Individual Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... for students under the Medicaid program, which is not consistent with our approach for the Exchange... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions in the Individual Market: Eligibility Determinations; Exchange Standards for Employers; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 159 / Wednesday...

  11. SmartFluo: A Method and Affordable Adapter to Measure Chlorophyll a Fluorescence with Smartphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrichs, Anna; Busch, Julia; van der Woerd, H.J.; Zielinski, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In order to increase the monitoring capabilities of inland and coastal waters, there is a need for new, affordable, sensitive and mobile instruments that could be operated semi-automatically in the field. This paper presents a prototype device to measure chlorophyll a fluorescence: the SmartFluo.

  12. A multimodal dataset of spontaneous speech and movement production on object affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatakis, Argiro; Pastra, Katerina

    2016-01-19

    In the longstanding effort of defining object affordances, a number of resources have been developed on objects and associated knowledge. These resources, however, have limited potential for modeling and generalization mainly due to the restricted, stimulus-bound data collection methodologies adopted. To-date, therefore, there exists no resource that truly captures object affordances in a direct, multimodal, and naturalistic way. Here, we present the first such resource of 'thinking aloud', spontaneously-generated verbal and motoric data on object affordances. This resource was developed from the reports of 124 participants divided into three behavioural experiments with visuo-tactile stimulation, which were captured audiovisually from two camera-views (frontal/profile). This methodology allowed the acquisition of approximately 95 hours of video, audio, and text data covering: object-feature-action data (e.g., perceptual features, namings, functions), Exploratory Acts (haptic manipulation for feature acquisition/verification), gestures and demonstrations for object/feature/action description, and reasoning patterns (e.g., justifications, analogies) for attributing a given characterization. The wealth and content of the data make this corpus a one-of-a-kind resource for the study and modeling of object affordances.

  13. Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of

  14. Understanding Enactivism: A Study of Affordances and Constraints of Engaging Practicing Teachers as Digital Game Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This study is intended to deepen our understanding of enactivism, an emergent theoretical paradigm, through empirical exploration of teacher undertakings as digital game creators. Specifically, it explores the affordances and constraints, two important enactivism concepts, of practicing teachers' experiences in designing and developing games for…

  15. 24 CFR 1000.240 - When is a local cooperation agreement required for affordable housing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... housing activities? The requirement for a local cooperation agreement applies only to rental and lease-purchase homeownership units assisted with IHBG funds which are owned by the Indian tribe or TDHE. ... agreement required for affordable housing activities? 1000.240 Section 1000.240 Housing and Urban...

  16. Mobile Service Affordability for the Needy, Addiction, and ICT Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper links communications and media usage to social and household economics boundaries. It highlights that in present day society, communications and media are a necessity, but not always affordable, and that they furthermore open up for addictive behaviours which raise additional

  17. Understanding preferences for the residential environment using Affordance-based theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.J.T.

    2015-01-01

    The decreasing importance of socio-economic factors in choosing a place to live gives more room to other motivational factors. These can be examined using affordance-based theory (Gibson, 1979), which explores what use the environment has to the user. In a telephone survey, 738 respondents were

  18. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  19. Mirror Worlds: Examining the Affordances of a Next Generation Immersive Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Aakash; Williams, Daron; Terry, Krista; Robinson, Kelly; Newbill, Phyllis

    2018-01-01

    As technologies continue to develop and evolve, it is imperative that instructional technologists, learning scientists, and educators involved with examining learning affordances of emerging technologies investigate the potential of innovative environments to promote and facilitate learning. This paper, as such, will describe a newly developed…

  20. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... risk sharing protections against adverse selection--risk adjustment and risk corridors--are likely to... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Proposed Rule #0...; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Health and Human...

  1. Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Integration, Affordances, and Challenges of Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtaiwa, Fawzi Fayez; Khaled, Ahmed; Dukmak, Samir

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, faculty members' perceptions of the integration, affordances, and challenges of mobile learning (m-learning) were investigated through semi-structured interviews. The results showed that participants' integration of m-learning varies and tends to focus on select activities. At the same time, participants recognized…

  2. The Affordances of Case-Based Teaching for the Professional Learning of Student-Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Sarah; de Beer, Josef; Odendaal-Kroon, Rika; Merseth, Katherine K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative enquiry into the affordances of case-based teaching for the professional learning of student-teachers. The context is a first-year foundational course in a four-year undergraduate teacher education programme, offered by an urban university in Johannesburg, South Africa, with a student enrolment of close to 700…

  3. Extending Marketplace Tax Credits Would Make Coverage More Affordable for Middle-Income Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jodi; Eiber, Christine

    2017-07-01

    ISSUE: Affordability of health coverage is a growing challenge for Americans facing rising premiums, deductibles, and copayments. The Affordable Care Act's tax credits make marketplace insurance more affordable for eligible lower-income individuals. However, individuals lose tax credits when their income exceeds 400 percent of the federal poverty level, creating a steep cliff. GOALS: To analyze the effects of extending eligibility for tax credits to individuals with incomes above 400 percent of the federal poverty level. METHODS: We used RAND's COMPARE microsimulation model to examine changes in insurance coverage and health care spending. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Extending tax-credit eligibility increases insurance enrollment by 1.2 million, at a total federal cost of $6.0 billion. Those who would benefit from the tax-credit extension are mostly middle-income adults ages 50 to 64. These new enrollees would be healthier than current enrollees their age, which would improve the risk pool and lower premiums. Eliminating the cliff at 400 percent of the federal poverty level is one policy option that may be considered to increase affordability of insurance.

  4. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA). Common Modular Avionics System for Nanolaunchers Offering Affordable Access to Space; [Space Technology: Game Changing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can be launched affordably only as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. What is needed is a class of low-cost launchers, so that launch costs to low-Earth orbit (LEO) are commensurate with payload costs. Several private and government-sponsored launch vehicle developers are working toward just that-the ability to affordably insert small payloads into LEO. But until now, cost of the complex avionics remained disproportionately high. AVA (Affordable Vehicle Avionics) solves this problem. Significant contributors to the cost of launching nanosatellites to orbit are the avionics and software systems that steer and control the launch vehicles, sequence stage separation, deploy payloads, and telemeter data. The high costs of these guidance, navigation and control (GNC) avionics systems are due in part to the current practice of developing unique, single-use hardware and software for each launch. High-performance, high-reliability inertial sensors components with heritage from legacy launchers also contribute to costs-but can low-cost commercial inertial sensors work just as well? NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box (100 millimeters by 120 millimeters by 69 millimeters; 4 inches by 4.7 inches by 2.7 inches), with a mass of less than 0.84 kilogram (2 pounds. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with real-time GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) data. The goal of the AVA project is to produce and light-verify a common suite of avionics and software that

  5. Virtual learning environments in the light of the Complexity Paradigm: interface, affordances and equifinality Ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem à luz do Paradigma da Complexidade: interface, affordances e equifinalidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Virginia Soares Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have investigated, through the lens of the Complexity Paradigm, aligned with the premises of the Theory of General Systems and the concept of affordances, two virtual learning environments (VLEs, defining them as systems composed of digital genres, regarding a VLE as a complex adaptive system. These VLEs were reconfigured from the platforms TelEduc and Moodle and used to teach the discipline "Digital Literacy", in the course of Languages and Literature Teaching degree at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, during the second semester of 2007 and the second semester of 2008, respectively. The analyses have indicated that the textual production of the emerging online discourse communities was influenced by the coupling of different layers of the interface, the textual genres and the communicative and pedagogical purposes and, also, by the affordances which were perceived and acted upon by teachers and learners. The analyzed VLEs have portrayed the characteristic of equifinality, regardless of the possibilities and constraints offered by the platforms TelEduc and Moodle.Investigo, através da lente do Paradigma da Complexidade, juntamente com os pressupostos da Teoria Geral dos Sistemas e do conceito de affordances, dois ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem (AVAs, definindo-os como sistemas compostos por gêneros digitais, partindo do pressuposto de que um AVA é um sistema adaptativo complexo. Esses AVAs foram reconfigurados a partir das plataformas TelEduc e Moodle e utilizados para ministrar a disciplina "Letramento Digital", no curso de Letras da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, nos semestres 2007-2 e 2008-2, respectivamente. As análises indicam que a produção textual das comunidades discursivas on-line emergentes nos AVAs foi influenciada pelo acoplamento aninhado de camadas distintas da interface, dos gêneros textuais e dos propósitos comunicativos e pedagógicos, e, ainda, pelas affordances percebidas e efetivadas

  6. Affordability as a discursive accomplishment in a changing National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jill; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-12-01

    Health systems worldwide face the challenges of rationing. The English National Health Service (NHS) was founded on three core principles: universality, comprehensiveness, and free at the point of delivery. Yet patients are increasingly hearing that some treatments are unaffordable on the NHS. We considered affordability as a social accomplishment and sought to explore how those charged with allocating NHS resources achieved this in practice. We undertook a linguistic ethnography to examine the work practices of resource allocation committees in three Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in England between 2005 and 2012, specifically deliberations over 'individual funding requests' (IFRs)--requests by patients and their doctors for the PCT to support a treatment not routinely funded. We collected and analysed a diverse dataset comprising policy documents, legal judgements, audio recordings, ethnographic field notes and emails from PCT committee meetings, interviews and a focus group with committee members. We found that the fundamental values of universality and comprehensiveness strongly influenced the culture of these NHS organisations, and that in this context, accomplishing affordability was not easy. Four discursive practices served to confer legitimacy on affordability as a guiding value of NHS health care: (1) categorising certain treatments as only eligible for NHS funding if patients could prove 'exceptional' circumstances; (2) representing resource allocation decisions as being not (primarily) about money; (3) indexical labelling of affordability as an ethical principle, and (4) recontextualising legal judgements supporting refusal of NHS treatment on affordability grounds as 'rational'. The overall effect of these discursive practices was that denying treatment to patients became reasonable and rational for an organisation even while it continued to espouse traditional NHS values. We conclude that deliberations about the funding of treatments at the margins of NHS

  7. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Nguyen, Binh; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-05-04

    The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income. We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from the Economist Intelligence Unit's World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study. In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income needed to purchase sugar-sweetened beverages declined on average (using annual measures) during the study period. This pattern, described as an increase in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, indicated that sugar-sweetened beverages became more affordable more rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries, a fact largely attributable to the higher rate of income growth in those countries than to a decline in the real price of sugar-sweetened beverages. Without deliberate policy action to raise prices, sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to become more affordable and more widely consumed around the world.

  8. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C.; Nguyen, Binh; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income. Methods We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from the Economist Intelligence Unit’s World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study. Results In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income needed to purchase sugar-sweetened beverages declined on average (using annual measures) during the study period. This pattern, described as an increase in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, indicated that sugar-sweetened beverages became more affordable more rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries, a fact largely attributable to the higher rate of income growth in those countries than to a decline in the real price of sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion Without deliberate policy action to raise prices, sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to become more affordable and more widely consumed around the world. PMID:28472607

  9. Accessibility, affordability and use of health services in an urban area in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inequalities in healthcare between population groups of South Africa existed during the apartheid era and continue to exist both between and within many population groups. Accessibility and affordability of healthcare is a human right.Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe accessibility, affordability and the use of health services by the mixed race (coloured population in the Western Cape, South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive, non-experimental study with a quantitative approach was applied. A purposive convenient sample of 353 participants (0.6% was drawn from a population of 63 004 economically-active people who lived in the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were represented. The hypothesis set was that there is a positive relationship between accessibility, affordability and the use of health services. A pilot study was conducted which also supported the reliability and validity of the study. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Stellenbosch and informed consent from respondents. A questionnaire was used to collect the data.Results: The hypothesis was accepted. The statistical association between affordability (p = < 0.01, accessibility (p = < 0.01 and the use of health services was found to be significant using the Chi-square (χ² test.Conclusion: The study has shown how affordability and accessibility may influence the use of healthcare services. Accessibility is not only the distance an individual must travel to reach the health service point but more so the utilisation of these services. Continuous Quality Management should be a priority in healthcare services, which should be user-friendly.

  10. Adequação de recursos humanos ao PSF: percepção de formandos de dois modelos de formação acadêmica em odontologia The Family Health Program (FHP and human resources: perceptions of students from two different dentistry schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Fiúza Sanchez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O Programa Saúde da Família - PSF foi instituído pelo governo federal objetivando reverter o modelo assistencial. Os recursos humanos envolvidos devem estar preparados para alcançar os objetivos que o PSF propõe. O propósito desse artigo foi avaliar os desejos, percepções e preparo de acadêmicos de Odontologia, em relação aos princípios do PSF, de duas diferentes Faculdades de Odontologia, aqui denominadas Faculdades 1 e 2. Buscou-se ainda analisar se as faculdades tiveram potencial transformador sobre os acadêmicos, graduando-os com compromisso social e sensibilidade humanitária, considerados importantes para aqueles que querem trabalhar no PSF. Questionários individuais foram aplicados por um único pesquisador. As respostas foram analisadas pelo programa Epi-Info. Os resultados mostraram que prevalece entre os acadêmicos o desejo de trabalhar no PSF por razões ligadas às dificuldades do mercado de trabalho e os mesmos citam freqüentemente a técnica como a principal característica necessária a um dentista para que o mesmo atue no PSF. Por outro lado, diferenças estatisticamente significativas foram encontradas entre os acadêmicos, apontando uma provável influência do Estágio Supervisionado, ministrado sob a forma de internato rural, sobre a formação do acadêmico da Faculdade 1, possivelmente habilitando-o melhor para o PSF.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and opinions of dental students from two different Dentistry Schools in Brazil, both known here as Dentistry Schools 1 and 2 about the Family Health Program - FHP. The study analyzed if the Dentistry Schools had any influence on the students, graduating professionals with humanitarian and social sensibility, which are considered very important prerequisites for those who wish to work on this governmental health program, as well as searching for professional expectation of the students. Individual questionnaires were applied by only one

  11. O impacto sócio-cultural do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF: uma proposta de avaliação The socio-cultural impact of the Family Health Program: an evaluation proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Alves Bonfim Trad

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo desenvolve uma análise crítica das implicações de se definir a família como objeto da intervenção em saúde, tomando como referência o caso do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF, propondo, simultaneamente, uma avaliação do impacto sócio-cultural do programa. Espaço estratégico de manifestação, enfrentamento e, conseqüentemente, observação do processo saúde-doença, a família demanda uma abordagem multidisciplinar de sua estrutura, dinâmica e comportamento em face dos problemas, determinantes e ações de saúde. Neste contexto, apresentamos uma proposta de avaliação do Programa de Saúde da Família assentada sobre a idéia de que tanto os problemas, quanto as práticas de saúde, são realidades sócio-culturalmente constituídas.This paper develops a critical analysis of the implications of defining the family as an object of intervention in health, taking as reference case the Family Health Program and proposing an evaluation of its socio-cultural impact. As a strategic space for manifestation, confrontation, and therefore observation of the health-illness process, the family requires a multidisciplinary approach to its structure, dynamics, and behavior in the face of health-related problems, determinants, and actions. We present a proposal for assessment of the Family Health Program based on the premise that problems and practices in the health field are socio-culturally determined.

  12. Seven Affordances of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: How to Support Collaborative Learning? How Can Technologies Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heisawn; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes 7 core affordances of technology for collaborative learning based on theories of collaborative learning and CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning) practices. Technology affords learner opportunities to (1) engage in a joint task, (2) communicate, (3) share resources, (4) engage in productive collaborative learning…

  13. The Complexity of the Affordance-Ability Relationship When Second-Grade Children Interact with Mathematics Virtual Manipulative Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Westenskow, Arla; Jordan, Kerry E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between app affordances and user abilities in second graders' interactions with mathematics virtual manipulative touchscreen tablet apps. The research questions focused on varying manifestations of affordance-ability relationships during children's interactions with mathematics virtual…

  14. Supporting Scientific Modeling Practices in Atmospheric Sciences: Intended and Actual Affordances of a Computer-Based Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pai-Hsing; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2015-01-01

    Computer-based learning tools include design features to enhance learning but learners may not always perceive the existence of these features and use them in desirable ways. There might be a gap between what the tool features are designed to offer (intended affordance) and what they are actually used (actual affordance). This study thus aims at…

  15. Korean Students' Stories from an Aotearoa New Zealand High School: Perceived Affordances of English and Korean Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article is informed by van Lier's ecological approach to linguistics in considering the affordances Korean-born students perceived in using Korean or English language in an Aotearoa New Zealand high school setting. Here, I regard affordances as the students' perceptions of their languages as linguistic resources enabling them to act, or…

  16. Incentivising flood risk adaptation through ris based insurance premiums: trade-offs between affordability and risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, P.G.M.B.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Feyen, L.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The financial incentives offered by the risk-based pricing of insurance can stimulate policyholder adaptation to flood risk while potentially conflicting with affordability. We examine the trade-off between risk reduction and affordability in a model of public-private flood insurance in France and

  17. Incentivising flood risk adaptation through risk based insurance premiums : Trade-offs between affordability and risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, Paul F.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Feyen, L.; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The financial incentives offered by the risk-based pricing of insurance can stimulate policyholder adaptation to flood risk while potentially conflicting with affordability. We examine the trade-off between risk reduction and affordability in a model of public-private flood insurance in France and

  18. Stability of parallel flows

    CERN Document Server

    Betchov, R

    2012-01-01

    Stability of Parallel Flows provides information pertinent to hydrodynamical stability. This book explores the stability problems that occur in various fields, including electronics, mechanics, oceanography, administration, economics, as well as naval and aeronautical engineering. Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the general equations of a two-dimensional incompressible flow. This text then explores the stability of a laminar boundary layer and presents the equation of the inviscid approximation. Other chapters present the general equation

  19. Reliability and Maintainability Engineering - A Major Driver for Safety and Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2011-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of an effort to design and build a safe and affordable heavy lift vehicle to go to the moon and beyond. To achieve that, NASA is seeking more innovative and efficient approaches to reduce cost while maintaining an acceptable level of safety and mission success. One area that has the potential to contribute significantly to achieving NASA safety and affordability goals is Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) engineering. Inadequate reliability or failure of critical safety items may directly jeopardize the safety of the user(s) and result in a loss of life. Inadequate reliability of equipment may directly jeopardize mission success. Systems designed to be more reliable (fewer failures) and maintainable (fewer resources needed) can lower the total life cycle cost. The Department of Defense (DOD) and industry experience has shown that optimized and adequate levels of R&M are critical for achieving a high level of safety and mission success, and low sustainment cost. Also, lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program clearly demonstrated the importance of R&M engineering in designing and operating safe and affordable launch systems. The Challenger and Columbia accidents are examples of the severe impact of design unreliability and process induced failures on system safety and mission success. These accidents demonstrated the criticality of reliability engineering in understanding component failure mechanisms and integrated system failures across the system elements interfaces. Experience from the shuttle program also shows that insufficient Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (RMS) engineering analyses upfront in the design phase can significantly increase the sustainment cost and, thereby, the total life cycle cost. Emphasis on RMS during the design phase is critical for identifying the design features and characteristics needed for time efficient processing

  20. As várias abordagens da família no cenário do programa/estratégia de saúde da família (PSF Las diversas abordajes de la familia en el escenario del programa/estrategia de salud de la familia (PSF Different approaches to the family in the context of the family health program/strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilza Maria Ribeiro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o cenário que favoreceu a inclusão da família como foco de atenção nas políticas públicas. As estratégias para interromper o empobrecimento e a vulnerabilidade das famílias, no século XX, ocorrem de forma diferenciada, segundo diferentes 'Estados de Bem-Estar', nas sociedades capitalistas. Porém, ante a crise do Estado de Bem-Estar e crescente custo dos serviços públicos e privados requer-se solução familiar, ao menos parcial, em termos de reduzir a sua dependência. O Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF coloca a família nas agendas das políticas sociais brasileiras em 1994, refletindo tanto interesses do modelo neoliberal como de forças sociais solidárias.Vê-se que tal inclusão gerou multiplicidade de abordagens tais como: família/indivíduo; família/domicílio; família/indivíduo/domicílio; família/comunidade; família/risco social; família/família. Essas abordagens, por não dialogarem entre si, acabam por compor um quadro insuficientemente identificado, dificultando a assistência. Sugere-se exame das condições apontadas como forma de dar, efetivamente, vez à família.Este estudio presenta el escenario que favoreció la inclusión de la familia como foco de atención en las políticas públicas. En el siglo XX, las estrategias para interrumpir el empobrecimiento y la vulnerabilidad de las familias ocurren de manera diferenciada, según los diferentes "Estados de Bienestar", en las sociedades capitalistas. Por consiguiente, ante la crisis del Estado de Bienestar y el creciente costo de los servicios públicos y privados se requiere al menos una solución familiar parcial, en términos de reducir su dependencia. El Programa de Salud de la Familia (PSF colocó la familia en las agendas de las Políticas Sociales Brasileñas en 1994, reflexionando tanto los intereses del modelo neoliberal como de las fuerzas sociales solidarias. Se vio que tal inclusión generó una multiplicidad de abordajes tales

  1. Limits to Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The author reflects briefly on what limited degree of global ecological stability and human cultural stability may be achieved, provided that humanity retains hope and does not give way to despair or hide in denial. These thoughts were triggered by a recent conference on International Stability and Systems Engineering. (Contains 5 notes.)

  2. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  3. The Optimum Blend: Affordances and Challenges of Blended Learning For Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Gedik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elicit students’ perceptions regarding the most facilitative and most challenging features (affordances and barriers in a blended course design. Following the phenomenological approach of qualitative inquiry, data were collected from ten undergraduate students who had experiences in a blended learning environment. Data were collected from the students’ weekly reşection papers, interviews with students, and documents, and analyzed by structurally and texturally describing the resulting experiences and perceptions. The findings of the study indicate that used together, online and face-to-face course structures offer several opportunities and challenges for students. The participating students mentioned interaction and communication opportunities, increased motivation, increased opportunities to voice their opinions, and reinforcement of learning as the affordances in the blended learning environment. The barriers included increased workload, cultural and technical barriers, and the inter-dependence of the two environments. Implications and suggestions are offered for instructors in higher education settings

  4. Legal and policy foundations for global generic competition: Promoting affordable drug pricing in developing societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero Miguel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called 'TRIPS flexibilities' restated in 2001 by the World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health offer a variety of policy avenues for promoting global price-based competition for essential medicines, and thus for improving access to affordable medicines in the developing world. In recent years, developing countries and international organisations alike have begun to explore the potentialities of global generic markets and competition generally, and also of using compulsory licensing to remedy anti-competitive practices (e.g. excessive pricing) through TRIPS-compatible antitrust enforcement. These and other 'pro-competitive' TRIPS flexibilities currently available provide the critical leverage and policy space necessary to improve access to affordable medicines in the developing world.

  5. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: state action to reform the individual health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

    2014-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act contains numerous consumer protections designed to remedy shortcomings in the availability, affordability, adequacy, and transparency of individual market insurance. However, because states remain the primary regulators of health insurance and have considerable flexibility over implementation of the law, consumers are likely to experience some of the new protections differently, depending on where they live. This brief explores how federal reforms are shaping standards for individual insurance and exam­ines specific areas in which states have flexibility when implementing the new protections. We find that consumers nationwide will enjoy improved protections in each area targeted by the reforms. Further, some states already have embraced the opportunity to customize their markets by implementing consumer protec­tions that exceed minimum federal requirements. States likely will continue to adjust their market rules as policymakers gain a greater understanding of how reform is working for consumers.

  6. Motivation for Aggressive Religious Radicalization: Goal Regulation Theory and a Personality × Threat × Affordance Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eMcGregor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization. It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward aggressive religious radicalization. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered. Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that aggressive religious radicalization is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress.

  7. Affordances perspective and grammaticalization: Incorporation of language, environment and users in the model of semantic paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Andrason

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper demonstrates that insights from the affordances perspective can contribute to developing a more comprehensive model of grammaticalization. The authors argue that the grammaticalization process is afforded differently depending on the values of three contributing parameters: the factor (schematized as a qualitative-quantitative map or a wave of a gram, environment (understood as the structure of the stream along which the gram travels, and actor (narrowed to certain cognitive-epistemological capacities of the users, in particular to the fact of being a native speaker. By relating grammaticalization to these three parameters and by connecting it to the theory of optimization, the proposed model offers a better approximation to realistic cases of grammaticalization: The actor and environment are overtly incorporated into the model and divergences from canonical grammaticalization paths are both tolerated and explicable.

  8. Affordance as a Key Aspect in the Creation of New learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    for both social and individual knowledge development. Through the analysis of empirical data gained from a pragmatic mixed-method approach, the role of different face-to-face and online spaces is investigated; investigations are based on the understandings of students, lecturers, and practitioners....... The major findings regard the contribution of spaces to sociality, identity, and referential embodied experiences, which greatly influence student preferences and learning activity, as well as knowledge development. It is concluded that individually and socially constructed learning influence......This research aims to highlight how different places and spaces in undergraduate teacher education afford student learning and the development of certain types of knowledge related. The questions this article addresses are: a) What is the affordance of different learning spaces in an undergraduate...

  9. The Affordable Care Act: the ethical call to transform the organizational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will require health care leaders and managers to develop strategies and implement organizational tactics for their organization to survive and thrive under the federal mandates of this new health care law. Successful health care organizations and health care systems will be defined by their adaptability in the new value-based marketplace created by the Affordable Care Act. The most critical underlining challenge for this success will be the effective transformation of the organizational culture. Transformational value-based leadership is now needed to answer the ethical call for transforming the organizational culture. This article provides a model and recommendations to influence change in the most difficult leadership duty-transforming the organizational culture.

  10. What Health Care Reform Means for Immigrants: Comparing the Affordable Care Act and Massachusetts Health Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Tiffany D

    2016-02-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed to provide more affordable health coverage to Americans beginning in 2014. Modeled after the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform, the ACA includes an individual mandate, Medicaid expansion, and health exchanges through which middle-income individuals can purchase coverage from private insurance companies. However, while the ACA provisions exclude all undocumented and some documented immigrants, Massachusetts uses state and hospital funds to extend coverage to these groups. This article examines the ACA reform using the Massachusetts reform as a comparative case study to outline how citizenship status influences individuals' coverage options under both policies. The article then briefly discusses other states that provide coverage to ACA-ineligible immigrants and the implications of uneven ACA implementation for immigrants and citizens nationwide. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  11. Cultural Similarities and Differences in Perceived Affordances of Situations for Big Five Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Del Prado, Alicia M

    2010-02-01

    The perceived affordance or conduciveness of various situations for Big Five behaviors was investigated in the United States (N = 188) and the Philippines (N = 215). The basic proposition that different situations afford different trait-relevant behaviors was supported, at least in the perceptions of cultural informants. Cultural similarities exceeded differences, and in both cultures individuals perceived Big Five behaviors as expressed in if-then patterns of variation across situations. Americans and Filipinos showed some similarity in the general dimensions along which situations are construed, but meaningful differences in the construal of certain interpersonal situations were also observed. The findings contribute to efforts to integrate person and situation approaches in personality and social psychology.

  12. The Affordable Care Act: How Nixon's Health Reform Proposal Became Democrats' Albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U

    2017-10-01

    President Obama's signature health care reform, the Affordable Care Act (ACA), was passed in 2010 and fully implemented in 2014. Two years later, Republicans' attacks on the ACA as a failed reform helped fuel their recent electoral victory. The legislation significantly expanded insurance coverage. But it was built on, and fortified, private health insurance firms, and it accelerated the corporate takeover of hospitals and physicians' practices. This obeisance to corporate interests precluded making coverage universal or care affordable. As a result, the reform failed to address the grave health care problems faced by most working- and middle-class Americans and left many of them feeling betrayed by Democrats who oversold the ACA's benefits.

  13. The NASA Space Launch System Program Systems Engineering Approach for Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, John J.; Whitehead, Josh; Hanson, John

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently developing the Space Launch System to provide the United States with a capability to launch large Payloads into Low Earth orbit and deep space. One of the development tenets of the SLS Program is affordability. One initiative to enhance affordability is the SLS approach to requirements definition, verification and system certification. The key aspects of this initiative include: 1) Minimizing the number of requirements, 2) Elimination of explicit verification requirements, 3) Use of certified models of subsystem capability in lieu of requirements when appropriate and 4) Certification of capability beyond minimum required capability. Implementation of each aspect is described and compared to a "typical" systems engineering implementation, including a discussion of relative risk. Examples of each implementation within the SLS Program are provided.

  14. The Affordable Care Act: the ethical call for value-based leadership to transform quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals in America face a daunting and historical challenge starting in 2013 as leadership navigates their organizations toward a new port of call-the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law in March 2010 and held in abeyance waiting on 2 pivotal points-the Supreme Court's June 2012 ruling upholding the constitutionality of the ACA and the 2012 presidential election of Barack Obama bringing to reality to health care organizations that leadership now must implement the mandates of health care delivery under the ACA. This article addresses the need for value-based leadership to transform the culture of health care organizations in order to be successful in navigating uncharted waters under the unprecedented challenges for change in the delivery of quality health care.

  15. Affordance as a Key Aspect in the Creation of New Learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to highlight how different places and spaces in undergraduate teacher education afford student learning and the development of certain types of knowledge related. The questions this article addresses are: a) What is the affordance of different learning spaces in an undergraduate....... The major findings regard the contribution of spaces to sociality, identity, and referential embodied experiences, which greatly influence student preferences and learning activity, as well as knowledge development. It is concluded that individually and socially constructed learning influence...... and are influenced by different learning spaces. A student’s identity is a prerequisite to their interaction with spaces, but the borders, artefacts, and possibilities of the spaces also contribute to the student’s development of identity. Development of identity cannot be separated from learning and student...

  16. Affordance as a Key Aspect in the Creation of New learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to highlight how different places and spaces in undergraduate teacher education afford student learning and the development of certain types of knowledge related. The questions this article addresses are: a) What is the affordance of different learning spaces in an undergraduate....... The major findings regard the contribution of spaces to sociality, identity, and referential embodied experiences, which greatly influence student preferences and learning activity, as well as knowledge development. It is concluded that individually and socially constructed learning influence...... and are influenced by different learning spaces. A student’s identity is a prerequisite to their interaction with spaces, but the borders, artefacts, and possibilities of the spaces also contribute to the student’s development of identity. Development of identity cannot be separated from learning and student...

  17. Cultural Similarities and Differences in Perceived Affordances of Situations for Big Five Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; del Prado, Alicia M.

    2009-01-01

    The perceived affordance or conduciveness of various situations for Big Five behaviors was investigated in the United States (N = 188) and the Philippines (N = 215). The basic proposition that different situations afford different trait-relevant behaviors was supported, at least in the perceptions of cultural informants. Cultural similarities exceeded differences, and in both cultures individuals perceived Big Five behaviors as expressed in if-then patterns of variation across situations. Americans and Filipinos showed some similarity in the general dimensions along which situations are construed, but meaningful differences in the construal of certain interpersonal situations were also observed. The findings contribute to efforts to integrate person and situation approaches in personality and social psychology. PMID:20401176

  18. Stability and Diversity of Ecosystems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anthony R. Ives; Stephen R. Carpenter

    2007-01-01

    .... The relationship is also complex, because the concept of stability is multifaceted; different types of stability describing different properties of ecosystems lead to multiple diversity-stability relationships...

  19. The patient protection and Affordable Care Act: a primer for hand surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is the largest and most comprehensive overhaul of the United States health care industry since the inception of the Medicare and Medicaid. Contained within the 10 titles are a multitude of provisions that will change how hand surgeons practice medicine and how they are reimbursed. It is imperative that surgeons are equipped with the knowledge of how this law will affect all physician practices and hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Turbo-machinery monitoring measures for propulsion safety and affordable readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2011 GT2011, June 6-10, 2011, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, GT2011-45741 The US Department of Defense initiative for propulsion safety and affordable readiness (P-SAR) has been engaged by all three services as a means to mitigate the operational and environmental hazards to aircraft propulsion system integrity, dependability and life cycle cost in military service. This paper focuses on the turbo-machinery of military propulsion systems and addresses t...

  1. How Affective Is a "Like"?: The Effect of Paralinguistic Digital Affordances on Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohn, Donghee Yvette; Carr, Caleb T; Hayes, Rebecca A

    2016-09-01

    A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs.

  2. Estimating bubbles and affordable housing price trends: A study based on Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Tilak Abeysinghe; Jiaying Gu

    2013-01-01

    Policy makers often impose some cooling measures on the housing market when housing prices rise fast. Such policies yield limited success if housing prices are driven up by fundamentals. A fundamental price trend may not necessarily be an affordable one. Unaffordable housing price trends increase the mortgage burden of households. Estimating these different price trends provides valuable information to policy makers. This paper presents an empirical methodology to separate out a housing price...

  3. Functional Relations Modulate the Responsiveness to Affordances Despite the Impact of Conflicting Stimulus–Response Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Vastano; Martin Finn; Dermot Barnes-Holmes

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated how conflicting stimulus–response mappings influenced affordance processing given a manipulation of the functional relations. Participants performed a task involving consistent–inconsistent stimulus–response mappings: Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). They were instructed to confirm or to deny a relation between words and tool-objects (consistent blocks) or to provide non-conventional responses (inconsistent blocks). The relations between stimuli could fu...

  4. Functional relations modulate the responsiveness to affordances despite the impact of conflicting stimulus-response mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Vastano, Roberta; Finn, Martin; Barnes-Holmes, Patrick Michael Dermot

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated how conflicting stimulus-response mappings influenced affordance processing given a manipulation of the functional relations. Participants performed a task involving consistent-inconsistent stimulus-response mappings: Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). They were instructed to confirm or to deny a relation between words and tool-objects (consistent blocks) or to provide non-conventional responses (inconsistent blocks). The relations between stimuli could fu...

  5. The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-renewable Resources in Asian Economies: Perspective of Availability, Applicability Acceptability, and Affordability

    OpenAIRE

    Youngho CHANG; Yanfei LI

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the factors that determine the sustainability of nonrenewable energy production and consumption in Asian economies. It reviews the recent literature on the issue and all of the key findings under the 4As framework (Availability, Applicability, Acceptability, and Affordability) which is derived from the classical Hotelling non-renewable resource economics models. Conclusions derived focus on the implications of the fast growth in non-renewable energy consumption and its outp...

  7. Medical Device Innovation in the Era of the Affordable Care Act: The End of Sexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattke, Soeren; Liu, Hangsheng; Orr, Patrick

    2016-06-20

    In this article, the authors explore why medical device innovation has traditionally been geared so thoroughly toward improving performance, with little regard to cost. They argue that the changing incentives in the health care sector and the move to value-based payment models, accelerated by the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, will force device manufacturers to redirect investments from the spectacular toward the prudent, which they dub "the end of sexy." The authors explore consequences for manufacturers, investors, and policymakers.

  8. Online social networking skills: The social affordances approach to digital inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Yuli Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to develop a theoretical framework for examining implications of digital media uses for digital inequality in the domain of social interaction. First, by drawing on the social affordances perspective, this paper seeks to establish an additional dimension of digital skills, namely, online social networking skills. Furthermore, to explore the implications of interactional ICT use for digital inequality, this paper theorizes how people’s online social networking skills may co...

  9. SQUATTERS AND AFFORDABLE HOUSES IN URBAN AREAS: LAW AND POLICY IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Azlinor SUFIAN; Nor Asiah MOHAMAD

    2009-01-01

    Being one of the developing countries in Asia, squatters and housing are among the main subject of government focus in each development programmme in Malaysia. This article focuses on the issue of squatters and housing and seeks to present on how the Malaysian government has work towards providing a quality life and affordable housing to its citizens. Nonetheless, undoubtedly Malaysia is facing a crisis of urban squatters which has become a challenge for the local authorities as well as the f...

  10. Potential implementation of light steel housing system for affordable housing project in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikah, M.; Kasim, N.; Zainal, R.; Sarpin, N.; Rahim, M. H. I. A.

    2017-11-01

    An unparalleled number between housing demand and housing supply in Malaysia has increased the housing prices, which gives consequences to the homeownership issue. One way to reduce the housing price is by faster increase the number of affordable housing, but the construction sector faces difficulties in delivering as expected number by using conventional and current industrialised building system (IBS) due to the issue related high project cost, time and labour. Therefore, light steel housing (LSH) system as one of another type of IBS method can be utilised in housing construction project. This method can replace the conventional method that was currently used in the construction of affordable housing project. The objectives of this study are to identify the potential of LSH and influencing factors of system implementation. This is an initial stage to review the previous study related to LSH implementation in developed and developing countries. The previous study will be analysed regarding advantages and disadvantages of LSH and factors that influence the implementation of the system. Based on the literature review it is expected to define the potential and influencing factors of the LSH system. The findings are meaningful in framing and enhance construction housing method of an affordable housing project in Malaysia.

  11. Technological affordances of risk and blame: the case of the electronic prescription service in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakaki, Dimitra; Waring, Justin; Barber, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is often presented by health policymakers and software designers as a means for reducing clinical risk, leading to safer clinical practice. Studies have challenged this view, showing how technology can produce new or unanticipated risks. Although research seeks to objectively identify these risks, we recognise that technological risks are socially constructed through the interaction of technology and practice. The aim of this article is to explore how technology affords opportunities for the social construction and control of risk in health care settings. Drawing upon a study of the electronic prescription service introduced in the National Health Service in England, we make three arguments. Firstly, as technology interacts with social practice (for example, through policy and the design and use of ICT) it affords opportunities for the construction of risk through its interpretive flexibility, transformative capacity and materiality. Secondly, social actors interpret these risks within and across professional boundaries and cultures. Thirdly, the social construction of risk affords certain implications to policymakers, designers and users of health ICT, specifically a reordering of power and responsibility and a recasting of questions of blame. These, in turn, raise questions concerning the boundaries and bearers of responsibility. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Affordable housing and health: a health impact assessment on physical inspection frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Keller, Brittney; Hood, Nancy; Holtzen, Holly

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the prevalence of health-related housing quality exposure for the vulnerable populations that live in affordable housing. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Affordable housing properties in Ohio inspected between 2007 and 2011. Stratified random sample of physical inspection reports (n = 370), including a case study of properties receiving multiple inspections (n = 35). Health-related housing factors, including mold, fire hazard, and others. The majority of affordable housing property inspections (85.1%) included at least 1 health-related housing quality issue. The prevalence of specific health-related violations was varied, with appliance and plumbing issues being the most common, followed by fire, mold, and pest violations. Across funding agencies, the actual implementation of inspection protocols differed. The majority of physical inspections identified housing quality issues that have the potential to impact human health. If the frequency of physical inspections is reduced as a result of inspection alignment, the most health protective inspection protocol should be selected for funding agency inspections; a standardized physical inspection tool is recommended to improve the consistency of inspection findings between mandatory physical inspections in order to promote optimum tenant health.

  13. Affordances and Constraints of Using the Socio-Political Debate for Authentic Summative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker-Hansen, Jens; Andrée, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article reports from an empirical study on the affordances and constraints for using staged socio-political debates for authentic summative assessment of scientific literacy. The article focuses on conditions for student participation and what purposes emerge in student interaction in a socio-political debate. As part of the research project, a socio-political debate was designed for assessing student competences of scientific literacy in classroom practices. The debate centred on a fictive case about a lake where a decline in the yield of fish had been established. The students were assigned the task of participating in the debate from appointed roles as different stakeholders. Data were collected with video recordings of the enacted student debates. Student participation was analysed with the theoretical framework of communities of practice. The results show that multiple conflicting purposes of the socio-political debate as an assessment task emerged. The emergent purposes were (1) putting scientific knowledge on display versus staying true to one's role, (2) putting scientific knowledge on display versus expressing social responsibility, (3) putting scientific knowledge on display versus winning the debate, and (4) using sources tactically versus using sources critically. As these purposes emerged in classroom practice, tensions between different ways of enacting participation in the debates became manifest. Based on these findings, this article discusses the affordances and constraints for using a socio-political debate for classroom-based assessment of scientific literacy and argumentation in terms of validity, reliability and affordability.

  14. Reform of the Individual Insurance Market in New Jersey: Lessons for the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Joel C; Monheit, Alan C

    2016-08-01

    The individual health insurance market has played a small but important role in providing coverage to those without access to group insurance or public programs. With implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the individual market has attained a more prominent role. However, achieving accessible and affordable coverage in this market is a long-standing challenge, in large part due to the threat of adverse risk selection. New Jersey pursued comprehensive reforms beginning in the 1990s to achieve a stable, accessible, and affordable individual market. We review how adverse risk selection can pose a challenge to achieving such objectives in the individual health insurance market. We follow this discussion by describing the experience of New Jersey through three rounds of legislative reform and through the first year of the implementation of the ACA coverage provisions. While the New Jersey reforms did not require individuals to purchase coverage, its experiences with direct and indirect market subsidies and regulations guiding plan design, issuance, and rating have important implications for how the ACA may achieve its coverage goals in the absence of the controversial individual purchase mandate. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  15. Pediatric Dentists' Attitudes, Perceptions, and Experience with the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Scott B; Lee, Jessica Y; Casamassimo, Paul S; Reggiardo, Paul; Wright, Robin; Litch, C Scott

    2017-09-15

    Pediatric oral health benefits were designated as one of 10 Essential Health Benefits (EHB) in the Affordable Care Act. Although it provided coverage for many children, several issues prevent its success. The purpose of this study was to document experience with, attitudes toward, and perceptions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) among pediatric dentists. The study was conducted using a survey consisting of nine multiple choice questions and one open-ended item and was distributed electronically in November 2015 to active and life members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Respondents reported patients deferring treatment due to high out-of-pocket costs. Providers perceive that patients do not have enough information to understand their benefits. Providers reported not having enough information to understand how these benefits affect their practices. Pediatric dentists report deferral of both preventive and restorative care due to high out-of-pocket costs. Pediatric dentists do not feel they have adequate information regarding the Affordable Care Act and its effect on their practices. The majority of pediatric dentists believe that parents have difficulty understanding their children's benefits.

  16. Cultural Affordances: Scaffolding Local Worlds Through Shared Intentionality and Regimes of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstead, Maxwell J. D.; Veissière, Samuel P. L.; Kirmayer, Laurence J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we outline a framework for the study of the mechanisms involved in the engagement of human agents with cultural affordances. Our aim is to better understand how culture and context interact with human biology to shape human behavior, cognition, and experience. We attempt to integrate several related approaches in the study of the embodied, cognitive, and affective substrates of sociality and culture and the sociocultural scaffolding of experience. The integrative framework we propose bridges cognitive and social sciences to provide (i) an expanded concept of ‘affordance’ that extends to sociocultural forms of life, and (ii) a multilevel account of the socioculturally scaffolded forms of affordance learning and the transmission of affordances in patterned sociocultural practices and regimes of shared attention. This framework provides an account of how cultural content and normative practices are built on a foundation of contentless basic mental processes that acquire content through immersive participation of the agent in social practices that regulate joint attention and shared intentionality. PMID:27507953

  17. STIMULATION OF CONSTRUCTION OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING BY REFORMATION OF A CONSTRUCTION COMPLEX MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRONEVYTSKYI S. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of offers on stimulation of construction of affordable housing by reformation of a construction complex management system. Methodology. The revelation of the problems of planning of construction in large cities. The analysis of forming of structure of a build complex management in soviet times and in a transitional period. The revelation of the modern, actual, socio-economic problems of the construction activity management. Proposition on the improvement of methods of construction management in cities of Ukraine. Results. The methods of a construction complex management in countries with a market economy as for building of affordable housing are shown. Originality. In composition of a town-planning documentations, except for the norms of the common use of territories of city (density of population of micro region, the maximum parameters of a construction examining of land areas are proposed to determine: building percent and coefficient of maximum superficial area. Practical value. The principle of management and organization of construction is norms of a build use of territories for building of mass affordable housing for funds of population and investors while providing of the comfort of housing in accordance with state construction norms.

  18. International price comparisons of Alzheimer's drugs: a way to close the affordability gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Guk-Hee; Wimo, Anders; Gauthier, Serge; O'Connor, Daniel; Ikeda, Manabu; Homma, Akira; Dominguez, Jacqueline; Yang, Bong-Min

    2009-12-01

    Alzheimer's drugs are believed to have limited availability and to be unaffordable in low- and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries. The price, availability and affordability of Alzheimer's drugs have not been reported before. During 2007 an international survey was conducted in 21 countries in six continents (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, France, India, Japan, Macedonia, Mexico, New Zealand, Nigeria, the Philippines, Portugal, Serbia, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Uganda, the U.K. and the U.S.A.). Prices of Alzheimer's drugs were compared using the affordability index (the total number of units purchasable with one's daily income) derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) converted prices as well as raw prices. Donepezil is available in all 21 countries, whereas the newer drugs are less available. A 5 mg tablet of branded originator donepezil costs just US$0.26 in India and US$0.31 in Mexico, whereas it costs US$6.64 in the U.S.A. Pricing conditions of rivastigmine, galantamine and memantine appear to be similar to that of donepezil. The cheapest branded originators are from India and Mexico. However, in terms of PPP, Alzheimer's drugs in other low- and middle-income countries are much more expensive than in high-income countries. Most people in low- and middle-income countries cannot afford Alzheimer's drugs. Alzheimer's drugs, albeit available, are often unaffordable for those who need them most. It is hoped that equitable differential pricing will be applied to Alzheimer's drugs.

  19. Biosignal PI, an Affordable Open-Source ECG and Respiration Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioimedical pilot projects e.g., telemedicine, homecare, animal and human trials usually involve several physiological measurements. Technical development of these projects is time consuming and in particular costly. A versatile but affordable biosignal measurement platform can help to reduce time and risk while keeping the focus on the important goal and making an efficient use of resources. In this work, an affordable and open source platform for development of physiological signals is proposed. As a first step an 8–12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG and respiration monitoring system is developed. Chips based on iCoupler technology have been used to achieve electrical isolation as required by IEC 60601 for patient safety. The result shows the potential of this platform as a base for prototyping compact, affordable, and medically safe measurement systems. Further work involves both hardware and software development to develop modules. These modules may require development of front-ends for other biosignals or just collect data wirelessly from different devices e.g., blood pressure, weight, bioimpedance spectrum, blood glucose, e.g., through Bluetooth. All design and development documents, files and source codes will be available for non-commercial use through project website, BiosignalPI.org.

  20. Cultural affordances: Scaffolding local worlds through shared intentionality and regimes of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell James D. Ramstead

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline a framework for the study of the mechanisms involved in the engagement of human agents with cultural affordances. Our aim is to better understand how culture and context interact with human biology to shape human behavior, cognition, and experience. We attempt to integrate several related approaches in the study of the embodied, cognitive, and affective substrates of sociality and culture and the sociocultural scaffolding of experience. The integrative framework we propose bridges cognitive and social sciences to provide (i an expanded concept of ‘affordance’ that extends to sociocultural forms of life, and (ii a multilevel account of the socioculturally scaffolded forms of affordance learning and the transmission of affordances in patterned sociocultural practices and regimes of shared attention. This framework provides an account of how cultural content and normative practices are built on a foundation of contentless basic mental processes that acquire content through immersive participation of the agent in social practices that regulate joint attention and shared intentionality.

  1. Navigating beyond ‘here & now’ affordances - on sensorimotor maturation and ‘false belief’ performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBrincker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How and when do we learn to understand other people’s perspectives and possibly divergent beliefs? This question has elicited much theoretical and empirical research. A puzzling finding has been that toddlers perform well on so-called implicit false belief (FB tasks but do not show such capacities on traditional explicit FB tasks. I propose a navigational approach, which offers a hitherto ignored way of making sense of the seemingly contradictory results. The proposal involves a distinction between how we navigate FBs as they relate to 1 our current affordances (here & now navigation as opposed to 2 presently non-actual relations, where we need to leave our concrete embodied/situated viewpoint (counterfactual navigation. It is proposed that whereas toddlers seem able to understand FBs in their current affordance space, they do not yet possess the resources to navigate in abstraction from such concrete affordances, which explicit FB tests seem to require. It is hypothesized that counterfactual navigation depends on the development of ‘sensorimotor priors’, i.e. statistical expectations of own kinestetic re-afference, which evidence now suggests matures around age four, consistent with core findings of explicit FB performance.

  2. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Einarsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a “bodily turn” in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014 and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016 in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction—and embodied mental simulation—of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances

  3. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Anna; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a “bodily turn” in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction—and embodied mental simulation—of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally

  4. Perceiving the affordance of string tension for power strokes in badminton: expertise allows effective use of all string tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Affordances mean opportunities for action. These affordances are important for sports performance and relevant to the abilities developed by skilled athletes. In racquet sports such as badminton, different players prefer widely different string tension because it is believed to provide opportunities for effective strokes. The current study examined whether badminton players can perceive the affordance of string tension for power strokes and whether the perception of affordance itself changed as a function of skill level. The results showed that string tension constrained the striking performance of both novice and recreational players, but not of expert players. When perceptual capability was assessed, perceptual mode did not affect perception of the optimal string tension. Skilled players successfully perceived the affordance of string tension, but only experts were concerned about saving energy. Our findings demonstrated that perception of the affordance of string tension in badminton was determined by action abilities. Furthermore, experts could adjust the action to maintain a superior level of performance based on the perception of affordance.

  5. A cross-country study of cigarette prices and affordability: evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Ross, Hana; Cherukupalli, Rajeev; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of two primary determinants of cigarette consumption: cigarette affordability and the range of prices paid for cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in a set of 15 countries. From this cross-country comparison, identify places where opportunities may exist for reducing consumption through tax adjustments. Self-response data from 45,838 smokers from 15 countries, obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2008-2011. Using self-response data on individual cigarette expenditure and consumption, we construct a measure of the average cigarette price smokers pay for manufactured cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in 15 countries. We use these prices to evaluate cigarette affordability and the range of prices available in each country. These survey-derived measures of cigarette price and affordability are uniquely suited for cross-country comparison because they represent each country's distinctive mix of individual consumption characteristics such as brand choice, intensity of consumption, and purchasing behavior. In this sample of countries, cigarettes are most affordable in Russia, which has the most room for tobacco tax increase. Affordability is also relatively high in Brazil and China for cigarettes, and in India and Bangladesh for bidis. Although the affordability of cigarettes in India is relatively low, the range of cigarette prices paid is relatively high, providing additional evidence to support the call for simplifying the existing tax structure and reducing the width of price options. China has both high affordability and wide price ranges, suggesting multiple opportunities for reducing consumption through tax adjustments.

  6. What will you do to me when you see me? Perception as searching for affordances in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Klawiter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary research on action-perception coupling draws on Gibson's concept of affordances. The text outlines the conceptual basis of this issue, showing how the notion of affordance is embraced in the theory of perception, understood as an active search for structured information that could improve the functioning of the organism in the environment. It also mentions a philosophical parallel (Martin Heidegger's philosophy of tools and concludes that the intuitions behind the concept of affordances have been more inspiring to cognitive scientists, neuroscientists and researchers in robotics than to psychologists studying perception.

  7. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…

  8. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  9. Affordable High-Performance Homes: The 2002 NREL Denver Habitat for Humanity House, A Cold-Climate Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    Habitat for Humanity affiliates throughout the U.S. are taking the lead on an integrated systems-design approach to building homes that are more efficient, more comfortable, more affordable, and more durable than homes built with standard practices.

  10. Can America Afford to Modernize the Air Force? An Examination of Domestic Factors Influencing Future Defense Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    19 Global Military Spending Trends ............................................................................................. 19...14 Figure 7. 2008 World Military Spending .................................................................................... 19...To ask whether the United States can afford higher levels of military spending is stupid. It can, and if necessary, it would. The problem is

  11. Social Media and Organizing – An Empirical Analysis of the Role of Wiki Affordances in Organizing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, Osama; Askenäs, Linda; Ghazawneh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of social media has introduced novel possibilities for work and interaction in organizations. The wiki technology is one important kind of social media technologies that is increasingly used to facilitate the creation and sharing of organizational knowledge within communities. Given...... organizations –CCC and IBM– we first identified eight affordances that describe various wiki possibilities and practices. We then identified four properties of these affordances including multiplicity, referential, situatedness, and communal. These properties represent the main contribution of the paper...... the increasing use of social media in organizations and the lack of knowledge on their consequences for organizing, we use an affordance lens to explore the enactment of organizational wiki affordances. Using qualitative data obtained through interviews, field visits, and documents from two multinational...

  12. Devising Enabling Spaces and Affordances for Personal Knowledge Management System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmitt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Personal Knowledge Management (PKM has been envisaged as a crucial tool for the growing creative class of knowledge workers, but adequate technological solutions have not been forthcoming. Background: Based on former affordance-related publications (primarily concerned with communication, community-building, collaboration, and social knowledge sharing, the common and differing narratives in relation to PKM are investigated in order to suggest further PKM capabilities and affordances in need to be conferred. Methodology: The paper follows up on a series of the author’s PKM-related publications, firmly rooted in design science research (DSR methods and aimed at creating an innovative PKM concept and prototype system. Contribution: The affordances presented offer PKM system users the means to retain and build upon knowledge acquired in order to sustain personal growth and facilitate productive collaborations between fellow learners and/or professional acquaintances. Findings: The results call for an extension of Nonaka’s SECI model and ‘ba’ concept and provide arguments for and evidence supporting the claims that the PKM concept and system is able to facilitate better knowledge traceability and KM practices. Recommendations and Impact on Society: Together with the prior publications, the paper points to current KM shortcomings and presents a novel trans-disciplinary approach offering appealing opportunities for stakeholders engaged in the context of curation, education, research, development, business, and entrepreneurship. Its potential to tackle opportunity divides has been addressed via a PKM for Development (PKM4D Framework. Future DSR Activities: After completing the test phase of the prototype, its transformation into a viable PKM system and cloud-based server based on a rapid development platform and a noSQL-database is estimated to take 12 months.

  13. Integrating community health workers within Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nadia; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Zahn, Deborah; Skillman, Megan; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (PPACA) emphasis on community-based initiatives affords a unique opportunity to disseminate and scale up evidence-based community health worker (CHW) models that integrate CHWs within health care delivery teams and programs. Community health workers have unique access and local knowledge that can inform program development and evaluation, improve service delivery and care coordination, and expand health care access. As a member of the PPACA-defined health care workforce, CHWs have the potential to positively impact numerous programs and reduce costs. This article discusses different strategies for integrating CHW models within PPACA implementation through facilitated enrollment strategies, patient-centered medical homes, coordination and expansion of health information technology (HIT) efforts, and also discusses payment options for such integration. Title V of the PPACA outlines a plan to improve access to and delivery of health care services for all individuals, particularly low-income, underserved, uninsured, minority, health disparity, and rural populations. Community health workers' role as trusted community leaders can facilitate accurate data collection, program enrollment, and provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate, patient- and family-centered care. Because CHWs already support disease management and care coordination services, they will be critical to delivering and expanding patient-centered medical homes and Health Home services, especially for communities that suffer disproportionately from multiple chronic diseases. Community health workers' unique expertise in conducting outreach make them well positioned to help enroll people in Medicaid or insurance offered by Health Benefit Exchanges. New payment models provide opportunities to fund and sustain CHWs. Community health workers can support the effective implementation of PPACA if the capacity and potential of CHWs to serve as cultural

  14. Affordances shape pass kick behavior in association football: effects of distance and social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Pepping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un requisito previo para la precisión en el pase en fútbol es que el jugador perciba las affordances, es decir, las oportunidades para la acción, de una situación dada. El presente estudio examinó las affordances del pase comparando la eficacia en dos condiciones de trabajo. Los participantes realizaron el pase a un objetivo fijo, y a un compañero de equipo a diferentes distancias. Las variables de acción evaluadas fueron: la precisión del pase, el tiempo de preparación, la técnica de ejecución, la altura y la velocidad del pase. Los participantes ante la tarea de pasar a un objetivo fijo, utilizaron principalmente el interior del pie, con poca o ninguna altura. Sin embargo, cuando la tarea era pasar a un compañero de equipo, los participantes utilizaron el interior del pie con poca o ninguna altura cuando la distancia de pase era corta, y utilizaron con mayor frecuencia el empeine y mayor altura cuando la distancia de pase era más larga. En general, utilizan más tiempo de preparación al aumentar la distancia, aunque utilizaron menos tiempo de preparación del pase cuando lo realizaban a un compañero de equipo en movimiento. El estudio presenta los resultados en términos de la percepción de las affordances para la ejecución del pase en fútbol.

  15. Mapping the availability, price, and affordability of antiepileptic drugs in 46 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Alexandra; Bansal, Amit; Dua, Tarun; Hill, Suzanne R; Moshe, Solomon L; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Saxena, Shekhar

    2012-06-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a large proportion of people with epilepsy do not receive treatment. An analysis of the availability, price, and affordability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was conducted to evaluate whether these factors contribute to the treatment gap. Data for five AEDs (phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital, and diazepam) were obtained from facility-based surveys conducted in 46 countries using the World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) methodology. Outcome measures were percentage availability, ratios of local prices to international reference prices, and number of days' wages needed by the lowest-paid unskilled government worker to purchase treatment. Prices were adjusted for inflation/deflation and purchasing power parity. The average availability of generic AEDs in the public sector was availability of generic oral AEDs ranged from 42.2% for phenytoin to 69.6% for phenobarbital. Public sector patient prices for generic carbamazepine and phenytoin were 4.95 and 17.50 times higher than international reference prices, respectively, whereas private sector patient prices were 11.27 and 24.77 times higher, respectively. For both medicines, originator brand prices were about 30 times higher. The highest prices were observed in the lowest income countries. The lowest-paid government worker would need wages from 1-2.6 days' to purchase a month's supply of phenytoin, whereas carbamazepine would cost 2.7-16.2 days' wages. Despite its widespread use in LMICs, WHO/HAI survey data for phenobarbital was only available from a small number of countries. In LMICs, availability and affordability of AEDs are poor and may be acting as a barrier to accessing treatment for epilepsy. Ensuring a consistent supply of AEDs at an affordable price should be a priority. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Evaluating drug prices, availability, affordability, and price components: implications for access to drugs in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ud Din Babar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO and Health Action International (HAI was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%-76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high-25%-38% and 100%-140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector. CONCLUSIONS: The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and

  17. Predictors of smoke-free policies in affordable multiunit housing, North Carolina, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Anna; Suttie, Janet; Baker, Laura; Agans, Robert; Xue, Wei; Bowling, J Michael

    2015-05-14

    Smoke-free policies can effectively protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in multiunit housing. We surveyed all affordable multiunit housing properties in North Carolina to determine the statewide prevalence of smoke-free policies and to identify predictors of smoke-free policies. Representatives of affordable housing properties in North Carolina completed a mailed or online survey during June through October 2013. The primary outcome measure was presence of a smoke-free policy, defined as prohibiting smoking in all residential units. We used χ(2) analysis and multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of smoke-free policies. Of 1,865 eligible properties, responses were received for 1,063 (57%). A total of 16.5% of properties had policies that prohibited smoking in all residential units, while 69.6% prohibited smoking in indoor common areas. In multivariate analysis, an increase in the number of children per unit was associated with a decrease in the odds of having a smoke-free policy at most properties. Newer properties across all company sizes were more likely to have smoke-free policies. Accessing units from interior hallways predicted smoke-free policies among medium-sized companies. More smoke-free policies in affordable multiunit housing are needed to protect vulnerable populations, particularly children, from SHS exposure. Public health professionals should continue to educate housing operators about SHS and the benefits of smoke-free policies at all properties, including older ones and ones where units are accessed from outside rather than from an interior hallway.

  18. Evaluating Drug Prices, Availability, Affordability, and Price Components: Implications for Access to Drugs in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Zaheer Ud Din; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Singh, Harpal; Bukahri, Nadeem Irfan; Creese, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components. Methods and Findings The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI) was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs) to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB) prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%–76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high—25%–38% and 100%–140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector. Conclusions The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and affordability

  19. Life cycle cost of different Walling material used for affordable housing in tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chameera Udawattha

    2017-12-01

    The results show that mud concrete block is the most suitable walling material. The brick has the highest account for the embedded energy. The hollow cement block is the worse building materials in tropics and its carbon footprint is comparatively higher. Even though the brick has higher embedded energy and construction cost, in a long run brick is less expensive than hollow cement block and Cabook walling material. Concluding, mud concrete block is comparatively most sustainable walling material for building affordable housing in tropics.

  20. An Affordable, Low-Risk Approach to Launching Research Spacecraft as Tertiary Payloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pranajaya, F.M.; Zee, R.E.; Thomsen, Per Lundahl

    2003-01-01

    Rapid and affordable access to space for university researchers and educators has always been a challenge. Despite the availability of lower-cost (e.g. Russian) launch vehicles, launching payloads 20 kg or less typically involves a certain minimum cost that necessitates a cost sharing arrangement...... this challenge, and has successfully led a group of international spacecraft developers in manifesting one 1-kg Canadian spacecraft, two 1-kg Danish spacecraft, and one 3-kg American spacecraft on a 2003 Eurockot launch. This paper outlines the approach taken by UTIAS/SFL in negotiating and securing launches...