Sample records for pseudotsuga menziesii douglas-fir

  1. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris


    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  2. Variation in phenology and monoterpene patterns of defoliated and nondefoliated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca). (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Judith Engle; Catherine Parks; Boyd. Wickman


    Foliage was collected from paired Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) trees characterized as either "resistant" or "susceptible" western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attack. Resistant trees produced more...

  3. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations: I. North Idaho and North-East Washington (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt


    Growth, phenology and frost tolerance of seedlings from 50 populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) were compared in 12 environments. Statistical analyses of six variables (bud burst, bud set, 3-year height, spring and fall frost injuries, and deviation from regression of 3-year height on 2-year height) showed that populations not only differed in...

  4. Origin matters! Difference in drought tolerance and productivity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)) provenances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Ouden, den J.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Sauren, P.; Sass, U.G.W.


    Forests of the future should be resistant to exacerbating climatic conditions, especially to increasing drought, but at the same time provide a sufficient amount and quality of timber. In this context coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)) is a promising species since it remains

  5. Influence of a sand soil plough base on the growth of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, F; Nick, L

    The root/shoot growth of eight year old Douglas fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO) planted on ploughed agricultured land in the first generation was investigated. One half of the field was 60 cm deeply ploughed before afforestation. The second half was not deeply ploughed and was

  6. Effects of seed source origin on bark thickness of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) growing in southwestern Germany (United States)

    Ulrich Kohnle; Sebastian Hein; Frank C. Sorensen; Aaron R. Weiskittel


    Provenance-specific variation in bark thickness in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is important for accurate volume calculations and might carry ecological implications as well. To investigate variation, diameter at breast height (dbh) and double bark thickness (dbt) were measured in 10 experiments in southwestern Germany (16...

  7. A sex-averaged genetic linkage map in coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb] Franco var menziesii) based on RFLP and RAPD markers (United States)

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; N.C. Wheeler; D.B. Neale


    We have constructed a sex-averaged genetic linkage map in coastal Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var menziesii) using a three-generation outcrossed pedigree and molecular markers. Our research objectives are to learn about genome organization and to identify markers associated with adaptive traits. The map...

  8. Deriving Fuel Mass by Size Class in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

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    Lloyd Queen


    Full Text Available Requirements for describing coniferous forests are changing in response to wildfire concerns, bio-energy needs, and climate change interests. At the same time, technology advancements are transforming how forest properties can be measured. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is yielding promising results for measuring tree biomass parameters that, historically, have required costly destructive sampling and resulted in small sample sizes. Here we investigate whether TLS intensity data can be used to distinguish foliage and small branches (≤0.635 cm diameter; coincident with the one-hour timelag fuel size class from larger branchwood (>0.635 cm in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii branch specimens. We also consider the use of laser density for predicting biomass by size class. Measurements are addressed across multiple ranges and scan angles. Results show TLS capable of distinguishing fine fuels from branches at a threshold of one standard deviation above mean intensity. Additionally, the relationship between return density and biomass is linear by fuel type for fine fuels (r2 = 0.898; SE 22.7% and branchwood (r2 = 0.937; SE 28.9%, as well as for total mass (r2 = 0.940; SE 25.5%. Intensity decays predictably as scan distances increase; however, the range-intensity relationship is best described by an exponential model rather than 1/d2. Scan angle appears to have no systematic effect on fine fuel discrimination, while some differences are observed in density-mass relationships with changing angles due to shadowing.

  9. Occurrence of Piloderma fallax in young, rotationage, and old-growth stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S.A. (United States)

    J.E. Smith; R. Molina; M.M.P. Huso; M.J. Larsen


    Yellow mycelia and cords of Piloderma fallax (Lib.) Stalp. were more frequently observed in old-growth stands than in younger managed stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Piloderma fallax frequency and percent cover data were collected from 900 plots in three replicate stands in...

  10. Induced compression wood formation in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in microgravity (United States)

    Kwon, M.; Bedgar, D. L.; Piastuch, W.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.


    In the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia (Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78), were grown 1-year-old Douglas fir and loblolly pine plants in a NASA plant growth facility. Several plants were harnessed (at 45 degrees ) to establish if compression wood biosynthesis, involving altered cellulose and lignin deposition and cell wall structure would occur under those conditions of induced mechanical stress. Selected plants were harnessed at day 2 in orbit, with stem sections of specific plants harvested and fixed for subsequent microscopic analyses on days 8, 10 and 15. At the end of the total space mission period (17 days), the remaining healthy harnessed plants and their vertical (upright) controls were harvested and fixed on earth. All harnessed (at 45 degrees ) plant specimens, whether grown at 1 g or in microgravity, formed compression wood. Moreover, not only the cambial cells but also the developing tracheid cells underwent significant morphological changes. This indicated that the developing tracheids from the primary cell wall expansion stage to the fully lignified maturation stage are involved in the perception and transduction of the stimuli stipulating the need for alteration of cell wall architecture. It is thus apparent that, even in a microgravity environment, woody plants can make appropriate corrections to compensate for stress gradients introduced by mechanical bending, thereby enabling compression wood to be formed. The evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed in terms of "variability" in cell wall biosynthesis.

  11. Species richness, abundance, and composition of hypogeous and epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps in young, rotation-age, and old-growth stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S.A. (United States)

    J.E. Smith; R. Molina; M.M.P. Huso; D.L. Luoma; D. McKay; M.A. Castellano; T. Lebel; Y. Valachovic


    Knowledge of the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi among successional forest age-classes is critical for conserving fungal species diversity. Hypogeous and epigeous sporocarps were collected from three replicate stands in each of three forest age-classes (young, rotation-age, and old-growth) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  12. Effects of Harvesting Systems and Bole Moisture Loss on Weight Scaling of Douglas-Fir Sawlogs (Pseudotsuga Menziesii var. glauca Franco

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    Jarred D. Saralecos


    Full Text Available Characterizing the moisture loss from felled trees is essential for determining weight-to-volume (W-V relationships in softwood sawlogs. Several factors affect moisture loss, but research to quantify the effects of bole size and harvest method is limited. This study was designed to test whether bole size, harvest method, environmental factors, and the associated changes in stem moisture content of felled Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca Franco affected the weight-to-volume relationship of sawlogs. Thirty trees in three size classes (12.7–25.4 cm, 25.5–38.1 cm, 38.2–50.8 cm were felled and treated with one of two harvesting processing methods. Moisture content was sampled every two days for four weeks. Results showed 6% greater moisture loss in the crowns of stems that retained limbs after felling compared to stems with limbs removed after harvesting. Additionally, moisture loss rate increased as stem size decreased. The smallest size class lost 58% moisture content compared to 34% in the largest size class throughout the study duration. These stem moisture content changes showed a 17% reduction in average sawlog weight within the largest size class, shifting current W-V relationships from 2.33 tons m−3 to 1.94 tons m−3 during the third seasonal quarter for northern Idaho Douglas-fir and potentially altering relationships year-round.

  13. Douglas fir (pseudotsuga menziesii) plantlets responses to as, PB, and sb-contaminated soils from former mines. (United States)

    Bonet, Amandine; Pascaud, Grégoire; Faugeron, Céline; Soubrand, Marilyne; Joussein, Emmanuel; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle


    Phytoremediation of metalloids by conifers is not widely studied although they may be relevant for several contaminated sites, especially those located in cold areas and sometimes under dry climates. Here, seeds of Douglas fir were sown in greenhouse on three soils collected in two French former mines: a gold mine (soils L1 and L2) and a lead and silver mine (soil P). These soils are highly contaminated by Pb, As, and Sb at different concentrations. Plants were harvested after ten weeks. Growth parameters, primary metabolite content, and shoot and root ionomes were determined. Douglas firs grown on the soils L1 and P had a lower biomass than controls and a higher oxidation status whereas those grown on the soil L2 exhibited a more developed root system and only slight modifications of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Based on trace element (TE) concentrations in shoots and roots and their translocation factor (TF), Douglas fir could be a relevant candidate for As phytoextraction (0.8 g. kg(-1) dry weight in shoots and a TF of 1.1) and may be used to phytostabilize Pb and Sb (8.8 g and 127 mg. kg(-1) in roots for Pb and Sb, respectively, and TF lower than 0.1).

  14. Bordered pit structure and function determine spatial patterns of air-seeding thresholds in xylem of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii; Pinaceae) trees. (United States)

    J.C. Domec; B. Lachenbruch; F.C. Meinzer


    The air-seeding hypothesis predicts that xylem embolism resistance is linked directly to bordered pit functioning. We tested this prediction in trunks, roots, and branches at different vertical and radial locations in young and old trees of Pseudotsuga menziesii. Dimensions of bordered pits were measured from light and scanning electron micrographs...

  15. Inter-specific competition in mixed forests of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) under climate change – a model-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyer, C.; Lasch, P.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Sterck, F.J.


    Mixed forests feature competitive interactions of the contributing species which influence their response to environmental change. • We analyzed climate change effects on the inter-specific competition in a managed Douglas-fir/beech mixed forest. • Therefore, we initialised the process-based forest

  16. Effect of environmental and cultural conditions on medium pH and explant growth performance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii shoot cultures [version 2; referees: 2 approved

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    Chien-Chih Chen


    Full Text Available The medium pH level of plant tissue cultures has been shown to be essential to many aspects of explant development and growth. Sensitivity or tolerance of medium pH change in vitro varies according to specific requirements of individual species. The objectives of this study are to 1 determine medium pH change over time in storage conditions and with presence of explants, 2 evaluate the effects of medium pH change on explant growth performance and 3 assess the effects of adding a pH stabilizer, 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES that is commonly used in Douglas-fir micropropagation medium. Vegetative buds were collected in the spring before breaking dormancy from juvenile and mature donor trees for conducting these evaluations. Medium, with or without MES, was pre-adjusted to five pH levels before adding MES, agar and autoclaving. Medium pH changes and explant growth parameters were measured at eight different incubation times. Overall, MES provided a more stable medium pH, relative to starting pH values, under both light and dark storage conditions as well as with presence of explants. A general trend of decreasing medium pH over time was found comparing explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Explant height and weight growth increased over time, but differ among explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Our findings suggest that a 21-day subculture practice may best sustain medium freshness, medium pH level and desirable explant growth.

  17. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov


    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  18. Genecology of Douglas fir in western Oregon and Washington. (United States)

    J. Bradley St Clair; Nancy L. Mandel; Kenneth W. Vance-Borland


    Background and Aims. Genecological knowledge is important for understanding evolutionary processes and for managing genetic resources. Previous studies of coastal Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) have been inconclusive with respect to geographical patterns of variation, due in part to...

  19. Flight periodicity of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Colorado, U.S.A (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Lee Pederson


    There are about 500 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the United States (Wood 1982). A number of them are important disturbance agents in forested ecosystems, occasionally creating large tracts of dead trees. One eruptive species is the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, which utilizes Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga...

  20. Early development of matched planted and naturally regenerated Douglas-fir stands after slash burning in the Cascade Range. (United States)

    R.E. Miller; R.E. Bigley; S. Webster


    We compared matched planted and naturally regenerated plots in 35- to 38- year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) stands at seven locations in western Washington and Oregon. Total number of live stems is similar, but stands planted to Douglas fir average 26 more live stemslac of Douglas-fir and 39 fewer...


    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  2. A SNP resource for douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation (United States)

    Glenn R. Howe; Jianbin Yu; Brian Knaus; Richard Cronn; Scott Kolpak; Peter Dolan; W. Walter Lorenz; Jeffrey F.D. Dean


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauco) are native to North America, the coastal variety is...

  3. Belowground competition from overstory trees influences Douglas-fir sapling morphology in thinned stands (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington


    We evaluated effects of belowground competition on morphology of naturally established coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings in 60- to 80-year-old thinned Douglas-fir stands in southwestern Washington. We separately quantified belowground competition from overstory and understory sources...

  4. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

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    José F. Negrón


    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  5. Tall oil precursors of Douglas fir (United States)

    Daniel O. Foster; Duane F. Zinkel; Anthony H. Conner


    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition....

  6. Projected future suitable habitat and productivity of Douglas-fir in western North America (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Gerald E. Rehfeldt


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) is one of the most common and commercially important species in western North America. The species can occupy a range of habitats, is long-lived (up to 500 years), and highly productive. However, the future of Douglas-fir in western North America is highly uncertain due to the expected changes in climate conditions....

  7. Multi-decadal establishment for single-cohort Douglas-fir forests (United States)

    James A. Freund; Jerry F. Franklin; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz


    The rate at which trees regenerate following stand-replacing wildfire is an important but poorly understood process in the multi-century development of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forests. Temporal patterns of Douglas-fir establishment reconstructed from old-growth forests (>450 year) have...

  8. An examination of the genetic control of Douglas-fir vascular tissue phytochemicals: implications for black bear foraging. (United States)

    Bruce A. Kimball; G.R. Johnson; Dale L. Nolte; Doreen L. Griffin


    Silvicultural practices can influence black bear (Ursus americanus) foraging preferences for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) cambial-zone vascular tissues, but little is known about the role of genetics. To study the impact of genetic selection, vascular tissue samples were collected from Douglas-fir trees in six half-sib families from five...

  9. Changes in wood product proportions in the Douglas-fir region with respect to size, age, and time. (United States)

    R.A. Monserud; X. Zhou


    We examine both the variation and the changing proportions of different wood products obtained from trees and logs in the Douglas-fir region of the Northwestern United States. Analyses are based on a large product recovery database covering over 40 years of recovery studies; 13 studies are available for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  10. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic water use efficiency after fertilization of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range (United States)

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective ...

  11. Developmental decline in height growth in Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Barbara J. Bond; Nicole M. Czarnomski; Clifton Cooper; Michael E. Day; Michael S. Greenwood


    The characteristic decline in height growth that occurs over a tree's lifespan is often called "age-related decline." But is the reduction in height growth in aging trees a function of age or of size? We grafted shoot tips across different ages and sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine whether...

  12. Effects of bear damage on Douglas-fir lumber recovery (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Dennis Dykstra; George McFadden


    Bear activily resulting in injury to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) trees has been documented as early as the mid-1850s in the Pacific Northwest. The study reported in this article was designed to help managers decide whether the common practice of removing the damaged but potentially valuable butt section of the bottom log and...

  13. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots. (United States)

    Morris Cline; Mark Yoders; Dipti Desai; Constance Harrington; William. Carlson


    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the...

  14. Pityophthorus orarius Bright (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in a northern California Douglas-fir seed orchard: effect of clone, tree vigor, and cone crop on rate of attack (United States)

    Nancy G. Rappaport; David L. Wood


    The geographic range of the Douglas-fir twig beetle, Pityophthorus orarius Bright, was extended beyond the original provenance of southern British Columbia to northern California. A survey of 457 Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] trees in 1985 revealed that those with heavy cone crops were more likely to be...

  15. Resource use and clonal differences in attack rate by the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), in France (United States)

    Nancy Rappaport; Alain Roques


    The within-cone distribution of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, infesting Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] cones from north-central France was compared with that in samples from California. Results indicate that the mid-region of cones was more intensively...

  16. MCOL, frontalin, and ethanol: A potential operational trap lure for Douglas-fir beetle in British Columbia (United States)

    B. Staffan Lingren; Daniel R. Miller; J.P. LaFontaine


    The Douglas-fir beetle, Dedroctonus pseudotsugae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of Douglas-fire, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) in British Columbia (Humphreys 1995). An operational trap lure for D. pseudotsugae could be useful in an integrated pest management program to minimize mortality of Douglas-...

  17. Is long primary growth associated with stem sinuosity in Douglas-fir? (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; G.R. Johnson


    Stem sinuosity is a highly visible stem-form trait in the leaders of fast-growing Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees, yet its cause is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that sinuous stems have longer expanses of primary growth than nonsinuous stems (putting the leader at higher risk for...

  18. Genetic variation in response to shade in coastal Douglas-fir. (United States)

    J. Bradley St. Clair; Richard A. Sniezko


    Tree improvement programs have generally relied on testing families in open light environments. With increased interest in multiaged silvicultural systems, some people have questioned whether families selected in the open are appropriate for planting in the shade. We grew Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii...

  19. Genetic maladaptation of coastal Douglas-fir seedlings to future climates (United States)

    Brad St. Clair;  Glenn T. Howe


    Climates are expected to warm considerably over the next century, resulting in expectations that plant populations will not be adapted to future climates.We estimated the risk of maladaptation of current populations of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) to future climates as the proportion of nonoverlap between two normal...

  20. DFSIM with economics: A financial analysis option for the DFSIM Douglas-fir simulator. (United States)

    Roger O. Fight; Judith M. Chittester; Gary W. Clendenen


    A modified version of the DFSIM Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) growth and yield simulator, DFSIM WITH ECONOMICS, now has an economics option that allows the user to estimate present net worth at the same time a silvicultural regime is simulated. If desired, the economics option will apply a...

  1. Realized gains from block-plot coastal Douglas-fir trials in the northern Oregon Cascades (United States)

    Terrence Z. Ye; Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; J. Bradley. St. Clair


    Realized gains for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were evaluated using data collected from 15-year-old trees from five field trials planted in large block plots in the northern Oregon Cascades. Three populations with different genetic levels (elite--high predicted gain; intermediate--moderate predicted gain; and an...

  2. Effect of organic amendments on Douglas-fir transplants grown in fumigated versus non-fumigated soil (United States)

    Nabil Khudduri


    We transplanted one-year old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) seedlings into compost-amended soil that had either been spring-fumigated with a methyl bromide/chloropicrin combination or left unfumigated. Seedling nutrient, pathology, morphology, and packout measurements were significantly better for those transplanted into fumigated rather than non-...

  3. Relative family performance and variance structure of open-pollinated Douglas-fir seedlings grown in three competitive environments. (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; W.T. Adams


    Open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) families were tested in three contrasting competitive environments to test the hypothesis that relative performance as measured by total seedling dry weight is dependent upon distance or genotype of neighbors. The three competitive environments...

  4. Growth of Douglas-fir near equipment trails used for commercial thinning in the Oregon Coast Range. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Jim Smith; Paul W. Adams; Harry W. Anderson


    Soil disturbance is a visually apparent result of using heavy equipment to harvest trees. Subsequent consequences for growth of remaining trees, however, are variable and seldom quantified. We measured tree growth 7 and 11 years after thinning of trees in four stands of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii(...

  5. Detecting response of Douglas-fir plantations to urea fertilizer at three locations in the Oregon Coast Range. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Jim Smith; Harry. Anderson


    Fertilizer trials in coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range usually indicate small and statistically nonsignificant response to nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Inherently weak experimental designs of past trials could make them too insensitive to detect growth differences...

  6. Assessing the specific energy consumption and physical properties of comminuted Douglas-fir chips for bioconversion (United States)

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott


    Size reduction homogenizes the bulk biomass and facilitates downstream feedstock handling, transportation, and storage. Effects of feeding rate, mill-type (hammer and knife mill), screen size, and moisture content on comminution energy consumption of commercial Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) pulp chips were quantified. The resulting particles...

  7. Effect of thinning on form of young-growth Douglas-fir trees. (United States)

    Vern P. Yerkes


    With the advent of increased thinning activity in managed stands of young-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), knowledge of growth and form development of released trees becomes necessary for calculations of total volume and growth. Any appreciable change in the rate of radial increment at various points along the stem of a released tree...

  8. The New Zealand douglas-fir breeding program: proposed adjustments for a changing climate (United States)

    Heidi Dungey; Charlie Low; Mark Miller; Kane Fleet; Alvin D. Yanchuk


    Genetic improvement of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in New Zealand was initiated in 1955 with large provenance trials established in the late 1950s. These trials showed that material of Oregon and Californian origin was growing faster than other provenances. Additional collections were made to further evaluate provenance...

  9. Douglas-fir growth in mountain ecosystems: water limits tree growth from stand to region (United States)

    Jeremy S. Littell; David L. Peterson; Michael Tjoelker


    The purpose of this work is to understand the nature of growth-climate relationships for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) across the climatic dimensions of its niche. We used a combination of biophysically informed sampling (to identify sample sites) and dendroclimatology (to identify growth-climate relationships) along a climate gradient in...

  10. Effect of natural inbreeding on variance structure in tests of wind pollination Douglas-fir progenies. (United States)

    Frank C. Sorensen; T.L. White


    Studies of the mating habits of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) have shown that wind-pollination families contain a small proportion of very slow-growing natural inbreds.The effect of these very small trees on means, variances, and variance ratios was evaluated for height and diameter in a 16-year-old plantation by...

  11. Growth and nutrition of Douglas fir, Scots pine and pedunculate oak in relation to soil acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de P.H.B.


    In a Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and in a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on sandy soil in the Netherlands, inputs of water, nutrients and acid loads were changed for four years. Effects of soil changes on growth and

  12. Estimating effect of Megastigmus spermotrophus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) on Douglas-fir seed production: the new paradigm (United States)

    Nancy Rappaport; Alain Roques; Sylvia Mori


    In a pollen exclusion experiment performed on the cones of five Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco) trees, the number of seeds infested by a seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl, did not differ significantly between pollinated and unpollinated cones from the same tree. This finding led to a revision of the...

  13. Partial DNA sequencing of Douglas-fir cDNAs used in RFLP mapping (United States)

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; C.S. Kinlaw; D.B. Neale


    DNA sequences from 87 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) cDNA RFLP probes were determined. Sequences were submitted to the GenBank dbEST database and searched for similarity against nucleotide and protein databases using the BLASTn and BLASTx programs. Twenty-one sequences (24%) were assigned putative functions; 18 of which...

  14. Dynamic phenotypic plasticity in photosynthesis and biomass patterns in Douglas-fir seedlings (United States)

    A. C. Koehn; G. I. McDonald; D. L. Turner; D. L. Adams


    As climate changes, understanding the mechanisms long-lived conifers use to adapt becomes more important. Light gradients within a forest stand vary constantly with the changes in climate, and the minimum light required for survival plays a major role in plant community dynamics. This study focuses on the dynamic plasticity of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var....

  15. Establishment and growth of native hardwood and conifer seedlings underplanted in thinned Douglas-fir stands. (United States)

    Kathleen G. Maas-Hebner; William H. Emmingham; David L. Larson; Samuel S. Chan


    Five conifers and two hardwoods native to the Pacific Northwest were planted under four overstory densities of 30-year-old plantations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Stand treatments were unthinned (547 trees ha-1), narrow thin (252 trees ha-1),...

  16. Ground-based forest harvesting effects on soil physical properties and Douglas-fir growth. (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Thomas A. Terry; Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Barry L. Flaming


    Soil properties and forest productivity can be affected by heavy equipment used for harvest and site preparation but these impacts vary greatly with site conditions and operational practices. We assessed the effects of ground-based logging on soil physical properties and subsequent Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco] growth on a highly...

  17. Physiological responses of planting frozen and thawed Douglas-fir seedlings (United States)

    M. Anisul Islam; Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese


    We studied the short-term (7-day) physiological responses of planting thawed and frozen root plugs of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings in 2 separate experiments under cool-moist and warm-dry growing conditions, respectively. Our results showed that shoot water potential, root hydraulic conductance, net photosynthesis (A), and...

  18. Impact of the foliar pathogen Swiss needle cast on wood quality of Douglas-fir. (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; Amy T. Grotta; Barbara L. Gartner; Geoff. Downes


    Many stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) near coastal areas of Oregon and Washington are heavily infected with the foliar pathogen causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease, and yet there is very little research on the resulting wood quality. Modulus of elasticity(MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), microfibril angle (MFA), wood...

  19. Early genetic evaluation of open-pollinated Douglas-fir families (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; David A. Perry


    In a test of early genetic evaluation of the growth potential of 14 families of open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) [Mirb.] Franco), measures of growth and phenology of seedligns grown in a coldframe were correlated with height of saplings in evaluation plantations at 9, 12, and 15 years. fifteen-year height was most strongly...

  20. Modeling crown structural responses to competing vegetation control, thinning, fertilization, and Swiss needle cast in coastal Douglas-fir of the Pacific Northwest, USA. (United States)

    A.R. Weiskittel; D.A. Maguire; R.A. Monserud


    Crown structure is a key variable influencing stand productivity, but its reported response to various stand factors has differed. This can be partially attributed to lack of a unified study on crown response to intensive management or stand health. In this analysis of several Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [...

  1. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old Douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Donald L. Reukema; John W. Hazard


    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, we (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to...

  2. Estimating tree biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in two vegetation control treatments in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir plantation on a highly productive site (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Paul W. Footen; Robert B. Harrison; Thomas A. Terry; Constance A. Harrington; Scott M. Holub; Peter J. Gould


    We sampled trees grown with and without competing vegetation control in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation on a highly productive site in southwestern Washington to create diameter based allometric equations for estimating individual-tree bole, branch, foliar, and total...

  3. Genetic variation in tree structure and its relation to size in Douglas-fir: I. Biomass partitioning, foliage efficiency, stem form, and wood density. (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair


    Genetic variation and covariation among traits of tree size and structure were assessed in an 18-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) genetic test in the Coast Range of Oregon. Considerable genetic variation was found in size, biomass partitioning, and wood density, and genetic gains may be...

  4. The wind stability of different silvicultural systems for Douglas-fir in The Netherlands: a model-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate different silvicultural systems for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Netherlands in terms of timber production and wind stability over a full rotation. This was done using the forest genetics, ecology, management and wind model

  5. Modeling regional and climatic variation of wood density and ring width in intensively managed Douglas-fir (United States)

    Cosmin N. Filipescue; Eini C. Lowell; Ross Koppenaal; Al K. Mitchell


    Characteristics of annual rings are reliable indicators of growth and wood quality in trees. The main objective of our study was to model the variation in annual ring attributes due to intensive silviculture and inherent regional differences in climate and site across a wide geographic range of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)....

  6. Interim definitions for old growth Douglas-fir and mixed-conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest and California. (United States)

    J.F. Franklin; F. Hall; W. Laudenslayer; C. Maser; J. Nunan; J. Poppino; C.J. Ralph; T. Spies


    Interim definitions of old-growth forests are provided to guide efforts in land-management planning until comprehensive definitions based on research that is currently underway can be formulated. The basic criteria for identifying old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and mixed-conifer forests in western Washington and...

  7. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir - western hemlock forest. (United States)

    David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun


    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.)...

  8. Respiration , nitrogen fixation, and mineralizable nitrogen spatial and temporal patterns within two Oregon Douglas-fir stands. (United States)

    Sharon M. Hope; Ching-Yan. Li


    Substrate respiration, mineralizable nitrogen, and nitrogen fixation rates, substrate moisture,content, and temperature were measured in trenched and undisturbed plots within two western Oregon Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands. The stands represent two different environments and ages. Woods Creek, the site of the lower...

  9. Acoustic Evaluation of Thinning and Biosolid Fertilization Effects on Wood Quality of a Douglas-fir stand (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Jamie Barbour


    In this study, we examined the potential of using a time-of-flight (TOF) acoustic wave method to evaluate thinning and biosolid fertilization effects on acoustic velocity of trees and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of structural lumber in a 76-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb., Franco)) experimental stand. The stand consisted of four...

  10. Occurrence of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation after clear cutting old-growth Douglas-fir in the Oregon Cascades. (United States)

    Vern P. Yerkes


    Land managers often express a need for more complete information about the vegetative cover that develops on cutover areas between harvest of old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and establishment of a young-growth forest. The composition and density of this cover frequently determines the management techniques that must be used to...


    Global climatic change as expressed by increased CO2 and temperature has the potential for dramatic effects on trees. To determine what its effects may be on Pacific Northwest forests, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings were grown in sun-lit controlled environment cham...

  12. Effects of leader topping and branch pruning on efficiency of Douglas-fir cone harvesting with a tree shaker. (United States)

    D.L. Copes


    In 1983, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of leader topping and branch pruning on the efficiency to tree shaking to remove Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) cones. Removal efficiency for three topping and pruning treatments averaged 69 percent, whereas for the uncut control treatment it was 62 percent. The treatment...

  13. Height-growth response to climatic changes differs among populations of Douglas-fir: A novel analysis of historic data (United States)

    Laura P. Leites; Andrew P. Robinson; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; John D. Marshall; Nicholas L. Crookston


    Projected climate change will affect existing forests, as substantial changes are predicted to occur during their life spans. Species that have ample intraspecific genetic differentiation, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), are expected to display population-specific growth responses to climate change. Using a mixed-effects modeling approach,...

  14. Symptoms associated with inoculation of stems on living Douglas-fir and Grand Fir Trees with Phytophthora ramorum (United States)

    Gary Chastagner; Kathy Riley; Katie Coats; Marianne Elliott; Annie DeBauw; Norm Dart


    To obtain a better understanding of the potential risk of infection and colonization of living Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and grand fir (Abies grandis) stems, the stems on over 150 trees of each species were inoculated at a Christmas tree farm near Los Gatos, California. This study had the following objectives: 1)...

  15. Identification of varieties and gene flow in Douglas fir exemplified in artificially established stands in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fussi


    Full Text Available Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] is an economically valuable non-native tree species in Germany and is considered very promising in view of global climate change. Therefore, the genetic characterization of Douglas-fir populations and seed stands in Germany is essential. We studied coastal and interior Douglas-fir varieties, both present in Germany, by using eleven isoenzyme and four microsatellite loci. By analyzing eight reference populations of known origin we were able to identify the two varieties on the population level using Bayesian and distance based methods. Seven populations present in Bavaria were then successfully assigned to one of the two varieties. Within varieties we found stronger grouping within the interior variety than within the coastal one. Despite lower differences within coastal Douglas-fir we have first indications for the origin of two populations. For two Bavarian populations, natural regeneration was included and genetic data revealed no significant genetic difference between adults and offspring. The parentage analysis for one of the studied stands revealed that a large proportion of adults took part in the reproduction, but some trees were more successful than others in transferring their genes to the next generation. Our study was able to improve variety identification of Douglas-fir using isoenzyme markers and nuclear microsatellites and study reproductive patterns, both are important issues for the management of Douglas-fir stands in Bavaria.

  16. WestPro: a computer program for simulating uneven-aged Douglas-fir stand growth and yield in the Pacific Northwest. (United States)

    Rebecca Ralston; Joseph Buongiorno; Benedict Schulte; Jeremy. Fried


    WestPro is an add-in program designed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth of uneven-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Given the initial stand state, defined as the number of softwood and hardwood trees per acre by diameter class, WestPro predicts the...

  17. Vegetation control effects on untreated wood, crude cellulose and holocellulose 𗉝C of early and latewood in 3- to 5-year-old rings of Douglas-fir (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Constance A Harrington; Thomas A. Terry; Joseph M. Kraft


    The stable carbon (C) composition of tree rings expressed as 13C, is a measure of intrinsic water-use efficiency and can indicate the occurrence of past water shortages for tree growth. We examined 13C in 3- to 5-year-old rings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees...

  18. Variance in response of pole-size trees and seedlings of Douglas-fir and western hemlock to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; J.S. Shumway; D.S. Debell; J.M. Kraft


    Three experiments were conducted to determine effects of N and P fertilizers on growth and levels of plant-tissue nutrients of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.). Both pole-size trees in closed-canopy stands and potted seedlings were use d . Soil series were...

  19. Examining soil parent material influence over Douglas-fir stem growth response to fertilization: Taking advantage of information from spatiotemporally distributed experiments (United States)

    Kevin P. White; Mark Coleman; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul E. Gessler; Mark Kimsey; Terry Shaw


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) in the Inland Northwest region of the USA are nitrogen (N) deficient; however stem growth responses to N fertilizers are unpredictable, which may be due to poor accounting of other limiting nutrients. Screening trial experiments, including potassium (K), sulfur (S), and boron (B) multiple nutrient treatments, have been...


    Here, we investigate fine-root production, mortality and standing crop of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 and elevated air temperature. We hypothesized that these treatments would increase fine-root production, but that mortality ...

  1. Tree microhabitat structures as indicators of biodiversity in Douglas-fir forests of different stand ages and management histories in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. (United States)

    Alexa K. Michel; Susanne. Winter


    In this study, microhabitat structures in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests were defined and their frequency and abundance in natural stands and stands of varying active management histories and stand ages was compared. Indicator microhabitat structures for natural forests were determined and the relationship of the abundance of...

  2. Stand-level gas-exchange responses to seasonal drought in very young versus old Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA (United States)

    Sonia Wharton; Matt Schroeder; Ken Bible; Matthias Falk; Kyaw Tha Paw U


    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral (ES) stands (0 to 15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) (~450 to 500 years old) forest in the Wind River Experimental Forest,...

  3. Growth and yield of all-aged Douglas-fir -- western hemlock forest stands: a matrix model with stand diversity effects. (United States)

    Jingjing Liang; Joseph Buonglorno; Robert A. Monserud


    A density-dependent matrix model was developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) -- western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest stands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The model predicted the number and volume of trees for 4 species groups and 19 diameter classes. The parameters...

  4. Temporal and spatial changes in soil carbon and nitrogen after clearcutting and burning of an old-growth Douglas-fir forest. (United States)

    Joseph A. Antos; Charles B. Halpern; Richard E. Miller; Kermit Cromack; Melora G. Halaj


    We used 135 permanent plots (4 m2) nested within 15 blocks (121 m2) to quantify changes in concentration and spatial variation of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the mineral soil (0- to 10-cm depth) after logging and broadcast burning of an old-growth, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)...

  5. Soil disturbance and 10-year growth response of coast Douglas-fir on nontilled and tilled skid trails in the Oregon Cascades. (United States)

    Ronald Heninger; William Scott; Alex Dobkowski; Richard Miller; Harry Anderson; Steve. Duke


    We (i) quantified effects of skidder yarding on soil properties and seedling growth in a portion of western Oregon, (ii) determined if tilling skid trails improved tree growth, and (iii) compared results with those from an earlier investigation in coastal Washington. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were hand planted at...

  6. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 17—The Skykomish Study, 1961–93; The Clemons study, 1963–94. (United States)

    James E. King; David D. Marshall; John F. Bell


    Stand treatments were completed as prescribed with an initial calibration cut and five thinnings resulting in eight new regimes for management of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Measurements were continued for an additional 14 years to observe stability and yields of stands in a postthinning holding period. Detailed descriptions...

  7. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to ... (United States)

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC using time series intervention analysis of intra-annual tree-ring width data collected at nine forest stands in western Oregon, USA. The effects of temperature and SNC were similar in importance on tree growth at all sites. Previous-year DPD during the annual drought period was a key factor limiting growth regionally. Winter temperature was more important at high elevation cool sites, whereas summer temperature was more important at warm and dry sites. Growth rate increased with summer temperature to an optimum (Topt) then decreased at higher temperatures. At drier sites, temperature and water affected growth interactively such that Topt decreased with decreasing summer soil moisture. With climate change, growth rates increased at high elevation sites and declined at mid-elevation inland sites since ~1990. Growth response to climate is masked by SNC regionally. We conclude that as temperature rises and precipitation patterns shift towards wetter winters and drier summers, Douglas-fir will experience greater temperature and water stress and an increase in severity of SNC. By the end of the 21st century, climate models predict hotter, drier summers and warmer, wetter winters in the Pac

  8. Transient physiological responses of planting frozen root plugs of Douglas-fir seedlings (United States)

    M. Anisul Islam; Douglass F. JAcobs; Kent G. Apostol; R. Kasten Dumroese


    Short-term physiological responses of planting frozen (FR) and rapidly thawed (TR) root plugs of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were examined through time series (0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) measurements in two separate experiments: 10 C day: 6 C night, RH 75% and 30 C day: 20 C night, RH 50%, respectively...

  9. Climate-related genetic variation in drought-resistance of Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ) (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Constance A. Harrington; Peter J. Gould; J. Bradley St.Clair


    There is a general assumption that intraspecific populations originating from relatively arid climates will be better adapted to cope with the expected increase in drought from climate change. For ecologically and economically important species, more comprehensive, genecological studies that utilize large distributions of populations and direct measures of traits...

  10. Breeding graft-compatible Douglas-fir rootstocks (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). (United States)

    D.L. Copes


    A study encompassing 24 years was conducted to determine if a breeding program could produce highly graft-compatible rootstocks. Twenty-seven trees of apparent high graft compatibility were selected and crossed to produce 226 control-pollinated families. Seedlings were grown, field planted, and grafted with test scions. Graft unions from field tests were evaluated...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Combustible properties of treated douglas wood specimens and fire-retardancy of some preservatives were tested in this study. Crib test of ASTM E 160-150 was followed. Results indicated that, aqueous solutions of boric acid (BA, borax (Bx (Na2BO7 10H2O or BA + Bx mixture (7: 3, w: w had fire retardant efficacy (FRE over untreated wood and reduced the combustibility of vinil monomers (Styrene and methylmetacrylate which were applied as secondary treatment.

  12. Resin duct size and density as ecophysiological traits in fire scars of Pseudotsuga menziesii and Larix occidentalis. (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Sutherland, Elaine K; Smith, Kevin T; Falk, Donald A


    Resin ducts (RDs) are features present in most conifer species as defence structures against pests and pathogens; however, little is known about RD expression in trees following fire injury. This study investigates changes in RD size and density in fire scars of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western larch (Larix occidentalis) as a means to evaluate the ecophysiological significance of traumatic resinosis for tree defence and survival. Transverse and tangential microsections were prepared for light microscopy and image analysis in order to analyse axial and radial RDs, respectively. Epithelial cells of RDs and fusiform rays associated with radial RDs were also examined. RDs were compared between normal xylem and wound xylem at four different section heights along the fire-injured stem. Following fire injury, P. menziesii axial RDs narrowed by 38-43 % in the first year after injury, and the magnitude of this change increased with stem height. Larix occidentalis axial RDs widened by 46-50 % in the second year after injury. Radial RDs were of equivalent size in P. menziesii, but widened by 162-214 % in L. occidentalis. Fusiform rays were larger following fire injury, by 4-14 % in P. menziesii and by 23-38 % in L. occidentalis. Furthermore, axial RD density increased in both species due to the formation of tangential rows of traumatic RDs, especially in the first and second years after injury. However, radial RD density did not change significantly. These results highlight traumatic resinosis as a species-specific response. Pseudotsuga menziesii produce RDs of equivalent or reduced size, whereas L. occidentalis produce wider RDs in both the axial and radial duct system, thereby increasing resin biosynthesis and accumulation within the whole tree. Larix occidentalis thus appears to allocate more energy to defence than P. menziesii. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  13. The Douglas-Fir Genome Sequence Reveals Specialization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Neale


    Full Text Available A reference genome sequence for Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb. Franco (Coastal Douglas-fir is reported, thus providing a reference sequence for a third genus of the family Pinaceae. The contiguity and quality of the genome assembly far exceeds that of other conifer reference genome sequences (contig N50 = 44,136 bp and scaffold N50 = 340,704 bp. Incremental improvements in sequencing and assembly technologies are in part responsible for the higher quality reference genome, but it may also be due to a slightly lower exact repeat content in Douglas-fir vs. pine and spruce. Comparative genome annotation with angiosperm species reveals gene-family expansion and contraction in Douglas-fir and other conifers which may account for some of the major morphological and physiological differences between the two major plant groups. Notable differences in the size of the NDH-complex gene family and genes underlying the functional basis of shade tolerance/intolerance were observed. This reference genome sequence not only provides an important resource for Douglas-fir breeders and geneticists but also sheds additional light on the evolutionary processes that have led to the divergence of modern angiosperms from the more ancient gymnosperms.

  14. A taper function for Pseudotsuga menziesii plantations in Spain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five stem taper models belonging to three different taper function categories were fitted to data corresponding to 282 Pseudotsuga menziesii trees. The trees were selected in the area surrounding 61 research plots installed in Galicia, Asturias and the Basque Country, northern Spain. The models were simultaneously fitted ...

  15. Effective height development of four co-occurring species in the gap-phase regeneration of Douglas fir monocultures under nature-oriented conversion. Forest Ecology and Management, Pages 189-198

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Breugel, van M.; Sterck, F.J.


    Natural regeneration in gaps in Douglas fir forest stands in the Netherlands mainly consists of Betula pendula (Roth.), Pinus sylvestris (L.), Larix kaempferi (Carr.), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco). Even though these species are well known, the autogenic development of these species in an

  16. Using tree recruitment patterns and fire history to guide restoration of an unlogged ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir landscape in the southern Rocky Mountains after a century of fire suppression (United States)

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Laurie S. Huckaby; Paula J. Fornwalt; Jason M. Stoker; William H. Romme


    Tree age and fire history were studied in an unlogged ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir (Pinus ponderosa/Pseudotsuga menziesii) landscape in the Colorado Front Range mountains. These data were analysed to understand tree survival during fire and post-fire recruitment patterns after fire, as a basis for understanding the characteristics of, and restoration needs for, an...

  17. Comparison of Wood Quality of Douglas Fir and Spruce from Afforested Agricultural Land and Permanent Forest Land in the Czech Republic

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    Aleš Zeidler


    Full Text Available This study compares the quality of wood from two distinct sites in the Czech Republic—from former afforested agricultural land and forest land. We compared the properties of Norway spruce wood (Picea abies Karst. and Scots pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L., the most important domestic tree species, to Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel Franco, a North American tree species and a potential substitute for the domestic spruce. Wood density, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR and impact bending strength were the properties tested that were used for comparing tree species. Without taking into consideration the site, the highest density values from the tested tree species were obtained for Douglas fir (0.568 g·cm−3, followed by the pine (0.508 g·cm−3 and the spruce (0.463 g·cm−3. The Douglas fir also dominated in the remaining assessed properties, whilst the influence of site was not confirmed, with the exception of MOE and MOR, and only for the Douglas fir wood, wherein higher values were obtained for forest land. In terms assessed Douglas fir properties, it exceeds the domestic softwoods and represents a possible suitable replacement for them. The site only plays a role in terms of the Douglas fir, and only for certain properties.

  18. Increased Biomass of Nursery-Grown Douglas-Fir Seedlings upon Inoculation with Diazotrophic Endophytic Consortia

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    Zareen Khan


    Full Text Available Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings are periodically challenged by biotic and abiotic stresses. The ability of endophytes to colonize the interior of plants could confer benefits to host plants that may play an important role in plant adaptation to environmental changes. In this greenhouse study, nursery-grown Douglas-fir seedlings were inoculated with diazotrophic endophytes previously isolated from poplar and willow trees and grown for fifteen months in nutrient-poor conditions. Inoculated seedlings had significant increases in biomass (48%, root length (13% and shoot height (16% compared to the control seedlings. Characterization of these endophytes for symbiotic traits in addition to nitrogen fixation revealed that they can also solubilize phosphate and produce siderophores. Colonization was observed through fluorescent microscopy in seedlings inoculated with gfp- and mkate-tagged strains. Inoculation with beneficial endophytes could prove to be valuable for increasing the production of planting stocks in forest nurseries.

  19. Swiss Needle Cast in Western Oregon Douglas-Fir Plantations: 20‐Year Monitoring Results

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    Gabriela Ritóková


    Full Text Available Swiss needle cast (SNC, a foliar disease specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, is caused by an endemic Ascomycete fungus (Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. In the late 1980s and early 1990s significant symptoms began to appear in coastal Oregon, and these have been associated with the planting of Douglas-fir in the Sitka spruce zone, leaf wetness during potential spore dispersal in May–August, and mild winter temperature. The first annual aerial survey was initiated in 1996 and has continued through 2015, which indicates a significant increase in area of visible symptoms from the air, increasing from 53,050 ha in 1996 to 238,705 ha in 2015. Monitoring plots in the NW Oregon Coast Range verified impacts of SNC on tree growth and productivity, with growth reductions averaging about 23% in the epidemic area linked to needle retention. A series of monitoring plots was set up in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon and 590 10–23-year old Douglas-fir trees in 59 stands were tracked for 10 years, measured in 2001, 2006, and 2011. No measureable growth impacts were noted in this region of Oregon. A new plot network is being installed throughout the Oregon and southwest Washington coastal ranges as a means of monitoring future disease impact and providing framework for additional studies.

  20. Comparison of Proanthocyanidins and Related Compounds in Leaves and Leaf-Derived Cell Cultures of Ginkgo bioloba L., Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco, and Ribes sanguineum Pursh 1 (United States)

    Stafford, Helen A.; Kreitlow, Kelly S.; Lester, Hope H.


    Proanthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and their flavanoid precursors in leaves and leaf-derived callus and cell suspension cultures have been isolated and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with C18 columns, paper chromatography, and by chemical and spectrophotometric methods. Cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) produced much greater amounts of proanthocyanidins than leaves per milligram dry weight. In cultures, however, the prodelphinidin component relative to that of procyanidins decreased; this was most pronounced in Pseudotsuga. In contrast, callus cultures of Ribes sanguineum accumulated proanthocyanidins in amounts about equal to those in intact leaves per milligram dry weight and the prodelphinidin content remained high. Although Ginkgo and Ribes leaves contained major amounts of flavan-3-ols and dimers with the 2,3-cis-stereochemistry, their cultures tended to synthesize 2,3-trans-isomers instead. Glycosides of flavanone and 3-hydroxyflavanone precursors accumulated in medium to high amounts on a dry weight basis in leaves and cultures of Ribes and Pseudotsuga, and the 3′-glycosidic linkage predominated when the latter species was cultured with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid rather than naphthaleneacetic acid. PMID:16665147

  1. Basal area increment series of dominant trees of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco show periodicity according to global climate patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis U. Castruita-Esparza


    Full Text Available Las especies forestales como Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco son sensibles al clima y muestran anillos de crecimiento claramente definidos. La selección cuidadosa de árboles dominantes con fuste circular permite el análisis de tendencias de crecimiento arbóreo. En este estudio se utilizaron mediciones directas del incremento del área basal (IAB para explicar las periodicidades biológicas y elaborar predicciones del crecimiento en el abeto Douglas-fir que crece en el oeste de México. Para eliminar el efecto de la edad en el crecimiento de los árboles se hizo un análisis en términos de la edad del cámbium. Los resultados mostraron correlación significativa (P < 0.05 entre IAB y la precipitación de enero a julio. Además, se encontraron periodicidades de 7, 21, 27 y 60 años en el crecimiento de los árboles; el periodo de 60 años fue determinante para la construcción de un modelo ARIMA (0,1,1 para realizar predicciones del IAB en las próximas décadas. Las proyecciones del crecimiento proponen una reducción del IAB en árboles maduros dominantes en las próximas décadas. Dicha reducción es un resultado inesperado, debido a que el IAB en árboles dominantes permanece constante hasta una edad biológica de senescencia. Los resultados concuerdan con una tendencia general de reducción en el crecimiento en otros bosques del mundo debido a estrés hídrico, lo cual sugiere que la variabilidad climática futura puede empeorar la condición de salud del abeto Douglas-fir de los bosques del norte de México.

  2. Impact of climate change on cold hardiness of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii): Environmental and genetic considerations (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Bradley J. St. Clair; Constance A. Harrington; Peter J. Gould


    The success of conifers over much of the world’s terrestrial surface is largely attributable to their tolerance to cold stress (i.e., cold hardiness). Due to an increase in climate variability, climate change may reduce conifer cold hardiness, which in turn could impact ecosystem functioning and productivity in conifer-dominated forests. The expression of cold...

  3. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack. (United States)

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M


    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  4. The effects of Douglas fir monoculture on stand characteristics in a zone of Montane beech forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Olga


    Full Text Available The right choice of tree species to form forest cultures is of paramount importance to the preservation of the diversity, fertility and ecological stability of forest ecosystems. To that end, we examined the effect of a 40-year-long cultivation of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb Franco on the floristic composition, characteristics of the forest floor, physical and chemical properties of the soil and the intensity of organic matter decomposition in a beech forest in western Serbia (Mt. Maljen. It was found that the cultivation of Douglas fir caused a reduction in biodiversity, changes in the chemical properties of the soil, that were most pronounced in the surface layers (0-10 cm, and a slowing down in the metabolism of the beech stand. The absence of many plant species characteristic to natural beech forests was observed in the Douglas fir plantation, these were reflected in the detected changes in the chemical properties of the soil, such as lower substitutional acidity (p<0.05, depletion of the adsorption of basis in the cation complex (p<0.001 and lower amounts of C, N, P (p<0.001 and K (p<0.01 in relation to the beech stand (control. No differences were found in soil moisture and active acidity levels. The higher value of the C/N ratio of the Douglas fir litter (p<0.001 provided proof for its lower decomposition rate compared to beech litter (p<0.05. Over time, all these changes could lead to further acidification and degradation of the soil and a reduction in this ecosystem’s productivity.

  5. Douglas-fir forests in the Oregon and Washington Cascades: relation of the herpetofauna to stand age and moisture (United States)

    Bury, R. Bruce; Corn, P.S.


    Pitfall traps effectively sampled amphibians but not reptiles in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests. The abundance of only one amphibian species varied across an age gradient or a moisture gradient. Salamanders and frogs that breed in ponds or streams were captured in large numbers in some stands, likely due to the presence of nearby breeding habitat rather than forest conditions. Lizards occurred mostly in dry stands and clearcuts. Time-constrained searches showed different use of downed woody debris among terrestrial salamanders. The occurrence and abundance of species in naturally regenerated forests markedly differed from clearcut stands.

  6. Silver fir and Douglas fir are more tolerant to extreme droughts than Norway spruce in south-western Germany. (United States)

    Vitali, Valentina; Büntgen, Ulf; Bauhus, Jürgen


    Improving our understanding of the potential of forest adaptation is an urgent task in the light of predicted climate change. Long-term alternatives for susceptible yet economically important tree species such as Norway spruce (Picea abies) are required, if the frequency and intensity of summer droughts will continue to increase. Although Silver fir (Abies alba) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) have both been described as drought-tolerant species, our understanding of their growth responses to drought extremes is still limited. Here, we use a dendroecological approach to assess the resistance, resilience, and recovery of these important central Europe to conifer species the exceptional droughts in 1976 and 2003. A total of 270 trees per species were sampled in 18 managed mixed-species stands along an altitudinal gradient (400-1200 m a.s.l.) at the western slopes of the southern and central Black Forest in southwest Germany. While radial growth in all species responded similarly to the 1976 drought, Norway spruce was least resistant and resilient to the 2003 summer drought. Silver fir showed the overall highest resistance to drought, similarly to Douglas fir, which exhibited the widest growth rings. Silver fir trees from lower elevations were more drought prone than trees at higher elevations. Douglas fir and Norway spruce, however, revealed lower drought resilience at higher altitudes. Although the 1976 and 2003 drought extremes were quite different, Douglas fir maintained consistently the highest radial growth. Although our study did not examine population-level responses, it clearly indicates that Silver fir and Douglas fir are generally more resistant and resilient to previous drought extremes and are therefore suitable alternatives to Norway spruce; Silver fir more so at higher altitudes. Cultivating these species instead of Norway spruce will contribute to maintaining a high level of productivity across many Central European mountain forests under

  7. MORFOGÉNESIS IN VITRO DE Pseudotsuga menziesii VAR. glauca

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    María Guadalupe Carrillo-Benítez


    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta morfogénica a partir de embriones cigóticos cultivados in vitro de semilla almacenada (un año de Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca recolectada en Tlaxcala. Las semillas fueron desinfestadas con detergente y H2O2 (3 % v/v durante 48 h en agitación a 50 rpm, cultivadas en el medio de Murashige y Skoog (1962 sin reguladores. La germinación ocurrió después de siete días y posteriormente subcultivados a un medio MS con 2,4-D (3 mg·L-1 y BA (1 mg·L-1. Con los callos obtenidos en un medio HS se evaluaron tres concentraciones de ABA para promover formación de estructuras embrionarias, presentándose el mejor tratamiento con concentración de 10.0 mg·L-1 (P<.0001. El mejor desarrollo de plántulas se presentó empleando un medio Murashige y Skoog (1962 con sacarosa al 6 %. Se usaron micorrizas para mejor adaptación de plántulas a suelo. No hubo formación de raíces.

  8. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: A case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; St. Clair, John Bradley


    Summary: 1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the capacity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), an ecologically and economically important species in the northwestern USA, to tolerate both drought and cold stress on 35 populations grown in common gardens. We used principal components analysis to combine drought and cold hardiness trait data into generalized stress hardiness traits to model geographic variation in hardiness as a function of climate across the Douglas-fir range. 3. Drought and cold hardiness converged among populations along winter temperature gradients and diverged along summer precipitation gradients. Populations originating in regions with cold winters had relatively high tolerance to both drought and cold stress, which is likely due to overlapping adaptations for coping with winter desiccation. Populations from regions with dry summers had increased drought hardiness but reduced cold hardiness, suggesting a trade-off in tolerance mechanisms. 4. Our findings highlight the necessity to look beyond bivariate trait–climate relationships and instead consider multiple traits and climate variables to effectively model and manage for the impacts of climate change on widespread species.

  9. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman; Richard R. Mason; Galen C. Trostle


    The Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) is an important defoliator of true firs and Douglas-fir in Western North America. Severe tussock moth outbreaks have occurred in British Columbia, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, Arizona, and New Mexico, but the area subject to attack is more extensive

  10. Post-pollination prefertilization drops affect germination rates of heterospecific pollen in larch and Douglas-fir. (United States)

    von Aderkas, Patrick; Nepi, Massimo; Rise, Marlies; Buffi, Federico; Guarnieri, Massimo; Coulter, Andrea; Gill, Karen; Lan, Patricia; Rzemieniak, Sarah; Pacini, Ettore


    Pollen of larch (Larix × marschlinsii) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was used in homospecific and heterospecific crosses. Germination of heterospecific pollen in ovulo was reduced in post-pollination prefertilization drops. This provides evidence of selection against foreign pollen by open-pollinated exposed ovules in these two sister taxa, which share the same type of pollination mechanism. Of the other prezygotic stages in pollen-ovule interactions, uptake of pollen by stigmatic hairs did not show any selection. Pollen tube penetration of the nucellus was similar for hetero- and homospecific pollen tubes, but heterospecific tubes only delivered gametes in one cross. To test for differences in the post-pollination prefertilization drops of each species, drops were gathered and analysed. Glucose and fructose were present in similar amounts in Douglas-fir and larch, while sucrose was found in larch only. Other carbohydrates such as xylose and melezitose were species-specific. In P. menziesii, sucrose is absent due to its conversion to glucose and fructose by apoplastic invertases. In contrast, Larix × marschlinsii drops have sucrose because they lack apoplastic invertases. The presence of invertase activity shows that the composition of gymnosperm post-pollination prefertilization drops is not static but dynamic. Drops of these two species also differed in their calcium concentrations.

  11. Drought effects on root and needle terpenoid content of a coastal and an interior Douglas fir provenance. (United States)

    Kleiber, Anita; Duan, Qiuxiao; Jansen, Kirstin; Verena Junker, Laura; Kammerer, Bernd; Rennenberg, Heinz; Ensminger, Ingo; Gessler, Arthur; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen


    Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is a conifer species that stores large amounts of terpenoids, mainly monoterpenoids in resin ducts of various tissues. The effects of drought on stored leaf terpenoid concentrations in trees are scarcely studied and published data are partially controversial, since reduced, unaffected or elevated terpenoid contents due to drought have been reported. Even less is known on the effect of drought on root terpenoids. In the present work, we investigated the effect of reduced water availability on the terpenoid content in roots and needles of Douglas fir seedlings. Two contrasting Douglas fir provenances were studied: an interior provenance (var. glauca) with assumed higher drought resistance, and a coastal provenance (var. menziesii) with assumed lower drought resistance. We tested the hypothesis that both provenances show specific patterns of stored terpenoids and that the patterns will change in response to drought in both, needles and roots. We further expected stronger changes in the less drought tolerant coastal provenance. For this purpose, we performed an experiment under controlled conditions, in which the trees were exposed to moderate and severe drought stress. According to our expectations, the study revealed clear provenance-specific terpenoid patterns in needles. However, such patterns were not detected in the roots. Drought slightly increased the needle terpenoid contents of the coastal but not of the interior provenance. We also observed increased terpenoid abundance mainly in roots of the moderately stressed coastal provenance. Overall, from the observed provenance-specific reactions with increased terpenoid levels in trees of the coastal origin in response to drought, we conclude on functions of terpenoids for abiotic stress tolerance that might be fulfilled by other, constitutively expressed mechanisms in drought-adapted interior provenances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  12. Growth phenology of coast Douglas-fir seed sources planted in diverse environments (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; J. Bradley. St. Clair


    The timing of periodic life cycle events in plants (phenology) is an important factor determining how species and populations will react to climate change. We evaluated annual patterns of basal-area and height growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotusuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from four seed sources...

  13. Species-mediated soil moisture availability and patchy establishment of Pseudotsuga menziesii in chaparral. (United States)

    Dunne, Jennifer A; Parker, V Thomas


    The occurrence of mature individuals of Pseudotsuga menziesii in stands of Arctostaphylos species mark the initial stages of mixed evergreen forest invasion into chaparral in central coastal California. We planted two cohorts of P. menziesii seeds at three sites under stands of two Arctostaphylos species and Adenostoma fasciculatum in order to determine whether first-year seedling emergence and survival, particularly during the regular summer drought, underlie the spatial distribution of mature trees observed in chaparral. Regardless of the chaparral species they were planted under, P. menziesii seeds that were not protected from vertebrate predation displayed very little emergence and no survival. In contrast, emergence of P. menziesii that were protected from vertebrate predators was much higher but still did not significantly differ among the three chaparral species. However, survival of protected seedlings under Arctostaphylos glandulosa was much greater than under A. fasciculatum, with intermediate survival under Arctostaphylos montana. While mortality of protected seedlings due to insect herbivory, fungal infection, and disturbance displayed no consistent patterns, summer drought mortality appeared to drive the patterns of survival of P. menziesii under the different chaparral species. These emergence, mortality, and survival data suggest that spatial patterns of P. menziesii recruitment in chaparral are driven by first-year summer drought seedling mortality, but only in years when seeds and seedlings are released from vertebrate predation pressure. Because the first-year drought mortality and survival patterns of P. menziesii seedlings differed strongly depending on the chaparral species, we examined the additional hypothesis that these patterns are associated with differences in the availability of soil moisture under different chaparral species. Both higher survival and lower drought mortality of P. menziesii seedlings were associated with higher soil

  14. Species distribution models may misdirect assisted migration: insights from the introduction of Douglas-fir to Europe. (United States)

    Boiffin, Juliette; Badeau, Vincent; Bréda, Nathalie


    Species distribution models (SDMs), which statistically relate species occurrence to climatic variables, are widely used to identify areas suitable for species growth under future climates and to plan for assisted migration. When SDMs are projected across times or spaces, it is assumed that species climatic requirements remain constant. However, empirical evidence supporting this assumption is rare, and SDM predictions could be biased. Historical human-aided movements of tree species can shed light on the reliability of SDM predictions in planning for assisted migration. We used Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), a North American conifer introduced into Europe during the mid-19th century, as a case-study to test niche conservatism. We combined transcontinental data sets of Douglas-fir occurrence and climatic predictors to compare the realized niches between native and introduced ranges. We calibrated a SDM in the native range and compared areas predicted to be climatically suitable with observed presences. The realized niches in the native and introduced ranges showed very limited overlap. The SDM calibrated in North America had very high predictive power in the native range, but failed to predict climatic suitability in Europe where Douglas-fir grows in climates that have no analogue in the native range. We review the ecological mechanisms and silvicultural practices that can trigger such shifts in realized niches. Retrospective analysis of tree species introduction revealed that the assumption of niche conservatism is erroneous. As a result, distributions predicted by SDM are importantly biased. There is a high risk that assisted migration programs may be misdirected and target inadequate species or introduction zones. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. A comparative survey of proteins from recalcitrant tissues of a non-model gymnosperm, Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Dziedzic, Jowita Anna; McDonald, Armando Gabriel


    Most research in plants and other organisms has, for the sake of convenience, focused on the use of model species to identify mechanisms that are conserved throughout the whole kingdom. Nevertheless, unique features and processes such as those related to plant cell wall and fiber formation, and to wood quality, sometimes need to be studied directly in the non-model organism of interest. Such organisms, like the economically and ecologically important gymnosperm Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), which is one of the crucial softwood timber species in Northern America, are often difficult to investigate. High phenolic, resin, and tannin contents in the woody tissues, as well as an incompletely sequenced genome, have contributed greatly to the species' recalcitrance for molecular biology investigations. In this study, we present a complete procedure detailing protein sample preparation, separation, and proteomic analysis based on cross-species identification of Douglas-fir. Proteins from the cambial zone, mature needles, and in vitro callus were extracted, purified, and separated via 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE. One-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with ESI-MS/MS was used for cross-species protein identification in order to evaluate the potential of this approach and reveal major differences in protein profiles among tested tissues. Identified proteins were functionally and developmentally compared. The likely contribution of these proteins to the properties of the cell wall and wood is indicated and discussed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Height-growth response to climatic changes differs among populations of Douglas-fir: a novel analysis of historic data. (United States)

    Leites, Laura P; Robinson, Andrew P; Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Marshall, John D; Crookston, Nicholas L


    Projected climate change will affect existing forests, as substantial changes are predicted to occur during their life spans. Species that have ample intraspecific genetic differentiation, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), are expected to display population-specific growth responses to climate change. Using a mixed-effects modeling approach, we describe three-year height (HT) growth response to changes in climate of interior Douglas-fir populations. We incorporate climate information at the population level, yielding a model that is specific to both species and population. We use data from provenance tests from previous studies that comprised 236 populations from Idaho, Montana, and eastern Washington, USA. The most sensitive indicator of climate was the mean temperature of the coldest month. Population maximum HT and HT growth response to changes in climate were dependent on seed source climate. All populations had optimum HT growth when transferred to climates with warmer winters; those originating in sites with the warmest winters were taller across sites and had highest HT growth at transfer distances closest to zero; those from colder climates were shortest and had optimum HT growth when transferred the farthest. Although this differential response damped the height growth differences among populations, cold-climate populations still achieved their maximum growth at lower temperatures than warm-climate populations. The results highlight the relevance of understanding climate change impacts at the population level, particularly in a species with ample genetic variation among populations.

  17. Lacinipolia Patalis grote (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infesting Douglas-fir cones: A new host record (United States)

    Nancy G. Rappaport


    Larvai of Lacinipolia patalis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were discovered in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi [Mirb.} Franco) cones collected from the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation's Little River Seed Orchard near Trinidad Head in Humboldt County, CA (elevation 91 m) during the fall of 1985. Previous surveys have not...

  18. Rooting cuttings from douglas-fir, white-fir, and California red fir christmas trees (United States)

    C. M. Blankensop; R. Z. Callaham


    Christmas tree growers in California have asked geneticists to help improve the characteristics of the - wild species they are cultivating. The preferred Christmas trees of California are Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.), white fir (A. concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga...

  19. Simulation of carbon and water budgets of a Douglas-fir forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Dekker, S.C.; Bouten, W.; Kohsiek, W.; Mohren, G.M.J.


    The forest growth/hydrology model FORGRO–SWIF, consisting of a forest growth and a soil water model, was applied to quantify the inter-annual variability of the carbon and water budgets of a Douglas-fir forest (Pseudotsuga menziessii (Mirb.) Franco) in The Netherlands. With these budgets, the water

  20. Transcriptome Changes in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Induced by Exposure to Diesel Emissions Generated with CeO2 Nanoparticle Fuel Additive (United States)

    When cerium oxide nanoparticles are added to diesel fuel, fuel burning efficiency increases, producing emissions (DECe) with characteristics that differ from conventional diesel exhaust (DE). It has previously been shown that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects in rats on...

  1. Comparative genetic responses to climate for the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: realized climate niches (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish; Javier Lopez-Upton; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; J. Bradley St Clair; Laura P. Leites; Dennis G. Joyce


    The Random Forests classification algorithm was used to predict the occurrence of the realized climate niche for two sub-specific varieties of Pinus ponderosa and three varieties of Pseudotsuga menziesii from presence-absence data in forest inventory ground plots. Analyses were based on ca. 271,000 observations for P. ponderosa and ca. 426,000 observations for P....

  2. Comparison between mycocenosis living in forest of Cestnut reforested with Douglas Fir; Confronto tra micocenosi presenti nei boschi di latifoglie e rimboschimenti di Douglasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, A.; Serra, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Dalla Valle, E.; Govi, G. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare. Centro di Micologia


    In this technical report the results of a first mycological research carried out from 1989 to 1990 in Brasimone in the high Bolognan Appennines (Northern Italy) are shown. The study was taken up by making a comparison between the fungus community living in forest plots with different vegetation; in particular, the mycocenosis of plots reforested with Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga (Mirb.) Franco) with those of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Cestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods were compared. The results show that the specific richness clearly decreases form mixed broad-leaved forest (90 species) to the mono specific plantation of P. menziesii (41 species). Particularly in the artificial plantation with exotic trees, there are few symbiont species while the saprophytic wood and litter fungi abound in relationship with the large bulk of undecomposed vegetable material present in these habitats.

  3. Veneer recovery from Douglas-fir logs. (United States)

    E.H. Clarke; A.C. Knauss


    During 1956, the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station made a series of six veneer-recovery studies in the Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington. The net volume of logs involved totaled approximately 777 M board-feet. Purpose of these studies was to determine volume recovery, by grade of veneer, from the four principal grades of Douglas-fir logs...

  4. Influence of thinning on acoustic velocity of Douglas-fir trees in western Washington and western Oregon (United States)

    David G. Briggs; Gonzalo Thienel; Eric C. Turnblom; Eini Lowell; Dennis Dykstra; Robert J. Ross; Xiping Wang; Peter. Carter


    Acoustic velocity was measured with a time-of-flight method on approximately 50 trees in each of five plots from four test sites of a Douglas-fir (Pseudostuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) thinning trial. The test sites reflect two age classes, 33 to 35 and 48 to 50 years, with 50-year site index ranging from 35 to 50 m. The acoustic velocity...

  5. Soil compaction after yarding of small-diameter Douglas-fir with a small tractor in southwest Oregon. (United States)

    Michael P. Amaranthus; David E. Steinfeld


    This study evaluated the effect on soil bulk density of yarding small-diameter Douglas-fir (Pseudosuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) with a small tractor. Levels of compaction were measured before yarding and after one trip, three trips, and six trips by the tractor. Bulk densities in the surface (10 cm) and...

  6. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W.; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W.; Zeng, Ren Sen


    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF ‘donor’ and ponderosa pine ‘receiver’ seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance. PMID:25683155

  7. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests (United States)

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C.


    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  8. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in cold-hardiness- and wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir. (United States)

    Krutovsky, Konstantin V; Neale, David B


    Nuclear sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were studied in 15 cold-hardiness- and 3 wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco]. This set of genes was selected on the basis of its function in other plants and collocation with cold-hardiness-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery panel represented 24 different trees from six regions in Washington and Oregon plus parents of a segregating population used in the QTL study. The frequency of SNPs was one SNP per 46 bp across coding and noncoding regions on average. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were also moderately high with H(d) = 0.827 +/- 0.043 and pi = 0.00655 +/- 0.00082 on average, respectively. The nonsynonymous (replacement) nucleotide substitutions were almost five times less frequent than synonymous ones and substitutions in noncoding regions. LD decayed relatively slowly but steadily within genes. Haploblock analysis was used to define haplotype tag SNPs (htSNPs). These data will help to select SNPs for association mapping, which is already in progress.

  9. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.E.; Reukema, D.L.; Hazard, J.W.


    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, the authors (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to their distance from a strip of the plantation interplanted with nitrogen-fixing red alder (alnus rubra Bong.); and (3) observed effects of biuret on understory vegetation. On both sides of the strip centerline, the authors grouped subject trees into 30 plots of 4 trees each, based on slope position and distance from alder. The authors randomly assigned three fertilizers and a control within each plot. They analyzed separately data from east and west of the mixed stand certerline. Initial volume differed greatly among the 120 trees on each side, so they used covariance analysis to adjust observed treatment means. Adjusted mean volume growth was increased (p equal to or less than 0.10) by 22 to 28 percent on the east side and by 11 to 14 percent on the west side, with no significant difference in response to the three fertilizers.

  10. Some effects of douglas fir terpenes on certain microorganisms. (United States)

    Andrews, R E; Parks, L W; Spence, K D


    The Douglas fir terpene alpha-pinene was shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria and a yeast. Other terpenes of the Douglas fir, including limonene, camphene, and isobornyl acetate, were also inhibitory to Bacillus thuringiensis. All terpenes were inhibitory at concentrations normally present in the fir needle diet of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae. The presence of such terpenes in the diet of these insects was found to strongly influence the infectivity of B. thuringiensis spores for the Douglas fir tussock moth larvae. The terpene alpha-pinene destroyed the cellular integrity and modified mitochondrial activity in certain microorganisms.

  11. Development over 25 years of Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar planted at various spacings on a very good site in British Columbia. (United States)

    Donald L. Reukema; J. Harry G. Smith


    Results of five spacing trials on the University of British Columbia Research Forest, covering a range of plantation spacings from 1 to 5 meters, showed that choice of initial spacing is among the most important factors influencing bole and crown development and stand growth and yield. The trials include Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi), western...

  12. Log and lumber grades as indicators of wood quality in 20- to 100-year-old Douglas-fir trees from thinned and unthinned stands. (United States)

    R. James Barbour; Dean L. Parry


    This report examines the differences in wood characteristics found in coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mensziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees harvested at the age of 70 to 100 years old to wood characteristics of trees harvested at the age of 40 to 60 years. Comparisons of differences in domestic log grades suggest that the proportion...

  13. Plant-pest interactions in time and space: A Douglas-fir bark beetle outbreak as a case study


    Powers, J. S.; Sollins, P.; Harmon, M. E.; Jones, J. A.


    A conceptual model of Douglas-fir bark beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) dynamics and associated host tree mortality across multiple spatial and temporal scales was developed, then used to guide a study of the association between the occurrence of beetle-killed trees and factors that might render trees more susceptible to attack. Longterm records of beetle kill showed that beetle epidemics were associated with windstorms and drought at statewide and local spatial scales. At the landscape sca...

  14. Financial analysis of pruning coast Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Roger D. Fight; James M. Cahlll; Thomas D. Fahey; Thomas A. Snellgrove


    Pruning of coast Douglas-fir was evaluated; recent product recovery information for pruned and unpruned logs for both sawn and peeled products was used. Dimensions of pruned and unpruned trees were simulated with the Douglas-fir stand simulator (DFSIM). Results are presented for a range of sites, ages at time of pruning, ages at time of harvest, product prices, and...

  15. Growth after thinning in 110-year old Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Vern P. Yerkes


    A 6-year record of growth after thinning indicates that 110-year-old Douglas-fir stands on site 111 land have passed the age when growth capacity can be fully transferred to fewer stems through thinning.

  16. Tree water storage and its diurnal dynamics related to sap flow and changes in stem volume in old-growth Douglas-fir trees. (United States)

    Cermák, Jan; Kucera, Jiri; Bauerle, William L; Phillips, Nathan; Hinckley, Thomas M


    Diurnal and seasonal tree water storage was studied in three large Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) trees at the Wind River Canopy Crane Research site. Changes in water storage were based on measurements of sap flow and changes in stem volume and tissue water content at different heights in the stem and branches. We measured sap flow by two variants of the heat balance method (with internal heating in stems and external heating in branches), stem volume with electronic dendrometers, and tissue water content gravimetrically. Water storage was calculated from the differences in diurnal courses of sap flow at different heights and their integration. Old-growth Douglas-fir trees contained large amounts of free water: stem sapwood was the most important storage site, followed by stem phloem, branch sapwood, branch phloem and needles. There were significant time shifts (minutes to hours) between sap flow measured at different positions within the transport system (i.e., stem base to shoot tip), suggesting a highly elastic transport system. On selected fine days between late July and early October, when daily transpiration ranged from 150 to 300 liters, the quantity of stored water used daily ranged from 25 to 55 liters, i.e., about 20% of daily total sap flow. The greatest amount of this stored water came from the lower stem; however, proportionally more water was removed from the upper parts of the tree relative to their water storage capacity. In addition to lags in sap flow from one point in the hydrolic pathway to another, the withdrawal and replacement of stored water was reflected in changes in stem volume. When point-to-point lags in sap flow (minutes to hours near the top and stem base, respectively) were considered, there was a strong linear relationship between stem volume changes and transpiration. Volume changes of the whole tree were small (equivalent to 14% of the total daily use of stored water) indicating that most stored water came from

  17. Age- and position-related changes in hydraulic versus mechanical dysfunction of xylem: inferring the design criteria for Douglas-fir wood structure. (United States)

    Domec, J C; Gartner, B L


    We do not know why trees exhibit changes in wood characteristics as a function of cambial age. In part, the answer may lie in the existence of a tradeoff between hydraulic properties and mechanical support. In conifers, longitudinal tracheids represent 92% of the cells comprising the wood and are involved in both water transport and mechanical support. We used three hydraulic parameters to estimate hydraulic safety factors at several vertical and radial locations in the trunk and branches: vulnerability to cavitation; variation in xylem water potential (psi); and xylem relative water content. The hydraulic safety factors for 12 and 88 percent loss of conductivity (S(H12) and S(H88), representing the hydraulic safety factors for the air entry point and full embolism point, respectively) were determined. We also estimated the mechanical safety factor for maximum tree height and for buckling. We estimated the dimensionless hydraulic and mechanical safety factors for six seedlings (4 years old), six saplings (10 years old) and six mature trees (> 110 years old) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Over the natural range of psi, S(H12) decreased linearly from treetop to a minimum of 0.95 at the tree base. Young and mature trees had S(H12) values 1.4 and 1.3 times higher, respectively, at their tips (juvenile wood) than at their bases (mature wood). Modeling analyses indicated that if trees were made entirely of mature wood, S(H12) at the stem base would be only 0.7. The mechanical safety factor was 1.2 times higher for the base of the tree than for the rest of the tree. The minimum mechanical safety factor-1.6 for the critical buckling height and 2.2 for the critical buckling load-occurred at the base of the live crown. Modeling analysis indicated that if trees were made only of mature wood, these values would increase to 1.7 and 2.3, respectively. Hydraulic safety factors had values that were less than half those for mechanical safety factors

  18. Do mycorrhizal network benefits to survival and growth of interior Douglas-fir seedlings increase with soil moisture stress? (United States)

    Bingham, Marcus A; Simard, Suzanne W


    Facilitation of tree establishment by ectomycorrhizal (EM) networks (MNs) may become increasingly important as drought stress increases with climate change in some forested regions of North America. The objective of this study was to determine (1) whether temperature, CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]), soil moisture, and MNs interact to affect plant establishment success, such that MNs facilitate establishment when plants are the most water stressed, and (2) whether transfer of C and water between plants through MNs plays a role in this. We established interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesiivar.glauca) seedlings in root boxes with and without the potential to form MNs with nearby conspecific seedlings that had consistent access to water via their taproots. We varied temperature, [CO(2)], and soil moisture in growth chambers. Douglas-fir seedling survival increased when the potential existed to form an MN. Growth increased with MN potential under the driest soil conditions, but decreased with temperature at 800 ppm [CO(2)]. Transfer of (13)C to receiver seedlings was unaffected by potential to form an MN with donor seedlings, but deuterated water (D(2)O) transfer increased with MN potential under ambient [CO(2)]. Chlorophyll fluorescence was reduced when seedlings had the potential to form an MN under high [CO(2)] and cool temperatures. We conclude that Douglas-fir seedling establishment in laboratory conditions is facilitated by MN potential where Douglas-fir seedlings have consistent access to water. Moreover, this facilitation appears to increase as water stress potential increases and water transfer via networks may play a role in this. These results suggest that conservation of MN potential may be important to forest regeneration where drought stress increases with climate change.

  19. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri


    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  20. Intervarietal and intravarietal genetic structure in Douglas-fir: nuclear SSRs bring novel insights into past population demographic processes, phylogeography, and intervarietal hybridization (United States)

    van Loo, Marcela; Hintsteiner, Wolfgang; Pötzelsberger, Elisabeth; Schüler, Silvio; Hasenauer, Hubert


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is one of numerous wide-range forest tree species represented by subspecies/varieties, which hybridize in contact zones. This study examined the genetic structure of this North American conifer and its two hybridizing varieties, coastal and Rocky Mountain, at intervarietal and intravarietal level. The genetic structure was subsequently associated with the Pleistocene refugial history, postglacial migration and intervarietal hybridization/introgression. Thirty-eight populations from the USA and Canada were genotyped for 13 nuclear SSRs and analyzed with simulations and traditional population genetic structuring methods. Eight genetic clusters were identified. The coastal clusters embodied five refugial populations originating from five distinct refugia. Four coastal refugial populations, three from California and one from western Canada, diverged during the Pleistocene (56.9–40.1 ka). The three Rocky Mountain clusters reflected distinct refugial populations of three glacial refugia. For Canada, ice covered during the Last Glacial Maximum, we present the following three findings. (1) One refugial population of each variety was revealed in the north of the distribution range. Additional research including paleodata is required to support and determine whether both northern populations originated from cryptic refugia situated south or north of the ice-covered area. (2) An interplay between intravarietal gene flow of different refugial populations and intervarietal gene flow by hybridization and introgression was identified. (3) The Canadian hybrid zone displayed predominantly introgressants of the Rocky Mountain into the coastal variety. This study provides new insights into the complex Quaternary dynamics of this conifer essential for understanding its evolution (outside and inside the native range), adaptation to future climates and for forest management. PMID:26140197

  1. Biology of bats in Douglas-fir forests. (United States)

    Robin E. Christy; Stephen D. West


    Twelve species of bats occur in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, of which nine are known to roost in tree cavities, bark crevices, or foliage, and several are closely associated with old-growth forests. Thus bat populations may be detrimentally affected by forest management practices involving the removal of large, old trees and snags. We review the life...

  2. The biology of arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests. (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey


    Arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and Washington include (listed in decreasing order of dependence on trees) red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaucfus), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), Douglas' squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii), dusky-footed woodrat...

  3. Seed production of Douglas-fir increased by thinning. (United States)

    Donald L. Reukema


    In planning thinnings and final harvest cuttings for stands of young-growth Douglas-fir, foresters need reliable information on the capacity of young-growth stands to bear seed, on the periodicity of seed crops, and on the effects of thinning and other forest practices on seed production. One of the first studies designed to help provide this information was begun in...

  4. Predicting Douglas-fir's response to a warming climate (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Sheel Bansal; Connie Harrington; Brad. St. Clair


    Douglas-fir is an iconic tree in the Pacific Northwest. Although individual trees may appear to be identical, genetic differences within each tree have resulted from adaptation to the local environment. These genetic differences over time have resulted in differences among populations that are important to the species' survival and growth in changing climates....

  5. Radial growth of grand fir and Douglas-fir 10 years after defoliation by the Douglas-fir tussock moth in the Blue Mountains outbreak. (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman


    Radial-growth recovery related to amount of tree defoliation was measured 10 years after a severe outbreak of Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough). For the period 1978-82, growth of qrand fir surpassed and was significantly greater than in the preoutbreak period, 1968-72. Douglas-fir growth during the postoutbreak period...

  6. Dowel-nut connection in Douglas-fir peeler cores (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; John R. King; Agron. Gjinolli

    As part of an effort to encourage more efficient use of small-diameter timber, the Forest Products Laboratory cooperated with Geiger Engineers in a study of the structural properties of Douglas-fir peeler cores and the efficacy of a bdowel-nutc connection detail for application in the design of a space frame roof system. A 44.5-mm- (1.75-in.-) diameter dowel-nut...

  7. Understorey plant community dynamics following a large, mixed severity wildfire in a Pinus ponderosa-Pseudotsuga menziesii forest, Colorado, USA (United States)

    Paula J. Fornwalt; Merrill R. Kaufman


    In 2002, the Hayman Fire burned across 55 800 ha of Colorado Front Range P. ponderosa-P. menziesii forest. Also burned in the fire were 20 upland and five riparian plots within a 400-ha study area. These plots had been surveyed for understorey plant composition and cover 5-6 yrs prior. We re-measured all plots annually from 2003 to 2007, 1-5 yrs post-fire. Changes in...

  8. Do remnant old-growth trees accelerate rates of succession in mature Douglas-fir forests? (United States)

    William S. Keeton; Jerry F. Franklin


    Biological legacies left by natural disturbances provide ecological functions throughout forest stand development, but their influences on processes of ecological succession are not completely understood. We investigated the successional role of one type of biological legacy: remnant old-growth trees persisting in mature Pseudotsuga menziesii (...

  9. Conversion of SPORL pretreated Douglas fir forest residues into microbial lipids with oleaginous yeasts (United States)

    Bruce S. Dien; Junyong Zhu; Patricia J. Slininger; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Bryan R. Moser; Patricia J. O' Bryan; Roland Gleisner; Michael A. Cotta


    Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils (SCO) using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrolyzing using commercial cellulases. A new SPORL process that uses pH...

  10. Documentation of the Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreak-population model. (United States)

    J.J. Colbert; W. Scott Overton; Curtis. White


    Documentation of three model versions: the Douglas-fir tussock moth population-branch model on (1) daily temporal resolution, (2) instart temporal resolution, and (3) the Douglas-fir tussock moth stand-outbreak model; the hierarchical framework and the conceptual paradigm used are described. The coupling of the model with a normal-stand model is discussed. The modeling...

  11. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the Douglas fir-hemlock type and the coastal Douglas-fir-hardwood type. (United States)

    David V. SANDBERG; Franklin R. Ward


    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the photos in the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Coastal Douglas-fir—Hemlock Type, Coastal Douglas-fir—Hardwood Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-051....

  12. Height-Related Trends in Leaf Xylem Anatomy and Shoot Hydraulic Characteristics in a Tall Conifer: Safety versus Efficiency in Water Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. R. Woodruff; F. C. Meinzer; B. Lachenbruch


    Hydraulic vulnerability of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) branchlets decreases with height, allowing shoots at greater height to maintain hydraulic conductance at more negative leaf water potentials...

  13. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA))


    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  14. Stand-Level Gas-Exchange Responses to Seasonal Drought in Very Young Versus Old Douglas-fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Bible, K; Falk, M; Paw U, K T


    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral stands (ES) (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) ({approx} 450-500) forest in the Wind River Experiment Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F{sub NEE}), latent energy ({lambda}E) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E{sub T}), bowen ratio ({beta}), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G{sub c}), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient ({alpha}) and a canopy decoupling factor ({Omega}). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to see how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in available soil water ({theta}{sub r}) and vapor pressure deficit ({delta}e) differ among the two forest successional-stages. Despite very different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed distinct successional-stage relationships between E{sub T}, {alpha}, and G{sub c} to {delta}e and {theta}{sub r} during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) higher morning G{sub c} (> 10 mm s{sup -1}) at the OG forest coinciding with higher CO{sub 2} uptake (F{sub NEE} = -9 to -6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) but a strong negative response in G{sub c} to moderate {delta}e later in the day and a subsequent reduction in E{sub T}, and (2) higher E{sub T} at the ES stands because midday canopy conductance did not decrease until very low water availability levels (<30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that early seral stands are more likely than mature forests to experience declines in production if the summer drought becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were only observed at the very end of the seasonal drought period in the youngest stands.

  15. A preliminary study of the deterioration of alder and Douglas-fir chips in outdoor piles. (United States)

    Ernest. Wright


    In the fall of 1952, E. E. Matson of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station learned that the Fir-Tex Insulating Board Company bf St. Helens, Oregon was considering mixing alder with Douglas-fir chips for outside storage. Since alder heartwood i s more susceptible to decay than that of Douglas-fir, the question arose whether mixing the two might...

  16. Early survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir with red alder in four mixed regimes. (United States)

    Marshall D. Murray; Richard E. Miller


    To quantify between-species interactions, we measured and compared survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir and associated planted and volunteer red alder at a location on the west side of the Cascade Range in Washington. The planted alder were wildlings dug either from a nearby area or from a distant, coastal site and interplanted into a 3-year-old Douglas-fir...

  17. Species-specific partitioning of soil water resources in an old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest. (United States)

    F.C. Meinzer; J.M. Warren; J.R. Brooks


    We studied seasonal courses of soil water utilization in a 450-year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii/Tsuga heterophylla forest. Mean root area in the upper 60 cm of soil was significantly greater in the vicinity of T. heterophylla trees. However, seasonal water extraction on a root area basis was significantly...

  18. Repeated manual release in a young plantation: effect on Douglas-fir seedlings, hardwoods, shrubs, forbs, and grasses. (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler; Henry Harrison


    Douglas-fir seedlings on the Arcata Resource Area, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, in central coastal California, were released by chain sawing and grubbing competing vegetation around them at different frequencies (0, 2, and 3 grubbings) over a 5-year period. After 5 years, average Douglas-fir stem diameter (measured at 12 inches above mean...

  19. Douglas-fir ectomycorrhizae in 40- and 400-year-old stands: mycobiont availability to late successional western hemlock. (United States)

    T. R. Horton; R. Molina; K. Hood


    We investigated ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in forest stands containing both early successional Douglas-fir and late successional western hemlock at two points in the typical stand development by identifying EM fungi from roots of Douglas-fir and western hemlock in mixed stands. Tn an early seral stage forest, EM roots of western hemlock seedlings and intermingling 40-...

  20. Effect of stand edge on the natural regeneration of spruce, beech and Douglas-fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Dobrovolný


    Full Text Available Our work aimed at studying the strategy of woody plants regeneration during the regeneration of a spruce stand with the admixture of beech and Douglas-fir by border cutting (NW-SE aspect on acidic sites of higher elevations in the Bohemian-Moravian Upland. Spruce is better adapted to bear shade than Douglas-fir. Nevertheless, in optimal light conditions up to a distance of ca. 35 m (about 16% DIFFSF from the stand edge, the Douglas-fir can put the spruce into danger as to height growth. By contrast to beech, the density of spruce is significantly higher within the distance of 45 m (about 15% DIFFSF from the stand edge but further on the situation would change to the benefit of beech. The density of Douglas-fir significantly dominates over beech within a distance of 35 m from the stand edge; from 55 m (less than 15% DIFFSF, the situation changes in favour of beech. Beech can survive in full shade deep in the stand core waiting for its opportunity to come. As compared to spruce and Douglas-fir, the height growth of beech was at all times significantly greater at a distance of 25 m from the stand edge. Converted to practical conditions, spruce and Douglas-fir with individually admixed beech seedlings showed good prosperity approximately up to a distance of one stand height from the edge. A mixture of spruce and beech did well at a greater distance but good prosperity at a distance of 2–3 stand heights was shown only by beech. Thus, border regeneration eliminates disadvantages of the climatic extremes of clear-cutting and specifics of shelterwood felling during which one – usually shade-tolerant tree species dominates in the natural regeneration (e.g. beech.

  1. Early warning system for Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks in the Western United States. (United States)

    Gary E. Daterman; John M. Wenz; Katharine A. Sheehan


    The Early Warning System is a pheromone-based trapping system used to detect outbreaks of Douglas-fir tussock moth (DFTM, Orgyia pseudotsugata) in the western United States. Millions of acres are susceptible to DFTM defoliation, but Early Warning System monitoring focuses attention only on the relatively limited areas where outbreaks may be...

  2. Estimating biomass of shrubs and forbs in central Washington Douglas-fir stands. (United States)

    Craig M. Olson; Robert E. Martin


    Understory plants in closed 70-year-old even-aged Douglas-fir stands in north central Washington were destructively sampled to determine the relationship of ground cover and height to dry weight. Weight of plant material can be estimated from the product of plant height and percentage of ground cover on 50- x 100-centimeter (cm) quadrats. Correlation coefficients for...

  3. Stratification period and germination of Douglas-fir seed from Oregon seed orchards: two case studies. (United States)

    Frank C. Sorenson


    Effect of stratification period (S) and incubation temperature (T) on germination be- havior were tested by using two groups of Douglas-fir orchard seedlots that had given low germination percentages in standard tests. One group of seedlots that had experienced different cone-drying regimes, but otherwise were treated comparably, were germinated at T = 15 and 25 °C...

  4. The economic significance of mortality in old-growth Douglas-fir management. (United States)

    R.O. McMahon


    Current mortality in the Douglas-fir subregion, exclusive of catastrophic mortality, approximates a billion feet a year. The Forest Service report "Timber Resources for America's Future" recommended "...utilizing a substantial portion of the unsalvaged mortality loss..." as one means of permanently increasing the Nation's timber supply and...

  5. CO2 uptake by a stand of Douglas fir: flux measurements compared with model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermetten, A.W.M.; Ganzeveld, L.; Jeuken, A.; Hofschreuder, P.; Mohren, G.M.J.


    Fluxes of CO2 were calculated by the gradient method from concentration differences, measured in the surface roughness layer above a Douglas fir stand in the Netherlands during a full year (1989). The annual course of the CO2 flux density clearly showed the influence of temperature and incoming

  6. Screening Douglas-fir for rapid early growth in common-garden tests in Spain (United States)

    Gabriel Toval Hernandez; Guillermo Vega Alonso; Gonzalo Puerto Arribas; James L. Jenkinson


    Douglas-firs from 91 seed sources in North America were evaluated after 5 and 6 years in 15 common-garden tests in the mountainous regions of northwest and north central Spain. Analyses of tallest trees showed that most of the sources of highest potential for reforestation in Spain are found in regions where the Pacific Ocean air mass dominates climate. Fast growers...

  7. Structural lumber from dense stands of small-diameter Douglas-fir trees. (United States)

    David W. Green; Eini C. Lowell; Roland. Hernandez


    Small-diameter trees growing in overstocked dense stands are often targeted for thinning to reduce fire hazard and improve forest health and ecosystem diversity. In the Pacific Northwest and Intermountain regions, Douglas-fir can be a predominant species in such stands. In this study, mechanical properties and grade yield of structural products were estimated for 2 by...

  8. Mammoth lakes revisited—50 years after a Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreak. (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman; G. Lynn Starr


    For five decades after an outbreak of Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough)), radial growth of defoliated white fir trees (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.), was significantly greater than that of nondefoliated host trees nearby. The increased growth probably was due to the thinning effect of...

  9. Impact of douglas-fir tussock moth... color aerial phtography evaluates mortality (United States)

    Steven L. Wert; Boyd E. Wickman


    Thorough evaluation of insect impact on forest stands is difficult and expensive on the ground. In a study of tree damage following Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation in Modoc County, California, large-scale (1:1,584)70-mm. color aerial photography was an effective sampling tool and took lesstime and expense than ground methods. Comparison of the photo...

  10. Decay in white fir top-killed by Douglas-fir tussock moth. (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman; Robert F. Scharpf


    Stands heavily defoliated in 1936-37 by the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Hemerocampa pseudotsugata McD., at Mammoth Lakes, California, were studied to determine the incidence and extent of decay in top-damaged trees. This was done by dissecting the tops of trees felled during logging. Comparisons were made with white fir in a nearby logged area that was...

  11. Estimating the weight of Douglas-fir tree boles and logs with an iterative computer model. (United States)

    Dale R. Waddell; Dale L Weyermann; Michael B. Lambert


    A computer model that estimates the green weights of standing trees was developed and validated for old-growth Douglas-fir. The model calculates the green weight for the entire bole, for the bole to any merchantable top, and for any log length within the bole. The model was validated by estimating the bias and accuracy of an independent subsample selected from the...

  12. Analysis and comparison of nonlinear tree height prediction strategies for Douglas-fir forest. (United States)

    H. Temesgen; V.J. Monleon; D.W. Hann


    Using an extensive Douglas-fir data set from southwest Oregon, we examined the (I) performance and suitability of selected prediction strategies, (2) contribution of relative position and stand-density measures in improving tree height (h) prediction values, and (3) effect of different subsampling designs to fill in missing h values in a new stand using a regional...

  13. Pest management in Douglas-fir seed orchards: a microcomputer decision method (United States)

    James B. Hoy; Michael I. Haverty


    The computer program described provides a Douglas-fir seed orchard manager (user) with a quantitative method for making insect pest management decisions on a desk-top computer. The decision system uses site-specific information such as estimates of seed crop size, insect attack rates, insecticide efficacy and application costs, weather, and crop value. At sites where...

  14. Carbon Sequestration in Soils Affected by Douglas Fir Reforestation in Apennines (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Di Biase


    Full Text Available Douglas fir reforestation plays an important role in Italian forest because no indigenous conifer has similar characteristics of productivity and timber quality. Few studies on physicochemical properties of soils under Douglas fire are noticeable. The aim of this work is to evaluate the organic C stock into soils under Douglas fir plantation in different selected areas. The areas of study are located in the North Apennine (Italy; Corno alle Scale (COR, Vallombrosa (VAL, Mulino Mengoni (MEN, respectively are chosen for the presence of Douglas fir reforestation of 60 years old. Two soil profiles for each area have been open and described. The pH value decreased along the profile depth. The organic C amount in organic layers was higher in Val and Men pedons than that determined in COR one. Higher amount of organic C were detected in organo-mineral horizons of Co pedons, highlighting a rapid turnover of soil organic matter. The C stock calculated in the first 30 cm of soil showed that the higher C amount is stored in highest altitudes profiles (COR6 and VAL6 than the other. The soil are classified as Lithic Dystrudepts in the highest altitudes (COR 6, 7 and VAL 6, 7, respectively while as Humic Dystrudepts in MEN (4 and 5 pedons. We conclude that no dangerous effects on soil quality of Douglas fir were investigated and they seem to be similar to those of native tree species, even if other different aspects should be investigated.

  15. Effects of water suspension and wet-dry cycling on fertility of Douglas-fir pollen. (United States)

    Donald L. Copes; Nan C. Vance


    Studies were made to determine how long Douglas-fir pollen remains viable after suspension in cool water form 0 to 34 days. Linear regression analysis of in vivo and in vitro tests indicated that filled seed efficiency and pollen viability, respectively, decreased about 3 percent per day. The relation may have been nonlinear the first 6 days, as little decrease...

  16. Characterization of wood strands from young, small-diameter Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees (United States)

    Vikram Yadama; Eini C. Lowell; Christopher E. Langum


    Tensile properties of strands processed from small-diameter Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees grown on the Washington coast were analyzed and effects of location within the tree on properties was examined. Reduction factors for strand properties relative to small, clear solid wood specimen properties were determined by correlating strand properties to previously...

  17. Silvicultural research and the evolution of forest practices in the Douglas-fir region. (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; Dean S. DeBell; Richard E. Miller; Michael Newton; J. Bradley St. Clair; William I. Stein


    Silvicultural practices in the Douglas-fir region evolved through a combination of formal research, observation, and practical experience of forest managers and silviculturists, and changing economic and social factors. This process began more than a century ago and still continues. It has had a great influence on the economic well-being of the region and on the...

  18. Overstory response to alternative thinning treatments in young Douglas-fir forests of Western Oregon. (United States)

    Liane R. Davis; Klaus J. Puettmann; Gabriel F. Tucker


    An increase in land dominated by young second-growth Douglas-fir forests in the Pacific Northwest has coincided with heightened concerns over loss of old-growth habitat. In search of options for managing young forests to provide late-successional forest structures, the Young Stand Thinning and Diversity Study was designed to test the effectiveness of modified thinning...

  19. Douglas-fir seedlings exhibit metabolic responses to increased temperature and atmospheric drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Jansen

    Full Text Available In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i plant biomass, (ii carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought. Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions.

  20. Prediction of wood Quality in Small-Diameter Douglas-Fir using site and Stand Characteristics (United States)

    C.D. Morrow; T.M. Gorman; J.W. Evans; D.E. Kretschmann; C.A. Hatfield


    Standing stress wave measurements were taken on 274 small-diameter Douglas-fir trees in western Montana. Stand, site, and soil measurements collected in the field and remotely through geographical information system (GIS) data layers were used to model dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE) in those trees. The best fit linear model developed resulted in an adjusted

  1. Silver fir and Douglas fir are more tolerant to extreme droughts than Norway spruce in south-western Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vitali, V.; Büntgen, Ulf; Bauhus, J.


    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2017), s. 5108-5119 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : temperate forest trees * picea-abies karst. * climate- change * water relations * vosges mountains * growth-patterns * species stands * scots pine * alba * productivity * Abies alba * Central Europe * climate change * dendroecology * drought tolerance * forest management * Picea abies * Pseudotsuga menziesii Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.502, year: 2016

  2. Effects of manganese and manganese-nitrogen applications on growth and nutrition of Douglas-fir seedlings. (United States)

    M. A. Radwan; John S. Shumway; Dean S. DeBell


    Effects of manganese (Mn) on Douglas-fir grown in soil, with and without urea, and in nutrient solution were investigated. In addition, Mn sorption by forest soils was evaluated. Results show that Douglas-fir does not respond to added Mn and is quite tolerant to high Mn levels. Moreover, Mn sorption by soils is high. It is doubtful that Mn toxicity is of practical...

  3. Characterization and possible origins of isolated douglas fir stands on the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, J.R. [National Park Service, Page, AZ (United States)


    The floristic composition of several isolated stands of Pseudotsuga menziesii on the Colorado Plateau is compared. All occurred between 1700-2000 meters, which was about 300-500 meters below typical lower limits for the species. Most stands showed evidence of reproduction and recruitment. A small widespread group of species existed that was common to all stands, but beta diversity was high. A preliminary analysis of possible origins of the stands suggested that they are relictual from the late Wisconsin or early Holocene. Bird-dispersed species were less prevalent than expected compared with existing high elevation conifer forests. These stands represent important resources for Quaternary research, but are extremely vulnerable to human-caused disturbances. It is recommended that they be provided protection from disturbance through appropriate management activities of the various land management agencies.

  4. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on resistance versus resilience of Douglas fir to drought. (United States)

    Carnwath, Gunnar; Nelson, Cara


    Significant increases in tree mortality due to drought-induced physiological stress have been documented worldwide. This trend is likely to continue with increased frequency and severity of extreme drought events in the future. Therefore, understanding the factors that influence variability in drought responses among trees will be critical to predicting ecosystem responses to climate change and developing effective management actions. In this study, we used hierarchical mixed-effects models to analyze drought responses of Pseudotsuga menziesii in 20 unmanaged forests stands across a broad range of environmental conditions in northeastern Washington, USA. We aimed to 1) identify the biotic and abiotic attributes most closely associated with the responses of individual trees to drought and 2) quantify the variability in drought responses at different spatial scales. We found that growth rates and competition for resources significantly affected resistance to a severe drought event in 2001: slow-growing trees and trees growing in subordinate canopy positions and/or with more neighbors suffered greater declines in radial growth during the drought event. In contrast, the ability of a tree to return to normal growth when climatic conditions improved (resilience) was unaffected by competition or relative growth rates. Drought responses were significantly influenced by tree age: older trees were more resistant but less resilient than younger trees. Finally, we found differences between resistance and resilience in spatial scale: a significant proportion (approximately 50%) of the variability in drought resistance across the study area was at broad spatial scales (i.e. among different forest types), most likely due to differences in the total amount of precipitation received at different elevations; in contrast, variation in resilience was overwhelmingly (82%) at the level of individual trees within stands and there was no difference in drought resilience among forest types

  5. Inheritance of germinative energy and germinative capacity in Douglas-fir (United States)

    Thomas E. Greathouse


    In the West foresters have had considerable difficulty in reforesting south-facing slopes. We considered this problem when we selected plus-trees for the first Douglas-fir seed orchard in Region 6. We were, however, faced with the need to answer such questions as these: (1) Should we try to produce seed inherently suited for south slopes? (2) If so, should we strive to...

  6. Manipulating stand structure of Douglas-fir plantations for wildlife habitat and wood production (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington


    In southwestern Oregon, a study was initiated by Oregon State University (OSU) in 1983 to determine effects of hardwood competition on Douglas-fir plantation development. The use of herbicides to uniformly suppress competing vegetation—especially fast-growing hardwoods—proved to be an effective approach to ensure dominance and a high level of productivity for planted...

  7. Genetic variation in basic density and modulus of elasticity of coastal Douglas-fir. (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; B.L. Gartner


    Douglas-fir trees from 39 open-pollinated families at four test locations were assessed to estimate heritability of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and basic density. Heritability estimates of MOE (across-site h = 0.55) were larger than those for total height (0.15) and diameter at breast height (DBH; 0.29), and similar to those for density (0.59)....

  8. Automated knot detection with visual post-processing of Douglas-fir veneer images (United States)

    C.L. Todoroki; Eini C. Lowell; Dennis Dykstra


    Knots on digital images of 51 full veneer sheets, obtained from nine peeler blocks crosscut from two 35-foot (10.7 m) long logs and one 18-foot (5.5 m) log from a single Douglas-fir tree, were detected using a two-phase algorithm. The algorithm was developed using one image, the Development Sheet, refined on five other images, the Training Sheets, and then applied to...

  9. Lumber and veneer recovery from intensively managed young-growth Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Thomas D. Fahey; James M. Cahill; Thomas A. Snellgrove; Linda S. Heath


    The objective of the study was to develop models that predict lumber and veneer recovery as a function of young-growth log characteristics. Empirical lumber and veneer recovery data for logs cut from more than 300 young-growth Douglas-fir trees were used in model development. Trees were sampled from 15 stands in western Oregon and Washington and represent a wide range...

  10. How Do Trees Know When to Flower? Predicting Reproductive Phenology of Douglas-fir with Changing Winter and Spring Temperatures (United States)

    Prevey, J.; St Clair, B.; Harrington, C.


    Flowering at the right time is one of the primary ways that plants are adapted to their environment. Trees that flower too early risk cold damage to vulnerable new tissues and those that flower too late miss peak resources or may mistime flowering to coincide with other trees, altering outcrossing rates and gene flow. Past observations indicate that temperature cues over winter and spring influence the timing of flowering in many tree species. Understanding these cues is important for predicting how flowering phenology of trees will change with a changing climate.We developed predictive models of flowering for Douglas-fir, an abundant and commercially important tree in the Pacific Northwest. We assembled over 10,000 flowering observations of trees from 11 sites across western Oregon and Washington. We modeled the dates of flowering using hourly temperature data; our models of flowering were adapted from previous models of vegetative budburst and height growth initiation developed for Douglas-fir. Preliminary results show that both chilling (cold) and forcing (warm) temperatures over winter and spring are important determinants of flowering time for Douglas-fir. This suggests that as spring temperatures warm in the future, Douglas-fir across the Pacific Northwest will flower earlier, unless plants experience insufficient chilling over winter, in which case it is possible that Douglas-fir may flower later than in the past, or not flower at all. At one site, Douglas-fir genotypes from different geographic regions flowered in the same order from year to year, indicating that both temperature and heredity influence flowering. Knowledge of the environmental and genetic cues that drive the timing of flowering can help predict how changes in temperature under various climate models could change flowering time across sites. These models may also indicate the geographic areas where future climate could enhance or reduce flowering of Douglas-fir in the future.

  11. Five-year field trials using preservative-treated, second-growth Douglas-fir exposed in ground contact in Australia (United States)

    Rodney C. De Groot; Douglas M. Crawford; Jack Norton; John Keith


    The durability of preservative-treated stakes of second-growth Coastal Douglas-fir was evaluated in a field plot in northern Queensland, Australia. Results from this field trial indicate that second-growth Douglas-fir can be treated with preservatives to meet Australian standards and will provide long-term durability in adverse environments. Data presented indicate...

  12. Ecological impacts of using chloropicrin to control laminated root rot in Northwest conifer forests: growth and mycorrhiza formation of planted Douglas-fir seedlings after two growing seasons. (United States)

    Michael A. Castellano; Donaraye McKay; Walter G. Thles


    Bareroot Douglas-fir seedlings inoculated with Rhizopogon sp. and processed by standard nursery and reforestation procedures performed equally well whether planted near Douglas-fir stumps previously fumigated with two dosages of chloropicrin to control Phellinus weirii infection or near stumps not fumigated. Before stump-...

  13. Comparative study of long-term water uptake of Norway spruce and Douglas-fir in Moravian upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhdina Nadezhda


    Full Text Available Long-term water uptake of Douglas-fir and Norway spruce trees, growing in condition of Moravian upland, was studied with aim of comparing sap flow in small roots with flow in stems. Sap flow was measured by the heat field deformation method using multi-point sensors for stems and single-point sensors for roots. Differences between species were found in relationships between sap flow in tree stems and water uptake by roots, suggesting that Douglas-fir is able to take water from deeper soil more efficiently than spruce. This allows Douglas-fir to transpire more water especially during drought and grow faster than spruce. These biological features should be taken into account for future forest species compositions because they may have impact on both, forestry and hydrology.

  14. Relationships among foliar phenology, radial growth rate, and xylem density in a young Douglas-fir plantation (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Constance A. Harrington


    We related intraannual patterns in radial growth rate and xylem density to foliar phenology and second growth flushes in a young Douglas-fir plantation in western Washington. Three foliar maturity classes were defined: (1) shoots and needles elongating; (2) elongation complete, needles maturing; and (3) needles mature. Diameter growth rate had two peaks, one about the...

  15. Hot Water and Copper Coatings in Reused Containers Decrease Inoculum of Fusarium and Cylindrocarpon and Increase Douglas Fir Seedling Growth (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Robert L. James; David L. Wenny


    Inoculum of Douglas fir root diseases caused by the fungi Fusarium and Cylindrocarpon is carried from crop to crop in reused containers. Soaking containers for 90 seconds in 80 °C water removed ~99% of Fusarium and 100% of Cylindrocarpon inoculum between growing cycles. Overall seedling growth was also improved:...

  16. Hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic capacity as constraints on release from suppression in Douglas-fir and western hemlock. (United States)

    Renninger H.J.; Meinzer F.C.; B.L. Gartner


    We compared hydraulic architecture, photosynthesis, and growth in Douglas-fir with that of a shade-tolerant western hemlock. The study was conducted in a site that had been thinned to release suppressed trees, and one that remained unthinned. Release seemed to be constrained initially by photosynthetic capacity in both species. After released trees increased their...

  17. Bioassays of TH6038 and difluron applied to western spruce budworm and Douglas-fir Tussock moth (United States)

    Nancy L. Gillette; Jacqueline L. Robertson; Robert L. Lyon


    Two insects molt inhibitors, TH6038 N-[[4-cholorphenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-dichlorobenzamide) and difluron (N-[[(4-chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-difluorobenzamide), were tested for topical and feeding toxicity to the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, and the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata...

  18. Development of a hybrid modeling approach for predicting intensively managed Douglas-fir growth at multiple scales. (United States)

    A. Weiskittel; D. Maguire; R. Monserud


    Hybrid models offer the opportunity to improve future growth projections by combining advantages of both empirical and process-based modeling approaches. Hybrid models have been constructed in several regions and their performance relative to a purely empirical approach has varied. A hybrid model was constructed for intensively managed Douglas-fir plantations in the...

  19. Slow and fast pyrolysis of Douglas-fir lignin: Importance of liquid-intermediate formation on the distribution of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; van Kuppevelt, Michiel; McDonald, Armando G.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel


    The formation of liquid intermediates and the distribution of products were studied under slow and fast pyrolysis conditions. Results indicate that monomers are formed from lignin oligomeric products during secondary reactions, rather than directly from the native lignin. Lignin from Douglas-fir

  20. Wolfiporia cocos : a potential agent for composting of bioprocessing Douglas-fir wood treated with copper-based preservatives (United States)

    Rodney. De Groot; Bessie. Woodward


    In laboratory experiments, Douglas-fir wood blocks that were treated with copper- based wood preservatives were challenged with two wood decay fungi known to be tolerant of copper. Factors influencing the amount of decay, as determined by loss of weight in the test blocks, were preservative, then fungus. Within those combinations, the relative importance of...

  1. Initial thinning effects in 70- to 150-year-old Douglas-fir--western Oregon and Washington. (United States)

    Richard L. Williamson; Frank E. Price


    Vigorous, mature (post-rotation age) Douglas-fir stands will probably exist for another 50 years or more on some properties in western Oregon and Washington. Intermediate harvests in the form of thinnings were analyzed on nine study areas ranging from 70 to 150 years old when thinned. Recoverable cubic-volume growth, averaging 81 percent of normal...

  2. Seasonal carbohydrate dynamics and growth in Douglas-fir trees experiencing chronic, fungal-mediated reduction in functional leaf area (United States)

    B. J. Saffell; F. C. Meinzer; D. R. Woodruff; D. C. Shaw; S. L. Voelker; B. Lachenbruch; K. Falk


    Stored non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) could play an important role in tree survival in the face of a changing climate and associated stress-related mortality. We explored the effects of the stomata-blocking and defoliating fungal disease called Swiss needle cast on Douglas-fir carbohydrate reserves and growth to evaluate the extent to which NSCs can be mobilized...

  3. Growth of White fir after Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks: long-term records in the Sierra Nevada. (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman


    Radial growth of white fir trees, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr., defoliated almost 30 years ago by Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), in the central Sierra Nevada was compared with 22 years of growth prior to the outbreak. There was little difference in growth between the two...

  4. Calibration of volume and component biomass equations for Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine in Western Oregon forests (United States)

    Krishna P. Poudel; Temesgen. Hailemariam


    Using data from destructively sampled Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine trees, we evaluated the performance of regional volume and component biomass equations in terms of bias and RMSE. The volume and component biomass equations were calibrated using three different adjustment methods that used: (a) a correction factor based on ordinary least square regression through...

  5. Assessing the Ability of Ground-Penetrating Radar to Detect Fungal Decay in Douglas-Fir Beams (United States)

    Christopher Adam Senalik; James Wacker; Xiping Wang; F. Jalinoos


    This paper describes the testing plan and current progress for assessing the efficacy of using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect fungal decay within Douglas-fir beams. Initially, the beams were assessed using a variety of physical, mechanical, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) test methods including micro-resistance drilling, Janka hardness, ultrasonic...

  6. Simulating historical disturbance regimes and stand structures in old-forest ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests (United States)

    Mike Hillis; Vick Applegate; Steve Slaughter; Michael G. Harrington; Helen Smith


    Forest Service land managers, with the collaborative assistance from research, applied a disturbance based restoration strategy to rehabilitate a greatly-altered, high risk Northern Rocky Mountain old-forest ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir stand. Age-class structure and fire history for the site have been documented in two research papers (Arno and others 1995, 1997)....

  7. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell


    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  8. Tree growth and soil relations at the 1925 Wind River spacing test in coast Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Donald L. Reukema; Harry W. Anderson


    The 1925 Wind River spacing test is the earliest field trial seeking to determine the most appropriate spacing for planting Douglas-fir. Spacing treatments were not replicated, although individual spacings were subsampled by two to four tree-measurement plots. Previously, greater growth occurred at the wider spacings (10 and 12 ft) than at the closer spacings (4, 5, 6...

  9. Biomass removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control effects on five-year growth of Douglas-fir in coastal Washington. (United States)

    A. Ares; T. Terry; C. Harrington; W. Devine; D. Peter; J. Bailey


    Sustainable forest production requires an understanding of the effects of site disturbance on tree growth and the consequences of soil amelioration and vegetation control practices. We assessed the impacts of biomass removals at harvest, soil compaction and tillage, and vegetation control on early growth of Douglas-fir in coastal Washington. Harvest treatments included...

  10. A stump-to-truck cost estimating program for cable logging young-growth Douglas-fir (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux


    WCOST is a computer program designed to estimate the stump-to-truck logging cost of cable logging young-growth Douglas-fir. The program uses data from stand inventory, cruise data, and the logging plan for the tract in question to produce detailed stump-to-truck cost estimates for specific proposed timber sales. These estimates are then used, in combination with...

  11. Análisis de sequías y productividad con cronologías de Pseudotsuga menziesii Rob. & Fern., y su asociación con El Niño en el nordeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rafaela Arreola-Ortiz


    Full Text Available Con tres cronologías de Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco obtenidas en la Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO, en el estado de Nuevo León, México, se determinaron periodos de sequías y productividad analizando el patrón de crecimiento radial durante un lapso de 120 años. Se estudió la asociación entre el índice de crecimiento radial de las cronologías y los registros instrumentales de factores climáticos (precipitación y temperatura, obtenidos de cuatro estaciones meteorológicas vecinas a los sitios de muestreo. Se asociaron las cronologías con el índice multivariado del ENSO (MEI. Los resultados indican que en las cronologías resaltan cuatro periodos de sequías que se presentaron entre los años: 1885-1903, 1907-1937, 1950-1963 y 1998-2003. La productividad disminuye notablemente de 1.18 mm año-1 de crecimiento radial en épocas húmedas a 0.82 mm año-1 durante la presencia de sequías. Existe buena asociación entre el Índice de Crecimiento Radial Estandarizado (ICRE de las cronologías con la precipitación invernal observada. La reconstrucción de la precipitación invernal basada en las cronologías, muestra un ascenso paulatino a través del tiempo, desde 1880 hasta 2003. La correlación del ICRE de las tres cronologías y el MEI presenta buena asociación en la mayoría de los meses del año, principalmente, durante los meses que cubren las estaciones de otoño, invierno y primavera, indicando que el crecimiento del ancho de los anillos se ve favorecido con la presencia de bajas temperaturas y precipitaciones por arriba del promedio durante el invierno o la etapas primarias de la primavera.

  12. Selecting Populations for Non-Analogous Climate Conditions Using Universal Response Functions: The Case of Douglas-Fir in Central Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Wang, Tongli; Andre, Konrad; Konnert, Monika; Lexer, Manfred J; Matulla, Christoph; Schueler, Silvio


    ... of seed sources and potential growing areas. In the present study, we analyzed the intraspecific variation in climate growth response of Douglas-fir planted within the non-analogous climate conditions of Central and continental Europe...

  13. Fermentative high-titer ethanol production from Douglas-fir forest residue without detoxification using SPORL: high SO2 loading at low temperature (United States)

    Feng Gu; William Gilles; Roland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu


    This study evaluated high sulfur dioxide (SO2) loading in applying Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) to Douglas-fir forest residue (FS-10) for ethanol production through yeast fermentation. Three pretreatments were conducted at 140

  14. Some observations of wood density and anatomical properties in a Douglas-fir sample with suppressed growth (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; David W. Vahey; C. Tim Scott


    This study used ring width correlations to examine the effects of tree-growth suppression on within-tree local wood density and tracheid anatomical properties. A wood core sample was taken from a 70-yr-old Douglas-fir that grew under various degrees of suppression in a natural forest setting. SilviScan and an imaging technique were used to obtain wood density and...

  15. Southward Pleistocene migration of Douglas-fir into Mexico: phylogeography, ecological niche modeling, and conservation of 'rear edge' populations. (United States)

    Gugger, Paul F; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rodríguez-Correa, Hernando; Sugita, Shinya; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine


    • Poleward Pleistocene plant migration has been an important process structuring modern temperate and boreal plant communities, but the contribution of equatorward migration remains poorly understood. Paleobotanical evidence suggests Miocene or Pleistocene origin for temperate 'sky island' plant taxa in Mexico. These 'rear edge' populations situated in a biodiversity hotspot may be an important reserve of genetic diversity in changing climates. • We used mtDNA sequences, cpDNA sequences and chloroplast microsatellites to test hypotheses of Miocene vs Pleistocene colonization of temperate Douglas-fir in Mexico, explore geographic patterns of molecular variation in relation to Pleistocene climate history using ecological niche models, and assess the taxonomic and conservation implications. • We found strong evidence for Pleistocene divergence of Douglas-fir in Mexico (958 thousand yr before present (ka) with the 90% highest posterior density interval ranging from 1.6 million yr before present (Ma) to 491 ka), consistent with the southward Pleistocene migration hypothesis. Genetic diversity was high and strongly partitioned among populations. Spatial patterns of molecular variation and ecological niche models suggest a complex late Pleistocene history involving periods of isolation and expansion along mountain corridors. • These results highlight the importance of southward Pleistocene migration in establishing modern high-diversity plant communities and provide critical insights into proposals to conserve the unique biodiversity of Mexican Douglas-fir and associated taxa. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Assessing Douglas-Fir Seedling Establishment Using Two Modified Forestry Reclamation Approaches in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colton Miller


    Full Text Available The Forestry Reclamation Approach uses uncompacted, mounded spoils to reforest mined-land and has been successful in hardwood forests in the Appalachian region. A surface coalmine reclamation site in the Pacific Northwest was used to compare the site’s standard reclamation approach (Reference with a modified version of the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA along with a modified FRA treatment that also incorporated an amendment of bottom ash from the coal burning power plant on-site (FRA + Ash. Survival and growth were followed for three growing seasons in bareroot and container Douglas-fir seedlings. Soil characteristics and understory cover were also assessed. Considerable variation in microsite characteristics was observed in the study area. Container seedlings did not improve survival compared to bareroot seedlings. In the soil reclamation treatments, seedling survival was significantly higher in FRA + Ash treatments compared to FRA and Reference treatments at the end of the second growing season. Survival declined in each year of the study, but the order of treatment effectiveness did not change. Relativized growth increment was significantly higher in the FRA treatment compared to both the Reference and FRA + Ash treatments during the third growing season. Understory cover was established after three years, but varied substantially across the study area.

  17. The importance of amino sugar turnover to C and N cycling in organic horizons of old-growth Douglas-fir forest soils colonized by ectomycorrhizal mats (United States)

    L. Zeglin; L.A. Kluber; D.D. Myrold


    Amino sugar dynamics represent an important but under-investigated component of the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in old-growth Douglas-fir forest soils. Because fungal biomass is high in these soils, particularly in areas colonized by rhizomorphic ectomycorrhizal fungal mats, organic matter derived from chitinous cell wall material (or the monomeric building...

  18. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 08—The LOGS Study, 20-year results. (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; David D. Marshall


    This progress report reviews the history and status of the cooperative levels-of-growing-stock study in coast Douglas-fir, begun in 1961, in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. It presents new analyses, including comparisons among some installations. Data now available are primarily from the site II installations, which are approaching completion of the study....

  19. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and sulfuric acid during the fast pyrolysis of cellulose and douglas fir in an atmospheric pressure wire mesh reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zhouhong; Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; Westerhof, Roel J M; Garcia-Perez, Manuel


    The goal of this study is to better understand important reactions responsible for the suppression of anhydrosugars during the pyrolysis of microcrystalline Avicel, ball-milled Avicel, levoglucosan, cellobiosan, and Douglas fir at varied pyrolysis conditions (heating rate 100°C/s, temperature

  20. The relation between fine root density and proximity of stems in closed Douglas-fir plantations on homogen[e]ous sandy soils: implications for sampling design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, A.F.M.; Klap, J.M.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.


    Studies have been carried out in two fully stocked, fast growing Douglas-fir plantations of the Dutch ACIFORN project in three consecutive years, to obtain information on fine root densities (Olsthoorn 1991). For the present paper, data collected in early summer 1987 were used to study the relation

  1. Ethanol and acetone from Douglas-fir roots stressed by Phellinus sulphurascens infection: Implications for detecting diseased trees and for beetle host selection (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; Gladwin Joseph; Doug Westlind; Walter G. Thies


    Phellinus sulphurascens (previously the Douglas-fir form of Phellinus weirii) is an important native pathogen causing laminated root rot in forests of western North America. Visual crown symptoms, or attacks by bark or ambrosia beetles appear only during advanced stages of the disease with extensive infection in the lower bole...

  2. Using sulfite chemistry for robust bioconversion of Douglas-fir forest residue to bioethanol at high titer and lignosulfonate: A pilot-scale evaluation (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; M. Subhosh Chandra; Feng Gu; Roland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu; John Sessions; Gevan Marrs; Johnway Gao; Dwight Anderson


    This study demonstrated at the pilot-scale (50 kg) use of Douglas-fir forest harvest residue, an underutilized forest biomass, for the production of high titer and high yield bioethanol using sulfite chemistry without solid–liquor separation and detoxification. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) was directly applied to the...

  3. Historical patterns of western spruce budworm and Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks in the northern Blue Mountains, Oregon, since A.D. 1700. (United States)

    Thomas Swetnam; Boyd E. Wickman; H. Gene Paul; Christopher H. Baisan


    Dendroecology methods were used to reconstruct a three-century history of western spruce budworm and Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. Comparisons of 20th century Forest Service documentary records and host and nonhost tree-ring width chronologies provided an objective basis for distinguishing climatic effects from insect-...

  4. Microsatellite markers reveal the below ground distribution of genets in two species of Rhizopogon forming tuberculate ectomycorrhizas on Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Annette M. Kretzer; Susie Dunham; Randy Molina; Joseph W. Spatafora


    We have developed microsatellite markers for two sister species of Rhizopogon, R. vesiculosus and R. vinicolor (Boletales, Basidiomycota), and used selected markers to investigate genet size and distribution from ectomycorrhizal samples. Both species form ectomycorrhizas with tuberculate morphology on Douglas-fir (...

  5. A collaborative fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration stewardship project in a Montana mixed ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface (United States)

    Steve Slaughter; Laura Ward; Michael Hillis; Jim Chew; Rebecca McFarlan


    Forest Service managers and researchers designed and evaluated alternative disturbance-based fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration treatments in a greatly altered low-elevation ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface. Collaboratively planned improvement cutting and prescribed fire treatment alternatives were evaluated in simulations of...


    We are attempting to identify specific root fragments from soil cores with individual trees. We successfully used Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) to distinguish neighboring old-growth Douglas-fir trees from one another, while maintaining identity among each tree's parts. W...

  7. Influence of slash burning on regeneration, other plant cover, and fire hazard in the Douglas-fir region (a progress report). (United States)

    William G. Morris


    In the Douglas-fir region, is slash burning ultimately good or bad practice? During the early 1940's whenever a group of foresters, met to discuss management or silviculture of that region, they usually debated this question. Until then they had burned slash in most clear cuttings east of the narrow coastal fog belt as accepted practice. Fire...

  8. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study on Douglas-fir: report no. 02—The Hoskins Study, 1963-1970. (United States)

    John F. Bell; Alan B. Berg


    Public and private agencies are cooperating in a study of eight thinning regimes in young Douglas-fir stands. Regimes differ in the amount of basal area allowed to accrue in growing stock at each successive thinning. All regimes start with a common level-of-growing-stock which is established by a conditioning thinning. Thinning interval is...


    We conducted a 4-year full-factorial study of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing in reconstructed native forest soils in mesocosms. The elevated CO2 treatment was ambient CO2 plus 200 ppm CO2. The elevated temperature treatm...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A series of experiments using the Douglas fir as the subject of research were performed in hydroculture. Different relative nutrient addition rates were used prior to and after plants had been inoculated with Laccaria bicolor. The effect of the resulting nutrient conditions on mycorrhiza formation

  11. Effects of silviculture and genetics on branch/knot attributes of coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir and implications for wood quality--a synthesis (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Douglas A. Maguire; David G. Briggs; Eric C. Turnblom; Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; Jed. Bryce


    Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few...

  12. Effects of Silviculture and Genetics on Branch/Knot Attributes of Coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir and Implications for Wood Quality—A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eini C. Lowell


    Full Text Available Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few decades. Cultural treatments and genetic improvement designed to increase production of utilizable wood volume also impact tree morphology and wood properties. Many of these impacts are mediated by crown development, particularly the amount and distribution of foliage and size and geometry of branches. Natural selection for branch architecture that optimizes reproductive fitness may not necessarily be optimal for stem volume growth rate or for wood properties controlling the quality of manufactured solid wood products. Furthermore, Douglas-fir does not self-prune within the rotation lengths currently practiced. This paper synthesizes extensive Douglas-fir research in the Pacific Northwest addressing: (1 the effects of silviculture and genetics on branch structure and associated consequences for wood quality and the product value chain; and (2 methods to measure, monitor, modify, and model branch attributes to assist managers in selecting appropriate silvicultural techniques to achieve wood quality objectives and improve the value of their Douglas-fir resource.

  13. Will changes in phenology track climate change? A study of growth initiation timing in coast Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Harrington, Constance A; Bansal, Sheel; Gould, Peter J; St Clair, J Bradley


    Under climate change, the reduction of frost risk, onset of warm temperatures and depletion of soil moisture are all likely to occur earlier in the year in many temperate regions. The resilience of tree species will depend on their ability to track these changes in climate with shifts in phenology that lead to earlier growth initiation in the spring. Exposure to warm temperatures ('forcing') typically triggers growth initiation, but many trees also require exposure to cool temperatures ('chilling') while dormant to readily initiate growth in the spring. If warming increases forcing and decreases chilling, climate change could maintain, advance or delay growth initiation phenology relative to the onset of favorable conditions. We modeled the timing of height- and diameter-growth initiation in coast Douglas-fir (an ecologically and economically vital tree in western North America) to determine whether changes in phenology are likely to track changes in climate using data from field-based and controlled-environment studies, which included conditions warmer than those currently experienced in the tree's range. For high latitude and elevation portions of the tree's range, our models predicted that warming will lead to earlier growth initiation and allow trees to track changes in the onset of the warm but still moist conditions that favor growth, generally without substantially greater exposure to frost. In contrast, toward lower latitude and elevation range limits, the models predicted that warming will lead to delayed growth initiation relative to changes in climate due to reduced chilling, with trees failing to capture favorable conditions in the earlier parts of the spring. This maladaptive response to climate change was more prevalent for diameter-growth initiation than height-growth initiation. The decoupling of growth initiation with the onset of favorable climatic conditions could reduce the resilience of coast Douglas-fir to climate change at the warm edges of

  14. Financial analysis of early stand treatments in southwest Oregon. (United States)

    Helge Eng; K. Norman Johnson; Roger D. Fight


    Management guidelines for economically efficient early stand treatments were developed by identifying treatments that would maximize financial returns over the rotation for coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in southwest Oregon. Short rotations and low stand densities (trees per acre) gave...

  15. Modelling dominant height growth in plantations of Pseudotsuga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for predicting dominant height growth and site index of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco in Spain was constructed. Data from stem analysis of 117 site trees were used. Four dynamic equations using the algebraic difference approach (ADA) and its generalisation (GADA), which have provided good results in ...

  16. Biomass conversion and expansion factors in Douglas-fir stands of different planting density: variation according to individual growth and prediction equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marziliano, P.A.; Menguzzato, G.; Scuderi, A.; Scalise, C.; Coletta, V.


    Aim of study: We built biomass expansion factors (BCEFs) from Douglas-fir felled trees planted with different planting densities to evaluate the differences according tree size and planting density. Area of study: The Douglas-fir plantation under study is located on the northern coastal chain of Calabria (Tyrrhenian side) south Italy. Materials and methods: We derived tree level BCEFs, relative to crown (BCEFc), to stem (BCEFst = basic density, BD) and total above-ground (BCEFt) from destructive measurements carried out in a Douglas-fir plantation where four study plots were selected according to different planting densities (from 833 to 2500 trees per hectare). The measured BCEFs were regressed against diameter at breast height and total height, planting density, site productivity (SP) and their interactions to test the variation of BCEFs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey comparison test were used to test differences in BCEFt, BCEFc and in BD between plots with different planting density. Main results: BCEFs decreased with increasing total height and DBH, but large dispersion measures were obtained for any of the compartments in the analysis. An increasing trend with planting density was found for all the analyzed BCEFs, but together with planting density, BCEFs also resulted dependent upon site productivity. BCEFt average values ranged between 1.40 Mg m-3 in planting density with 833 trees/ha (PD833) to 2.09 Mg m-3 in planting density with 2500 trees/ha (PD2500), which are in the range of IPCC prescribed values for Douglas-fir trees. Research highlights: Our results showed that the application of BCEF to estimate forest biomass in stands with different planting densities should explicitly account for the effect of planting density and site productivity.

  17. Evaluation of a boron-nitrogen, phosphate-free fire-retardant treatment. Part I, Testing of Douglas-fir plywood per ASTM Standard D 5516-96 (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Michael J. Richards


    The objective of this work was to evaluate (a) the effects of a new boron– nitrogen, phosphate-free fire-retardant (FR) formulation on the initial strength of Douglas-fir AB-grade plywood and (b) the potential of this FR treatment to experience subsequent thermal degradation In-service when exposed to elevated temperatures. Test Method ASTM D 5516 was generally...

  18. Seasonal variation of degree-day accumulation in relation to phenology of western spruce budworm, Douglas-fir tussock moth, and host trees in northeastern Oregon. (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman


    The annual variation of degree-days and early summer phenology of Douglas-fir tussock moth, western spruce budworm, and their host trees was monitored over five to six seasons at two locations in the Blue Mountains. Accumulated degree-days and the phenology of bud burst and larval development were consistent and comparable at the two sites. Either degree-days or shoot...

  19. Influence of zinc excess on the growth of tree species in southeastern North Brabant. [Douglas fir; Scots pine; Corsican pine; birch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Burg, J.; van Goor, C.P.; Oldekamp, L.


    After afforestation soils have deteriorated by removal of litter. In order to investigate the possibilities of improving the nutrient status of the soil, fertilization research was carried out during the period 1956-1959, mainly with Douglas fir. Data on the needle composition of Douglas fir showed that nutrition was poor. Results of NPK fertilization of Douglas fir in some field trials were disappointing: some increased growth was observed but less than in comparable field trials in afforestations on heathlands in other parts of the Netherlands. The Zn content of ''healthy'' young stands (26-70 ppm) was much lower than the Zn content of ''unhealthy'' young stands (96-221 ppm). Research on the problem of Zn excess was undertaken after 1960 and concentrated in the forest areas in the vicinity of Someren and Budel, nearby a zinc factory. Tree species investigated were Scots pine, Corsican pine and birch. The results of fertilizer trials around Someren showed that besides Zn excess (An contents of needles mainly between 100 and 200 ppm) the poor fertility played an important role in reducing growth. Positive results were obtained with NK treatments and in some cases with liming, which reduced the Zn content of the needles. In the area around Budel (where the Zn content of the needles was 200-750 ppm) both liming and phosphate fertilizer reduced the Zn content of the needles and increased growth.

  20. Nutrient-cycling microbes in Coastal Douglas-fir forests: Regional-scale correlation between communities, in situ climate, and other factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip-Edouard eShay


    Full Text Available Microbes such as fungi and bacteria play fundamental roles in litter-decay and nutrient-cycling; however their communities may respond differently than plants to climate change. The structure (diversity, richness and evenness and composition of microbial communities in climate transects of mature Douglas-fir stands of coastal British Columbia rainshadow forests was analysed, in order to assess in situ variability due to different temperature and moisture regimes. We compared DGGE profiles of fungi (18S-FF390/FR1, nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NifH-universal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AmoA PCR amplicons in forest floor and mineral soil samples from three transects located at different latitudes, each transect spanning the Coastal Western Hemlock and Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zones. Composition of microbial communities in both soil layers was related to degree days above 0°C (2725 - 3489, while pH (3.8 - 5.5 best explained shifts in community structure. At this spatial scale, climatic conditions were likely to directly or indirectly select for different microbial species while local site heterogeneity influenced community structure. Significant changes in microbial community composition and structure were related to differences as small as 2.47% and 2.55°C in mean annual moisture and temperature variables, respectively. The climatic variables best describing microbial composition changed from one functional group to the next; in general they did not alter community structure. Spatial distance, especially associated with latitude, was also important in accounting for community variability (4 - 23%; but to a lesser extent than the combined influence of climate and soil characteristics (14 - 25%. Results suggest that in-situ climate can independently account for some patterns of microbial biogeography in coastal Douglas-fir forests. The distribution of up to 43% of nutrient-cycling microorganisms detected in forest soils responded to smaller

  1. Nutrient-cycling microbes in coastal Douglas-fir forests: regional-scale correlation between communities, in situ climate, and other factors. (United States)

    Shay, Philip-Edouard; Winder, Richard S; Trofymow, J A


    Microbes such as fungi and bacteria play fundamental roles in litter-decay and nutrient-cycling; however, their communities may respond differently than plants to climate change. The structure (diversity, richness, and evenness) and composition of microbial communities in climate transects of mature Douglas-fir stands of coastal British Columbia rainshadow forests was analyzed, in order to assess in situ variability due to different temperature and moisture regimes. We compared denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of fungi (18S-FF390/FR1), nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NifH-universal) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AmoA) polymerase chain reaction amplicons in forest floor and mineral soil samples from three transects located at different latitudes, each transect spanning the Coastal Western Hemlock and Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zones. Composition of microbial communities in both soil layers was related to degree days above 0°C (2725-3489), while pH (3.8-5.5) best explained shifts in community structure. At this spatial scale, climatic conditions were likely to directly or indirectly select for different microbial species while local site heterogeneity influenced community structure. Significant changes in microbial community composition and structure were related to differences as small as 2.47% and 2.55°C in mean annual moisture and temperature variables, respectively. The climatic variables best describing microbial composition changed from one functional group to the next; in general they did not alter community structure. Spatial distance, especially associated with latitude, was also important in accounting for community variability (4-23%); but to a lesser extent than the combined influence of climate and soil characteristics (14-25%). Results suggest that in situ climate can independently account for some patterns of microbial biogeography in coastal Douglas-fir forests. The distribution of up to 43% of nutrient-cycling microorganisms detected in

  2. Biophysical controls of carbon flows in three successional Douglas-fir stands on eddy-covariance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J. [Toledo Univ., Earth, Ecological and Environmental Sience, Toledo, OH (United States); Falk, M.; Paw U, K. T.; Ustin, S. L. [California Univ., Dept. of Land, Air and Water Resources, Davis CA (United States); Euskirchen, E.; Bi, R. [Michigan Technological Univ., School of Forestyry and Wood Products, Houghton, MI (United States); Suchanek, T. H. [California Univ., Dept of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology, Davis, CA (United States); Bond, B. J. [Oregon State Univ. College of Forest Resources, Corvallis, OR (United States); Brosofske, K. D. [Rhode Island Univ., Dept. of Natural Resources Science, Kingston, RI (United States); Phillips, N. [Boston Univ., Dept. of Geography, Boston, MA (United States)


    Carbon flux (F{sub C}O{sub 2}) and net water (H{sub 2}O)Flux were measured by the eddy-covariance method at three Douglas fir -western hemlock sites located in the Wind River Valley of Washington State. The stands were approximately 20, 40 and 450 years old. Measurements were made between June 15 and October 15 of 1998 for the 40 and 450 year old stands, and of 1999 in the 20- and 450-year old stands. The objective was to determine differences, if any, among the stands in: (1) patterns of daytime carbon dioxide flux during summer and autumn; (2) empirically modelled relationships between local climatic factors and daytime carbon dioxide flux; (3) water use efficiency. The Landsberg equation, a logarithmic power function and linear regression was used to model the relationships between carbon dioxide flux and physical variables. During summer and early autumn carbon dioxide variance averaged 4.1 and 6.2 micromol m{sup 2}s{sup 1} at the 20 and 40 year-old stand respectively. In the 450 year-old stand carbon dioxide flux averaged 2.2. and 3.2 micromol m{sup 2}s{sup 1}in 1998 and 1999 respectively. Increases in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were associated with reduced carbon dioxide flux at all three stands. The greatest apparent constraint was observed in the old-growth stand. Correlations between carbon dioxide flux and environmental variables differed among ecosystems. Soil temperature showed the greatest negative correlation and net radiation the greatest positive correlation. Water use efficiency was significantly greater in the old-growth stand in the drier summer of 1998 than in 1999. 41 refs., 1 tab. 7 figs.

  3. Structure and Dynamics of Experimentally Introduced and Naturally Occurring Laccaria sp. Discrete Genotypes in a Douglas Fir Plantation (United States)

    Selosse, Marc-André; Martin, Francis; Bouchard, Daniel; le Tacon, François


    Ectomycorrhizal fungi have been introduced in forest nurseries to improve seedling growth. Outplanting of inoculated seedlings to forest plantations raises the questions about inoculant persistence and its effects on indigenous fungal populations. We previously showed (M.-A. Selosse et al. Mol. Ecol. 7:561–573, 1998) that the American strain Laccaria bicolor S238N persisted 10 years after outplanting in a French Douglas fir plantation, without introgression or selfing and without fruiting on uninoculated adjacent plots. In the present study, the relevance of those results to sympatric strains was assessed for another part of the plantation, planted in 1985 with seedlings inoculated with the French strain L. bicolor 81306 or left uninoculated. About 720 Laccaria sp. sporophores, collected from 1994 to 1997, were typed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers and PCR amplification of the mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNAs. All plots were colonized by small spontaneous discrete genotypes (genets). The inoculant strain 81306 abundantly fruited beneath inoculated trees, with possible introgression in indigenous Laccaria populations but without selfing. In contrast to our previous survey of L. bicolor S238N, L. bicolor 81306 colonized a plot of uninoculated trees. Meiotic segregation analysis verified that the invading genet was strain 81306 (P < 0.00058), implying a vegetative growth of 1.1 m · year−1. This plot was also invaded in 1998 by strain S238N used to inoculate other trees of the plantation. Five other uninoculated plots were free of these inoculant strains. The fate of inoculant strains thus depends less on their geographic origin than on unknown local factors. PMID:10223992

  4. Foliar Temperature Gradients as Drivers of Budburst in Douglas-fir: New Applications of Thermal Infrared Imagery (United States)

    Miller, R.; Lintz, H. E.; Thomas, C. K.; Salino-Hugg, M. J.; Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.


    Budburst, the initiation of annual growth in plants, is sensitive to climate and is used to monitor physiological responses to climate change. Accurately forecasting budburst response to these changes demands an understanding of the drivers of budburst. Current research and predictive models focus on population or landscape-level drivers, yet fundamental questions regarding drivers of budburst diversity within an individual tree remain unanswered. We hypothesize that foliar temperature, an important physiological property, may be a dominant driver of differences in the timing of budburst within a single tree. Studying these differences facilitates development of high throughput phenotyping technology used to improve predictive budburst models. We present spatial and temporal variation in foliar temperature as a function of physical drivers culminating in a single-tree budburst model based on foliar temperature. We use a novel remote sensing approach, combined with on-site meteorological measurements, to demonstrate important intra-canopy differences between air and foliar temperature. We mounted a thermal infrared camera within an old-growth canopy at the H.J. Andrews LTER forest and imaged an 8m by 10.6m section of a Douglas-fir crown. Sampling one image per minute, approximately 30,000 thermal infrared images were collected over a one-month period to approximate foliar temperature before, during and after budburst. Using time-lapse photography in the visible spectrum, we documented budburst at fifteen-minute intervals with eight cameras stratified across the thermal infrared camera's field of view. Within the imaged tree's crown, we installed a pyranometer, 2D sonic anemometer and fan-aspirated thermohygrometer and collected 3,000 measurements of net shortwave radiation, wind speed, air temperature and relative humidity. We documented a difference of several days in the timing of budburst across both vertical and horizontal gradients. We also observed clear

  5. Effect of tree-growth rate on papermaking fibre properties (United States)

    J. Y. Zhu; D. W. Vahey; C. T. Scott; G. C. Myers


    Measurements of wood density and anatomical properties of wood disks were conducted by SilviScan (CSIRO Australia) and a new imaging technique. The disks included red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) obtained from a never-thinned experimental forest with five different plantation densities and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and lodgepole...

  6. Wildlife and invertebrate response to fuel reduction treatments in dry coniferous forests of the Western United States: a synthesis (United States)

    David S. Pilliod; Evelyn L. Bull; Jane L. Hayes; Barbara C. Wales


    This paper synthesizes available information on the effects of hazardous fuel reduction treatments on terrestrial wildlife and invertebrates in dry coniferous forest types in the West. We focused on thinning and/or prescribed fire studies in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and dry-type Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii),...

  7. Surface fire effects on conifer and hardwood crowns--applications of an integral plume model (United States)

    Matthew Dickinson; Anthony Bova; Kathleen Kavanagh; Antoine Randolph; Lawrence Band


    An integral plume model was applied to the problems of tree death from canopy injury in dormant-season hardwoods and branch embolism in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) crowns. Our purpose was to generate testable hypotheses. We used the integral plume models to relate crown injury to bole injury and to explore the effects of variation in fire...

  8. Bedrock type significantly affects individual tree mortality for various conifers in the inland Northwest, U.S.A (United States)

    James A. Moore; David A Hamilton; Yu Xiao; John Byrne


    Individual tree mortality models for western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex. D. Don), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) were developed using data...

  9. Current seed orchard techniques and innovations (United States)

    Lawrence K. Miller; Jeffrey DeBell


    As applied forest tree improvement programs in the US Northwest move forward into the third cycle, seed orchards remain as the primary source of genetically improved forest tree seed used for reforestation. The vast majority of seed orchards in this region are coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), consistent with the high economic importance of...

  10. Modeling effects of overstory density and competing vegetation on tree height growth (United States)

    Christian Salas; Albert R. Stage; Andrew P. Robinson


    We developed and evaluated an individual-tree height growth model for Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] in the Inland Northwest United States. The model predicts growth for all tree sizes continuously, rather than requiring a transition between independent models for juvenile and mature growth phases. The model predicts the effects...

  11. Growing reforestation conifer stock: Utilizing peat/sawdust medium (United States)

    Janice K. Schaefer


    Western Forest Systems, Incorporated (WFS) (Lewiston, ID) has been utilizing a peat/sawdust blended mix as our growing medium for the past 10 years. Our decision to change from a peat/vermiculite blend to a peat/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sawdust blend involved worker health and safety issues, seedling culture, seedling production, and...

  12. Does habitat matter in an urbanized landscape? The birds of the Garry oak (Quercus garryana) ecosystem of southeastern Vancouver Island (United States)

    Richard E. Feldman; Pamela G. Krannitz


    Garry oak (Quercus garryana) was once a dominant habitat type on southeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia but urbanization has severely fragmented and reduced its occurrence. This study tests whether bird abundance in remnant patches of Garry oak and adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is related to Garry oak volume...

  13. A spatial model for predicting effects of climate change on swiss needle cast disease severity in Pacific Northwest forests (United States)

    Jeffrey K. Stone; Leonard B. Coop; Daniel K. Manter


    Swiss needle cast disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is caused by the ascomycete fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Symptoms of the disease are foliage chlorosis and premature needle abscission due to occlusion of stomata by the ascocarps of the pathogen, resulting in impaired needle gas exchange. Severe defoliation...

  14. Cleaning to favor western white pine - its effects upon composition, growth, and potential values (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd


    The management of western white pine (Pinus monticola) requires the production of a high proportion of valuable white pine crop trees in order to defray the costs of protection from blister rust. Current average selling prices of lumber give white pine about $50 per m.b.f. advantage over western larch (Larix occidentalis) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), the...

  15. The 2002 Hayman Fire - ecological benefit or catastrophe? An understory plant community perspective (United States)

    Paula Fornwalt


    Fire has long been a keystone ecological process in Western forests. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of the Colorado Front Range, historical fires are believed to have been "mixed severity" in nature. That means that these fires are believed to have typically burned within a range of severities from low severity...

  16. Postplanting sprays of dalapon and atrazine to aid conifer establishment. (United States)

    Edward J. Dimock; Ernest B. Collard


    A mixture of dalapon and atrazine consistently controlled grasses of forbs better than either herbicide used alone. Sprayed over and around newly planted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco), the mixture doubled tree survival...

  17. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing Fusarium root disease on sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) in a forest container nursery in California (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; K. Otto; G. A. Cline; Kas Dumroese; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim


    Fusarium species, specifically F. commune, F. proliferatum, and F. solani, can cause severe damping-off and root disease in container and bareroot forest nurseries throughout North America. Many conifer and hardwood species can be affected, but Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) are known to be...

  18. Stress Wave E-Rating of Structural Timber—Size and Moisture Content Effects (United States)

    Xiping Wang


    The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of cross sectional size and moisture content on stress wave properties of structural timber in various sizes and evaluate the feasibility of using stress wave method to E-rate timber in green conditions. Four different sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) square timbers were...

  19. Sugar pine seed harvest by Clark's nutcracker: Annual use of a transient resource in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (United States)

    Taylor J. Turner; Diana F. Tomback; Bradley Van Anderson; Michael Murray


    Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) are well known for using conifer seeds as their principal nutriment source. Seeds are primarily harvested from whitebark (Pinus albicaulis), piñon (P. edulis), limber (P. flexilis), southwestern white (P. strobiformis), Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi), and ponderosa (P. ponderosa) pine as well as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  20. Rehabilitation of monotonous exotic coniferous plantations: A case study of spontaneous establishment of different tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonásová, M.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Prach, K.


    Conversion of plantations of exotic coniferous species, such as Norway spruce (Picea abies), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), into more natural woodland is intended in two national parks in the province of Drenthe, The Netherlands. For that purpose, artificial

  1. Mixed-severity fire regimes in dry forests of southern interior British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Ken Lertzman; Carmen M. Wong


    Historical fire severity is poorly characterized for dry forests in the interior west of North America. We inferred a multicentury history of fire severity from tree rings in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) - ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) forests in the southern interior of British Columbia,...

  2. Disturbance impacts on understory plant communities of the Colorado Front Range (United States)

    Paula J. Fornwalt


    Pinus ponderosa - Pseudotsuga menziesii (ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir) forests of the Colorado Front Range have experienced a range of disturbances since they were settled by European-Americans approximately 150 years ago, including settlement-era logging and domestic grazing, and more recently, wildfire. In this dissertation, I...

  3. Acoustic sorting models for improved log segregation (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Robert J. Ross; Vicki L. Herian


    In this study, we examined three individual log measures (acoustic velocity, log diameter, and log vertical position in a tree) for their ability to predict average modulus of elasticity (MOE) and grade yield of structural lumber obtained from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb. Franco]) logs. We found that log acoustic velocity only had a...

  4. Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cools, Nathalie; Vesterdal, Lars; De Vos, Bruno


    .) and eucalyptus, the pine species and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) showed the highest C:N ratios in the mineral soil. The second most important explanatory variable in the forest floor and mineral topsoil was the biogeographical zoning (ecoregion). In the peat topsoil and in the deeper...

  5. Fire and mice: Seed predation moderates fire's influence on conifer recruitment (United States)

    Rafal Zwolak; Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Elizabeth E. Crone


    In fire-adapted ecosystems, fire is presumed to be the dominant ecological force, and little is known about how consumer interactions influence forest regeneration. Here, we investigated seed predation by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and its effects on recruitment of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings in unburned...

  6. Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. (United States)

    Michael P. Amaranthus; Debbie Page-Dumroese; Al Harvey; Efren Cazares; Larry F. Bednar


    Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white...

  7. Simulating fuel treatment effects in dry forests of the western United States: testing the principles of a fire-safe forest (United States)

    Morris C. Johnson; Maureen C Kennedy; David L. Peterson


    We used the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS) to simulate fuel treatment effects on stands in low- to midelevation dry forests (e.g., ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. P. & C. Laws.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) of the western United States. We...

  8. Guide to fuel treatments in dry forests of the Western United States: assessing forest structure and fire hazard. (United States)

    Morris C. Johnson; David L. Peterson; Crystal L. Raymond


    Guide to Fuel Treatments analyzes a range of fuel treatments for representative dry forest stands in the Western United States with overstories dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and pinyon pine (Pinus edulis). Six silvicultural options (no thinning; thinning...

  9. Discerning responses of down wood and understory vegetation abundance to riparian buffer width and thinning treatments: an equivalence-inequivalence approach (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; Mark A. Meleason


    We investigated buffer width and thinning effects on the abundance of down wood and understory vegetation in headwater stream catchments of 40- to 65-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests in western Oregon, USA. Small-wood cover became more homogeneous among stream reaches within 5 years following thinning, primarily...

  10. Riparian microclimate and stream temperature: thinning and buffer-width influences (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson


    Th inning of 30- to 70-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands is a common silvicultural activity on federal forest lands in Washington and Oregon west of the Cascade Range crest. Decreases in forest cover lead to alterations of site energy balances resulting in changes to understory and stream channel microclimates. Uncut vegetative...

  11. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41 (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim. Rodenkirk


    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  12. Effects of partial harvest on the carbon stores in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests: a simulation study (United States)

    Mark E. Harmon; Adam Moreno; James B. Domingo


    The STANDCARB 2.0 model was used to examine the effects of partial harvest of trees within stands on forest-related carbon (C) stores in a typical Pacific Northwest Pseudotsuga/Tsuga forest. For harvest rotation intervals of 20 to 250 years the effect of completely dispersed (that is, a checkerboard) versus completely aggregated cutting patterns (...

  13. Mixed-Species Effects on Soil C and N Stocks, C/N Ratio and pH Using a Transboundary Approach in Adjacent Common Garden Douglas-Fir and Beech Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seid Muhie Dawud


    Full Text Available Mixed forest of Douglas-fir and beech has been suggested as one of the possible future forest types in Northwest Europe but the effects of this mixed forest on soil properties relative to monoculture stands are unknown. In a transboundary investigation of adjacent common garden Douglas-fir and beech stands, we determined the effects on topsoil properties. However, responses of C and N stocks, the C/N ratio and pH were site- and soil layer-specific and were mainly single-sided and without synergistic effects. Beech reduced the soil C and N stocks in Douglas-fir at the nutrient-poor site, caused an increase in the C/N ratio in the forest floor and mineral soil at both nutrient-poor and -rich sites, and reduced the acidifying effect of Douglas-fir at the nutrient-poor site. These results do not support the hypothesis that mixture effects would be consistent across sites and soil layers. The lack of synergistic effects may be attributed to the relatively similar litter quality or rooting depth that prevented any larger niche differentiation and complementarity. The results indicate that the transboundary approach within a mature common garden proved useful as a platform to test tree species interactions, and this approach could be explored in soil studies until dedicated mixed-species common gardens reach maturity.

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding glycoconjugates present on the brush border membrane and in the peritrophic membrane of the Douglas-fir tussock moth are peritrophins (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; John D. Podgwaite


    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxin-binding sites in the Douglas fir tussock moth (DFTM) larval gut were localized using immunofluorescence microscopy. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac all bound strongly to the DFTM peritrophic membrane (PM); weaker binding of the Cry1A toxins was observed along the apical brush border of the midgut epithelium....

  15. Impact of Nitrogen Fertilization on Forest Carbon Sequestration and Water Loss in a Chronosequence of Three Douglas-Fir Stands in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Dou


    Full Text Available To examine the effect of nitrogen (N fertilization on forest carbon (C sequestration and water loss, we used an artificial neural network model to estimate C fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET in response to N fertilization during four post-fertilization years in a Pacific Northwest chronosequence of three Douglas-fir stands aged 61, 22 and 10 years old in 2010 (DF49, HDF88 and HDF00, respectively. Results showed that N fertilization increased gross primary productivity (GPP for all three sites in all four years with the largest absolute increase at HDF00 followed by HDF88. Ecosystem respiration increased in all four years at HDF00, but decreased over the last three years at HDF88 and over all four years at DF49. As a result, fertilization increased the net ecosystem productivity of all three stands with the largest increase at HDF88, followed by DF49. Fertilization had no discernible effect on ET in any of the stands. Consequently, fertilization increased water use efficiency (WUE in all four post-fertilization years at all three sites and also increased light use efficiency (LUE of all the stands, especially HDF00. Our results suggest that the effects of fertilization on forest C sequestration and water loss may be associated with stand age and fertilization; the two younger stands appeared to be more efficient than the older stand with respect to GPP, WUE and LUE.

  16. Depression of belowground respiration is more pronounced than enhancement of photosynthesis during the first year after nitrogen fertilization of a mature Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forest (United States)

    Chen, B.; Black, T. A.; Jassal, R.; Nesic, Z.; Bruemmer, C.


    Nitrogen (N) additions to forest have shown variable effects on both respiration and photosynthesis. With increasing rates of anthropogenic N deposition, there is a strong need to understand the ecosystem response to N inputs. We investigated how N fertilization affects the ecosystem carbon (C) balance of a 57-year-old coast Douglas-fir stand in British Columbia, Canada, based on eddy-covariance (EC) and soil-chamber (fertilized and control plots) measurements and process-based modeling. The stand was fertilized by helicopter with urea at 200 kg N ha-1 in January 2007. A land surface model (Ecosystem Atmosphere Simulation Scheme, EASS) was combined with an ecosystem model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS) and a coupled C and N subroutine was incorporated into the integrated EASS-BEPS model in this study. This half-hourly time step model was run continuously for the period from 2001 to 2007 in two scenarios: with and without fertilization. Modeled C fluxes without fertilization [net ecosystem productivity (NEP), gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re) and belowground respiration (Rs)] agreed well with EC and soil chamber measurements over diurnal, seasonal and annual time scales for 2001 to 2006; while simulated NEP, GPP, Re and Rs with fertilization reasonably followed EC and chamber measurements in 2007 (545 vs. 520, 2163 vs. 2155, 1618 vs. 1635, and 920 vs. 906 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively). Comparison of EC-determined C fluxes in 2007 with model simulations without fertilization suggests that annual Re decreased by 6.7% (1635 vs. 1752 g C m-2), gross primary productivity (GPP) increased by 6.8% (2155 vs. 2017 g C m-2), and annual NEP increased by 96.2% (520 vs. 265 g C m-2) due to fertilization. The modeled reduction in Rs (9.6%, comparing modeled values without and with fertilization: 1008 vs. 920 g C m-2 yr-1) is consistent with that measured using the soil chambers (~11.5%, comparing CO2 effluxes from control and fertilized

  17. Impact of nitrogen fertilization on carbon and water fluxes in a chronosequence of three Douglas-fir stands in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Dou, X.; Chen, B.; Black, T. A.; Jassal, R. S.; Che, M.; Liu, Y.


    This study examined the response of carbon (C) sequestration and evapotranspiration (ET) to nitrogen (N) fertilization during the four post-fertilization years (2007-2010) in a Pacific Northwest chronosequence of three Douglas-fir stands 61, 22 and 10 yr old in 2010 (DF49, HDF11 and HDF00, respectively). An artificial neural network (ANN) for time series analysis was employed to identify and estimate the complex nonlinear relationships between C and water exchanges and environmental variables. To test the performance of the ANN model, it was trained against multi-year monthly climate variables and EC-measured C and water fluxes for 1998-2004 and the trained model was then verified using data obtained in 2005 and 2006. The optimized model which showed high reliability (linear regression analysis: for C and water fluxes, R2 > 0.93, slope = 0.96-0.99, p fertilized. The calculated C and water fluxes (for non-fertilized conditions) were compared with the measured fluxes (for fertilized conditions) to quantify the effects of fertilization during the post-fertilization four years. Results showed that N fertilization increased gross primary productivity of all three stands in all four years with the largest absolute increases in the 10 yr-old stand (HDF00) followed by the 22 yr-old stand (HDF11). Ecosystem respiration increased in all four years at HDF00, but decreased over the last three years at HDF88, and over all four years in the 61 yr-old stand (DF49). As a result, fertilization increased the net ecosystem productivity of all three stands with the average increase being the largest at HDF88 followed by DF49. In addition, fertilization caused a small increase in annual ET in all four years at DF49; a small increase in the first year and a decrease in the next three years at HDF88; and no consistent effect at HDF00. Consequently, fertilization exerted only a small impact on water use efficiency in the oldest stand (DF49) but a significant increase in the two younger

  18. WestProPlus: a stochastic spreadsheet program for the management of all-aged Douglas-fir–hemlock forests in the Pacific Northwest. (United States)

    Jingjing Liang; Joseph Buongiorno; Robert A. Monserud


    WestProPlus is an add-in program developed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth and management of all-aged Douglas-fir–western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco–Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands in Oregon and Washington. Its built-in growth model was calibrated from 2,706 permanent plots in the...

  19. Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forest: Results from a Soil Fertilization and Biochar Addition Experiment (United States)

    Hawthorne, I.; Johnson, M. S.; Jassal, R. S.; Black, T. A.


    Rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), linked to current climate change has stimulated a scientific response to provide robust accounting of sources and sinks of these gases. There is an urgent need to increase awareness of land management impacts on GHG flux dynamics to facilitate the development of management strategies that minimize GHG emissions. Biochar (pyrolyzed organic matter) has been identified as a strategy to reduce net GHG fluxes from soils. This is due to its potential to sequester large amounts of carbon for significant time periods, as well as its modification of biotic and abiotic soil conditions, which in turn can alter the GHG balance. This study describes the effect of biochar and urea-N application on soil surface CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forest on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada (49o 52' N, 125o 20' W). We used a randomized complete-block design with four replicates of the following treatments: i) control, ii) 5 Mg ha-1 biochar surface application, iii) 200 kg N ha-1 urea pellets surface application, and iv) 5 Mg ha-1 biochar plus 200 kg N ha-1 urea. Soil GHG flux measurements were made biweekly for two years beginning in September 2011 using a non-steady-state non-flow through chamber technique. Biochar was added in February 2012, with urea applied in March 2013. A collar made from 21-cm diameter x 11-cm long PVC piping was installed in each of the 16 plots between two large trees on the forest floor, penetrating the organic layer to the mineral soil at the 5-8 cm depth. A clear Plexiglas lid, equipped with a 10-cm long vent tube and 9-V fan, was placed on each collar when making measurements, with 20-mL samples of chamber headspace air collected at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 min using a medical syringe with 21-gauge needle inserted through a rubber septum in the chamber lid. Samples were injected into and transported in previously

  20. Design of test specimens and procedures for generating material properties of Douglas fir/epoxy laminated wood composite material: With the generation of baseline data at two environmental conditions (United States)

    Johnson, Paul E.


    In support of the design of wind turbine generator airfoils/blades utilizing Douglas Fir/West System Epoxy laminated composite material, a program was undertaken to define pertinent material properties utilizing small scale test specimens. Task 1 was the development of suitable monotonic tension, compression, short beam shear and full reversed cyclic specimen designs and the companion grips and testing procedures. Task 2 was the generation of the material properties at two environmental conditions utilizing the specimens and procedures developed in Task 1. The monotonic specimens and procedures generated results which compare favorably with other investigators while the cyclic results appear somewhat conservative. Adding moisture and heat or scarf joints degraded the monotonic performance but had a more nebulus effect with cyclic loading.

  1. Photoperiod cues and patterns of genetic variation limit phenological responses to climate change in warm parts of species' range: Modeling diameter-growth cessation in coast Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Harrington, Constance A; St Clair, J Bradley


    The phenology of diameter-growth cessation in trees will likely play a key role in mediating species and ecosystem responses to climate change. A common expectation is that warming will delay cessation, but the environmental and genetic influences on this process are poorly understood. We modeled the effects of temperature, photoperiod, and seed-source climate on diameter-growth-cessation timing in coast Douglas-fir (an ecologically and economically vital tree) using high-frequency growth measurements across broad environmental gradients for a range of genotypes from different seed sources. Our model suggests that cool temperatures or short photoperiods can induce cessation in autumn. At cool locations (high latitude and elevation), cessation seems to be induced primarily by low temperatures in early autumn (under relatively long photoperiods), so warming will likely delay cessation and extend the growing season. But at warm locations (low latitude or elevation), cessation seems to be induced primarily by short photoperiods later in autumn, so warming will likely lead to only slight extensions of the growing season, reflecting photoperiod limitations on phenological shifts. Trees from seed sources experiencing frequent frosts in autumn or early winter tended to cease growth earlier in the autumn, potentially as an adaptation to avoid frost. Thus, gene flow into populations in warm locations with little frost will likely have limited potential to delay mean cessation dates because these populations already cease growth relatively late. In addition, data from an abnormal heat wave suggested that very high temperatures during long photoperiods in early summer might also induce cessation. Climate change could make these conditions more common in warm locations, leading to much earlier cessation. Thus, photoperiod cues, patterns of genetic variation, and summer heat waves could limit the capacity of coast Douglas-fir to extend its growing season in response to climate

  2. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper) ... (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) on radial stem growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). SNC impacts physiological processes of carbon and water relations by stomatal occlusion and early needle abscission resulting in a reduction of tree growth with a distinct periodicity, whereas phytophagous pests reduce tree growth by defoliation with epidemics following less regular pseudo-periodicities. Outbreaks of the various forest disturbance agents differ in their magnitude, frequency, and duration. In particular, SNC impacts on Douglas-fir growth display a primary periodicity of 6-30 years and a secondary periodicity of 3-5 years which is unique to the causal fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rhode) Petrak. We use frequency domain analysis of tree-ring chronologies of Douglas-fir to identify the SNC disease cycle and separate the confounding effects of climate and SNC. We demonstrate the dendroecological reconstruction of SNC impacts on ancient Douglas-fir trees dated ~65K radioactive years B.P. from Eddyville, OR that were unearthed by the Oregon Department of Transportation. By the end of the 21st century, climate

  3. The spatial influence of Pseudotsuga menziesii retention trees on ectomycorrhiza diversity. (United States)

    D.L. Luoma; C.A. Stockdale; R. Molina; J.L. Eberhart


    This study examines the effect of retained green trees on diversity of mycorrhizal fungi after stand harvest. A significant reduction of mycorrhizal root type richness resulted from the harvest treatment. Samples taken under tree crowns showed no significant decline in the mean number of mycorrhiza types per soil core. In areas well removed from retention trees, there...

  4. Effect of thinning, fertilization with biosolids, and weather on interannual ring specific gravity and carbon accumulation of a 55-year-old Douglas-fir stand in western Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantavichai, R.; Briggs, D.G.; Turnblom, E.C. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). School of Forest Resources


    Soil moisture deficits (SMD) cause trees to conserve water by closing stomata, which in turn limits the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and curtails photosynthesis and wood formation. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature, precipitation, SMD, and various silviculture treatments on interannual ring specific gravity (SG). A model was developed to predict post-treatment interannual ring SG from the treatment and environmental variables. The study assumed that thinning the stand would increase SG, while fertilization with biosolids would decrease SG. The SGs associated with each treatment were then used to calculate the dry mass and carbon content associated with stem growth. Results were then compared with estimates taken from standard publications. The experiment was conducted on a 55-year old Douglas fir stand. Twelve rings were used to assess the effect of the treatments. The study showed that use of the published average to consider only carbon sequestered by tree growth distorts the comparison of management regimes. The thinning process produced logs from which long-term structures were built, and continue to sequester carbon. When product pools of stored carbon are combined with forest carbon pools, thinning and biosolids treatment regimes are preferable to other carbon storage regimes. 40 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Structure and Composition of a Dry Mixed-Conifer Forest in Absence of Contemporary Treatments, Southwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Cram


    Full Text Available Dry mixed-conifer forests in the Southwest occupy an important ecological and hydrological role in upper watersheds. In the absence of reoccurring fire and silvicultural treatments over the last 50 years, we quantified forest structure and composition on prevailing north and south aspects of a dry mixed-conifer forest in southcentral New Mexico using mixed models and ordination analysis in preparation for an experiment in ecological restoration. Results indicated overstory and midstory were dominated by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii and shade tolerant/fire intolerant white fir (Abies concolor with interspersed mature aspen on north aspects, and Douglas-fir and Southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis on south aspects. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, which was historically co-dominant with Douglas-fir on north and south aspects, was subdominant on south aspects and almost entirely absent on north aspects. Regeneration was dominated by white fir saplings and seedlings on north aspects while ponderosa pine was completely absent. South aspect saplings and seedlings were characterized by Douglas-fir and Southwestern white pine, but almost no ponderosa pine. Ordination analysis characterized the effect of aspect on species composition. Understanding contemporary forest structure and composition is important when planning for desired future conditions that are to be achieved through ecological restoration using silvicultural techniques designed to foster resilience.

  6. Height-related trends in leaf xylem anatomy and shoot hydraulic characteristics in a tall conifer: safety versus efficiency in water transport. (United States)

    Woodruff, D R; Meinzer, F C; Lachenbruch, B


    Hydraulic vulnerability of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) branchlets decreases with height, allowing shoots at greater height to maintain hydraulic conductance (K shoot) at more negative leaf water potentials (Psi l). To determine the basis for this trend shoot hydraulic and tracheid anatomical properties of foliage from the tops of Douglas-fir trees were analysed along a height gradient from 5 to 55 m. Values of Psi l at which K shoot was substantially reduced, declined with height by 0.012 Mpa m(-1). Maximum K shoot was reduced by 0.082 mmol m(-2) MPa(-1) s(-1) for every 1 m increase in height. Total tracheid lumen area per needle cross-section, hydraulic mean diameter of leaf tracheid lumens, total number of tracheids per needle cross-section and leaf tracheid length decreased with height by 18.4 microm(2) m(-1), 0.029 microm m(-1), 0.42 m(-1) and 5.3 microm m(-1), respectively. Tracheid thickness-to-span ratio (tw/b)2 increased with height by 1.04 x 10(-3) m(-1) and pit number per tracheid decreased with height by 0.07 m(-1). Leaf anatomical adjustments that enhanced the ability to cope with vertical gradients of increasing xylem tension were attained at the expense of reduced water transport capacity and efficiency, possibly contributing to height-related decline in growth of Douglas fir.

  7. Role of relative humidity in colony founding and queen survivorship in two carpenter ant species. (United States)

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J


    Conditions necessary for optimal colony foundation in two carpenter ant species, Camponotus modoc Wheeler and Camponotus vicinus Mayr, were studied. Camponotus modoc and C. vicinus queens were placed in Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco) and Styrofoam blocks conditioned in sealed chambers at 70, 80, or 100% RH. Nanitic workers produced after 12 wk were used to assess the effects of substrate and moisture content on colony initiation. Queens of C. vicinus in Douglas-fir and Styrofoam produced worker numbers that did not differ significantly with moisture content; however, the number of colonies initiated by C. modoc differed significantly with moisture content. The results indicate that colony founding in C. vicinus is less sensitive to moisture content than C. modoc for Douglas-fir and Styrofoam. In another test, groups of queens of each species were exposed to 20, 50, 70, and 100% RH and the time until 50% mortality occurred was recorded for each species. C. vicinus lived significantly longer at each of the test humidities than C. modoc, suggesting that the former species is adapted to better survive under xeric conditions.

  8. Técnicas de inoculación de abeto de Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesi (Mirb.) Franco) con los hongos Ectomicorrícicos y su aplicación en reforestación


    Parladé Izquierdo, Xavier


    Descripció del recurs: el 21 setembre 2011 Pendent El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicación de técnicas de inoculación de platnas de abeto de Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)Franco) con hongos ectomicorrícicos seleccionados para las condiciones españolas, con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad de planta de reforestación. Primeramente se ha realizado un proceso de selección de hongos por hábitat, especie asociada, capacidad de crecimiento en cultivo y formación de mico...

  9. Species differences in evergreen tree transpiration at daily, seasonal, and interannual timescales (United States)

    Link, P.; Simonin, K. A.; Oshun, J.; Dietrich, W.; Dawson, T. E.; Fung, I.


    Mediterranean climates have rainy winter and dry summer seasons, so the season of water availability (winter) is out of phase with the season of light availability and atmospheric demand (summer). In this study, we investigate the seasonality of tree transpiration in a Mediterranean climate, using observations from a small (8000 m2), forested, steep (~35 degree) hillslope at the UC Angelo Reserve, in the northern California Coast Range. The site is instrumented with over 850 sensors transmitting hydrologic and meteorological data at less than 30-minute intervals. Here, we analyze four years of high-frequency measurements from 45 sap flow sensors in 30 trees, six depth profiles of soil moisture measured by TDR, and spatially distributed measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and other meteorological variables. The sap flow measurements show a difference in transpiration seasonality between common California Coast Range evergreen tree species. Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii) maintain significant transpiration through the winter rainy season and transpire maximally in the spring, but Douglas fir transpiration declines sharply in the summer dry season. Madrones (Arbutus menziesii), in contrast, transpire maximally in the summer dry season. The seasonal patterns are quantified using principal component analysis. Nonlinear regressions against environmental variables show that the difference in transpiration seasonality arises from different sensitivities to atmospheric demand (VPD) and root-zone moisture. The different sensitivities to VPD and root-zone moisture cause species differences not just in seasonal patterns, but also in high temporal frequency (daily to weekly) variability of transpiration. We also contrast the interannual variability of dry season transpiration among the different species, and show that precipitation above a threshold triggers a Douglas fir response. Finally, we use a simple 1-D model of the atmospheric

  10. Amsinckia menziesii (Lehm.) Nels. & Macbr. in een graanveld bij Venray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leys, H.N.; Bannink, J.F.


    Amsinckia menziesii (Lehm.) Nels. & Macbr., a species occurring in western North America on moist slopes and fields, open valley floors and hillsides, has been found very rarely in 5 places of our country (Gorinchem 1913, Renesse 1952 and 1958, Wageningen 1963, Blauwkapel 1963, Rockanje 1963). In an

  11. Plant Growth Facility (PGF) (United States)


    In a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78, compression wood formation and hence altered lignin deposition and cell wall structure, was induced upon mechanically bending the stems of the woody gymnosperms, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Although there was significant degradation of many of the plant specimens in space-flight due to unusually high temperatures experienced during the mission, it seems evident that gravity had little or no effect on compression wood formation upon bending even in microgravity. Instead, it apparently results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the plant itself during bending under these conditions. This preliminary study now sets the stage for long-term plant growth experiments to determine whether compression wood formation can be induced in microgravity during phototropic-guided realignment of growing woody plant specimens, in the absence of any externally provided stress and strain.

  12. Climate Drives Episodic Conifer Establishment after Fire in Dry Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T. Rother


    Full Text Available In recent years, warming climate and increased fire activity have raised concern about post-fire recovery of western U.S. forests. We assessed relationships between climate variability and tree establishment after fire in dry ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. We harvested and aged over 400 post-fire juvenile ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees using an improved tree-ring based approach that yielded annually-resolved dates and then assessed relationships between climate variability and pulses of tree establishment. We found that tree establishment was largely concentrated in years of above-average moisture availability in the growing season, including higher amounts of precipitation and more positive values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Under continued climate change, drier conditions associated with warming temperatures may limit forest recovery after fire, which could result in lower stand densities or shifts to non-forested vegetation in some areas.

  13. Clark's Nutcracker Breeding Season Space Use and Foraging Behavior.

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    Taza D Schaming

    Full Text Available Considering the entire life history of a species is fundamental to developing effective conservation strategies. Decreasing populations of five-needle white pines may be leading to the decline of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana. These birds are important seed dispersers for at least ten conifer species in the western U.S., including whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, an obligate mutualist of Clark's nutcrackers. For effective conservation of both Clark's nutcrackers and whitebark pine, it is essential to ensure stability of Clark's nutcracker populations. My objectives were to examine Clark's nutcracker breeding season home range size, territoriality, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a region where whitebark pine is declining. I radio-tracked Clark's nutcrackers in 2011, a population-wide nonbreeding year following a low whitebark pine cone crop, and 2012, a breeding year following a high cone crop. Results suggest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii communities are important habitat for Clark's nutcrackers because they selected it for home ranges. In contrast, they did not select whitebark pine habitat. However, Clark's nutcrackers did adjust their use of whitebark pine habitat between years, suggesting that, in some springs, whitebark pine habitat may be used more than previously expected. Newly extracted Douglas-fir seeds were an important food source both years. On the other hand, cached seeds made up a relatively lower proportion of the diet in 2011, suggesting cached seeds are not a reliable spring food source. Land managers focus on restoring whitebark pine habitat with the assumption that Clark's nutcrackers will be available to continue seed dispersal. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Clark's nutcracker populations may be more likely to be retained year-round when whitebark pine restoration efforts are located adjacent to Douglas-fir habitat. By extrapolation, whitebark

  14. Mycorrhiza reduces adverse effects of dark septate endophytes (DSE) on growth of conifers. (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N


    Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM). Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce), mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N) and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C) on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts and pathogens.

  15. Mycorrhiza reduces adverse effects of dark septate endophytes (DSE on growth of conifers.

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    Vanessa Reininger

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM. Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce, mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Norway spruce (Picea abies seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts

  16. Mycorrhiza Reduces Adverse Effects of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) on Growth of Conifers (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N.


    Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. – Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM). Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce), mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N) and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C) on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts and

  17. Relationships among environmental variables and distribution of tree species at high elevation in the Olympic Mountains (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea


    Relationships among environmental variables and occurrence of tree species were investigated at Hurricane Ridge in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. A transect consisting of three plots was established down one north-and one south-facing slope in stands representing the typical elevational sequence of tree species. Tree species included subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis). Air and soil temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture were measured during three growing seasons. Snowmelt patterns, soil carbon and moisture release curves were also determined. The plots represented a wide range in soil water potential, a major determinant of tree species distribution (range of minimum values = -1.1 to -8.0 MPa for Pacific silver fir and Douglas-fir plots, respectively). Precipitation intercepted at plots depended on topographic location, storm direction and storm type. Differences in soil moisture among plots was related to soil properties, while annual differences at each plot were most often related to early season precipitation. Changes in climate due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 will likely shift tree species distributions within, but not among aspects. Change will be buffered by innate tolerance of adult trees and the inertia of soil properties.

  18. Climate changes and wildfire alter vegetation of Yellowstone National Park, but forest cover persists (United States)

    Clark, Jason A.; Loehman, Rachel A.; Keane, Robert E.


    We present landscape simulation results contrasting effects of changing climates on forest vegetation and fire regimes in Yellowstone National Park, USA, by mid-21st century. We simulated potential changes to fire dynamics and forest characteristics under three future climate projections representing a range of potential future conditions using the FireBGCv2 model. Under the future climate scenarios with moderate warming (>2°C) and moderate increases in precipitation (3–5%), model simulations resulted in 1.2–4.2 times more burned area, decreases in forest cover (10–44%), and reductions in basal area (14–60%). In these same scenarios, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) decreased in basal area (18–41%), while Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) basal area increased (21–58%). Conversely, mild warming (<2°C) coupled with greater increases in precipitation (12–13%) suggested an increase in forest cover and basal area by mid-century, with spruce and subalpine fir increasing in abundance. Overall, we found changes in forest tree species compositions were caused by the climate-mediated changes in fire regime (56–315% increase in annual area burned). Simulated changes in forest composition and fire regime under warming climates portray a landscape that shifts from lodgepole pine to Douglas-fir caused by the interaction between the magnitude and seasonality of future climate changes, by climate-induced changes in the frequency and intensity of wildfires, and by tree species response.

  19. Analysis of enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in plant emissions using portable dynamic air sampling/solid-phase microextraction (PDAS-SPME) and chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Williams, Jonathan

    A portable dynamic air sampler (PDAS) using a porous polymer solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre has been validated for the determination of biogenic enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in air. These compounds were adsorbed in the field, and then thermally desorbed at 250 °C in a gas chromatograph injector port connected via a β-cyclodextrin capillary separating column to a mass spectrometer. The optimized method has been applied for investigating the emissions of enantiomeric monoterpenes from Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Lavandula lanata (Lavender) which were selected as representative of coniferous trees and aromatic plants, respectively. The enantiomers of α-pinene, sabinene, camphene, δ-3-carene, β-pinene, limonene, β-phellandrene, 4-carene and camphor were successfully determined in the emissions from the three plants. While Douglas-fir showed a strong predominance toward (-)-enantiomers, Rosemary and Lavender demonstrated a large variation in enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes. The simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity of dynamic sampling with porous polymer coated SPME fibres coupled to chiral capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) makes this method potentially useful for in-field investigations of atmosphere-biosphere interactions and studies of optically explicit atmospheric chemistry.

  20. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction. (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca


    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  1. Veneer grade yield from pruned Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Edward J. II Dimock; Henry H. Haskell


    This paper reports actual veneer yields obtained from 10 trees pruned at age 38 and harvested 20 years later. Information of this kind is needed to help determine if and when to prune and ultimately will be essential to a thorough economic analysis of expected returns from pruning.

  2. Ecological characteristics of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. (United States)

    Jerry F. Franklin; Kermit Jr. Cromack; William Denison; Arthur McKee; Chris Maser; James Sedell; Fred Swanson; Glen. Juday


    Old-growth coniferous forests differ significantly from young-growth forests in species composition, function (rate and paths of energy flow and nutrient and water cycling), and structure. Most differences can be related to four key structural components of old growth: large live trees, large snags, large logs on land, and large logs in streams. Foresters wishing to...

  3. Stress wave nondestructive evaluation of Douglas-fir peeler cores (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; John I. Zerbe; Xiping Wang; David W. Green; Roy F. Pellerin


    With the need for evaluating the utilization of veneer peeler log cores in higher value products and the increasing importance of utilizing round timbers in poles, posts, stakes, and building construction components, we conducted a cooperative project to verify the suitability of stress wave nondestructive evaluation techniques for assessing peeler cores and some...

  4. Role of genetics in adapting forests under climate change: lessons learned from common garden experiments in central Europe (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Schueler, Silvio


    Adaptive management aiming at reducing vulnerability and enhancing the resilience of forested ecosystems is a key to preserving the potential of forests to provide multiple ecosystem services under climate change. Planting alternative or non native tree species adapted to future conditions and also utilizing the genetic variation within tree species has also been suggested as an important adaptive management strategy under climate change. Therefore, knowledge on suitable provenances/populations is a key issue. Provenance trial experiments, where several populations of a species are planted in a particular climate or throughout an appropriate climatic gradient offers a great opportunity to understand adaptive genetic variation within a tree species. These trials were primarily established, for identifying populations with desired growth and fitness characteristics. Due to the increasing interest in climate change, such trials were revisited to understand the relation between growth performance and climate and to recommend suitable populations for future conditions. Here we present the lessons learned from provenance trials of Norway spruce and Douglas -fir in central Europe. With data from provenance trials planted across a wide range of environmental conditions in central Europe we developed multivariate models, Universal Response Functions (URFs). The URFs predict growth performance as a function of climate of planting locations (i.e. environmental factors) and provenance/ population origin (i.e. genetic factors). The flexibility of the URFs as a decision making tool is remarkable. The model can be used as to identify suitable planting material for a give site, and vice versa and also as a species distribution model (SDM) with integrated genetic variation. Under current and climate change scenarios, the URFs were applied to predict populations with higher growth performance in central Europe and also as species distribution models for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga

  5. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

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    L. Wang


    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L., Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech, higher foliage longevity (fir or both (boreal pine forest. In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re

  6. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies (United States)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.


    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech), higher foliage longevity (fir) or both (boreal pine forest). In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re-translocation efficiency with the time needed for canopy renewal was deduced, showing that leaves which live longer re

  7. Monoterpene emissions from a Pacific Northwest Old-Growth Forest and impact on regional biogenic VOC emission estimates (United States)

    Pressley, Shelley; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Guenther, Alex; Chen, Jack; Allwine, Eugene

    Measurements of natural hydrocarbon emission rates are reported for an old-growth Pacific Northwest coniferous forest. The emission data were collected for the two dominant species Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) during the growing season in 1997 and 1998 using branch enclosure techniques. Samples were collected at different heights from 13 to 51 m within the canopy using the Wind River Canopy Crane facility. The standard emission factor at a temperature of 30°C and the temperature coefficient for Douglas-fir is Es=0.39±0.14 μg C g -1 h -1 and β=0.14±0.05°C -1 and for western hemlock Es=0.95±0.17 μg C g -1 h -1 and β=0.06±0.02°C -1. There was considerable variability among all the emission factors due to seasonal and branch-to-branch variations. Within season emission factors appear to decline from May to September for the Douglas-fir, although there was no corresponding decrease for the western hemlock. There was no significant difference in standard emission factors ( Es) or temperature coefficients as a function of sunlit versus shady growth environment (different heights) for Douglas-fir, but western hemlock emission samples collected low in the canopy showed no exponential correlation with temperature. Applying the standard emission factors from this study to a Pacific Northwest domain and comparing the modified emission inventory to the current regulatory-based emission inventory yielded a net decrease of 19% in the domain wide monoterpene emissions. The relatively small difference in biogenic emissions is slightly misleading, as the difference in standard emission rates between this study and current regulatory rates is quite significant, and they offset each other when combined in this domain. When this inventory was input into a regional photochemical air quality simulation using the MM5/CMAQ system, the reduction in biogenic emissions resulted in an insignificant decrease of O 3 and a significant

  8. Long-term dynamics and characteristics of snags created for wildlife habitat (United States)

    Barry, Amy M.; Hagar, Joan; Rivers, James W.


    Snags provide essential habitat for numerous organisms and are therefore critical to the long-term maintenance of forest biodiversity. Resource managers often use snag creation to mitigate the purposeful removal of snags at the time of harvest, but information regarding how created snags change over long timescales (>20 y) is absent from the literature. In this study, we evaluated the extent to which characteristics of large (>30 cm diameter at breast height [DBH]) Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) snags created by topping had changed after 25–27 y. We also tested whether different harvest treatments and snag configurations influenced present-day snag characteristics. Of 690 snags created in 1989–1991, 91% remained standing during contemporary surveys and 65% remained unbroken along the bole. Although most snags were standing, we detected increased bark loss and breaking along the bole relative to prior surveys conducted on the same pool of snags. Although snag characteristics were not strongly influenced by snag configuration, we found that snags in one harvest treatment (group selection) experienced less bark loss and had lower evidence of use by cavity-nesting birds (as measured by total cavity cover) relative to snags created with clearcut and two-story harvest treatments. Our results indicate that Douglas-fir snags created by topping can remain standing for long time-periods (≥25 y) in managed forests, and that the influence of harvest treatment on decay patterns and subsequent use by wildlife is an important consideration when intentionally creating snags for wildlife habitat.

  9. Delayed conifer mortality after fuel reduction treatments: interactive effects of fuel, fire intensity, and bark beetles. (United States)

    Youngblood, Andrew; Grace, James B; McIver, James D


    Many low-elevation dry forests of the western United States contain more small trees and fewer large trees, more down woody debris, and less diverse and vigorous understory plant communities compared to conditions under historical fire regimes. These altered structural conditions may contribute to increased probability of unnaturally severe wildfires, susceptibility to uncharacteristic insect outbreaks, and drought-related mortality. Broad-scale fuel reduction and restoration treatments are proposed to promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Little research to date, however, has quantified the effects of these treatments on the ecosystem, especially delayed and latent tree mortality resulting directly or indirectly from treatments. In this paper, we explore complex hypotheses relating to the cascade of effects that influence ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality using structural equation modeling (SEM). We used annual census and plot data through six growing seasons after thinning and four growing seasons after burning from a replicated, operational-scale, completely randomized experiment conducted in northeastern Oregon, USA, as part of the national Fire and Fire Surrogate study. Treatments included thin, burn, thin followed by burn (thin + burn), and control. Burn and thin + burn treatments increased the proportion of dead trees while the proportion of dead trees declined or remained constant in thin and control units, although the density of dead trees was essentially unchanged with treatment. Most of the new mortality (96%) occurred within two years of treatment and was attributed to bark beetles. Bark beetle-caused tree mortality, while low overall, was greatest in thin + burn treatments. SEM results indicate that the probability of mortality of large-diameter ponderosa pine from bark beetles and wood borers was directly related to surface fire severity and bole charring, which

  10. Four centuries of reconstructed hydroclimatic variability for Northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, based on tree rings

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    José Villanueva Díaz


    Full Text Available A Douglas-fir chronology with a length of 409 years (1600-2008 was developed for northwestern Chihuahua in Mesa de las Guacamayas, a “Natural Protected Area” known as an important nesting habitat for the thickbilled parrot (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha an endangered neotropical bird. Increment cores and cross-sections from selected Douglas-fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii in a mixed conifer forest were obtained with an increment borer and a chain-saw. Standard dendrochronological techniques were used to process and date each one of the rings to their exact year of formation. The quality of dating of the measured series was analyzed with the COFECHA program, while biological trends not related to climate (age differences, stem-size increases, and disturbances were removed by standardization procedures in the ARSTAN program. Tree ring series of earlywood, latewood and total ring width were developed for the last four centuries. The total ring-width chronology was significantly associated (r>0.40, p=0.000 with nearby chronologies, particularly those located <200 km apart along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO observing correlations as high as 0.69 (p<0.001. Association between chronologies decreased for those sites in the state of Durango along the SMO but separated more than 200 km in straight line and also for sites in nearby borderline in the USA side. The similar climatic response among distant chronologies implies the influence of common atmospheric circulatory patterns affecting a large portion of land simultaneously. ENSO is one of the most important factors in determining inter-annual and multiannual hydroclimatic variability in northern Mexico, increasing winter-spring precipitation in its warm phase and causing extreme droughts in its cold phase.

  11. A High Resolution Climatic Transect Across the Coastal Margin of Northernmost California During the Past 3,500 Years (United States)

    Barron, J. A.; Heusser, L.


    A diatom proxy for SST from two offshore cores, ODP 1019 (41.7 deg. N, 124.9 deg. W, 980 m water depth) and TN062 0550 (40.9 deg. N,124.6 deg. W, 570 m water depth), and a pollen proxy for summer moisture from terrestrial bog core SB70-1 (40.3 deg. N, 123.4 deg. W, 910 m altitude), together reveal a detailed record of climate change in the Eel River basin area of northernmost California during the past 3,500 years. Age models for all three cores are well constrained by AMS dates, with sample spacing varying from ca. 150 years at ODP 1019 to between 30 and 50 years in both TN062 0550 and SB70-1. As indicated by the diatom proxy for the warm waters of the Central Gyre, Pseudoeunotia doliolus, a late Holocene trend toward warmer fall SST's began approximately 1,000 years earlier at the more offshore (60 km offshore) ODP Site 1019 (ca. 3.4 ka), than it did in the more coastal (33 km offshore) piston core TN062 0550 (ca. 2.4 ka). This diatom proxy suggests that a pronounced offshore-coastal SST gradient existed during the fall between the two sites until ca. 1.4 ka (or AD 600), when this climatic gradient abruptly collapsed. During the past 1,400 years, diatom data at both sites argue for cooling of SST's between ca. AD 600 and AD 900, followed by pronounced warming between ca. AD 950 and AD 1200, and then followed by cooling between ca. AD 1350 and AD 1800. The ages of these intervals are suggestive of local expression of the Dark Ages Cold period, Medieval Warm period, and the Little Ice Age. Pollen in the core SB70-1 is derived from the local montane communities of mixed evergreen forest, forests that are dominated by Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and include hard-leafed oaks (Quercus chrysolepis), as well as incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and fir (Abies grandis). We interpret increased oak, which is associated with increased herbs, as indicative of warm dry conditions, whereas increased Douglas fir would suggest a more

  12. Biophysical constraints on leaf expansion in a tall conifer. (United States)

    Fredrick C. Meinzer; Barbara J. Bond; Jennifer A. Karanian


    The physiological mechanisms responsible for reduced extension growth as trees increase in height remain elusive. We evaluated biophysical constraints on leaf expansion in old-growth Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Needle elongation rates, plastic and elastic extensibility, bulk leaf water, (L...

  13. Volatile and within-needle terpene changes to Douglas-fir trees associated with Douglas-fir beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack (United States)

    A. D. Giunta; Justin Runyon; M. J. Jenkins; M. Teich


    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with...

  14. Role of natural organic matter in the mobility of aluminium ions in rivers in the Limousin region (France)


    Guibaud, Gilles; Gauthier, Cécile; Ayele, Josiane


    International audience; In order to investigate, in the Limousin (France), the role of organic matter in aluminium mobility in soil towards rivers and its chemistry in water, three different A1 horizons of an acidic brown-earth soil planted with three different types of trees (chestnuts (Castanea sativa) over 100 years old, young Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii), and old Douglas fir) were selected, as well as five points on major rivers (Vienne, Vézère, Gartempe, Grande Creuse) in the area....

  15. Density, ages, and growth rates in old-growth and young-growth forests in coastal Oregon (United States)

    Tappeiner, J. C.; Huffman, D.; Spies, T.; Bailey, John D.


    We studied the ages and diameter growth rates of trees in former Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)Franco) old-growth stands on 10 sites and compared them with young-growth stands (50-70 years old, regenerated after timber harvest) in the Coast Range of western Oregon. The diameters and diameter growth rates for the first 100 years of trees in the old-growth stands were significantly greater than those in the young-growth stands. Growth rates in the old stands were comparable with those from long-term studies of young stands in which density is about 100-120 trees/ha; often young-growth stand density is well over 500 trees/ha. Ages of large trees in the old stands ranged from 100 to 420 years; ages in young stands varied by only about 5 to 10 years. Apparently, regeneration of old-growth stands on these sites occurred over a prolonged period, and trees grew at low density with little self-thinning; in contrast, after timber harvest, young stands may develop with high density of trees with similar ages and considerable self-thinning. The results suggest that thinning may be needed in dense young stands where the management objective is to speed development of old-growth characteristics.

  16. Assessments of Population Structure, Diversity, and Phylogeography of the Swiss Needle Cast Fungus (Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bennett


    Full Text Available Swiss needle cast (SNC is a foliar disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rohde Petrak. This fungus is endemic to western North America, where it has historically had little impact in native forests. However, increasing disease severity in western Oregon since the 1990s has prompted renewed interest in P. gaeumannii and SNC. For this study, we analyze multilocus microsatellite genotypes from 482 single-spore isolates from 68 trees across 14 sites in the western Coast Range of Oregon and southwestern Washington. This study assesses genotypic variation and genetic structure at several levels of population hierarchy. Despite the observation that most of the genetic variation occurred within subpopulations, our analyses detected significant differentiation at all hierarchical levels. Clustering among the 482 isolates based on genetic distance clearly supports the existence of two previously described cryptic lineages of P. gaeumannii in the western United States. The two lineages occur in varying proportions along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients in western Oregon and Washington, suggesting a relationship between climate and phylogeography. Sites near Tillamook, Oregon, where SNC is most severe, consist of sympatric subpopulations in which the two lineages comprise roughly equal proportions.

  17. Process-Based Modeling to Assess the Effects of Recent Climatic Variation on Site Productivity and Forest Function across Western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Waring


    Full Text Available A process-based forest growth model, 3-PG (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth, parameterized with values of soil properties constrained by satellite-derived estimates of maximum leaf area index (LAImax, was run for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii to contrast the extent to which site growth potential might vary across western North America between a cool, wet period (1950–1975 and a more recent, generally warmer and drier one (2000–2009. LAImax represents a surrogate for overall site growth potential, as demonstrated from a strong correlation between the two variables, with the latter based on the culmination of mean annual increment estimates made at 3356 ground-based U.S. Forest Service survey plots across the states of Oregon and Washington. Results indicate that since 2000, predicted LAImax has decreased more than 20% in portions of the Southwest USA and for much of the forested area in western Alberta. Similar percentage increases in LAImax were predicted for parts of British Columbia, Idaho and Montana. The modeling analysis included an assessment of changes in seasonal constraints on gross primary production (GPP. A general reduction in limitations caused by spring frost occurred across the entire study area. This has led to a longer growing season, along with notable increases in summer evaporative demand and soil drought for much of the study area away from the maritime influence of the Pacific Ocean.

  18. Impacts of simulated herbivory on VOC emission profiles from coniferous plants (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.


    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugas menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.

  19. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.


    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.

  20. Productivity and Cost of Integrated Harvesting of Wood Chips and Sawlogs in Stand Conversion Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Harrill


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the operational performance and cost of an integrated harvesting system that harvested sawlogs and biomass (i.e., energy wood chips in stand conversion clearcut operations. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees were processed into sawlogs while whole trees of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus, and sub-merchantable materials (small-diameter trees, tops and limbs were fed directly into a chipper to produce biomass for energy production. A standard time study method was used to determine productivity and costs. Over 26 working days, the integrated system produced 1,316 bone-dry metric tonnes (BDTs of sawlogs, and 5,415.89 BDT of chips, with an average moisture content of 43.2%. Using the joint products allocation costing method, the costs of the integrated system were $29.87/BDT for biomass and $4.26/BDT for sawlogs. Chipping utilization was as low as 41%, directly affecting production and cost of chipping operation. Single-lane, dirt, spur roads were the most costly road type to transport whole trees to a centralized processing site: transportation costs for biomass and sawlogs were increased by $0.08/BDT and $0.02/BDT, respectively, for every 50 meter increase in traveling distance. Diesel fuel price could raise total system cost for each product by $0.78/BDT and $0.08/BDT for each $0.10/liter increase.

  1. Application of Proteomics to the Study of Pollination Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Prior


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Pollination drops are a formative component in gymnosperm pollen-ovule interactions. Proteomics offers a direct method for the discovery of proteins associated with this early stage of sexual reproduction. Methods: Pollination drops were sampled from eight gymnosperm species: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar, Ephedra monosperma, Ginkgo biloba, Juniperus oxycedrus (prickly juniper, Larix ×marschlinsii, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir, Taxus ×media, and Welwitschia mirabilis. Drops were collected by micropipette using techniques focused on preventing sample contamination. Drop proteins were separated using both gel and gel-free methods. Tandem mass spectrometric methods were used including a triple quadrupole and an Orbitrap. Results: Proteins are present in all pollination drops. Consistency in the protein complement over time was shown in L. ×marschlinsii. Representative mass spectra from W. mirabilis chitinase peptide and E. monosperma serine carboxypeptidase peptide demonstrated high quality results. We provide a summary of gymnosperm pollination drop proteins that have been discovered to date via proteomics. Discussion: Using proteomic methods, a dozen classes of proteins have been identified to date. Proteomics presents a way forward in deepening our understanding of the biological function of pollination drops.

  2. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron


    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  3. A 2100-Year Reconstruction of July Rainfall Over Westcentral New Mexico (United States)

    Stahle, D.; Cleaveland, M.; Therrell, M.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; Griffin, D.; Fye, F.


    We have developed a new 2,141-year long tree-ring chronology of latewood (LW) width from ancient Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico. This is one of the longest precipitation-sensitive tree-ring chronologies yet constructed for the American Southwest and has been used to develop the first continuous multi-millennial tree-ring reconstruction of July precipitation in the region of the North American Monsoon System (NAMS). Monthly average precipitation increases sharply in July over western New Mexico, marking the dramatic onset to the summer monsoon season. The LW chronology explains 44 percent of the interannual variability of July precipitation in the instrumental record for New Mexico climate divisions 1 and 4 (1960-2004), after removal of the linear dependence of LW width on earlywood width following Meko and Baisan (2001), and has passed statistical tests of verification on independent July precipitation data (1895-1959). The instrumental and tree-ring reconstructed July precipitation data are correlated with the concurrent 500 mb height field over western North America and with the sea surface temperature gradient from the central to eastern North Pacific. The reconstruction exhibits several severe sustained July droughts that exceed any witnessed during the instrumental era, and has significant spectral power at periods near 3-5, 20, and 70 years.

  4. Warm season tree growth and precipitation over Mexico (United States)

    Therrell, Matthew D.; Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Villanueva-Diaz, Jose


    We have developed a network of 18 new tree ring chronologies to examine the history of warm season tree growth over Mexico from 1780 to 1992. The chronologies include Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Montezuma pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb.) latewood width, and Montezuma bald cypress (Taxodium mucronatum Ten.) total ring width. They are located in southwestern Texas, the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, and southern Mexico as far south as Oaxaca. Seven of these chronologies are among the first precipitation sensitive tree ring records from the American tropics. Principal component analysis of the chronologies indicates that the primary modes of tree growth variability are divided north and south by the Tropic of Cancer. The tree ring data in northern Mexico (PC1) are most sensitive to June-August rainfall, while the data from southern Mexico (PC2) are sensitive to rainfall in April-June. We find that the mode of tree growth variability over southern Mexico is significantly correlated with the onset of the North American Monsoon. Anomalies in monsoon onset, spring precipitation, and tree growth in southern Mexico all tend to be followed by precipitation anomalies of opposite sign later in the summer over most of central Mexico.

  5. Evaluation of methods for the physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from two residential wood combustion appliances (United States)

    Kinsey, John S.; Kariher, Peter H.; Dong, Yuanji

    The fine particle emissions from a U. S. certified non-catalytic wood stove and a zero-clearance fireplace burning Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) cordwood each at two different moisture levels were determined. Emission testing was performed using both time-integrated and continuous instrumentation for total particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and fixed combustion gases using an atmospheric wind tunnel, full-flow laboratory dilution tunnel, and dilution stack sampler with a comparison made between the three dilution systems and two sampling filter types. The total mass emission factors (EFs) for all dilution systems and filter media are extremely variable ranging from ELPI) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The PM-2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) fractions determined from the ELPI electrometer data ranged from 93 to 98% (mass) depending on appliance type as reported previously by Hays et al. (Aerosol Science, 34, 1061, 2003).

  6. Heat sterilization time of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir boards and square timbers (United States)

    William T. Simpson; Xiping Wang; Steve Verrill


    To prevent the unintentional transfer of insects and pathogens during world trade, wood products are often heat sterilized. The general requirement is that the center of the wood configuration be held at 133°F (56°C) for 30 min. However, many factors can affect the time required to reach this temperature. This study explored several of these factors, including...

  7. Fifty-year development of Douglas-fir stands planted at various spacings. (United States)

    Donald L. Reukema


    A 51-yr record of observations in stands planted at six spacings, ranging from 4 to 12 ft, illustrates clearly the beneficial effects of wide initial spacing and the detrimental effects of carrying too many trees relative to the size to which they will be grown. Not only are trees larger, but yields per acre are greater at wide spacings.

  8. Baskett Slough/William L. Finley - Oregon White Oak Restoration, Douglas-fir Removal, Phase III (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — With less than 7% of historic oak woodland habitat and 1% of oak savanna currently remaining in the Willamette Valley, the WV NWRC holds some of the largest and best...

  9. When the douglas-firs were counted: The beginning of the Forest Survey (United States)

    Ivan Doig


    The wonders which Phil Briegleb remembered from that stint of work - the dark green spill of forest from ridgeline to valley floor, the colonnade of giant boles crowding acre upon acre, the Depression-staving paycheck earned by sizing up this big timber - may have been grand, all right, but no more so than the language which spelled out the project. The Forest Survey...

  10. Genotype * environment interaction: a case study for Douglas-fir in western Oregon. (United States)

    Robert K. Campbell


    Unrecognized genotype x environment interactions (g,e) can bias genetic-gain predictions and models for predicting growth dynamics or species perturbations by global climate change. This study tested six sets of families in 10 plantation sites in a 78-thousand-hectare breeding zone. Plantation differences accounted for 71 percent of sums of squares (15-year heights),...

  11. Monitoring stand structure in mature coastal Douglas-fir forests: effect of plot size. (United States)

    Andrew. Gray


    National and regional interest in the distribution and trends of forest habitat structure and diversity have placed demands on forest inventories for accurate stand-level data. a primary need in the coastal Pacific Northwest of the United States is information on the extent and rate of development of mature forest structure. The objective of this study was to evaluate...

  12. Volume versus value maximization illustrated for Douglas-fir with thinning (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; J. Douglas Brodie; Chiang Kao


    Economic and physical criteria for selecting even-aged rotation lengths are reviewed with examples of their optimizations. To demonstrate the trade-off between physical volume, economic return, and stand diameter, examples of thinning regimes for maximizing volume, forest rent, and soil expectation are compared with an example of maximizing volume without thinning. The...

  13. Seed weight - seedling size correlation in coastal Douglas-fir: genetic and environmental components. (United States)

    Frank C. Sorensen; Robert K. Campbell


    The effect of seed weight on nursery seedling height was analyzed in two experiments. In expt. 1, 16 seeds per family from 111 families were individually weighed and sown in autumn. In expt. 2, a second group of 16 seeds were individually weighed and stratified and sown in spring. Four-tree noncontiguous family plots were randomly assigned to two densities in two...

  14. Economic feasibility of longer management regimes in the Douglas-fir region. (United States)

    Richard. Haynes


    The financial returns associated with extended management regimes have been the subject of recurring debate in the Pacific Northwest. Proponents argue that the amount and value of higher quality timber associated with older trees will offset the costs associated with longer management regimes. Land managers and owners express concerns about diminished financial returns...

  15. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: a case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Connie Harrington; Brad St. Clair


    1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the...

  16. Mortality and growth reduction of white fir following defoliation by the Douglas-fir tussock moth (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman


    In 5 years after a 1954-56 outbreak of Hemerocampa pseudotsugata in Calaveras and Tuolumne Counties, California, 20 percent of the merchantable white fir, or 11,071 board feet per acre, died in heavily defoliated stands. Another 1,113 board feet per acre was lost owing to radial growth reductions in partly defoliated trees; 12 percent of these trees...

  17. Major outbreaks of the Douglas-fir tussock moth in Oregon and California. (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman; Richard R. Mason; C.G. Thompson


    Case histories of five tussock moth outbreaks that occurred in California and Oregon between 1935 and 1965 are discussed. Information is given on the size and duration of the outbreaks, the presence of natural control agents and the damage caused. Most of the outbreaks were eventually treated with DDT. However, enough information was available from untreated portions...

  18. Simulation of forest growth, applied to douglas fir stands in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.


    Forest growth in relation to weather and soils is studied using a physiological simulation model. Growth potential depends on physiological characteristics of the plant species in combination with ambient weather conditions (mainly temperature and incoming radiation). For a given site, growth may be

  19. Simulation of growth and competition in mixed stands of Douglas-fir and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, H.H.


    For a long time, the emphasis in silviculture in Western Europe was solely on even-aged, monospecific stands; many empirical stand-level growth models were developed and successfully used for managing such stands. In contrast, no generally accepted growth and yield approach has emerged so

  20. Wood density-moisture profiles in old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock. (United States)

    W.Y. Pong; Dale R. Waddell; Lambert Michael B.


    Accurate estimation of the weight of each load of logs is necessary for safe and efficient aerial logging operations. The prediction of green density (lb/ft3) as a function of height is a critical element in the accurate estimation of tree bole and log weights. Two sampling methods, disk and increment core (Bergstrom xylodensimeter), were used to measure the density-...

  1. Evaluating and communicating options for harvesting young-growth douglas-fir forests (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Jeffery D. DeBell; Robert O. Curtis; Nancy K. Allison


    A cooperative project, developed by Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), provides a framework for managers and scientists to (1) obtain experience with a range of silvicultural options; (2) develop information about public response to visual appearance, economic performance, and biological aspects...

  2. Effect of habitat-improvement thinnings on lumber products from coastal Douglas-fir (United States)

    Dennis P. Dykstra; Patricia K. Lebow; Stephen Pilkerton; Jamie Barbour; Susan Hummel; Stuart R. Johnston


    We selected 66 sample trees from two thinning treatments, each of which was applied at three sites on the Siuslaw National Forest in Oregon. The first commercial thinnings, conducted in 1992 and 1993, had been designed to accelerate the development of large trees with large branches and other old-growth characteristics so as to improve habitat for bird species that...

  3. The impacts of water stress on phloem transport in Douglas-fir trees (United States)

    David Woodruff


    Despite the critical role that phloem plays in a number of plant functional processes and the potential impact of water stress on phloem structural and phloem sap compositional characteristics, little research has been done to examine how water stress influences phloem transport. The objectives of this study were to develop a more accurate understanding of how water...

  4. Adhesive properties of water washed cottonseed meal on poplar, douglas fir, walnut, and white oak (United States)

    The interest in natural product-based wood adhesives has been steadily increasing due to the environmental and sustainable concerns of petroleum-based adhesives. In this work, we reported our research on utilization of water washed cottonseed meal (WCM) as wood adhesives. The adhesive strength and w...

  5. Methods for estimating aboveground biomass and its components for Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine trees (United States)

    K.P. Poudel; H. Temesgen


    Estimating aboveground biomass and its components requires sound statistical formulation and evaluation. Using data collected from 55 destructively sampled trees in different parts of Oregon, we evaluated the performance of three groups of methods to estimate total aboveground biomass and (or) its components based on the bias and root mean squared error (RMSE) that...

  6. Comparison of different modelling strategies for simulating gas exchange of Douglas-fir forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Bouten, W.; Verstraten, J.M.


    Carbon and latent heat fluxes can be simulated with different model strategies to fulfil different research purposes. In this study we compared four different model concepts: artificial neural networks (ANN), fuzzy logic (FL), an index model (IM, using light use efficiency and water use efficiency)

  7. Crown dynamics and wood production of Douglas-fir trees in an old-growth forest (United States)

    H. Roaki Ishii; Stephen C. Sillett; Allyson L. Carroll


    Large trees are the most prominent structural features of old-growth forests, which are considered to be globally important carbon sinks. Because of their large size, estimates of biomass and growth of large trees are often based on ground-level measurements (e.g., diameter at breast height, DBH) and little is known about growth dynamics within the crown. As trees...

  8. Occurrence of mycorrhizae after logging and slash burning in the Douglas-fir forest type. (United States)

    Ernest Wright; Robert F. Tarrant


    The association of certain fungi with plant roots results in formation of an organ called a mycorrhiza. There are two principal types of mycorrhizae: those with the fungus confined internally in the root, or endotrophic mycorrhizae, and those with both internal fungus development and an external fungal mantle enveloping the root tips, or ectotrophic mycorrhizae....

  9. Interactions of tissue and fertilizer nitrogen on decomposition dynamics of lignin-rich conifer litter (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.


    High tissue nitrogen (N) accelerates decomposition of high-quality leaf litter in the early phases of mass loss, but the influence of initial tissue N variation on the decomposition of lignin-rich litter is less resolved. Because environmental changes such as atmospheric N deposition and elevated CO2 can alter tissue N levels within species more rapidly than they alter the species composition of ecosystems, it is important to consider how within-species variation in tissue N may shape litter decomposition and associated N dynamics. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii ) is a widespread lignin-rich conifer that dominates forests of high carbon (C) storage across western North America, and displays wide variation in tissue and litter N that reflects landscape variation in soil N. We collected eight unique Douglas-fir litter sources that spanned a two-fold range in initial N concentrations (0.67–1.31%) with a narrow range of lignin (29–35%), and examined relationships between initial litter chemistry, decomposition, and N dynamics in both ambient and N fertilized plots at four sites over 3 yr. High initial litter N slowed decomposition rates in both early (0.67 yr) and late (3 yr) stages in unfertilized plots. Applications of N fertilizer to litters accelerated early-stage decomposition, but slowed late-stage decomposition, and most strongly affected low-N litters, which equalized decomposition rates across litters regardless of initial N concentrations. Decomposition of N-fertilized litters correlated positively with initial litter manganese (Mn) concentrations, with litter Mn variation reflecting faster turnover of canopy foliage in high N sites, producing younger litterfall with high N and low Mn. Although both internal and external N inhibited decomposition at 3 yr, most litters exhibited net N immobilization, with strongest immobilization in low-N litter and in N-fertilized plots. Our observation for lignin-rich litter that high initial N can slow decomposition

  10. Photosynthetic phenological variation may promote coexistence among co-dominant tree species in a Madrean sky island mixed conifer forest. (United States)

    Potts, D L; Minor, R L; Braun, Z; Barron-Gafford, G A


    Across much of western North America, forests are predicted to experience a transition from snow- to rain-dominated precipitation regimes due to anthropogenic climate warming. Madrean sky island mixed conifer forests receive a large portion of their precipitation from summertime convective storms and may serve as a lens into the future for snow-dominated forests after prolonged warming. To better understand the linkage between physiological traits, climate variation, and the structure and function of mixed conifer forests, we measured leaf photosynthetic (A) responses to controlled variation in internal CO2 concentration (Ci) to quantify interspecific phenological variation in A/Ci-derived ecophysiological traits among ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson), southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis Engelm.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Species had similar, positive responses in net photosynthesis under ambient conditions (Anet) to the onset of summertime monsoonal precipitation, but during the cooler portions of the year P. ponderosa was able to maintain greater Anet than P. menziesii and P. strobiformis. Moreover, P. ponderosa had greater Anet in response to ephemerally favorable springtime conditions than either P. menziesii or P. strobiformis. Monsoonal precipitation was associated with a sharp rise in the maximum rates of electron transport (Jmax) and carboxylation (VCmax) in P. menziesii in comparison with P. ponderosa and P. strobiformis. In contrast, species shared similar low values of Jmax and VCmax in response to cool winter temperatures. Patterns of relative stomatal limitation followed predictions based on species' elevational distributions, reinforcing the role of stomatal behavior in maintaining hydraulic conductivity and shaping bioclimatic limits. Phenological variation in ecophysiologial traits among co-occurring tree species in a Madrean mixed conifer forest may promote temporal resource partitioning

  11. Range-wide genetic variability in Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii): examining disease resistance, growth, and survival in a common garden study (United States)

    Marianne Elliott; Gary A. Chastagner; Gil Dermott; Alan Kanaskie; Richard A. Sniezko; Jim. Hamlin


    Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh, Ericaceae) is an important evergreen hardwood species in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forests that provides food and habitat for wildlife and has high value in urban environments. Reeves (2007) indicates that Pacific madrone provides habitat for numerous wildlife species, especially cavity-nesting birds. Its...

  12. Residence of silver in mineral deposits of the Thunder Mountain caldera complex, Central Idaho, U.S.A. (United States)

    Leonard, B.F.; Christian, R.P.


    Silver is an accessory element in gold, antimony, and tungsten deposits of the caldera complex. Most of the deposits are economically of low grade and genetically of xenothermal or epithermal character. Their gold- and silver-bearing minerals are usually disseminated, fine grained, and difficult to study. Sparsely disseminated pyrite and arsenoprite are common associates. Identified silver minerals are: native silver and electrum; the sulfides acanthite, argentite (the latter always inverted to acanthite), and members of the Silberkies group; the sulfosalts matildite, miargyrite, pyrargyrite, argentian tetrahedrite, and unnamed Ag-Sb-S and Ag-Fe-Sb-S minerals; the telluride hessite and the selenide naumannite; halides of the cerargyrite group; and the antimonate stetefeldtite. Suspected silver minerals include the sulfide uytenbogaardtite and the sulfosalts andorite, diaphorite, and polybasite. Electrum, acanthite, and argentian tetrahedrite are common, though nowhere abundant. The other silver minerals are rare. Silver is present as a minor element in the structure of some varieties of other minerals. These include arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcostibite, covelline, digenite, galena, sphalerite, and stibnite. The search for adventitious Ag in most of these minerals has been cursory. The results merely indicate that elemental silver is not confined to discrete silver minerals and is, therefore, an additional complication for the recovery of silver-bearing material from some deposits. Silver occurs cryptically in some plants of the region. At Red Mountain, for example, the ashed sapwood of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) contains 2 to 300 ppm Ag. Silver in the ashed wood is roughly 100 times as abundant as it is in soil. The phenomenon, useful in biogeochemical exploration, deserves the attention of mineralogists. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species. (United States)

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric


    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An extractive removal step optimized for a high-throughput α-cellulose extraction method for δ13C and δ18O stable isotope ratio analysis in conifer tree rings. (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Noormets, Asko; King, John S; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steve; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Cernusak, Lucas


    Stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O) of tree-ring α-cellulose are important tools in paleoclimatology, ecology, plant physiology and genetics. The Multiple Sample Isolation System for Solids (MSISS) was a major advance in the tree-ring α-cellulose extraction methods, offering greater throughput and reduced labor input compared to traditional alternatives. However, the usability of the method for resinous conifer species may be limited by the need to remove extractives from some conifer species in a separate pretreatment step. Here we test the necessity of pretreatment for α-cellulose extraction in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and the efficiency of a modified acetone-based ambient-temperature step for the removal of extractives (i) in loblolly pine from five geographic locations representing its natural range in the southeastern USA, and (ii) on five other common coniferous species (black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.), Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa D.)) with contrasting extractive profiles. The differences of δ13C values between the new and traditional pretreatment methods were within the precision of the isotope ratio mass spectrometry method used (±0.2‰), and the differences between δ18O values were not statistically significant. Although some unanticipated results were observed in Fraser fir, the new ambient-temperature technique was deemed as effective as the more labor-consuming and toxic traditional pretreatment protocol. The proposed technique requires a separate acetone-inert multiport system similar to MSISS, and the execution of both pretreatment and main extraction steps allows for simultaneous treatment of up to several hundred microsamples from resinous softwood, while the need of additional labor input remains minimal.

  15. Effects of a natural dam-break flood on geomorphology and vegetation on the Elwha River, Washington, U.S.A. (United States)

    Acker, S.A.; Beechie, T.J.; Shafroth, P.B.


    Ephemeral dams caused by landslides have been observed around the world, yet little is known about the effects of their failure on landforms and vegetation. In 1967, a landslide-dam-break flood in a pristine reach of the Elwha River valley filled the former channel and diverted the river. The reach is a reference site for restoration following the planned removal of dams on the river. We identified five surfaces on the 25 ha debris fan deposited by the flood. Based on tree ages and historic air photos, three of the surfaces formed in 1967, while two formed later. The surfaces varied in substrate (silt and sand, to boulders), and height above the river channel. Tree mortality resulted from tree removal and burial by sediment, the latter leaving snags and some surviving trees. Tree species composition was generally consistent within each surface. Dominant species included red alder (Alnus rubra) and Sitka willow (Salix sitchensis), alone or in combination, a combination of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa), or a combination of alder and Cottonwood. There were significant differences between surfaces in stem density, basal area, and rate of basal area growth. The large degree of heterogeneity in forest structure, composition, and productivity within a relatively small floodplain feature is in part due to spatial variability in the intensity of a single disturbance event, and in part due to the occurrence of subsequent, smaller events. To recreate natural diversity of riparian forests may require mimicking the variety of physical and biotic habitats that a single, complex disturbance event may create.

  16. Phytoliths as a tool to track plant community changes after fire regime shift (United States)

    Kirchholtes, R.; van Mourik, J. M.; Johnson, B. R.


    Anthropogenically induced changes to the historical fire regime are excellent analogues to study the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystem responses to present-day environmental changes. Fire suppression and loss of indigenous burning practices in the Willamette Valley, Oregon (USA) has led to near disappearance of the Oregon white oak savanna. The specific goal of this study was to better understand the pace and character with which the Oregon oak savannas are disappearing. Under suppressed fire regimes the shade-intolerant Garry oaks (Quercus garryana) are outcompeted by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). As a consequence, the Oregon white oak savanna has been reduced to phytoliths to establish the change in plant communities. Phytoliths are small yet robust silica particles produced by most plants. Many phytoliths take on cell shapes diagnostic of specific plant lineages, acting as indicators of their past presence. By reconstructing the vegetation patterns at the Jim's Creek Research Area using phytoliths, we confirm the pattern of rapid tree encroachment. In addition to grasses, the phytolith assemblages which represent the landscape from about 150 years ago, also document the presence of pines and firs. This suggests that (1) the Willamette Valley savannas did not exclusively consist of grass and oaks and (2) it took less than 150 years to change from and open landscape to a densely forested one. Under a warming climate and changing precipitation patterns, reducing fire risk, fire intensity and fuel loading is critical. Combined with increased attention to hydrological impacts of denser forests, an accurate reconstruction of pre-modern forest density and composition is critical to evaluate efforts to restore forests to their natural condition.

  17. Millennial precipitation reconstruction for the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, reveals changing drought signal (United States)

    Touchan, Ramzi; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Meko, David M.; Allen, Craig D.


    Drought is a recurring phenomenon in the American Southwest. Since the frequency and severity of hydrologic droughts and other hydroclimatic events are of critical importance to the ecology and rapidly growing human population of this region, knowledge of long-term natural hydroclimatic variability is valuable for resource managers and policy-makers. An October–June precipitation reconstruction for the period AD 824–2007 was developed from multi-century tree-ring records of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Pinus strobiformis (Southwestern white pine) and Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine) for the Jemez Mountains in Northern New Mexico. Calibration and verification statistics for the period 1896–2007 show a high level of skill, and account for a significant portion of the observed variance (>50%) irrespective of which period is used to develop or verify the regression model. Split-sample validation supports our use of a reconstruction model based on the full period of reliable observational data (1896–2007). A recent segment of the reconstruction (2000–2006) emerges as the driest 7-year period sensed by the trees in the entire record. That this period was only moderately dry in precipitation anomaly likely indicates accentuated stress from other factors, such as warmer temperatures. Correlation field maps of actual and reconstructed October–June total precipitation, sea surface temperatures and 500-mb geopotential heights show characteristics that are similar to those indicative of El Niño–Southern Oscillation patterns, particularly with regard to ocean and atmospheric conditions in the equatorial and north Pacific. Our 1184-year reconstruction of hydroclimatic variability provides long-term perspective on current and 20th century wet and dry events in Northern New Mexico, is useful to guide expectations of future variability, aids sustainable water management, provides scenarios for drought planning and as inputs for hydrologic models under a

  18. Ecology and development of Douglas-fir seedlings and associated plant species in a Coast Range plantation (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler


    On an average site in northern coastal California, a tanoak-mixed shrub community was given several treatments (manual release one, two, and three times; a combination chainsaw and cut surface chemical treatment; two foliar chemicals; and a tank mix of the two chemicals) to study its development over an 11-year period in both a broadcast-burned (untreated control) and...

  19. Cooperative advanced-generation breeding and testing of coastal Douglas-fir and western hemlock—strategy and implementation. (United States)

    K. J.S. Jayawickrama; G.R. Johnson; T. Ye


    As in many temperate regions of the world, forest tree improvement got underway in the Pacific Northwest of the USA in the 1950s, with a number of companies and agencies starting independent tree improvement programs. Booth-Kelly Lumber Co., Crown Zellerbach Corp., the Industrial Forestry Association, Port Blakely Mill Co., Simpson Timber Co., Timber Service Co., the...

  20. Differences in the ability of vegetation models to predict small mammal abundance in different aged Douglas-fir forests (United States)

    Cathy A. Taylor; C. John Ralph; Arlene T. Doyle


    Three trapping techniques for small mammals were used in 47 study stands in northern California and southern Oregon and resulted in different capture frequencies by the different techniques. In addition, the abundances of mammals derived from the different techniques produced vegetation association models which were often quite different. Only the California redbacked...

  1. Temporal change in soil carbon stability at a paired old-growth douglas-fir forest/clear-cut site (United States)

    Forest ecosystems are estimated to contain one-half of the total terrestrial carbon (C) pool (1146 Pg), with two-thirds of this C (787 Pg) residing in forest soils. Given the magnitude of this C pool, it is critical to understand the effects of forest management practices on soil...

  2. Interactions of predominant insects and diseases with climate change in Douglas-fir forests of Western Oregon and Washington, USA (United States)

    Forest disturbance regimes are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated shifts associated with global climate change, and these patterns will likely continue due to continuing changes in environmental conditions. Tree growth is controlled by the physiological constraints o...

  3. Soil properties in old-growth Douglas-fir gaps in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon (United States)

    Robert P. Griffiths; Andrew N. Gray; Thomas A. Spies


    This study had three objectives: (1) to determine if there are correlations between aboveground vegetation and belowground soil properties within large 50-m-diameter gaps, (2) to determine how large gaps influence forest soils compared with nongap soils, and (3) to measure the effects of differently sized gaps on gap soils. Circular canopy gaps were created in old-...

  4. A method for estimating vulnerability of Douglas-fir growth to climate change in the Northwestern U.S. (United States)

    J.S. Littell; D.L. Peterson


    Borrowing from landscape ecology, atmospheric science, and integrated assessment, we aim to understand the complex interactions that determine productivity in montane forests and utilize such relationships to forecast montane forest vulnerability under global climate change. Specifically, we identify relationships for precipitation and temperature that govern the...

  5. Some simulation estimates of mean annual increment of Douglas-fir: results, limitations, and implications for management. (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis


    Patterns of development of mean annual increment in relation to age predicted by the widely used DFSIM, SPS, TASS, and ORGANON simulators were examined. Although predictions differ considerably among simulators for portions of the range of sites, ages, and treatments, comparisons indicated that (1) culmination is relatively late, (2) the curve is relatively flat in the...

  6. Physical and mechanical properties of young-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock from western Washington (United States)

    Christopher E. Langum; Vikram Yadama; Eini C. Lowell


    Diversity in land management objectives has led to changes in the character of raw material available to the forest products industries in the US Pacific Northwest. Increasing numbers of logs from small-diameter trees, both plantation grown and those from suppressed or young stands, now constitute a large proportion of logs coming into the mill yard. Wood coming from...

  7. Effects of logging debris treatments on five-year development of competing vegetation and planted Douglas-fir (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington; Stephen H. Schoenholtz


    Although considerable research has focused on the influences of logging debris treatments on soil and forest regeneration responses, few studies have identified whether debris effects are mediated by associated changes in competing vegetation abundance. At sites near Matlock, Washington, and Molalla, Oregon, studies were initiated after timber harvest to quantify the...

  8. Suitability of sphagnum moss, coir, and douglas fir bark as soilless substrates for container production of highbush blueberry (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the suitability of different soilless substrates for container production of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). Young plants of ‘Snowchaser’ blueberry were grown in 4.4-liter pots filled with media containing 10% perlite and varying proportions of...

  9. Performance of full-sib families of Douglas-fir in pure-family and mixed-family deployments (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; J. Bradley St.Clair; Paul D. Anderson


    A major objective of tree improvement programs is to identify genotypes that will perform well in operational deployments. Relatively little is known, however, about how the competitive environment affects performance in different types of deployments. We tested whether the genetic composition and density of deployments affect the performance of full-sib families of...

  10. Annualized diameter and height growth equations for Pacific Northwest plantation-grown Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and red alder. (United States)

    A.R. Weiskittel; S.M. Garber; G.P. Johnson; D.A. Maguire; R.A. Monserud


    Simulating the influence of intensive management and annual weather fluctuations on tree growth requires a shorter time step than currently employed by most regional growth models. High-quality data sets are available for several plantation species in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, but the growth periods ranged from 2 to 12 years. Measurement...

  11. Invasive scotch broom alters soil chemical properties in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Timothy B. Harrington; Anthony W. D′Amato


    Backgrounds and aims Scotch broom is an N-fixing invasive species that has high potential to alter soil properties. We compared soil from areas of Scotch broom invasion with nearby areas that had no evidence of invasion to assess the influence of broom on soil P fractions and other chemical properties. Methods The study was...

  12. Tree growth in thinned and unthinned White fir stands 20 years after a Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreak. (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman


    Twenty-year postoutbreak growth was compared in thinned and unthinned, severely defoliated stands. Basal area of unthinned white fir has declined 37 percent and pine basal area has increased 32 percent since 1964. The stand thinned in 1960 has the lowest basal area in the study area, but the greatest tree growth before and after the outbreak. All defoliated fir are...

  13. Response of branch growth and mortality to silvicultural treatments in coastal Douglas-fir plantations: implications for predicting tree growth. (United States)

    A.R. Weiskittel; D. Maguire; R.A. Monserud


    Static models of individual tree crown attributes such as height to crown base and maximum branch diameter profile have been developed for several commercially important species. Dynamic models of individual branch growth and mortality have received less attention, but have generally been developed retrospectively by dissecting felled trees; however, this approach is...

  14. Using age of colonizing douglas-fir for the dating of young geomorphic surfaces: a case study (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.


    Dating of many types of young (Luckman 1993; Sigafoos and Hendricks 1969; Winter et al. 2002). Appropriate lag times for selected tree species and for particular climatic and altitudinal ranges must be determined for the method to be useful.

  15. Sudden oak death-caused changes to surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in Douglas-fir-tanoak forests (United States)

    Y.S. Valachovic; C.A. Lee; H. Scanlon; J.M. Varner; R. Glebocki; B.D. Graham; D.M. Rizzo


    We compared stand structure and fuel loading in northwestern California forests invaded by Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death, to assess whether the continued presence of this pathogen alters surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in ways that may encumber future firefighting response. To attempt to account for these...

  16. Mortality predictions of fire-injured large Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine in Oregon and Washington, USA (United States)

    Lisa M. Ganio; Robert A. Progar


    Wild and prescribed fire-induced injury to forest trees can produce immediate or delayed tree mortality but fire-injured trees can also survive. Land managers use logistic regression models that incorporate tree-injury variables to discriminate between fatally injured trees and those that will survive. We used data from 4024 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  17. Thermotolerance and heat stress responses of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine seedling populations from contrasting climates (United States)

    Danielle E. Marias; Frederick C. Meinzer; David R. Woodruff; Katherine A. McCulloh; David Tissue


    Temperature and the frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century. Germinant seedlings are expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat stress because they are in the boundary layer close to the soil surface where intense heating occurs in open habitats. We quantified leaf thermotolerance and whole-plant physiological...

  18. PLFA profiling of microbial community structure and seasonal shifts in soils of a Douglas-fir chronosequence (United States)

    Jennifer Moore-Kucera; Richard P. Dick


    The impact and frequency of forest harvesting could significantly affect soil microbial community (SMC) structure and functioning. The ability of soil microorganisms to perform biogeochemical processes is critical for sustaining forest productivity and has a direct impact on decomposition dynamics and carbon storage potential. The Wind River Canopy Crane Research...

  19. Root hydraulic conductivity and xylem sap levels of zeatin riboside and abscisic acid in ectomycorrhizal Douglas fir seedlings (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; Caroline S. Bledsoe; Barbara A. Smit


    Mechanistic hypotheses to explain mycorrhizal enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) suggest that phosphorus (P) nutrition, plant growth substances and/or altered morphology may be responsible. Such ideas are based on work with VA (vesicular-arbuscular) mycorrhizas. Since VA mycorrhizas and ectomycorrhizas differ in many respects, they...

  20. Time to ignition is influenced by both moisture content and soluble carbohydrates in live Douglas fir and Lodgepole pine needles (United States)

    Matt Jolly; Sara McAllister; Mark Finney; Ann Hadlow


    Living plants are often the primary fuels burning in wildland fire but little is known about the factors that govern their ignition behavior. Moisture content has long been hypothesized to determine the characteristics of fires spreading in live fuels but moisture content alone fails to explain observed differences in the ignition of various species at different times...

  1. Analysis of mating system parameters and population structure in Douglas-fir using single-locus and multilocus methods (United States)

    D. V. Shaw; R. W. Allard


    Two methods of estimating the proportion of self-fertilization as opposed to outcrossing in plant populations are described. The first method makes use of marker loci one at a time; the second method makes use of multiple marker loci simultaneously. Comparisons of the estimates of proportions of selfing and outcrossing obtained using the two methods are shown to yield...

  2. Physiology and growth of redwood and Douglas-fir planted after variable density retention outside redwood’s range (United States)

    Lucy Kerhoulas; Nicholas Kerhoulas; Wade Polda; John-Pascal Berrill


    Reforestation following timber harvests is an important topic throughout the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) range. Furthermore, as drought-induced mortality spreads across many of California’s forests, it is important to understand how physiology and stand structure influence reforestation success. Finally, as climate...

  3. Chapter 16 - Impacts of Swiss needle cast in the Cascade mountains of northern Oregon: Monitoring of permanent plots after 10 years (Project WC-EM-B-11-01) (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Alan Kanaskie; Will R. Littke; John Browning; Kristen L. Chadwick; David C. Shaw; Robin L. Mulvey


    Swiss needle cast (SNC), caused by the fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, is one of the most damaging diseases of coast Douglasfir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in the Pacific Northwest (Hansen and others 2000, Mainwaring and others 2005, Shaw and others 2011).

  4. Species-specific and seasonal differences in chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic light response among three evergreen species in a Madrean sky island mixed conifer forest (United States)

    Potts, D. L.; Minor, R. L.; Braun, Z.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.


    Unlike the snowmelt-dominated hydroclimate of more northern mountainous regions, the hydroclimate of the Madrean sky islands is characterized by snowmelt and convective storms associated with the North American Monsoon. These mid-summer storms trigger biological activity and are important drivers of primary productivity. For example, at the highest elevations where mixed conifer forests occur, ecosystem carbon balance is influenced by monsoon rains. Whereas these storms' significance is increasingly recognized at the ecosystem scale, species-specific physiological responses to the monsoon are poorly known. Prior to and following monsoon onset, we measured pre-dawn and light-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence as well as photosynthetic light response in southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in a Madrean sky island mixed conifer forest near Tucson, Arizona. Photochemical quenching (qp), an indicator of the proportion of open PSII reaction centers, was greatest in P. strobiformis and least in P. menziesii and increased in response to monsoon rains (repeated-measures ANOVA; species, F2,14 = 6.17, P = 0.012; time, F2,14= 8.17, P = 0.013). In contrast, non-photochemical quenching (qN), an indicator of heat dissipation ability, was greatest in P. ponderosa and least in P. menziesii, but was not influenced by monsoon onset (repeated-measures ANOVA; species, F2,12 = 4.18, P = 0.042). Estimated from leaf area-adjusted photosynthetic light response curves, maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) was greatest in P. ponderosa and least in P. menziesii (repeated-measures ANOVA; species, F2,8= 40.8, P = 0.001). Surprisingly, while the monsoon positively influenced Amax among P. ponderosa and P. strobiformis, Amax of P. menziesii declined with monsoon onset (repeated-measures ANOVA; species x time, F2,8 = 13.8, P = 0.002). Calculated as the initial slope of the photosynthetic light response curve, light

  5. Preferences of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae among Three Commercial Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala K. Hapukotuwa


    Full Text Available The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann, are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009 to assess the termite resistance of three commercially available wood species used in regions of the USA where both termite species occur: Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziessii, southern yellow pine, Pinus spp. and redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. A multiple-choice (three-choice assay was used for four weeks (28 days in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72–80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers were released into each test jar. Five replicates and two controls of each wood species were used with each termite species. Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure to 10 (sound scale. There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species. The mean mass loss value for redwood was significantly lower than Douglas fir and southern yellow pine with both termite species. However, C. formosanus showed increased feeding on Douglas fir and southern yellow pine compared to C. gestroi.

  6. Carbon Fluxes in a Managed Landscape: Assessing the Drivers of Temporal and Spatial Variability in Flux Tower, MODIS and Forest Inventory Data of the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Wharton, S.; Bible, K.; Falk, M.; Paw U, K.


    This research focuses on the Wind Late Successional Reserve of Southern Washington where clear-cut logging over the past 100 years has created a fragmented landscape of coniferous forests that range in age from 0 to 500 years. In this study, we integrate several datasets to examine the environmental drivers of carbon exchange in this region across time and space. These sources include: (1) network of flux towers across a disturbance choronosequence, (2) MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index, (3) aboveground net primary production (ANPP) from forest inventories, (4) and regional precipitation and air temperature measurements from the NOAA network of weather stations and PRISM reanalysis data. Net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) has been measured at the Wind River Canopy Crane AmeriFlux site since 1998. The canopy crane is located in an old-growth forest composed of late seral Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Two flux towers were erected in early seral stands to study the effects of silviculture on net ecosystem exchange. CO2 uptake at the old-growth stand is highest in the spring before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit are relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels are favorable for photosynthesis, while maximum CO2 uptake is observed two to three months later at the early seral stands and coincide with peak leaf area index. This CO2 pattern is driven by different water conserving strategies. A reduction in carbon exchange is observed at the old-growth forest when moisture becomes limiting and canopy conductance rates drop sharply after mid-morning in the summer. In contrast, inhibition in canopy conductance rates and CO2 exchange is not observed at the early seral stands until soil moisture levels become critically low at the very end of the summer. The regional MODIS data (200 km X 200 km area) from 2000-2008 show that annual variability in the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) also

  7. Willamette Valley Ecoregion: Chapter 3 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000 (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sorenson, Daniel G.


    sedimentation and decreased water quality in the Willamette River and its tributary streams (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, 2006). Recent years have seen a marked decline in forest health related to the increased frequency of multiyear droughts. Insect damage and other diseases also are present; however, drought- related water stress is the primary factor in coniferous-tree mortality (Oregon Department of Forestry, 2008). Trees most at risk include Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), grand fir (Abies grandis), and western red cedar (Thuja plicata). Overstocking by timber companies and planting on sites with poor conditions increase susceptibility. Over time, these problems may lead to changes in planting practices and the use of more drought-tolerant species such as ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa).

  8. A 3PG-based Model to Simulate Delta-13C Content in Three Tree Species in The Mica Creek Experiment Watershed, Idaho (United States)

    Wei, L.; Marshall, J. D.


    3PG (Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth), a process-based physiological model of forest productivity, has been widely used and well validated. Based on 3PG, a 3PG-δ13C model to simulate δ13C content in plant tissue is built in this research. 3PG calculates carbon assimilation from utilizable absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and calculates stomatal conductance from maximum canopy conductance multiplied by physiological modifier which includes the effect of water vapor deficit and soil water. Then the equation of Farquhar and Sharkey (1982) was used to calculate δ13C content in plant. Five even-aged coniferous forest stands located near Clarkia, Idaho (47°15'N, 115°25'W) in Mica Creek Experimental Watershed, were chosen to test the model, (2 stands had been partial cut (50% canopy removal in 1990) and 3 were uncut). MCEW has been extensively investigated since 1990 and many necessary parameters needed for 3PG are readily available. Each of these sites is located near a UI Meteorological station, which recorded half-hourly climatic data since 2003. These site-specific climatic data were extend to 1991 by correlating with data from a nearby SNOTEL station (SNOwpack TELemetry, NRCS, 47°9' N, 116°16' W). Forest mensuration data were obtained form each stand using variable radius plots (VRP). Three tree species, which consist more than 95% of all trees, were parameterized for 3PG model, including: grand fir (Abies grandis Donn ex D. Don), western red cedar (Thuja plicat Donn ex D. Don a) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco). Because 4 out of 5 stands have mixed species, we also used parameters for mixed stands to run the model. To stabilize, the model was initially run under average climatic data for 20 years, and then run under the actual climatic data from 1991 to 2006. As 3PG runs in a monthly time step, monthly δ13C values were calculated first, and then yearly values were calculated by weighted

  9. Causes of Variability in the Effects of Vegetative Ash on Post-Fire Runoff and Erosion (United States)

    Balfour, V.; Woods, S.


    Vegetative ash formed during forest wildfires has varying effects on post-fire runoff and erosion. In some cases the ash layer reduces runoff and erosion by storing rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from surface sealing and rainsplash detachment. In other cases, the ash layer increases runoff and erosion by forming a surface crust, clogging soil pores, and providing a ready source of highly erodible fine material. Since only a handful of studies have measured the hydrogeomorphic effect of ash, it is unclear whether the observed variability in its effect reflects initial spatial variability in the ash properties due to factors such as fuel type and fire severity, or differences that develop over time due to compaction and erosion or exposure of the ash to rainfall and air. The goal of our research was to determine if the observed differences in the effect of ash on runoff and erosion are due to: 1) variability in initial ash hydrologic properties due to differences in combustion temperature and fuel type, or 2) variability in ash hydrologic properties caused by mineralogical phase changes that develop after the ash is exposed to water. We created ash in the laboratory using wood and needles of Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), Ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and at 100° C temperature increments from 300 to 900° C. A subsample of ash from each fuel type / temperature combination was saturated, left undisturbed for 24 hours and then oven dried at 104° C. Dry and wetted ash samples were characterized in terms of: structure (using a scanning electron microscope), carbon content, mineralogy (using X-ray diffraction), porosity, water retention properties and hydraulic conductivity. Ash produced at the higher combustion temperatures from all three fuel types contained lime (CaO), which on wetting was transformed to portlandite (Ca(OH)2) and calcite (CaCO3). This mineralogical transformation resulted in irreversible

  10. The use of plants in prospecting for gold: A brief overview with a selected bibliography and topic index (United States)

    Erdman, J.A.; Olson, J.C.


    The focal point of this report is a bibliography of 133 references and an associated topic index - both of which could be useful to geochemists attempting to locate new Au deposits. Fifty of these references originated in the Soviet Union, where most of the initial work on biogeochemical exploration for Au had been done. The 15 topics in the index range from agriculture (Au in crop plants) to silver. As an introduction to the bibliography, we have briefly described some examples of applications and difficulties in using plants. These examples are drawn from the literature and from field experience. Because of the generally low Au concentrations found in plants, the analysis of plant tissue is critical to the successful application of the biogeochemical method of prospecting. Neuron activation analysis is the most widely used method to detect Au in plants, due largely to its sensitivity; levels in the parts per billion range are easily attained. Two general types of sampling media are used in prospecting for Au: humus and living plants. Humus has been widely used in Canada, but the sampling of plants has increased there and elsewhere in recent years. Our use of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) at a Au-bearing stockwork in Idaho is a prime example. A maximum Au concentration of 14 ??g/g (ppm) was detected in the wood ash of this coniferous tree, well above the normal concentration of ??? 0.15 ??g/g. Among shrubs that might be useful in Au prospecting, we recommend sagebrush or wormwood (genus Artemisia), because it is extremely responsive to concealed mineralization. It has been used extensively in the Soviet Union and could be used in areas of the western United States where disseminated Au occurrences might be located. Among the problems one may encounter in using plants for Au prospecting are: (1) physiological barriers, by which many plant species simply do not absorb Au at detectable levels; (2) misconceptions of soil-plant correlations; (3) localization of

  11. Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene emissions. (United States)

    Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex


    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from <0.01 to 0.15μgg(-1)h(-1). BER of up to 1.2μgg(-1)h(-1) of the SQT germacrene B were found from Q. gambelii, peaking in late summer. The β-factor, used to define temperature dependence in emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2

  12. Non-Linear Nitrogen Cycling and Ecosystem Calcium Depletion Along a Temperate Forest Soil Nitrogen Gradient (United States)

    Sinkhorn, E. R.; Perakis, S. S.; Compton, J. E.; Cromack, K.; Bullen, T. D.


    Understanding how N availability influences base cation stores is critical for assessing long-term ecosystem sustainability. Indices of nitrogen (N) availability and the distribution of nutrients in plant biomass, soil, and soil water were examined across ten Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands spanning a three-fold soil N gradient (0-10 cm: 0.21 - 0.69% N, 0-100 cm: 9.2 - 28.8 Mg N ha-1) in the Oregon Coast Range. This gradient is largely the consequence of historical inputs from N2-fixing red alder stands that can add 100-200 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to the ecosystem for decades. Annual net N mineralization and litterfall N return displayed non-linear relationships with soil N, increasing initially, and then decreasing as N-richness increased. In contrast, nitrate leaching from deep soils increased linearly across the soil N gradient and ranged from 0.074 to 30 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Soil exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K pools to 1 m depth were negatively related to nitrate losses across sites. Ca was the only base cation exhibiting concentration decreases in both plant and soil pools across the soil N gradient, and a greater proportion of total available ecosystem Ca was sequestered in aboveground plant biomass at high N, low Ca sites. Our work supports a hierarchical model of coupled N-Ca cycles across gradients of soil N enrichment, with microbial production of mobile nitrate anions leading to depletion of readily available Ca at the ecosystem scale, and plant sequestration promoting Ca conservation as Ca supply diminishes. The preferential storage of Ca in aboveground biomass at high N and low Ca sites, while critical for sustaining plant productivity, may also predispose forests to Ca depletion in areas managed for intensive biomass removal. Long-term N enrichment of temperate forest soils appears capable of sustaining an open N cycle and key symptoms of N-saturation for multiple decades after the cessation of elevated N inputs.

  13. Current net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a young mixed forest: any heritage from the previous ecosystem? (United States)

    Violette, Aurélie; Heinesch, Bernard; Erpicum, Michel; Carnol, Monique; Aubinet, Marc; François, Louis


    For 15 years, networks of flux towers have been developed to determine accurate carbon balance with the eddy-covariance method and determine if forests are sink or source of carbon. However, for prediction of the evolution of carbon cycle and climate, major uncertainties remain on the ecosystem respiration (Reco, which includes the respiration of above ground part of trees, roots respiration and mineralization of the soil organic matter), the gross primary productivity (GPP) and their difference, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of forests. These uncertainties are consequences of spatial and inter-annual variability, driven by previous and current climatic conditions, as well as by the particular history of the site (management, diseases, etc.). In this study we focus on the carbon cycle in two mixed forests in the Belgian Ardennes. The first site, Vielsalm, is a mature stand mostly composed of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from 80 to 100 years old. The second site, La Robinette, was covered before 1995 with spruces. After an important windfall and a clear cutting, the site was replanted, between 1995 and 2000, with spruces (Piceas abies) and deciduous species (mostly Betula pendula, Aulnus glutinosa and Salix aurita). The challenge here is to highlight how initial conditions can influence the current behavior of the carbon cycle in a growing stand compared to a mature one, where initial conditions are supposed to be forgotten. A modeling approach suits particularly well for sensitivity tests and estimation of the temporal lag between an event and the ecosystem response. We use the forest ecosystem model ASPECTS (Rasse et al., Ecological Modelling 141, 35-52, 2001). This model predicts long-term forest growth by calculating, over time, hourly NEE. It was developed and already validated on the Vielsalm forest. Modelling results are confronted to eddy-covariance data on both sites from 2006 to 2011. The main difference between both

  14. Using LiDAR Metrics to Characterize Forest Structural Complexity at Multiple Scales (United States)

    Kane, V. R.; McGaughey, R. J.; Gersonde, R.; Franklin, J. F.


    Forest structure - the size and arrangement of trees and foliage - reflects a stand's history of initiation, growth, disturbance, and mortality. Because of this, studying the structure of forests can provide key insights into ecological processes, guides to silvicultural prescriptions to improve habitat, and assessments of forested landscapes. This study tested LiDAR metrics to characterize stands based on canopy structure. The study site was the 34,591 ha of forests in the Cedar River Watershed in western Washington State, USA. Stands ranged in age from 350 years old (including old-growth). Study sites spanned the western hemlock- Douglas fir (Tsuga heterophylla-Pseudotsuga menziesii), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), and mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertansiana) forest zones. Eighty sample plots were used to ground truth the LiDAR data. A variety of structural indices were used to study canopy structural variations at the plot, stand, and landscape scales. The two most successful indices used the exposed geometry of the canopy surface: (1) the ratio of the canopy surface area to ground surface area (rumple index), and (2) the ratio of the volume beneath the canopy surface to maximum volume beneath the 95th percentile height (modified canopy volume method). These two indices integrated the spatial effects of tree heights, foliage distribution, and tree arrangement within 15m pixels. Variation between pixels revealed structural complexity at larger scales. Results: At the plot scale (~4 pixels), correlations with standard plot metrics (e.g., diameter at breast height) were similar to those reported by other studies. Comparison of structural complexity with age and height revealed a diversity of development pathways. The relationship between height and complexity allowed stands to be classified by the degree to which they have achieved their potential structural complexity, a new way to examine forest development. At the stand scale, the indices allowed spatial

  15. Growth of coast redwood and Douglas-fir following thinning in second-growth forests at Redwood National Park and Headwaters Forest Reserve (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Jason R. Teraoka; David H. LaFever; Laura B. Lalemand


    Managers of second-growth forests at Redwood National Park and the Bureau of Land Management’s Headwaters Forest Reserve encourage the development of late seral forest characteristics using mechanical thinning, where competing vegetation is removed to promote growth of residual trees. Yet the ability to quantify and reliably predict outcomes of treatments such...

  16. High titer and yield ethanol production from undetoxified whole slurry of Douglas-fir forest residue using pH profiling in SPORL (United States)

    Jinlan Cheng; Shao-Yuan Leu; JY Zhu; Rolland Gleisner


    Forest residue is one of the most cost-effective feedstock for biofuel production. It has relatively high bulk density and can be harvested year round, advantageous for reducing transportation cost and eliminating onsite storage. However, forest residues, especially those from softwood species, are highly recalcitrant to biochemical conversion. A severe pretreatment...

  17. Douglas-fir forests in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington: is the abundance of small mammals related to stand age and moisture? (United States)

    Coen, P.S.; Bury, R.B.; Spies, T.A.


    Red tree voles (Arborimus longicaudus) were the only small mammal strongly associated with old-growth forests, whereas vagrant shrews (Sorex vagrans) were most abundant in young forests. Pacific marsh shrews (S. bendirii) were most abundant in wet old-growth forests, but abundance of this species in young (wet) forests needs further study. Clearcuts had a mammalian fauna distinct from young forest stands. Abundance of several species was correlated to habitat features unique to naturally regenerated forests, indicated an urgent need to study the long-term effects of forest management to nongame wildlife.

  18. Comparative analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin binding to gypsy moth, browntail moth, and douglas-fir tussock moth midgut tissue sections using fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; John D. Podgwaite


    Many strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produce insecticidal proteins, also referred to as Cry toxins, in crystal inclusions during sporulation. When ingested by insects, the Cry toxins bind to receptors on the brush border midgut epithelial cells and create pores in the epithelial gut membranes resulting in the death of...

  19. Applying MERLIN for modelling nitrate leaching in a nitrogen saturated Douglas fir forest in the Netherlands after decreased atmospheric nitrogen input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tietema


    Full Text Available The MERLIN model was applied on the results of a field-scale manipulation experiment with decreased nitrogen (N deposition in an N saturated forest ecosystem in the Netherlands. The aim was to investigate the mechanisms that could explain the observed rapid response of nitrate as a result of the decreased N input. Calibrating the model to pre-treatment data revealed that, despite the high atmospheric N input, the trees relied on N mineralised from refractory organic matter (ROM for their growth. MERLIN could simulate only the fast response of nitrate leaching after decreased input if this ROM mineralisation rate was decreased strongly at the time of the manipulation experiment.

  20. Dynamic nitrogen deposition thresholds during forest stand development in a Douglas fir forest analysed with two nitrogen models SMART2 and MERLIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tietema, A.; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.


    In contrast to the classical critical load (CL) concept, based on long-term steady-state conditions, a dynamic deposition threshold (DDT) is introduced. This DDT takes into account all relevant dynamic aspects of vegetation development/forest growth, mineralisation, immobilisation and

  1. High solids Quasi-Simultaneous Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Un-Detoxified Whole Slurry of SPORL Pretreated Douglas-fir Forest Residue (United States)

    Jinlan Cheng; S.-Y. Leu; Roland Gleisner; X.J. Pan; J.Y. Zhu


    Forest residue is the most affordable feedstock for biofuel production as stated in a recent US National Research Council Report. Softwood forest residue represents a significant amount of woody biomass that can be sustainably used to produce biofuel. It also has very low contents of acetyl groups and 5-carbon polysaccharides, favorable for biofuel production through...

  2. Tree-ring analysis of the fungal disease Swiss needle cast and its impact on radial growth of Douglas-fir in the Western Oregon coast (United States)

    To inform an individual-based forest stand model emphasizing belowground competition, we explored the potential of using the relative abundances of ribosomal PCR products from pooled and milled roots, to allocate total root biomass to each of the three coniferous species and to n...

  3. Degree-day accumulation related to the phenology of Douglas-fir tussock moth and white fir during five seasons of monitoring in southern Oregon. (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman


    Heat units were accumulated during the spring and early summer for five seasons to relate degree-days to tussock moth and host tree phenology. Little variation in the pattern and date of the phenological events was found during the five seasons of monitoring near Fort Klamath, southern Oregon.

  4. Effects of stand composition and thinning in mixed-species forests : a modeling approach applied to Douglas-fir and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, H.H.


    Models estimating growth and yield of forest stands provide important tools for forest management. Pure stands have been modeled extensively and successfully for decades; however, relatively few models for mixed-species stands have been developed. A spatially explicit, mechanistic model (COMMIX) is


    We investigated the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and air temperature on C cycling in trees and associated soil system, focusing on canopy CO2 assimilation (Asys) and system CO2 loss through respiration (Rsys). We hypothesized that both elevated CO2 and elevated temperature...

  6. Interactions of predominant insects and diseases with climate change in Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon and Washington, U.S.A. (United States)

    Forest disturbance regimes are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated shifts associated with global climate change, and these patterns will likely continue due to continuing changes in environmental conditions. Tree growth is largely controlled by the physiological const...

  7. Comparative effects of urea fertilizer and red alder in a site III, coast Douglas-fir plantation in the Washington Cascade Range. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Marshall Murray; Rick. Leon


    Five randomly assigned treatments were used to quantify effects of adding varying numbers of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) or nitrogen (N) fertilization on growth of a 10-year-old conifer plantation at a medium quality site in the western Washington Cascade Range. Zero, 20, 40, and 80 alder trees per acre were retained along with about 300 conifers...

  8. Effects of new export rules, a spotted owl plan, and recession on timber prices and shipments from the Douglas-fir region. (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Wendy J. McGInnls


    Several recently emplaced and potential Northwest timber policies are causing considerable market turbulence. Estimated were price and volume changes induced by three supply-side policies (a state-log export embargo, forest replanning, and spotted owl reservations) and the demand slide of 1990-91. Impacts were gauged separately and together by using a four-sector model...

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13852-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _009C04 Douglas-fir maximu... 42 0.16 2 ( ES427183 ) pm_OSU_shoot_CD_2003-04_027H09 Douglas-fir cold...2 ( ES424585 ) pm_OSU_shoot_MH_2003-04_046H12 Douglas-fir maximu... 42 2.3 2 ( ED552185 ) Amel_4.0_Unscaffolded_10943

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14456-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 273D11_555702 Douglas-fir cDNA library PmIFG_73-6... 44 1.2 1 ( CN639426 ) 242D04_553294 Douglas-fir cDNA...210E11_551462 Douglas-fir cDNA library PmIFG_73-6... 44 1.2 1 ( CN637932 ) 158G05_550168 Douglas-fir cDNA...150C10_549199 Douglas-fir cDNA library PmIFG_73-6... 44 1.2 1 ( CN636930 ) 141C01_548148 Douglas-fir cDNA...PmIFG_73-6... 44 1.2 1 ( CN635706 ) 120F10_545677 Douglas-fir cDNA library PmIFG_73-6... 44 1.2 1 ( CI031624

  11. Puget Lowland Ecoregion: Chapter 2 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000 (United States)

    Sorenson, Daniel G.


    vegetation zone is named after the western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is the dominant tree species. Seattle, which had an estimated population of 563,376 in 2000, is the largest city in the Puget Lowland Ecoregion (Puget Sound Regional Council, 2001). The greater Seattle metropolitan area, comprising Seattle, Tacoma, Bellevue, and Bremerton, had an estimated population of 3.5 million people in 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Other sizable cities in the ecoregion include the state capital Olympia, as well as Tacoma, Bellingham, and Everett, Washington. The center of the Puget Lowland Ecoregion is dominated by the Seattle metropolitan area and developed land cover, whereas agriculture occurs mainly on river floodplains in the north and south. The remainder of the ecoregion area is dominated by forest land cover (fig. 1).

  12. How Trees Interact with Their Hydrologic Environment: a Stable Isotope Study (United States)

    Gierke, C.; Newton, T.


    The Sacramento Mountains of southeast New Mexico serve as the primary recharge area to adjacent regional aquifers, including the Roswell Artesian Basin, the Tularosa Basin and the Salt Basin. Under pressures of population growth and climate change, land and water managers are interested in identifying land management and forest restoration methods that may increase local and regional groundwater recharge in the high mountains. The Sacramento Mountain Watershed Study is designed to assess the effects of tree thinning in mountain watersheds as an effective method of increasing groundwater recharge. The project employs a soil water balance to quantify the partitioning of local precipitation before and after tree thinning. This study was designed to determine the role that trees play in the hydrologic cycle by using the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen to identify tree water sources. The study is being conducted in a 1st order watershed with no perennial outflow stream where vegetation is dominated by Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga Menziesii). Ridges are capped with San Andres Limestone while lower slopes and the valley bottom are underlain by the Yeso Formation which is composed of sandstones, mudstones and interbedded carbonate layers. The area has thin soils covering shallow fractured bedrock or epikarst features. Some of the fractures within the epikarst zone provide direct conduits to the larger groundwater system while others are isolated rendering the reservoir inactive. From March 2011 to February 2012, we collected soil and twig samples from which water was extracted by cryogenic vacuum distillation. Soil water was also sampled with passive capillary samplers (PCAPS). The isotopic composition of bulk soil water appears to be controlled by evaporation of snowmelt stored within the soil matrix. The isotopic composition of soil water sampled by wick samplers reflects mixing of non-evaporated rainfall with evaporated bulk soil water. As the monsoon season

  13. Climate- and disturbance-driven changes in vegetation composition and structure limit future potential carbon storage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA (United States)

    Henne, Paul D.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Chengquan; Berryman, Erin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang


    the largest increases in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta; 332% increase) and spruce/fir (Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa; 243% increase) stands. In model runs with the historic fire regime, average stand age and live biomass remained consistent with pre-1988 values during the 200-year simulation period; biomass increased significantly only in recently-logged areas. In contrast, a marked shift to younger stands with lower biomass occurred in the future fire scenario. Average stand age declined from 112 years to 31 years in lodgepole pine stands, and from 191 years to 65 years in spruce/fir stands, with consequent reductions in living biomass. A smaller shift in stand age was simulated for douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands (i.e. 121 to 92 years). These fire-driven changes in stand age and biomass coincided with important shifts in species abundances. Specifically, lodgepole pine stands replaced large areas previously dominated by spruce and fir. Our results suggest that the potential for increasing the amount of fossil fuel emissions offset by carbon sequestration on public lands in the American West is limited by ongoing changes in disturbance regimes. Instead, land managers may need to consider strategies to adapt to climate change impacts.

  14. Steady as a rock: Biogeomorphic influence of nurse rocks and slope processes on kūpaoa (Dubautia menziesii) shrubs in Haleakalā Crater (Maui, Hawai'i) (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco L.


    This study examines biogeomorphic interactions between nurse rocks, slope processes, and 300 kūpaoa (Dubautia menziesii) shrubs in Haleakalā Crater (Maui, Hawai'i). Research objectives were to: assess the association of kūpaoa with substrates upslope and downslope of plants, and proximity to the closest rock uphill; contrast shrub/substrate relationships with site frequency of sediment types; measure surface soil shear-strength and compressibility on 50 paired locations near boulders; and investigate the aggregation characteristics and spatial patterns of kūpaoa in relation to rock and substrate variation. Data analyzed came from three 100-plant surveys at 3 sites: a plant census at 2720-2975 m altitude, and wandering-quarter transects (WQTs) across two areas (2610-2710 m); ground sediment cover was estimated along four phototransects on these sites. Data for the three 100-plant surveys included substrate type-outcrops, blocks, cobbles, pebbles, exposed soil, organic litter-upslope from each plant, and distance to the largest rock upslope. The two surveys examined along WQTs included substrate type found downslope from kūpaoa, plant height, plant diameters across and along the slope, and distance between successively censused plants. Most plants grew downslope of nurse rocks; > 74% were adjacent to blocks or outcrops, and > 17% near cobbles. Plants showed avoidance for finer substrates; only 5.3% and 2.7% grew on/near bare soils and pebbles, respectively. About 92% of kūpaoa were ≤ 10 cm downslope of rocks; > 89% grew ≤ 2 cm away, and 83% in direct contact with a rock. Some seedlings also grew on pukiawe (Leptecophylla tameiameiae) nurse plants. Several stable rock microsites protected plants from disturbance by slope processes causing debris shift. Site sediments were significantly finer than substrates near plants; shrubs grew preferentially adjacent to boulders > 20 cm wide, which were more common near plants than across sites. Soils downslope of 50

  15. Photoperiod cues and patterns of genetic variation limit phenological responses to climate change in warm parts of species’ range: Modeling diameter-growth cessation in coast Douglas-fir (United States)

    Kevin R. Ford; Constance A. Harrington; J. Bradley St. Clair


    The phenology of diameter-growth cessation in trees will likely play a key role in mediating species and ecosystem responses to climate change. A common expectation is that warming will delay cessation, but the environmental and genetic influences on this process are poorly understood. We modeled the effects of temperature, photoperiod, and seed-source climate on...

  16. Historical effects of dissolved organic carbon export and land management decisions on the watershed-scale forest carbon budget of a coastal British Columbia Douglas-fir-dominated landscape. (United States)

    Smiley, B P; Trofymow, J A


    To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke Lake Watershed (SLW) from 1911 to 2012 was developed using historical spatial inventory and disturbance data. To simulate forest C dynamics, data was input into a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3). Transfers of terrestrial C to inland aquatic environments need to be considered to better capture the watershed scale C balance. Using dissolved organic C (DOC) and stream flow measurements from three SLW catchments, DOC load into the reservoir was derived for a 17-year period. C stocks and stock changes between a baseline and two alternative management scenarios were compared to understand the relative impact of successive reservoir expansions and sustained harvest activity over the 100-year period. Dissolved organic C flux for the three catchments ranged from 0.017 to 0.057 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Constraining CBM-CFS3 to observed DOC loads required parameterization of humified soil C losses of 2.5, 5.5, and 6.5%. Scaled to the watershed and assuming none of the exported terrestrial DOC was respired to CO2, we hypothesize that over 100 years up to 30,657 Mg C may have been available for sequestration in sediment. By 2012, deforestation due to reservoir creation/expansion resulted in the watershed forest lands sequestering 14 Mg C ha(-1) less than without reservoir expansion. Sustained harvest activity had a substantially greater impact, reducing forest C stores by 93 Mg C ha(-1) by 2012. However approximately half of the C exported as merchantable wood during logging (~176,000 Mg C) may remain in harvested wood products, reducing the cumulative impact of forestry activity from 93 to 71 Mg C ha(-1). Dissolved organic C flux from temperate forest ecosystems is a small but persistent C flux which may have long term implications for C storage in inland aquatic systems. This is a first step integrating fluvial transport of C into a forest carbon model by parameterizing DOC flux from soil C pools. While deforestation related to successive reservoir expansions did impact the watershed-scale C budget, over multi-decadal time periods, sustained harvest activity was more influential.

  17. Historical effects of dissolved organic carbon export and land management decisions on the watershed-scale forest carbon budget of a coastal British Columbia Douglas-fir-dominated landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Smiley


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke Lake Watershed (SLW from 1911 to 2012 was developed using historical spatial inventory and disturbance data. To simulate forest C dynamics, data was input into a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3. Transfers of terrestrial C to inland aquatic environments need to be considered to better capture the watershed scale C balance. Using dissolved organic C (DOC and stream flow measurements from three SLW catchments, DOC load into the reservoir was derived for a 17-year period. C stocks and stock changes between a baseline and two alternative management scenarios were compared to understand the relative impact of successive reservoir expansions and sustained harvest activity over the 100-year period. Results Dissolved organic C flux for the three catchments ranged from 0.017 to 0.057 Mg C ha−1 year−1. Constraining CBM-CFS3 to observed DOC loads required parameterization of humified soil C losses of 2.5, 5.5, and 6.5%. Scaled to the watershed and assuming none of the exported terrestrial DOC was respired to CO2, we hypothesize that over 100 years up to 30,657 Mg C may have been available for sequestration in sediment. By 2012, deforestation due to reservoir creation/expansion resulted in the watershed forest lands sequestering 14 Mg C ha−1 less than without reservoir expansion. Sustained harvest activity had a substantially greater impact, reducing forest C stores by 93 Mg C ha−1 by 2012. However approximately half of the C exported as merchantable wood during logging (~176,000 Mg C may remain in harvested wood products, reducing the cumulative impact of forestry activity from 93 to 71 Mg C ha−1. Conclusions Dissolved organic C flux from temperate forest ecosystems is a small but persistent C flux which may have long term implications for C storage in inland aquatic systems. This is a first step integrating fluvial transport of C into a forest carbon model by parameterizing DOC flux from soil C pools. While deforestation related to successive reservoir expansions did impact the watershed-scale C budget, over multi-decadal time periods, sustained harvest activity was more influential.

  18. Large wood recruitment and redistribution in headwater streams in the southern Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A. (United States)

    C. L. May; R. E. Gresswell


    Abstract - Large wood recruitment and redistribution mechanisms were investigated in a 3.9 km 2 basin with an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Forest, located in the southern Coast Range of Oregon. Stream size and topographic setting strongly influenced processes that delivered wood to the channel network. In small...

  19. Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques. (United States)

    F.C. Meinzer; J.R. Brooks; J.-C. Domec; B.L. Gartner; J.M. Warren; D.R. Woodruff; K. Bible; D.C. Shaw


    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of tong-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D20) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  20. Phytotoxicity and weed control of oxyfluorfen and napropamide on container-grown conifer seedlings. Research memo No. 123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Factsheet assessing the affects of oxyfluorfen and napropamide applications on the designated crop plants and evaluating how well the herbicides controlled typical weed species. The study used recently-seeded Douglas-fir, white spruce and lodgepole pine and one-year-old Douglas-fir and white spruce. The oxyfluorfen formulation used was Goal and the napropamide formulation was Devrinol.

  1. Using the thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) to estimate surface thermal responses (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Holbo, H. R.


    A series of measurements was conducted over the H.J. Andrews, Oregon, experimental coniferous forest, using airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS). Flight lines overlapped, with a 28-min time difference between flight lines. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air temperature and moisture were used for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Surface temperature differences over time between flight lines were used to develop thermal response numbers (TRNs) which characterized the thermal response (in KJ/sq m/C, where K is the measured incoming solar radiation) of the different surface types. The surface types included a mature forest (canopy dominated by dense crowns of Pseudosuga menziesii, with a secondary canopy of dense Tsuga heterophylla, and also a tall shrub layer of Acer circinatum) and a two-year-old clear-cut. The temperature distribution, within TIMS thermal images was found to reflect the surface type examined. The clear-cut surface had the lowest TRN, while mature Douglas fir the highest.

  2. Responses of the lichen Ramalina menziesii Tayl. to ozone fumigations (United States)

    J. Riddell; T.H. Nash; P. Padgett


    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a strong oxidant, and is known to have serious negative effects on forest health. Lichens have bccn used as biomonitors of the effects of air pollution on forest health for sulfur and nitrogen pollutants. However, effects of O3 on lichens are not well understood, as past fumigation studies and...

  3. Willamette Valley - Oregon White Oak Restoration: North Baskett Butte and Maple Knoll RNA (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project was the initial work needed to preserve the existing oak habitat on WVNWRC by eliminating the Douglas fir overstory. North Baskett Butte, on Baskett...

  4. Seedling Canopy Reflectance Spectra, 1992-1993 (ACCP) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The reflectance spectra of Douglas-fir and bigleaf maple seedling canopies were measured. Canopies varied in fertilizer treatment and leaf area density...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05486-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 ( ES427333 ) pm_OSU_shoot_CD_2003-04_030A04 Douglas-fir cold d... 44 6.2 1 ( AV440348 ) Arabidopsis...clone:APD58a10_f, 3' end. 44 6.2 1 ( CN639792 ) 255C10_554085 Douglas-fir cDNA library PmIFG_73-6... 44 6.2 1 ( AE017143

  6. Wood colors and their coloring matters: a review. (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu


    A number of colored specialty woods, such as ebony, rosewood, mahogany and amboyna, and commercially important woods, such as morus, logwood, Brazilwood, Japanese yellowwood, blackwood, kwila, red beech and myrtle beech, exhibit a wide range of colors from black, violet, dark red, reddish brown, to pale yellow. These colors are not only due to colored pigments contained in extractives from those woods but also to insoluble polymers. Wood and bark from many species of both hardwood and softwood trees contain many types of flavonoid compounds. Research on flavonoids has been conducted mainly from two points of view. The first is chemotaxonomy with flavonoid compounds as taxonomic markers, and the second relates to the utilization of woods for pulp and paper and the use of tannins from bark for wood adhesives. Most chemotaxonomic studies have been conducted on flavonoids in the extracts from softwoods such as Podocarpus, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Taxus, Libocedrus, Tsuja, Taxodium, Sequoia, Cedrus, Tsuga, Abies and Picea. Hardwood chemotaxonomic studies include those on Prunus and Eucalyptus species. Studies on flavonoids in pulp and paper production were conducted on Eucalyptus woods in Australia and woods from Douglas fir in the USA and larch in Japan. Flavonoids as tannin resources from black wattle tannin and quebracho tannin have been used commercially as wood adhesives. Flavonoids in the bark from radiata pine and southern pine, from western and eastern hemlock, southern red oak and Quercus dentata are also discussed. In addition, the distribution of flavonoids among tree species is described, as is the first isolation of rare procyanidin glycosides in nature.

  7. The Importance of Large-Diameter Trees to Forest Structural Heterogeneity (United States)

    Lutz, James A.; Larson, Andrew J.; Freund, James A.; Swanson, Mark E.; Bible, Kenneth J.


    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. However, their attendant contributions to forest heterogeneity are rarely addressed. We established the Wind River Forest Dynamics Plot, a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all 30,973 woody stems ≥1 cm dbh, all 1,966 snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m2. Basal area of the 26 woody species was 62.18 m2/ha, of which 61.60 m2/ha was trees and 0.58 m2/ha was tall shrubs. Large-diameter trees (≥100 cm dbh) comprised 1.5% of stems, 31.8% of basal area, and 17.6% of the heterogeneity of basal area, with basal area dominated by Tsuga heterophylla and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Small-diameter subpopulations of Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata, as well as all tree species combined, exhibited significant aggregation relative to the null model of complete spatial randomness (CSR) up to 9 m (P≤0.001). Patterns of large-diameter trees were either not different from CSR (Tsuga heterophylla), or exhibited slight aggregation (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Thuja plicata). Significant spatial repulsion between large-diameter and small-diameter Tsuga heterophylla suggests that large-diameter Tsuga heterophylla function as organizers of tree demography over decadal timescales through competitive interactions. Comparison among two forest dynamics plots suggests that forest structural diversity responds to intermediate-scale environmental heterogeneity and disturbances, similar to hypotheses about patterns of species richness, and richness- ecosystem function. Large mapped plots with detailed within-plot environmental spatial covariates will be required to test these hypotheses. PMID:24376579

  8. Cuatro siglos de variabilidad hidroclimática en el noroeste de Chihuahua, México, reconstruida con anillos de árboles


    José Villanueva Díaz; Julián Cerano Paredes; Peter Z. Fulé; Citlali Cortés Montaño; Lorenzo Vázquez Selem; Larissa L. Yocom; José Ariel Ruiz-Corral


    En el noroeste de Chihuahua, sitio Mesa de las Guacamayas, catalogada como “Área Natural Protegida” ( ANP ) para anidamiento de la cotorra serrana, se desarrolló una serie dendrocronológica con abeto Douglas ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ) con una extensión de 409 años (1600-2008). La cronología de anillo total mostró asociaciones signi - ficativas (r>0.40, p=0.000) con cronologías vecinas (no separadas más de 200 km), particularmente las ubicadas en la misma vertiente de la Sierra Madre Occi...

  9. Bark Thickness Equations for Mixed-Conifer Forest Type in Klamath and Sierra Nevada Mountains of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolas E. Zeibig-Kichas


    Full Text Available We studied bark thickness in the mixed-conifer forest type throughout California. Sampling included eight conifer species and covered latitude and elevation gradients. The thickness of tree bark at 1.37 m correlated with diameter at breast height (DBH and varied among species. Trees exhibiting more rapid growth had slightly thinner bark for a given DBH. Variability in bark thickness obscured differences between sample locations. Model predictions for 50 cm DBH trees of each species indicated that bark thickness was ranked Calocedrus decurrens > Pinus jeffreyi > Pinus lambertiana > Abies concolor > Pseudotsuga menziesii > Abies magnifica > Pinus monticola > Pinus contorta. We failed to find reasonable agreement between our bark thickness data and existing bark thickness regressions used in models predicting fire-induced mortality in the mixed-conifer forest type in California. The fire effects software systems generally underpredicted bark thickness for most species, which could lead to an overprediction in fire-caused tree mortality in California. A model for conifers in Oregon predicted that bark was 49% thinner in Abies concolor and 37% thicker in Pseudotsuga menziesii than our samples from across California, suggesting that more data are needed to validate and refine bark thickness equations within existing fire effects models.

  10. From solid to liquid: Assessing the release of carbon from soil into solution in response to forest management (United States)

    James, J. N.; Gross, C. D.; Butman, D. E.; Harrison, R. B.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a crucial conduit for internal cycling of carbon within soils as well as for the transfer of organic matter out of soil and into aquatic systems. Little is known about how the quantity, quality, lability and chemical characteristics of DOM changes in response to human management of forest soils. To examine the processes that release soil organic matter (SOM) into solution, we gathered samples from adjacent native and industrially managed Eucalyptus grandis plantation forests across Sao Paulo State, Brazil and from adjacent old-growth and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzisii) plantation forests in the coastal Pacific Northwest. Samples from each soil horizon were taken from soil profiles excavated to at least 1.5 m at each site. Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) was extracted twice from each sample using 0.5 M K2SO4 and Milli-Q water to quantify both dissolved and exchange phase organic matter. These extracts were measured for total organic carbon (TOC), 13C and 14C, and chemical characteristics were assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMs and SUVA254). At the same time, solid phase characteristics of the soil samples were quantified, including bulk density, pH, total carbon and nitrogen, microbial biomass, and 13C and 14C. Characterization of bulk SOM was undertaken by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) by subtracting mineral matrix spectra of each sample from the bulk spectra. Organic matter lability was assessed by incubations using difference in TOC for WEOM extracts and repeated measurement of CO2 efflux for bulk SOM. All together, these analyses permit a unique snapshot of the natural separation of organic matter from solid into liquid phase through the entire soil profile. Initial results reveal that small but measureable quantities of WEOM may be released from deep B and C horizons in soil, and that this material is labile to microbial decomposition. By identifying differences in SOM and DOM cycling due to

  11. A 26,600 yr record of climate and vegetation from Rice Lake in the Eel River drainage of the northern California Coast Range (United States)

    Heusser, L. E.


    Rice Lake, (40'41" N; 123'30" W, 1109 m elev.) lies in the transition zone of the precipitation dipole in the western United States, which is reflected by the present vegetation - a mosaic of mesic northern mixed hardwood-evergreen forests (Quercus spp., Pinus spp., Calocedrus/Juniperus) and more arid southern oak foothill woodlands (Quercus spp.) that borders the westernmost edge of coastal redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) forest. The site, which lies on the active Lake Mountain fault zone, is now a large (~15 ha) sagpond that dries in summer. Between ~26,600 yr - ~15,000 yr, a permanent lake with aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) occupied the core site. Montane conifer forests, with pine (Pinus, spp.), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), spruce (Picea spp), and western hemlock (T. heterophylla) covered the region. Climatic parameters of modern montane coniferous forest and the continued presence of aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) suggest higher precipitation and lower temperatures during the last glacial. Charcoal (fire event frequency) was minimal. Rapid oscillations of oak, the riparian alder (Alnus), pine, Cupressaceae (Juniperus, Calocedrus), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeii), and fir (Abies) characterize the deglacial, and reflect rapid changes in precipitation and temperatures, e.g, Bølling-Allerød warming and Younger Dryas cooling. Between ~15,000 yr and ~13,000 yr, aquatic vegetation of the lake abruptly decreased. Expansion of oak, tanoak (Lithocarpus), shrubs (cf. Ceanothus) and decline of pine and montane conifers, along with the development of marshes with Typha and Cyperaceae on the former lakebed, imply early Holocene warming and decreasing precipitation. This is supported by an increase in charcoal, which is attributed to forest fires. Between ~5,000 yr - ~6,000 yr, a short interval of increased precipitation (inferred from a peak in alder and decrease in Cupressaceae) initiates the development of modern mixed hardwood-evergreen forest. Correlative data

  12. Effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling in the Caspar Creek watershed (United States)

    Randy A. Dahlgren


    The effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling were examined for a redwood/Douglas-fir ecosystem in the North Fork, Caspar Creek experimental watershed in northern California. Stream-water samples were collected from treated (e.g., clearcut) and reference (e.g., noncut) watersheds, and from various locations downstream from the treated...

  13. Minimizing and predicting delamination of southern plywood in exterior exposure (United States)

    Peter Koch


    Southern pine plywood is substantially all being manufactured with phenolic glue for exterior use. Because panels must not delaminate in service, a reliable predictor of glueline durability is required. Drawing on the experience of the Douglas-fir plywood industry, southern manufacutrers have adopted as a predictor the percentage of wood failure(% WF) observed in...

  14. Effect of tree-growth rate on papermaking fiber properties (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; David W. Vahey; C. Tim Scott; Gary C. Myers


    Measurements of wood density and anatomical properties of wood disks were conducted by SilviScan (CSIRO Australia) and a new imaging technique. The disks included red pine obtained from a never-thinned experimental forest with five different plantation densities and Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine (one normal growth and the other suppressed growth) both supplied by a...

  15. 75 FR 1748 - Helena National Forest, Montana, Stonewall Vegetation Project (United States)


    ... rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings... susceptible to insect and wildfire mortality (Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine). In addition, a large-scale... this project area has become a more uniform dense forest susceptible to insect and wildfire mortality...

  16. 78 FR 14122 - Revocation of Permanent Variances (United States)


    ....451(a)(10) set maximum permissible spans for 2- inch x 10-inch (or wider) planks. Between 1975 and.... The standard length and radius of the steel plates make it difficult for employers to properly space... planks of rough full-dimensioned 2-inch x 12-inch x 12-foot Douglas Fir or Southern Yellow Pine of Select...

  17. Stand density guides for predicting growth of forest tress of southwest Idaho (United States)

    Douglas D. Basford; John Sloan; Joy Roberts


    This paper presents a method for estimating stand growth from stand density and average diameter in stands of pure and mixed species in Southwest Idaho. The methods are adapted from a model developed for Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine on the Salmon National Forest. Growth data were derived from ponderosa pine increment cores taken from sample plots on...

  18. FEM growth and yield data monocultures - Poplar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.F.; Ouden, den J.


    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  19. FEM growth and yield data Monocultures - Poplar (revised version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Schmidt, P.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.; Ouden, den J.


    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species with only a few plots,

  20. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott


    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  1. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. (United States)


    ... Douglas fir Quercus agrifolia Coast live oak Quercus cerris European turkey oak Quercus chrysolepis Canyon live oak Quercus falcata Southern red oak *Quercus ilex Holm oak Quercus kelloggii California black oak Quercus parvula var. shrevei and all nursery grown Q. parvula Shreve's oak *Rhododendron spp. Rhododendron...

  2. Operations Research techniques in the management of large-scale reforestation programs (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; D.E. Teeguarden


    A reforestation planning system for the Douglas-fir region of the Western United States is described. Part of the system is a simulation model to predict plantation growth and to determine economic thinning regimes and rotation ages as a function of site characteristics, initial density, reforestation costs, and management constraints. A second model estimates the...

  3. National forest timber supply and stumpage markets in the western United States. (United States)

    Darius M. Adams; Richard W. Haynes


    This paper presents an aggregate regional model of the National Forest timber supply process and the interaction of National Forest and non-National Forest supply in determining regional stumpage prices and harvest volumes. Model simulations track actual behavior in the Douglas-fir regional stumpage market with reasonable accuracy; projections for the next two decades...

  4. 76 FR 61825 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 29 Mollusk... (United States)


    ..., and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy (especially reasons why they should or should not be... susceptibility to inbreeding depression. We also do not have information regarding the likelihood of damaging... transition forests of Douglas-fir or ponderosa pine, often in depressions that allow slightly more moisture...

  5. Above ground performance of preservative-treated western wood species (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Morrell; D.J. Miller; Stan T. Lebow


    Incised and non-incised Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and ponderosa pine L- joints were treated with ammoniacal-based pentachlorophenol, chromated zinc chloride, thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMBT) or TCMTB plus methylenebisthiocyanate or 3 iodo-2-propynyl carbamate with or without chlorpyrifos to retentions between 0.8 and 6.4 kg/m3 and exposed, uncoated, above...

  6. Germination and early growth of coastal tree species on organic seed beds. (United States)

    Don. Minore


    Germination and early growth on rotten wood and duff under several shade levels were observed for Douglas-fir, Sitka spruce, western hemlock, western redcedar, lodgepole pine, Pacific silver fir, and red alder. Nutrients were more abundant in duff than in rotten wood. Seedlings usually were larger and more abundant on duff-covered rotten logs than on duff-covered...

  7. Drought-triggered western spruce budworm outbreaks in the Interior Pacific Northwest: A multi-century dendrochronological record (United States)

    A. Flower; D. G. Gavin; E. K. Heyerdahl; R. A. Parsons; G. M. Cohn


    Douglas-fir forests in the interior Pacific Northwest are subject to sporadic outbreaks of the western spruce budworm, a species widely recognized as the most destructive defoliator in western North America. Outbreaks of the western spruce budworm often occur synchronously over broad regions and lead to widespread loss of leaf area and decrease in growth rates in...

  8. FEM growth and yield data monocultures - Silver birch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburger, J.F.; Jansen, J.J.; Oosterbaan, A.; Lu, Huicui; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.


    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  9. Resistance of borax–copper treated wood in aboveground exposure to attack by Formosan subterranean termites (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Bessie Woodward; Douglas Crawford; William Abbott


    The spread of Formosan subterranean termites (FSTs) in the southern United States has increased public interest in finding a preservative treatment to protect framing lumber from termite attack. This study evaluated the use of a borax-based preservative to protect wood from FST attack. Southern Pine and Douglas-fir specimens were pressure-treated with three...

  10. Plant association and management guide for the western hemlock zone. (United States)

    Christopher Topik; Nancy M. Halverson; Dale G. Brockway


    This guide presents the plant association classification for the western hemlock zone of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. The bulk of the forest below about 3000 feet in elevation is included in this zone, comprising about one half of the entire landbase. Much of this area is blanketed with productive stands of Douglas-fir.

  11. Regression methods for spatially correlated data: an example using beetle attacks in a seed orchard (United States)

    Preisler Haiganoush; Nancy G. Rappaport; David L. Wood


    We present a statistical procedure for studying the simultaneous effects of observed covariates and unmeasured spatial variables on responses of interest. The procedure uses regression type analyses that can be used with existing statistical software packages. An example using the rate of twig beetle attacks on Douglas-fir trees in a seed orchard illustrates the...

  12. Nondestructive methods of evaluating quality of wood in preservative-treated piles (United States)

    Xiping. Wang; Robert J. Ross; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. De Groot


    Stress-wave-based nondestructive evaluation methods were used to evaluate the potential quality and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood in used preservative-treated Douglas-fir and southern pine piles. Stress wave measurements were conducted on each pile section. Stress wave propagation speeds in the piles were then obtained to estimate their MOE. This was followed by...

  13. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon. (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matte...

  14. Nondestructive evaluation of potential quality of creosote-treated piles removed from service (United States)

    Xiping. Wang; Robert J. Ross; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. De Groot


    Stress-wave-based nondestructive evaluation methods were used to evaluate the potential quality and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood from creosote-treated Douglas-fir and southern pine piles removed from service. Stress-wave measurements were conducted on each pile section. Stress-wave propagation speeds were obtained to estimate the MOE of the wood. Tests were then...

  15. Investigating Forest Inventory and Analysis-collected tree-ring data from Utah as a proxy for historical climate (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; W. Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang; John D. Shaw


    Increment cores collected as part of the periodic inventory in the Intermountain West were examined for their potential to represent growth and be a proxy for climate (precipitation) over a large region (Utah). Standardized and crossdated time-series created from pinyon pine (n=249) and Douglas-fir (n=274) increment cores displayed spatiotemporal patterns in growth...

  16. Public and private forest landownership in the Pacific northwest shows stability. (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney


    Ownership of forest land in the Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine sub regions of Oregon and Washington shows little change over the past two decades, according to Forest Survey inventories made in the 1930's, 1945, and 1953. Prior to 1945, some shifting of the ownership pattern occurred, with the area of private forest land decreasing and public ownership increasing...

  17. Changes in forest species composition and structure after stand-replacing wildfire in the mountains of southeastern Arizona (United States)

    Ronald D. Quinn; Lin Wu


    A wildfire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona apparently altered the long-term structure of the forest. The pre-fire canopy forest, which had not burned for 100 years, was an even mixture of Arizona pines and Rocky Mountain Douglas-firs. A decade later the new forest was numerically dominated by quaking aspen seedlings in clumps separated by persistent...

  18. 76 FR 31932 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Pintler Ranger District; Montana; Flint Foothills... (United States)


    ... pine and harvest post and poles on 863 acres, commercial thin ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir on 1,007... ranging in size from two to 196 acres. Harvest and treatment methods would include ground-based and cable... INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The purpose and need for the proposal is to (1) salvage harvest dead...

  19. The Caspar Creek watersheds: a case study of cumulative effects in a small coastal basin in northern California (United States)

    R. R. Ziemer; P. H. Cafferata


    Abstract - Since 1962, the 483-ha North Fork and 424-ha South Fork of Caspar Creek in northwestern California have been used to evaluate the hydrologic impacts of road building and harvesting second-growth redwood/Douglas-fir forests. Three tributaries are serving as untreated controls. In 1985, the study was modified to evaluate the cumulative watershed effects of...

  20. FEM growth and yield data uneven-aged - Beech-oak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den J.; Jansen, J.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Oldenburger, J.F.; Mohren, G.M.J.


    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  1. Climate drivers of regionally synchronous fires in the inland northwest (1651-1900) (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Donald McKenzie; Lori D. Daniels; Amy E. Hessl; Jeremy S. Littell; Nathan J. Mantua


    We inferred climate drivers of regionally synchronous surface fires from 1651 to 1900 at 15 sites with existing annually accurate fire-scar chronologies from forests dominated by ponderosa pine or Douglas-fir in the inland Northwest (interior Oregon,Washington and southern British Columbia).Years with widespread fires (35 years with fire at 7 to 11 sites) had warm...

  2. Assessment of the exposure and loads of acidifying and eutrophying pollutants and ozone, as well as their harmful influence on the vitality of the trees and the Speulder forest ecosystem as a whole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Draaijers, G.P.J.; Steingröver, E.; Dijk, H. van; Boxman, A.; Vries, W. de


    Within the framework of the Dutch Priority Program on Acidification, 10 yr of research was conducted in a Douglas fir stand at Speulder forest. Research was conducted to establish the loads and levels of acidifying and eutrophying pollutants and ozone, to determine forest vitality characteristics

  3. Relationship between stress wave velocities of green and dry veneer (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Roy F. Pellerin


    This paper evaluates the relationship between the stress wave velocities of green and dry southern pine and Douglas-fir veneers. A commercial stress wave timer and a laboratory signal analysis system were used to measure the transit time required for an induced stress wave to travel the longitudinal length of each veneer. Stress wave transit times were measured in the...

  4. Effect of tree species and soil properties on nutrient immobilization in the forest floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Vejre, Henrik


    To investigate the effect of tree species and soil properties on organic matter accumulation and associated nutrients, an area-based sampling of the forest floor was carried out in a 28 years old species trial including Norway spruce, Douglas fir, beech, and common oak at two sites, a poor...... IMMOBILIZATION; SOIL PROPERTIES; SOIL SOLUTION; TREE SPECIES...

  5. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6120, WA (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)


    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  6. Selected yield tables for plantations and natural stands in Inland Northwest Forests (United States)

    Albert R. Stage; David L. Renner; Roger C. Chapman


    Yields arrayed by site index and age have been tabulated for plantations of 500 trees per acre, with five thinning regimes, for Douglas-fir, grand fir, and western larch. Yields were also tabulated for naturally regenerated stands of the grand fir-cedar-hemlock ecosystem of the Inland Empire. All yields were estimated with the Prognosis Model for Stand Development,...

  7. 78 FR 18783 - Establishment of the R[iacute]o Grande del Norte National Monument (United States)


    ... the Taos Plateau, the pi ons at the base of Ute Mountain, and the spruce, aspen, and Douglas fir... array of natural and scientific resources, ensuring that the historic and scientific values of this area... firewood and pi on nuts in the monument for personal non- commercial use consistent with the purposes of...

  8. Condensed tannin-sulfonate derivatives in cold-setting wood-laminating adhesives (United States)

    Roland E. Kreibich; Richard W. Hemingway


    Extraction of southern pine bark with 4.0 percent sodium sulfite and 0.4-percent sodium carbonate(based on ovendry bark weight) gives epicatechin-(4β)-sulfonate and oligomeric procyanidin-4-sulfonatee that show great promise to replace about 50 percent of the phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde resin in coldsetting wood-laminating adhesives. Bonds in Douglas-fir...

  9. Relictual amphibians and old-growth forest (United States)

    H.H. Welsh


    Terrestrial and aquatic herpetofauna were sampled by pitfall traps, time-constrained searches, and areaconstrained searches (stream sites only) over a three-year period to examine the importance of forest age to amphibians and reptiles. Fifty-four terrestrial and 39 aquatic sites in Douglas-fir-dominated, mixed evergreen forests were located in southwestern Oregon and...

  10. Opportunities for addressing laminated root rot caused by Phellinus sulphuracens in Washington's forests: A Report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (United States)

    R. James Cook; Robert L. Edmonds; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Willis Littke; Geral McDonald; Daniel Omdahl; Karen Ripley; Charles G. Shaw; Rona Sturrock; Paul Zambino


    This report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences (WSAS) is in response to a request from the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to "identify approaches and opportunities ripe for research on understanding and managing root diseases of Douglas-fir." Similar to the process used by the National Research Council, the WSAS upon...

  11. Effect of diameter limits and stand structure on relative density indices: a case study (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis


    An understory of shade-tolerant species often develops in stands in the Douglas-fir region of western Washington and Oregon and can have a disproportionate effect on relative density indices, such as Reineke stand density index and Curtis relative density. The effects of such understories and of other departures from The even-aged condition are illustrated with...

  12. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronnberg, J; Vollbrecht, G.; Thomsen, Iben Margrete


    that had been infected by H. annosum. Douglas fir and noble fir showed the greatest mortality due to H. annosum during the first 5 years after planting. At first thinning the highest incidences of butt rot were recorded in noble fir, Japanese larch and Sitka spruce, with 44%, 43% and 36% of the thinned...

  13. Seed production on the Voight Creek Experimental Forest, 1950-1953. (United States)

    Elmer W. Shaw


    Information on seed production is vitally important in obtaining good forest regeneration. This is true of young-growth as well as virgin stands of Douglas-fir, but thus far most seed studies have been confined to old growth. Now, with the transition to management and harvest of young stands, we need seed information from these forests, also.

  14. Effects on eastern larch beetle of its natural attractant and synthetic pheromones in Alaska. (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Malcom M. Furniss; Thomas. Ward


    Traps baited with Seudenol + a-pinene caught 87 percent more eastern larch beetles, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, than did tamarack logs infested with females. Male beetles responded to the synthetic attractant in greater numbers than females. Male beetles were not attracted to frontalin, a principal attractant of the closely related Douglas-fir...

  15. Piloted ignition of live forest fuels (United States)

    S. McAllister; I. Grenfell; A. Hadlow; W. M. Jolly; M. Finney; J. Cohen


    The most unpredictable and uncontrollable wildfires are those that burn in the crowns of live vegetation. The fuels that feed these crown fires are mostly live, green foliage. Unfortunately, little is known about how live fuels combust. To understand how live fuels burn, piloted ignition experiments were performed with lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir. The thermal...

  16. A strategic assessment of crown fire hazard in Montana: potential effectiveness and costs of hazard reduction treatments. (United States)

    Carl E. Fiedler; Charles E. Keegan; Christopher W. Woodall; Todd A. Morgan


    Estimates of crown fire hazard are presented for existing forest conditions in Montana by density class, structural class, forest type, and landownership. Three hazard reduction treatments were evaluated for their effectiveness in treating historically fire-adapted forests (ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.), Douglas-fir (...

  17. FEM growth and yield data selection forest - Kolkbos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, de J.P.G.; Jansen, J.J.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.


    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  18. FEM growth and yield data - selection forest - Het Oude Trekerbos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.J.; Klein, de J.P.G.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.


    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  19. Remilling of salvaged wood siding coated with lead-based paint. Part 2, Wood product yield (United States)

    John J. Janowiak; Robert H. Falk; Brian W. Beakler; Richard G. Lampo; Thomas R. Napier


    Many U.S. military buildings being targeted for removal contain large quantities of potentially reusable wood materials. In this study, we evaluated approximately 2180 m (7,152 ft) of painted Douglas-fir siding salvaged from U.S. Army barracks. Utilizing a conventional woodworking molder, we evaluated the feasibility of producing several standardized wood product...

  20. An analysis of production and costs in high-lead yarding. (United States)

    Magnus E. Tennas; Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen


    In recent years loggers and timber owners have needed better information for estimating logging costs in the Douglas-fir region. Brandstrom's comprehensive study, published in 1933 (1), has long been used as a guide in making cost estimates. But the use of new equipment and techniques and an overall increase in logging costs have made it increasingly difficult to...

  1. Kwaliteit van het bovenste freatische grondwater in de zandgebieden van Nederland, onder bos en heidevelden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans LJM; Beltman WHJ


    An increase in nitrate concentration is found under higher vegetation, southern forest borders, less vital forest stands, deeper groundwater levels (local factors) and more regional N, NOx and SOx deposition. Highest concentrations are found under Douglas fir, Scots pine, Black pine and Norway

  2. Using Scientific Information to Develop Management Strategies for Commercial Redwood Timberlands (United States)

    Jeffrey C. Barrett


    In 1999, PALCO (Pacific Lumber Company), a private landowner, and the state and federal governments agreed to implement a unique Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) on 89,000 hectares of commercial redwood and Douglas-fir timberlands in Humboldt County, California. The aquatics portion of the PALCO HCP contains a set of "interim" conservation strategies developed...

  3. Evaluation of alternative mulches for blueberry over five production seasons (United States)

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is a calcifuge (acid-loving) plant that responds favorably to mulching with organic matter (OM). Until recently, most blueberry plantings in our region were grown with a mulch of douglas-fir sawdust, with additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer applied to comp...

  4. Environmental persistence of a pathogen used in microbial insect control (United States)

    Karl M. Polivka; Greg Dwyer; Constance J. Mehmel


    We conducted an experimental study of infection, transmission, and persistence of a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) of Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata) to better understand mechanisms determining the efficacy of the virus when it is used as a microbial control agent. In a field experiment, we quantified infection rates of larvae exposed...

  5. Long-term efficacy of wood dip-treated with multicomponent biocides (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang


    Biocides designed for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials need to provide long-term protection under conditions of high humidity. Specimens of kiln-dried southern pine and unseasoned southern pine, aspen, and Douglas-fir were dip-treated with borate-dimethylcocoamine (DMCA) supplemented with voriconazole, thiabendazole, or thujaplicin and evaluated...

  6. Highly stocked coniferous stands on the Olympic Peninsula: chemical composition and implications for harvest strategy. (United States)

    Susan N. Little; Dale R. Waddell


    This report presents an assessment of macronutrients and their distribution within highly stocked, stagnant stands of mixed conifers on the Quilcene Ranger District, Olympic National Forest, northwest Washington. These stands consisted of predominantly three species: western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), coast Douglas-fir (...

  7. Estimating tree bole and log weights from green densities measured with the Bergstrom Xylodensimeter. (United States)

    Dale R. Waddell; Michael B. Lambert; W.Y. Pong


    The performance of the Bergstrom xylodensimeter, designed to measure the green density of wood, was investigated and compared with a technique that derived green densities from wood disk samples. In addition, log and bole weights of old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock were calculated by various formulas and compared with lifted weights measured with a load cell...

  8. White fir stands killed by tussock moth...70-mm. color photography aids detection (United States)

    Steven L. Wert; Boyd E. Wickman


    The use of large-scale 70 mm. aerial photography proved to be an effective technique for detecting trees in white fir stands killed by Douglas-fir tussock moth in northeastern California. Correlations between ground and photo estimates of dead trees were high. But correlations between such estimates of lesser degrees of tree damage--thin tops and topkill--were much...

  9. Limits of windthrow-driven hillslope sediment flux due to varying storm frequency and intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constatine, J.A.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Gabet, E.; Mudd, S.M.


    The uprooting and toppling of trees during storms transports soil, exhumes bedrock, and thus influences the evolution of hillslopes. Given predicted increased storminess due to future climate change, we adapt a forest-gap model (ForGEM) to explore windthrow-driven sediment transport in a Douglas fir

  10. FEM growth and yield data monocultures - other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.F.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.


    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  11. Black bear damage to northwestern conifers in California: a review (United States)

    Kenneth O. Fulgham; Dennis Hosack


    A total of 789 black bear damaged trees were investigate over a multi-year period on 14 different study sites chosen on lands of four participating timber companies. The sites ranged from 30 to 50 years of age. Four different conifer species were found to have black bear damage: coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.), Douglas-fir (...

  12. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux


    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  13. Timber value—a matter of choice: a study of how end use assumptions affect timber values. (United States)

    John H. Beuter


    The relationship between estimated timber values and actual timber prices is discussed. Timber values are related to how, where, and when the timber is used. An analysis demonstrates the relative values of a typical Douglas-fir stand under assumptions about timber use.

  14. Field performance of stress-laminated highway bridges constructed with glued laminated timber (United States)

    J.P. Wacker


    This paper summarizes the field performance of three stress-laminated deck timber bridges located in Wisconsin, New York, and Arizona. The deck superstructures of these single-span highway bridges is comprised of full-span glued laminated timber (glulam) beam laminations manufactured with southern pine, hem fir/red maple combination, and/or Douglas fir lumber species....

  15. Advantages of a detailed pre-sale layout and logging plan. (United States)

    Robert. Aufderheide


    During recent years the sale of timber from national forests in the Douglas-fir region has developed into big business. As the demand for stumpage steadily increases, and the allowable annual cut is approached or reached on a number of working circles, sale administration problems also increase and become more complex.

  16. Nursery practices, seedling sizes, and field performance. (United States)

    William I. Stein


    Highlights are presented from a large cooperative study to determine the combined effects of nursery cultural practices on the initial size and subsequent field performance of 2+0 Douglas-fir seedlings. The study involved seven sources of stock produced in three different nurseries and field plantings made over 3 years on 28 sites in southwestern Oregon. Seedbed...

  17. Turbulence considerations for comparing ecosystem exchange over old-growth and clear-cut stands for limited fetch and complex canopy flow conditions (United States)

    Sonia Wharton; Matt Schroeder; Kyaw Tha Paw U; Matthias Falk; Ken Bible


    Carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, and energy fluxes were measured using eddy covariance (EC) methodology over three adjacent evergreen forests in southern Washington State to identify stand-level age-effects on ecosystem exchange. The sites represent Douglas-fir forest ecosystems at two contrasting successional stages: old-growth (OG) and early...

  18. Introduction: Identity, Transdisciplinarity, and the Good Language Teacher (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.; Norton, Bonny


    What constitutes a "good teacher" and "good teaching" has come under much scrutiny in an age of globalization, transnationalism, and increased demands for accountability. It is against this evolving landscape and the pathbreaking work of the Douglas Fir Group (DFG, 2016) that this special issue engages the following two broad…

  19. The African Storybook and Language Teacher Identity in Digital Times (United States)

    Stranger--Johannessen, Espen; Norton, Bonny


    The African Storybook (ASb) is a digital initiative that promotes multilingual literacy for African children by providing openly licenced children's stories in multiple African languages, as well as English, French, and Portuguese. Based on Darvin and Norton's (2015) model of identity and investment, and drawing on the Douglas Fir Group's (2016)…

  20. Modelling trends in soil solution concentrations under five forest-soil combinations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Vries, de W.; Kros, J.


    The influence of forest and soil properties on changes in soil solution concentration upon a reduction deposition was examined for five forest-soil combinations with the dynamic RESAM model. Predicted concentrations decreased in the direction Douglas fir - Scotch pine - oak, due to decreased